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Sample records for adduct uvrabc incision

  1. Benzene-derived N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-deoxyguanosine adduct: UvrABC incision and its conformation in DNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Bo; Rodriguez, Ben; Yang, Yanu; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed

    2010-06-14

    Benzene, a ubiquitous human carcinogen, forms DNA adducts through its metabolites such as p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) and hydroquinone (HQ). N(2)-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-4-HOPh-dG) is the principal adduct identified in vivo by (32)P-postlabeling in cells or animals treated with p-BQ or HQ. To study its effect on repair specificity and replication fidelity, we recently synthesized defined oligonucleotides containing a site-specific adduct using phosphoramidite chemistry. We here report the repair of this adduct by Escherichia coli UvrABC complex, which performs the initial damage recognition and incision steps in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. We first showed that the p-BQ-treated plasmid was efficiently cleaved by the complex, indicating the formation of DNA lesions that are substrates for NER. Using a 40-mer substrate, we found that UvrABC incises the DNA strand containing N(2)-4-HOPh-dG in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The specificity of such repair was also compared with that of DNA glycosylases and damage-specific endonucleases of E. coli, both of which were found to have no detectable activity toward N(2)-4-HOPh-dG. To understand why this adduct is specifically recognized and processed by UvrABC, molecular modeling studies were performed. Analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories showed that stable G:C-like hydrogen bonding patterns of all three Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds are present within the N(2)-4-HOPh-G:C base pair, with the hydroxyphenyl ring at an almost planar position. In addition, N(2)-4-HOPh-dG has a tendency to form more stable stacking interactions than a normal G in B-type DNA. These conformational properties may be critical in differential recognition of this adduct by specific repair enzymes.

  2. Recognition and repair of the CC-1065-(N3-Adenine)-DNA adduct by the UVRABC nuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, M.; Lee, C.S.; Doisy, R.; Ross, L.; Needham-VanDevanter, D.R.; Hurley, L.H.

    1988-01-01

    The recognition and repair of the helix-stabilizing and relatively nondistortive CC-1065-(N3-adenine)-DNA adduct by UVRABC nuclease has been investigated both in vivo with phi X174RFI DNA by a transfection assay and in vitro by a site-directed adduct in a 117 base pair fragment from M13mp1. CC-1065 is a potent antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces zelensis which binds within the minor groove of DNA through N3 of adenine. In contrast to the helix-destabilizing and distortive modifications of DNA caused by ultraviolet light or N-acetoxy-2-(acetylamino)fluorene, CC-1065 increases the melting point of DNA and decreases the S1 nuclease activity. Using a viral DNA-Escherichia coli transfection system, the authors have found that the uvrA, uvrB, and uvrC genes, which code for the major excision repair proteins for UV- and NAAAF-induced DNA damage, are also involved in the repair of CC-1065-DNA adducts. In contrast, the uvrD gene product, which has been found to be involved in the repair of UV damage, has no effect in repairing CC-1065-DNA adducts. Purified UVRA, UVRB, and UVRC proteins must work in concert to incise the drug-modified phi X174RFI DNA. Using a site-directed and multiple CC-1065 modified (MspI-BstNI) 117 base pair fragment from M13mp1, they have found that UVRABC nuclease incises at the eight phosphodiester bond on the 5' side of the CC-1065-DNA adduct on the drug-modified strand. The enzymes do not cut the noncovalently modified strand. The DNA sequence and/or helix-stabilizing effect of multiple adducts may determine the recognition and/or incision of the drug-DNA adduct by UVRABC nuclease. These results are discussed in relation to the structure of the CC-1065-DNA adduct and the effect of drug binding on local DNA structure

  3. Recognition and repair of 2-aminofluorene- and 2-(acetylamino)fluorene-DNA adducts by UVRABC nuclease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, J.R.; Case, R.; Tang, Moonshong

    1989-01-01

    Recognition of damage induced by N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene (N-OH-AF) and N-acetoxy-2-(acetylamino)fluorene (NAAAF) in both φX174 RFI supercoiled DNA and a linear DNA fragment by purified UVRA, UVRB, and UVRC proteins was investigated. The authors have previously demonstrated that N-OH-AF and NAAAF treatments produce N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene (dG-C8-AF) and N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-(acetylamino)fluorene (dG-C8-AAF), respectively, in DNA. Using a piperidine cleavage method and DNA sequence analysis, they have found that all guanine residues can be modified by N-OH-AF and NAAAF. These two kinds of adducts have different impacts on the DNA helix structure; while dG-C8-AF maintains the anti configuration, dG-C8-AAF is in the syn form. φX174 RF DNA-Escherichia coli transfection results indicate that while the uvrA, uvrB, and uvrC gene products are needed to repair dG-C8-AAF, the uvrC, but not the uvrA or uvrB gene products, is needed for repair of dG-C8-Af. However, they have found that in vitro the UVRA, UVRB, and UVRC proteins must work in concert to nick both dG-C8-AF and dG-C8-AAF. In general, the reactions of UVRABC nuclease toward dG-C8-AF are similar to those toward dG-C8-AAF; it incises seven to eight nucleotides from the 5' side and three to four nucleotides from the 3' side of the DNA adduct. Evidence is presented to suggest that hydrolysis on the 3' and 5' sides of the damaged base by UVRABC nuclease is not simultaneous and that at least occasionally hydrolysis occurs only on the 3' side or on the 5' side of the damage site. The possible mechanisms of UVRABC nuclease incision for AF-DNA are discussed

  4. Formation of diastereomeric benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-guanine adducts in p53 gene-derived DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Brock; Wang, Gang; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2004-06-01

    G --> T transversion mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene are characteristic of smoking-related lung tumors, suggesting that these genetic changes may result from exposure to tobacco carcinogens. It has been previously demonstrated that the diol epoxide metabolites of bay region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in tobacco smoke, e.g., benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE), preferentially bind to the most frequently mutated guanine nucleotides within p53 codons 157, 158, 248, and 273 [Denissenko, M. F., Pao, A., Tang, M., and Pfeifer, G. P. (1996) Science 274, 430-432]. However, the methodology used in that work (ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction in combination with the UvrABC endonuclease incision assay) cannot establish the chemical structures and stereochemical identities of BPDE-guanine lesions. In the present study, we employ a stable isotope-labeling HPLC-MS/MS approach [Tretyakova, N., Matter, B., Jones, R., and Shallop, A. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 9535-9544] to analyze the formation of diastereomeric N(2)-BPDE-dG lesions within double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides representing p53 lung cancer mutational hotspots and their surrounding DNA sequences. (15)N-labeled dG was placed at defined positions within DNA duplexes containing 5-methylcytosine at all physiologically methylated sites, followed by (+/-)-anti-BPDE treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of the adducted DNA to 2'-deoxynucleosides. Capillary HPLC-ESI(+)-MS/MS was used to establish the amounts of (-)-trans-N(2)-BPDE-dG, (+)-cis-N(2)-BPDE-dG, (-)-cis-N(2)-BPDE-dG, and (+)-trans-N(2)-BPDE-dG originating from the (15)N-labeled bases. We found that all four N(2)-BPDE-dG diastereomers were formed preferentially at the methylated CG dinucleotides, including the frequently mutated p53 codons 157, 158, 245, 248, and 273. The contributions of individual diastereomers to the total adducts number at a given site varied between 70.8 and 92.9% for (+)-trans-N(2)-BPDE-dG, 5.6 and 16.7% for

  5. The inverted Batman incision: a new incision in transcolumellar incision for open rhinoplasty.

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    Nakanishi, Yuji; Nagasao, Tomohisa; Shimizu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Junpei; Fukuta, Keizo; Kishi, Kazuo

    2013-12-01

    Columellar and nostril shapes often present irregularity after transcolumellar incision for open rhinoplasty, because of the contracture of the incised wound. The present study introduces a new technique to prevent this complication, and verifies its efficacy in improving cosmetic appearance. In our new method, a zig-zag incision with three small triangular flaps is made on the columella and in the pericolumellar regions of the bilateral nostril rims. Since the shape of the incision resembles the contour of an inverted "batman", we term our new method the "Inverted Batman" incision. To verify the effectiveness of the Inverted Batman incision, aesthetic evaluation was conducted for 21 patients operated on using the conventional transcolumellar incision (Conventional Group) and 19 patients operated on using the Inverted Batman incision (Inverted Batman Group). The evaluation was performed by three plastic surgeons, using a four-grade scale to assess three separate items: symmetry of bilateral soft triangles, symmetry of bilateral margins of the columella, and evenness of the columellar surface. The scores of the two groups for these three items were compared using a non-parametric test (Mann-Whitney U-test). With all three items, the Inverted Batman group patients present higher scores than Conventional Group patients. The Inverted Batman incision is effective in preserving the correct anatomical structure of the columella, soft triangle, and nostril rims. Hence, we recommend the Inverted Batman incision as a useful technique for open rhinoplasty.

  6. The fourth incision: a cosmetic autopsy incision technique.

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    Patowary, Amarjyoti

    2010-03-01

    Autopsy procedure includes thorough external examination as well as internal examination including opening of all the body cavities for proper visualization of all the visceral organs. As such, there remains incision marks with stitches which harts the sentiment of the already traumatized relatives of the deceased. Moreover, it looks odd especially in cases of otherwise healthy dead bodies. So, autopsy incisions should be such that, we can get maximum possible visualization of the body cavities, particularly the thorax and abdomen, and at the same time the incision as well as the stitch marks are also hidden. This article is aimed to describe few modifications in the autopsy incisions for opening the thorax and abdomen and also proper visualization of the neck structures during autopsy where the incisions and the stitches are kept hidden.

  7. UV mutagenesis in E. coli with excision repair initiated by uvrABC or denV gene products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockrath, R; Hodes, M Z; Mosbaugh, P; Valerie, K; de Riel, J K

    1988-03-01

    Mutation frequency responses produced by ultraviolet light are compared in 4 closely related strains of E.coli B/r having the same tyr(Oc) allele and different excision-repair capabilities. The production of Tyr/sup +/ prototrophic mutants is classified into back-mutations and de novo or converted glutamine tRNA suppressor mutations to indicate different mutation events. Cells transformed with the plasmid pdenV-7 require larger exposures than the parent strains to produce comparable mutation frequency responses, indicating that DenV activity can repair mutatagenic photoproducts. When damage reduction by UvrABC or DenV is compared for each of the specific categories of mutation, the results are consistent with the idea that pyrimidine dimers infrequently or never target back-mutations of this allele, frequently target the de novo suppressor mutations, and extensively or exclusively target the converted suppressor mutations. This analysis is based on the distinction that UvrABC-initiated excision repair recognizes dimer and non-dimer photoproducts but that DenV-initiated repair recognizes only pyrimidine dimers. 44 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs.

  8. Transconjunctival incision for total maxillectomy--an alternative for subciliary incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit; Tyagi, Isha; Jain, Shilpa; Syal, Rajan; Singh, Alok Pratap; Kapila, Rajeev

    2011-09-01

    A subciliary incision may be associated with various complications of the lower eyelid when it is used during a total maxillectomy. The use of the transconjunctival incision instead is an alternative in suitable patients. The records of 17 patients were reviewed in whom a transconjunctival incision was used during total maxillectomy. These included 13 in whom the Weber-Ferguson incision was used, and 4 who had a sublabial incision. There was mild conjunctival oedema in all the cases during the immediate postoperative period but it did not last for more than two days. Four patients had mild to moderate oedema of the lid that resolved within two days. One had mild ectropion with transient epiphora, which was caused by early removal of the medial canthal sutures. We found the approach to be cosmetically acceptable as it avoids a scar in the subciliary region. The transconjunctival incision can be used in place of the subciliary incision for lateral exposure during total maxillectomy. There are few complications associated with the lower lid, and it has good cosmetic results; if it is combined with a sublabial incision in suitable patients, the maxillectomy is virtually scar-free. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. DNA adducts as molecular dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucier, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that DNA adducts play an important role in the actions of many pulmonary carcinogens. During the last ten years sensitive methods (antibodies and 32 P-postlabeling) have been developed that permit detection of DNA adducts in tissues of animals or humans exposed to low levels of some genotoxic carcinogens. This capability has led to approaches designed to more reliably estimate the shape of the dose-response curve in the low dose region for a few carcinogens. Moreover, dosimetry comparisions can, in some cases, be made between animals and humans which help in judging the adequacy of animal models for human risk assessments. There are several points that need to be considered in the evaluation of DNA adducts as a molecular dosimeter. For example, DNA adduct formation is only one of many events that are needed for tumor development and some potent carcinogens do not form DNA adducts; i.e., TCDD. Other issues that need to be considered are DNA adduct heterogeneity, DNA repair, relationship of DNA adducts to somatic mutation and cell specificity in DNA adduct formation and persistence. Molecular epidemiology studies often require quantitation of adducts in cells such as lymphocytes which may or may not be reliable surrogates for adduct concentrations in target issues. In summary, accurate quantitation of low levels of DNA adducts may provide data useful in species to species extrapolation of risk including the development of more meaningful human monitoring programs

  10. Alcohol, Aldehydes, Adducts and Airways

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    Muna Sapkota

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Drinking alcohol and smoking cigarettes results in the formation of reactive aldehydes in the lung, which are capable of forming adducts with several proteins and DNA. Acetaldehyde and malondialdehyde are the major aldehydes generated in high levels in the lung of subjects with alcohol use disorder who smoke cigarettes. In addition to the above aldehydes, several other aldehydes like 4-hydroxynonenal, formaldehyde and acrolein are also detected in the lung due to exposure to toxic gases, vapors and chemicals. These aldehydes react with nucleophilic targets in cells such as DNA, lipids and proteins to form both stable and unstable adducts. This adduction may disturb cellular functions as well as damage proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. Among several adducts formed in the lung, malondialdehyde DNA (MDA-DNA adduct and hybrid malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde (MAA protein adducts have been shown to initiate several pathological conditions in the lung. MDA-DNA adducts are pre-mutagenic in mammalian cells and induce frame shift and base-pair substitution mutations, whereas MAA protein adducts have been shown to induce inflammation and inhibit wound healing. This review provides an insight into different reactive aldehyde adducts and their role in the pathogenesis of lung disease.

  11. Endogenous 5-methylcytosine protects neighboring guanines from N7 and O6-methylation and O6-pyridyloxobutylation by the tobacco carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegel, Rebecca; Shallop, Anthony; Upadhyaya, Pramod; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2004-01-20

    All CG dinucleotides along exons 5-8 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene contain endogenous 5-methylcytosine (MeC). These same sites (e.g., codons 157, 158, 245, 248, and 273) are mutational hot spots in smoking-induced lung cancer. Several groups used the UvrABC endonuclease incision assay to demonstrate that methylated CG dinucleotides of the p53 gene are the preferred binding sites for the diol epoxides of bay region polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). In contrast, effects of endogenous cytosine methylation on the distribution of DNA lesions induced by tobacco-specific nitrosamines, e.g., 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), have not been elucidated. In the work presented here, a stable isotope labeling HPLC-ESI-MS/MS approach was employed to analyze the reactivity of the N7 and O6 positions of guanines within hemimethylated and fully methylated CG dinucleotides toward NNK-derived methylating and pyridyloxobutylating species. 15N3-labeled guanine bases were placed within synthetic DNA sequences representing endogenously methylated p53 codons 154, 157, and 248, followed by treatment with acetylated precursors to NNK diazohydroxides. HPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis was used to determine the relative yields of N7- and O6-guanine adducts at the 15N3-labeled position. In all cases, the presence of MeC inhibited the formation of N7-methylguanine, O6-methylguanine, and O6-pyridyloxobutylguanine at a neighboring G, with the greatest decrease observed in fully methylated dinucleotides and at guanines preceded by MeC. Furthermore, the O6-Me-dG/N7-Me-G molar ratios were decreased in the presence of the 5'-neighboring MeC, suggesting that the observed decline in O6-alkylguanine adduct yields is, at least partially, a result of an altered reactivity pattern in methylated CG dinucleotides. These results indicate that, unlike N2-guanine adducts of PAH diol epoxides, NNK-induced N7- and O6-alkylguanine adducts are not preferentially formed at the endogenously

  12. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in various incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery.

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    Jauhari, Nidhi; Chopra, Deepak; Chaurasia, Rajan Kumar; Agarwal, Ashutosh

    2014-01-01

    To determine the surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) in Straight, Frown and Inverted V shape (Chevron) incisions in manual small incision cataract surgery (SICS). A prospective cross sectional study was done on a total of 75 patients aged 40y and above with senile cataract. The patients were randomly divided into three groups (25 each). Each group received a particular type of incision (Straight, Frown or Inverted V shape incisions). Manual SICS with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation was performed. The patients were compared 4wk post operatively for uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and SIA. All calculations were performed using the SIA calculator version 2.1, a free software program. The study was analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 statistical analysis software. The study found that 89.5% of patients in Straight incision group, 94.2% in Frown incision group and 95.7% in Inverted V group attained BCVA post-operatively in the range of 6/6 to 6/18. Mean SIA was minimum (-0.88±0.61D×90 degrees) with Inverted V incision which was statistically significant. Inverted V (Chevron) incision gives minimal SIA.

  13. COMPARISON OF POSTOP SIA IN MSICS WITH STRAIGHT INCISION VERSUS FROWN INCISION

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    Shayana Bhumbla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Surgically-Induced Astigmatism (SIA is one of the commonest causes of poor postoperative vision even after uneventful cataract surgery. Recent advances have led to a newer concept of “refractive cataract surgery.” The aim of the study is to study the comparison of postop SIA in Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (MSICS with straight versus frown incision. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients of cataract were divided into 2 groups (25 each - group A underwent MSICS with 6 mm straight incision, group B underwent MSICS with 6 mm frown incision. BCVA, keratometry readings were recorded with auto kerato-refractometer preop, at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months and SIA was calculated with SIA calculator version 2.1, a free software program. RESULTS Mean SIA in group A and B were - 1.14D versus 0.92D at 1 week; 1.26D versus 0.97D at 1 month; 1.29D versus 0.95D at 3 months. The difference was statistically significant at each follow up visit (p<0.05. CONCLUSION Frown incision gives lesser SIA than straight incision in MSICS.

  14. DNA adducts in senescent cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaubatz, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Perturbations in DNA repair and other metabolic processes during development and aging might affect the steady-state level of genomic damage. The persistence or accumulation of DNA lesions in postmitotic cells could have a significant impact on proper cellular function, interfering with gene regulation for example. To test the notion that DNA damage increases as a function of age in non-dividing cells, DNA was purified from heart tissue of C57BL/6Nia mice at different ages and analyzed by post labeling techniques to detect DNA adducts. In the present experiments, four-dimensional, thin-layer chromatography was used to isolate aromatic adducts that were labeled with carrier-free (γ- 32 P) ATP under DNA-P excess conditions. The complexity and frequency of aromatic adducts varied between DNA samples. Several adducts were present in all preparations and were clearly more abundant in nucleotide maps of mature and old heart DNA. However, a direct correlation with age was not observed. In contrast, experiments in which aromatic adducts were first isolated by phase-transfer to 1-butanol, then labeled with excess (γ- 32 P)ATP indicated that there was an age-related increase in these adducts. The results are consistent with their earlier studies that showed alkyl adducts increased during aging of mouse myocardium and suggest that a common repair pathway might be involved

  15. Mast Quadrant-assisted Minimally Invasive Modified Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: Single Incision Versus Double Incision

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    Xin-Lei Xia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of minimally invasive techniques is to make every effort to reduce tissue damage. Certainly, reducing skin incision is an important part of these techniques. This study aimed to investigate the clinical feasibility of Mast Quadrant-assisted modified transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF with a small single posterior median incision. Methods: During the period of March 2011 to March 2012, 34 patients with single-segment degenerative lumbar disease underwent the minimally invasive modified TLIF assisted by Mast Quadrant with a small single posterior median incision (single incision group. The cases in this group were compared to 37 patients with single-segment degenerative lumbar disease in the double incision group. The perioperative conditions of patients in these two groups were statistically analyzed and compared. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI scores, Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores, and sacrospinalis muscle damage evaluation indicators before operation and 3, 12 months postoperation were compared. Results: A total of 31 and 35 cases in the single incision and double incision groups, respectively, completed at least 12 months of systemic follow-up. The differences in perioperative conditions between the two groups were not statistically significant. The incision length of the single incision group was significantly shorter than that of the double incision group (P < 0.01. The ODI and VAS scores of patients in both groups improved significantly at 3 and 12 months postoperation. However, these two indicators at 3 and 12 months postoperation and the sacrospinalis muscle damage evaluation indicators at 3 months postoperation did not differ significantly between the two groups (P ≥ 0.05. Conclusions: Mast Quadrant-assisted modified TLIF with a small single posterior median incision has excellent clinical feasibility compared to minimally invasive TLIF with a double paramedian incision.

  16. Comparison of electrocautery incision with scalpel incision in midline abdominal surgery - A double blind randomized controlled trial.

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    Prakash, Lalgudi Dorairajan; Balaji, Nitesh; Kumar, Sathasivam Suresh; Kate, Vikram

    2015-07-01

    To compare the electrocautery incision with scalpel incision in patients undergoing abdominal surgery using a midline incision with respect to incision time, blood loss during incision, postoperative incision site pain and wound infection. Patients undergoing midline abdominal surgery were randomized into electrocautery and scalpel groups. The incision dimensions, incision time and blood loss during incision were noted intraoperatively. Postoperative pain and wound infection were recorded on every postoperative day for one week. 41 patients in each of the two groups were analyzed. Gender and age distribution was similar in both the groups. The mean incision time per unit wound area in the electrocautery group and scalpel group was 9.40 ± 3.37 s/cm(2) and 9.07 ± 3.40 s/cm(2) (p = 0.87) respectively. The mean blood loss per unit wound area was significantly lower in the electrocautery group at 6.46 ± 3.94 ml when compared to that of 23.40 ± 15.28 ml in the scalpel group (p= electrocautery and scalpel groups (14.63% vs. 12.19%; p = 0.347). With a comparable Postoperative incision site pain, wound infection rate and significantly lower blood loss with the equal time taken for the incision, electrocautery can be considered safe and effective in making skin incision in midline laparotomy compared to scalpel incision. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Craniosynostosis incision: scalpel or cautery?

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    Wood, Jeyhan S; Kittinger, Benjamin J; Perry, Victor L; Adenola, Adeyemi; van Aalst, John A

    2014-07-01

    There is an ongoing debate regarding the optimal instrument for scalp incisions: the scalpel or electrocautery. The argument generally focuses on improved healing after an incision made with a knife and decreased bleeding when using electrocautery. This study compares the use of scalpel and electrocautery in making coronal incisions for patients undergoing surgical correction of craniosynostosis. The outcome metric used is wound healing within 6 months after surgery. All patients presenting to the University of North Carolina Children's Hospital with craniosynostosis between July 1, 2007 and January 1, 2010 requiring a coronal incision for surgical correction were prospectively enrolled. In all of these patients, half of the coronal incision was made with knife; the other half, with needle tip cautery. Side of the incision was specified at the time of surgery in the operative report. Patients were excluded from the study if the instrument for incision was not specified or if only 1 modality was used for the entire incision. Sixty-eight patients underwent cranial vault reconstruction, of which 58 met inclusion criteria. Of the 58 matched pairs, 55 were analyzed statistically. The 3 excluded cases were those who had midline complications. There were 17 wound complications (15%): 8 in the knife group, 6 in the cautery group, and 3 at midline (with indeterminate side for the problem). We found no statistically significant difference in wound healing between incisions made with a knife or with electrocautery.

  18. 32P-postlabeling DNA adduct assay: cigarette smoke-induced dna adducts in the respiratory and nonrespiratory rat tissues. Book chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.C.; Gairola, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the tissue DNA adducts in rats by the sensitive (32)p-postlabeling assay showed one to eight detectable DNA adducts in lung, trachea, larynx, heart and bladder of the sham controls. Chronic exposure of animals to mainstream cigarette smoke showed a remarkable enhancement of most adducts in the lung and heart DNA. Since cigarette smoke contains several thousand chemicals and a few dozen of them are known or potential carcinogens, the difference between the DNA adducts of nasal and the other tissues may reflect the diversity of reactive constituents and their differential absorption in different tissues. In comparison to the lung DNA adducts, the adducts in nasal DNA were less hydrophobic. Identity of the predominant adducts was further investigated by comparison with several reference DNA adducts from 10 PAH and aromatic amines. Since some of these chemicals are present in cigarette smoke, the results suggest that these constituents of cigarette smoke may not be directly responsible for formation of DNA adducts in the lung and heart of the smoke-exposed animals

  19. Incision integrity and postoperative outcomes after microcoaxial phacoemulsification performed using 2 incision-dependent systems.

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    Vasavada, Vaishali; Vasavada, Abhay R; Vasavada, Viraj A; Srivastava, Samaresh; Gajjar, Devarshi U; Mehta, Siddharth

    2013-04-01

    To compare incision integrity and clinical outcomes of 2 microcoaxial phacoemulsification systems. Iladevi Cataract & IOL Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Eyes were randomized to have phacoemulsification using a 1.8 mm clear corneal incision (CCI) system (Group 1, Stellaris system) or a 2.2 mm CCI system (Group 2, Intrepid Infiniti system). Incision enlargement at end of surgery was measured. At the conclusion of surgery, trypan blue was applied over the conjunctival surface, anterior chamber aspirate withdrawn, and ingress into anterior chamber measured. Postoperative observations included evaluation of the CCI using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), change in central corneal thickness (CCT), and anterior segment inflammation at 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month and endothelial cell loss and surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) at 3 months. Incision enlargement (P.05). At the end of surgery, it is not the initial incision size alone but also the distortion of the incision during subsequent stages of surgery that determine the integrity of the CCI. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA synthesis and degradation in UV-irradiated toluene treated cells of E. coli K12: the role of polynucleotide ligase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strike, P.

    1977-01-01

    Toluene treated cells have been used to study the processes of DNA synthesis and DNA degradation in ultra-violet irradiated Escherichia coli K12. Synthesis and degradation are both shown to occur extensively if polynucleotide ligase is inhibited, and to occur to a much lesser extent if ligase activity is optimal. Extensive UV-induced DNA synthesis in toluene-treated cells requires ATP for the initial incision step, and DNA polymerase I. Extensive degradation also depends on the early ATP-dependent incision step, and the subsequent degradation shows a partial requirement for ATP. Curtailment of degradation by ligase requires DNA polymerase activity, but is not dependent upon DNA polymerase I. Apparently this process can be carried out with equal facility by either DNA polymerase II or polymerase III. These observations suggest that extensive DNA polymerase I-dependent repair synthesis and extensive DNA degradation are facets of two divergent pathways of excision repair, both of which depend upon the early uvrABC determined ATP-dependent incision step. (orig.) [de

  1. Imidazolidinone adducts of peptides and hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San George, R.C.; Hoberman, H.D.

    1986-01-01

    Acetaldehyde reacts selectively with the terminal amino groups of the α and β chains of hemoglobin to form stable adducts, the structures of which, based on 13 C NMR studies, are proposed to be diastereomeric 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-ones. In this scheme, acetaldelhyde forms a reversible Schiff base with the α-amino groups of the polypeptide chains which cyclize with the amide nitrogen of the first peptide bond to form the stable imidazolidinone adducts. In support of this mechanism, the authors found that in following the reaction of the peptide val-gly-gly with [1,2- 13 C] acetaldehyde, 13 C NMR resonances attributed to a Schiff base (δ = 170 ppm) were observed which slowly disappeared prior to appearance of resonances from a pair of stable adducts (δ = 70 and 71 ppm) believed to be the diastereomeric imidazolidinones. Schiff base formation appeared to limit the overall rate. Tetraglycine reacted in a similar manner but with a resonance from a single stable adduct observed representing the enantiomeric imidazolidinone adducts of this peptide. Peptides with proline in position 2 should be incapable of forming imidazolidinones, and the authors found that ala-pro-gly did in fact fail to form a stable adduct with acetaldehyde. The 2-methyl imidazolidin-4-one adducts of hemoglobin may be useful in determining the contribution of the amino terminal groups to the structure and functional properties of hemoglobins

  2. Hydrogen abstraction reactions by amide electron adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevilla, M.D.; Sevilla, C.L.; Swarts, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electron reactions with a number of peptide model compounds (amides and N-acetylamino acids) in aqueous glasses at low temperature have been investigated using ESR spectroscopy. The radicals produced by electron attachment to amides, RC(OD)NDR', are found to act as hydrogen abstracting agents. For example, the propionamide electron adduct is found to abstract from its parent propionamide. Electron adducts of other amides investigated show similar behavior except for acetamide electron adduct which does not abstract from its parent compound, but does abstract from other amides. The tendency toward abstraction for amide electron adducts are compared to electron adducts of several carboxylic acids, ketones, aldehydes and esters. The comparison suggests the hydrogen abstraction tendency of the various deuterated electron adducts (DEAs) to be in the following order: aldehyde DEA > acid DEA = approximately ester DEA > ketone DEA > amide DEA. In basic glasses the hydrogen abstraction ability of the amide electron adducts is maintained until the concentration of base is increased sufficiently to convert the DEA to its anionic form, RC(O - )ND 2 . In this form the hydrogen abstracting ability of the radical is greatly diminished. Similar results were found for the ester and carboxylic acid DEA's tested. (author)

  3. Single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rakesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is an alternative to conventional multiport laparoscopy. Single-access laparoscopy using a transumbilical port affords maximum cosmetic benefits because the surgical incision is hidden in the umbilicus. The advantages of single-access laparoscopic surgery may include less bleeding, infection, and hernia formation and better cosmetic outcome and less pain. The disadvantages and limitations include longer surgery time, difficulty in learning the technique, and the need for specialized instruments. Ongoing refinement of the surgical technique and instrumentation is likely to expand its role in gynecologic surgery in the future. We perform single-incision total laparoscopic hysterectomy using three ports in the single transumbilical incision.

  4. Postoperative Granulomas at Liposuction Incision Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weniger, Frederick G; White, Peter F; Barrero Castedo, Carlos E

    2016-02-01

    Since most liposuction incisions heal uneventfully, difficult healing in such incisions must be investigated. In the cases of two gynecomastia liposuction patients in which a water-based lubricating gel was used on the liposuction incisions, the incisions failed to heal. For both patients, workup uncovered palisading granulomas at the lateral inframammary fold incision sites several months after otherwise successful surgeries. These two cases are presented and the previous literature is reviewed, with consideration given to the etiology and prevention of such granulomas. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 5: Risk. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Single incision pediatric endoscopic surgery: advantages of relatively large incision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yilmaz, E.; Afsarlar, E.; Karaman, I.

    2015-01-01

    To describe Single Incision Pediatric Endoscopic Surgery (SIPES) performed on children with various diagnoses, emphasizing its advantages. Study Design: An observational case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pediatric Surgery, Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Child Health Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, from January 2011 to November 2014. Methodology: A review of patient charts was conducted in which SIPES was preferred as the surgical procedure. Patient demographics, operative details, operative time, clinical outcomes, postoperative pain and cosmesis were analyzed. Results: SIPES was performed on 45 patients (21 girls, 24 boys). Thirty-three appendectomies, 5 varicocelectomies, 3 oophorectomies, 2 ovarian and one paratubal cyst excision, and one fallopian tube excision were performed. All except one procedures were performed through our standard 2cm umbilical vertical or smile incision. In 18 cases, abdominal irrigation/aspiration was easily performed through the existing larger incision, as is done with open surgical technique. None of the patients had early postoperative shoulder/back pain since complete disinflation of CO/sub 2/ could be ensured. All of the patients/parents were satisfied with the cosmesis. Conclusion: SIPES has the advantages of limiting the surgical scar to within the umbilicus and providing easy disinflation of CO/sub 2/, allowing intraabdominal cleaning and extraction of large volume tissue samples through a single large umbilical incision. (author)

  6. Assessment of corneal astigmatism following frown and straight incision forms in sutureless manual small incision cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedo AO

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Angela Ofeibea Amedo, Kwadwo Amoah, Nana Yaa Koomson, David Ben Kumah, Eugene Appenteng Osae Department of Optometry and Visual Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana Abstract: To investigate which of two tunnel incision forms (frown versus straight in sutureless manual small incision cataract surgery creates more corneal astigmatism. Sixty eyes of 60 patients who had consented to undergo cataract surgery and to partake in this study were followed from baseline through >12-week postoperative period. Values of preoperative and postoperative corneal astigmatism for the 60 eyes, measured with a Bausch and Lomb keratometer, were extracted from the patients’ cataract surgery records. Residual astigmatism was computed as the difference between preoperative and postoperative keratometry readings. Visual acuity was assessed during the preoperative period and at each postoperative visit with a Snellen chart at 6 m. Fifty eyes of 50 patients were successfully followed-up on. Overall, the mean residual astigmatism was 0.75±0.12 diopters. The differences in mean residual astigmatism between the two different incision groups were statistically significant (t [48]=6.33, P<0.05; frown incision group recorded 1.00±0.12 diopters, whereas the straight incision group recorded 0.50±0.12 diopters. No significant difference was observed between male and female groups (t [48]=0.24, P>0.05. Residual corneal astigmatism in the frown incision group was significantly higher than in the straight incision group. Fisher’s exact test did not reveal a significant association between incision forms and visual acuity during the entire postoperative period (P>0.05. Keywords: cataract, residual corneal astigmatism, frown incision, straight incision

  7. Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS with Clear Corneal Incision and SICS with Scleral Incision – A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shafiqul Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Age related cataract is the leading cause of blindness and visual impairment throughout the world. With the advent of microsurgical facilities simple cataract extraction surgery has been replaced by small incision cataract surgery (SICS with posterior chamber intra ocular lens implant, which can be done either with clear corneal incision or scleral incision. Objective: To compare the post operative visual outcome in these two procedures of cataract surgery. Materials and method: This comparative study was carried out in the department of Ophthalmology, Delta Medical College & Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period of January 2010 to December 2012. Total 60 subjects indicated for age related cataract surgery irrespective of sex with the age range of 40-80 years with predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Subjects were randomly and equally distributed in 2 groups; Group A for SICS with clear corneal incision and group B for SICS with scleral incision. Post operative visual out come was evaluated by determining visual acuity and astigmatism in different occasions and was compared between groups. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS for windows version12. Results: The highest age incidence (43.3% was found between 61 to 70 years of age group. Among study subjects 40 were male and 20 were female. Preoperative visual acuity and astigmatism were evenly distributed between groups. Regarding postoperative unaided visual outcome, 6/12 or better visual acuity was found in 19.98% cases in group A and 39.6% cases in group B at 1st week. At 6th week 6/6 vision was found in 36.3% in Group A and 56.1% in Group B and 46.2% in group A and 66% in group B without and with correction respectively. With refractive correction, 6/6 vision was attained in 60% subjects of group A and 86.67% of group B at 8th week. Post operative visual acuity was statistically significant in all occasions. Postoperative astigmatism of

  8. Formation of adduct of cerium (4) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anyfrieva, S.I.; Polyakova, G.V.; Snezhko, N.I.; Pechurova, N.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Adduct formation of thenoyltrifluoroacetonate of Ce(4) [Ce(TTFA) 4 ] with seven nitrogen- and oxygen-containing donor additional ligands is studied using the methods of IR-spectroscopy, derivatography, X-ray phase analysis. The presence of formation of Ce(TTFA) 4 adducts with phosphorus-containing additional ligands tributyl phosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO), triphenylphosphine oxide (TPPO); α, α'-dipyridyl (Dipy) and o-phenanthroline (Phen) is established. The adduct Ce(TTFA) 4 stable to reduction is formed with Dipy, and in the case of Phen, TBP, TOPO, TPPO in the process of adduct formation the reduction of Ce(4) to Ce(3) takes place [ru

  9. Modified incision for maxillectomy: our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavana, Kranti; Tyagi, Isha; Ramani, Mukesh Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Radical maxillectomy has usually been done by the classical Weber Ferguson incision since age old times and still is being used widely due to its advantage of excellent exposure and minimal scarring as the incision follows the natural skin crease. In our modification of radical maxillectomy incision we avoid a scar on the midface by performing a midface degloving and combining it with a subconjunctival eye incision thus avoiding any cosmetic deformity and associated eye complication. It also avoids the late complication of cutaneous fistula following radiotherapy to these areas and due to early healing of the wound, early radiotherapy can be started.

  10. Photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yun-bo

    1988-03-01

    This thesis consists of three main parts and totally eight chapters. In Part I, The author will present studies on the photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, specifically, the wavelength dependencies for the photoreversals of thymidine-HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4, 5', 8-trimenthylpsoralen) monoadducts and diadduct and the same adducts incorporated in DNA helices and the wavelength dependecies for the photocrossslinking of thymidine-HMT monoadducts in double-stranded helices. In Part II, The author will report some biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, i.e., the effects on double-stranded DNA stability, DNA structure, and transcription by E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases. Finally, The author will focus on the applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry to investigation of protein-DNA interaction during transcription, which includes the interaction of E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases with DNA in elongation complexes arrested at specific psoralen-DNA adduct sites as revealed by DNase I footprinting experiments. 123 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yun-bo.

    1988-03-01

    This thesis consists of three main parts and totally eight chapters. In Part I, The author will present studies on the photochemistry of psoralen-DNA adducts, specifically, the wavelength dependencies for the photoreversals of thymidine-HMT (4'-hydroxymethyl-4, 5', 8-trimenthylpsoralen) monoadducts and diadduct and the same adducts incorporated in DNA helices and the wavelength dependecies for the photocrossslinking of thymidine-HMT monoadducts in double-stranded helices. In Part II, The author will report some biological effects of psoralen-DNA adducts, i.e., the effects on double-stranded DNA stability, DNA structure, and transcription by E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases. Finally, The author will focus on the applications of psoralen-DNA photochemistry to investigation of protein-DNA interaction during transcription, which includes the interaction of E. coli and T7 RNA polymerases with DNA in elongation complexes arrested at specific psoralen-DNA adduct sites as revealed by DNase I footprinting experiments. 123 refs., 52 figs., 12 tabs

  12. Penetrating and Intrastromal Corneal Arcuate Incisions in Rabbit and Human Cadaver Eyes: Manual Diamond Blade and Femtosecond Laser-Created Incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Brad; Binder, Perry S; Huang, Ling C; Hill, Jim; Salvador-Silva, Mercedes; Gwon, Arlene

    2016-07-01

    To compare morphologic differences between freehand diamond or femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating and intrastromal arcuate incisions. Freehand diamond blade, corneal arcuate incisions (180° apart, 60° arc lengths) and 150 kHz femtosecond laser (80% scheimpflug pachymetry depth corneal thickness) arcuate incisions were performed in rabbits. Intrastromal arcuate incisions (100 μm above Descemet's membrane, 100 μm below epithelium) were performed in rabbit corneas (energy 1.2 μJ, spot line separation 3 × 3 μm, 90° side cut angle). Eyes were examined by slit lamp and light microscopy up to 47 days post-procedure. Freehand diamond blade penetrating incisions, and femtosecond laser penetrating and intrastromal arcuate incisions (energy 1.8 μJ, spot line separation 2 × 2 μm) were performed in cadaver eyes. Optical coherence tomography was performed immediately after surgery and the corneas were fixed for light scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The rabbit model showed anterior stromal inflammation with epithelial hyperplasia in penetrating blade and laser penetrating wounds. The laser intrastromal and penetrating incisions showed localized constriction of the stromal layers of the cornea near the wound. In cadaver eyes, penetrating wound morphology was similar between blade and laser whereas intrastromal wounds did not affect the cornea above or below incisions. Penetrating femtosecond laser arcuate incisions have more predictable and controlled outcomes shown by less post-operative scarring than incisions performed with a diamond blade. Intrastromal incisions do not affect uncut corneal layers as demonstrated by histopathology. The femtosecond laser has significant advantages in its ability to make intrastromal incisions which are not achievable by traditional freehand or mechanical diamond blades.

  13. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side-......-to-side symmetry in isometric hip adduction and abduction strength can be assumed in soccer players remains uncertain.......An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side...

  14. Influence of Incision Location on Transmitter Loss, Healing, Incision Lengths, Suture Retention, and Growth of Juvenile Chinook Salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panther, Jennifer L.; Brown, Richard S.; Gaulke, Greggory L.; Woodley, Christa M.; Deters, Katherine A.

    2010-05-11

    In this study, conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, we measured differences in survival and growth, incision openness, transmitter loss, wound healing, and erythema among abdominal incisions on the linea alba, lateral and parallel to the linea alba (muscle-cutting), and following the underlying muscle fibers (muscle-sparing). A total of 936 juvenile Chinook salmon were implanted with both Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Tracking System transmitters (0.43 g dry) and passive integrated transponder tags. Fish were held at 12°C (n = 468) or 20°C (n = 468) and examined once weekly over 98 days. We found survival and growth did not differ among incision groups or between temperature treatment groups. Incisions on the linea alba had less openness than muscle-cutting and muscle-sparing incisions during the first 14 days when fish were held at 12°C or 20°C. Transmitter loss was not different among incision locations by day 28 when fish were held at 12°C or 20°C. However, incisions on the linea alba had greater transmitter loss than muscle-cutting and muscle-sparing incisions by day 98 at 12°C. Results for wound closure and erythema differed among temperature groups. Results from our study will be used to improve fish-tagging procedures for future studies using acoustic or radio transmitters.

  15. The roles of different excision-repair mechanisms in the resistance of Micrococcus luteus to UV and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Kazuyuki; Noda, Asao; Yonei, Shuji

    1987-01-01

    M. luteus mutants showing increased sensitivity to both UV and 4-NQO were isolated after the treatment of parental ATCC4698 strain with MNNG. The mutants were also highly sensitive to mitomycin C, cis-platinum, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) plus near-UV and angelicin plus near-UV in various degrees. With regard to host-cell reactivation ability the mutants fell into two groups. The hcr - mutants lacked the ability to reactivate UV-damaged N6 phage and were resistant to X-rays. The incision of DNA did not occur during incubation after the treatment with angelicin plus near-UV in the hcr - mutants, whereas it occurred in the parental strain. The facts indicate that the hcr - mutants are defective in the incision mechanism which has a wide substrate specificity, similar to the UVRABC nuclease of E. coli. On the other hand, the incision of DNA and the removal of UV-induced thymine dimers from DNA occurred in the hcr - mutants as well as in the parental strain, which is ascribed to the UV endonuclease activity. (Auth.)

  16. Current Status of Single-incision Laparoscopic Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Irfan; Ciancio, Fabio; Ferrara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in minimally invasive surgery have centered on reducing the number of incisions required, which has led to the development of the single-incision laparoscopic technique. A panel of European single-incision laparoscopy experts met to discuss the current status of, and the future...

  17. Electrocautery skin incision for neurosurgery procedures--technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Naoki; Fukami, Tadateru; Nozaki, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The reluctance to incise skin with electrocautery is partly attributable to concerns about excessive scarring and poor wound healing. However, recently no difference was reported in wound complications between the cold scalpel and electrocautery scalpel. We assessed the safety and efficacy of electrocautery skin incision in 22 scalp incisions, including 4 cases of reoperation. Electrocautery skin incisions were created using a sharp needle electrode. The generator unit was set on cutting mode, with power of 6 W and 330 kHz sinusoid waveform. Subcutaneous dissections also used the sharp needle electrode, set on coagulating mode, with power of 10 W and 1 MHz pulse-modulated waveform. Galea incisions used a standard blade tip, set on coagulating mode, with power of 20 W and 1 MHz pulse-modulated waveform. Skin incision with the sharp needle electrode caused no charring of the wound. Little bleeding or oozing were observed and skin clips were not necessary. No wound complication such as necrosis or infection occurred. Electrocautery skin incisions for re-operations were also performed safely without complications. Electrocautery skin incision is sufficiently safe procedure not only for first operation but also for re-operation. Electrocautery skin incision is efficacious, especially for extended operation times, because of little blood loss from the edges of skin incision and possible avoidance of skin edge necrosis or alopecia caused by skin clips.

  18. Comparison of the Keratometric Corneal Astigmatic Power after Phacoemulsification: Clear Temporal Corneal Incision versus Superior Scleral Tunnel Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqi He

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This is prospective randomized control trial to compare the mean keratometric corneal astigmatism diopter power (not surgical induced astigmatism among preop and one-month and three-month postop phacoemulcification of either a clear temporal corneal incision or a superior scleral tunnel Incision, using only keratometric astigmatic power reading to evaluate the difference between the two cataract surgery incisions. Methods. 120 patients (134 eyes underwent phacoemulcification were randomly assigned to two groups: Group A, the clear temporal corneal incision group, and Group B, the superior scleral tunnel incision group. SPSS11.5 Software was used for statistical analysis to compare the postsurgical changes of cornea astigmatism on keratometry. Results. The changes of corneal astigmatic diopter in Groups A and B after 3 month postop from keratometric reading were 1.04 + 0.76 and 0.94 + 0.27, respectively (=.84>.05, which showed no statistic significance difference. Conclusion. The incision through either temporal clear cornea or superior scleral tunnel in phacoemulcification shows no statistic difference in astigmatism change on keratometry 3-month postop.

  19. Single scrotal incision orchiopexy - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fabiano Fernandes Novaes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To conduct a systematic review on single scrotal incision orchiopexy. Materials and Methods A search was performed using Pubmed, through which 16 articles were selected out of a total of 133. The following conditions were considered exclusion criteria: other surgical methods such as an inguinal procedure or a laparoscopic approach, retractile testes, or patients with previous testicular or inguinal surgery. Results A total of 1558 orchiopexy surgeries initiated with a transcrotal incision were analyzed. Patients' ages ranged between 5 months and 21 years. Thirteen studies used high scrotal incisions, and low scrotal incisions were performed in the remainder of the studies. In 55 cases (3.53%, there was a need for inguinal incision. Recurrence was observed in 9 cases, testicular atrophy in 3, testicular hypotrophy in 2, and surgical site infections in 13 cases. High efficacy rates were observed, varying between 88% and 100%. Conclusions Single scrotal incision orchiopexy proved to be an effective technique and is associated with low rates of complications.

  20. Flexible single-incision surgery: a fusion technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera, José F; Dolz, Carlos; Cuadrado, Angel; Olea, José; García, Juan

    2013-06-01

    The development of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery has led to other techniques, such as single-incision surgery. The use of the flexible endoscope for single-incision surgery paves the way for further refinement of both surgical methods. To describe a new, single-incision surgical technique, namely, flexible single-incision surgery. Assessment of the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic cholecystectomy in a series of 30 patients. This technique consists of a single umbilical incision through which a flexible endoscope is introduced and consists of 2 parallel entry ports that provide access to nonarticulated laparoscopic instruments. The technique was applied in all patients for whom it was prescribed. No general or surgical wound complications were noted. Surgical time was no longer than usual for single-port surgery. Flexible single-incision surgery is a new single-site surgical technique offering the same level of patient safety, with additional advantages for the surgeon at minimal cost.

  1. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Goff, J.; Gallois, J.; Pelhuet, L.; Devier, M.H.; Budzinski, H.; Pottier, D.; Andre, V.; Cachot, J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32 P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32 P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 μg g -1 dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 μg g -1 dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10 8 nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 μg g -1 dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 μg g -1 dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10 8 nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32 P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable biomarker to monitor

  2. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Goff, J. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Gallois, J. [Laboratory F. Duncombe, Conseil General du Calvados, Caen (France); Pelhuet, L. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Devier, M.H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Budzinski, H. [LPTC, UMR-5472 CNRS, University Bordeaux I, Bordeaux (France); Pottier, D. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Andre, V. [GRECAN, UPRES EA-1772, University of Caen, Caen (France); Cachot, J. [LEMA, UPRES EA-3222, IFRMP 23, University of Le Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, B.P. 540, 76058 Le Havre Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jerome.cachot@univ-lehavre.fr

    2006-08-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a {sup 32}P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of {sup 32}P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10{sup 8} nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 {mu}g g{sup -1} dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10{sup 8} nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced {sup 32}P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in

  3. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and PAH-related DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewa, Błaszczyk; Danuta, Mielżyńska-Švach

    2017-08-01

    Investigations on the impact of chemicals on the environment and human health have led to the development of an exposome concept. The exposome refers to the totality of exposures received by a person during life, including exposures to life-style factors, from the prenatal period to death. The exposure to genotoxic chemicals and their reactive metabolites can induce chemical modifications of DNA, such as, for example, DNA adducts, which have been extensively studied and which play a key role in chemically induced carcinogenesis. Development of different methods for the identification of DNA adducts has led to adopting DNA adductomic approaches. The ability to simultaneously detect multiple PAH-derived DNA adducts may allow for the improved assessment of exposure, and offer a mechanistic insight into the carcinogenic process following exposure to PAH mixtures. The major advantage of measuring chemical-specific DNA adducts is the assessment of a biologically effective dose. This review provides information about the occurrence of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their influence on human exposure and biological effects, including PAH-derived DNA adduct formation and repair processes. Selected methods used for determination of DNA adducts have been presented.

  4. Redshift or adduct stabilization -- a computational study of hydrogen bonding in adducts of protonated carboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Solveig Gaarn; Hammerum, Steen

    2009-01-01

    It is generally expected that the hydrogen bond strength in a D-H-A adduct is predicted by the difference between the proton affinities of D and A, measured by the adduct stabilization, and demonstrated by the IR redshift of the D-H bond stretching vibrational frequency. These criteria do...... not always yield consistent predictions, as illustrated by the hydrogen bonds formed by the E and Z OH groups of protonated carboxylic acids. The delta-PA and the stabilization of a series of hydrogen bonded adducts indicate that the E OH group forms the stronger hydrogen bonds, whereas the bond length...... carboxylic acids are different. The OH bond length and IR redshift afford the better measure of hydrogen bond strength....

  5. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side-......-to-side symmetry in isometric hip adduction and abduction strength can be assumed in soccer players remains uncertain....

  6. NITRO MUSK ADDUCTS OF RAINBOW TROUT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow trout and other fish species can serve as 'sentinel' species for the assessment of ecological status and the presence of certain environmental contaminants. As such they act as bioindicators of exposure. Here we present seminal data regarding dose-response and toxicokinetics of trout hemoglobin adduct formation from exposure to nitro musks that are frequently used as fragrance ingredients in formulations of personal care products. Hemoglobin adducts serve as biomarkers of exposure of the sentinel species as we have shown in previous studies of hemoglobin adducts formed in trout and environmental carp exposed to musk xylene (MX) and musk ketone (MK). Gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (GC-NICI-MS) employing selected ion monitoring is used to measure 4-amino-MX (4-AMX), 2-amino-MX (2-AMX), and 2-amino-MK (2-AMK) released by alkaline hydrolysis from the sulfinamide adducts of hemoglobin. Dose-response and toxicokinetics were investigated using this sensitive method for analysis of these metabolites. In the dose-response investigation, the concentrations of 4-AMX and 2-2AMX are observed to pass through a maximum at 0.10 mg/g. In the case of 2-AMK, the adduct concentration is almost the same at dosages in the range of 0.030 to 0.10 mg/g. For toxicokinetics, the concentration of the metabolites in the Hb reaches a maximum in the 3-day sample after administration of MX or MK. Further elimination of the metabo

  7. Including the Copenhagen Adduction Exercise in the FIFA 11+ Provides Missing Eccentric Hip Adduction Strength Effect in Male Soccer Players: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harøy, Joar; Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Bjørkheim, André; Rolstad, Linn E; Hölmich, Per; Bahr, Roald; Andersen, Thor Einar

    2017-11-01

    The FIFA 11+ was developed as a complete warm-up program to prevent injuries in soccer players. Although reduced hip adduction strength is associated with groin injuries, none of the exercises included in the FIFA 11+ seem to specifically target hip adduction strength. To investigate the effect on eccentric hip adduction strength of the FIFA 11+ warm-up program with or without the Copenhagen adduction exercise. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. We recruited 45 eligible players from 2 U19 elite male soccer teams. Players were randomized into 2 groups; 1 group carried out the standard FIFA 11+ program, while the other carried out the FIFA 11+ but replaced the Nordic hamstring exercise with the Copenhagen adduction exercise. Both groups performed the intervention 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. Players completed eccentric strength and sprint testing before and after the intervention. Per-protocol analyses were performed, and 12 players were excluded due to low compliance (<67% of sessions completed). The main outcome was eccentric hip adduction strength (N·m/kg). Between-group analyses revealed a significantly greater increase in eccentric hip adduction strength of 0.29 Nm/kg (8.9%; P = .01) in favor of the group performing the Copenhagen adduction exercise, whereas no within-group change was noted in the group that used the standard FIFA 11+ program (-0.02 N·m/kg [-0.7%]; P = .69). Including the Copenhagen adduction exercise in the FIFA 11+ program increases eccentric hip adduction strength, while the standard FIFA 11+ program does not. Registration: Registration: ISRCTN13731446 (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registry).

  8. Determination of adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, R.M.; Chess, E.K.; Thomas, B.L.; Mann, D.B.; Dankovic, D.A.; Franz, J.A.; Springer, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    Adducts to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), formed from metabolites of polynuclear aromatic compounds, are relatively persistent and correlate with bioresponse (carcinogenicity). Therefore, qualitative and quantitative analysis of adducts in the DNA of individuals may provide valuable information as to recent exposure to carcinogenic hydrocarbons. Further, the ability to detect adducts in a large segment of a population may have significant epidemiological significance. The current thrust of the analytical development at PNL is to isolate the DNA, liberate the adducted hydrocarbon residue from the DNA with acid hydrolysis, and prepare derivatives of the hydrolyzed species that will enhance its detection, quantitation, and characterization using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). They have initiated the development of the necessary techniques using benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Samples of DNA adducts of radiolabeled B[a]P have been prepared for study by reacting DNA isolated from calf thymus with benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide (the ultimate carcinogenic form of B[a]P). Other DNA/B[a]P samples have been prepared by painting the skin of mice with radiolabeled B[a]P. The ability to prepare research quantities of adducts using the hepatocyte preparation method reported by Dankovic et al is a significant development to their DNA adduct analysis program

  9. Repair of furocoumarin adducts in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolan, M.E.; Smith, C.A.; Hanawalt, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    DNA repair was studied in cultured mammalian cells treated with the furocoumarins 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), aminomethyl trioxsalen, or angelicin and irradiated with near UV light. The amount of DNA cross-linked by 8-MOP in normal human cells decreased by about one-half in 24 hours after treatment; no decrease was observed in xeroderma pigmentosum cells, group A. At present, it is not known to what extent this decrease represents complete repair events at the sites of cross-links. Furocoumarin adducts elicited excision repair in normal human and monkey cells but not in xeroderma pigmentosum group A cells. This excision repair resembled in several aspects that elicited by pyrimidine dimers, formed in DNA by irradiation with 254-nm UV light; however, it appeared that for at least 8-MOP and aminomethyl trioxsalen, removal of adducts was not as efficient as was the removal of pyrimidine dimers. A comparison was also made of repair in the 172-base-pair repetitive alpha-DNA component of monkey cells to repair in the bulk of the genome. Although repair elicited by pyrimidine dimers in alpha-DNA was the same as in the bulk DNA, that following treatment of cells with either aminomethyl trioxsalen or angelicin and near UV was markedly deficient in alpha-DNA. This deficiency reflected the removal of fewer adducts from alpha-DNA after the same initial adduct frequencies. These results could mean that each furocoumarin may produce several structurally distinct adducts to DNA in cells and that the capacity of cellular repair systems to remove these various adducts may vary greatly

  10. Linking the generation of DNA adducts to lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Marcello; Munnia, Armelle; Cellai, Filippo; Bruzzone, Marco; Peluso, Marco E M

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. DNA adducts are considered a reliable biomarker that reflects carcinogen exposure to tobacco smoke, but the central question is what is the relationship of DNA adducts and cancer? Therefore, we investigated this relationship by a meta-analysis of twenty-two studies with bronchial adducts for a total of 1091 subjects, 887 lung cancer cases and 204 apparently healthy individuals with no evidence of lung cancer. Our study shows that these adducts are significantly associated to increase lung cancer risk. The value of Mean Ratio lung-cancer (MR) of bronchial adducts resulting from the random effects model was 2.64, 95% C.I. 2.00-3.50, in overall lung cancer cases as compared to controls. The significant difference, with lung cancer patients having significant higher levels of bronchial adducts than controls, persisted after stratification for smoking habits. The MR lung-cancer value between lung cancer patients and controls for smokers was 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.42-2.91, for ex-smokers 3.27, 95% C.I. 1.49-7.18, and for non-smokers was 3.81, 95% C.I. 1.85-7.85. Next, we found that the generation of bronchial adducts is significantly related to inhalation exposure to tobacco smoke carcinogens confirming its association with volatile carcinogens. The MR smoking estimate of bronchial adducts resulting from meta-regression was 2.28, 95% Confidence Interval (C.I.) 1.10-4.73, in overall smokers in respect to non-smokers. The present work provides strengthening of the hypothesis that bronchial adducts are not simply relate to exposure, but are a cause of chemical-induced lung cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Vertical compared with transverse incisions in abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grantcharov, T P; Rosenberg, J

    2001-01-01

    , and late complications (incisional hernia). RESULTS: Eleven randomised controlled trials and seven retrospective studies were identified. The transverse incision offers as good an access to most intra-abdominal structures as a vertical incision. The transverse incision results in significantly less......OBJECTIVE: To reach an evidence-based consensus on the relative merits of vertical and transverse laparotomy incisions. DESIGN: Review of all published randomised controlled trials that compared the postoperative complications after the two main types of abdominal incisions, vertical and transverse....... SETTING: Teaching hospital, Denmark. SUBJECTS: Patients undergoing open abdominal operations. INTERVENTIONS: For some of the variables (burst abdomen and incisional hernia) it was considered adequate to include retrospective studies. Studies were identified through Medline, Cochrane library, Embase...

  12. Two-Step Incision for Periarterial Sympathectomy of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Bae Jeon

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSurgical scars on the palmar surface of the hand may lead to functional and also aesthetic and psychological consequences. The objective of this study was to introduce a new incision technique for periarterial sympathectomy of the hand and to compare the results of the new two-step incision technique with those of a Koman incision by using an objective questionnaire.MethodsA total of 40 patients (17 men and 23 women with intractable Raynaud's disease or syndrome underwent surgery in our hospital, conducted by a single surgeon, between January 2008 and January 2013. Patients who had undergone extended sympathectomy or vessel graft were excluded. Clinical evaluation of postoperative scars was performed in both groups one year after surgery using the patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS and the Wake Forest University rating scale.ResultsThe total patient score was 8.59 (range, 6-15 in the two-step incision group and 9.62 (range, 7-18 in the Koman incision group. A significant difference was found between the groups in the total PS score (P-value=0.034 but not in the total observer score. Our analysis found no significant difference in preoperative and postoperative Wake Forest University rating scale scores between the two-step and Koman incision groups. The time required for recovery prior to returning to work after surgery was shorter in the two-step incision group, with a mean of 29.48 days in the two-step incision group and 34.15 days in the Koman incision group (P=0.03.ConclusionsCompared to the Koman incision, the new two-step incision technique provides better aesthetic results, similar symptom improvement, and a reduction in the recovery time required before returning to work. Furthermore, this incision allows the surgeon to access a wide surgical field and a sufficient exposure of anatomical structures.

  13. Liquid in the major incision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Jaramillo, Diego Alberto; Ortega Jaramillo, Hector

    2003-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with spill pleural extending in the left major incision. In the chest thorax PA, we could observe one of the complex radiographic appearances that take the reconfiguration of fluid in this localization, being this appearance dependent of the patient's position. Some points are also discussed on the anatomy of the major incisions and some of their radiographic characteristics

  14. DNA adducts-chemical addons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T R Rajalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA adduct is a piece of DNA covalently bond to a chemical (safrole, benzopyrenediol epoxide, acetaldehyde. This process could be the start of a cancerous cell. When a chemical binds to DNA, it gets damaged resulting in abnormal replication. This could be the start of a mutation and without proper DNA repair, this can lead to cancer. It is this chemical that binds with the DNA is our prime area of concern. Instead of performing the whole body analysis for diagnosing cancer, this test could be carried out for early detection of cancer. When scanning tunneling microscope is used, the DNA results can be obtained earlier. DNA adducts in scientific experiments are used as biomarkers.

  15. Effects of post-treatment incubation on recombinogenesis in incision-proficient and incision-deficient strains of saccharomyces cerevisiae, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Tetsuya; Machida, Isamu

    1991-01-01

    After the photoaddition of mono- and bifunctional furocoumarins to G1 phase cells, most gene conversion and crossing-over occurred without post-irradiation incubation of these cells in incision-proficient strains. In contrast, incision-deficient cells showed marked induction of both recombinational events only after treated cells had been incubated for several hours before selection. These results indicate that when furocoumarins are photoadded to G1 cells, initiation of recombinational events occurs during the same G1 phase in the incision-proficient cells; whereas, it occurs only after post-irradiation DNA replication in incision-deficient cells. The action of the PSO2 gene product specific for the repair of DNA crosslinks in recombination induction is discussed and compared to the actions of the excision repair genes RAD1 and RAD2. (author)

  16. Formation of DNA adducts in mouse tissues after 1-nitropyrene administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    DNA adducts were isolated and characterized in mouse lung, liver and kidney after intratracheal instillation of [ 3 H]-1-nitropyrene (1-NP). HPLC analysis of the enzymatically digested DNA indicated the presence of multiple DNA adducts in mouse lung, liver and kidney. These results indicate that DNA adducts of 1-NP are formed in mouse lung, liver and kidney after intratracheal instillation of 1-NP; the HPLC profiles of the multiple adducts suggests that adducts may be formed via metabolic pathways that involve both nitroreduction and ring-oxidation. 6 references, 1 figure

  17. Infrared spectra of volatile adduct of uranyl pivaloyltrifluoroacetonate with hexamethylphosphorotriamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhmarina, V.N.; Dushin, R.B.; Sidorenko, G.V.; Suglobov, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    Adduct of uranyl pivaloyltrifluoroacetonate with hexamethylphosphortriamide (1), sublimated without decomposition and characterized by a high thermal stability, has been synthesized, as well as adducts of uranyl dipivaloylmethanate with hexamethylphosphortriamide (2) and dimethyl sulfoxide (3), sublimated with partial dissociation. IR spectra of crystalline adducts 1-3, their solutions in benzene; gaseous and matrix-isolated adduct 1 have been measured. It is shown that in gaseous phase 1 exists practically completely in non-dissociated form. It is detected that uranyl group in crystalline 1 and 2 and in matrix-isolated 1 in contrast to crystalline 3 and previously studied adducts of uranyl β-diketonates has an asymmetric structure. Strength constants of uranyl group in crystalline 1-3 and matrix-isolated 1 are determined

  18. DNA Methylation Modulates Nociceptive Sensitization after Incision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Sun

    Full Text Available DNA methylation is a key epigenetic mechanism controlling DNA accessibility and gene expression. Blockade of DNA methylation can significantly affect pain behaviors implicated in neuropathic and inflammatory pain. However, the role of DNA methylation with regard to postoperative pain has not yet been explored. In this study we sought to investigate the role of DNA methylation in modulating incisional pain and identify possible targets under DNA methylation and contributing to incisional pain. DNA methyltranferase (DNMT inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine significantly reduced incision-induced mechanical allodynia and thermal sensitivity. Aza-2'-deoxycytidine also reduced hindpaw swelling after incision, suggesting an anti-inflammatory effect. Global DNA methylation and DNMT3b expression were increased in skin after incision, but none of DNMT1, DNMT3a or DNMT3b was altered in spinal cord or DRG. The expression of proopiomelanocortin Pomc encoding β-endorphin and Oprm1 encoding the mu-opioid receptor were upregulated peripherally after incision; moreover, Oprm1 expression was further increased under DNMT inhibitor treatment. Finally, local peripheral injection of the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone significantly exacerbated incision-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. These results suggest that DNA methylation is functionally relevant to incisional nociceptive sensitization, and that mu-opioid receptor signaling might be one methylation regulated pathway controlling sensitization after incision.

  19. Morphodynamic Model of Submarine Canyon Incision by Sandblasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Parker, G.; Izumi, N.; Cartigny, M.; Li, T.; Wang, G.

    2017-12-01

    Submarine canyons are carved by turbidity currents under the deep sea. As opposed to subaerial canyons, the relevant processes are not easy to observe directly. Turbidity currents are bottom-hugging sediment gravity flows of that can incise or deposit on the seafloor to create submarine canyons or fans. The triggers of turbidity currents can be storms, edge waves, internal waves, canyon wall sapping, delta failure, breaching and hyperpycnal flows. The formation and evolution mechanisms of submarine canyons are similar to those of subaerial canyons, but have substantial differences. For example, sandblasting, rather than wear due to colliding gravel clasts is more likely to be the mechanism of bedrock incision. Submarine canyons incise downward, and often develop meander bends and levees within the canyon, so defining "fairways". Here we propose a simple model for canyon incision. The starting point of our model is the Macro Roughness Saltation Abrasion Alluviation model of Zhang et al. [2015], designed for bedrock incision by gravel clasts in mixed bedrock-alluvial rivers. We adapt this formulation to consider sandblasting as a means of wear. We use a layer-averaged model for turbidity current dynamics. The current contains a mixture of mud, which helps drive the flow but which does not cause incision, and sand, which is the agent of incision. We show that the model can successfully model channel downcutting, and indeed illustrate the early formation of net incisional cyclic steps, i.e. upstream-migrating undulations on the bed associated with transcritical (in the Froude sense) flow. These steps can be expected to abet the process of incision.

  20. Environmental air pollution and DNA adducts in Copenhagen bus drivers - effect of GSTM1 and NAT2 genotypes on adduct level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; de Pater, Nettie; Okkels, Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The lymphocyte bulky PAH-DNA adduct levels have been studied in persons occupationally exposed to ambient air pollution. The exposure group consisted of 90 healthy, nonsmoking bus drivers from the Copenhagen area, divided into three exposure groups according to driving area, and 60 rural controls...... (smokers and non-smokers). PAH-DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabelling with the butanol enrichment procedure. The bus drivers answered a comprehensive questionnaire on passive smoking, residential area, diet and other potential confounding variables. A significantly higher adduct level...... was observed in bus drivers working in central Copenhagen (1.214 fmol/microg DNA, n = 49) compared with both those driving in the dormitory (median: 0.507 fmol/microg DNA, P = 0.046, n = 16) and suburban (median: 0.585 fmol/microg DNA, P = 0.041, n = 25) areas. All three groups had higher adduct levels than...

  1. Primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, C.; Karlsson, L.; Ekstrøm, Claus Thorn

    2016-01-01

    incision between January 1995 and June 2012 were reviewed. Horses with a laryngotomy incision closed in three layers for primary healing were included. Descriptive data on healing characteristics and complications of laryngotomy wounds were collected from the medical records and via follow......The objective was to report healing characteristics and complications after primary closure of equine laryngotomies and analyse factors potentially associated with complications. This retrospective case series of the medical records of horses (n = 180) undergoing laryngoplasty and laryngotomy...... after primary closure of equine laryngotomy incisions are infrequent and considered of minimal severity and can be performed safely when paying careful attention to the closure of the cricothyroid membrane....

  2. Inhibition of nitrobenzene-induced DNA and hemoglobin adductions by dietary constituents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hongli; Cheng Yan; Wang Haifang; Sun Hongfang; Liu Yuanfang E-mail: yliu@pku.edu.cn; Liu Kexin; Peng Shixiang

    2003-03-01

    Nitrobenzene (NB), a widely used industrial chemical, is a likely human carcinogen. Many dietary constituents can suppress the DNA-adduction, acting as the inhibitors of cancer. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE), tea polyphenols (TP), garlic squeeze, curcumin, and grapestone extract on NB-DNA and NB-hemoglobin (Hb) adductions in mice using an ultrasensitive method of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) with {sup 14}C-labelled nitrobenzene. All of these dietary constituents showed their inhibitory effects on DNA or Hb adduction. VC, VE, TP and grapestone extract could efficaciously inhibit the adductions by 33-50%, and all of these six agents could inhibit Hb adduction by 30-64%. We also investigated resveratrol, curcumin, VC and VE as inhibitors of NB-DNA adduction in vitro using liquid scintillation counting technique. These agents in the presence of NADPH and S9 components also pronouncedly blocked DNA adduction in a dose-dependent profile. Our study suggests that these seven constituents may interrupt the process of NB-induced chemical carcinogenesis.

  3. Mass Spectrometric Characterization of Circulating Covalent Protein Adducts Derived from a Drug Acyl Glucuronide Metabolite: Multiple Albumin Adductions in Diclofenac Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Thomas G.; Meng, Xiaoli; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Maggs, James L.; Castelazo, Anahi Santoyo; Regan, Sophie L.; Bennett, Stuart N. L.; Earnshaw, Caroline J.; Aithal, Guruprasad P.; Pande, Ira; Kenna, J. Gerry; Stachulski, Andrew V.; Park, B. Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Covalent protein modifications by electrophilic acyl glucuronide (AG) metabolites are hypothetical causes of hypersensitivity reactions associated with certain carboxylate drugs. The complex rearrangements and reactivities of drug AG have been defined in great detail, and protein adducts of carboxylate drugs, such as diclofenac, have been found in liver and plasma of experimental animals and humans. However, in the absence of definitive molecular characterization, and specifically, identification of signature glycation conjugates retaining the glucuronyl and carboxyl residues, it cannot be assumed any of these adducts is derived uniquely or even fractionally from AG metabolites. We have therefore undertaken targeted mass spectrometric analyses of human serum albumin (HSA) isolated from diclofenac patients to characterize drug-derived structures and, thereby, for the first time, have deconstructed conclusively the pathways of adduct formation from a drug AG and its isomeric rearrangement products in vivo. These analyses were informed by a thorough understanding of the reactions of HSA with diclofenac AG in vitro. HSA from six patients without drug-related hypersensitivities had either a single drug-derived adduct or one of five combinations of 2–8 adducts from among seven diclofenac N-acylations and three AG glycations on seven of the protein’s 59 lysines. Only acylations were found in every patient. We present evidence that HSA modifications by diclofenac in vivo are complicated and variable, that at least a fraction of these modifications are derived from the drug’s AG metabolite, and that albumin adduction is not inevitably a causation of hypersensitivity to carboxylate drugs or a coincidental association. PMID:24902585

  4. Mini transverse versus longitudinal incision in carpal tunnel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkmaz, M.; Cepoglu, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of mini-transverse compared with mini-longitudinal incision for carpal tunnel release (CTR) with reference to postoperative functional capacity, symptom severity and complication rate. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Cumhuriyet University Medical Faculty, Department of Orthopaedics, Tokat State Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Medical Park Tokat Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, from January 2007 to January 2009. Methodology: This study included 93 hands of 79 patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), which were operated between 2007 and 2009. Patients were divided according to incision types into Group-1 (undergoing mini-longitudinal incision) and Group-2 (undergoing mini-transverse incision). Patients were evaluated initially and at 3 weeks after treatment according to symptom severity and functional status of Boston Questionnaire (BQ). Demographic and clinical data were analyzed and compared statistically between two groups. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed in BQ symptom and functional scores between the pre- and postoperative period (p < 0.0001). BQ symptom and functional scores at postoperative period were better in Group-1 than Group-2 (p = 0.044 and p = 0.023 respectively). The scar hypersensitivity (p = 0.258) and tenderness (p = 1.00) associated with the incision sites were not statistically different. Conclusion: Longitudinal incision is more effective on symptom and functional conditions than transverse incision. However, there was less scar formation with transverse incision. (author)

  5. Detection of Riddelliine-Derived DNA Adducts in Blood of Rats Fed Riddelliine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: We have previously shown that riddelliine, a naturally occurring genotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, induces liver tumors in rats and mice through a genotoxic mechanism mediated by the formation of a set of eight 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine ( DHP-derived DNA adducts. In this study we report the formation of these DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood DNA of rats fed riddelliine. In an adduct formation and removal experiment, male and female F344 rats (8 weeks of age were administered riddelliine by gavage at a single dose of 10.0 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 M phosphate buffer. At 8, 24, 48, and 168 hrs after dosing, the levels of DHP-derived DNA adduct in blood and liver were determined by 32P-postlabeling/HPLC. Maximum DNA adduct formation occurred at 48 hr after treatment. From 48 to 168 hours, the adduct levels in female rat blood were 4-fold greater than those in male rats. In a dose response experiment, female rats were gavaged 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses of riddelliine for three consecutive days and the DHPderived DNA adducts in blood DNA were assayed. The levels of the DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood of rats receiving 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg doses were 12.9 and 51.8 adducts/107 nucleotides. These results suggest that: (i leucocyte DNA can bind with DHP to form a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts generated in liver; (ii DHP-derived DNA adducts in blood can serve as a potential non-invasive biomarkers for assessing the exposure to riddelliine.

  6. Single Incision Laparoscopic Splenectomy: Our First Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Barbaros

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Most laparoscopic surgeons have attempted to reduce incisional morbidity and improve cosmetic outcomes by using less and smaller trocars. Single incision laparoscopic splenectomy is a new laparoscopic procedure. Herein we would like to present our experiences.Material and Methods: Between January 2009 and June 2009, data of the 7 patients who underwent single incision laparoscopic splenectomy were evaluated retrospectively.Results: There were 7 patients (5 females and 2 males with a mean age of 29.9 years. The most common splenectomy indication was idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Single incision laparoscopic splenectomy was performed successfully in 6 patients. In one patient the operation was converted to an open procedure.Conclusion: With surgeons experienced in minimally invasive surgery, single incision laparoscopic splenectomy could be performed successfully. However, in order to demonstrate the differneces between standard laparoscopic splenectomy and SILS splenetomy, prospective randomized comparative studies are required.

  7. DNA adducts: Mass spectrometry methods and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, P.B.; Brown, K.; Tompkins, E.; Emms, V.L.; Jones, D.J.L.; Singh, R.; Phillips, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of DNA adducts is widely used for the monitoring of exposure to genotoxic carcinogens. Knowledge of the nature and amounts of DNA adducts formed in vivo also gives valuable information regarding the mutational effects that may result from particular exposures. The power of mass spectrometry (MS) to achieve qualitative and quantitative analyses of human DNA adducts has increased greatly in recent years with the development of improved chromatographic interfaces and ionisation sources. Adducts have been detected on nucleic acid bases, 2'-deoxynucleosides or 2'-deoxynucleotides, with LC-MS/MS being the favoured technique for many of these analyses. Our current applications of this technique include the determination of N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-guanine, which was postulated to be found as a DNA repair product in urine following exposure to acrylamide, and of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyadenosine, as markers of oxidative damage in human lymphocyte DNA. Higher sensitivity (with a detection limit of 1-10 adducts/10 12 nucleotides) may be achieved by the use of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), although this requires the presence of certain isotopes, such as [ 14 C], in the material being analysed. In order to make this technique more amenable for studies of human exposure to environmental carcinogens, new postlabelling techniques, incorporating [ 14 C] into specific DNA adducts after formation, are being developed. It is expected that combining the use of advanced MS techniques with existing 32 P-postlabelling and immunochemical methodologies will contribute greatly to the understanding of the burden of human exposure to environmental carcinogens

  8. Quantitation of DNA adducts by stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakova, Natalia; Goggin, Melissa; Janis, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to endogenous and exogenous chemicals can lead to the formation of structurally modified DNA bases (DNA adducts). If not repaired, these nucleobase lesions can cause polymerase errors during DNA replication, leading to heritable mutations potentially contributing to the development of cancer. Due to their critical role in cancer initiation, DNA adducts represent mechanism-based biomarkers of carcinogen exposure, and their quantitation is particularly useful for cancer risk assessment. DNA adducts are also valuable in mechanistic studies linking tumorigenic effects of environmental and industrial carcinogens to specific electrophilic species generated from their metabolism. While multiple experimental methodologies have been developed for DNA adduct analysis in biological samples – including immunoassay, HPLC, and 32P-postlabeling – isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) generally has superior selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. As typical DNA adducts concentrations in biological samples are between 0.01 – 10 adducts per 108 normal nucleotides, ultrasensitive HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies are required for their analysis. Recent developments in analytical separations and biological mass spectrometry – especially nanoflow HPLC, nanospray ionization MS, chip-MS, and high resolution MS – have pushed the limits of analytical HPLC-ESI-MS/MS methodologies for DNA adducts, allowing researchers to accurately measure their concentrations in biological samples from patients treated with DNA alkylating drugs and in populations exposed to carcinogens from urban air, drinking water, cooked food, alcohol, and cigarette smoke. PMID:22827593

  9. Ochratoxin A: In Utero Exposure in Mice Induces Adducts in Testicular DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E. Jennings-Gee

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a nephrotoxin and carcinogen that is associated with Balkan endemic nephropathy and urinary tract tumors. OTA crosses the placenta and causes adducts in the liver and kidney DNA of newborns. Because the testis and kidney develop from the same embryonic tissue, we reasoned that OTA also may cause adducts transplacentally in the testis. We tested the hypothesis that acute exposure to OTA, via food and via exposure in utero, causes adducts in testicular DNA and that these lesions are identical to those that can be produced in the kidney and testis by the consumption of OTA. Adult mice received a single dose of OTA (from 0–1,056 µg/kg by gavage. Pregnant mice received a single i.p. injection of OTA (2.5 mg/kg at gestation day 17. DNA adducts were determined by 32P-postlabeling. Gavage-fed animals sacrificed after 48 hours accumulated OTA in kidney and testis and showed DNA adducts in kidney and testis. Some OTA metabolites isolated from the tissues were similar in both organs (kidney and testis. The litters of mice exposed prenatally to OTA showed no signs of overt toxicity. However, newborn and 1-month old males had DNA adducts in kidney and testis that were chromatographically similar to DNA adducts observed in the kidney and testis of gavage-fed adults. One adduct was identified previously as C8-dG-OTA adduct by LC MS/MS. No adducts were observed in males from dams not exposed to OTA. Our findings that in utero exposure to OTA causes adducts in the testicular DNA of male offspring support a possible role for OTA in testicular cancer.

  10. Characterization of trypsin-derived peptides acrylamide-adducted hemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.; Goheen, S.C.; Edmonds, C.G.; McCulloch, M.; Sylvester, D.M.; Sander, C.; Bull, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Even though there are a number of sources for human exposure to acrylamide, reliable biomarkers of exposure are not available. In an effort to develop such a biomarker, the authors are characterizing peptides derived from trypsin digests of acrylamide-adducted hemoglobin. For this, radiolabeled acrylamide was incubated with this, radiolabeled acrylamide was incubated with purified human hemoglobin (Ao) and decomposition products removed by dialysis. When the adducted hemoglobin was separated by reverse-phase HPLC, radioactivity eluted with the α and β subunits, suggesting covalent binding. Digestion of individual subunits with trypsin followed by reverse phase HPLC, indicated that most of the radioactivity associated with the α subunit co-eluted with a single peptide. Similar results were observed for the β subunit except that significant amounts of radioactivity eluted with the solvent front, suggesting that radioactivity was released by trypsin digestion. Currently, these preparation are under further characterization by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. This approach will aid in the identification of the adducted will aid in the identification of the adducted peptide and subsequent preparation of an acrylamide-specific antibody

  11. Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Myungkoo.

    1995-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7β, 8α-dihydoxy-9α, l0α-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[α]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, (-)-trans-, (+)-cis- and (-)-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( ∼ 25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant π-π stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G 2 or G 3 (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N 2 -dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[α]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N 2 -dG

  12. Detection of carcinogen-DNA adducts by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.C.; Yuspa, S.H.; Weinstein, I.B.; Blobstein, S.

    1977-01-01

    Covalent binding of carcinogen to nucleic acids is believed to be an essential component of the carcinogenic process, so it is desirable to have highly sensitive and specific methods for detecting such adducts in cells and tissues exposed to known and suspected carcinogens. A radioimmunoassay is here described capable of detecting nanogram amounts of DNA adducts resulting from the covalent binding of the carcinogen N-2-acetylaminofluorene and its activated N-acetoxy derivative. (author)

  13. Synthesis and physicochemical investigation of adducts of rare earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrieva, S.I.; Snezhko, N.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Pechurova, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    Adducts of rare earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonates (3) have been synthesized with tributylphosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphenoxide (TOPO), triphenylphosphenoxide (TPO) of 1:1 and 1:2 composition as well as with α, α'-dipyridine (Dipy), o-phenanthroline (Phen) of 1:1 composition. The separated adducts have been studied by methods of element analysis, X-ray phase and derivatographic analyses and IR spectroscopy. It is shown that the adducts are more thermostable compared to the corresponding rare earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonate hydrates

  14. Detection and quantification of 4-ABP adducts in DNA from bladder cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayas, Beatriz; Stillwell, Sara W; Wishnok, John S; Trudel, Laura J; Skipper, Paul; Yu, Mimi C; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Wogan, Gerald N

    2007-02-01

    We analyzed bladder DNA from 27 cancer patients for dG-C8-4-aminobiphenyl (dG-C8-ABP) adducts using the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method with a 700 attomol (1 adduct in 10(9) bases) detection limit. Hemoglobin (Hb) 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) adduct levels were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After isolation of dG-C8-ABP by immunoaffinity chromatography and further purification, deuterated (d9) dG-C8-ABP (MW=443 Da) was added to each sample. Structural evidence and adduct quantification were determined by selected reaction monitoring, based on the expected adduct ion [M+H+]+1, at m/z 435 with fragmentation to the product ion at m/z 319, and monitoring of the transition for the internal standard, m/z 444-->328. The method was validated by analysis of DNA (100 microg each) from calf thymus; livers from ABP-treated and untreated rats; human placentas; and TK6 lymphoblastoid cells. Adduct was detected at femtomol levels in DNA from livers of ABP-treated rats and calf thymus, but not in other controls. The method was applied to 41 DNA samples (200 microg each) from 27 human bladders; 28 from tumor and 14 from surrounding non-tumor tissue. Of 27 tissues analyzed, 44% (12) contained 5-80 dG-C8-ABP adducts per 10(9) bases; only 1 out of 27 (4%) contained adduct in both tumor and surrounding tissues. The Hb adduct was detected in samples from all patients, at levels of 12-1960 pg per gram Hb. There was no correlation between levels of DNA and Hb adducts. The presence of DNA adducts in 44% of the subjects and high levels of Hb adducts in these non-smokers indicate environmental sources of exposure to 4-ABP.

  15. Mass-spectrometric study of volatile uranyl β-diketonates and their adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamov, V.M.; Belyaev, B.N.; Berezinskij, S.O.; Sidorenko, G.V.; Suglobov, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    The mass spectra of a number of uranyl β-diketonates containing methyl, trifluoromethyl and tert-butyl substituents in β-diketonate anion, and their adducts are measured. The form of the unsolvated β-diketonates and their adducts in gas phase is studied. The ways of fragmentation of uranyl β-diketonates and their adducts are investigated. The data concerning the thermal and chemical side reactions proceeding with uranyl β-diketonates and their addicts in an ion source are obtained. The mass spectra of the samples of neptunyl and plutonyl β-diketonate adducts synthesized for the first time are measured

  16. Incisive canal deflation for correct implant placement: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spin-Neto, Rubens; Bedran, Telma Blanca Lombardo; de Paula, Wagner Nunes; de Freitas, Rubens Moreno; de Oliveira Ramalho, Lizeti Toledo; Marcantonio, Elcio

    2009-12-01

    This article is a case report of a patient in whom the prosthetic planning indicated the necessity of an incisive canal deflation for the correct installation of an implant that is to be osseointegrated. In the reopening phase after the bone graft installation, the incisive canal deflation (biopsy of its content) was done and titanium implants were installed with one of them invading the anatomical space occupied previously by the incisive canal. The biopsy analysis showed fragments of the incisive artery and nerve, which are responsible for the anterior upper-tooth pulp, the periodontium vascularization and the innervation. From the anastomosis present along with other structures allied with the absence of teeth in the region, there was no detriment to the patient caused by the deflation. Incisive canal deflation is a viable technique in implantology. It can permit ideal prosthetic planning with no detriment to the patient.

  17. Line narrowing spectroscopic studies of DNA-carcinogen adducts and DNA-dye complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Myungkoo [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1995-12-06

    Laser-induced fluorescence line narrowing and non-line narrowing spectroscopic methods were applied to conformational studies of stable DNA adducts of the 7β, 8α-dihydoxy-9α, l0α-epoxy-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydrobenzo[α]pyrene (anti-BPDE). Stereochemically distinct (+)-trans-, (-)-trans-, (+)-cis- and (-)-cis adducts of anti-BPDE bound to exocyclic amino group of the central guanine in an 11-mer oligonucleotide, exist in a mixture of conformations in frozen aqueous buffer matrices. The (+)-trans adduct adopts primarily an external conformation with a smaller fraction ( ~25 %) exists in a partially base-stacked conformation. Both cis adducts were found to be intercalated with significant π-π stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the bases. Conformations of the trans-adduct of (+)-anti -BPDE in 11-mer oligonucleotides were studied as a function of flanking bases. In single stranded form the adduct at G2 or G3 (5 ft-flanking, base guanine) adopts a conformation with strong, interaction with the bases. In contrast, the adduct with a 5ft-flanking, thymine exists in a primarily helixexternal conformation. Similar differences were observed in the double stranded oligonucleotides. The nature of the 3ft-flanking base has little influence on the conformational equilibrium of the (+)-trans-anti BPDE-dG adduct. The formation and repair of BPDE-N2-dG in DNA isolated from the skin of mice treated topically with benzo[α]pyrene (BP) was studied. Low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy of the intact DNA identified the major adduct as (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N-dG, and the minor adduct fraction consisted mainly of (+)-cis-anti-BPDE-N2-dG.

  18. Synthesis and physicochemical investigation of adducts of rare earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anufrieva, S.I.; Snezhko, N.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Pechurova, N.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1982-11-01

    Adducts of rare earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonates (3) have been synthesized with tributylphosphate (TBP), trioctylphosphenoxide (TOPO), triphenylphosphenoxide (TPO) of 1:1 and 1:2 composition as well as with ..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..'-dipyridine (Dipy), o-phenanthroline (Phen) of 1:1 composition. The separated adducts have been studied by methods of element analysis, X-ray phase and derivatographic analyses and IR spectroscopy. It is shown that the adducts are more thermostable compared to the corresponding rare earth thenoyltrifluoroacetonate hydrates.

  19. Detection of Adriamycin-DNA adducts by accelerator mass spectrometry at clinically relevant Adriamycin concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Kate E; Cutts, Suzanne M; Ognibene, Ted J; Henderson, Paul T; Phillips, Don R

    2008-09-01

    Limited sensitivity of existing assays has prevented investigation of whether Adriamycin-DNA adducts are involved in the anti-tumour potential of Adriamycin. Previous detection has achieved a sensitivity of a few Adriamycin-DNA adducts/10(4) bp DNA, but has required the use of supra-clinical drug concentrations. This work sought to measure Adriamycin-DNA adducts at sub-micromolar doses using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a technique with origins in geochemistry for radiocarbon dating. We have used conditions previously validated (by less sensitive decay counting) to extract [(14)C]Adriamycin-DNA adducts from cells and adapted the methodology to AMS detection. Here we show the first direct evidence of Adriamycin-DNA adducts at clinically-relevant Adriamycin concentrations. [(14)C]Adriamycin treatment (25 nM) resulted in 4.4 +/- 1.0 adducts/10(7) bp ( approximately 1300 adducts/cell) in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, representing the best sensitivity and precision reported to date for the covalent binding of Adriamycin to DNA. The exceedingly sensitive nature of AMS has enabled over three orders of magnitude increased sensitivity of Adriamycin-DNA adduct detection and revealed adduct formation within an hour of drug treatment. This method has been shown to be highly reproducible for the measurement of Adriamycin-DNA adducts in tumour cells in culture and can now be applied to the detection of these adducts in human tissues.

  20. Characterization of hemoglobin-benzo[a]pyrene adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, D.A.; Myers, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    Cultures of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were supplemented with human Hb (0.2 mM heme) and [ 3 H]BP (1 μM). After a 24-h incubation, the medium was removed and subjected to cation-exchange liquid chromatography (CM-Sepharose) to resolve hemoglobins from serum proteins in the medium. The BP-treated Hb was subjected to analysis in each of three column chromatographic systems established for isolation and characterization of human hemoglobin and its genetic and post-translationally modified variants. Results demonstrate that hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts can be resolved from native hemoglobin by established conventional and high-performance liquid chromatographic procedures, suggesting the basis for development of general approaches for isolating and characterizing hemoglobin-carcinogen adducts. The results also suggest the basis for a model system in which adducts between carcinogens and human hemoglobin are formed in cultures of mammalian cells or tissues

  1. Environmental, Dietary, Maternal, and Fetal Predictors of Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Mendez, Michelle A; Schoket, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    and drinking-water disinfection by-products, mainly trihalomethanes (THMs), were available for a large proportion of the study population. RESULTS: Greek and Spanish neonates had higher adduct levels than the northern European neonates [median, 12.1 (n = 179) vs. 6.8 (n = 332) adducts per 108 nucleotides, p...... with higher adduct levels in adjusted models. Exposure to fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide was associated with significantly higher adducts in the Danish subsample only. Overall, the pooled results for THMs in water show no evidence of association with adduct levels; however, there are country...

  2. Higher Incision at Upper Part of Lower Segment Caesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Shao

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: An incision at the upper part of the lower segment reduces blood loss, enhances uterine retraction, predisposes to fewer complications, is easier to repair, precludes bladder adhesion to the suture line and reduces operation time. Keywords: caesarean section; higher incision technique; traditional uterine incision technique.

  3. Clear corneal incision leakage after phacoemulsification--detection using povidone iodine 5%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Soon-Phaik

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the incidence of clear corneal wound leakage at the conclusion of standard co-axial phacoemulsification in a prospective observational series of 100 consecutive cataract cases in a single surgeon's institutional practice. At the conclusion of standard co-axial phacoemulsification using a 2.75 mm temporal single plane clear corneal incision with a 1 mm clear corneal side-port incision, the wounds were hydrated and checked for water-tightness. Povidone iodine 5% (P-I) was then evenly dripped over the cornea and the wounds were inspected visually. Any leakage of aqueous observed was recorded. The amount of leakage was graded as small or large from each wound. Leaky wounds were further hydrated and retested with P-I until sealed. Wound integrity was reassessed on the first postoperative day by use of fluorescein. Of the 100 cases, wound leakage was observed for 31 eyes (31%)-ten main incisions, nineteen side-port incisions, and both incisions in two cases. Wound leakage was easily detected as a ribbon of clear fluid streaming from the incision amid a pool of brown solution. Povidone iodine was not observed within the tract in any incision. All wound leakage was small except for one from the main incision and two from the side-port incision. None of the eyes developed wound leakage the day after surgery and none developed endophthalmitis. In conclusion, leakage from clear corneal incisions at the conclusion of phacoemulsification occurs in almost a third of cases, predominantly from the side incision. It is easily detected by use of the P-I test.

  4. Scavenging of Toxic Acrolein by Resveratrol and Hesperetin and Identification of Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixin; Qi, Yajing; Rocca, James R; Sarnoski, Paul J; Jia, Aiqun; Gu, Liwei

    2015-11-04

    The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of resveratrol and hesperetin to scavenge acrolein at pH 7.4 and 37 °C. About 6.4 or 5.2% of acrolein remained after reaction with resveratrol or hesperetin for 12 h at equimolar concentrations. An acrolein-resveratrol adduct and two acrolein-hesperetin adducts were isolated. Their structures were elucidated using mass and NMR spectroscopy. Acrolein reacted with resveratrol at the C-2 and C-3 positions through nucleophilic addition and formed an additional heterocyclic ring. Two similar monoacrolein-conjugated adducts were identified for hesperetin. Spectroscopic data suggested each acrolein-hesperetin adduct was a mixture of four stereoisomers due to the existence of two chiral carbon atoms. Yield of adducts was low at pH 5.4 but increased at pH 7.4 and 8.4. Higher pH also promoted the formation of diacrolein adducts. Results suggest that resveratrol and hesperetin exert health benefits in part through neutralizing toxic acrolein in vivo.

  5. Conformations of stereoisomeric base adducts to 4-hydroxyequilenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shuang; Shapiro, Robert; Geacintov, Nicholas E; Broyde, Suse

    2003-06-01

    Exposure to estrogen through estrogen replacement therapy increases the risk of women developing cancer in hormone sensitive tissues. Premarin (Wyeth), which has been the most frequent choice for estrogen replacement therapy in the United States, contains the equine estrogens equilin and equilenin as major components. 4-Hydroxyequilenin (4-OHEN) is a phase I metabolite of both of these substances. This catechol estrogen autoxidizes to potent cytotoxic quinoids that can react with dG, dA, and dC to form unusual stereoisomeric cyclic adducts (Bolton, J. L., et al. (1998) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 11, 1113-1127). Like other bulky DNA adducts, these lesions may exhibit different susceptibilities to DNA repair and mutagenic potential, if not repaired in a structure-dependent manner. To ultimately gain insights into structure-function relationships, we computed conformations of stereoisomeric guanine, adenine, and cytosine base adducts using density functional theory. We find near mirror image conformations in stereoisomer adduct pairs for each modified base, suggesting opposite orientations with respect to the 5' --> 3' direction of the modified strand when the stereoisomer pairs are incorporated into duplex DNA. Such opposite orientations could cause stereoisomer pairs of lesions to respond differently to DNA replication and repair enzymes.

  6. Effects of two different incision phacoemulsification on corneal astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Huo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the effect of different incision in corneal astigmatism after phacoemulsification. METHODS: Totally 88 cases(122 eyeswith pure cataract were randomly divided into two groups. Forty cases(60 eyeswere clarity corneal incision in group A, and 48 cases(62 eyeswere sclera tunnel incision in group B. Mean corneal astigmatism, surgically induced astigmatism(SIA, uncorrected visual acuity(UCVAand best correct vision acuity(BCVAwere observed in pre- and post-operation at 1d; 1wk; 1mo.RESULTS: The mean astigmatism had statistically significant difference between two groups at 1d; 1wk; 1mo after operation(PPP>0.05. UCVA≥0.5 and BCVA≥0.8 had statistically significant difference at 1d; 1wk(PP>0.05.CONCLUSION: Phacoemulsification with scleral tunnel incision remove combined intraocular lens(IOLimplantation has small changes to corneal astigmatism. By selecting personalized corneal incision according to the corneal topography might be more beneficial.

  7. Single incision laparoscopic colorectal resection: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinnusamy Palanivelu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A prospective case series of single incision multiport laparoscopic colorectal resections for malignancy using conventional laparoscopic trocars and instruments is described. Materials and Methods: Eleven patients (seven men and four women with colonic or rectal pathology underwent single incision multiport laparoscopic colectomy/rectal resection from July till December 2010. Four trocars were placed in a single transumblical incision. The bowel was mobilized laparoscopically and vessels controlled intracorporeally with either intra or extracorporeal anastomosis. Results: Three patients had carcinoma in the caecum, one in the hepatic flexure, two in the rectosigmoid, one in the descending colon, two in the rectum and two had ulcerative pancolitis (one with high grade dysplasia and another with carcinoma rectum. There was no conversion to standard multiport laparoscopy or open surgery. The median age was 52 years (range 24-78 years. The average operating time was 130 min (range 90-210 min. The average incision length was 3.2 cm (2.5-4.0 cm. There were no postoperative complications. The average length of stay was 4.5 days (range 3-8 days. Histopathology showed adequate proximal and distal resection margins with an average lymph node yield of 25 nodes (range 16-30 nodes. Conclusion: Single incision multiport laparoscopic colorectal surgery for malignancy is feasible without extra cost or specialized ports/instrumentation. It does not compromise the oncological radicality of resection. Short-term results are encouraging. Long-term results are awaited.

  8. Diathermy versus scalpel incisions for open cholecystectomy comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.A.; Niazi, W.A.K.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to make a comparison between skin incisions made with electrocautery versus scalpel in terms of their safety, efficacy and post-operative complications. Design: A randomized controlled study. Setting: The study was conducted in Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Kharian, Pakistan airforce (PAF) Hospital Sargodha. Duration of Study: May 2008 to August 2011. Patients and Methods: Ninety seven patients who underwent open cholecystectomy were randomly divided into two groups on the basis of the use of electrocautery versus steel scalpel for making skin incision and sub-cutaneous tissue dissection. Parameters recorded were, time taken from skin incision to full incising of the peritoneum, length of the wound, amount of blood loss during this step of surgery in each group. Post-operative pain scoring using visual analogue scale was done. Wound complications such as infection, haematoma/seroma and dehiscence were noted too. One month of follow up was recorded in each group. Subsequently a comparison of these findings was done. Results: Incision time (sec/cm/sub 2/) was longer in scalpel group than in diathermy group (p = 0.001), whereas, incision blood loss (ml/cm/sub 2/) was significantly less in diathermy group than in scalpel group (p = 0.03). There was no difference in post-operative pain perception as delineated by visual pain analogue scoring system between the two groups (p = 0.57). Post-operative wound complications and the final healing of wound at 01 month of follow-up were almost similar in both groups. Conclusion: Electrocautery may be used safely without any untoward complication in making skin incision and sub-cutaneous tissue dissection with an advantage of reduced incision time and and less blood loss. (author)

  9. Effects of benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adducts on a reconstituted replication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.C.; Romano, L.J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have used a partially reconstituted replication system consisting of T7 DNA polymerase and T7 gene 4 protein to examine the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) adducts on DNA synthesis and gene 4 protein activities. The gene 4 protein is required for T7 DNA replication because of its ability to act as both a primase and helicase. They show here that total synthesis decreases as the level of adducts per molecule of DNA increases, suggesting that the B[a]P adducts are blocking an aspect of the replication process. By challenging synthesis on oligonucleotide-primed B[a]P-modified DNA with unmodified DNA, they present evidence that the T7 DNA polymerase freely dissociates after encountering an adduct. Prior studies have shown that the gene 4 protein alone does not dissociate from the template during translocation upon encountering an adduct. However, when gene 4 protein primed DNA synthesis is challenged, they observe an increase in synthesis but to a lesser extent than observed on oligonucleotide-primed synthesis. Finally, they have examined DNA synthesis on duplex templates and show the B[a]P adducts inhibit synthesis by the T7 DNA polymerase and gene 4 protein to the same extent regardless of whether the adducts are positioned in the leading or lagging strand, while synthesis by the polymerase alone is inhibited only when the adducts are in the template strand

  10. Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy with needle graspers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Kinjiro; Sato, Norihiro; Akagawa, Shin; Hirano, Tatsuya; Koikawa, Kazuhiro; Horioka, Kohei; Ozono, Keigo; Fujiwara, Kenji; Tanaka, Masao; Sada, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) is a promising alternative to standard multi-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). However, generalization of SILC is still hampered by technical difficulties mainly associated with the lack of trocars used for retraction of the gallbladder. We therefore developed a modified method of SILC with the use of needle graspers (SILC-N) for optimal retraction and exposure. In addition to two trocars inserted through a single transumbilical incision, two needle ports were placed on the right subcostal and lateral abdominal wall, through which needle graspers were used for retraction of the gallbladder. Since December, 2009, 12 patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis were treated by SILC-N. SILC-N was successfully performed in all but one patient requiring a conversion to the 4-port LC with a mean operative time of 71.5 (48-107) minutes. None of the patients experienced intraoperative or postoperative complications. The transumbilical incision and pinholes for needle graspers were almost invisible on discharge. Our preliminary results suggest that SILC-N is a simple, safe and feasible technique of cholecystectomy offering similar postoperative recovery and better cosmetic outcome as compared to conventional LC.

  11. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery for pyloric stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Yury; Novogilov, Vladimir; Podkamenev, Alexey; Rasputin, Andrey; Weber, Irina; Solovjev, Alexey; Yurkov, Pavel

    2012-04-01

    Laparoscopy is the most common procedure for correction of congenital pyloric stenosis. The standard laparoscopic approach is based on the three-port technique. In contrast to the standard laparoscopic technique, the single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) requires only one incision. We report on our experience with this surgical approach. Between September 2009 and August 2010 a total of 24 children underwent a laparoscopic pyloromyotomy, 12 in SILS technique. The single incision was carried through the center of the umbilicus. The working instruments were introduced in a two-dimensional direction into the peritoneal cavity via the same umbilical incision. The two groups were compared for patients' demographics, operative report and early postoperative outcomes. All SILS procedures were performed successfully with no conversion rate. There were no differences in the preoperative parameters between the two groups regarding age before surgery and body weight at operation. Operative time and time of full enteral intake was similar to comparable procedures with usage of a standard laparoscopic approach. There were no operative or postoperative complications. The early experience described in this study confirms that SILS can be applied for treatment of pyloric stenosis with outcomes similar to the standard laparoscopic surgery.

  12. Adducts of uranium tetrachloride with neutral Schiff bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doretti, L; Madalosso, F; Sitran, S; Faleschini, S; Vigato, P A [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Padua (Italy). Lab. di Chimica e Tecnologia dei Radioelementi

    1977-01-01

    Studies are reported of adducts of UCl/sub 4/ with various Schiff base ligands: N-(phenyl)benzalaldimine, N-(propyl) salicylaldimine, N-(phenyl) salicylaldimine, N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzalaldimine, N-(4-chlorophenyl)salcylaldimine, N-(4-nitrophenyl)salicylaldimine, N,N'-o-phenylenebis(salycylideneimine). The synthesis and characterization of these ligands is reported, and the preparation and characterization of the relative adducts of UCl/sub 4/: their IR spectra are reported and discussed.

  13. Adducts of uranium tetrachloride with neutral Schiff bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doretti, L.; Madalosso, F.; Sitran, S.; Faleschini, S.; Vigato, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    Studies are reported of adducts of UCl 4 with various Schiff base ligands: N-(phenyl)benzalaldimine, N-(propyl) salicylaldimine, N-(phenyl) salicylaldimine, N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)benzalaldimine, N-(4-chlorophenyl)salcylaldimine, N-(4-nitrophenyl)salicylaldimine, N,N'-o-phenylenebis (salycylideneimine). The synthesis and characterization of these ligands is reported, and the preparation and characterization of the relative adducts of UCl 4 : their IR spectra are reported and discussed. (author)

  14. Inert Reassessment Document for Poly(oxyethylene) adducts of mixed phytosterols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poly(oxyethy1ene) adducts of mixed phytosterols is uncategorized as to list classification status. Based upon the reasonable certainty of no harm safety finding, the List 4B classification for poly(oxyethy1ene) adducts of mixed phytosterols is affirmed.

  15. Tyrosine-lipid peroxide adducts from radical termination: para coupling and intramolecular Diels-Alder cyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchepin, Roman; Möller, Matias N; Kim, Hye-young H; Hatch, Duane M; Bartesaghi, Silvina; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Radi, Rafael; Porter, Ned A

    2010-12-15

    Free radical co-oxidation of polyunsaturated lipids with tyrosine or phenolic analogues of tyrosine gave rise to lipid peroxide-tyrosine (phenol) adducts in both aqueous micellar and organic solutions. The novel adducts were isolated and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as well as by mass spectrometry (MS). The spectral data suggest that the polyunsaturated lipid peroxyl radicals give stable peroxide coupling products exclusively at the para position of the tyrosyl (phenoxy) radicals. These adducts have characteristic (13)C chemical shifts at 185 ppm due to the cross-conjugated carbonyl of the phenol-derived cyclohexadienone. The primary peroxide adducts subsequently undergo intramolecular Diels-Alder (IMDA) cyclization, affording a number of diastereomeric tricyclic adducts that have characteristic carbonyl (13)C chemical shifts at ~198 ppm. All of the NMR HMBC and HSQC correlations support the structure assignments of the primary and Diels-Alder adducts, as does MS collision-induced dissociation data. Kinetic rate constants and activation parameters for the IMDA reaction were determined, and the primary adducts were reduced with cuprous ion to give a phenol-derived 4-hydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dienone. No products from adduction of peroxyls at the phenolic ortho position were found in either the primary or cuprous reduction product mixtures. These studies provide a framework for understanding the nature of lipid-protein adducts formed by peroxyl-tyrosyl radical-radical termination processes. Coupling of lipid peroxyl radicals with tyrosyl radicals leads to cyclohexenone and cyclohexadienone adducts, which are of interest in and of themselves since, as electrophiles, they are likely targets for protein nucleophiles. One consequence of lipid peroxyl reactions with tyrosyls may therefore be protein-protein cross-links via interprotein Michael adducts.

  16. DNA-nicotine adduction of lung and liver of mice exposed to passive smoking studied by AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Qin; Sun Hongfang; Shi Jingyuan; Liu Yuanfang; Wang Jianjun; Lu Xiangyang; Li Kun; Zhao Qiang

    1997-01-01

    The author presents the measurement of adduction of mice lung or liver DNA with nicotine by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Mice were exposed in a toxicity infecting chamber filled up with cigarette smoke for a period of time of simulate the exposure of mice to passive smoking. The dose of nicotine inhaled by mice was determined. The results of AMS showed, when the dose of inhaled nicotine ranged from 33 μg/kg to 330 μg/kg, the adducts number of lung DNA was 10 3 -10 4 adducts/10 12 nucleotides, and the adducts increased linearly with increasing dose of nicotine; the adducts number of liver DNA reached to 10 4 -10 5 adducts/10 12 nucleotides, when the dose of nicotine ranged from 99 μg/kg to 330 μg/kg, and the adducts increased vigorously as dose of nicotine increased. Comparing the DNA adducts levels of the same nicotine dose, liver DNA adducts were more than lung DNA adducts. This study also suggested that the other components of cigarette smoke have synergic effect on the formation of nicotine derived DNA adducts

  17. Transurethral incision of urethral diverticulum in the female

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miskowiak, J; Honnens de Lichtenberg, M

    1989-01-01

    A new technique of transurethral incision of urethral diverticulum was successfully used in two women. The method described is safe, simple and shortens operating time.......A new technique of transurethral incision of urethral diverticulum was successfully used in two women. The method described is safe, simple and shortens operating time....

  18. In vitro conjunctival incision repair by temperature-controlled laser soldering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Galia; Rabi, Yaron; Assia, Ehud; Katzir, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    The common method of closing conjunctival incisions is by suturing, which is associated with several disadvantages. It requires skill to apply and does not always provide a watertight closure, which is required in some operations (e.g., glaucoma filtration). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate laser soldering as an alternative method for closing conjunctival incisions. Conjunctival incisions of 20 ex vivo porcine eyes were laser soldered using a temperature-controlled fiberoptic laser system and an albumin mixed with indocyanine green as a solder. The control group consisted of five repaired incisions by a 10-0 nylon running suture. The leak pressure of the repaired incisions was measured. The mean leak pressure in the laser-soldered group was 132 mm Hg compared to 4 mm Hg in the sutured group. There was no statistically significant difference in both the incision's length and distance from the limbus between the groups, before and after the procedure, indicating that there was no severe thermal damage. These preliminary results clearly demonstrate that laser soldering may be a useful method for achieving an immediate watertight conjunctival wound closure. This procedure is faster and easier to apply than suturing.

  19. Chemistry and Chemical Equilibrium Dynamics of BMAA and Its Carbamate Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Parga, Pedro; Goto, Joy J; Krishnan, V V

    2018-01-01

    Beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been demonstrated to contribute to the onset of the ALS/Parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC) and is implicated in the progression of other neurodegenerative diseases. While the role of BMAA in these diseases is still debated, one of the suggested mechanisms involves the activation of excitatory glutamate receptors. In particular, the excitatory effects of BMAA are shown to be dependent on the presence of bicarbonate ions, which in turn forms carbamate adducts in physiological conditions. The formation of carbamate adducts from BMAA and bicarbonate is similar to the formation of carbamate adducts from non-proteinogenic amino acids. Structural, chemical, and biological information related to non-proteinogenic amino acids provide insight into the formation of and possible neurological action of BMAA. This article reviews the carbamate formation of BMAA in the presence of bicarbonate ions, with a particular focus on how the chemical equilibrium of BMAA carbamate adducts may affect the molecular mechanism of its function. Highlights of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based studies on the equilibrium process between free BMAA and its adducts are presented. The role of divalent metals on the equilibrium process is also explored. The formation and the equilibrium process of carbamate adducts of BMAA may answer questions on their neuroactive potency and provide strong motivation for further investigations into other toxic mechanisms.

  20. Diagnosis and dosimetry of exposure to sulfur mustard: Development of a standard operating procedure for hemoglobin adducts: Exploratory research on albumin and keratin adducts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, D.; Fidder, A.; Jong, L.P.A. de; Schans, G.P. van der; Benschop, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    A standard operating procedure (SOP) for determination of the sulfur mustard adduct to the N-terminal valine in hemoglobin was developed. By using this SOP, it was found that the Nterminal valine adduct in globin of hairless guinea pigs and marmosets which had been exposed to sulfur mustard (0.5

  1. Minimal abdominal incisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Magi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive procedures aim to resolve the disease with minimal trauma to the body, resulting in a rapid return to activities and in reductions of infection, complications, costs and pain. Minimally incised laparotomy, sometimes referred to as minilaparotomy, is an example of such minimally invasive procedures. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of laparotomy with minimal incision based on the literature and exemplifying with a case. The case in question describes reconstruction of the intestinal transit with the use of this incision. Male, young, HIV-positive patient in a late postoperative of ileotiflectomy, terminal ileostomy and closing of the ascending colon by an acute perforating abdomen, due to ileocolonic tuberculosis. The barium enema showed a proximal stump of the right colon near the ileostomy. The access to the cavity was made through the orifice resulting from the release of the stoma, with a lateral-lateral ileo-colonic anastomosis with a 25 mm circular stapler and manual closure of the ileal stump. These surgeries require their own tactics, such as rigor in the lysis of adhesions, tissue traction, and hemostasis, in addition to requiring surgeon dexterity – but without the need for investments in technology; moreover, the learning curve is reported as being lower than that for videolaparoscopy. Laparotomy with minimal incision should be considered as a valid and viable option in the treatment of surgical conditions. Resumo: Procedimentos minimamente invasivos visam resolver a doença com o mínimo de trauma ao organismo, resultando em retorno rápido às atividades, reduções nas infecções, complicações, custos e na dor. A laparotomia com incisão mínima, algumas vezes referida como minilaparotomia, é um exemplo desses procedimentos minimamente invasivos. O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar a viabilidade e utilidade das laparotomias com incisão mínima com base na literatura e

  2. Decay kinetics of nicotine/NNK-DNA adducts in vivo studied by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, H.F.; He, L.; Liu, Y.F.; Liu, K.X.; Lu, X.Y.; Wang, J.J.; Ma, H.J.; Li, K.

    2000-01-01

    The decay kinetics of nicotine-DNA adducts and NNK-DNA adducts in mice liver after single dosing was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). The decay is characterized by a two-stage process. The half-lives of nicotine-DNA adducts are 1.3 d (4-24 h) and 7.0 d (1-21 d), while for NNK-DNA adducts are 0.7 d (4-24 h) and 18.0 d (1-21 d). The relatively faster decay of nicotine-DNA adducts suggests that the genotoxicity of nicotine is weaker than that of NNK. The in vitro study shows that the metabolization of nicotine is necessary for the final formation of nicotine-DNA adducts, and nicotine Δ1'(5') iminium ion is a probable metabolite species that binds to DNA molecule covalently

  3. Long-Term Incisal Relationships After Palatoplasty in Patients With Isolated Cleft Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odom, Elizabeth B; Woo, Albert S; Mendonca, Derick A; Huebener, Donald V; Nissen, Richard J; Skolnick, Gary B; Patel, Kamlesh B

    2016-06-01

    Various palatoplasty techniques have limited incisions in the hard palate due to concerns that these incisions may limit maxillary growth. There is little convincing long-term evidence to support this. Our purpose is to determine incisal relationships, an indicator for future orthognathic procedure, in patients after repair of an isolated cleft of the secondary palate. Our craniofacial database was used to identify patients aged 10 years or greater with an isolated cleft of the secondary palate who underwent palatoplasty between 1985 and 2002. Data collected included age at palatoplasty and follow-up, cleft type, associated syndrome, Robin sequence, surgeon, repair technique, number of operations, and occlusion. Incisal relationship was determined through clinical observation by a pediatric dentist and orthodontist. Seventy eligible patients operated on by 9 surgeons were identified. Class III incisal relationship was seen in 5 patients (7.1%). Palatoplasty techniques over the hard palate (63 of 70 patients) included 2-flap palatoplasty, VY-pushback, and Von Langenbeck repair. There was an association between class III incisal relationship and syndromic diagnosis (P <0.001). Other study variables were not associated with class III incisal relationships. In patients with an isolated cleft of the secondary palate, there was no association between class III incisal relationship and surgeon, age at repair, cleft type, palatoplasty technique, or number of operations. Increased likelihood of class III incisal relationship was associated primarily with syndromic diagnosis.

  4. Structure of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-guanosine adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, A M; Blobstein, S H; Weinstein, I B; Beland, F A; Harvey, R G; Kasai, H; Nakanishi, K

    1976-01-01

    Arene oxides have been proposed as the reactive intermediates in the process of carcinogenesis induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The present study defines the structures of four guanosine adducts formed by the reaction of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-5,6-oxide with polyguanylic acid. The modified polymer was hydrolyzed to nucleotides and the hydrophobic guanosine adducts separated from unmodified guanosine by LH-20 column chromatograhy. The adducts were further resolved into four components (I-IV) by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography. Analysis of the ultraviolet, circular dichroism, mass, and proton magnetic resonance spectra of these compounds, or their acetate and free base derivatives, indicates that in all four compounds the aromatic hydrocarbon is present on the 2 amino group of guanine. Compounds I and IV, and II and III constitute diastereoisomeric pairs, respectively. In the I and IV pair, the adducts result from addition at the 6 position of the original dimethylbenz[a]anthracene oxide, whereas in the II and III pair, the addition occurs at the 5 position. Indirect evidence suggests that trans opening of the oxide occurred in all cases but this remains to be established. PMID:821053

  5. Structure of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-guanosine adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, A M; Blobstein, S H; Weinstein, I B; Beland, F A; Harvey, R G; Kasai, H; Nakanishi, K

    1976-07-01

    Arene oxides have been proposed as the reactive intermediates in the process of carcinogenesis induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The present study defines the structures of four guanosine adducts formed by the reaction of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-5,6-oxide with polyguanylic acid. The modified polymer was hydrolyzed to nucleotides and the hydrophobic guanosine adducts separated from unmodified guanosine by LH-20 column chromatograhy. The adducts were further resolved into four components (I-IV) by reverse phase high pressure liquid chromatography. Analysis of the ultraviolet, circular dichroism, mass, and proton magnetic resonance spectra of these compounds, or their acetate and free base derivatives, indicates that in all four compounds the aromatic hydrocarbon is present on the 2 amino group of guanine. Compounds I and IV, and II and III constitute diastereoisomeric pairs, respectively. In the I and IV pair, the adducts result from addition at the 6 position of the original dimethylbenz[a]anthracene oxide, whereas in the II and III pair, the addition occurs at the 5 position. Indirect evidence suggests that trans opening of the oxide occurred in all cases but this remains to be established.

  6. Microdose-Induced Drug-DNA Adducts as Biomarkers of Chemotherapy Resistance in Humans and Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Maike; Wang, Si-Si; Zhang, Hongyong; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Malfatti, Michael; Haack, Kurt; Ognibene, Ted; Yang, Hongyuan; Airhart, Susan; Turteltaub, Kenneth W; Cimino, George D; Tepper, Clifford G; Drakaki, Alexandra; Chamie, Karim; de Vere White, Ralph; Pan, Chong-Xian; Henderson, Paul T

    2017-02-01

    We report progress on predicting tumor response to platinum-based chemotherapy with a novel mass spectrometry approach. Fourteen bladder cancer patients were administered one diagnostic microdose each of [ 14 C]carboplatin (1% of the therapeutic dose). Carboplatin-DNA adducts were quantified by accelerator mass spectrometry in blood and tumor samples collected within 24 hours, and compared with subsequent chemotherapy response. Patients with the highest adduct levels were responders, but not all responders had high adduct levels. Four patient-derived bladder cancer xenograft mouse models were used to test the possibility that another drug in the regimen could cause a response. The mice were dosed with [ 14 C]carboplatin or [ 14 C]gemcitabine and the resulting drug-DNA adduct levels were compared with tumor response to chemotherapy. At least one of the drugs had to induce high drug-DNA adduct levels or create a synergistic increase in overall adducts to prompt a corresponding therapeutic response, demonstrating proof-of-principle for drug-DNA adducts as predictive biomarkers. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(2); 376-87. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. 40 CFR 721.3680 - Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3680 Ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with... identified generically as ethylene oxide adduct of fatty acid ester with pentaerythritol (PMN P-91-442) is...

  8. Midline versus transverse incision for cesarean delivery in low-income countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maaløe, Nanna; Aabakke, Anna J M; Secher, Niels J

    2014-01-01

    While transverse incision is the recommended entry technique for cesarean delivery in high-income countries, it is our experience that midline incision is still used routinely in many low-income settings. Accordingly, international guidelines lack uniformity on this matter. Although evidence...... is limited, the literature suggests important advantages of the transverse incision, with lower risk of long-term disabilities such as wound disruption and hernia. Also, potential extra time spent on this incision appears not to impact neonatal outcome. Therefore, we suggest that it is time for a change...

  9. Cosmetic effects of skin-crease camouflage incision versus longitudinal incision following carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz; Rybicka, Anita; Rynio, Pawel; Gutowski, Piotr; Wiernicki, Ireneusz

    2018-03-01

    Despite the increasing use of carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS), carotid endarterectomy (CEA) nonetheless remains a more medically beneficial method of treatment for carotid artery stenosis. Therefore, one possibility for progress within this procedure may be to use minimally invasive carotid surgery, especially when the scar is in plain sight: the use of the natural wrinkles (skin crease) as a camouflage of the skin incision provides significant cosmetic improvements. To compare the cosmetic effects of classic and trans-wrinkle CEA. To assess the distance between the carotid artery bifurcation (CAB) and the skin-crease incision whilst attempting CEA. It was a randomized prospective study with two groups: patients undergoing classic surgery (control group; n = 100) and skin-crease trans-wrinkle camouflaged CEA (study group; n = 100). Follow-up was at 2 months and 1 year. The medical results of the treatment were similar in both groups. The cumulative count of strokes and myocardial infarctions was 0.5% within 30 days, and after one year 3.5% (and 5.5% including cases of death). The superiority of the transverse crease being hidden compared to the conventional longitudinal technique was proven in the Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) score, respectively 11.4 ±1.0 vs. 14.1 ±3.4 (p = 0.0001) after 2 months and 13.5 ±2.8 vs. 14.1 ±3.4 (p = 0.039) after a year. Trans-wrinkle incision gives better cosmetic results, can be safely performed in most cases, and offers a comfortable approach during CEA.

  10. In vivo architectural analysis of clear corneal incisions using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Monod, Sylvère; Labbé, Antoine; Fayol, Nicolas; Chassignol, Alexis; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Baudouin, Christophe

    2009-03-01

    To use anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to analyze the in vivo architecture of clear corneal incisions after phacoemulsification using different techniques. Department of Ophthalmology, Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris, France. This prospective observational study analyzed clear corneal incisions used in phacoemulsification. All wounds were evaluated 1 day and 8 days postoperatively by AS-OCT (Visante). Incision architecture and pachymetry at the wound level were analyzed. Thirty-five clear corneal incisions were analyzed. Six eyes had 2.75 mm coaxial phacoemulsification, 19 had 2.20 mm microincision coaxial phacoemulsification, and 10 had 1.30 mm bimanual microincision phacoemulsification. The 1.30 mm incision had a straight-line configuration. The 2.20 mm and 2.75 mm incisions had an arcuate configuration. The angles of incidence of 1.30 mm incisions were greater than those of 2.20 mm incisions (P<.001). All incisions had slight corneal edema limited to the incision area. The edema was slightly greater around 1.30 mm incisions (mean pachymetry 1143 microm +/- 140 [SD]) than around 2.20 mm incisions (mean 1012 +/- 101 microm) (P = .001). Bimanual procedures had satisfactory endothelial apposition in the enlarged areas, where stromal edema was less than that surrounding the unenlarged 1.30 mm incisions. The 3 phacoemulsification techniques induced gaping of the endothelial edge, minor inadequate endothelial apposition, and mild stromal edema in the area of the clear corneal incisions. Bimanual microincision sleeveless phacoemulsification may alter the wound slightly more than coaxial 2.75 mm and microcoaxial 2.20 mm sleeved-tip phacoemulsification.

  11. Radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, Jung Eun; Kim, In One; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Gook Myung; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Kwang Myung; Choi, Hwang; Cheon, Jung Eun; Seok, Eul Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Choi, Guk Myung

    2001-01-01

    Endoscopic incision of ureterocele is considered a simple and safe method for decompression of urinary tract obstruction above ureterocele. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiological findings after endoscopic incision of ureterocele. We retrospectively reviewed the radiological findings (ultrasonography (US), intravenous urography, and voiding cystourethrography(VCU)) in 16 patients with ureterocele who underwent endoscopic incision (mean age at surgery, 15 months; M:F 3:13; 18 ureteroceles). According to the postoperative results, treatment was classified as successful when medical treatment was still required, and second operation when additional surgical treatment was required. Postoperative US (n=10) showed that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction was relieved: the kidney parenchima was thicker and the ureterocele was smaller. Intravenous urography (n=8), demonstrated that in all patients, urinary tract obstruction and the excretory function of the kidney had improved. Postoperative VCU indicated that in 92% of patients (12 of 13), endoscopic incision of the ureterocele led to vesicoureteral reflux(VUR). Of these twelve, seven (58%) showed VUR of more than grade 3, while newly developed VUR was seen in five of eight patients (63%) who had preoperative VCU. Surgery was successful in four patients (25%), partially successful in three (19%), and a second operation-on account of recurrent urinary tract infection and VUR of more than grase 3 during the follow-up period-was required by nine (56%). Although endoscopic incision of a ureterocele is a useful way of relieving urinary tract obstruction, an ensuing complication may be VUR. Postoperative US and intravenous urography should be used to evaluate parenchymal change in the kidney and improvement of uronary tract obstructon, while to assess the extend of VUR during the follow-up period , postoperative VCU is required

  12. /sup 32/P-postlabelling analysis of aromatic DNA adducts in human oral mucosal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, B.P.; Stich, H.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exfoliated mucosal cells were collected from the oral cavity of three groups at high risk for oral cancer: Indian betel nut chewers, Filipino inverted smokers (burning end of cigar in mouth) and Indian Khaini tobacco chewers. DNA was extracted from these samples, as well as from samples of exfoliated cells of Canadian non-smoking controls. DNA was analyzed for the presence of aromatic DNA adducts using /sup 32/P-postlabelling analysis. Five chromatographically distinct adducts were found in samples from both the high risk groups and the nonsmoking controls. Individual adducts were detectable in approximately 30-95% of samples, depending on the adduct and population group. Estimated levels of specific adducts ranged from non-detectable (prevalence relative to normal nucleotides less than 1 X 10(-9)) to occasionally greater than 1 X 10(-7). No adducts were found in high risk groups which did not also appear in control subjects.

  13. A fluorescent-based HPLC assay for quantification of cysteine and cysteamine adducts in Escherichia coli-derived proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Brian D; Tam, Lei-Ting T; Lu, Hsieng S; Valladares, Violeta G

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli are often produced as unfolded, inactive forms accumulated in inclusion bodies. Redox-coupled thiols are typically employed in the refolding process in order to catalyze the formation of correct disulfide bonds at maximal folding efficiency. These thiols and the recombinant proteins can form mixed disulfide bonds to generate thiol-protein adducts. In this work, we apply a fluorescent-based assay for the quantification of cysteine and cysteamine adducts as observed in E. coli-derived proteins. The thiols are released by reduction of the adducted protein, collected and labeled with a fluorescent reagent, 6-aminoquinolyl-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl carbamate. The derivatized thiols are separated by reversed-phase HPLC and can be accurately quantified after method optimization. The estimated thiol content represents total amount of adducted forms present in the analyzed samples. The limit of quantification (LOQ) was established; specifically, the lowest amount of quantifiable cysteine adduction is 30 picograms and the lowest amount of quantifiable cysteamine adduction is 60 picograms. The assay is useful for quantification of adducts in final purified products as well as in-process samples from various purification steps. The assay indicates that the purification process accomplishes a decrease in cysteine adduction from 0.19 nmol adduct/nmol protein to 0.03 nmol adduct/nmol protein as well as a decrease in cysteamine adduction from 0.24 nmol adduct/nmol protein to 0.14 nmol adduct/nmol protein. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Lateral Erosion Encourages Vertical Incision in a Bimodal Alluvial River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    Sand can have a strong impact on gravel transport, increasing gravel transport rates by orders of magnitude as sand content increases. Recent experimental work by others indicates that adding sand to an armored bed can even cause armor to break-up and mobilize. These two elements together help explain observations from a bimodal sand and gravel-bedded river, where lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium breaks up the armor layer, encouraging further incision into the bed. Detailed bedload measurements were coupled with surface and subsurface grain size analyses and cross-sectional surveys in a seasonally-incised channel carved into the upper alluvial fan of the Pasig-Potrero River at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, filling valleys draining the flanks of the volcano with primarily sand-sized pyroclastic flow debris. Twenty years after the eruption, sand-rich sediment inputs are strongly seasonal, with most sediment input to the channel during the rainy season. During the dry season, flow condenses from a wide braided planform to a single-thread channel in most of the upper basin, extending several km onto the alluvial fan. This change in planform creates similar unit discharge ranges in summer and winter. Lower sediment loads in the dry season drive vertical incision until the bed is sufficiently armored. Incision proceeds downstream in a wave, with increasing sediment transport rates and decreasing grain size with distance downstream, eventually reaching a gravel-sand transition and return to a braided planform. Incision depths in the gravel-bedded section exceeded 3 meters in parts of a 4 km-long study reach, a depth too great to be explained by predictions from simple winnowing during incision. Instead, lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium provides sufficient fine sediment to break up the armor surface, allowing incision to start anew and increasing the total depth of the seasonally-incised valley. Lateral migration is recorded in a

  15. Adduct formation in Ce(IV) thenolytrifluoroacetonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anufrieva, S.I.; Polyakova, G.V.; Snezhko, N.I.; Pechurova, N.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    The literature contains no information on adduct formation in Ce(IV) β-diketonates with additional ligands. Since tetrakis-β-diketonates of Ce(IV) have four six-membered chelate rings, we can suppose that the introduction of an additional monodentate or bidentate ligand into the coordination sphere of Ce(IV) β-diketonates would lead to an increase in the coordination number (CN) of the Ce(IV) to nine or ten. The possibility of realization of such a high CN for Ce(IV) has not been proved; a study of adduct formation by Ce(IV) tetrakis-β-diketonates is thus of theoretical interest. Such an investigation might also be of practical interest, because the introduction of an additional ligand into the coordination sphere of a rare-earth β-diketonate usually increases the solubility of the β-diketonate in nonpolar solvents and increases the volatility of the compound; such a modification of the properties is important for various practical purposes. The aim of our work was to study the possibility of separating solid adducts of Ce(IV) tetrakis-thenoyltrifluoroacetonate with certain oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing donor monodentate and bidentate ligands, and also to investigate their properties. As the β-diketone we used thenoyltrifluoroacetone (HTTFA), since in a parallel investigation it was found that Ce(TTFA) 4 has a high oxidation-reduction stability

  16. Detection of Dichlorvos Adducts in a Hepatocyte Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    5453543 aldo -keto reductase family 1 member C1 aldo -keto reductase TRUE 3 156523970 alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein preproprotein 5 4503571 alpha-enolase...enolase, (YISPDQLADLYK), three variants were identified with adducts on the first, second, or both tyrosines (Figure 2), and for one peptide in aldo -keto...suggesting the possibility that DDVP adducts could alter biological activities. The modifications of aldo -keto reductase family 1 members at three

  17. The width of the incisive canal and labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal: an assessment on CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Yang Gyun; Jang, Hyun Seon; Kim, Byung Ock; Kim, Jin Soo

    2006-01-01

    To assess the width of the labial alveolar bone of the incisive canal and the width of the incisive canal on spiral computed tomographic images of the anterior portion of the maxilla. Study materials included 38 CT scans taken for preoperative planning of implant placement. Axial cross-sectioned image entirely showing the incisive canal at an orifice to the oral cavity, middle portion, and an orifice to the nasal cavity and the diameter of the incisive canal at the middle portion were determined by two specialist using Digora for Windows 2.1. The statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS 12.0.1. When the maxillary central incisors remained, the mean labial alveolar bone width were 6.81±1.41 mm, 6.46±1.33 mm, and 7.91±1.33 mm. When the maxillary central incisors were missed the mean width were 5.42±2.20 mm, 6.23±2.29 mm, and 7.89±2.13 mm. The labial alveolar bone width at middle portion and an orifice to the nasal cavity were of no statistical significant difference according to presence of the maxillary central incisors (P>0.05). The width between oral cavity and nasal cavity, middle portion and to masal cavity revealed statistically significant difference (P<0.05)

  18. Nuclear management in manual small incision cataract surgery by snare technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debasish

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Manual small incision cataract surgery has evolved into a popular method of cataract surgery in India. However, in supra hard cataract, bringing out the whole nucleus through the sclerocorneal flap valve incision becomes difficult. A bigger incision required in such cataracts loses its value action, as the internal incision and corneal valve slips beyond the limbus into sclera. Struggling with the supra hard cataracts through a regular small incision. Phacofracture in the anterior chamber becomes a useful option in these cases. In the snare technique, a stainless steel wire loop when lassoed around the nucleus in the anterior chamber constricts from the equator, easily dividing the hardest of the nuclei into two halves. The wire loop constricts in a controlled way when the second cannula of snare is pulled. The divided halves can easily be brought out by serrated crocodile forceps. This nuclear management can be safely performed through a smaller sclerocorneal flap valve incision where the corneal valve action is retained within the limbus without sutures, and the endothelium or the incision is not disturbed. However, the technique requires space in the anterior chamber to maneuver the wire loop and anterior chamber depth more than 2.5 mm is recommended. Much evidence to this wonderful technique is not available in literature, as its popularity grew through live surgical workshops and small interactive conferences.

  19. Watershed-scale modeling of streamflow change in incised montane meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I.; Hill, Barry R.

    2014-01-01

    Land use practices have caused stream channel incision and water table decline in many montane meadows of the Western United States. Incision changes the magnitude and timing of streamflow in water supply source watersheds, a concern to resource managers and downstream water users. The hydrology of montane meadows under natural and incised conditions was investigated using watershed simulation for a range of hydrologic conditions. The results illustrate the interdependence between: watershed and meadow hydrology; bedrock and meadow aquifers; and surface and groundwater flow through the meadow for the modeled scenarios. During the wet season, stream incision resulted in less overland flow and interflow and more meadow recharge causing a net decrease in streamflow and increase in groundwater storage relative to natural meadow conditions. During the dry season, incision resulted in less meadow evapotranspiration and more groundwater discharge to the stream causing a net increase in streamflow and a decrease in groundwater storage relative to natural meadow conditions. In general, for a given meadow setting, the magnitude of change in summer streamflow and long-term change in watershed groundwater storage due to incision will depend on the combined effect of: reduced evapotranspiration in the eroded meadow; induced groundwater recharge; replenishment of dry season groundwater storage depletion in meadow and bedrock aquifers by precipitation during wet years; and groundwater storage depletion that is not replenished by precipitation during wet years.

  20. Zinc acetylacetonate hydrate adducted with nitrogen donor ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahma, Sanjaya; Shivashankar, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We report synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and thermal analysis of zinc acetylacetonate complex adducted by nitrogen donor ligands, such as pyridine, bipyridine, and phenanthroline. The pyridine adducted complex crystallizes to monoclinic crystal structure, whereas other two adducted complexes have orthorhombic structure. Addition of nitrogen donor ligands enhances the thermal property of these complexes as that with parent metal-organic complex. Zinc acetylacetonate adducted with pyridine shows much higher volatility (106 °C), decomposition temperature (202 °C) as that with zinc acetylacetonate (136 °C, 220 °C), and other adducted complexes. All the adducted complexes are thermally stable, highly volatile and are considered to be suitable precursors for metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The formation of these complexes is confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The complexes are widely used as starting precursor materials for the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures by microwave irradiation assisted coating process.

  1. Temporal versus Superior Limbal Incision: Any difference in visual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To compare the visual outcome of a superiorly placed limbal incision with a temporal limbal incision in extracapsular cataract surgery. The main outcome measures are visual acuity and the degree of stigmatism based on refraction. Method: A retrospective non randomized comparative study. Medical records of 40 ...

  2. Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of surgical scalpel or diathermy in making abdominal skin incisions.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ahmad, Nasir Zaheer

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Surgical scalpels are traditionally used to make skin incisions. Diathermy incisions on contrary are less popular among the surgeons. The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the effectiveness of both techniques and address the common fallacies about diathermy incisions. METHODS: A literature search of MEDLINE and Cochrane databases was done, using the keywords diathermy, cold scalpel, and incisions. Eleven clinical trials comparing both methods of making skin incisions were selected for meta-analysis. The end points compared included postoperative wound infection, pain in first 24 hours after surgery, time taken to complete the incisions, and incision-related blood loss. RESULTS: Postoperative wound infection rate was comparable in both techniques (P = 0.147, odds ratio = 1.257 and 95% CI = 0.923-1.711). Postoperative pain was significantly less with diathermy incisions in first 24 hours (P = 0.031, weighted mean difference = 0.852 and 95% CI = 0.076-1.628). Similarly, the time taken to complete the incision and incision-related blood loss was significantly less with diathermy incisions (95% CI = 0.245-0.502 and 0.548-1.020, respectively). CONCLUSION: Diathermy incisions are equally prone to get wound infection, as do the incisions made with scalpel. Furthermore, lower incidence of early postoperative pain, swiftness of the technique, and a reduced blood loss are the encouraging facts supporting routine use of diathermy for abdominal skin incisions after taking careful precautions.

  3. Inhibition of nicotine-DNA adduct formation by polyphenolic compounds in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Yan; Wang Haifang; Sun Hongfang; Li Hongli

    2004-01-01

    Nicotine[3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine], a major alkaloid in tobacco products, has proven to be a potential genotoxic compound. Some polyphenolic compounds can suppress the DNA adduction, and hence act as the potential inhibitors of carcinogenesis. In this study, the inhibitory effects of three polyphenolic compounds, curcumin (diferuloylmethane), resveratrol (trans-3, 5, 4-trihydroxystilbene) and tea polyphenols, on the nicotine-DNA adduction have been investigated in vitro using radiolabelled nicotine and liquid scintillation counting (LSC) technique. Also, the inhibition mechanism of these chemopreventive agents in regard to the activity of the biotransformation enzymes, including cytochrome P450 (CYP450), cytochrome b 5 (CYb 5 ) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), has been studied. The results demonstrated that these three polyphenols induced marked dose-dependent decrease in nicotine-DNA adducts as compared with the controls. The elimination rate of adducts reached above 46% at the highest dose for all the three agents with 51.6% for resveratrol. Correspondingly, three polyphenols all suppressed CYP450 and CYb 5 , whereas curcumin and resveratrol induced GST. The authors may arrive at a point that the three polyphenols are beneficial to prevent the nicotine adduct formation, and thus may be used to block the potential carcinogenesis induced by nicotine. (authors)

  4. Comparison of estimated dietary intake of acrylamide with hemoglobin adducts of acrylamide and glycidamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjellaas, Thomas; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Frandsen, Henrik Lauritz

    2007-01-01

    , a significant positive correlation was found between the AA-Hb adduct concentration and the intake of chips/snacks and crisp bread. GA-Hb adduct did not correlate with consumption of any of the main food groups. Neither AA-Hb nor GA-Hb adduct concentration correlated with total dietary intake of AA...

  5. Exposure of bus and taxi drivers to urban air pollutants as measured by DNA and protein adducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemminki, K.; Zhang, L.F.; Krüger, J.

    1994-01-01

    Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, lymphocyte DNA adducts, serum protein-bound PAH and hemoglobin-bound alkene adducts were analysed from 4 groups of non-smoking men: urban and suburban bus drivers, taxi drivers and suburban controls. The only differences between the groups were in DNA adducts between...... suburban bus drivers and controls, and in DNA adduct and plasma protein PAH-adducts between taxi drivers and controls....

  6. Knee adduction moment and medial contact force--facts about their correlation during gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Kutzner

    Full Text Available The external knee adduction moment is considered a surrogate measure for the medial tibiofemoral contact force and is commonly used to quantify the load reducing effect of orthopedic interventions. However, only limited and controversial data exist about the correlation between adduction moment and medial force. The objective of this study was to examine whether the adduction moment is indeed a strong predictor for the medial force by determining their correlation during gait. Instrumented knee implants with telemetric data transmission were used to measure tibiofemoral contact forces in nine subjects. Gait analyses were performed simultaneously to the joint load measurements. Skeletal kinematics, as well as the ground reaction forces and inertial parameters, were used as inputs in an inverse dynamics approach to calculate the external knee adduction moment. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between adduction moment and medial force for the whole stance phase and separately for the early and late stance phase. Whereas only moderate correlations between adduction moment and medial force were observed throughout the whole stance phase (R(2 = 0.56 and during the late stance phase (R(2 = 0.51, a high correlation was observed at the early stance phase (R(2 = 0.76. Furthermore, the adduction moment was highly correlated to the medial force ratio throughout the whole stance phase (R(2 = 0.75. These results suggest that the adduction moment is a surrogate measure, well-suited to predicting the medial force ratio throughout the whole stance phase or medial force during the early stance phase. However, particularly during the late stance phase, moderate correlations and high inter-individual variations revealed that the predictive value of the adduction moment is limited. Further analyses are necessary to examine whether a combination of other kinematic, kinetic or neuromuscular factors may lead to a more

  7. Temporal and spatial features of the formation of DNA adducts in sulfur mustard-exposed skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Mohamed [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Boudry, Isabelle; Mouret, Stéphane; Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); Bérard, Izabel [Laboratoire «Lésions des Acides Nucléiques», Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, CEA/Institut Nanoscience et Cryogénie/SCIB, UMR-E3, Grenoble (France); Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Unité de Brûlure Chimique, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Antenne de La Tronche (France); and others

    2013-12-15

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare agent that targets skin where it induces large blisters. DNA alkylation is a critical step to explain SM-induced cutaneous symptoms. We determined the kinetics of formation of main SM–DNA adducts and compare it with the development of the SM-induced pathogenesis in skin. SKH-1 mice were exposed to 2, 6 and 60 mg/kg of SM and treated skin was biopsied between 6 h and 21 days. Formation of SM DNA adducts was dose-dependent with a maximum immediately after exposure. However, adducts were persistent and still detectable 21 days post-exposure. The time-dependent formation of DNA adducts was also found to be correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells. This temporal correlation suggests that these two early events are responsible for the severity of the damage to the skin. Besides, SM–DNA adducts were also detected in areas located next to contaminated zone, thus suggesting that SM diffuses in skin. Altogether, this work provides for the first time a clear picture of SM-induced genotoxicity using DNA adducts as a marker. - Highlights: • Sulfur mustard adducts are formed in DNA after skin exposure. • DNA damage formation is an early event in the pathological process of skin burn. • The amount of SM–DNA adducts is maximal at the earliest time point investigated. • Adducts are still detected 3 weeks after exposure. • Sulfur mustard diffuses in skin especially when large doses are applied.

  8. Single scrotal incision orchidopexy for palpable undescended

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, A.; Safdar, C.A.; Yasir, U.; Rasool, N.; Kanwal, S.; Boota, M.; Rehman, J.U.

    2014-01-01

    To retrospectively asses the results of single scrotal incision orchidopexy (SSIO) performed at our centre with ligation of the patent processus vaginalis in children having palpable undescended testes (UDT). Study Design: Quasi-experimental with retrospective data. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatric surgery Military Hospital Rawalpindi, from April 2007 to December 2011. Patients and Methods: After making a single transverse incision at superior scrotal border, the testis was identified; gubernaculums and the sac were dissected to the highest level and divided. The testis was placed into the scrotum and fixed to the scrotal fascia/skin. All patients were assessed at 2 weeks, 2 months and 6 months post operatively, and then yearly. Results: A total of 38 orchidopexies were performed in 33 patients. The patients age ranged from 14 months to 7 years (mean:2.1 years). Bilateral UDT were found in 5 patients (15.1%). Operative time ranged from 20 to 45 minutes (mean: 36 minutes). The single scrotal incision technique was successful in all 38 cases (100%). All testes were easily fixed in the scrotum. Two patients (5.2%) developed scrotal haematoma and one patient (2.6%) developed stitch abscess. All showed good an atomical and cosmetic results up to a minimum of six months of follow-up. Conclusion: Single scrotal incision orchidopexy for palpable undescended testis is a simple and safe technique. It has shown to consume shorter time and give good cosmetic results. (author)

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH Exposure and DNA Adduct Semi-Quantitation in Archived Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Margaret Pratt

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are combustion products of organic materials, mixtures of which contain multiple known and probable human carcinogens. PAHs occur in indoor and outdoor air, as well as in char-broiled meats and fish. Human exposure to PAHs occurs by inhalation, ingestion and topical absorption, and subsequently formed metabolites are either rendered hydrophilic and excreted, or bioactivated and bound to cellular macromolecules. The formation of PAH-DNA adducts (DNA binding products, considered a necessary step in PAH-initiated carcinogenesis, has been widely studied in experimental models and has been documented in human tissues. This review describes immunohistochemistry (IHC studies, which reveal localization of PAH-DNA adducts in human tissues, and semi-quantify PAH-DNA adduct levels using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS. These studies have shown that PAH-DNA adducts concentrate in: basal and supra-basal epithelium of the esophagus, cervix and vulva; glandular epithelium of the prostate; and cytotrophoblast cells and syncitiotrophoblast knots of the placenta. The IHC photomicrographs reveal the ubiquitous nature of PAH-DNA adduct formation in human tissues as well as PAH-DNA adduct accumulation in specific, vulnerable, cell types. This semi-quantative method for PAH-DNA adduct measurement could potentially see widespread use in molecular epidemiology studies.

  10. Aminoazo dye-protein-adduct enhances inhibitory effect on digestibility and damages to Gastro-Duodenal-Hepatic axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yun Lin

    Full Text Available 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB, methyl yellow, or butter yellow, a human carcinogen, has been banned for use in foods since 1988. In 2014, DAB adulteration in Tofu occurred in Taiwan. We hypothesize that DAB can form [DAB•SBP]adduct adduct with soybean protein (SBP which could damage Gastro-Duodenal-Hepatic axis. Sprague-Dawley rats gavage fed [DAB•SBP]adduct adduct revealed severely reduced body weight and damaged duodenum, liver, hepatic mitochondria, and spleen. Hepatic levels of glutathione and ATP were severely reduced. Serum GOT and GPT were substantially elevated. Analysis by the adsorption isotherm clearly revealed DAB formed very stable [DAB•SBP]adduct adduct at 1:1 molar ration (Phase A. The equilibrium constant of this colloidal adduct [DAB•SBP]adduct was KeqA = ∝, behaving as the most stable and toxic species. At higher protein concentration (Phase C it formed conjugate [DAB×SBPgross]conjugate, with KeqC = 3.23×10-2 mg/mL, implicating a moderately strong adsorption. The in vitro pepsin digestibility test showed apparently reduced digestibility by 27% (by Ninhydrin assay or 8% (by Bradford assay. Conclusively, this is the first report indicating that [DAB•SBP]adduct potentially is capable to damage the Gastro-Duodenal-Hepatic axis.

  11. Hemoglobin adducts in workers exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Sheila L; Fent, Kenneth W; Gaines, Linda G T; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Whittaker, Stephen G; Ball, Louise M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the utility of 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) hemoglobin adducts as biomarkers of exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer. Blood samples from 15 spray painters applying HDI-containing paint were analyzed for hemoglobin HDA (HDA-Hb) and N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA-Hb) by GC-MS. HDA-Hb was detected in the majority of workers (≤1.2-37 ng/g Hb), whereas monoacetyl-HDA-Hb was detected in one worker (0.06 ng/g Hb). The stronger, positive association between HDA-Hb and cumulative HDI exposure (r(2) = 0.3, p HDA-Hb adducts. This association demonstrates the suitability of HDA-Hb adducts for further validation as a biomarker of HDI exposure.

  12. Laparoscopic surgery for esophageal achalasia: Multiport vs single-incision approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shuichi; Nakajima, Kiyokazu; Miyazaki, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Makino, Tomoki; Kurokawa, Yukinori; Yamasaki, Makoto; Miyata, Hiroshi; Takiguchi, Shuji; Mori, Masaki; Doki, Yuichiro

    2016-02-01

    SILS can potentially improve aesthetic outcomes without adversely affecting treatment outcomes, but these outcomes are uncertain in laparoscopic Heller-Dor surgery. We determined if the degree of patient satisfaction with aesthetic outcomes progressed with the equivalent treatment outcomes after the introduction of a single-incision approach to laparoscopic Heller-Dor surgery. We retrospectively reviewed 20 consecutive esophageal achalasia patients (multiport approach, n = 10; single-incision approach, n = 10) and assessed the treatment outcomes and patient satisfaction with the aesthetic outcomes. In the single-incision approach, thin supportive devices were routinely used to gain exposure to the esophageal hiatus. No statistically significant differences in the operating time (210.2 ± 28.8 vs 223.5 ± 46.3 min; P = 0.4503) or blood loss (14.0 ± 31.7 vs 16.0 ± 17.8 mL; P = 0.8637) were detected between the multiport and single-incision approaches. We experienced no intraoperative complications. Mild dysphagia, which resolved spontaneously, was noted postoperatively in one patient treated with the multiport approach. The reduction rate of the maximum lower esophageal sphincter pressure was 25.1 ± 34.4% for the multiport approach and 21.8 ± 19.2% for the single-incision approach (P = 0.8266). Patient satisfaction with aesthetic outcomes was greater for the single-incision approach than for the multiport approach. When single-incision laparoscopic Heller-Dor surgery was performed adequately and combined with the use of thin supportive devices, patient satisfaction with the aesthetic outcomes was higher and treatment outcomes were equivalent to those of the multiport approach. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Adduction of acrylamide with biomacromolecules at environmental dose level measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Q.Y.; Sun, H.F.; Liu, Y.F.; Ding, X.F.; Fu, D.P.; Liu, K.X.

    2005-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) is a well-known neurotoxin, which also has developmental, reproductive as well as genetic toxicity. AA has been classified as a probable human carcinogen by IARC in 1994 since its carcinogenic effects in animals were reported after repetitive high level dosing. Over the last 10 years, there have been a large number of studies investigating the effects of AA on rodent reproductive performance. In 2002, the Swedish Food Administration reported the presence of AA in the heat-treated food products. which again elicited great concern on the toxicity of AA. However most of these studies were investigated at a dose level of mg/kg b.w and above, which is much higher than the actual human relevant dose. In this study we investigate the adduction of environmental level AA with biomacromolecules by the ultra-sensitive AMS technique. This may provide some information on the reproductive toxicity of AA under extremely low level exposure. A series doses of [2, 3- 14 C] AA (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, 250, 1000 μg/kg bw) were administrated with a single intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) to ICR adult male mice. The blood and spermatozoon were collected 24 h post dosing. Hemoglobin (Hb), serum albumin (SA), protamine, spermatozoon DNA, spermatozoon head and tail were isolated respectively, and then transformed into graphite following our previous procedure, The adduct levels were determined by a 0.6 MV compact AMS facility at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics of Peking University. The results indicate that: (1) AA adduct number increases with the doses within 0.1-1000 μg/kg b.w. range in a log/log linear mode, except for DNA within 10-1000 μg/kg b.w. range. (2) Comparing protamine, Hb, and SA adducts with that of spermatozoon DNA (see Fig. 1), AA mainly adducts to proteins. For instance, at 1000 μg/kg b.w. dose level, spermatozoon DNA adducts only account for about 0.71%, 1.36% and 0.82% of protamine, Hb and SA adducts, respectively. (3) AA-protamine adducts, AA

  14. DNA adduct formation among workers in a Thai industrial estate and nearby residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, Marco; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Munnia, Armelle; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Meunier, Aurelie; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Ceppi, Marcello; Boffetta, Paolo

    2008-01-25

    The genotoxic effects of air pollutant exposures have been studied in people living and working in Map Ta Phut, Rayong province, Thailand, a site where is located the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate (MIE) one of the largest steel, refinery and petrochemical complex in the South-Eastern Asia. This was done by the conduction of a transversal study aimed to compare the prevalence of bulky DNA adducts in groups of subjects experiencing various degree of air pollution. DNA adduct analysis was performed in the leukocytes of 201 volunteers by the (32)P-postlabelling assay: 79 were workers in the MIE complex, including 24 refinery workers, 40 steel workers and 15 tinplate workers, 72 were people residing downwind in the MIE area and 50 were residents in a control district of the same Rayong province but without industrial exposures. The groups of workers were analyzed separately to evaluate if DNA adduct formation differs by the type of industry. The levels of bulky DNA adducts were 1.17+/-0.17 (SE) adducts/10(8) nucleotides in refinery workers, 1.19+/-0.19 (SE) in steel workers, 0.87+/-0.17 (SE) in tinplate workers, 0.85+/-0.07 (SE) in MIE residents and 0.53+/-0.05 (SE) in district controls. No effects of smoking habits on DNA adducts was found. The multivariate regression analysis shows that the levels of DNA adducts were significantly increased among the individuals living near the MIE industrial complex in respect to those resident in a control district (pindustrial air pollution can experiment an excess of DNA adduct formation. The emissions from the MIE complex are the main source of air pollution in this area and can be the cause of such increment in the levels of DNA damage.

  15. Small incision guarded hydroaspiration of iris lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arun D

    2017-11-01

    To describe the technique and results of a minimally invasive surgical technique for resection of small iris lesions. Consecutive case series of 22 patients with localised, small iris lesions that were resected using the described surgical technique that composed of multiple, small corneal incisions created to allow for internal iris resection with 23-gauge horizontal vitrectomy scissors, followed by guarded tumour aspiration through a clear plastic tubing (diameter 3.5 mm) primed with viscoelastic agent. The mean largest basal diameter was 3.0 mm (range 1.5-5.0 mm; median 3.0 mm) and mean thickness was 1.3 mm (range 0.5-2.5 mm; median 1.0 mm). Use of multiple (2-4) small corneal incisions (range 2.0-3.0 mm; mean 2.8 mm) allowed reduced postoperative morbidity (significant hyphema (0%), hypotony (0%), wound leak (0%), >2 line change in best corrected visual acuity at postoperative 1 week (4.5%) and mean corneal astigmatism of 1.0 D (range 0.14-2.99 D; median 0.8 D) at postoperative 4-12 weeks. The tumour could be resected with clear surgical margins in all neoplastic cases (benign (2), borderline (1) and malignant (16)). Local recurrence or metastases were not observed in any melanoma case over a mean follow-up of 33.0 months (range 1.0-90.0 months; median 33.5 months). Small incision guarded hydroaspiration is a minimally invasive surgical technique for resection of select small iris lesions. Use of multiple small corneal incisions avoids morbidity associated with a single large corneoscleral incision, and use of guarded aspiration may eliminate the risk of wound contamination by the malignant tumour. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Low-dose DNA adduct dosimetry by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turteltaub, K.W.; Felton, J.S.; Vogel, J.S.; Gledhill, B.L.; Davis, J.C.; Snyderwine, E.G.; Thorgeirsson, S.S.; Adamson, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    DNA adduction was measured following exposure to low doses of [2- 14 C]-2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) [2- 14 C]-2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and [U- 14 C]-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin by AMS, a technique used in the earth sciences but not previously in toxicological research. The ability to measure low concentrations of rare isotopes suggested that biomedical research was a potentially powerful application for this technology. Sensitivity of the method was found to be one adduct per 10 11 nucleotides. No DNA adduct formation could be detected in TCDD treated rodents. DNA adducts in cynomolgus monkey lymphocytes following exposure to 500 μg/kg IQ peaked between 6 and 18 hrs following exposure. Sensitivity was limited mainly by the abundance of 14 C in contemporary carbon. Hosts depleted in radiocarbon are being developed, potentially increasing sensitivity another 3 orders of magnitude. These results demonstrate the high sensitivity of AMS for tracing molecules following administration of low levels of isotopically-labeled xenobiotics. In addition to 14 C measurement, AMS offers potential to conduct studies with other isotopes, particularly 3 H and 41 Ca

  17. DNA-adducts in fish exposed to alkylating carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giam, C.S.; Holliday, T.L.; Williams, J.L.; Bahnson, A.; Weller, R.; Hinton, D.E.

    1988-01-01

    There are limited studies on DNA-adduct formation following exposure of fish or fish cells to carcinogens. It will be essential to determine if procarcinogens and carcinogens form the same DNA-adducts in different liver cells and how these compare to those reported in mammalian livers. They are also interested in the influence of different alkylating agents on the type and quantity of DNA-adduct formation and repair in fish. While eggs or small fish are ideal for routine screening, large fish such as trout (Salmo gairdneri) is needed initially for the development of analytical procedures for the isolation, quantitation and identification of various adducts. Trout (Salmo gairdneri) weighing approximately 250 grams were acclimatized at 13 degree C before being given i.p. injection of diethylnitrosoamine (DEN). The exposure period varied, though most animals were sacrificed after 24 hours. Their livers were excised and DNA was isolated mainly according the procedure of Croy et al. The neutral thermal hydrolysate and the acid hydrolysate were analyzed by HPLC-Fluorescent detector for 7-ethylguanine and O 6 -ethylguanine, respectively. O 6 -ethylguanine was detected, 7-ethylguanine was not detected. Attempts are being made to improve the detection of the latter compound. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) was used to establish nanogram quantities of the ethylated bases. Laser desorption FT-IC-MS is particularly useful for characterizing thermally-labile and involatile nucleosides or nucleotides. Excretion of DEN was rapid and high. Exposure of trout (and other fish) to various ethylating agents will be discussed

  18. Fast repair of oxidizing OH adducts of DNA by hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. A pulse radiolytic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Jiang; Lin Weizhen; Yao Side; Lin Nianyun; Zhu Dayuan

    1999-01-01

    Using pulse radiolytic techniques, it has been demonstrated that the interactions of oxidizing OH adducts of DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA), polyA and polyG with hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives proceed via an electron transfer process (k=5-30x10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 ). In addition, the rates for fast repair of OH adducts of dAMP, polyA and DNA (ssDNA and dsDNA) are slower than the corresponding rates for the rest OH adducts of DNA constituents. The slower rates for repair of oxidizing OH adducts of dAMP may be the rate determining step during the interaction of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives with OH adducts of DNA containing the varieties of OH adducts of DNA constituents

  19. Single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy using the one-incision three-trocar technique with all straight instruments: how I do it?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyi Cui

    2011-01-01

    Single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a novel minimally invasive surgical technique that is gaining popularity around the world.One of the most commonly performed procedures is single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC).Most reported techniques utilize special purpose-made access port and articulating instruments,rendering the procedure costly and difficult to learn.This article provides a stepwise description of SILC technique using all straight instruments without the need for a special port.It aims to shorten the learning curve for surgeons wishing to adopt a safe and cost-effective SILC technique to their practice.

  20. Revisiting the stability of endo/exo Diels-Alder adducts between cyclopentadiene and 1,4-benzoquinone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormena, Claudio F.; Lacerda Junior, Valdemar; Oliveira, Kleber T. de

    2010-01-01

    In this work it is presented a detailed theoretical analysis of the relative stability of endo/exo Diels-Alder adducts formed by the reaction between cyclopentadiene (1) and 1,4-benzoquinone (2). The intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) showed the existence of only one transition state for the reaction studied, for both endo 3 and exo 4 adducts. The energies of both adducts were obtained at high level of theory (CBS-Q) confirming that the endo adduct is more stable than exo, which is in the opposite way to the observed in reactions that usually follow Alder's rule. An electronic structure analysis was performed through NBO methodology, indicating that the attractive delocalization interaction predominates over the steric repulsive interaction in the endo adducts. In summary, for the studied cycloaddition reaction the endo adduct is the thermodynamic and kinetic product, which can be also confirmed by experimental data mentioned in this work. (author)

  1. Activation of dihaloalkanes by glutathione conjugation and formation of DNA adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guengerich, F.P.; Peterson, L.A.; Cmarik, J.L.; Koga, N.; Inskeep, P.B.

    1987-01-01

    Ethylene dibromide (1,2-dibromoethane, EDB) can be activated to electrophilic species by either oxidative metabolism or conjugation with glutathione. Although conjugation is generally a route of detoxication, in this case it leads to genetic damage. The major DNA adduct has been identified as S-[2-(N 7 -guanyl)ethyl]glutathione, which is believed to arise via half-mustard and episulfonium ion intermediates. The adduct has a half-life of about 70 to 100 hr and does not appear to migrate to other DNA sites. Glutathione-dependent DNA damage by EDB was also demonstrated in human hepatocyte preparations. The possible relevance of this DNA adduct to genetic damage is discussed

  2. Laser incising of wood: Impregnation of columns with water-soluble dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, N.; Ando, K.; Kitayama, S.; Nakamura, Y.

    1994-01-01

    To know whether or not laser incising is a useful pre-treatment technique in impregnating a chemical fluid into lumber, pin holes were made in columns of hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl.), sugi (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don), karamatsu (Larix leptolepis Gordon) and douglas-fir (Pseudo-tsuga menziesii Franco) with 1.7 kW CO2 laser, and a water-soluble dye was impregnated into these columns with a local pressure impregnation device. Retentions, and lengths and widths of penetrations from each hole were measured quantitatively. Referring to the results of the preparatory experiment mentioned above, incising patterns for sugi and douglas-fir were designed, and the same water-soluble dye was impregnated into the laser-incised columns as well as into non-incised ones with the vacuum-pressure method to obtain penetrated layers with the target depths completely. As a result, a retention of 200 kg/m3 of dye could be achieved for a column of douglas-fir even if it is a species difficult to impregnate. The penetrated layer also could be formed completely at the depth of the laser incision. Therefore, it is concluded that laser incising can be used for the pre-treatment before impregnation of wood columns. (author)

  3. Single d(ApG)/cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) adduct-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnouf, D.; Fuchs, R.P.P.; Gauthier, C.; Chottard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The mutation spectrum induced by the widely used antitumor drug cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cis-DDP) showed that cisDDP[d(ApG)] adducts, although they account for only 25% of the lesions formed are ∼5 times more mutagenic than the major GG adduct. The authors report the construction of vectors bearing a single cisDDP[d(ApG)] lesion and their use in mutagenesis experiments in Escherichia coli. The mutagenic processing of the lesion is found to depend strictly on induction of the SOS system of the bacterial host cells. In SOS-induced cells, mutation frequencies of 1-2% were detected. All these mutations are targeted to the 5' base of the adduct. Single A → T transversions are mainly observed (80%), whereas A → G transitions account for 10% of the total mutations. Tandem base-pair substitutions involving the adenine residue and the thymine residue immediately 5' to the adduct occur at a comparable frequency (10%). No selective loss of the strand bearing the platinum adduct was seen, suggesting that, in vivo, cisDDP[d(ApG)] adducts are not blocking lesions. The high mutation specificity of cisDDP-[d(ApG)]-induced mutagenesis is discussed in relation to structural data

  4. DNA adduct quantification in Eisenia fetida after subchronic exposures to creosote contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charrois, J.W.A.; McGill, W.B. [Alberta Univ., Dept. of Renewable Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    Within soil ecosystems contaminant toxicity can vary from acute and chronic, depending on the time of exposure. Due to the long times involved chronic toxicity is difficult to determine. DNA adducts fall into the category of biochemical markers that act as an early warning system in environmental monitoring. It has been proposed that they could be used as a sensitive method to determine environmental exposures to compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which can occur, although not exclusively, in creosote. In this connection, Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) is a PAH that can be transformed into an electrophilic metabolite, which ultimately results in DNA adduct formation. Use was made of a 32P postlabeling method to quantify the number of DNA adducts occurring in the earthworm Eisenia fetida after exposure to weathered creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils with and without additions of extra BaP. DNA adducts can be measured in earthworms exposed to creosote contaminated- and biotreated-soils. E. fetida exposed to weathered creosote contaminated soils had significantly more DNA adducts than those exposed to a pristine control soil. Exposures to creosote contaminated soils with additional BaP (1000 mg/kg) or biotreatment did not yield statistically significant increases in DNA adducts compared to the pristine control. (Abstract only)

  5. Theoretical investigations on the formation of nitrobenzanthrone-DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlt, Volker M; Phillips, David H; Reynisson, Jóhannes

    2011-09-07

    3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen identified in diesel exhaust. The thermochemical formation cascades were calculated for six 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts employing its arylnitrenium ion as precursor using density functional theory (DFT). Clear exothermic pathways were found for four adducts, i.e., 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone and 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone. All four have been observed to be formed in cell-free experimental systems. The formation of N-(2'-deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone is predicted to be not thermochemically viable explaining its absence in either in vitro or in vivo model systems. However, 2-(2'-deoxyadenosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone, can be formed, albeit not as a major product, and is a viable candidate for an unknown adenine adduct observed experimentally. 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA), an isomer of 3-NBA, was also included in the calculations; it has a higher abundance in ambient air than 3-NBA, but a much lower genotoxic potency. Similar thermochemical profiles were obtained for the calculated 2-NBA-derived DNA adducts. This leads to the conclusion that enzymatic activation as well as the stability of its arylnitrenium ion are important determinants of 2-NBA genotoxicity.

  6. Mass spectrometric analyses of organophosphate insecticide oxon protein adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Charles M; Prins, John M; George, Kathleen M

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) insecticides continue to be used to control insect pests. Acute and chronic exposures to OP insecticides have been documented to cause adverse health effects, but few OP-adducted proteins have been correlated with these illnesses at the molecular level. Our aim was to review the literature covering the current state of the art in mass spectrometry (MS) used to identify OP protein biomarkers. We identified general and specific research reports related to OP insecticides, OP toxicity, OP structure, and protein MS by searching PubMed and Chemical Abstracts for articles published before December 2008. A number of OP-based insecticides share common structural elements that result in predictable OP-protein adducts. The resultant OP-protein adducts show an increase in molecular mass that can be identified by MS and correlated with the OP agent. Customized OP-containing probes have also been used to tag and identify protein targets that can be identified by MS. MS is a useful and emerging tool for the identification of proteins that are modified by activated organophosphate insecticides. MS can characterize the structure of the OP adduct and also the specific amino acid residue that forms the key bond with the OP. Each protein that is modified in a unique way by an OP represents a unique molecular biomarker that with further research can lead to new correlations with exposure.

  7. Diathermy vs. scalpel skin incisions in general surgery: double-blind, randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2009-08-01

    This prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled trial was designed to compare the outcome of diathermy incisions versus scalpel incisions in general surgery. A total of 369 patients who underwent diathermy incision (group A: 185 patients) or scalpel incision (group B: 184 patients) were analyzed. Variables analyzed were: surgical wound classification, length and depth of incision, incision time, duration of operation, incisional blood loss, postoperative pain, duration of hospital stay, duration of healing, and postoperative complications. The inclusion criteria were all patients who underwent elective or emergency general surgery. The exclusion criteria were only cases with incomplete patients' data and patients who were lost to follow-up. This study was conducted at Fatima Hospital-Baqai Medical University and Shamsi Hospital (Karachi), from January 2006 to December 2007. Incision time was significantly longer for patients in group B (p = 0.001). Incisional blood loss also was more for patients in group B (p = 0.000). Pain perception was found to be markedly reduced during the first 48 h in group A (p = 0.000). Total period of hospital stay (p = 0.129) and time for complete wound healing (p = 0.683) were almost the same for both groups. Postoperative complication rate by wound classification did not differ markedly between the two groups (p = 0.002 vs. p = 0.000). Diathermy incision has significant advantages compared with the scalpel because of reduced incision time, less blood loss, & reduced early postoperative pain.

  8. DNA adduct formation among workers in a Thai industrial estate and nearby residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peluso, Marco; Srivatanakul, Petcharin; Munnia, Armelle; Jedpiyawongse, Adisorn; Meunier, Aurelie; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Piro, Sara; Ceppi, Marcello; Boffetta, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The genotoxic effects of air pollutant exposures have been studied in people living and working in Map Ta Phut, Rayong province, Thailand, a site where is located the Map Ta Phut Industrial Estate (MIE) one of the largest steel, refinery and petrochemical complex in the South-Eastern Asia. This was done by the conduction of a transversal study aimed to compare the prevalence of bulky DNA adducts in groups of subjects experiencing various degree of air pollution. DNA adduct analysis was performed in the leukocytes of 201 volunteers by the 32 P-postlabelling assay: 79 were workers in the MIE complex, including 24 refinery workers, 40 steel workers and 15 tinplate workers, 72 were people residing downwind in the MIE area and 50 were residents in a control district of the same Rayong province but without industrial exposures. The groups of workers were analyzed separately to evaluate if DNA adduct formation differs by the type of industry. The levels of bulky DNA adducts were 1.17 ± 0.17 (SE) adducts/10 8 nucleotides in refinery workers, 1.19 ± 0.19 (SE) in steel workers, 0.87 ± 0.17 (SE) in tinplate workers, 0.85 ± 0.07 (SE) in MIE residents and 0.53 ± 0.05 (SE) in district controls. No effects of smoking habits on DNA adducts was found. The multivariate regression analysis shows that the levels of DNA adducts were significantly increased among the individuals living near the MIE industrial complex in respect to those resident in a control district (p < 0.05). In the groups of occupationally exposed workers, the highest levels of DNA adducts were found among the workers experiencing an occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, e.g. the steel factory and refinery workers. When we have evaluated if the levels of DNA adducts of the PAH exposed workers were different from those of the MIE residents, a statistical significantly difference was found (p < 0.05). Our present study indicates that people living near point sources of industrial air

  9. Channel incision and suspended sediment delivery at Caspar Creek, Mendocino County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas J. Dewey; Thomas E. Lisle; Leslie M. Reid

    2003-01-01

    Tributary and headwater valleys in the Caspar Creek watershed,in coastal Mendocino County, California,show signs of incision along much of their lengths.An episode of incision followed initial-entry logging which took place between 1860 and 1906. Another episode of incision cut into skid-trails created for second-entry logging in the 1970's.

  10. A study of incisive canal using a cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the anatomical structure of the incisive canal radiographically by a cone beam computed tomography. 38 persons (male 26, female 12) were chosen to take images of maxillary anterior region in dental CT mode using a cone beam computed tomography. The tube voltage were 65, 67, and 70 kVp, the tube current was 7 mA, and the exposure time was 13.3 seconds. The FH plane of each person was parallel to the floor. The images were analysed on the CRT display. The mean length of incisive canal was 15.87 mm ± 2.92. The mean diameter at the side of palate and nasal fossa were 3.49 mm ± 0.76 and 3.89 mm ± 1.06, respectively. In the cross-sectional shape of incisive canal, 50% were round, 34.2% were ovoid, and 15.8% were lobulated. 87% of incisive canal at the side of nasal fossa have one canal, 10.4% have two canals, and 2.6% have three canals, but these canals were merged into one canal in the middle portion of palate. The mean angles of the long axis of incisive canal and central incisor to the FH plane were 110.3 ± 6.96 and 117.45 ± 7.41, respectively. The angles of the long axis of incisive canal and central incisor to the FH plane were least correlated (r 0.258). This experiment suggests that a cone beam computed radiography will be helpful in surgery or implantation on the maxillary incisive area.

  11. A study of incisive canal using a cone beam computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyu Tae; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    To investigate the anatomical structure of the incisive canal radiographically by a cone beam computed tomography. 38 persons (male 26, female 12) were chosen to take images of maxillary anterior region in dental CT mode using a cone beam computed tomography. The tube voltage were 65, 67, and 70 kVp, the tube current was 7 mA, and the exposure time was 13.3 seconds. The FH plane of each person was parallel to the floor. The images were analysed on the CRT display. The mean length of incisive canal was 15.87 mm {+-} 2.92. The mean diameter at the side of palate and nasal fossa were 3.49 mm {+-} 0.76 and 3.89 mm {+-} 1.06, respectively. In the cross-sectional shape of incisive canal, 50% were round, 34.2% were ovoid, and 15.8% were lobulated. 87% of incisive canal at the side of nasal fossa have one canal, 10.4% have two canals, and 2.6% have three canals, but these canals were merged into one canal in the middle portion of palate. The mean angles of the long axis of incisive canal and central incisor to the FH plane were 110.3 {+-} 6.96 and 117.45 {+-} 7.41, respectively. The angles of the long axis of incisive canal and central incisor to the FH plane were least correlated (r 0.258). This experiment suggests that a cone beam computed radiography will be helpful in surgery or implantation on the maxillary incisive area.

  12. A skin abscess model for teaching incision and drainage procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, Michael T; Manthey, David E; McGinnis, Henderson D; Nicks, Bret A; Pariyadath, Manoj

    2008-07-03

    Skin and soft tissue infections are increasingly prevalent clinical problems, and it is important for health care practitioners to be well trained in how to treat skin abscesses. A realistic model of abscess incision and drainage will allow trainees to learn and practice this basic physician procedure. We developed a realistic model of skin abscess formation to demonstrate the technique of incision and drainage for educational purposes. The creation of this model is described in detail in this report. This model has been successfully used to develop and disseminate a multimedia video production for teaching this medical procedure. Clinical faculty and resident physicians find this model to be a realistic method for demonstrating abscess incision and drainage. This manuscript provides a detailed description of our model of abscess incision and drainage for medical education. Clinical educators can incorporate this model into skills labs or demonstrations for teaching this basic procedure.

  13. Revisiting the stability of endo/exo Diels-Alder adducts between cyclopentadiene and 1,4-benzoquinone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tormena, Claudio F. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Organica; Lacerda Junior, Valdemar [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas. Dept. de Quimica; Oliveira, Kleber T. de [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas

    2010-07-01

    In this work it is presented a detailed theoretical analysis of the relative stability of endo/exo Diels-Alder adducts formed by the reaction between cyclopentadiene (1) and 1,4-benzoquinone (2). The intrinsic reaction coordinate (IRC) showed the existence of only one transition state for the reaction studied, for both endo 3 and exo 4 adducts. The energies of both adducts were obtained at high level of theory (CBS-Q) confirming that the endo adduct is more stable than exo, which is in the opposite way to the observed in reactions that usually follow Alder's rule. An electronic structure analysis was performed through NBO methodology, indicating that the attractive delocalization interaction predominates over the steric repulsive interaction in the endo adducts. In summary, for the studied cycloaddition reaction the endo adduct is the thermodynamic and kinetic product, which can be also confirmed by experimental data mentioned in this work. (author)

  14. DNA Adducts aand Human Atherosclerotis Lesions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strejc, Přemysl; Boubelík, O.; Stávková, Zdena; Chvátalová, Irena; Šrám, Radim

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 42, - (2001), s. 662 ISSN 0008-5472. [Annual Meeting of Proceedings /92./. 24.03.2001-28.03.2001, New Orleans] R&D Projects: GA MZd NM10 Keywords : DNA adducts * LDL cholesterol Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  15. Fullerene–Carbene Lewis Acid–Base Adducts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huaping; Risko, Chad; Seo, Jung Hwa; Campbell, Casey; Wu, Guang; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2011-01-01

    The reaction between a bulky N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and C60 leads to the formation of a thermally stable zwitterionic Lewis acid-base adduct that is connected via a C-C single bond. Low-energy absorption bands with weak oscillator strengths

  16. Direct antioxidant properties of methotrexate: Inhibition of malondialdehyde-acetaldehyde-protein adduct formation and superoxide scavenging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Zimmerman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methotrexate (MTX is an immunosuppressant commonly used for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Recent observations have shown that patients treated with MTX also exhibit a reduced risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although MTX reduces systemic inflammation and tissue damage, the mechanisms by which MTX exerts these beneficial effects are not entirely known. We have previously demonstrated that protein adducts formed by the interaction of malondialdehyde (MDA and acetaldehyde (AA, known as MAA-protein adducts, are present in diseased tissues of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA or CVD. In previously reported studies, MAA-adducts were shown to be highly immunogenic, supporting the concept that MAA-adducts not only serve as markers of oxidative stress but may have a direct role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Because MAA-adducts are commonly detected in diseased tissues and are proposed to mitigate disease progression in both RA and CVD, we tested the hypothesis that MTX inhibits the generation of MAA-protein adducts by scavenging reactive oxygen species. Using a cell free system, we found that MTX reduces MAA-adduct formation by approximately 6-fold, and scavenges free radicals produced during MAA-adduct formation. Further investigation revealed that MTX directly scavenges superoxide, but not hydrogen peroxide. Additionally, using the Nrf2/ARE luciferase reporter cell line, which responds to intracellular redox changes, we observed that MTX inhibits the activation of Nrf2 in cells treated with MDA and AA. These studies define previously unrecognized mechanisms by which MTX can reduce inflammation and subsequent tissue damage, namely, scavenging free radicals, reducing oxidative stress, and inhibiting MAA-adduct formation.

  17. Potential use of DNA adducts to detect mutagenic compounds in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua Guoxiong; Lyons, Brett; Killham, Ken; Singleton, Ian

    2009-01-01

    In this study, three different soils with contrasting features, spiked with 300 mg benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/kg dry soil, were incubated at 20 deg. C and 60% water holding capacity for 540 days. At different time points, BaP and DNA were extracted and quantified, and DNA adducts were quantified by 32 P-postlabelling. After 540 days incubation, 69.3, 81.6 and 83.2% of initial BaP added remained in Cruden Bay, Boyndie and Insch soils, respectively. Meanwhile, a significantly different amount of DNA-BaP adducts were found in the three soils exposed to BaP over time. The work demonstrates the concept that DNA adducts can be detected on DNA extracted from soil. Results suggest the technique is not able to directly reflect bioavailability of BaP transformation products. However, this new method provides a potential way to detect mutagenic compounds in contaminated soil and to assess the outcomes of soil remediation. - A novel DNA adduct assay may provide a potential technique to detect mutagenic compounds in contaminated soil

  18. Development of methods to measure hemoglobin adducts by gel electrophoresis - Preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.D.; McBride, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    Chemical adducts formed on blood hemoglobin may be a useful biomarker for assessing human exposures to these compounds. This paper reports preliminary results in the development of methods to measure such adducts that may be generally applicable for a wide variety of chemicals. Male F344/N rats were intraperitoneally injected with 14 C-BaP dissolved in corn oil. Twenty-four hours later, the rats were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected and globin was isolated. Globin protein was then cleaved into peptide fragments using cyanogen bromide and the fragments separated using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the adducted 14 C-globin fragments migrated to different areas of the gel than did unadducted fragments. Further research is being conducted to develop methods that will allow quantitation of separated adducted globin fragments from human blood samples without the use of a radiolabel. (author)

  19. Modification of the Nuss Procedure: The Single-incision Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsushi Aizawa, MD

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The Nuss procedure is a prevalent minimally invasive surgery for pectus excavatum. Although the Nuss procedure has the advantage of leaving less obtrusive scars, the standard technique requires at least 3 skin incisions to insert several instruments. We experienced 7 cases of the modified Nuss procedure using a single incision during a 7-year period. To facilitate passing of the bar, a traction guide was created according to our unique method. There was no need for a bar stabilizer, and no severe intraoperative complications occurred. All patients exhibited satisfactory short-term results; however, 1 patient suffered from bar rotation and required repeat surgery for fixation. Two patients underwent bar removal via the same single incision without any difficulties.

  20. Superficial parotidectomy via facelift incision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohuis, Peter J. F. M.; Tan, M. Liane; Bonte, Katrien; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Vermeersch, Hubert B.

    2009-01-01

    The stigma of a visually prominent facial scar following parotid surgery can be distressing to a young patient. The surgical technique of parotidectomy via a facelift incision is described and evaluated. Thirty patients with a benign lesion of the parotid gland underwent a partial superficial

  1. De Qeurvian Tenosynovitis: Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Treatment with Longitudinal and Transverse Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arefah Dehghani Tafti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: De Quervain disease is a mechanical tenosynovitis due to inadequacy volume between abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis and their tunnel. Treatment methods include immobilization, steroid injections, and operation. For the first time Fritz De Quervain described surgical treatment of this disease. Since then, various ways of treatment have been reported. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes of a longitudinal incision with a transverse incision in De Quervain disease.Methods: This was a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted in three hospitals in Iran, Yazd from March 2003 to September 2008. One hundred-twenty patients with De Quervain disease who did not respond to conservative treatment were operated with two different incisions. The patients were followed for three months to compare the surgical outcomes.Results: During a three month follow-up, a significant difference was shown between the two methods (p=0.03. Results of surgical treatment with longitudinal incision were excellent (only 5 hypertrophic scars, but there were 13 postoperative complaints with transverse incision.Conclusion: According to our findings, longitudinal incision in surgical treatment of De Quervain disease is better than transverse incision.

  2. Does pilonidal abscess heal quicker with off-midline incision and drainage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P M; Wysocki, A P

    2011-06-01

    No clinical trials have been done to guide the surgeon in the optimal technique of draining a pilonidal abscess. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the location of the incision influences wound healing. Electronic records from the surgical database at our 200-bed district general hospital were reviewed for operative technique (midline vs. lateral) for patients who underwent incision and drainage for acute pilonidal abscess between January 2003 and February 2010. These patients were admitted from the Emergency Department with a pilonidal abscess, underwent operative drainage, and returned for follow-up. The main outcome measure was wound healing time. Two hundred and forty-three pilonidal abscesses were drained, 134 with a lateral and 74 with a midline incision. All patients underwent simple longitudinal incision. No patient underwent de-roofing, marsupialisation, or closure. Forty-eight patients with midline drainage who returned for follow-up were matched for gender, age, and microbiology culture results with patients who underwent lateral drainage. Almost all were drained under general anesthesia with a median postoperative stay of 1 day. The overall length of follow-up was the same in both groups (P = 0.13). Abscesses that did not heal were followed-up for the same period of time irrespective of incision type (P = 0.48). Abscesses that healed after midline incision took approximately 3 weeks longer than those drained via a lateral incision (P = 0.02). Our study has limitations since it was a retrospective study that did not capture patients whose abscess drained spontaneously or were drained in the emergency department. Pilonidal abscess should be drained away from the midline.

  3. γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts in aliphatic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepine, F.; Milot, S.; Gagne, N.

    1990-01-01

    γIrradiation induced formation of PCB-solvent adducts was investigated as a model for PCB residues in irradiated food. Formation of cyclohexyl adducts of PCBs was found to be significant when pure PCB congeners and Aroclor mixture were irradiated in cyclohexane and cyclohexene. Reaction pathways were investigated, and the effects of oxygen and electron scavenger were studied

  4. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts as a common biological biomarker of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Von Tungeln, Linda S; Doerge, Daniel R; Lin, Ge; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2013-09-16

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) classified riddelliine, a tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, as "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen" in the NTP 12th Report on Carcinogens in 2011. We previously determined that four DNA adducts were formed in rats dosed with riddelliine. The structures of the four DNA adducts were elucidated as (i) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dG-3 and DHP-dG-4) as the predominant adducts; and (ii) a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl)dehydrosupinidine adducts (termed as DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 adducts). In this study, we selected a nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, a pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxide, riddelliine N-oxide, and nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (riddelliine, retrorsine, monocrotaline, lycopsamine, retronecine, lasiocarpine, heliotrine, clivorine, and senkirkine) for study in animals. Seven of the nine tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, with the exception of lycopsamine and retronecine, are liver carcinogens. At 8-10 weeks of age, female F344 rats were orally gavaged for 3 consecutive days with 4.5 and 24 μmol/kg body weight test article in 0.5 mL of 10% DMSO in water. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, the rats were sacrificed, livers were removed, and liver DNA was isolated for DNA adduct analysis. DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4 adducts were formed in the liver of rats treated with the individual seven hepatocarcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids and riddelliine N-oxide. These DNA adducts were not formed in the liver of rats administered retronecine, the nontumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, platyphylliine, or vehicle control. These results indicate that this set of DNA adducts, DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4, is a common biological biomarker of

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis of electrocautery versus scalpel for surgical skin incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, Lisa N F; Brown, Carl J

    2012-08-01

    The creation of surgical skin incisions has historically been performed using a cold scalpel. The use of electrocautery for this purpose has been controversial with respect to patient safety and surgical efficacy. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to compare skin incisions made by electrocautery and a scalpel. A systematic electronic literature search was performed using 2 electronic databases (MEDLINE and PubMed), and the methodological quality of included publications was evaluated. Six RCTs were identified comparing electrocautery (n = 606) and a scalpel (n = 628) for skin incisions. No significant difference in wound infection rates or scar cosmesis was identified between the treatment groups. Electrocautery significantly reduced the incision time and postoperative wound pain. A trend toward less incisional blood loss from skin incisions made with electrocautery was noted. Electrocautery is a safe and effective method for performing surgical skin incisions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The fate of H atom adducts to 3'-uridine monophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Zhang, Ru Bo; Eriksson, Leif A

    2010-07-29

    The stabilities of the adducts deriving from H free radical addition to the O2, O4, and C5 positions of 3'-uridine monophosphate (3'UMP) are studied by the hybrid density functional B3LYP approach. Upon H atom addition at the O2 position, a concerted low-barrier proton-transfer process will initially occur, followed by the potential ruptures of the N-glycosidic or beta-phosphate bonds. The rupture barriers are strongly influenced by the rotational configuration of the phosphate group at the 3' terminal, and are influenced by bulk solvation effects. The O4-H adduct has the highest thermal stability, as the localization of the unpaired electron does not enable cleavage of either the C1'-N1 or the C3'-O(P) bonds. For the most stable adduct, with H atom added to the C5 position, the rate-controlled step is the H2'a abstraction by the C6 radical site, after which the subsequent strand rupture reactions proceed with low barriers. The main unpaired electron densities are presented for the transient species. Combined with previous results, it is concluded that the H atom adducts are more facile to drive the strand scission rather than N-glycosidic bond ruptures within the nucleic acid bases.

  7. Thermal study of bare tips with various system parameters and incision sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osher, Robert H; Injev, Valentine P

    2006-05-01

    To identify major and minor surgeon-controlled parameters that affect incision temperature when performing microincision lens removal using the Alcon Infiniti Vision System. In vitro research and development laboratory, Alcon Research, Irvine, California, USA. Phacoemulsification was performed in eye-bank cadaver eyes and the following parameters evaluated: incision, duty cycle, ultrasound (US) power, aspiration flow rate (AFR), vacuum, pulse, bottle height and balanced salt solution temperature, and tip design/size. Each parameter was varied while the others remained constant. The resulting temperature of the incision and US tip was measured using a thermal camera. Major contributors to elevated incision temperature included incision size, US power, duty cycle, AFR, vacuum setting, tip design, and presence of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD). Minor contributors included pulse frequency, bottle height, and temperature of the infusate. Microincision lens removal can be performed at safe temperatures with the knowledgeable selection of surgeon-controlled parameters.

  8. Minimizing surgical skin incision scars with a latex surgical glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Eun; Ryoo, Suk-Tae; Lim, So Young; Pyon, Jai-Kyung; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap-Sung; Mun, Goo-Hyun

    2013-04-01

    The current trend in minimally invasive surgery is to make a small surgical incision. However, the excessive tensile stress applied by the retractors to the skin surrounding the incision often results in a long wound healing time and extensive scarring. To minimize these types of wound problems, the authors evaluated a simple and cost-effective method to minimize surgical incision scars based on the use of a latex surgical glove. The tunnel-shaped part of a powder-free latex surgical glove was applied to the incision and the dissection plane. It was fixed to the full layer of the dissection plane with sutures. The glove on the skin surface then was sealed with Ioban (3 M Health Care, St. Paul, MN, USA) to prevent movement. The operation proceeded as usual, with the retractor running through the tunnel of the latex glove. It was possible to complete the operation without any disturbance of the visual field by the surgical glove, and the glove was neither torn nor separated by the retractors. The retractors caused traction and friction during the operation, but the extent of damage to the postoperative skin incision margin was remarkably less than when the operation was performed without a glove. This simple and cost-effective method is based on the use of a latex surgical glove to protect the surgical skin incision site and improve the appearance of the postoperative scar. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  9. Interactions of radiation repair systems in escherichia colt with antineoplastic anthracyclines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacinski, B.M.; Rupp, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have studied the interactions of several anthracylines with the UVR DN*a repair system of E. coli. The authors found that doxorubicin is quite toxic for uvr- but not for uvr+strains. They also found that exposure of cells carrying a multicopy plasmid to this agent yielded plasmid DNA molecules with lesions which were recognized and cleaved by purified E. coli UVRABC DNA repair endonuclease. A derivative of doxorubicin was not measurably toxic for either uvr+ or uvr- strains but nevertheless produced lesions which were substrates for the UVRABC endonuclease. The authors propose that anthracycline toxicity in uvr- E. coli may correlate with clinical toxicity while anthracylcine antineopolastic activity may correlate with their ability to produce UVRABC endonuclease-sensitive DNA damage

  10. Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaji Mane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To share our experience of doing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with modifications. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon personal series from 2004 to 2009. One hundred patients of distal hypospadias were subjected for Snodgrass urethroplasty with preputioplasty. The age range was 1 to 5 year with mean age of 2.7 years. Selection criteria were good urethral plate, without chordee and torsion needing complete degloving. Main technical modification from original Snodgrass procedure was spongioplasty, preputioplasty, and dorsal slit when inability to retract prepuce during surgery. Results: Average follow-up period is 23 months. Seven (7% patients developed fistula and one patient had complete preputial dehiscence. Phimosis developed in three (3% patients and required circumcision. Dorsal slit was required in seven patients. One patient developed meatal stenosis in postoperative period. All other patients are passing single urinary stream and have cosmesis that is acceptable. Conclusions: Modified tubularized incised plate urethroplasty with preputioplasty effectively gives cosmetically normal looking penis with low complications.

  11. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaobo; Xia, Qingsu; Woodling, Kellie; Lin, Ge; Fu, Peter P

    2017-10-01

    There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine) and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts are common toxicological biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo He

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There are 660 pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs and PA N-oxides present in the plants, with approximately half being possible carcinogens. We previously reported that a set of four PA-derived DNA adducts is formed in the liver of rats administered a series of hepatocarcinogenic PAs and a PA N-oxide. Based on our findings, we hypothesized that this set of DNA adducts is a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In this study, we determined that rat liver microsomal metabolism of five hepatocarcinogenic PAs (lasiocarpine, retrorsine, riddelliine, monocrotaline, and heliotrine and their corresponding PA N-oxides produced the same set of DNA adducts. Among these compounds, lasiocarpine N-oxide, retrorsine N-oxide, monocrotaline N-oxide, and heliotrine N-oxide are for first time shown to be able to produce these DNA adducts. These results further support the role of these DNA adducts as potential common biomarkers of PA-induced liver tumor initiation.

  13. Acetaldehyde Adducts in Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashiko Setshedi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic alcohol abuse causes liver disease that progresses from simple steatosis through stages of steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually hepatic failure. In addition, chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD, with or without cirrhosis, increases risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Acetaldehyde, a major toxic metabolite, is one of the principal culprits mediating fibrogenic and mutagenic effects of alcohol in the liver. Mechanistically, acetaldehyde promotes adduct formation, leading to functional impairments of key proteins, including enzymes, as well as DNA damage, which promotes mutagenesis. Why certain individuals who heavily abuse alcohol, develop HCC (7.2–15% versus cirrhosis (15–20% is not known, but genetics and co-existing viral infection are considered pathogenic factors. Moreover, adverse effects of acetaldehyde on the cardiovascular and hematologic systems leading to ischemia, heart failure, and coagulation disorders, can exacerbate hepatic injury and increase risk for liver failure. Herein, we review the role of acetaldehyde adducts in the pathogenesis of chronic ALD and HCC.

  14. Cochlear implantation with Pulsar Med El: a novel small incision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, D

    2009-04-01

    Although still widely implanted, Pulsar Med-El is rarely considered for small incision approach. Overall, 30 teen-age and adult patients were operated upon with a novel small incision (4-5 cm). Full insertion of the electrode array was achieved in all cases. No major intra-operative complications occurred. At follow-up, no flap-related complications and no migration of the receiver-stimulator were observed in the "device suture" (14 patients) or "no device suture" groups (16 patients). All patients are full-time users of the device. In conclusion, a small incision for the Pulsar Med-El cochlear implant is feasible, safe and reproducible. Ligature fixation of the device is not critical with this operation. Also with this device, in adult and teen-age patients, it is, therefore, possible to retain several typical advantages of small incision approaches.

  15. DNA adduct formation in B6C3F1 mice and Fischer-344 rats exposed to 1,2,3-trichloropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, D K; Lilly, P D; Anderegg, R J; Swenberg, J A

    1995-06-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is a multispecies, multisite carcinogen which has been found to be an environmental contaminant. In this study, we have characterized and measured DNA adducts formed in vivo following exposure to TCP. [14C]TCP was administered to male B6C3F1 mice and Fischer-344 rats by gavage at doses used in the NTP carcinogenesis bioassay. Both target and nontarget organs were examined for the formation of DNA adducts. Adducts were hydrolyzed from DNA by neutral thermal or mild acid hydrolysis, isolated by HPLC, and detected and quantitated by measurement of radioactivity. The HPLC elution profile of radioactivity suggested that one major DNA adduct was formed. To characterize this adduct, larger yields were induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of TCP (300 mg/kg). The DNA adduct was isolated by HPLC based on coelution with the radiolabeled adduct, and compared to previously identified adducts. The isolated adduct coeluted with S-[1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(N7-guanyl)-ethyl]glutathione, an adduct derived from the structurally related carcinogen 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). Analysis by electrospray mass spectrometry suggested that the TCP-induced adduct and the DBCP-derived adduct were identical. The 14C-labeled DNA adduct was distributed widely among the organs examined. Adduct levels varied depending on species, organ, and dose. In rat organs, adduct concentrations for the low dose ranged from 0.8 to 6.6 mumol per mol guanine and from 7.1 to 47.6 mumol per mol guanine for the high dose. In the mouse, adduct yields ranged from 0.32 to 28.1 mumol per mol guanine for the low dose and from 12.2 to 208.1 mumol per mol guanine for the high dose. The relationship between DNA adduct formation and organ-specific tumorigenesis was unclear. Although relatively high concentrations of DNA adducts were detected in target organs, several nontarget sites also contained high adduct levels. Our data suggest that factors in addition to adduct formation

  16. Determination of albumin adducts of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate after specific inhalative challenge tests in workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, Gabriele; Dongari, Nagaraju; Kumar, Anoop; Baur, Xaver

    2016-10-17

    4,4'-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is the most important isocyanate used in the industry. Lung sensitization with bronchial asthma is the main disorder in exposed workers. Albumin adducts of MDI might be involved in specific immunological reactions. MDI adducts with lysine (MDI-Lys) of albumin have been found in MDI-workers and construction workers. MDI-Lys is an isocyanate-specific adduct of MDI with albumin. In the present study, we report MDI-adducts in workers undergoing diagnostic MDI challenge tests. The workers were exposed for 2h to 5ppb of MDI. The adduct levels increase significantly after the exposure to MDI in the challenge chamber. About 0.6% of the dose was bound to albumin. So far, only urinary metabolites of MDI were measured to monitor isocyanate workers. However, such urinary metabolites are not isocyanate specific. Therefore, we propose to measure albumin adducts for monitoring MDI exposed subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of turmeric and curcumin on BP-DNA adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, M A; Chacko, M C; Annapurna, V V; Krishnaswamy, K

    1993-03-01

    Many human cancers that are widely prevalent today can be prevented through modifications in life-styles, of which diet appears to be an important agent. Several dietary constituents modulate the process of carcinogenesis and prevent genotoxicity. Many plant constituents including turmeric appear to be potent antimutagens and antioxidants. Therefore the modulatory effects of turmeric and curcumin on the levels of benzo[a]pyrene induced DNA adducts in the livers of rats were studied by the newly developed 32P-postlabelling assay method. Turmeric when fed at 0.1, 0.5 and 3% and the active principle of turmeric (curcumin) when fed at a level of 0.03% in the diet for 4 weeks significantly reduced the level of BP-DNA adducts including the major adduct dG-N2-BP, formed within 24 h in response to a single i.p. injection of benzo[a]pyrene. The significance of these effects in terms of the potential anticarcinogenic effects of turmeric is discussed. Further, these results strengthen the various other biological effects of turmeric which have direct relevance to anticarcinogenesis and chemoprevention.

  18. Temperature-controlled laser-soldering system and its clinical application for bonding skin incisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhon, David; Gabay, Ilan; Shpolyansky, Gregory; Vasilyev, Tamar; Nur, Israel; Meidler, Roberto; Hatoum, Ossama Abu; Katzir, Abraham; Hashmonai, Moshe; Kopelman, Doron

    2015-12-01

    Laser tissue soldering is a method of repairing incisions. It involves the application of a biological solder to the approximated edges of the incision and heating it with a laser beam. A pilot clinical study was carried out on 10 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Of the four abdominal incisions in each patient, two were sutured and two were laser soldered. Cicatrization, esthetical appearance, degree of pain, and pruritus in the incisions were examined on postoperative days 1, 7, and 30. The soldered wounds were watertight and healed well, with no discharge from these wounds or infection. The total closure time was equal in both methods, but the net soldering time was much shorter than suturing. There was no difference between the two types of wound closure with respect to the pain and pruritus on a follow-up of one month. Esthetically, the soldered incisions were estimated as good as the sutured ones. The present study confirmed that temperature-controlled laser soldering of human skin incisions is clinically feasible, and the results obtained were at least equivalent to those of standard suturing.

  19. Benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adduct formation in cells: time-dependent differences in the benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, W.M.; Dumaswala, R.U.

    1980-01-01

    Procedures involving isolation of the DNA from tritium labelled hydrocarbon-treated cells are discussed. Enzymatic degradation of the DNA to deoxyribonucleosides, and chromatography of the adducts on columns of water gradients were covered as well

  20. 40 CFR 721.3700 - Fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... phenol, ethylene oxide adduct. 721.3700 Section 721.3700 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL..., ethylene oxide adduct. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acid, ester with styrenated phenol, ethylene oxide...

  1. Mouse preferential incising force orientation changes during jaw closing muscle hyperalgesia and is sex dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, C G; Morris-Wiman, J

    2016-12-01

    Mouse incising is controlled by a central pattern generator and this activity can change in the presence of pain. The incising frequency and maximum force generation decreases with pain. In this study, we used repetitive acidic injections in the left masseter muscle of male and female mice to determine differences between baseline and jaw muscle pain conditions and the effect of sex on preferential incising direction. A within subject design was used to evaluate data previously acquired using multi-axis force data (X, Y and Z) from the 4th baseline recording day and day 7 post-injection (day of maximal pain response) for each mouse of each sex. A total of 34 female and male (age 3-9months) CD-1 mice were evaluated. After mathematically rotating the X and Y axes to align the Y axis to be parallel to the wire struts of the cage top, data were analyzed to determine incising direction preference during baseline (non-pain) and pain (day 7) conditions and between sex. Radar plots of X-Y, X-Z and Y-Z axes depicted the average direction of incising preference between baseline and pain conditions for each sex. Statistical differences among groups were tested using a mixed model ANOVA. Similar to previous findings, female mice had a more robust difference in incising direction preference when comparing male and female pain conditions and this was most evident in the X-Z axes. The incising frequencies most commonly affected were 5.3, 6.2 and 7.6Hz. Male mice varied little in their incising direction preference between the baseline and pain conditions. In addition, statistical comparison of ratios of the percent of time spent incising in the Z versus X axes for each incising frequency found that the incising preference was not different when comparing 5.3 and 7.6Hz frequencies. Finally, female mice used a novel approach to minimize pain while incising by rotating their head and body nearly 180 degrees while males did not use this strategy as frequently. The preferred incising

  2. Bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells: a pooled analysis of 3,600 subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricceri, Fulvio; Godschalk, Roger W; Peluso, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Bulky DNA adducts are markers of exposure to genotoxic aromatic compounds, which reflect the ability of an individual to metabolically activate carcinogens and to repair DNA damage. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a major class of carcinogens that are capable of forming such add...... such adducts. Factors that have been reported to be related to DNA adduct levels include smoking, diet, body mass index (BMI), genetic polymorphisms, the season of collection of biologic material, and air pollutants....

  3. Relaxation incisions of venomous snake "Japanese mamushi" bites to the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugamata A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Akira Sugamata, Naoki Yoshizawa, Takahiro OkadaDepartment of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Gloydius blomhoffii, commonly known as Japanese mamushi, is a venomous viper species found widely in Japan. The most frequently bitten regions are the fingers and toes, and severe swelling causes compression of peripheral arteries and/or compartment syndrome of the extremities. We experienced four cases of mamushi bites to the hand, and undertook relaxation incision in the hands of three of these patients. As a result, the patients who underwent relaxation incision did not show any skin necrosis or permanent sensory disturbance in the affected fingers. Relaxation incision can be useful to not only decompress subcutaneous and compartment pressure of the hand, but also to wash out the venom from the bitten region by improving venous and lymphatic drainage.Keywords: mamushi, snakebite, viper, relaxation incision

  4. Determination of isocyanate specific albumin-adducts in workers exposed to toluene diisocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, Gabriele; Gu, Qi; Vanimireddy, Lakshiminiranjan Reddy

    2012-03-01

    Toluene diisocyanates (2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI) are important intermediates in the chemical industry. Among the main damages after low levels of TDI exposure are lung sensitization and asthma. It is therefore necessary to have sensitive and specific methods to monitor isocyanate exposure of workers. Urinary metabolites or protein adducts have been used as biomarkers in workers exposed to TDI. However, with these methods it was not possible to determine if the biomarkers result from exposure to TDI or to the corresponding toluene diamines (TDA). This work presents a new procedure for the determination of isocyanate-specific albumin adducts. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure the adducts in albumin present in workers exposed to TDI. 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI formed adducts with lysine: N(ϵ)-[({3-amino-4-methylphenyl}amino)carbonyl]-lysine, N(ϵ)-[({5-amino-2-methylphenyl}amino)carbonyl]-lysine, and N(ϵ)- [({3-amino-2-methylphenyl}amino)carbonyl]-lysine. In future studies, this new method can be applied to measure TDI-exposures in workers.

  5. Towards achieving small-incision cataract surgery 99.8% of the time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A surgical approach designed to reliably attain the modern goal of small incision cataract surgery 99.8% of the time is described. Phacoemulsification as well as a manual small incision technique is utilised to achieve the desired outcome as often as possible and for all types of cataracts. The logic, and required surgical steps are described and illustrated. This surgical technique allows the advantages of small incision surgery to be reliably achieved. The method is flexible and allows decisions and steps to be modified depending on the skill and comfort zone of the individual surgeon.

  6. Circumareolar incision-subdermal tunneling dissection for excision of multiple breast fibroadenomata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S O Agodirin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excision of multiple fibroadenomas (MF in separate breast quadrants presents difficulties of number and location of incision(s and extent of tissue dissection and may be associated with more complications and poorer cosmetic outcome. This is a report of excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast using a modification of subcutaneous dissection technique dubbed the circumareolar incision and subdermal tunneling (CAST dissection. After exposure of the superficial fascia with circumareolar incision, subdermal cone-wise dissection was made to allow mobilization of the segment bearing the lump(s. The lump(s were enucleated and removed. MF were removed from four breasts in three young unmarried females. The first patient had multiple adenomas removed from three quadrants of both breasts: 14 on the right and six on the left. The second patient had excision of three lumps in three separate quadrants, and the third patient had excision of two lumps in two separate quadrants. All patients had edema and bruising. One breast had wound infection and dehiscence. There were no skin necrosis, no nipple loss, and no breast distortion. All ensuing scars were camouflaged. CAST dissection was used for excision of MF in multiple quadrants of the breast with preservation of excellent cosmetic outcome of a single circumareolar incision.

  7. Amino acid-based dithiazines: synthesis and photofragmentation of their benzaldehyde adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurchan, Alexei N; Kutateladze, Andrei G

    2002-11-14

    Alpha-amino acids and GABA are functionalized with dithiazine rings via reaction with sodium hydrosulfide in aqueous formaldehyde. The resulting dithiazines are lithiated at -78 degrees C and reacted with benzaldehyde furnishing amino acid-based 2,5-bis-substituted dithiazines. These adducts undergo externally sensitized photofragmentation with quantum efficiency comparable to that of the parent dithiane adducts, thus offering a novel approach to amino acid-based photolabile tethers. [reaction: see text

  8. 7-Alkylguanine adduct levels in urine, lungs and liver of mice exposed to styrene by inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodicka, Pavel Erik; Linhart, Igor; Novak, Jan; Koskinen, Mikko; Vodickova, Ludmila; Hemminki, Kari

    2006-01-01

    This study describes urinary excretion of two nucleobase adducts derived from styrene 7,8-oxide (SO), i.e., 7-(2-hydroxy-1-phenylethyl)guanine (N7αG) and 7-(2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl)guanine (N7βG), as well as a formation of N7-SO-guanine adducts in lungs and liver of two month old male NMRI mice exposed to styrene by inhalation in a 3-week subacute study. Strikingly higher excretion of both isomeric nucleobase adducts in the first day of exposure was recorded, while the daily excretion of nucleobase adducts in following time intervals reached the steady-state level at 4.32 + 1.14 and 6.91 + 1.17 pmol/animal for lower and higher styrene exposure, respectively. β-SO-guanine DNA adducts in lungs increased with exposure in a linear way (F = 13.7 for linearity and 0.17 for non-linearity, respectively), reaching at the 21st day the level of 23.0 adducts/10 8 normal nucleotides, i.e., 0.74 fmol/μg DNA of 7-alkylguanine DNA adducts for the concentration of 1500 mg/m 3 , while no 7-SO-guanine DNA adducts were detected in the liver after 21 days of inhalation exposure to both of styrene concentrations. A comparison of 7-alkylguanines excreted in urine with 7-SO-guanines in lungs (after correction for depurination and for missing α-isomers) revealed that persisting 7-SO-guanine DNA adducts in lungs account for about 0.5% of the total alkylation at N7 of guanine. The total styrene-specific 7-guanine alkylation accounts for about 1.0 x 10 -5 % of the total styrene uptake, while N1-adenine alkylation contributes to this percentage only negligibly

  9. Gender differences in the knee adduction moment after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Kate E; McClelland, Jodie A; Palazzolo, Simon E; Santamaria, Luke J; Feller, Julian A

    2012-04-01

    The external knee adduction moment during gait has previously been associated with knee pain and osteoarthritis (OA). Recently, the knee adduction moment has been shown to be increased following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery and has been suggested as a potential mechanism for the progression of early onset knee OA in this population. No study has investigated the gender differences in gait biomechanics following ACL reconstruction. To examine gender differences in gait biomechanics following ACL reconstruction surgery. 36 subjects (18 females, 18 males) who had previously undergone ACL reconstruction surgery (mean time since surgery 20 months) underwent gait analysis at a self-selected walking speed. Males and females were well matched for age, time since surgery and walking speed. Maximum flexion and adduction angles and moments were recorded during the stance phase of level walking and compared between the male and female groups. The knee adduction moment was 23% greater in the female compared with the male ACL group. No gender differences were seen in the sagittal plane. No differences were seen between the reconstructed and contralateral limb. The higher knee adduction moment seen in females compared with males may suggest an increased risk for the development of OA in ACL-reconstructed females.

  10. Incision extension is the optimal method of difficult gallbladder extraction at laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordelon, B M; Hobday, K A; Hunter, J G

    1992-01-01

    An unsolved problem of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the optimal method of removing the gallbladder with thick walls and a large stone burden. Proposed solutions include fascial dilatation, stone crushing, and ultrasonic, high-speed rotary, or laser lithotripsy. Our observation was that extension of the fascial incision to remove the impacted gallbladder was time efficient and did not increase postoperative pain. We reviewed the narcotic requirements of 107 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Fifty-two patients required extension of the umbilical incision, and 55 patients did not have their fascial incision enlarged. Parenteral meperidine use was 39.5 +/- 63.6 mg in the patients requiring fascial incision extension and 66.3 +/- 79.2 mg in those not requiring fascial incision extension (mean +/- standard deviation). Oral narcotic requirements were 1.1 +/- 1.5 doses vs 1.3 +/- 1.7 doses in patients with and without incision extension, respectively. The wide range of narcotic use in both groups makes these apparent differences not statistically significant. We conclude that protracted attempts at stone crushing or expensive stone fragmentation devices are unnecessary for the extraction of a difficult gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  11. Transverse versus Longitudinal Incisions for Femoral Artery Exposure in Treating Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Punam P; Rubio, Gustavo A; Patel, Kunal; Gupta, Kapil; Jones, Keith; Rey, Jorge; Robinson, Handel

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluates differences in wound complication rate when transverse versus longitudinal incision is utilized to expose femoral vessels in managing patients with peripheral vascular disease. A retrospective review from 2013 to 2015 was conducted of 150 patients undergoing 156 lower extremity revascularizations with femoral artery exposure through a groin incision. Patients were stratified into 2 groups, transverse versus longitudinal groin incision. Data were reviewed for 3 surgeons that utilize either transverse or longitudinal groin incision in patients undergoing common or iliofemoral endarterectomies, or where femoral artery was used as inflow and/or outflow vessel for limb revascularization. Each group had a comparative outcomes analysis based on incision type. The primary outcome was wound complication, defined as any wound infection, lymphocele, hematoma, dehiscence, pseudoaneurysm, or necrosis. Other outcomes studied included unplanned return to operating room for wound complication, wound vacuum therapy, and soft-tissue flap closure. Data were analyzed using 2-tailed chi-squared test and Student's t-test. Patients in the transverse (n = 85 cases) versus longitudinal (n = 71 cases) cohorts were similar in relation to demographics and comorbidities. Overall mean follow-up was 220 days. Patients with a transverse as compared to longitudinal incision had a significantly lower overall wound complication rate, 7% vs. 42%, respectively (P transverse incisions were associated with lower incidence of unplanned return to the operating room to manage wound complications than patients with a longitudinal incision (5% vs. 23%, respectively; P Transverse versus longitudinal incisions were also associated with significantly lower need for wound vacuum therapy (6% vs. 15%, respectively; P Transverse groin incisions for femoral artery exposure may offer a lower risk of wound complications for open procedures as compared to a longitudinal incision

  12. Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, A.P.; Linder, K.E.; Maheu, L.J.; Patz, M.A.; Thompson, J.S.; Tulip, T.H.; Subramanyam, V.

    1988-01-01

    An method for preparing a coordination complex of isonitrile ligand and a radioisotope of Te, Ru, Co, Pt, Re, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Nb and Ta from a non-radioactive metal adduct of the isonitrile

  13. Structure and Oxidation of Pyrrole Adducts Formed between Aflatoxin B2a and Biological Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2017-06-19

    Aflatoxin B 2a has been shown to bind to proteins through a dialdehyde intermediate under physiological conditions. The proposed structure of this adduct has been published showing a Schiff base interaction, but adequate verification using structural elucidation instrumental techniques has not been performed. In this work, we synthesized the aflatoxin B 2a amino acid adduct under alkaline conditions, and the formation of a new product was determined using high performance liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The resulting accurate mass was used to generate a novel proposed chemical structure of the adduct in which the dialdehyde forms a pyrrole ring with primary amines rather than the previously proposed Schiff base interaction. The pyrrole structure was confirmed using 1 H, 13 C, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single quantum correlation, and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation NMR and tandem mass spectrometry. Reaction kinetics show that the reaction is overall second order and that the rate increases as pH increases. Additionally, this study shows for the first time that aflatoxin B 2a dialdehyde forms adducts with phosphatidylethanolamines and does so through pyrrole ring formation, which makes it the first aflatoxin-lipid adduct to be structurally identified. Furthermore, oxidation of the pyrrole adduct produced a product that was 16 m/z heavier. When the aflatoxin B 2a -lysine (ε) adduct was oxidized, it gave a product with an accurate mass, mass fragmentation pattern, and 1 H NMR spectrum that match aflatoxin B 1 -lysine, which suggest the transformation of the pyrrole ring to a pyrrolin-2-one ring. These data give new insight into the fate and chemical properties of biological adducts formed from aflatoxin B 2a as well as possible interferences with known aflatoxin B 1 exposure biomarkers.

  14. Discussion on the Relevant Factors of General Surgery Incision Infection and Prevention Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Baotao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many reasons that can lead to incision infection of general surgical patients. The main reasons include weight, age, body albumin level, surgical time, observation ward, etc. This paper analyzes the clinic data of patients with incision infection after general surgery based on clinic practice and study on the reasons that have impact on general surgical incision infection and gives relevant prevention countermeasures.

  15. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bin; Eyer, Peter; Eddleston, Michael; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates

  16. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bin, E-mail: binli@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Eyer, Peter, E-mail: peter.eyer@lrz.uni-muenchen.de [Walther-Straub-Institut Für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80336 München (Germany); Eddleston, Michael, E-mail: M.Eddleston@ed.ac.uk [Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: wjiang@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Schopfer, Lawrence M., E-mail: lmschopf@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Lockridge, Oksana, E-mail: olockrid@unmc.edu [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates.

  17. Fullerene–Carbene Lewis Acid–Base Adducts

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huaping

    2011-08-17

    The reaction between a bulky N-heterocylic carbene (NHC) and C60 leads to the formation of a thermally stable zwitterionic Lewis acid-base adduct that is connected via a C-C single bond. Low-energy absorption bands with weak oscillator strengths similar to those of n-doped fullerenes were observed for the product, consistent with a net transfer of electron density to the C60 core. Corroborating information was obtained using UV photoelectron spectroscopy, which revealed that the adduct has an ionization potential ∼1.5 eV lower than that of C60. Density functional theory calculations showed that the C-C bond is polarized, with a total charge of +0.84e located on the NHC framework and -0.84e delocalized on the C 60 cage. The combination of reactivity, characterization, and theoretical studies demonstrates that fullerenes can behave as Lewis acids that react with C-based Lewis bases and that the overall process describes n-doping via C-C bond formation. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Recent, climate-driven river incision rate fluctuations in the Mercantour crystalline massif, southern French Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, C.; Goren, L.; Rolland, Y.; Bourlès, D.; Braucher, R.; Saillard, M.; Cassol, D.

    2017-06-01

    We present a new geomorphological analysis of the Tinée River tributaries in the southern French Alps based on numerical inverse and forward modelling of their longitudinal profiles. We model their relative uplift history with respect to the main channel, hence the incision rate history of this channel. Inverse models show that all tributaries have consistent incision rate histories with alternating high and low values. A comparison with global temperature curves shows that these variations correlate with quaternary climate changes. We suggest that during warm periods, a wave of regressive erosion propagates in the Tinée River, while its tributaries deeply incise their substratum to catch up with the falling base-level. We also show that the post 140 ka history of this landscape evolution is dominated by fluvial incision. We then perform forward models of river incision and simulate the incision of the Tinée River system over a time span of 600 ka. This model allows us to extract time and space incision rate variations of the Tinée River. With a background of a few mm.yr-1, incision rate can increase up to more than 1 cm yr-1 during short periods of time due to climatic oscillations. This result is compatible with published cosmogenic nuclide based dating, which evidenced incision rates from 0.2 to 24 mm yr-1. The part of the channel located between 12 and 20 km downstream from the source has undergone several periods of rapid incision rates, which could explain the steep hillslopes and the triggering of a landslide ∼10 ka ago.

  19. DNA adduct formation and mutation induction by aristolochic acid in rat kidney and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Nan; Arlt, Volker M.; Phillips, David H.; Heflich, Robert H.; Chen, Tao

    2006-01-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a potent nephrotoxin and carcinogen and is the causative factor for Chinese herb nephropathy. AA has been associated with the development of urothelial cancer in humans, and kidney and forestomach tumors in rodents. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the tumorigenicity of AA, we determined the DNA adduct formation and mutagenicity of AA in the liver (nontarget tissue) and kidney (target tissue) of Big Blue rats. Groups of six male rats were gavaged with 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg AA/kg body weight five times/week for 3 months. The rats were sacrificed 1 day after the final treatment, and the livers and kidneys were isolated. DNA adduct formation was analyzed by 32 P-postlabeling and mutant frequency (MF) was determined using the λ Select-cII Mutation Detection System. Three major adducts (7-[deoxyadenosin-N 6 -yl]-aristolactam I, 7-[deoxyadenosin-N 6 -yl]-aristolactam II and 7-[deoxyguanosin-N 2 -yl]-aristolactam I) were identified. There were strong linear dose-responses for AA-induced DNA adducts in treated rats, ranging from 25 to 1967 adducts/10 8 nucleotides in liver and 95-4598 adducts/10 8 nucleotides in kidney. A similar trend of dose-responses for mutation induction also was found, the MFs ranging from 37 to 666 x 10 -6 in liver compared with the MFs of 78-1319 x 10 -6 that we previously reported for the kidneys of AA-treated rats. Overall, kidneys had at least two-fold higher levels of DNA adducts and MF than livers. Sequence analysis of the cII mutants revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the mutation spectra in both kidney and liver of AA-treated and control rats, but there was no significant difference between the mutation spectra in AA-treated livers and kidneys. A:T → T:A transversion was the predominant mutation in AA-treated rats; whereas G:C → A:T transition was the main type of mutation in control rats. These results indicate that the AA treatment that eventually

  20. DNA adduct formation and mutation induction by aristolochic acid in rat kidney and liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Nan [Division of Genetic and Reproductive Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)]. E-mail: nan.mei@fda.hhs.gov; Arlt, Volker M. [Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Institute of Cancer Research, Cotswold Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Phillips, David H. [Section of Molecular Carcinogenesis, Institute of Cancer Research, Cotswold Road, Sutton, Surrey SM2 5NG (United Kingdom); Heflich, Robert H. [Division of Genetic and Reproductive Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States); Chen, Tao [Division of Genetic and Reproductive Toxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079 (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Aristolochic acid (AA) is a potent nephrotoxin and carcinogen and is the causative factor for Chinese herb nephropathy. AA has been associated with the development of urothelial cancer in humans, and kidney and forestomach tumors in rodents. To investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for the tumorigenicity of AA, we determined the DNA adduct formation and mutagenicity of AA in the liver (nontarget tissue) and kidney (target tissue) of Big Blue rats. Groups of six male rats were gavaged with 0, 0.1, 1.0 and 10.0 mg AA/kg body weight five times/week for 3 months. The rats were sacrificed 1 day after the final treatment, and the livers and kidneys were isolated. DNA adduct formation was analyzed by {sup 32}P-postlabeling and mutant frequency (MF) was determined using the {lambda} Select-cII Mutation Detection System. Three major adducts (7-[deoxyadenosin-N {sup 6}-yl]-aristolactam I, 7-[deoxyadenosin-N {sup 6}-yl]-aristolactam II and 7-[deoxyguanosin-N {sup 2}-yl]-aristolactam I) were identified. There were strong linear dose-responses for AA-induced DNA adducts in treated rats, ranging from 25 to 1967 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides in liver and 95-4598 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides in kidney. A similar trend of dose-responses for mutation induction also was found, the MFs ranging from 37 to 666 x 10{sup -6} in liver compared with the MFs of 78-1319 x 10{sup -6} that we previously reported for the kidneys of AA-treated rats. Overall, kidneys had at least two-fold higher levels of DNA adducts and MF than livers. Sequence analysis of the cII mutants revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between the mutation spectra in both kidney and liver of AA-treated and control rats, but there was no significant difference between the mutation spectra in AA-treated livers and kidneys. A:T {sup {yields}} T:A transversion was the predominant mutation in AA-treated rats; whereas G:C {sup {yields}} A:T transition was the main type of mutation in control

  1. [External periareolar incision for subdermal mastectomy in men with gynecomastia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Jarquín, Alvaro; Reyes-Páramo, Pedro; Ramos-Alvarez, Gloria; López-Colombo, Aurelio; Tinajero-Esquivel, Magdalena; Ruiz-León, Betzabé

    2007-01-01

    Gynecomastia describes a benign increase of the mammary gland in men. When medical treatment fails, symptoms and psychological alterations persist. Subdermal mastectomy is the definitive treatment and can be achieved by different incisions, each with potential complications. We undertook this study to present clinical characteristics of 11 patients with gynecomastia and the results obtained with subdermal mastectomy by means of external periareolar incision. A descriptive cohort study in male patients with gynecomastia was carried out in a third-level medical care hospital. Patients were treated with subdermal mastectomy by means of external periareolar incision. There were 11 male patients with an average age of 19 years (range: 11-60 years), 3 patients (27.2%) with bilateral gynecomastia and 8 patients (72.7%) with unilateral gynecomastia. Average time of evolution was 22 months (range: 16-48 months), 9 patients (81.8%) reported pain, 11 patients (100%) reported psychological alterations with cutaneous alteration, 11 patients (100%) had normal secondary sexual characteristics, 1 patient (9%) had supernumerary nipple development, and 11 patients (100%) had well-defined lesions. According to Simon's classification: seven patients (63.6%) were classified as grade 1, three patients (27.2%) as grade 2 and one patient (9.09%) as grade 3. Each patient had a subdermal mastectomy with external periareolar incision, 11 patients (100%) had a histopathological report of gynecomastia; 1 patient (9.09%) displayed keloid healing and none displayed complications inherent to the surgical procedure. Mastectomy by means of external periareolar incision is useful in the treatment of gynecomastia.

  2. Electrophilic properties of patulin. Adduct structures and reaction pathways with 4-bromothiophenol and other model nucleophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliege, R; Metzler, M

    2000-05-01

    The mycotoxin patulin (PAT) is believed to exert its cytotoxic and chromosome-damaging effects by forming covalent adducts with essential cellular thiols. Since the chemical structures of such adducts are unknown to date, we have studied the reaction of PAT and its O-acetylated derivative with the monofunctional thiol model compound 4-bromothiophenol (BTP), which was chosen due to analytical advantages. By means of analytical and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography, 16 adducts of PAT and 3 adducts of acetyl-PAT were isolated and their chemical structures elucidated by (1)H and (13)C NMR, IR, and UV spectroscopy. Time course studies and analysis of daughter product formation from isolated intermediate adducts led to a detailed scheme for the reaction of PAT with BTP. The structures of adducts of PAT formed with other model nucleophiles, e. g., the aliphatic thiol 2-mercaptoethanol and the aromatic amine 4-bromoaniline, were also elucidated and found to corroborate the reaction scheme. In addition, one further reaction pathway was observed with 2-mercaptoethanol, which appears to be independent from those found for BTP. Our study with model nucleophiles provides insights into the electrophilic reactivity of PAT and proved to be useful for the structure elucidation of PAT adducts with biological nucleophiles of toxicological relevance, as will be reported by Fliege and Metzler [(2000) Chem. Res. Toxicol. 13, 373-381].

  3. Incision of the Jezero Crater Outflow Channel by Fluvial Sediment Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holo, S.; Kite, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    Jezero crater, the top candidate landing site for the Mars 2020 rover, once possessed a lake that over-spilled and eroded a large outflow channel into the Eastern rim. The Western deltaic sediments that would be the primary science target of the rover record a history of lake level, which is modulated by the inflow and outflow channels. While formative discharges for the Western delta exist ( 500 m3/s), little work has been done to see if these flows are the same responsible for outflow channel incision. Other models of the Jezero outflow channel incision assume that a single rapid flood (incision timescales of weeks), with unknown initial hydraulic head and no discharge into the lake (e.g. from the inflow channels or the subsurface), incised an open channel with discharge modulated by flow over a weir. We present an alternate model where, due to an instability at the threshold of sediment motion, the incision of the outflow channel occurs in concert with lake filling. In particular, we assume a simplified lake-channel-valley system geometry and that the channel is hydraulically connected to the filling/draining crater lake. Bed load sediment transport and water discharge through the channel are quantified using the Meyer-Peter and Mueller relation and Manning's law respectively. Mass is conserved for both water and sediment as the lake level rises/falls and the channel incises. This model does not resolve backwater effects or concavity in the alluvial system, but it does capture the non-linear feedbacks between lake draining, erosion rate, channel flow rate, and slope relaxation. We identify controls on incision of the outflow channel and estimate the time scale of outflow channel formation through a simple dynamical model. We find that the observed 300m of channel erosion can be reproduced in decades to centuries of progressive bed load as the delta forming flows fill the lake. This corresponds to time scales on the order of or smaller than the time scale

  4. Capturing Labile Sulfenamide and Sulfinamide Serum Albumin Adducts of Carcinogenic Arylamines by Chemical Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lijuan; Turesky, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic amines and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are a class of structurally related carcinogens that are formed during the combustion of tobacco or during the high temperature cooking of meats. These procarcinogens undergo metabolic activation by N-oxidation of the exocyclic amine group to produce N-hydroxylated metabolites, which are critical intermediates implicated in toxicity and DNA damage. The arylhydroxylamines and their oxidized arylnitroso derivatives can also react with cysteine (Cys) residues of glutathione or proteins to form, respectively, sulfenamide and sulfinamide adducts. However, sulfur-nitrogen linked adducted proteins are often difficult to detect because they are unstable and undergo hydrolysis during proteolytic digestion. Synthetic N-oxidized intermediates of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a carcinogenic HAA produced in cooked meats, and 4-aminobiphenyl, a carcinogenic aromatic amine present in tobacco smoke were reacted with human serum albumin (SA) and formed labile sulfenamide or sulfinamide adducts at the Cys34 residue. Oxidation of the carcinogen-modified SA with m-chloroperoxybenzoic acid (m-CPBA) produced the arylsulfonamide adducts, which were stable to heat and the chemical reduction conditions employed to denature SA. The sulfonamide adducts of PhIP and 4-ABP were identified, by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, in proteolytic digests of denatured SA. Thus, selective oxidation of arylamine-modified SA produces stable arylsulfonamide-SA adducts, which may serve as biomarkers of these tobacco and dietary carcinogens. PMID:23240913

  5. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vikki; Brunetti, Vanessa; Peacock, Sarah; Massey, Thomas E; Godschalk, Roger W L; van Schooten, Frederik J; Ashbury, Janet E; Vanner, Stephen J; King, Will D

    2017-09-01

    Meat consumption is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. This research investigated the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure and bulky DNA adduct levels, a biomarker of DNA damage, in colon mucosa. Least squares regression was used to examine the relationship between meat-derived carcinogen exposure (PhIP and meat mutagenicity) and bulky DNA adduct levels in normal-appearing colon tissue measured using 32 P-postlabelling among 202 patients undergoing a screening colonoscopy. Gene-diet interactions between carcinogen exposure and genetic factors relevant to biotransformation and DNA repair were also examined. Genotyping was conducting using the MassARRAY ® iPLEX ® Gold SNP Genotyping assay. PhIP and higher meat mutagenicity exposures were not associated with levels of bulky DNA adducts in colon mucosa. The XPC polymorphism (rs2228001) was found to associate with bulky DNA adduct levels, whereby genotypes conferring lower DNA repair activity were associated with higher DNA adduct levels than the normal activity genotype. Among individuals with genotypes associated with lower DNA repair (XPD, rs13181 and rs1799179) or detoxification activity (GSTP1, rs1695), higher PhIP or meat mutagenicity exposures were associated with higher DNA adduct levels. Significant interactions between the XPC polymorphism (rs2228000) and both dietary PhIP and meat mutagenicity on DNA adduct levels was observed, but associations were inconsistent with the a priori hypothesized direction of effect. Exposure to meat-derived carcinogens may be associated with increased DNA damage occurring directly in the colon among genetically susceptible individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Force modeling for incisions into various tissues with MRF haptic master

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyunghwa; Kim, Soomin; Park, Young-Dai; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-03-01

    This study proposes a new model to predict the reaction force that occurs in incisions during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The reaction force is fed back to the manipulator by a magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) haptic master, which is featured by a bi-directional clutch actuator. The reaction force feedback provides similar sensations to laparotomy that cannot be provided by a conventional master for surgery. This advantage shortens the training period for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery and can improve the accuracy of operations. The reaction force modeling of incisions can be utilized in a surgical simulator that provides a virtual reaction force. In this work, in order to model the reaction force during incisions, the energy aspect of the incision process is adopted and analyzed. Each mode of the incision process is classified by the tendency of the energy change, and modeled for realistic real-time application. The reaction force model uses actual reaction force information with three types of actual tissues: hard tissue, medium tissue, and soft tissue. This modeled force is realized by the MRF haptic master through an algorithm based on the position and velocity of a scalpel using two different control methods: an open-loop algorithm and a closed-loop algorithm. The reaction forces obtained from the proposed model are compared with a desired force in time domain.

  7. Force modeling for incisions into various tissues with MRF haptic master

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Pyunghwa; Kim, Soomin; Park, Young-Dai; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a new model to predict the reaction force that occurs in incisions during robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery. The reaction force is fed back to the manipulator by a magneto-rheological fluid (MRF) haptic master, which is featured by a bi-directional clutch actuator. The reaction force feedback provides similar sensations to laparotomy that cannot be provided by a conventional master for surgery. This advantage shortens the training period for robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery and can improve the accuracy of operations. The reaction force modeling of incisions can be utilized in a surgical simulator that provides a virtual reaction force. In this work, in order to model the reaction force during incisions, the energy aspect of the incision process is adopted and analyzed. Each mode of the incision process is classified by the tendency of the energy change, and modeled for realistic real-time application. The reaction force model uses actual reaction force information with three types of actual tissues: hard tissue, medium tissue, and soft tissue. This modeled force is realized by the MRF haptic master through an algorithm based on the position and velocity of a scalpel using two different control methods: an open-loop algorithm and a closed-loop algorithm. The reaction forces obtained from the proposed model are compared with a desired force in time domain. (paper)

  8. Single incision laparoscopic pancreas resection for pancreatic metastasis of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaros, Umut; Sümer, Aziz; Demirel, Tugrul; Karakullukçu, Nazlı; Batman, Burçin; Içscan, Yalın; Sarıçam, Gülay; Serin, Kürçsat; Loh, Wei-Liang; Dinççağ, Ahmet; Mercan, Selçuk

    2010-01-01

    Transumbilical single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) offers excellent cosmetic results and may be associated with decreased postoperative pain, reduced need for analgesia, and thus accelerated recovery. Herein, we report the first transumbilical single incision laparoscopic pancreatectomy case in a patient who had renal cell cancer metastasis on her pancreatic corpus and tail. A 59-year-old female who had metastatic lesions on her pancreas underwent laparoscopic subtotal pancreatectomy through a 2-cm umbilical incision. Single incision pancreatectomy was performed with a special port (SILS port) and articulated equipment. The procedure lasted 330 minutes. Estimated blood loss was 100mL. No perioperative complications occurred. The patient was discharged on the seventh postoperative day with a low-volume (20mL/day) pancreatic fistula that ceased spontaneously. Pathology result of the specimen was renal cell cancer metastases. This is the first reported SILS pancreatectomy case, demonstrating that even advanced surgical procedures can be performed using the SILS technique in well-experienced centers. Transumbilical single incision laparoscopic pancreatectomy is feasible and can be performed safely in experienced centers. SILS may improve cosmetic results and allow accelerated recovery for patients even with malignancy requiring advanced laparoscopic interventions.

  9. PAH-DNA adducts in environmentally exposed population in relation to metabolic and DNA repair gene polymorphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binkova, Blanka [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic); Chvatalova, Irena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic); Lnenickova, Zdena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic); Milcova, Alena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic); Tulupova, Elena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic); Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester (United Kingdom); Farmer, Peter B. [Cancer Biomarkers and Prevention Group, Biocentre, University of Leicester (United Kingdom); Sram, Radim J. [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR and Health Institute of Central Bohemia, Videnska 1083, 14220 Prague (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz

    2007-07-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that prolonged exposure to particulate air pollution may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer in general population. These effects may be attributable to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed to respirable air particles. It is expected that metabolic and DNA repair gene polymorphisms may modulate individual susceptibility to PAH exposure. This study investigates relationships between exposure to PAHs, polymorphisms of these genes and DNA adducts in group of occupationally exposed policemen (EXP, N = 53, males, aged 22-50 years) working outdoors in the downtown area of Prague and in matched 'unexposed' controls (CON, N = 52). Personal exposure to eight carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was evaluated by personal samplers during working shift prior to collection of biological samples. Bulky-aromatic DNA adducts were analyzed in lymphocytes by {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay. Polymorphisms of metabolizing (GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, EPHX1, CYP1A1-MspI) and DNA repair (XRCC1, XPD) genes were determined by PCR-based RFLP assays. As potential modifiers and/or cofounders, urinary cotinine levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, plasma levels of vitamins A, C, E and folates by HPLC, cholesterol and triglycerides using commercial kits. During the sampling period ambient particulate air pollution was as follows: PM10 32-55 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, PM2.5 27-38 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, c-PAHs 18-22 ng/m{sup 3}; personal exposure to c-PAHs: 9.7 ng/m{sup 3} versus 5.8 ng/m{sup 3} (P < 0.01) for EXP and CON groups, respectively. The total DNA adduct levels did not significantly differ between EXP and CON groups (0.92 {+-} 0.28 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides versus 0.82 {+-} 0.23 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides, P = 0.065), whereas the level of the B[a]P-'like' adduct was significantly higher in exposed group (0.122 {+-} 0.036 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides versus 0.099 {+-} 0.035 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides, P = 0

  10. Manual small incision extracapsular cataract surgery in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, Lourens; Kahawita, Shyalle; Goggin, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Examination of the results and describing the technique of manual small incision extracapsular cataract extraction on patients with advanced cataracts in urban Australia. A descriptive case series. Thirty-eight patients at three public hospitals, one tertiary and two secondary ophthalmic units in urban Australia. Forty eyes with dense mature cataracts with hand movement vision or worse underwent a planned manual small incision extracapsular cataract extraction instead of traditional phaco-emulsification. Postoperative visual aquity, surgically induced astigmatism and complications. Seventy-eight per cent of patients had an uncorrected visual acuity of 6/12 or better on the first postoperative day. Eighty-three per cent of patients had a distance corrected visual acuity of 6/9 or better 3 months postoperatively. One case was complicated by a posterior capsule rupture. No cases of endophthalmitis were reported. The summated vector mean of the surgically induced astigmatism was 0.089D at 93°. Manual small incision extracapsular cataract extraction is an efficacious cataract surgery technique with good visual outcome and is a safe alternative to phaco-emulsification in suitable cases in a first-world setting. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  11. Surgically induced astigmatism after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal clear corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hwan Yoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To compare the corneal refractive changes induced after 3.0 mm temporal and nasal corneal incisions in bilateral cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: This prospective study comprised a consecutive case series of 60 eyes from 30 patients with bilateral phacoemulsification that were implanted with a 6.0 mm foldable intraocular lens through a 3.0 mm horizontal clear corneal incision (temporal in the right eyes, nasal in the left eyes. The outcome measures were surgically induced astigmatism (SIA and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA 1 and 3 months, post-operatively. Results: At 1 month, the mean SIA was 0.81 diopter (D for the temporal incisions and 0.92 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.139. At 3 months, the mean SIA were 0.53 D for temporal incisions and 0.62 D for nasal incisions (P = 0.309. The UCVA was similar in the 2 incision groups before surgery, and at 1 and 3 months post-operatively. Conclusion: After bilateral cataract surgery using 3.0 mm temporal and nasal horizontal corneal incisions, the induced corneal astigmatic change was similar in both incision groups. Especially in Asian eyes, both temporal and nasal incisions (3.0 mm or less would be favorable for astigmatism-neutral cataract surgery.

  12. Aorta-atria-septum combined incision for aortic valve re-replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiwei; Ye, Xiaofeng; Li, Zhaolong

    2018-01-01

    This case report illustrates a patient who underwent supra-annular mechanical aortic valve replacement then suffered from prosthesis dysfunction, increasing pressure gradient with aortic valve. She was successfully underwent aortic valve re-replacement, sub-annular pannus removing and aortic annulus enlargement procedures through combined cardiac incision passing through aortic root, right atrium (RA), and upper atrial septum. This incision provides optimal visual operative field and simplifies dissection. PMID:29850170

  13. Sequence distribution of acetaldehyde-derived N2-ethyl-dG adducts along duplex DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Brock; Guza, Rebecca; Zhao, Jianwei; Li, Zhong-ze; Jones, Roger; Tretyakova, Natalia

    2007-10-01

    Acetaldehyde (AA) is the major metabolite of ethanol and may be responsible for an increased gastrointestinal cancer risk associated with alcohol beverage consumption. Furthermore, AA is one of the most abundant carcinogens in tobacco smoke and induces tumors of the respiratory tract in laboratory animals. AA binding to DNA induces Schiff base adducts at the exocyclic amino group of dG, N2-ethylidene-dG, which are reversible on the nucleoside level but can be stabilized by reduction to N2-ethyl-dG. Mutagenesis studies in the HPRT reporter gene and in the p53 tumor suppressor gene have revealed the ability of AA to induce G-->A transitions and A-->T transversions, as well as frameshift and splice mutations. AA-induced point mutations are most prominent at 5'-AGG-3' trinucleotides, possibly a result of sequence specific adduct formation, mispairing, and/or repair. However, DNA sequence preferences for the formation of acetaldehyde adducts have not been previously examined. In the present work, we employed a stable isotope labeling-HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS approach developed in our laboratory to analyze the distribution of acetaldehyde-derived N2-ethyl-dG adducts along double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides representing two prominent lung cancer mutational "hotspots" and their surrounding DNA sequences. 1,7,NH 2-(15)N-2-(13)C-dG was placed at defined positions within DNA duplexes derived from the K-ras protooncogene and the p53 tumor suppressor gene, followed by AA treatment and NaBH 3CN reduction to convert N2-ethylidene-dG to N2-ethyl-dG. Capillary HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS was used to quantify N2-ethyl-dG adducts originating from the isotopically labeled and unlabeled guanine nucleobases and to map adduct formation along DNA duplexes. We found that the formation of N2-ethyl-dG adducts was only weakly affected by the local sequence context and was slightly increased in the presence of 5-methylcytosine within CG dinucleotides. These results are in contrast with sequence

  14. DNA adduct measurements in zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, Pallas. Potential use for genotoxicant biomonitoring of fresh water ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, J; Gallois, J; Pelhuet, L; Devier, M H; Budzinski, H; Pottier, D; André, V; Cachot, J

    2006-08-12

    The purpose of this study was to examine PAH accumulation and bulky DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of zebra mussels exposed in their habitat or in controlled laboratory conditions to complex mixture of PAH. DNA adducts were measured using a 32P-postlabelling protocol with nuclease P1 enrichment adapted from Reddy and Randerath [Reddy, M.V., Randerath, K., 1986. Nuclease P1-mediated enhancement of sensitivity of 32P-postlabelling test for structurally diverse DNA adducts. Carcinogenesis 7, 1543-1551]. Specimens collected in the upper part of the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate higher levels of PAH (up to 1.6 microg g(-1) dry weight) in comparison to individuals from the reference site (0.053 microg g(-1) dry weight). The former exhibited elevated levels of DNA adducts (up to 4.0/10(8) nucleotides) and higher diversity of individual adducts with five distinct spots being specifically detected in individuals originating from the Seine estuary. Zebra mussels exposed for 5 days to 0.01% (v/v) of organic extract of sediment from the Seine estuary were shown to accumulate high amounts of PAH (up to 138 microg g(-1) dry weight) but exhibited relatively low levels of DNA adducts. Exposure to benzo[a]pyrene led to a dose-dependent accumulation of B[a]P (up to 7063 microg g(-1) dry weight) and a clear induction of DNA adduct formation in the digestive gland of mussels (up to 1.13/10(8) nucleotides). Comparisons with other bivalves exposed to the same model PAH, revealed similar levels of adducts and comparable adduct profiles with a main adduct spot and a second faint one. This study clearly demonstrated that zebra mussels are able to biotransform B[a]P and probably other PAH into reactive metabolites with DNA-binding activity. This work also demonstrated the applicability of the nuclease P1 enhanced 32P-postlabelling method for bulky adduct detection in the digestive gland of zebra mussels. DNA adduct measurement in zebra mussels could be a suitable

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cervix of women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: An immunohistochemistry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, M. Margaret; Sirajuddin, Paul; Poirier, Miriam C.; Schiffman, Mark; Glass, Andrew G.; Scott, David R.; Rush, Brenda B.; Olivero, Ofelia A.; Castle, Philip E.

    2007-01-01

    Among women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), there is a two- to five-fold increased risk of cervical precancer and cancer in women who smoke compared to those who do not smoke. Because tobacco smoke contains carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it was of interest to examine human cervical tissue for PAH-DNA adduct formation. Here, we measured PAH-DNA adduct formation in cervical biopsies collected in follow-up among women who tested positive for carcinogenic HPV at baseline. A semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) method using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) was used to measure nuclear PAH-DNA adduct formation. Cultured human cervical keratinocytes exposed to 0, 0.153, or 0.331 μM BPDE showed dose-dependent increases in r7,t8,t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N 2 deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPdG) adducts. For BPdG adduct analysis, paraffin-embedded keratinocytes were stained by IHC with analysis of nuclear color intensity by Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS) and, in parallel cultures, extracted DNA was assayed by quantitative BPDE-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). For paraffin-embedded samples from carcinogenic HPV-infected women, normal-appearing cervical squamous epithelium suitable for scoring was found in samples from 75 of the 114 individuals, including 29 cases of cervical precancer or cancer and 46 controls. With a lower limit of detection of 20 adducts/10 8 nucleotides, detectable PAH-DNA adduct values ranged from 25 to 191/10 8 nucleotides, with a median of 75/10 8 nucleotides. PAH-DNA adduct values above 150/10 8 nucleotides were found in eight samples, and in three samples adducts were non-detectable. There was no correlation between PAH-DNA adduct formation and either smoking or case status. Therefore, PAH-DNA adduct formation as measured by this methodology did not appear related to the increased risk

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cervix of women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus types: An immunohistochemistry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, M. Margaret [Carcinogen-DNA Interactions Section, LCBG, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)], E-mail: prattm@mail.nih.gov; Sirajuddin, Paul; Poirier, Miriam C. [Carcinogen-DNA Interactions Section, LCBG, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Schiffman, Mark [Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Glass, Andrew G.; Scott, David R.; Rush, Brenda B. [Northwest Kaiser Permanente, Portland, OR (United States); Olivero, Ofelia A. [Carcinogen-DNA Interactions Section, LCBG, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States); Castle, Philip E. [Hormonal and Reproductive Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Among women infected with carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), there is a two- to five-fold increased risk of cervical precancer and cancer in women who smoke compared to those who do not smoke. Because tobacco smoke contains carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it was of interest to examine human cervical tissue for PAH-DNA adduct formation. Here, we measured PAH-DNA adduct formation in cervical biopsies collected in follow-up among women who tested positive for carcinogenic HPV at baseline. A semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) method using antiserum elicited against DNA modified with r7,t8-dihydroxy-t-9,10-oxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE) was used to measure nuclear PAH-DNA adduct formation. Cultured human cervical keratinocytes exposed to 0, 0.153, or 0.331 {mu}M BPDE showed dose-dependent increases in r7,t8,t9-trihydroxy-c-10-(N{sup 2}deoxyguanosyl)-7,8,9, 10-tetrahydro-benzo[a]pyrene (BPdG) adducts. For BPdG adduct analysis, paraffin-embedded keratinocytes were stained by IHC with analysis of nuclear color intensity by Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS) and, in parallel cultures, extracted DNA was assayed by quantitative BPDE-DNA chemiluminescence immunoassay (CIA). For paraffin-embedded samples from carcinogenic HPV-infected women, normal-appearing cervical squamous epithelium suitable for scoring was found in samples from 75 of the 114 individuals, including 29 cases of cervical precancer or cancer and 46 controls. With a lower limit of detection of 20 adducts/10{sup 8} nucleotides, detectable PAH-DNA adduct values ranged from 25 to 191/10{sup 8} nucleotides, with a median of 75/10{sup 8} nucleotides. PAH-DNA adduct values above 150/10{sup 8} nucleotides were found in eight samples, and in three samples adducts were non-detectable. There was no correlation between PAH-DNA adduct formation and either smoking or case status. Therefore, PAH-DNA adduct formation as measured by this methodology did not appear

  17. Analysis of hemoglobin adducts from acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide in paired mother/cord blood samples from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Stedingk, Hans; Vikström, Anna C; Rydberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge about fetal exposure to acrylamide/glycidamide from the maternal exposure through food is limited. Acrylamide, glycidamide, and ethylene oxide are electrophiles and form adducts with hemoglobin (Hb), which could be used for in vivo dose measurement. In this study, a method.......20-0.73) for glycidamide, and 0.43 (range 0.17-1.34) for ethylene oxide. In vitro studies with acrylamide and glycidamide showed a lower (0.38-0.48) rate of adduct formation with Hb in cord blood than with Hb in maternal blood, which is compatible with the structural differences in fetal and adult Hb. Together...... for analysis of Hb adducts by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the adduct FIRE procedure, was applied to measurements of adducts from these compounds in maternal blood samples (n = 87) and umbilical cord blood samples (n = 219). The adduct levels from the three compounds, acrylamide, glycidamide...

  18. PAH-DNA adducts in environmentally exposed population in relation to metabolic and DNA repair gene polymorphisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkova, Blanka; Chvatalova, Irena; Lnenickova, Zdena; Milcova, Alena; Tulupova, Elena; Farmer, Peter B.; Sram, Radim J.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that prolonged exposure to particulate air pollution may be associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer in general population. These effects may be attributable to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) adsorbed to respirable air particles. It is expected that metabolic and DNA repair gene polymorphisms may modulate individual susceptibility to PAH exposure. This study investigates relationships between exposure to PAHs, polymorphisms of these genes and DNA adducts in group of occupationally exposed policemen (EXP, N = 53, males, aged 22-50 years) working outdoors in the downtown area of Prague and in matched 'unexposed' controls (CON, N = 52). Personal exposure to eight carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was evaluated by personal samplers during working shift prior to collection of biological samples. Bulky-aromatic DNA adducts were analyzed in lymphocytes by 32 P-postlabeling assay. Polymorphisms of metabolizing (GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, EPHX1, CYP1A1-MspI) and DNA repair (XRCC1, XPD) genes were determined by PCR-based RFLP assays. As potential modifiers and/or cofounders, urinary cotinine levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay, plasma levels of vitamins A, C, E and folates by HPLC, cholesterol and triglycerides using commercial kits. During the sampling period ambient particulate air pollution was as follows: PM10 32-55 μg/m 3 , PM2.5 27-38 μg/m 3 , c-PAHs 18-22 ng/m 3 ; personal exposure to c-PAHs: 9.7 ng/m 3 versus 5.8 ng/m 3 (P 8 nucleotides versus 0.82 ± 0.23 adducts/10 8 nucleotides, P = 0.065), whereas the level of the B[a]P-'like' adduct was significantly higher in exposed group (0.122 ± 0.036 adducts/10 8 nucleotides versus 0.099 ± 0.035 adducts/10 8 nucleotides, P = 0.003). A significant difference in both the total (P < 0.05) and the B[a]P-'like' DNA adducts (P < 0.01) between smokers and nonsmokers within both groups was observed. A significant positive association between DNA adduct and cotinine

  19. Minimal incision surgery in strabismus: Modified fornix-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, I

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the modified fornix-based technique as an approach for minimal incision surgery in strabismus. The medical records of all consecutive patients that underwent strabismus surgery with fornix-based conjunctival incision between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. As a primary variable, an analysis was made of the wound size depending on the number of stitches. A descriptive study was performed on the variables related to patients and to the type of strabismus and surgery. Out of 153patients identified, 138 with 294 surgeries were included. In 200 (68%) interventions, the incision was sutured with one stitch, in 77 (26.2%) with 2, in 13 (4.4%) with 3, and in 4 (1.4%) with 4, with the mean number of stitches being 1.39±0.64. The mean age of the patients was 39years (2-80), and 36 (26.1%) had previous strabismus surgery, with topical anaesthesia being used in 35 (25.4%) cases. At 3months after surgery deviation was ≤10DP in 114 (82.6%) patients. There were no wound-related complications. The modified fornix-based technique is an effective and safe approach for minimal incision surgery in strabismus, in patients at all ages, with previous history of strabismus surgery and with topical anaesthesia. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. DNA adduct formation by the ubiquitous environmental pollutant 3-nitrobenzanthrone and its metabolites in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlt, Volker M.; Sorg, Bernd L.; Osborne, Martin; Hewer, Alan; Seidel, Albrecht; Schmeiser, Heinz H.; Phillips, David H.

    2003-01-01

    Diesel exhaust is known to induce tumours in animals and is suspected of being carcinogenic in humans. Of the compounds found in diesel exhaust, 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is an extremely potent mutagen and suspected human carcinogen forming multiple DNA adducts in vitro. 3-Aminobenzanthrone (3-ABA), 3-acetylaminobenzanthrone (3-Ac-ABA), and N-acetyl-N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-Ac-N-OH-ABA) were identified as 3-NBA metabolites. In order to gain insight into the pathways of metabolic activation leading to 3-NBA-derived DNA adducts we treated Wistar rats intraperitoneally with 2 mg/kg body weight of 3-NBA, 3-ABA, 3-Ac-ABA, or N-Ac-N-OH-ABA and compared DNA adducts present in different organs. With each compound either four or five DNA adduct spots were detected by TLC in all tissues examined (lung, liver, kidney, heart, pancreas, and colon) using the nuclease P1 or butanol enrichment version of the 32 P-postlabelling method, respectively. Using HPLC co-chromatographic analysis we showed that all major 3-NBA-DNA adducts produced in vivo in rats are derived from reductive metabolites bound to purine bases and lack an N-acetyl group. Our results indicate that 3-NBA metabolites (3-ABA, 3-Ac-ABA and N-Ac-N-OH-ABA) undergo several biotransformations and that N-hydroxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-OH-ABA) appears to be the common intermediate in 3-NBA-derived DNA adduct formation. Therefore, 3-NBA-DNA adducts are useful biomarkers for exposure to 3-NBA and its metabolites and may help to identify enzymes involved in their metabolic activation

  1. Photochemical Reaction of 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA and Formation of DNA Covalent Adducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. Fu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available DMBA, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, is a widely studied polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon that has long been recognized as a probable human carcinogen. It has been found that DMBA is phototoxic in bacteria as well as in animal or human cells and photomutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA102. This article tempts to explain the photochemistry and photomutagenicity mechanism. Light irradiation converts DMBA into several photoproducts including benz[a]anthracene-7,12-dione, 7-hydroxy-12-keto-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene, 7,12-epidioxy-7,12-dihydro-DMBA, 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-hydroxymethyl-7-methylbenz[a]anthracene. Structures of these photoproducts have been identified by either comparison with authentic samples or by NMR/MS. At least four other photoproducts need to be assigned. Photo-irradiation of DMBA in the presence of calf thymus DNA was similarly conducted and light-induced DMBA-DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC, which indicates that multiple DNA adducts were formed. This indicates that formation of DNA adducts might be the source of photomutagenicity of DMBA. Metabolites obtained from the metabolism of DMBA by rat liver microsomes were reacted with calf thymus DNA and the resulting DNA adducts were analyzed by 32P-postlabeling/TLC under identical conditions. Comparison of the DNA adduct profiles indicates that the DNA adducts formed from photo-irradiation are different from the DNA adducts formed due to the reaction of DMBA metabolites with DNA. These results suggest that photo-irradiation of DMBA can lead to genotoxicity through activation pathways different from those by microsomal metabolism of DMBA.

  2. Outcomes of single-stage total arch replacement via clamshell incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishizaka Toru

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment of complex aortic pathologies involving the transverse arch with extensive involvement of the descending aorta remains a surgical challenge. Since clamshell incision provides superior exposure of the entire thoracic aorta, we evaluated the use of this technique for single-stage total arch replacement by arch vessel reconstruction. Methods The arch-first technique combined with clamshell incision was used in 38 cases of aneurysm and aortic disease in 2008 and 2009. Extensive total arch replacement was used with clamshell incision for reconstruction of arch vessels under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Results Overall 30-day mortality was 13%. The mean operating time was approximately 8 hours. Deep hypothermia resulted in mean CPB time exceeding 4.5 hours and mean duration of circulatory arrest was 25 minutes. The overall postoperative temporary and permanent neurologic dysfunction rates were 3% and 3% for elective and 3% and 0% for emergency surgery, respectively. All patients except the five who died in hospital were discharged without nursing care after an average post-operative hospital stay of 35 days. Conclusions The arch-first technique, combined with clamshell incision, provides expeditious replacement of the thoracic aorta with an acceptable duration of hypothermic circulatory arrest and minimizes the risk of retrograde atheroembolism by using antegrade perfusion.

  3. Adducts of rare earth tris-acetylacetonates with dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyubenko, N.G.; Kalenichenko, Yu.V.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1988-01-01

    Adducts of rare earth and yttrium (r.e.e., M) acetylacetonates with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), MA 3 xnDMSO are synthesized. The acetylacetonates of light r.e.e. (M=La-Tb) are shown by different physico-chemical methods to form diadducts of the MA 3 x2DMSOxH 2 O composition, where A - -acetylacetonate-ion, and the acetyl-acetonates of heavy r.e.e. (M=Dy-Lu, Y)-monoadducts MA 3 xDMSO. The estimation of adduct thermal stability is carried out using the values of seeming activation energy of their thermal degradation. Monoadducts are shown to give volatile forms of rare earth acetylacetonates during heating in vacuum, and diadducts do not form volatile forms of acetylacetonates

  4. Evaluation of a new disposable silicon limbal relaxing incision knife by experienced users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, John; Dugue, Geoffrey; Parvu, Valentin; Bajart, Ann M; Lee, Edwin

    2009-12-21

    Previous research has suggested that the silicon BD Atomic Edge knife has superior performance characteristics when compared to a metal knife and performance similar to diamond knife when making various incisions. This study was designed to determine whether a silicon accurate depth knife has equivalent performance characteristics when compared to a diamond limbal relaxing incision (LRI) knife and superior performance characteristics when compared to a steel accurate depth knife when creating limbal relaxing incision. Sixty-five ophthalmic surgeons with limbal relaxing incision experience created limbal relaxing incisions in ex-vivo porcine eyes with silicon and steel accurate depth knives and diamond LRI knives. The ophthalmic surgeons rated multiple performance characteristics of the knives on Visual Analog Scales. The observed differences between the silicon knife and diamond knife were found to be insignificant. The mean ratio between the performance of the silicon knife and the diamond knife was shown to be greater than 90% (with 95% confidence). The silicon knife's mean performance was significantly higher than the performance of the steel knife for all characteristics. (p-value knife was found to be equivalent in performance to the diamond LRI knife and superior to the steel accurate depth knife when making limbal relaxing incisions in ex vivo porcine eyes. Disposable silicon LRI knives may be an alternative to diamond LRI knives.

  5. Climate-sensitive feedbacks between hillslope processes and fluvial erosion in sediment-driven incision models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skov, Daniel S.; Egholm, David L.

    2016-04-01

    Surface erosion and sediment production seem to have accelerated globally as climate cooled in the Late Cenozoic, [Molnar, P. 2004, Herman et al 2013]. Glaciers emerged in many high mountain ranges during the Quaternary, and glaciation therefore represents a likely explanation for faster erosion in such places. Still, observations and measurements point to increases in erosion rates also in landscapes where erosion is driven mainly by fluvial processes [Lease and Ehlers (2013), Reusser (2004)]. Flume experiments and fieldwork have shown that rates of incision are to a large degree controlled by the sediment load of streams [e.g. Sklar and Dietrich (2001), Beer and Turowski (2015)]. This realization led to the formulation of sediment-flux dependent incision models [Sklar and Dietrich (2004)]. The sediment-flux dependence links incision in the channels to hillslope processes that supply sediment to the channels. The rates of weathering and soil transport on the hillslopes are processes that are likely to respond to changing temperatures, e.g. because of vegetation changes or the occurrence of frost. In this study, we perform computational landscape evolution experiments, where the coupling between fluvial incision and hillslope processes is accounted for by coupling a sediment-flux-dependent model for fluvial incision to a climate-dependent model for weathering and hillslope sediment transport. The computational experiments first of all demonstrate a strong positive feedback between channel and hillslope processes. In general, faster weathering leads to higher rates of channel incision, which further increases the weathering rates, mainly because of hillslope steepening. Slower weathering leads to the opposite result. The experiments also demonstrate, however, that the feedbacks vary significantly between different parts of a drainage network. For example, increasing hillslope sediment production may accelerate incision in the upper parts of the catchment, while at

  6. Comparison of the effects of 23-gauge and 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy blade designs on incision architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Makoto Inoue,1 Dina Joy K Abulon,2 Akito Hirakata1 1Kyorin Eye Center, School of Medicine, Kyorin University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Alcon Research, Ltd., Irvine, CA, USA Purpose: To compare the effects of different 23- and 25-gauge microincision vitrectomy trocar cannula entry systems on incision architecture.Methods: We tested one ridged microvitreoretinal (MVR, one non-ridged MVR, one pointed beveled, and one round-tipped beveled blade (n=10 per blade design per incision type. Each blade’s straight and oblique incision architecture was assessed in a silicone disc simulating the sclera. Wound leakage under pressure and endoscopic observations were conducted on sclerotomy sites of isolated porcine eyes (n=4 per blade design after simulated vitrectomy.Results: Differences in blade design created distinct incision architecture. Incisions were linear with the ridged MVR blade, flattened “M-shaped” with the non-ridged MVR blade, asymmetrical chevron-shaped with the pointed beveled blade, and curved with the round-tipped beveled blade. With the exception of oblique entry incision thickness, both MVR blade designs created thinner incisions than the beveled blades at entry and exit sites. Only the ridged MVR blade created incisions with no leakage. Vitreous incarceration was observed with all trocar cannula systems.Conclusion: Wound closure in porcine eyes was similar with all blades despite differences in incision architecture. Wound leakage occurred at low to moderate infusion pressures with most blades; no wound leakage was observed with ridged MVR blades. Keywords: entry system, incision closure, leakage, pars plana incision, sclerotomy, trocar blade 

  7. DNA adduct profiling of in vitro colonic meat digests to map red vs. white meat genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Rombouts, Caroline; De Paepe, Ellen; Vanhaecke, Lynn

    2018-05-01

    The consumption of red meat has been linked to an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. One of the major hypotheses states that heme iron (present in red meat) stimulates the formation of genotoxic N-nitroso compounds (NOCs) and lipid peroxidation products (LPOs). By means of DNA adductomics, chemically induced DNA adduct formation can be mapped in relation to e.g. dietary exposures. In this study, this state-of-the-art methodology was used to investigate alkylation and (lipid per)oxidation induced DNA adduct formation in in vitro red vs. white meat digests. In doing so, 90 alkylation and (lipid per)oxidation induced DNA adduct types could be (tentatively) identified. Overall, 12 NOC- and/or LPO-related DNA adduct types, i.e. dimethyl-T (or ethyl-T), hydroxymethyl-T, tetramethyl-T, methylguanine (MeG), guanidinohydantoin, hydroxybutyl-C, hydroxymethylhydantoin, malondialdehyde-x3-C, O 6 -carboxymethylguanine, hydroxyethyl-T, carboxyethyl-T and 3,N 4 -etheno-C were singled out as potential heme-rich meat digestion markers. The retrieval of these DNA adduct markers is in support of the heme, NOC and LPO hypotheses, suggesting that DNA adduct formation may indeed contribute to red meat related CRC risk. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adduction of DNA with MTBE and TBA in mice studied by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y; Wang, H F; Sun, H F; Du, H F; Xu, L H; Liu, Y F; Ding, X F; Fu, D P; Liu, K X

    2007-12-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a currently worldwide used octane enhancer substituting for lead alkyls and gasoline oxygenate. Our previous study using doubly (14)C-labeled MTBE [(CH(3))(3) (14)CO(14)CH(3)] has shown that MTBE binds DNA to form DNA adducts at low dose levels in mice. To elucidate the mechanism of the binding reaction, in this study, the DNA adducts with singly (14)C-labeled MTBE, which was synthesized from (14)C-methanol and tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), or (14)C-labeled TBA in mice have been measured by ultra sensitive accelerator mass spectrometry. The results show that the methyl group of MTBE and tert-butyl alcohol definitely form adducts with DNA in mouse liver, lung, and kidney. The methyl group of MTBE is the predominant binding part in liver, while the methyl group and the tert-butyl group give comparable contributions to the adduct formation in lung and kidney.

  9. Characterization of model peptide adducts with reactive metabolites of naphthalene by mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie T Pham

    Full Text Available Naphthalene is a volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon generated during combustion and is a ubiquitous chemical in the environment. Short term exposures of rodents to air concentrations less than the current OSHA standard yielded necrotic lesions in the airways and nasal epithelium of the mouse, and in the nasal epithelium of the rat. The cytotoxic effects of naphthalene have been correlated with the formation of covalent protein adducts after the generation of reactive metabolites, but there is little information about the specific sites of adduction or on the amino acid targets of these metabolites. To better understand the chemical species produced when naphthalene metabolites react with proteins and peptides, we studied the formation and structure of the resulting adducts from the incubation of model peptides with naphthalene epoxide, naphthalene diol epoxide, 1,2-naphthoquinone, and 1,4-naphthoquinone using high resolution mass spectrometry. Identification of the binding sites, relative rates of depletion of the unadducted peptide, and selectivity of binding to amino acid residues were determined. Adduction occurred on the cysteine, lysine, and histidine residues, and on the N-terminus. Monoadduct formation occurred in 39 of the 48 reactions. In reactions with the naphthoquinones, diadducts were observed, and in one case, a triadduct was detected. The results from this model peptide study will assist in data interpretation from ongoing work to detect peptide adducts in vivo as markers of biologic effect.

  10. Influence of different phacoemulsification incision on postoperative corneal astigmatism for cataract patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Rong Zeng

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the effect of different phacoemulsification incision on postoperative corneal astigmatism for cataract patients. METHODS: The cataract patients were selected in our hospital. The patients were divided into control group(corneal limbus opposite curved scleral tunnel incision groupand observation group(above the top of cornea or temporal transparent corneal incision grouprandomly. At 1wk; 1 and 3mo after surgery, the change of corneal astigmatism and vision of the patients in two groups were compared and analyzed. RESULTS:Compared with control group, 1wk; 1 and 3mo after surgery, the average corneal astigmatism and surgically induced corneal astigmatism of the patients in observation group were decreased significantly. The visual acuity and corrected visual acuity were increased significantly. There was statistically significant(PPCONCLUSION: Center distance and small incision corneal phacoemulsification can reduce postoperative astigmatism and improve postoperative visual acuity for cataract patients. It provides guarantee for further strengthen the clinical treated effect for cataract patients.

  11. Structural and Functional Studies on Nucleotide Excision Repair From Recognition to Incision.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caroline Kisker

    2001-01-01

    Maintenance of the correct genetic information is crucial for all living organisms because mutations are the primary cause of hereditary diseases, as well as cancer and may also be involved in aging. The importance of genomic integrity is underscored by the fact that 80 to 90% of all human cancers are ultimately due to DNA damage. Among the different repair mechanisms that have evolved to protect the genome, nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a universal pathway found in all organisms. NER removes a wide variety of bulky DNA adducts including the carcinogenic cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers induced by UV radiation, benzo(a)pyrene-guanine adducts caused by smoking and the guanine-cisplatin adducts induced by chemotherapy. The importance of this repair mechanism is reflected by three severe inherited diseases in humans, which are due to defects in NER: xeroderma pigmentosum, Cockayne's syndrome and trichothiodystrophy.

  12. Formation of 7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene-DNA adducts from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in mouse epidermis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGiovanni, J.; Nebzydoski, A.P.; Decina, P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The formation of DNA adducts from [ 3 H]-7-hydroxymethyl-12-methylbenz(a)anthracene (7-OHM-12-MBA) and [ 3 H]-7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) in the epidermis of Sencar mice was analyzed. Comparison of Sephadex LH-20 chromatographic profiles of DNA samples isolated from mice treated with DMBA or 7-OHM-12-MBA suggested that the DMBA-treated animals contained DNA adduct(s) derived from the further metabolism of 7-OHM-12-MBA. Further analysis of DNA samples from DMBA-treated mice by high-pressure liquid chromatography demonstrated the presence of 5 DNA adducts which were chromatographically indistinguishable from the DNA adducts formed in 7-OHM-12-MBA-treated mice. Epidermal homogenates were utilized to catalyze the covalent binding of [ 3 H]DMBA and [ 3 H]-7-OHM-12-MBA to calf thymus DNA in vitro. Under conditions of limiting concentrations of [ 3 H]DMBA, the majority of the DNA adducts formed chromatographed in regions where 7-OHM-12-MBA-DNA adducts eluted. A major DMBA-DNA adduct formed in this in vitro system eluted with the same retention time as did the major 7-OHM-12-MBA-DNA adduct formed in mouse skin in vivo. These results when coupled with the in vivo data suggest that 7-OHM-12-MBA is an intermediate for at least some of the binding of DMBA to epidermal DNA in Sencar mice

  13. What can we learn from fluvial incision in high mountains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Margret; Gloaguen, Richard; Krbetschek, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    High and actively deforming mountain ranges attract the attention of geoscientists as they provide natural laboratories of fast evolving process-response systems. Tectonic compressional settings, often linked to perpendicular extension, control the topographic growth and hence, erosion, transport pathways and sedimentation. High altitude differences within short horizontal distances promote material re-organisation and high rates of surface processes. Furthermore, high mountains constitute orographic barriers that affect atmospheric circulations as well as host different climate regimes similar to those of widely separated latitudinal belts. Both cause a high sensitivity of surface processes to changes in climatic conditions. However, feedbacks between climatic and tectonic forcing are complex. Additionally, the dominance of one or the other varies in space and also over time, inheriting various traces of the paleo-morphodynamic conditions to the subsequent process regimes. To unravel the forces driving the evolution of relief in active mountains, numerous studies employ the drainage network of the corresponding mountains as a proxy of landscape evolution. Especially the rates of river incision provide a powerful tool to characterize the surface response and infer causes behind it. Several parameters of river incision are available to describe the fluvial incision at individual sites (e.g. terrace incision rates), along the river course (e.g. longitudinal river profiles, Hack index) and in its perpendicular dimension (e.g. valley cross sections, valley shape ratios). But they require careful interpretation. They are sensitive to both, climatic and tectonic forcing. Therefore, the synopsis of such indices for fluvial incision is essential to evaluate the role of climatic versus tectonic forcing. Here, we use the Panj river system, the major river draining the Pamir mountains of Central Asia, as an example. The Panj experiences high altitude changes of more than 4000

  14. Quantification of 3-nitrobenzanthrone-DNA adducts using online column-switching HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Singh, Rajinder; Arlt, Volker M; Mirza, Amin; Richards, Meirion; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Schmeiser, Heinz H; Farmer, Peter B; Phillips, David H

    2009-11-01

    The aromatic nitroketone 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one; 3-NBA) is an extremely potent mutagen and a suspected human carcinogen detected in the exhaust of diesel engines and in airborne particulate matter. 3-NBA is metabolically activated via reduction of the nitro group to the hydroxylamine (N-OH-3-ABA) to form covalent DNA adducts. Thus far, the detection and quantification of covalent 3-NBA-DNA adducts has relied solely on (32)P-postlabeling methodologies. In order to expand the range of available techniques for the detection and improved quantification of 3-NBA-DNA adducts, we have developed a method based upon online column-switching HPLC coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, with isotopic dilution of (15)N-labeled internal standards. This methodology was applied to the determination of three 3-NBA-derived adducts: 2-(2'-deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-N(2)-3-ABA), N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-N-3-ABA) and 2-(2'-deoxyguanosine-8-yl)-3-aminobenzanthrone (dG-C8-C2-3-ABA). Dose-dependent increases were observed for all three adducts when salmon testis DNA was reacted with N-acetoxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-AcO-3-ABA). dG-C8-C2-3-ABA was detected at much lower levels (overall 1%) than the other two adducts. DNA samples isolated from tissues of rats treated either intratracheally with 3-NBA or intraperitoneally with N-OH-3-ABA were analyzed by mass spectrometry, and the results compared to those obtained by (32)P-postlabeling. The method required 50 microg of hydrolyzed animal DNA on column and the limit of detection was 2.0 fmol for each adduct. dG-C8-C2-3-ABA was not observed in any of the samples providing confirmation that it is not formed in vivo. Linear regression analysis of the levels of dG-N(2)-3-ABA and dG-C8-N-3-ABA in the rat DNA showed a reasonable correlation between the two methods (R(2) = 0.88 and 0.93, respectively). In summary, the mass spectrometric method is a faster, more

  15. A Precise 6 Ma Start Date for Fluvial Incision of the Northeastern Colorado Plateau Canyonlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, S. N.; Soreghan, G. S.; Reiners, P. W.; Peyton, S. L.; Murray, K. E.

    2015-12-01

    Outstanding questions regarding late Cenozoic Colorado Plateau landscape evolution include: (1) the relative roles of isostatic rebound as result Colorado River incision versus longer-term geodynamic processes in driving overall rock uplift of the plateau; and (2) whether incision was triggered by river integration or by a change in deep-seated mantle lithosphere dynamics. A key to answering these questions is to date more precisely the onset of incision to refine previous estimates of between 6 and 10 Ma. We present new low-temperature thermochronologic results from bedrock and deep borehole samples in the northeastern Colorado Plateau to show that rapid river incision began here at 6 Ma (5.93±0.66 Ma) with incision rates increasing from 15-50 m/Myr to 160-200 m/Myr. The onset time is constrained independently by both inverse time-temperature modeling and by the break-in-slope in fission track age-elevation relationships. This new time constraint has several important implications. First, the coincidence in time with 5.97-5.3 Ma integration of the lower Colorado River through the Grand Canyon to the Gulf of California strongly favors downstream river integration triggering carving of the canyonlands of the upper Colorado River system. Second, it implies integration of the entire Colorado River system in less than 2 million years. Third, rock uplift of the plateau driven by the flexural isostatic response to river incision is restricted to just the last 6 Ma, as is associated increased sediment budget. Fourth, incision starting at 6 Ma means that previous estimates of upper Colorado River incision rates based on 10-12 Ma basalt datum levels are too low. This also changes the dependency of measured time interval on incision rate from a non-steady-state negative power-law dependence (exponent of -0.24) to a near steady-state dependence (exponent of 0.07) meaning that long-term upper Colorado river incision rates can provide a reliable proxy for rock uplift rates.

  16. Kualitas Pengeringan Kayu Mahoni pada Berbagai Variasi Kerapatan Incising dengan Dua Skedul Pengeringan Suhu tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomy Listyanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh interaksi variasi kerapatan incising dan dua skedul pengeringan terhadap kecepatan dan cacat-cacat pengeringan kayu mahoni, serta mengetahui pengaruh variasi kerapatan incising terhadap kekuatan lengkung statik kayu mahoni yang telah dikeringkan. Tiga pohon mahoni (Swietenia mahagony berdiameter 300-350 mm ditebang dan selanjutnya dibelah dan dibuat menjadi balok dengan ukuran 60 mm × 100 mm dengan panjang 500 mm untuk dijadikan sampel pengeringan. Di antara masing-masing bagian tersebut, dibuat sampel ukuran 20 mm × 20 mm × 25 mm, yang digunakan untuk penentu kadar air awal dan distribusinya. Sampel pengeringan selanjutnya dibagi menjadi 5 variasi kerapatan incising, yaitu 0 lubang/m2 (tanpa incising, 1000 lubang/m2, 2000 lubang/m2, 3000 lubang/m2, dan 4000 lubang/m2. Setiap variasi kerapatan incising selanjutnya akan dikeringkan dengan 2 skedul pengeringan, yaitu suhu pengeringan 100°C sampai tercapai kadar air akhir 12% dan suhu 60°C pada 8 jam pertama dan selanjutnya dilanjutkan 100°C, sampai tercapai kadar air akhir 12%. Paramater yang diamati adalah kecepatan pengeringan, cacat retak permukaan, dan distribusi kadar air akhir. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa kerapatan incising 3000-4000 lubang/m2 memberikan pengaruh yang cukup nyata di dalam mempercepat proses pengeringan dan distribusi kadar air akhir. Skedul pengeringan dan variasi kerapatan incising tidak berpengaruh pada retak permukaan. Pra perlakuan incising sampai batas 4000 lubang/m2 ini dapat diterapkan untuk mempercepat proses pengeringan dengan penurunan nilai modulus elastisitas dan modulus patah yang tidak berbeda nyata. Kata kunci: incising, pengeringan suhu tinggi, mahoni, lengkung statik, skedul pengeringan   Drying Quality of Mahoni Wood in Various Incising Densities and Two High Temperature-Drying Schedules Abstract The aims of this research were to investigate the effects of interaction

  17. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabro Nielsen, P.

    1996-01-01

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the 32 P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG)

  18. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabro Nielsen, P

    1997-12-31

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG).

  19. Bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and exposure to environmental and occupational sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Influence of susceptibility genotypes on adduct level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabro Nielsen, P.

    1996-12-31

    PAH exposure, whether it is of occupational or environmental origin, is thought to result in an elevated risk of cancer especially in the lungs. DNA damage is considered an important step in the carcinogenic effect of PAH. Hence, methods that elucidate the steps in the carcinogenic process are important to understand the action of PAH. It may prove useful in the exposure assessment and in combination with classical epidemiological methods give better basis for risk estimation. The objective in this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling method to detect carcinogen-DNA adducts for assessing exposure to DNA damaging compounds in different occupationally and environmentally exposed groups. The studies included groups, that have an elevated cancer risk due to occupational exposure to PAH. Exposure levels were supposed to be relatively low according to reports on occupational and environmental air quality programs. Another aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in metabolizing enzyme genes on DNA adduct levels. A third objective was to establish some kind of baseline DNA adduct level for individuals with supposed low exposure, and compare it to the more exposed groups. A fourth aim in these studies was to examine if biomarkers of genotoxic exposure could be useful in epidemiological studies to identify groups at risk and thereby contribute with better exposure estimates in the study of PAH related cancer risk. (EG).

  20. Nuclear magnetic resonance at the picomole level of a DNA adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, Roger; Wang, Poguang; Giese, Roger W

    2013-10-21

    We investigate the limit of detection for obtaining NMR data of a DNA adduct using modern microscale NMR instrumentation, once the adduct has been isolated at the picomole level. Eighty nanograms (130 pmol) of a DNA adduct standard, N-(2'-deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-acetylaminofluorene 5'-monophosphate (AAF-dGMP), in 1.5 μL of D₂O with 10% methanol-d₄, in a vial, was completely picked up as a droplet suspended in a fluorocarbon liquid and loaded efficiently into a microcoil probe. This work demonstrates a practical manual method of droplet microfluidic sample loading, previously demonstrated using automated equipment, which provides a severalfold advantage over conventional flow injection. Eliminating dilution during injection and confining the sample to the observed volume produce the full theoretical mass sensitivity of a microcoil, comparable to that of a microcryo probe. With 80 ng, an NMR spectrum acquired over 40 h showed all of the resonances seen in a standard spectrum of AAF-dGMP, with a signal-to-noise ratio of at least 10, despite broadening due to previously noted effects of conformational exchange. Even with this broadening to 5 Hz, a two-dimensional total correlation spectroscopy spectrum was acquired on 1.6 μg in 18 h. This work helps to define the utility of NMR in combination with other analytical methods for the structural characterization of a small amount of a DNA adduct.

  1. Molecular Modeling of the Major DNA Adduct Formed from Food Mutagen Ochratoxin A in NarI Two-Base Deletion Duplexes: Impact of Sequence Context and Adduct Ionization on Conformational Preference and Mutagenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathuria, Preetleen; Sharma, Purshotam; Manderville, Richard A; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2017-08-21

    Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA), a possible human carcinogen, leads to many different DNA mutations. As a first step toward understanding the structural basis of OTA-induced mutagenicity, the present work uses a robust computational approach and a slipped mutagenic intermediate model previously studied for C 8 -dG aromatic amine adducts to analyze the conformational features of postreplication two-base deletion DNA duplexes containing OT-dG, the major OTA lesion at the C 8 position of guanine. Specifically, a total of 960 ns of molecular dynamics simulations (excluding trial simulations) were carried out on four OT-dG ionization states in three sequence contexts within oligomers containing the NarI recognition sequence, a known hotspot for deletion mutations induced by related adducts formed from known carcinogens. Our results indicate that the structural properties and relative stability of the competing "major groove" and "stacked" conformations of OTA adducted two-base deletion duplexes depend on both the OTA ionization state and the sequence context, mainly due to conformation-dependent deviations in discrete local (hydrogen-bonding and stacking) interactions at the lesion site, as well as DNA bending. When the structural characteristics of the OT-dG adducted two-base deletion duplexes are compared to those associated with previously studied C 8 -dG adducts, a greater understanding of the effects of the nucleobase-carcinogen linkage, and size of the carcinogenic moiety on the conformational preferences of damaged DNA is obtained. Most importantly, our work predicts key structural features for OT-dG-adducted deletion DNA duplexes, which in turn allow us to develop hypotheses regarding OT-dG replication outcomes. Thus, our computational results are valuable for the design and interpretation of future biochemical studies on the potentially carcinogenic OT-dG lesion.

  2. Evaluation of a new disposable silicon limbal relaxing incision knife by experienced users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvu Valentin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that the silicon BD Atomic Edge™ knife has superior performance characteristics when compared to a metal knife and performance similar to diamond knife when making various incisions. This study was designed to determine whether a silicon accurate depth knife has equivalent performance characteristics when compared to a diamond limbal relaxing incision (LRI knife and superior performance characteristics when compared to a steel accurate depth knife when creating limbal relaxing incision. Methods Sixty-five ophthalmic surgeons with limbal relaxing incision experience created limbal relaxing incisions in ex-vivo porcine eyes with silicon and steel accurate depth knives and diamond LRI knives. The ophthalmic surgeons rated multiple performance characteristics of the knives on Visual Analog Scales. Results The observed differences between the silicon knife and diamond knife were found to be insignificant. The mean ratio between the performance of the silicon knife and the diamond knife was shown to be greater than 90% (with 95% confidence. The silicon knife's mean performance was significantly higher than the performance of the steel knife for all characteristics. (p-value Conclusions For experienced users, the silicon accurate depth knife was found to be equivalent in performance to the diamond LRI knife and superior to the steel accurate depth knife when making limbal relaxing incisions in ex vivo porcine eyes. Disposable silicon LRI knives may be an alternative to diamond LRI knives.

  3. Simulation of channel sandstone architecture in an incised valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frykman, P.; Johannessen, P.; Andsbjerg, J.

    1998-12-31

    The present report describes a geostatistical modelling study that is aimed at reflecting the architecture of the channel sandstones in an incised valley fill. The example used for this study is a part of the Middle Jurassic sandy succession of the Bryne Formation in the Danish central Graben. The succession consists mainly of fluvial sediments in the lower part, overlain by tidal influenced sediments, which again is overlain by shallow marine sediments. The modelling study has been performed on a sequence of incised valley sediments in the upper part of the Bryne Formation overlying fluvial sediments. (au) EFP-96. 19 refs.

  4. Vaporization of GaI3Py adduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timoshkina, A.Yu.; Grigor'ev, A.A.; Suvorov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    Processes of GaI 3 Py complex vaporization have been studied by mass-spectrometric, tensimetric and calorimetric methods. It is shown that adduct transformation into vapour is accompanied by its thermal dissociation. Thermodynamic characteristics of evaporation and dissociation of GaI 3 Py complex have been obtained. 14 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  5. Chemical structure of the adducts formed by the oxidation of benzidine in the presence of phenols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josephy, P.D.; Mason, R.P.; Eling, T.

    1982-01-01

    Bioactivation of carcinogens by peroxidases has received increasing attention since the discovery of the oxidation of carcinogens by prostaglandin hydroperoxidase. Benzidine and 3,5,3',5'-tetramethylbenzidine are oxidized by horseradish peroxidase and prostaglandin synthase to two-electron oxidation products (di-imines). Di-imines readily react with the phenolic anti-oxidant butylated hydroxyanisole to form adducts. In this paper, we have studied the oxidation of benzidine by horseradish peroxidase in the presence of phenolic compounds and characterized the resultant benzidine/phenol adducts. A benzidine/2,6-dimethylphenol adduct was isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry and high field n.m.r. The reaction of [ 14 C]benzidine in the presence of horseradish peroxidase and phenol yielded only the benzidine/phenol adduct. Our results indicate that the benzidine/phenol adducts are analogous to the indoaniline dyes, differing only in substitution of a biphenyl group for a benzene ring. The reaction of benzidine di-imine with endogenous phenols may represent a new pathway for detoxication, removing potentially harmful metabolites of benzidine

  6. Electronic structure and optical properties of Eu(III) tris-β-diketonate adducts with 1,10-phenanthroline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurygin, A. V.; Korochentsev, V. V.; Cherednichenko, A. I.; Mirochnik, A. G.; Kalinovskaya, I. V.; Vovna, V. I.

    2018-03-01

    Adducts of tris-β-diketonates of the rare earth metal Eu(III) with 1,10-phenanthroline are studied by photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemistry methods. The electronic structure, peculiarities of the nature of chemical bonds, and the geometric structure of the adducts are determined. The interpretation of UV photoelectron spectra of vapors and X-ray photoelectron spectra of solid is carried out with the chosen technique. DFT/TDDFT methods make it possible to study the 1,10-phenanthroline molecule influence on the adduct electronic structure and to analyze the electronic effects of substitution of methyl groups by trifluoromethyl groups in the ligands. At transition from the tris-β-diketonate complexes to the adducts, it is observed an increase of the absorption region and a decrease in the energy gap that contributes to the efficiency growth in electronic excitation energy transfer in the ligand-metal. Moreover, phenanthroline displaces water groups, that are luminescence quenchers, from the first coordination sphere, closes coordination in the adduct, and blocks their further attachment. Both factors contribute to an increase in the luminescence intensity.

  7. Uptake of gallium-67 citrate in clean surgical incisions after colorectal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wanyu; Wang Shyhjen; Tsai Shihchuan; Chao Tehsin

    2001-01-01

    Non-specific accumulation of gallium-67 citrate (gallium) in uncomplicated surgical incisions is not uncommon. It is important to know the normal pattern of gallium uptake at surgical incision sites in order to properly interpret the gallium scan when investigating possible wound infection in patients who have undergone abdominal surgery. We studied 42 patients without wound infection after colorectal surgery and performed gallium scans within 40 days after surgery. Patients were divided into three groups according to the interval between the operation and the scan. In group A (26 patients) gallium scan was performed within 7 days after surgery, in group B (8 patients) between 8 and 14 days after surgery, and in group C (8 patients) between 15 and 40 days after surgery. Our data showed that in group A, 61.5% had gallium accumulation at the surgical incision site. In group B, 50% had accumulation of gallium at the surgical incision site, while in group C only one patient (12.5%) showed gallium uptake. It is concluded that the incidence of increased gallium uptake at clean surgical incision sites is high after colorectal surgery. Nuclear medicine physicians should bear in mind the high incidence of non-specific gallium uptake at such sites during the interpretation of possible wound infection in patients after colorectal surgery. (orig.)

  8. Single-incision laparoscopic surgery through an ostomy site: a natural approach by an unnatural orifice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Nicole E; Peterson, Carrie Y; Ramamoorthy, Sonia L; McLemore, Elisabeth C; Sedrak, Michael F; Lowy, Andrew M; Horgan, Santiago; Talamini, Mark A; Sicklick, Jason K

    2015-02-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is gaining popularity for a wide variety of surgical operations and capitalizes on the benefits of traditional laparoscopic surgery without incurring multiple incision sites. Traditionally, SILS is performed by a midline periumbilical approach. However, such a minimally invasive approach may be utilized in patients who already have an abdominal incision. Our series retrospectively reviews 7 cases in which we utilized the fascial defect at the time of after ostomy reversal as our SILS incision site. In turn, we performed a variety of concurrent intra-abdominal procedures with excellent technical success and outcomes. Our study is the largest single-institution case series of this novel approach and suggests that utilizing an existing ostomy-site abdominal incision is a safe and effective location for SILS port placement and should be considered in patients undergoing concurrent procedures.

  9. Biomarkers for exposure to ambient air pollution - Comparison of carcinogen-DNA adduct levels with other exposure markers and markers for oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Herman; Daneshvar, Bahram; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    1999-01-01

    Human exposure to genotoxic compounds present in ambient air has been studied using selected biomarkers in nonsmoking Danish bus drivers and postal workers. A large interindividual variation in biomarker levels was observed. Significantly higher levels of bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts (75.42 adducts...... correlations were observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adduct and PAM-albumin levels (p = 0.005), and between DNA adduct and gamma-glutamyl semialdehyde (GGS) in hemoglobin (p = 0.11). Highly significant correlations were found between PAM-albumin adducts and AAS in plasma (r = 0.001) and GGS in hemoglobin (p...... in the combined group. A significant negative correlation was only observed between bulky carcinogen-DNA adducts and PAM-albumin adducts (p = 0.02) and between DNA adduct and urinary mutagenic activity (p = 0.02) in the GSTM1 null group, bur not in the workers who were homozygotes or heterozygotes for GSTM1. Our...

  10. Steady incision of Grand Canyon at the million year timeframe: a case for mantle-driven differential uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Ryan S.; Karl Karlstrom,; Laura Crossey,; Richard Young,; Michael Ort,; Yemane Asmerom,; Victor Polyak,; Andrew Darling,

    2014-01-01

    The Grand Canyon region provides an excellent laboratory to examine the interplay between river incision, magmatism, and the geomorphic and tectonic processes that shape landscapes. Here we apply U-series, Ar–Ar, and cosmogenic burial dating of river terraces to examine spatial variations in incision rates along the 445 km length of the Colorado River through Grand Canyon. We also analyze strath terrace sequences that extend to heights of several hundred meters above the river, and integrate these with speleothem constrained maximum incision rates in several reaches to examine any temporal incision variations at the million-year time frame. This new high-resolution geochronology shows temporally steady long-term incision in any given reach of Grand Canyon but significant variations along its length from 160 m/Ma in the east to 101 m/Ma in the west. Spatial and temporal patterns of incision, and the long timescale of steady incision rule out models where geomorphic controls such as climate oscillations, bedrock strength, sediment load effects, or isostatic response to differential denudation are the first order drivers of canyon incision. The incision pattern is best explained by a model of Neogene and ongoing epeirogenic uplift due to an eastward propagating zone of increased upper mantle buoyancy that we infer from propagation of Neogene basaltic volcanism and a strong lateral gradient in modern upper mantle seismic structure.

  11. Separation and identification of DNA-carcinogen adduct conformers by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsch, G.A.; Jankowiak, R.; Farhat, J.H.; Small, G.J. (Ames Lab., IA (United States) Iowa State Univ., Ames (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The authors have developed a separation protocol utilizing high-resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) to isolate stable anti-benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide adducts of oligodeoxynucleotides. Both enantiomers produced multiple adduct species. The distribution of adduct types could be quantitated by densitometry of autoradiograms or Cerenkov counting of eluted oligomers modified by anti-BPDE isomers. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra of eluted adducts at 4.2 K (fluorescence line-narrowing spectroscopy) and 77 K revealed that bands corresponded to pure conformers of pyrene chromophore. Carcinogen-modified oligodeoxynucleotides were single-stranded, but there were often considerable stacking interactions between the pyrenyl residues and the oligonucleotide bases, indicating that electrophoresed oligomers were single-stranded but in a native, versus random-coil conformation. The ability to identify and quantitate adducts by PAGE-LIF, coupled with the high resolution and sensitivity of both techniques, makes PAGE and LIF in tandem a potentially powerful tool in the study of chemical carcinogenesis or other ligand-DNA interactions. 43 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Evidence for phosphorus bonding in phosphorus trichloride-methanol adduct: a matrix isolation infrared and ab initio computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Prasad Ramesh; Ramanathan, N; Sundararajan, K; Sankaran, K

    2015-04-09

    The weak interaction between PCl3 and CH3OH was investigated using matrix isolation infrared spectroscopy and ab initio computations. In a nitrogen matrix at low temperature, the noncovalent adduct was generated and characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Computations were performed at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ, and MP2/6-311++G(d,p) levels of theory to optimize the possible geometries of PCl3-CH3OH adducts. Computations revealed two minima on the potential energy surface, of which, the global minimum is stabilized by a noncovalent P···O interaction, known as a pnictogen bonding (phosphorus bonding or P-bonding). The local minimum corresponded to a cyclic adduct, stabilized by the conventional hydrogen bonding (Cl···H-O and Cl···H-C interactions). Experimentally, 1:1 P-bonded PCl3-CH3OH adduct in nitrogen matrix was identified, where shifts in the P-Cl modes of PCl3, O-C, and O-H modes of CH3OH submolecules were observed. The observed vibrational frequencies of the P-bonded adduct in a nitrogen matrix agreed well with the computed frequencies. Furthermore, computations also predicted that the P-bonded adduct is stronger than H-bonded adduct by ∼1.56 kcal/mol. Atoms in molecules and natural bond orbital analyses were performed to understand the nature of interactions and effect of charge transfer interaction on the stability of the adducts.

  13. Acetaminophen-induced liver damage in mice is associated with gender-specific adduction of peroxiredoxin-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Mohar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism by which acetaminophen (APAP causes liver damage evokes many aspects drug metabolism, oxidative chemistry, and genetic-predisposition. In this study, we leverage the relative resistance of female C57BL/6 mice to APAP-induced liver damage (AILD compared to male C57BL/6 mice in order to identify the cause(s of sensitivity. Furthermore, we use mice that are either heterozygous (HZ or null (KO for glutamate cysteine ligase modifier subunit (Gclm, in order to titrate the toxicity relative to wild-type (WT mice. Gclm is important for efficient de novo synthesis of glutathione (GSH. APAP (300 mg/kg, ip or saline was administered and mice were collected at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. Male mice showed marked elevation in serum alanine aminotransferase by 6 h. In contrast, female WT and HZ mice showed minimal toxicity at all time points. Female KO mice, however, showed AILD comparable to male mice. Genotype-matched male and female mice showed comparable APAP–protein adducts, with Gclm KO mice sustaining significantly greater adducts. ATP was depleted in mice showing toxicity, suggesting impaired mitochondria function. Indeed, peroxiredoxin-6, a GSH-dependent peroxiredoxin, was preferentially adducted by APAP in mitochondria of male mice but rarely adducted in female mice. These results support parallel mechanisms of toxicity where APAP adduction of peroxiredoxin-6 and sustained GSH depletion results in the collapse of mitochondria function and hepatocyte death. We conclude that adduction of peroxiredoxin-6 sensitizes male C57BL/6 mice to toxicity by acetaminophen.

  14. Synthesis and Characterization of the Adducts of Morpholinedithioccarbamate Complexes of Oxovanadium (IV, Nickel(II, and Copper(II with Piperidine and Morpholine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousami Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 1:1 adducts of bis(morpholinedithiocarbamato complex of VO(IV, 1:1 and 1:2 adducts of bis(morpholinedithiocarbamato complexes of Ni(II and Cu(II with piperidine and morpholine have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic susceptibility, IR, UV-Vis, and TGA/DTA techniques. Analytical data reveals that VO(IV complex forms only 1:1 adducts with the formula [VO(morphdtc2L].H2O while Ni(II and Cu(II complexes form both 1:1 and 1:2 adducts with 1:1 adducts having general formula Ni(morphdtc2.L and Cu(morphdtc2.L and 1:2 adducts having general formula Ni(morphdtc2.L2 and Cu(morphdtc2.L2 (morphdtc = morpholinedithiocarbamate, L = morpholine and piperidine. Antifungal activity of some complexes has been carried out against the fungal strain Fusarium oxysporium. Thermal studies indicate a continuous weight loss. A square pyramidal geometry has been proposed for the 1:1 adducts of Ni(II and Cu(II complexes while an octahedral geometry has been proposed for the 1:1 adducts of VO(IV and for the 1:2 adducts of Ni(II and Cu(II complexes.

  15. Efficiency of soft tissue incision with a novel 445-nm semiconductor laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Kettner, Moritz; Berthold, Michael; Wenzler, Johannes-Simon; Heymann, Paul Günther Baptist; Frankenberger, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Using a 445-nm semiconductor laser for tissue incision, an effective cut is expected due to the special absorption properties of blue laser light in soft tissues. The aim of the present study was the histological evaluation of tissue samples after incision with a 445-nm diode laser. Forty soft tissue specimens were obtained from pork oral mucosa and mounted on a motorized linear translation stage. The handpiece of a high-frequency surgery device, a 970-nm semiconductor laser, and a 445-nm semiconductor laser were connected to the slide, allowing a constant linear movement (2 mm/s) and the same distance of the working tip to the soft tissue's surface. Four incisions were made each: (I) 970-nm laser with conditioned fiber tip, contact mode at 3-W cw; (II-III): 445-nm laser with non-conditioned fiber tip, contact mode at 2-W cw, and non-contact mode (1 mm) at 2 W; and (IV): high-frequency surgery device with straight working tip, 90° angulation, contact mode at 50 W. Histological analysis was performed after H&E staining of the embedded specimens at 35-fold magnification. The comparison of the incision depths showed a significant difference depending on the laser wavelength and the selected laser parameters. The highest incision depth was achieved with the 445-nm laser contact mode (median depth 0.61 mm, min 0.26, max 1.17, interquartile range 0.58) (p laser, a higher cutting efficiency can be expected when compared with a 970-nm diode laser and high-frequency surgery. Even the 445-nm laser application in non-contact mode shows clinically acceptable incision depths without signs of extensive soft tissue denaturation.

  16. Adduct formation of ionic and nanoparticular silver with amino acids and glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaske, Franziska; Stork, Lisa; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the interaction of ionic and nanoparticular silver with amino acids and small peptides, an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was developed. Monomeric and oligomeric silver adducts were formed with amino acids including cysteine (Cys), methionine, histidine, lysine, or the tripeptide glutathione (GSH). The obtained spectra for ionic silver show clusters in different ratios between Ag + and the reaction partners (X) including [Ag n X m − (n + 1)H] − (n = 1–4, m = 1–3). Regarding Cys, adduct clusters up to n = 5 and m = 4 were observed as well. Considering silver–GSH interactions, even doubly charged oligomers occur generating [Ag (a+1) GSH a − (a + 3)H] 2− (a = 5–7) and [Ag b GSH b − (b + 2)H] 2− (b = 4–8) ions. 1 H NMR data of free GSH compared to that after treatment with Ag + confirm sulfur–metal interactions due to changing chemical shifts for the protons located adjacent to the thiol group. Density functional theory calculations for silver–GSH clusters may explain the formation of experimentally recorded large clusters due to cooperative effects between silver and carboxylic acid side chains. Both sets of experiments indicate the presence of these adducts in the liquid phase. For silver nanoparticles, the respective data confirm the release of silver ions and the subsequent adduct formation

  17. Adduct formation of ionic and nanoparticular silver with amino acids and glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaske, Franziska; Stork, Lisa; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the interaction of ionic and nanoparticular silver with amino acids and small peptides, an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was developed. Monomeric and oligomeric silver adducts were formed with amino acids including cysteine (Cys), methionine, histidine, lysine, or the tripeptide glutathione (GSH). The obtained spectra for ionic silver show clusters in different ratios between Ag+ and the reaction partners (X) including [Ag n X m - ( n + 1)H]- ( n = 1-4, m = 1-3). Regarding Cys, adduct clusters up to n = 5 and m = 4 were observed as well. Considering silver-GSH interactions, even doubly charged oligomers occur generating [Ag( a + 1)GSH a - ( a + 3)H]2- ( a = 5-7) and [Ag b GSH b - ( b + 2)H]2- ( b = 4-8) ions. 1H NMR data of free GSH compared to that after treatment with Ag+ confirm sulfur-metal interactions due to changing chemical shifts for the protons located adjacent to the thiol group. Density functional theory calculations for silver-GSH clusters may explain the formation of experimentally recorded large clusters due to cooperative effects between silver and carboxylic acid side chains. Both sets of experiments indicate the presence of these adducts in the liquid phase. For silver nanoparticles, the respective data confirm the release of silver ions and the subsequent adduct formation.

  18. Incision and stress regulation in borderline personality disorder: neurobiological mechanisms of self-injurious behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Sarah; Kluetsch, Rosemarie; Niedtfeld, Inga; Knorz, Teresa; Lis, Stefanie; Paret, Christian; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Baumgärtner, Ulf; Bohus, Martin; Schmahl, Christian

    2015-08-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder frequently show non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). In these patients, NSSI often serves to reduce high levels of stress. Investigation of neurobiological mechanisms of NSSI in borderline personality disorder. In total, 21 women with borderline personality disorder and 17 healthy controls underwent a stress induction, followed by either an incision into the forearm or a sham treatment. Afterwards participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging while aversive tension, heart rate and heart rate variability were assessed. We found a significant influence of incision on subjective and objective stress levels with a stronger decrease of aversive tension in the borderline personality disorder group following incision than sham. Amygdala activity decreased more and functional connectivity with superior frontal gyrus normalised after incision in the borderline personality disorder group. Decreased stress levels and amygdala activity after incision support the assumption of an influence of NSSI on emotion regulation in individuals with borderline personality disorder and aids in understanding why these patients use self-inflicted pain to reduce inner tension. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  19. Etheno-DNA adduct formation in rats gavaged with linoleic acid, oleic acid and coconut oil is organ- and gender specific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Qingming; Nair, Jagadeesan; Sun Xin; Hadjiolov, Dimiter; Bartsch, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Intake of linoleic acid (LA) increased etheno-DNA adducts induced by lipid peroxidation (LPO) in white blood cells (WBC) of female but not of male volunteers [J. Nair, C.E. Vaca, I. Velic, M. Mutanen, L.M. Valsta, H. Bartsch, High dietary ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA adducts in white blood cells of female subjects, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 6 (1997) 597-601]. Etheno-adducts were measured in rats gavaged with LA, oleic acid (OA) and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil for 30 days. DNA from organs and total WBC was analyzed for 1, N 6 -ethenodeoxyadenosine (εdA) and 3, N 4 -ethenodeoxycytidine (εdC) by immunoaffinity/ 32 P-postlabeling. Colon was the most affected target with LA-treatment, where etheno-adducts were significantly elevated in both sexes. In WBC both adducts were elevated only in LA-treated females. Unexpectedly, OA treatment enhanced etheno-adduct levels in prostate 3-9 fold. Our results in rodents confirm the gender-specific increase of etheno-adducts in WBC-DNA, likely due to LPO induced by redox-cycling of 4-hydroxyestradiol. Colon was a target for LPO-derived DNA-adducts in both LA-treated male and female rats, supporting their role in ω-6 PUFA induced colon carcinogenesis

  20. A single incision transaxillary thoracoscopic sympathectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Primary hyperhidrosis causes are unknown. The disorder begins in early childhood. It intensifies in puberty and maturity. It is equally present in both sexes. The symptoms exacerbate when the body temperature rises and due to emotional stimuli affecting the sympathetic nerve system. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that videoassisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS sympathectomy is a method for primary focal hyperhidrosis permanent treatment. The single incision method in properly selected patients maximizes the intervention effectiveness and minimizes aesthetic side effects. Methods. This prospective study analysed the findings in patients who had been operated on due to primary focal hyperhidrosis (face, palms, and armpits using a single small transaxilarry incision in the third inter-rib space at the level of the anterior axillary line with two 5 mm flexible ports. All the patients, with T2-T5 thoracoscopic sympathectomy of the sympathetic chain using a single small incision in the third inter-rib space in the anterior axillary line, were analysed in the period from September 2009 to November 2010 regarding the postoperative morbidity and outcomes of the operation (clinical evaluation and visual analogue scale with a view to assessing the effectiveness of the surgery conducted in this manner. Results. A total of 47 patients (18 men, 29 women, 18 to 48 years old (29 on average had underwent 94 bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomies. The sympathectomy was indicated in cases of facial blushing and sweating (6.38%, palmary sweating (34.04%, axillary sweating (14.89% or both palmary and axillary sweating (44.68%. The largest percentage of patients (98.6% had left the hospital the following day. The postoperative 30 day’s mortality was 0 and the conversion into open surgery was not necessary. As for complications, there had been an occurrence of partial pneumothorax in two patients treated by means of

  1. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the healing of ventral midline abdominal incisions in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D A; Badertscher, R R; Boero, M J; Baker, G J; Foreman, J H

    1989-06-01

    Ultrasonography was used to evaluate the ventral midline incisions of 21 ponies following exploratory laparotomy. The incisions were evaluated before surgery and at weekly intervals from one to seven weeks after surgery. Both 5.0 and 7.5 MHz linear array and 7.5 MHz sector transducers were used for the evaluations. The incisional complications observed were drainage, oedema, suture sinus formation, suture abscess, superficial dehiscence and incisional hernia. Ultrasonographic imaging of the ventral midline incision was an easy, reliable and objective method for detecting and monitoring the progression of incisional complications in a non-invasive manner.

  2. Panoramic radiographs underestimate extensions of the anterior loop and mandibular incisive canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Brito, Ana Caroline Ramos; Nejaim, Yuri; De Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; De Oliveira Santos, Christiano

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal in panoramic radiographs (PAN) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, as well as to determine the anterior/mesial extension of these structures in panoramic and cross-sectional reconstructions using PAN and CBCT images. Images (both PAN and CBCT) from 90 patients were evaluated by 2 independent observers. Detection of the anterior loop and the incisive canal were compared between PAN and CBCT. The anterior/mesial extension of these structures was compared between PAN and both cross-sectional and panoramic CBCT reconstructions. In CBCT, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were observed in 7.7% and 24.4% of the hemimandibles, respectively. In PAN, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were detected in 15% and 5.5% of cases, respectively. PAN presented more difficulties in the visualization of structures. The anterior/mesial extensions ranged from 0.0 mm to 19.0 mm on CBCT. PAN underestimated the measurements by approximately 2.0 mm. CBCT appears to be a more reliable imaging modality than PAN for preoperative workups of the anterior mandible. Individual variations in the anterior/mesial extensions of the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal mean that is not prudent to rely on a general safe zone for implant placement or bone surgery in the interforaminal region

  3. Panoramic radiographs underestimate extensions of the anterior loop and mandibular incisive canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Brito, Ana Caroline Ramos; Nejaim, Yuri; De Freitas, Deborah Queiroz [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Division of Oral Radiology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); De Oliveira Santos, Christiano [Dept. of Stomatology, Public Oral Health and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to detect the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal in panoramic radiographs (PAN) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, as well as to determine the anterior/mesial extension of these structures in panoramic and cross-sectional reconstructions using PAN and CBCT images. Images (both PAN and CBCT) from 90 patients were evaluated by 2 independent observers. Detection of the anterior loop and the incisive canal were compared between PAN and CBCT. The anterior/mesial extension of these structures was compared between PAN and both cross-sectional and panoramic CBCT reconstructions. In CBCT, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were observed in 7.7% and 24.4% of the hemimandibles, respectively. In PAN, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were detected in 15% and 5.5% of cases, respectively. PAN presented more difficulties in the visualization of structures. The anterior/mesial extensions ranged from 0.0 mm to 19.0 mm on CBCT. PAN underestimated the measurements by approximately 2.0 mm. CBCT appears to be a more reliable imaging modality than PAN for preoperative workups of the anterior mandible. Individual variations in the anterior/mesial extensions of the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal mean that is not prudent to rely on a general safe zone for implant placement or bone surgery in the interforaminal region.

  4. Targeted mutations induced by a single acetylaminofluorene DNA adduct in mammalian cells and bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moryia, M.; Takeshita, M.; Johnson, F.; Peden, K.; Will, S.; Grollman, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    Mutagenic specificity of 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) has been established in mammalian cells and several strains of bacteria by using a shuttle plasmid vector containing a single N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)acetylaminofluorene (C8-dG-AAF) adduct. The nucleotide sequence of the gene conferring tetracycline resistance was modified by conservative codon replacement so as to accommodate the sequence d(CCTTCGCTAC) flanked by two restriction sites, Bsm I and Xho I. The corresponding synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide underwent reaction with 2-(N-acetoxy-N-acetylamino)-fluorene (AAAF), forming a single dG-AAF adduct. This modified oligodeoxynucleotide was hybridized to its complementary strand and ligated between the Bsm I and Xho I sites of the vector. Plasmids containing the C8-dG-AAF adduct were used to transfect simian virus 40-transformed simian kidney (COS-1) cells and to transform several AB strains of Escherichia coli. Colonies containing mutant plasmides were detected by hybridization to 32 P-labeled oligodeoxynucleotides. Presence of the single DNA adduct increased the mutation frequency by 8-fold in both COS cells and E. coli. Over 80% of mutations detected in both systems were targeted and represented G x C → C x G or G x C → T x A transversions or single nucleotide deletions. The authors conclude that modification of a deoxyguanosine residue with AAF preferentially induces mutations targeted at this site when a plasmid containing a single C8-dG-AAF adduct is introduced into mammalian cells or bacteria

  5. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct in dried blood spot samples of animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kathy S; Cai, Wenjie; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) were proposed as potentially viable method for exposure assessment of environmental toxicants in infant and young children. For this study, we validated an experimental protocol to quantify AFB 1 -lysine adduct in DBS samples of AFB 1 -treated F344 rats, as well as samples from human field study. Significant dose-response relationships in AFB 1 -lysine adduct formation were found in DBS samples of rats treated with single- and repeated-dose AFB 1 . AFB 1 -lysine levels in DBS samples were highly correlated with corresponding serum sample levels. The Person coefficients were 0.997 for the single-dose exposure, and 0.996 for the repeated-dose exposure. Levels of AFB 1 -lysine adduct had also good agreement between DBS and serum samples as shown by Bland-Altman plot analysis. For human field study samples (n = 36), a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.784 was found between AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels of DBS and corresponding serum samples. Bland-Altman plots showed the distribution of the log differences between DBS and serum AFB 1 -lysine levels are within 95% confidence intervals. These results showed AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels in DBS cards and serum samples from animals and human samples are comparable, and the DBS technique and analytical protocol is a good means to assess AFB 1 exposure in infant and children populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Lifestyle, Environmental, and Genetic Predictors of Bulky DNA Adducts in a Study Population Nested within a Prospective Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, K. T.; Sørensen, M.; Autrup, H.

    2010-01-01

    Danish cohort. At enrollment, blood samples were collected and information on lifestyle, including dietary and smoking habits, obtained. Previously, bulky DNA adducts were measured in 245 individuals who developed lung cancer and 255 control members of the cohort. Of these 500 individuals, data on 375...... of bulky DNA adduct levels were analyzed by univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Women tended to have higher adduct levels than men. Living in central Copenhagen and surface darkness of fried meat and fish were associated with quantitative higher adduct levels. No significant associations were...

  7. Better outcome from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy than skin incisions only?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M; Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Nielsen, Sabrina Mai

    2018-01-01

    . In total, nine participants experienced 11 adverse events; six in the surgery group and three in the skin-incisions-only group. CONCLUSION: We found greater improvement from arthroscopic partial meniscectomy compared with skin incisions only at 2 years, with the statistical uncertainty of the between......-group difference including what could be considered clinically relevant. Because of the study being underpowered, nearly half in the sham group being non-blinded and one-third crossing over to surgery, the results cannot be generalised to the greater patient population. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01264991....

  8. The "Propeller" incision for transpalatal advancement pharyngoplasty: a new approach to reduce post-operative oronasal fistulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Neville Patrick; Lewis, Richard Hamilton

    2008-09-01

    To present a new soft tissue approach for transpalatal advancement pharyngoplasty (TPA), the propeller incision, and to compare the rates of post-operative oronasal fistula in those undergoing TPA with the traditional "Gothic Arch" incision described by Woodson and those with the propeller incision. A prospectively maintained adult sleep apnoea surgery database was used to identify those patients undergoing TPA, either alone or in combination with other procedures, for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) between February 2001 and September 2006 in a tertiary referral centre by a single surgeon (RHL). In addition to the incision used during TPA, patient demographic data, previous surgery of the upper airways, smoking history, pre-operative body mass index, respiratory disturbance index, oxygen saturation index and the occurrence of oronasal fistula post-operatively, were recorded. The propeller incision technique is described. A total of 89 patients who underwent TPA were identified. A total of 49 patients had a "Gothic Arch" incision and 40 had a "Propeller" incision. The two groups of patients were comparable in age, sex, previous tonsillar and uvulopalatopharyngoplasty surgery, smoking histories and pre-operative disease severity. In the "Gothic Arch" group, eight patients (16%) developed oronasal fistulae in the post-operative period versus only one patient (2.5%) in the "Propeller" group. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P=0.038, Fisher's exact test). Of the total cases with post-operative oronasal fistula (n=9), only one patient (from the Gothic Arch incision group) required operative closure which was performed under local anesthesia and healed without complication. The propeller incision provides an anatomically sensible axial-based flap that provides adequate access to perform TPA. It is associated with a lower incidence of oronasal fistula and is recommended by the authors.

  9. o-Toluidine blood protein adducts: HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection after a single dose in the adult male rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheever, K.L.; DeBord, G.D.; Swearengin, T.F.

    1991-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) and albumin (Alb) adducts of the suspect human carcinogen o-toluidine (OT) were quantified in blood samples collected from rats after a single i.p. injection. Mild alkaline hydrolysis of Hb-adducted [ 14 C]OT followed by extraction with ethylacetate resulted in recovery of 66% of the bound radioactivity. HPLC analysis revealed a single radiolabeled peak which was identified as OT by GC-MS. In subsequent experiments the Hb and Alb adduct levels were determined by HPLC analysis of this split product using fluorescence detection. 4-Ethylaniline was used as internal standard. The detection limit for OT was approximately 450 pg/injection of 5 pmol. mg Hb. Mean adduct levels for Hb increased rapidly over the first 4 hr with the highest (ng/mg Hb ± SD) 3.7 ± 0.5 detected 24 hr after OT (50 mg/kg body wt). In contrast, adduct levels for pooled Alb samples increased from 0.7 ng/mg Alb at 2 hr to 2.5 ng/mg Alb at 4 hr, but were not detectable 24 hr after OT (50 mg/kg body wt). In contrast, adduct levels for pooled Alb samples increased from 0.7 ng/mg Alb at 2 hr to 2.5 ng/mg Alb at 4 hr, but were not detectable 24 hr after dosing. Hb adducts showed a linear relationship for OT doses of 10, 20, 40, 50, and 100 mg/kg body wt. The Hb adduct t 1/2 (11.2 days) was determined after a single 100 mg/kg OT dose. Hb adduct levels were quantifiable (1.3 ± 0.2 ng/mg Hb) by HPLC/fluorescence 28 days after 100 mg/kg OT

  10. Etheno-DNA adduct formation in rats gavaged with linoleic acid, oleic acid and coconut oil is organ- and gender specific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Qingming [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Nair, Jagadeesan [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: j.nair@dkfz.de; Sun Xin [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Hadjiolov, Dimiter [National Oncological Centre, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bartsch, Helmut [Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-11-01

    Intake of linoleic acid (LA) increased etheno-DNA adducts induced by lipid peroxidation (LPO) in white blood cells (WBC) of female but not of male volunteers [J. Nair, C.E. Vaca, I. Velic, M. Mutanen, L.M. Valsta, H. Bartsch, High dietary {omega}-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids drastically increase the formation of etheno-DNA adducts in white blood cells of female subjects, Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 6 (1997) 597-601]. Etheno-adducts were measured in rats gavaged with LA, oleic acid (OA) and saturated fatty acid rich coconut oil for 30 days. DNA from organs and total WBC was analyzed for 1, N{sup 6}-ethenodeoxyadenosine ({epsilon}dA) and 3, N{sup 4}-ethenodeoxycytidine ({epsilon}dC) by immunoaffinity/{sup 32}P-postlabeling. Colon was the most affected target with LA-treatment, where etheno-adducts were significantly elevated in both sexes. In WBC both adducts were elevated only in LA-treated females. Unexpectedly, OA treatment enhanced etheno-adduct levels in prostate 3-9 fold. Our results in rodents confirm the gender-specific increase of etheno-adducts in WBC-DNA, likely due to LPO induced by redox-cycling of 4-hydroxyestradiol. Colon was a target for LPO-derived DNA-adducts in both LA-treated male and female rats, supporting their role in {omega}-6 PUFA induced colon carcinogenesis.

  11. CYP1A2 and NAT2 phenotyping and 3-aminobiphenyl and 4-aminobiphenyl hemoglobin adduct levels in smokers and non-smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Mohamadi; Stabbert, Regina; Kinser, Robin D.; Oey, Jan; Rustemeier, Klaus; Holt, Klaus von; Schepers, Georg; Walk, Roger A.; Roethig, Hans J.

    2006-01-01

    Some aromatic amines are considered to be putative bladder carcinogens. Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts of 3-aminobiphenyl (3-ABP) and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) have been used as biomarkers of exposure to aromatic amines from cigarette smoke. One of the goals of this study was to determine intra- and inter-individual variability in 3-ABP and 4-ABP Hb adducts and to explore the predictability of ABP Hb adduct levels based on caffeine phenotyping. The study was conducted in adult smokers (S, n = 65) and non-smokers (NS, n 65). The subjects were phenotyped for CYP1A2 and NAT2 using urinary caffeine metabolites. Blood samples were collected twice within 6 weeks and adducts measured by GC/MS. The levels of 4-ABP Hb adducts were significantly (p < 0.0001) greater in S (34.5 ± 21.06 pg/g Hb) compared to NS (6.3 ± 3.02 pg/g Hb). The levels of 3-ABP Hb adducts were below the limit of quantification (BLOQ) in most (82%) of the NS and about 10-fold lower in S (3.6 ± 3.29 pg/g Hb) compared to 4-ABP Hb adducts. No differences were observed in the adduct levels between weeks 1 and 6 in the smokers, suggesting that a single sample would be adequate to monitor cigarette smoke exposure. The regression model developed with CYP1A2, NAT2 phenotype and number of cigarettes smoked (NCIG) accounted for 47% of the variability in 3-ABP adducts, whereas 32% variability in 4-ABP adducts was accounted by CYP1A2 and NCIG. The ratio of 4-ABP Hb adducts in adult S:NS was ∼ 5:1, whereas 3-ABP Hb adducts levels were BLOQ in some S, exhibited large interindividual variability (∼ 91% compared to 57% for 4-ABP Hb) and poor dose response relationship. Therefore, 4-ABP Hb adduct levels may be a more useful biomarker of aminobiphenyl exposure from cigarette smoke

  12. Blood Pyrrole-Protein Adducts--A Biomarker of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid-Induced Liver Injury in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jianqing; Gao, Hong; Li, Na; Xue, Junyi; Chen, Jie; Ke, Changqiang; Ye, Yang; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng; Zheng, Jiang; Wang, Jiyao; Lin, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) induce liver injury (PA-ILI) and is very likely to contribute significantly to drug-induced liver injury (DILI). In this study we used a newly developed ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS)-based method to detect and quantitate blood pyrrole-protein adducts in DILI patients. Among the 46 suspected DILI patients, 15 were identified as PA-ILI by the identification of PA-containing herbs exposed. Blood pyrrole-protein adducts were detected in all PA-ILI patients (100%). These results confirm that PA-ILI is one of the major causes of DILI and that blood pyrrole-protein adducts quantitated by the newly developed UHPLC-MS method can serve as a specific biomarker of PA-ILI.

  13. Induction of stable protein-deoxyribonucleic acid adducts in Chinese hamster cell chromatin by ultraviolet light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strniste, G.F.; Rall, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    Ultraviolet (uv)-light-mediated formation of protein-DNA adducts in Chinese hamster cell chromatin was investigated in an attempt to compare chromatin alterations induced in vitro with those observed in vivo. Three independent methods of analysis indicated stable protein-DNA associations: a membrane filter assay which retained DNA on the filter in the presence of high salt-detergent; a Sepharose 4B column assay in which protein eluted coincident with DNA; and a CsCl density gradient equilibrium assay which showed both protein and DNA banding at densities other than their respective native densities. Treatment of the irradiated chromatin with DNase provided further evidence that protein--DNA and not protein-protein adducts were being observed in the column assay. There is a fluence-dependent response of protein-DNA adduct formation when the chromatin is irradiated at low ionic strength and is linear for protein over the range studied. When the chromatin is exposed to differing conditions of pH, ionic strength, or divalent metal ion concentration, the quantity of adduct formed upon uv irradiation varies. Susceptibility to adduct formation can be partially explained in terms of the condensation state of the chromatin and other factors such as rearrangement, denaturation, and dissociation of the chromatin components. Besides providing information on the biological significance of these types of uv-induced lesions, this technique may be useful as a probe of chromatin structure

  14. Single-incision laparoscopic bariatric surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Chih-Kun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bariatric surgery has been established as the best option of treatment for morbid obesity. In recent years single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS has emerged as another modality of carrying out the bariatric procedures. While SILS represents an advance, its application in morbid obesity at present is limited. In this article, we review the technique and results of SILS in bariatric surgery. Methods: The PubMed database was searched and totally 11 series reporting SILS in bariatric surgery were identified and analyzed. The case reports were excluded. Since 2008, 114 morbidly obese patients receiving SILS bariatric surgeries were reported. Results: The procedures performed included SILS gastric banding, sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass. No mortality was reported in the literatures. Sixteen patients (14.05% needed an additional incision for a liver retractor, a trocar or for conversion. Only one complication of wound infection was reported in these series. All the surgeons reported that the patients were highly satisfied with the scar. Conclusion: Because of abundant visceral and subcutaneous fat and multiple comorbidities in morbid obesity, it is more challenging for surgeons to perform the procedures with SILS. It is clear that extensive development of new instruments and technical aspects of these procedures as well as randomized studies to compare them with traditional laparoscopy are essential before these procedures can be utilized in day-to-day clinical practice.

  15. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Eyer, Peter; Eddleston, Michael; Jiang, Wei; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Lockridge, Oksana

    2013-01-01

    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. PMID:23566956

  16. Treatment for incarcerated indirect hernia with "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xue-Qiang; Yang, Jun; Zheng, Nan-Nan; Kuang, Hou-Fang; Duan, Xu-Fei; Bian, Hong-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the utility of the "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision for the surgical treatment of incarcerated indirect hernia (IIH) complicated with severe abdominal distension. Patients of IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension were reviewed retrospectively. All patients received operation through the "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision. There were totally 13 patients were included, male to female ratio was 9-4. The time for patients to resume oral feeding varying from 2 to 5 days after operation, no complications include delayed intestinal perforation, intra-abdominal abscess, and incision infection happened. Average postoperative hospital stay was 5.2 days. All cases were followed up for 6-18 months. No recurrence or iatrogenic cryptorchidism happened. "Cross-Internal Ring" inguinal oblique incision is a simple, safe, and reliable surgical method to treat pediatric IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension.

  17. Adduct formation of ionic and nanoparticular silver with amino acids and glutathione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaske, Franziska; Stork, Lisa; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe, E-mail: uk@uni-muenster.de [University of Muenster, Institute of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry (Germany)

    2013-09-15

    To investigate the interaction of ionic and nanoparticular silver with amino acids and small peptides, an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry method was developed. Monomeric and oligomeric silver adducts were formed with amino acids including cysteine (Cys), methionine, histidine, lysine, or the tripeptide glutathione (GSH). The obtained spectra for ionic silver show clusters in different ratios between Ag{sup +} and the reaction partners (X) including [Ag{sub n}X{sub m} - (n + 1)H]{sup -} (n = 1-4, m = 1-3). Regarding Cys, adduct clusters up to n = 5 and m = 4 were observed as well. Considering silver-GSH interactions, even doubly charged oligomers occur generating [Ag{sub (a+1)}GSH{sub a} - (a + 3)H]{sup 2-} (a = 5-7) and [Ag{sub b}GSH{sub b} - (b + 2)H]{sup 2-} (b = 4-8) ions. {sup 1}H NMR data of free GSH compared to that after treatment with Ag{sup +} confirm sulfur-metal interactions due to changing chemical shifts for the protons located adjacent to the thiol group. Density functional theory calculations for silver-GSH clusters may explain the formation of experimentally recorded large clusters due to cooperative effects between silver and carboxylic acid side chains. Both sets of experiments indicate the presence of these adducts in the liquid phase. For silver nanoparticles, the respective data confirm the release of silver ions and the subsequent adduct formation.

  18. Transverse Skin Crease versus Vertical Midline Incision versus Laparoscopy for Right Hemicolectomy: A Systematic Review—Current Status of Right Hemicolectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Santoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The right hemicolectomy may be conducted through laparoscopic or laparotomic surgery, transverse or midline incisions. The transverse laparotomy offers some advantages compared to the midline laparotomy and laparoscopy. A literature review was performed to evaluate the possible advantages of the transverse incision versus midline incision or laparoscopic right hemicolectomy. Methods. A systematic research was performed in Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, BioMed Central, and the Science Citation Index. Results. Laparotomic right hemicolectomy with transverse incision is preferable to laparotomic hemicolectomy with midline incision. A transverse incision offers a lessened postoperative pain following physical activity, a lessened need to administer analgesic therapy during the post-operative time, better aesthetic results, and a better post-operative pulmonary function. Open surgery with transverse or midline incision ensured a shorter operative time, lower costs and a greater length of the incision compared to the laparoscopic. However, there are no differences in the oncological outcomes. Conclusions. It was not possible to identify significant differences between the open right hemicolectomy with transverse incision versus the open right hemicolectomy with midline incision or laparoscopic hemicolectomy.

  19. Mass spectrometry study of sublimation of rare earth acetylacetonate adducts with hexamethylphosphorustriamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, N.P.; Semyannikov, P.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Ch'eu Tkhi Nguet; AN SSSR, Novosibirsk

    1991-01-01

    Process of vacuum sublimation of MA 3 ·Q adducts (M=Nd,Ho,Er; A - -acetylacetonate-ion; Q-hexamethylphosphorustriamide) was studied by mass-spectrometry method. Composinion of gaseous phase, formed in 20-140 deg C range at 10 -5 mm Hg, was determined. Scheme of MA 3 ·Q sublimation, including Q splitting and transition of MA 3 ·Q adducts and MA 3 and Q products of their thermodestruction to gaseous phase, was suggested. ΔH values of MA 3 ·Q thermodestruction and MA 3 sublimation were calculated

  20. Minimal Nasolabial Incision Technique for Nasolabial Fold Modification in Patients With Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Callum; Heiser, Alyssa; Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa

    2018-03-01

    Creation of symmetrical nasolabial folds (NLFs) is important in the management of the paralyzed face. Established techniques use a linear incision in the NLF, and technical refinements now allow the linear incision to be omitted. This retrospective case series was conducted in a tertiary care setting from February 2, 2017, to June 7, 2017. Participants were all patients (N = 21) with peripheral facial paralysis who underwent NLF modification that used the minimal nasolabial incision technique at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Facial Nerve Center from February 1, 2015, through August 31, 2016. Patient-reported outcome measures using the validated, quality-of-life Facial Clinimetric Evaluation (FaCE) Scale; clinician-reported facial function outcomes using a validated electronic clinician-graded facial paralysis assessment (eFACE); layperson assessment of the overall aesthetic outcome of the NLF; and expert-clinician scar assessment of the NLF. Of the 21 patients who underwent NLF modification that used the minimal nasolabial incision technique, 9 patients (43%) were female and 12 (57%) were male. The mean age was 41 (range, 9-90) years; 17 patients (81%) were adults (≥18 years) and 4 (19%) were children (<18 years). Overall, significant improvements were observed after NLF modification in all outcome measures as graded by both clinicians and patients. The mean (SD) scores for total eFACE were 60.7 (14.9) before the operation and 77.2 (8.9) after the operation (mean difference, 16.5 [95% CI, 8.5-24.2]; P < .001). The mean (SD) static eFACE scores were 61.4 (20.6) before the operation and 82.7 (12.4) after the operation (mean difference, 21.3 [95% CI, 10.7-31.9]; P < .001). The mean (SD) FaCE quality-of-life scores were 51.3 (20.1) before the operation and 70.3 (12.6) after the operation (mean difference, 19.0 [95% CI, 6.5-31.6]; P  =  .001). The layperson self-assessment of the overall aesthetic outcome of the NLF modification was

  1. Thermochemistry of adducts of some bivalent transition metal bromides with aniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunstan, Pedro Oliver

    2006-01-01

    The compounds [MBr 2 (an) 2 ] (where M is Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) or Zn(II); an=aniline) were synthesized and characterized by melting points, elemental analysis, thermal studies, and electronic and IR spectroscopy. The enthalpies of dissolution of the adducts, metal(II) bromides and aniline in methanol, aqueous 1.2M HCl or 25% (v/v) aqueous 1.2M HCl in methanol were measured. The following thermochemical parameters for the adducts have been determined by thermochemical cycles: the standard enthalpies for the Lewis acid/base reactions (Δ r H o ), the standard enthalpies of formation (Δ f H o ), the standard enthalpies of decomposition (Δ D H o ), the lattice standard enthalpies (Δ M H o ) and the standard enthalpies of the Lewis acid/base reactions in the gaseous phase (Δ r H o (g)). The mean bond dissociation enthalpies of the M(II)-nitrogen bonds (D-bar (M?N) ) and the enthalpies of formation of the adducts from the ions in the gaseous phase: M 2+ (g) +Br - (g) +an (g) ->[MBr 2 (an) 2 ] (g) (Δ fi H o ) have been estimated

  2. VIDEO-ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF ADAPTED SHOES ON KNEE ADDUCTION MOMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Yu. Aksenov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The effect of different footwear profiles on knee adduction moment have not been fully studied. Methods. Fifteen healthy volunteer subjects, age 25.3 (±2.73, undertook a series of gait laboratory trials with adapted shoes. Kinematic and kinetic data were collect using 16 Oqus 3+ cameras and the walking speed was controlled using timing gates. High street shoes were adapted to include five different heel heights (varying from a 1.5 cm to 5.5 cm heels, two heel profile conditions (curved and semi-curved heels, three varying apex angles (10, 15, and 20 degrees, and barefoot and 3CR footwear conditions. The baseline shoe had no heel curve, a heel height of 3.5cm, an apex position of 62.5% of the shoe length, an apex angle of 15 deg, and a rigid forepart of the shoe. Results. The shoe with 5.5 cm heel height significantly increased the mean knee adduction moment during 50%–100% of the stance phase compared to the 1.5 cm heel (p = 0.008. The high heel shoe also significantly increased knee adduction impulse (area under the curve versus the 1.5, 2.5, and 3.5 cm heels, and the 10° toe angle and barefoot condition. Ten degrees of toe angle reduced mean knee adduction moment during 0%–50% of the stance phase versus 20° and significantly reduced mean knee adduction moment during the late stance phase versus 15° and 20° toe angle footwear conditions. Walking with the curved heel for the healthy subjects increased mean knee adduction moment during 0%–50% of the stance phase compared to the heel without curvature (p < 0.0009. Conclusion. Further study is required to investigate those changes in patients with high risk of knee osteoarthritis.

  3. Covalent adduct formation between the plasmalogen-derived modification product 2-chlorohexadecanal and phloretin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üllen, Andreas; Nusshold, Christoph; Glasnov, Toma; Saf, Robert; Cantillo, David; Eibinger, Gerald; Reicher, Helga; Fauler, Günter; Bernhart, Eva; Hallstrom, Seth; Kogelnik, Nora; Zangger, Klaus; Oliver Kappe, C.; Malle, Ernst; Sattler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid added as reagent or generated by the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-H2O2-Cl− system oxidatively modifies brain ether-phospholipids (plasmalogens). This reaction generates a sn2-acyl-lysophospholipid and chlorinated fatty aldehydes. 2-Chlorohexadecanal (2-ClHDA), a prototypic member of chlorinated long-chain fatty aldehydes, has potent neurotoxic potential by inflicting blood–brain barrier (BBB) damage. During earlier studies we could show that the dihydrochalcone-type polyphenol phloretin attenuated 2-ClHDA-induced BBB dysfunction. To clarify the underlying mechanism(s) we now investigated the possibility of covalent adduct formation between 2-ClHDA and phloretin. Coincubation of 2-ClHDA and phloretin in phosphatidylcholine liposomes revealed a half-life of 2-ClHDA of approx. 120 min, decaying at a rate of 5.9 × 10−3 min−1. NMR studies and enthalpy calculations suggested that 2-ClHDA-phloretin adduct formation occurs via electrophilic aromatic substitution followed by hemiacetal formation on the A-ring of phloretin. Adduct characterization by high-resolution mass spectroscopy confirmed these results. In contrast to 2-ClHDA, the covalent 2-ClHDA-phloretin adduct was without adverse effects on MTT reduction (an indicator for metabolic activity), cellular adenine nucleotide content, and barrier function of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVEC). Of note, 2-ClHDA-phloretin adduct formation was also observed in BMVEC cultures. Intraperitoneal application and subsequent GC–MS analysis of brain lipid extracts revealed that phloretin is able to penetrate the BBB of C57BL/6J mice. Data of the present study indicate that phloretin scavenges 2-ClHDA, thereby attenuating 2-ClHDA-mediated brain endothelial cell dysfunction. We here identify a detoxification pathway for a prototypic chlorinated fatty aldehyde (generated via the MPO axis) that compromises BBB function in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25576489

  4. Full structure assignments of pyrrolizidine alkaloid DNA adducts and mechanism of tumor initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuewei; Xia, Qingsu; Gamboa da Costa, Gonçalo; Yu, Hongtao; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2012-09-17

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widespread in the world and are probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are among the first chemical carcinogens identified in plants. Previously, we determined that metabolism of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in vivo and in vitro generated a common set of DNA adducts that are responsible for tumor induction. Using LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis, we previously determined that four DNA adducts (DHP-dG-3, DHP-dG-4, DHP-dA-3, and DHP-dA-4) were formed in rats dosed with riddelliine, a tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid. Because of the lack of an adequate amount of authentic standards, the structures of DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 were not elucidated, and the structural assignment for DHP-dG-4 warranted further validation. In this study, we developed an improved synthetic methodology for these DNA adducts, enabling their full structural elucidation by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. We determined that DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4 are a pair of epimers of 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyadenosin-N(6)-yl) dehydrosupinidine, while DHP-dG-4 is 7-hydroxy-9-(deoxyguanosin-N(2)-yl)dehydrosupinidine, an epimer of DHP-dG-3. With the structures of these DNA adducts unequivocally elucidated, we conclude that cellular DNA preferentially binds dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid, for example, dehydroriddelliine, at the C9 position of the necine base, rather than at the C7 position. We also determined that DHP-dA-3 and DHP-dA-4, as well as DHP-dG-3 and DHP-dG-4, are interconvertible. This study represents the first report with detailed structural assignments of the DNA adducts that are responsible for pyrrolizidine alkaloid tumor induction on the molecular level. A mechanism of tumor initiation by pyrrolizidine alkaloids is consequently fully determined.

  5. Formation of a Hydroxymethylfurfural-Cysteine Adduct and Its Absorption and Cytotoxicity in Caco-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qianzhu; Zou, Yueyu; Huang, Caihuan; Lan, Ping; Zheng, Jie; Ou, Shiyi

    2017-11-15

    Adducts of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)-amino acids are formed during food processing and digestion; the elimination capacity of in vitro intestinal digests of biscuits, instant noodles, and potato crisps for HMF is 652, 727, and 540 μg/g, respectively. However, the safety of these adducts is unknown. In this study, an HMF-cysteine adduct named 1-dicysteinethioacetal-5-hydroxymehtylfurfural (DCH), which was found to be produced in the gastrointestinal tract after HMF intake, was prepared to test its effect toward Caco-2 cells. Compared with HMF, the adduct displayed lower cytotoxicity against Caco-2 cells with an IC 50 value of 31.26 mM versus 14.95 mM (HMF). The DCH did not induce cell apoptosis, whereas HMF significantly increased the apoptosis rate after incubation at concentrations of 16, 32, and 48 mM for 72 h. DCH showed an absorption rate considerably lower than that of HMF by Caco-2 cells. Lower absorption of DCH may result in lower toxicity compared with HMF against Caco-2 cells. Intracellular transformation of DCH has been observed.

  6. Cutting electrocautery versus scalpel for surgical incisions: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Ammar; Abushouk, Abdelrahman Ibrahim; Elmaraezy, Ahmed; Menshawy, Amr; Menshawy, Esraa; Ismail, Mahmoud; Samir, Esraa; Khaled, Anas; Zakarya, Hagar; El-Tonoby, Abdelrahman; Ghanem, Esraa

    2017-12-01

    Although cutting electrocautery can be superior to the scalpel in reducing blood loss and incisional time, several reports associated electrocautery with higher rates of wound infection, impaired healing, and worse cosmesis. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis to compare cutting electrocautery versus scalpel for surgical incisions. We conducted a computerized literature search of five electronic databases and included all published original studies comparing cutting electrocautery and scalpel surgical incisions. Relevant data were extracted from eligible studies and pooled as odds ratios (ORs) or standardized mean difference (SMD) values in a meta-analysis model, using RevMan and Comprehensive Meta-analysis software. Forty-one studies (36 randomized trials, four observational, and one quasirandom study) were included in the pooled analysis (6422 participants). Compared with the scalpel incision, cutting electrocautery resulted in significantly less blood loss (SMD = -1.16, 95% CI [-1.60 to -0.72]), shorter incisional (SMD = -0.63, 95% CI [-0.96 to -0.29]) and operative times (SMD = -0.59, 95% CI [-1.12 to -0.05]), and lower pain scores (SMD = -0.91, 95% CI [-1.27 to -0.55]) with no significant differences in terms of wound infection rates (OR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.74-1.15]) or overall subjective scar score (SMD = -0.49, 95% CI [-1.72 to 0.75]). Surgical incision using electrocautery can be quicker with less blood loss and postoperative pain scores than the scalpel incision. No statistically significant difference was found between both techniques in terms of postoperative wound complications, hospital stay duration, and wound cosmetic characteristics. Therefore, we recommend routine use of cutting electrocautery for surgical incisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. DNA polymerase. beta. reaction with ultraviolet-irradiated DNA incised by correndonuclease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, R; Zarebska, Z [Instytut Onkologii, Warsaw (Poland); Zmudzka, B [Polska Akademia Nauk, Warsaw. Inst. Biochemii i Biofizyki

    1980-09-19

    Covalently closed circular Col E1 DNA was ultraviolet-irradiated with a dose of 60 J/m/sup 2/, thus introducing about 3.2 pyrimidine dimers per DNA molecule. Treatment of irradiated Col E1 DNA with Micrococcus luteus correndonuclease resulted, in the vicinity of pyrimidine dimers, in an average of 3.3 incisions per DNA molecule, and converted DNA to the open circular form. Incised Col E1 DNA stimulated no reaction with calf thymus DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. but was recognized as a template by DNA polymerase ..beta... The latter enzyme incorporated about 1.6 molecules of dTMP (corresponding to 6 molecules of dNMP) per one correndonuclease incision. The length of the DNA polymerase ..beta.. product was comparable to the anticipated length of the DNA region within which the hydrogen bonds were disrupted owing to dimer formation. The enzyme required Mg/sup 2 +/ and four dNTPs for reaction and was resistant to N-ethylmaleimide or p-mercuribenzoate.

  8. Human FAN1 promotes strand incision in 5'-flapped DNA complexed with RPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Daisuke; Sato, Koichi; Hirayama, Emiko; Takata, Minoru; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Fanconi anaemia (FA) is a human infantile recessive disorder. Seventeen FA causal proteins cooperatively function in the DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) repair pathway. Dual DNA strand incisions around the crosslink are critical steps in ICL repair. FA-associated nuclease 1 (FAN1) is a DNA structure-specific endonuclease that is considered to be involved in DNA incision at the stalled replication fork. Replication protein A (RPA) rapidly assembles on the single-stranded DNA region of the stalled fork. However, the effect of RPA on the FAN1-mediated DNA incision has not been determined. In this study, we purified human FAN1, as a bacterially expressed recombinant protein. FAN1 exhibited robust endonuclease activity with 5'-flapped DNA, which is formed at the stalled replication fork. We found that FAN1 efficiently promoted DNA incision at the proper site of RPA-coated 5'-flapped DNA. Therefore, FAN1 possesses the ability to promote the ICL repair of 5'-flapped DNA covered by RPA. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Sterically Bulky NHC Adducts of GaMe3 and InMe3 for H2 Activation and Lactide Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaëlle Bolley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The sterically bulky Ga(III and In(III (IPr*MMe3 adducts (1 and 2 and (SItBuMMe3 adducts (3 and 4 (M = Ga, In; IPr* = 1,3-bis{2,6-bis(diphenylmethyl-4-methylphenyl}-1,3-dihydro- imidazol-2-ylidene; SItBu = 1,3-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl-imidazolidin-2-ylidene were prepared and structurally characterized, allowing an estimation of the steric hindrance of such Lewis pairs (yields in 1–4: 92%, 90%, 73%, and 42%, respectively. While the IPr* adducts 1 and 2 are robust species, the more severely congested SItBu adducts 3 and 4 are more reactive and exhibit a limited stability in solution. Adduct (SItBuGaMe3 (3 reacts quickly with H2 at room temperature to afford the corresponding aminal product, 1,3-di-tert-butylimidazolidine (5, along with free GaMe3. Such Frustrated Lewis Pair (FLP reactivity constitutes the first instance of a H2 activation involving a simple trialkyl GaR3 species. Adduct 3 also mediates the ring-opening polymerization (ROP of rac-lactide at room temperature to afford cyclic polylactide (PLA.

  10. Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of specific carcinogen-DNA adducts in diploid human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, J.J.; Maher, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison of the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of a series of carcinogens in normal diploid human fibroblasts and in cells deficient in one or more DNA repair processes has provided insight into the specific DNA adduct(s) responsible for these biological effects. The carcinogens tested include ultraviolet radiation; reactive derivatives of structurally related aromatic amides; metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene; the simple alkylating agents N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea; and aflatoxin B 1 dichloride, a model for the reactive 2,3-epoxide of aflatoxin B 1 . Exponentially growing cells were exposed to agents and assayed for mutations and cell killing. Cells deficient in repair of particular DNA adducts or lesions proved more sensitive to the agent causing those lesions than did normally repairing cells. Many of the carcinogens were compared for their mutagenic and/or cytotoxic effect, not only as a function of dose administered, but also as a function of the initial number of adducts or photoproducts induced in DNA and the number remaining at critical times posttreatment. The results demonstrated a high correlation between the number of DNA lesions remaining unexcised at the time the DNA was replicated and frequency of mutations induced. Comparative studies of the frequency of UV-induced transformation of normal and repair-deficient cells showed this also to be true for transformation

  11. Femtosecond laser effect on the self-sealing properties of the corneal incision of various lengths and profile (experimental trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulduz Shavkatovna Nizametdinova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was carried out to study self-sealing properties of corneal incisions of different profile and length carried out with femtosecond laser Victus (Technolas Perfect Vision/Bausch&Lomb. Using femtosecond laser for this purpose allows creating corneal incisions of high precision and predictability. Reproducibility and standardization of the incision profile and length are an advantage of this technology. Obtained results showed that single-profile incisions are less stable and safe when compared to multi-profile ones. It was noted that incision length increase promotes its self-sealing properties.

  12. Effect of Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen base pairing on the conformational stability of C8-phenoxyl-2'-deoxyguanosine adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Andrea L; Churchill, Cassandra D M; Manderville, Richard A; Wetmore, Stacey D

    2010-10-14

    Bulky DNA addition products (adducts) formed through attack at the C8 site of guanine can adopt the syn orientation about the glycosidic bond due to changes in conformational stability or hydrogen-bonding preferences directly arising from the bulky group. Indeed, the bulky substituent may improve the stability of (non-native) Hoogsteen pairs. Therefore, such adducts often result in mutations upon DNA replication. This work examines the hydrogen-bonded pairs between the Watson-Crick and Hoogsteen faces of the ortho or para C8-phenoxyl-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct and each natural (undamaged) nucleobase with the goal to clarify the conformational preference of this type of damage, as well as provide insight into the likelihood of subsequent mutation events. B3LYP/6-311+G(2df,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) hydrogen-bond strengths were determined using both nucleobase and nucleoside models for adduct pairs, as well as the corresponding complexes involving natural 2'-deoxyguanosine. In addition to the magnitude of the binding strengths, the R(C1'···C1') distances and ∠(N9C1'C1') angles, as well as the degree of propeller-twist and buckle distortions, were carefully compared to the values observed in natural DNA strands. Due to structural changes in the adduct monomer upon inclusion of the sugar moiety, the monomer deformation energy significantly affects the relative hydrogen-bond strengths calculated with the nucleobase and nucleoside models. Therefore, we recommend the use of at least a nucleoside model to accurately evaluate hydrogen-bond strengths of base pairs involving flexible, bulky nucleobase adducts. Our results also emphasize the importance of considering both the magnitude of the hydrogen-bond strength and the structure of the base pair when predicting the preferential binding patterns of nucleobases. Using our best models, we conclude that the Watson-Crick face of the ortho phenoxyl adduct forms significantly more stable complexes than the Hoogsteen face, which

  13. Molecular structures of five adducts assembled from p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Lanqing; Liu, Hui; Liu, Li; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Daqi; Li, Minghui; Guo, Jianzhong; Guo, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Five adducts 1-5 derived from p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde have been prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. Of the five adducts two are organic salts (1, and 2) and the other three (3-5) are cocrystals. In salts 1, and 2, the L molecules are protonated. The supramolecular architectures of the adducts 1-5 involve extensive intermolecular N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, O-H⋯S, and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other non-covalent interactions. The role of weak and strong non-covalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. The complexes displayed 2D/3D framework structure for the synergistic effect of the various non-covalent interactions. The results presented herein tell that the strength and directionality of the N-H⋯O, O-H⋯O, and O-H⋯S hydrogen bonds between organic acids and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary cocrystals or organic salts.

  14. Effect of adduct formation on valent state of cerium in its ν-diketonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Pechurova, N.I.; Snezhko, N.I.; Murav'eva, I.A.; Anufrieva, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    Physicochemical investigation of the system cerium (III, IV)-ν-diketone-additional ligand shows that ν-diketonate ability to adduct formation decreases in the series tenoyltrifluoro-acetonate > acetylacetonate > dibenzoylmethanate > benzoylmethanate. Adduct formation of the cerium (III, IV) ν-diketonates stabilizes cerium in trivalent condition, while oxidation degree 4+ is stable in tetrakis-ν-diketonates. The additional ligands are arranged in the series: tributhylphosphate < trioctyl-phosphineoxide < triphenylphosphineoxide < α, α'-dipyridyl < o-phenanthroline by the effect on cerium (III) stabilization in its ν-diketonates

  15. A new technique, combined plication-incision (CPI, for correction of penile curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Abdalla Hamed

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction Penile curvature (PC can be surgically corrected by either corporoplasty or plication techniques. These techniques can be complicated by post-operative: penile shortening, recurrent PC, painful/palpable suture knots and erectile dysfunction. Objective To avoid the complications of corporoplasty and plication techniques using a new technique: combined plication-incision (CPI. Materials and Methods Two groups (1&2 were operated upon: group 1 using CPI and group 2 using the 16-dot technique. In CPI, dots were first marked as in 16 dot technique. In each group of 4 dots the superficial layer of tunica albuginea was transversely incised (3-6mm at the first and last dots. Ethibond 2/0, passed through the interior edge of the first incision plicating the intermediate 2 dots and passed out of the interior edge of the last incision, was tightened and ligated. Vicryle 4/0, passed through the exterior edges of the incisions, was tightened and ligated to cover the ethibond knot. Results Twelve (57.1 % participants in group 2 complained of a bothering palpable knot compared to none in group 1 with statistically significant difference (P=0.005. Postoperative shortening (5mm of erect penis, encountered in 9 participants, was doubled in group 2 but with insignificant difference (P>0.05. Post-operative recurrence of PC, was encountered in only 1 (4.8% participant in group 2, compared to none in group 1, with insignificant difference (P>0.05. Post-operative erectile rigidity was normally maintained in all participants. Conclusion The new technique was superior to the 16-dot technique for correction of PC.

  16. Full-Thickness Retinochoroidal Incision in the Management of Central Retinal Vein Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Ni Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the clinical outcomes in patients with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO treated with full-thickness retinochoroidal incisions and to compare whether there is difference in treatment response in ischemic and nonischemic CRVO. Methods. Retrospective study of patients of CRVO receiving full-thickness retinochoroidal incisions in Changhua Christian Hospital. Fluorescein angiography (FA, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, indirect funduscopy, best corrected visual acuity, and central macular thickness (CMT measured by optical coherence tomography were performed pre- and postoperatively. Patients were divided into an ischemic and nonischemic group according to the findings of FA. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year. Results. Twenty-eight eyes (14 ischemic and 14 nonischemic CRVO were included. Functional retinochoroidal venous anastomosis (RCVA was achieved in 48 of the 65 retinochoroidal incisions (73.8%. Central macular thickness (CMT and retinal hemorrhage decreased significantly after the surgery. Significant visual gain was observed postoperatively in the nonischemic group, but not in the ischemic group. Postoperative complications included vitreous hemorrhage (17.8%, neovascular glaucoma (7.1%, and preretinal fibrovasular membrane (10.7%, all of which were in the ischemic group. Conclusions. RCVA formation induced by retinochoroidal incisions could improve venous flow, and decrease CMT and retinal hemorrhage. However, only eyes with nonischemic CRVO showed visual improvement.

  17. The Evolution of the Appendectomy: From Open to Laparoscopic to Single Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah J. Switzer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with its initial description by Fitz in the 19th century, acute appendicitis has been a significant long-standing medical challenge; today it remains the most common gastrointestinal emergency in adults. Already in 1894, McBurney advocated for the surgical removal of the inflamed appendix and is credited with the initial description of an Open Appendectomy (OA. With the introduction of minimally invasive surgery, this classic approach evolved into a procedure with multiple, smaller incisions; a technique termed Laparoscopic Appendectomy (LA. There is much literature describing the advantages of this newer approach. To name a few, patients have significantly less wound infections, reduced pain, and a reduction in ileus compared with the OA. In the past few years, Single Incision Laparoscopic Appendectomy (SILA has gained popularity as the next major evolutionary advancement in the removal of the appendix. Described as a pioneer in the era of “scarless surgery,” it involves only one transumbilical incision. Patients are postulated to have reduced post-operative complications such as infection, hernias, and hematomas, as well as a quicker recovery time and less post-operative pain scores, in comparison to its predecessors. In this review, we explore the advancement of the appendectomy from open to laparoscopic to single incision.

  18. Formation of Hydroxymethyl DNA Adducts in Rats Orally Exposed to Stable Isotope Labeled Methanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kun; Gul, Husamettin; Upton, Patricia B.; Moeller, Benjamin C.; Swenberg, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Methanol is a large volume industrial chemical and widely used solvent and fuel additive. Methanol’s well known toxicity and use in a wide spectrum of applications has raised long-standing environmental issues over its safety, including its carcinogenicity. Methanol has not been listed as a carcinogen by any regulatory agency; however, there are debates about its carcinogenic potential. Formaldehyde, a metabolite of methanol, has been proposed to be responsible for the carcinogenesis of methanol. Formaldehyde is a known carcinogen and actively targets DNA and protein, causing diverse DNA and protein damage. However, formaldehyde-induced DNA adducts arising from the metabolism of methanol have not been reported previously, largely due to the absence of suitable DNA biomarkers and the inability to differentiate what was due to methanol compared with the substantial background of endogenous formaldehyde. Recently, we developed a unique approach combining highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry methods and exposure to stable isotope labeled chemicals to simultaneously quantify formaldehyde-specific endogenous and exogenous DNA adducts. In this study, rats were exposed daily to 500 or 2000 mg/kg [13CD4]-methanol by gavage for 5 days. Our data demonstrate that labeled formaldehyde arising from [13CD4]-methanol induced hydroxymethyl DNA adducts in multiple tissues in a dose-dependent manner. The results also demonstrated that the number of exogenous DNA adducts was lower than the number of endogenous hydroxymethyl DNA adducts in all tissues of rats administered 500 mg/kg per day for 5 days, a lethal dose to humans, even after incorporating an average factor of 4 for reduced metabolism due to isotope effects of deuterium-labeled methanol into account. PMID:22157354

  19. Detection of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid DNA Adducts in Livers of Cattle Poisoned with Heliotropium europaeum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Peter P; Xia, Qingsu; He, Xiaobo; Barel, Shimon; Edery, Nir; Beland, Frederick A; Shimshoni, Jakob A

    2017-03-20

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are among the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Exposure of humans and livestock to toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids through the intake of contaminated food and feed may result in poisoning, leading to devastating epidemics. During February 2014, 73 mixed breed female beef cows from the Galilee region of Israel were accidently fed pyrrolizidine alkaloid contaminated hay for 42 days, resulting in the sudden death of 24 cows over a period of 63 days. The remaining cows were slaughtered 2.5 months after the last ingestion of the contaminated hay. In this study, we report the histopathological analysis of the livers from five of the slaughtered cows and quantitation of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts from their livers and three livers of control cows fed with feed free of weeds producing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Histopathological examination revealed that the five cows suffered from varying degrees of bile duct proliferation, fibrosis, and megalocytosis. Selected reaction monitoring HPLC-ES-MS/MS analysis indicated that (±)-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP)-derived DNA adducts were formed in all five livers. The livers from the three control cows did not have any liver damage nor any indication of DHP-DNA adduct formed. These results confirm that the toxicity observed in these cattle was caused by pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning and that pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts could still be detected and quantified in the livers of the chronically poisoned cows 2.5 months after their last exposure to the contaminated feed, suggesting that DHP-derived DNA adducts can serve as biomarkers for pyrrolizidine alkaloid exposure and poisoning.

  20. Pulse radiolysis studies of the interaction of tea polyphenol derivatives with oxidizing OH adduct of thymine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yue; Li Hucheng; Yao Side; Zuo Zhihua; Wang Zailan; Zhang Jiashan; Lin Nianyun

    1996-01-01

    The electron transfer reactions between oxidizing OH adduct of thymine with tea polyphenol derivatives has been investigated by pulse radiolysis. The tea polyphenol derivatives are identified as good antioxidants for reduction of oxidizing OH adducts of thymine. From buildup kinetic analysis of radical phenoxyl product, the rate constants for reactions of the N 3 radical with tea polyphenol derivatives have been determined to be (8-9) x 10 9 dm 3 /mol s, while the rate constants of electron transfer from tea polyphenol derivatives to oxidizing OH adducts of thymine was obtained to be around 10 9 dm 3 /mol s. Copyright direct C 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

  1. Repair of O6-methylguanine adducts in human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Lance M.; Spear, Tyler J.; Koontz, Colton J.; Melikishvili, Manana; Fried, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) is a single-cycle DNA repair enzyme that removes pro-mutagenic O6-alkylguanine adducts from DNA. Its functions with short single-stranded and duplex substrates have been characterized, but its ability to act on other DNA structures remains poorly understood. Here, we examine the functions of this enzyme on O6-methylguanine (6mG) adducts in the four-stranded structure of the human telomeric G-quadruplex. On a folded 22-nt G-quadruplex substrate, binding saturated at 2 AGT:DNA, significantly less than the ∼5 AGT:DNA found with linear single-stranded DNAs of similar length, and less than the value found with the telomere sequence under conditions that inhibit quadruplex formation (4 AGT:DNA). Despite these differences, AGT repaired 6mG adducts located within folded G-quadruplexes, at rates that were comparable to those found for a duplex DNA substrate under analogous conditions. Repair was kinetically biphasic with the amplitudes of rapid and slow phases dependent on the position of the adduct within the G-quadruplex: in general, adducts located in the top or bottom tetrads of a quadruplex stack exhibited more rapid-phase repair than did adducts located in the inner tetrad. This distinction may reflect differences in the conformational dynamics of 6mG residues in G-quadruplex DNAs. PMID:25080506

  2. Techniques for creating inconspicuous face-lift scars: avoiding visible incisions and loss of temporal hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridel, Russell W H; Liu, Edmund S

    2003-01-01

    Patients seeking rhytidectomy desire an improved neckline, jawline, and midface, but rarely at the price of signs that betray a face-lift, namely, visible incisions. We describe our face-lift incisional planning and the rationale behind specific surgical maneuvers for preventing unwanted sequelae. The telltale signs of poorly placed incisions include temporal hair loss, conspicuous scars, an unnatural appearance to the tragus, and a posterior hairline distorsion. Special considerations are given to the male patient and to the salvage of readily visible incision lines from previous surgery.

  3. Channel Incision Driven by Suburbanization: Impacts to Riparian Groundwater Flow and Overbank Flow Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, C. J.; Lawrence, R. L.; Noll, C.; Hancock, G. S.

    2005-12-01

    Channel incision is a widely observed response to increased flow in urbanized watersheds, but the effects of channel lowering on riparian water tables is not well documented. In a rapidly incising suburban stream in the Virginia Coastal Plain, we hypothesize that stream incision has lowered floodplain water tables and decreased the overbank flow frequency. The monitored stream is a tributary to the James River draining 1.3 km2 of which 15% is impervious cover. Incision has occurred largely through upstream migration of a one meter high knickpoint at a rate of ~1.5 m/yr, primarily during high flow events. We installed 63 wells in six stream-perpendicular transects as well as a cluster of wells around the knickpoint to assess water table elevations beneath the floodplain adjacent to the incising stream. Two transects are located 30 and 50 m upstream of the knickpoint in the unincised floodplain, and the remainder are 5, 30, 70, and 100 m downstream in the incised floodplain. In one transect above and two below, pressure transducers attached to dataloggers provide a high-resolution record of water table changes. Erosion pins were installed and channel cross-sections surveyed to determine streambed stability. Significant differences are observed in bank morphology and groundwater flow above vs. below the knickpoint. Above the knickpoint, the banks are stable, ~3 m wide, and ~0.3 m deep, and widen and deepen slightly toward the knickpoint. The water table is relatively flat and is 0.2-0.4 m below the floodplain surface, and groundwater contours suggest flow is parallel to the stream direction. The water table responds immediately to precipitation events, and rises to the floodplain surface in significant rainfall events. Immediately downstream of the knickpoint, channel width increases by about a meter, and stream depth increases to ~1.5 meters. The water table immediately below the knickpoint possesses a steep gradient, and is up to one meter below the floodplain

  4. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail: shanthig@iastate.edu; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  5. N,N-dimethylformamide (dMF) adducts of lanthanide trifluoroacetates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicentini, G.; Silva, M.G. da

    1984-01-01

    Addition compounds of lanthanide iodides, acetates, nitrates, perchlorates, chlorides, perhenates, hexathiocyanates, chromiates, isothiocyanates and hexafluorophosphates with DMF have been extensively described in the literature. This article reports the preparation and characterization of adducts with general formula Ln(CF 3 COO) 3 . 2 DMF. (Author) [pt

  6. Performance of fast-absorbable suture and histo-glue in closing incisions in Brown trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Niels; Larsen, Martin Hage; Aarestrup, Kim

    2017-01-01

    , growth, tag expulsion rate and incision healing was compared among three groups of dummy transmitter-tagged wild brown trout Salmo trutta where incisions were closed with two types of suture material (absorbable vs. fast absorbable) and Histo-glue. The tagged fish were kept in semi-natural ponds for 20...

  7. Protein Recognition in Drug-Induced DNA Alkylation: When the Moonlight Protein GAPDH Meets S23906-1/DNA Minor Groove Adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savreux-Lenglet, Gaëlle; Depauw, Sabine; David-Cordonnier, Marie-Hélène

    2015-11-05

    DNA alkylating drugs have been used in clinics for more than seventy years. The diversity of their mechanism of action (major/minor groove; mono-/bis-alkylation; intra-/inter-strand crosslinks; DNA stabilization/destabilization, etc.) has undoubtedly major consequences on the cellular response to treatment. The aim of this review is to highlight the variety of established protein recognition of DNA adducts to then particularly focus on glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) function in DNA adduct interaction with illustration using original experiments performed with S23906-1/DNA adduct. The introduction of this review is a state of the art of protein/DNA adducts recognition, depending on the major or minor groove orientation of the DNA bonding as well as on the molecular consequences in terms of double-stranded DNA maintenance. It reviews the implication of proteins from both DNA repair, transcription, replication and chromatin maintenance in selective DNA adduct recognition. The main section of the manuscript is focusing on the implication of the moonlighting protein GAPDH in DNA adduct recognition with the model of the peculiar DNA minor groove alkylating and destabilizing drug S23906-1. The mechanism of action of S23906-1 alkylating drug and the large variety of GAPDH cellular functions are presented prior to focus on GAPDH direct binding to S23906-1 adducts.

  8. Effect of adduct formation on valent state of cerium in its. beta. -diketonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitsyn, V.I.; Martynenko, L.I.; Pechurova, N.I.; Snezhko, N.I.; Murav' eva, I.A.; Anufrieva, S.I. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR))

    1982-04-01

    Physicochemical investigation of the system cerium (III, IV)-..beta..-diketone-additional ligand shows that ..beta..-diketonate ability to adduct formation decreases in the series tenoyltrifluoro-acetonate > acetylacetonate > dibenzoylmethanate > benzoylmethanate. Adduct formation of the cerium (III, IV) ..beta..-diketonates stabilizes cerium in trivalent condition, while oxidation degree 4+ is stable in tetrakis-..beta..-diketonates. The additional ligands are arranged in the series: tributhylphosphate < trioctyl-phosphineoxide < triphenylphosphineoxide < ..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..'-dipyridyl < o-phenanthroline by the effect on cerium (III) stabilization in its ..beta..-diketonates.

  9. Stratigraphic architecture of back-filled incised-valley systems: Pennsylvanian-Permian lower Cutler beds, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Oliver J. W.; Mountney, Nigel P.

    2013-12-01

    The Pennsylvanian to Permian lower Cutler beds collectively form the lowermost stratigraphic unit of the Cutler Group in the Paradox Basin, southeast Utah. The lower Cutler beds represent a tripartite succession comprising lithofacies assemblages of aeolian, fluvial and shallow-marine origin, in near equal proportion. The succession results from a series of transgressive-regressive cycles, driven by repeated episodes of climatic variation and linked changes in relative sea-level. Relative sea-level changes created a number of incised-valleys, each forming through fluvial incision during lowered base-level. Aeolian dominance during periods of relative sea-level lowstand aids incised-valley identification as the erosive bounding surface juxtaposes incised-valley infill against stacked aeolian faces. Relative sea-level rises resulted in back-flooding of the incised-valleys and their infill via shallow-marine and estuarine processes. Back-flooded valleys generated marine embayments within which additional local accommodation was exploited. Back-filling is characterised by a distinctive suite of lithofacies arranged into a lowermost, basal fill of fluvial channel and floodplain architectural elements, passing upwards into barform elements with indicators of tidal influence, including inclined heterolithic strata and reactivation surfaces. The incised-valley fills are capped by laterally extensive and continuous marine limestone elements that record the drowning of the valleys and, ultimately, flooding and accumulation across surrounding interfluves (transgressive surface). Limestone elements are characterised by an open-marine fauna and represent the preserved expression of maximum transgression.

  10. The boomerang incision for periareolar breast malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mona P

    2007-11-01

    Breast-conservation surgery has been shown to be equivalent to mastectomy in terms of long-term survival for the treatment of breast cancer. Various techniques have been described on how to achieve clear margins and good cosmetic outcomes and therefore expand the indications for breast conservation. A novel incision is detailed to augment the options already available.

  11. Thermodynamic parameters for polyether adducts with neutral molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.N.; Zafar, A.I.; Ganunis, T.F.

    1992-01-01

    Using calorimetry, thermodynamic parameters for the interaction of neutral molecules with polyether adducts are determined. When compared to its analogous acyclic ether, no macrocyclic effect is observed for 12-crown-4. The ether's collective oxygen atoms' action determines interaction with acetonitrile and malononitrile, with dimethyltin dichloride having a specific oxygen-binding site. 14 refs., 1 tab

  12. Incisional hernia after upper abdominal surgery: A randomised controlled trial of midline versus transverse incision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Halm (Jens); H. Lip (Harm); P.I.M. Schmitz (Paul); J. Jeekel (Hans)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: To determine whether a transverse incision is an alternative to a midline incision in terms of incisional hernia incidence, surgical site infection, postoperative pain, hospital stay and cosmetics in cholecystectomy. Summary background data: Incisional hernias after midline

  13. Phenomenon of mucous retention in the incisive canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, D A

    1979-11-01

    Mucous glands are rarely found in the anterior palate but may be observed in the incisive canal. A case history is presented of a lesion that resembled a nasopalatine cyst both clinically and radiographically but which was in fact an intra-bony extravasation phenomenon.

  14. Comparison of first-intention healing of carbon dioxide laser, 4.0-MHz radiosurgery, and scalpel incisions in ball pythons (Python regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodshon, Rebecca T; Sura, Patricia A; Schumacher, Juergen P; Odoi, Agricola; Steeil, James C; Newkirk, Kim M

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate first-intention healing of CO(2) laser, 4.0-MHz radiowave radiosurgery (RWRS), and scalpel incisions in ball pythons (Python regius). 6 healthy adult ball pythons. A skin biopsy sample was collected, and 2-cm skin incisions (4/modality) were made in each snake under anesthesia and closed with surgical staples on day 0. Incision sites were grossly evaluated and scored daily. One skin biopsy sample per incision type per snake was obtained on days 2, 7, 14, and 30. Necrotic and fibroplastic tissue was measured in histologic sections; samples were assessed and scored for total inflammation, histologic response (based on the measurement of necrotic and fibroplastic tissues and total inflammation score), and other variables. Frequency distributions of gross and histologic variables associated with wound healing were calculated. Gross wound scores were significantly greater (indicating greater separation of wound edges) for laser incisions than for RWRS and scalpel incisions at all evaluated time points. Necrosis was significantly greater in laser and RWRS incisions than in scalpel incision sites on days 2 and 14 and days 2 and 7, respectively; fibroplasia was significantly greater in laser than in scalpel incision sites on day 30. Histologic response scores were significantly lower for scalpel than for other incision modalities on days 2, 14, and 30. In snakes, skin incisions made with a scalpel generally had less necrotic tissue than did CO(2) laser and RWRS incisions. Comparison of the 3 modalities on the basis of histologic response scores indicated that use of a scalpel was preferable, followed by RWRS and then laser.

  15. The long persistence of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-derived DNA adducts in vivo: kinetic study following single and multiple exposures in male ICR mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; Xue, Junyi; Xia, Qingsu; Fu, Peter P; Lin, Ge

    2017-02-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA)-containing plants are widespread in the world and the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Our previous studies demonstrated that PA-derived DNA adducts can potentially be a common biological biomarker of PA-induced liver tumor formation. In order to validate the use of these PA-derived DNA adducts as a biomarker, it is necessary to understand the basic kinetics of the PA-derived DNA adducts formed in vivo. In this study, we studied the dose-dependent response and kinetics of PA-derived DNA adduct formation and removal in male ICR mice orally administered with a single dose (40 mg/kg) or multiple doses (10 mg/kg/day) of retrorsine, a representative carcinogenic PA. In the single-dose exposure, the PA-derived DNA adducts exhibited dose-dependent linearity and persisted for up to 4 weeks. The removal of the adducts following a single-dose exposure to retrorsine was biphasic with half-lives of 9 h (t 1/2α ) and 301 h (~12.5 days, t 1/2β ). In the 8-week multiple exposure study, a marked accumulation of PA-derived DNA adducts without attaining a steady state was observed. The removal of adducts after the multiple exposure also demonstrated a biphasic pattern but with much extended half-lives of 176 h (~7.33 days, t 1/2α ) and 1736 h (~72.3 days, t 1/2β ). The lifetime of PA-derived DNA adducts was more than 8 weeks following the multiple-dose treatment. The significant persistence of PA-derived DNA adducts in vivo supports their role in serving as a biomarker of PA exposure.

  16. Comparison of Bile Acids and Acetaminophen Protein Adducts in Children and Adolescents with Acetaminophen Toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura James

    Full Text Available Metabolomics approaches have enabled the study of new mechanisms of liver injury in experimental models of drug toxicity. Disruption of bile acid homeostasis is a known mechanism of drug induced liver injury. The relationship of individual bile acids to indicators of oxidative drug metabolism (acetaminophen protein adducts and liver injury was examined in children with acetaminophen overdose, hospitalized children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and children with no recent exposure to acetaminophen. Nine bile acids were quantified through targeted metabolomic analysis in the serum samples of the three groups. Bile acids were compared to serum levels of acetaminophen protein adducts and alanine aminotransferase. Glycodeoxycholic acid, taurodeoxycholic acid, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid were significantly increased in children with acetaminophen overdose compared to healthy controls. Among patients with acetaminophen overdose, bile acids were higher in subjects with acetaminophen protein adduct values > 1.0 nmol/mL and modest correlations were noted for three bile acids and acetaminophen protein adducts as follows: taurodeoxycholic acid (R=0.604; p<0.001, glycodeoxycholic acid (R=0.581; p<0.001, and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (R=0.571; p<0.001. Variability in bile acids was greater among hospitalized children receiving low doses of acetaminophen than in healthy children with no recent acetaminophen exposure. Compared to bile acids, acetaminophen protein adducts more accurately discriminated among children with acetaminophen overdose, children with low dose exposure to acetaminophen, and healthy control subjects. In children with acetaminophen overdose, elevations of conjugated bile acids were associated with specific indicators of acetaminophen metabolism and non-specific indicators of liver injury.

  17. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Suppresses Mutagenesis Caused by Clustered Oxidative DNA Adducts in the Human Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Akira; Kamoshita, Nagisa; Kanemaru, Yuki; Honma, Masamitsu; Yasui, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage is defined as multiple sites of DNA damage within one or two helical turns of the duplex DNA. This complex damage is often formed by exposure of the genome to ionizing radiation and is difficult to repair. The mutagenic potential and repair mechanisms of clustered DNA damage in human cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the involvement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in clustered oxidative DNA adducts. To identify the in vivo protective roles of NER, we established a human cell line lacking the NER gene xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). XPA knockout (KO) cells were generated from TSCER122 cells derived from the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line. To analyze the mutagenic events in DNA adducts in vivo, we previously employed a system of tracing DNA adducts in the targeted mutagenesis (TATAM), in which DNA adducts were site-specifically introduced into intron 4 of thymidine kinase genes. Using the TATAM system, one or two tandem 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) adducts were introduced into the genomes of TSCER122 or XPA KO cells. In XPA KO cells, the proportion of mutants induced by a single 8-oxoG (7.6%) was comparable with that in TSCER122 cells (8.1%). In contrast, the lack of XPA significantly enhanced the mutant proportion of tandem 8-oxoG in the transcribed strand (12%) compared with that in TSCER122 cells (7.4%) but not in the non-transcribed strand (12% and 11% in XPA KO and TSCER122 cells, respectively). By sequencing the tandem 8-oxoG-integrated loci in the transcribed strand, we found that the proportion of tandem mutations was markedly increased in XPA KO cells. These results indicate that NER is involved in repairing clustered DNA adducts in the transcribed strand in vivo. PMID:26559182

  18. Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Suppresses Mutagenesis Caused by Clustered Oxidative DNA Adducts in the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Akira; Kamoshita, Nagisa; Kanemaru, Yuki; Honma, Masamitsu; Yasui, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Clustered DNA damage is defined as multiple sites of DNA damage within one or two helical turns of the duplex DNA. This complex damage is often formed by exposure of the genome to ionizing radiation and is difficult to repair. The mutagenic potential and repair mechanisms of clustered DNA damage in human cells remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the involvement of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in clustered oxidative DNA adducts. To identify the in vivo protective roles of NER, we established a human cell line lacking the NER gene xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA). XPA knockout (KO) cells were generated from TSCER122 cells derived from the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cell line. To analyze the mutagenic events in DNA adducts in vivo, we previously employed a system of tracing DNA adducts in the targeted mutagenesis (TATAM), in which DNA adducts were site-specifically introduced into intron 4 of thymidine kinase genes. Using the TATAM system, one or two tandem 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) adducts were introduced into the genomes of TSCER122 or XPA KO cells. In XPA KO cells, the proportion of mutants induced by a single 8-oxoG (7.6%) was comparable with that in TSCER122 cells (8.1%). In contrast, the lack of XPA significantly enhanced the mutant proportion of tandem 8-oxoG in the transcribed strand (12%) compared with that in TSCER122 cells (7.4%) but not in the non-transcribed strand (12% and 11% in XPA KO and TSCER122 cells, respectively). By sequencing the tandem 8-oxoG-integrated loci in the transcribed strand, we found that the proportion of tandem mutations was markedly increased in XPA KO cells. These results indicate that NER is involved in repairing clustered DNA adducts in the transcribed strand in vivo.

  19. Facile Synthesis of N-Tosyl Aza-Baylis-Hillman Adducts of Acrylamide via a Pd-Catalyzed Hydration of Nitrile to Amide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Sun; Kim, Yu Mi; Kim, Jae Nyoung

    2010-01-01

    We developed an efficient palladium-catalyzed two-step protocol for the synthesis of N-tosyl aza-Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylamide. The method involved the preparation of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts of acrylonitrile and the following Pd-catalyzed hydration of nitrile with acetaldoxime. The Baylis-Hillman reaction, which involves the coupling of activated vinyl compounds with electrophiles under the catalytic influence of a tertiary amine, gives rise to adducts, so called Baylis-Hillman adducts, with a new stereocenter and has proven to be a very useful carbon-carbon bond-forming method in the synthesis of highly functionalized molecules. As the activated vinyl compounds, various compounds have been used in the Baylis-Hillman reaction including acrylates, acrylonitrile, vinyl ketones, vinyl sulfones and acrylamides. However, among the activated vinyl compounds acrylamide has not been used much for the synthesis of the corresponding Baylis-Hillman adducts due to its sluggish reactivity

  20. Smaller incision size leads to higher predictability in microcoaxial cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamann, Matthias K J; Gonnermann, Johannes; Maier, Anna-Karina B; Torun, Necip; Bertelmann, Eckart

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the clinical outcomes of a 1.8 mm, 2.2 mm, and 2.75 mm microcoaxial cataract surgery system. METHODS. In this retrospective study, 129 eyes of 129 patients were included. Patients underwent phacoemulsification using a Stellaris system or an Infiniti system. The incision size was 1.8 mm, 2.2 mm, or 2.75 mm, respectively. Subjects were examined before surgery and 4 weeks after. The surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was examined. The SIA in the 1.8 mm group was statistically lower compared to the 2.2 mm group (p=0.046) and the 2.75 mm group (p=0.017). There was no significant difference between the 2.2 mm group and the 2.75 mm group. With the use of appropriate support systems, 1.8 mm incisions appear to result in less SIA than 2.2 mm and 2.75 mm incisions. Advantages may arise from this, especially in the implantation of aspheric, toric, or multifocal lenses.

  1. Identification and quantification of drug-albumin adducts in serum samples from a drug exposure study in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Switzar, L.; Kwast, L.M.; Lingeman, H.; Giera, M.; Pieters, R.H.H.; Niessen, W.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The formation of drug-protein adducts following the bioactivation of drugs to reactive metabolites has been linked to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and is a major complication in drug discovery and development. Identification and quantification of drug-protein adducts in vivo may lead to a better

  2. Methemoglobin Formation and Characterization of Hemoglobin Adducts of Carcinogenic Aromatic Amines and Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Khyatiben V; Chiu, Ting-Lan; Amin, Elizabeth Ambrose; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-03-21

    Arylamines (AAs) and heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are structurally related carcinogens formed during the combustion of tobacco or cooking of meat. They undergo cytochrome P450 mediated N-hydroxylation to form metabolites which bind to DNA and lead to mutations. The N-hydroxylated metabolites of many AAs also can undergo a co-oxidation reaction with oxy-hemolgobin (HbO2) to form methemoglobin (met-Hb) and the arylnitroso intermediates, which react with the β-Cys(93) chain of Hb to form Hb-arylsulfinamide adducts. The biochemistry of arylamine metabolism has been exploited to biomonitor certain AAs through their Hb arylsulfinamide adducts in humans. We examined the reactivity of HbO2 with the N-hydroxylated metabolites of 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP, HONH-ABP), aniline (ANL, HONH-ANL), and the HAAs 2-amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AαC, HONH-AαC), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP, HONH-PhIP), and 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx, HONH-MeIQx). HONH-ABP, HO-ANL, and HONH-AαC induced methemoglobinemia and formed Hb sulfinamide adducts. However, HONH-MeIQx and HONH-PhIP did not react with the oxy-heme complex, and met-Hb formation and chemical modification of the β-Cys(93) residue were negligible. Molecular modeling studies showed that the distances between the H-ON-AA or H-ON-HAA substrates and the oxy-heme complex of HbO2 were too far away to induce methemoglobinemia. Different conformational changes in flexible helical and loop regions around the heme pocket induced by the H-ON-AA or H-ON-HAAs may explain the different proclivities of these chemicals to induce methemoglobinemia. Hb-Cys(93β) sulfinamide and sulfonamide adducts of ABP, ANL, and AαC were identified, by Orbitrap MS, following the proteolysis of Hb with trypsin, Glu-C, or Lys-C. Hb sulfinamide and sulfonamide adducts of ABP were identified in the blood of mice exposed to ABP, by Orbitrap MS. This is the first report of the identification of intact Hb

  3. Courses of change in knee adduction moment and lateral thrust differ up to 1 year after TKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Noboru; Deie, Masataka; Hirata, Kazuhiko; Hiate, Yasuhiko; Orita, Naoya; Iwaki, Daisuke; Ito, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Hiroaki; Pappas, Evangelos; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2016-08-01

    In total knee arthroplasty (TKA), dynamic knee loading may loosen the artificial joint and bone or cause polyethylene wear after prolonged use. TKA decreases knee adduction moment at 6 months, but this effect is lost by 1 year post-operatively. However, lateral thrust after TKA has not been clarified. We hypothesized that like knee adduction moment, lateral thrust would return to baseline levels by 1 year post-operatively. Participants were 15 patients who underwent TKA for medial knee OA. Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, numeric rating scale, and gait analysis (measurement of peak knee adduction moment, knee varus angle at peak knee adduction moment, lateral thrust, and gait speed) were performed preoperatively (baseline) and 3 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 1 year post-operatively. JOA score improved from 55 ± 9.8 to 78 ± 12.1 at 1 year post-operatively, and pain decreased significantly from baseline at each follow-up (p < 0.001). Significant increases in gait speed were observed at 6 months and 1 year (p < 0.001). Peak knee adduction moment during stance phase was significantly lower at 3 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months compared to baseline (p < 0.05), but no significant changes were seen at 1 year. Knee varus at peak knee adduction moment did not differ significantly between any measurement points, while lateral thrust was decreased at 6 months and 1 year compared to baseline (p < 0.05). Temporal courses of changes up to 1 year after TKA differed between knee adduction moment and lateral thrust, so our hypothesis was rejected. IV.

  4. Determination of phospholipid regiochemistry by Ag(I) adduction and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyun Ju; Håkansson, Kristina

    2011-02-15

    Collision-activated dissociation (CAD) and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) of Ag-adducted phospholipids were investigated as structural tools. Previously, determination of the acyl chains at the two phospholipid esterification sites has been performed based on the R(1)COO(-)/R(2)COO(-) ratio in negative ion mode CAD tandem mass spectrometry. However, the observed product ion ratio is dependent on the extent of unsaturation of the fatty acyl group at sn-2 as well as on the total chain length. Similarly, in positive ion mode CAD with/without alkaline or alkaline earth metal adduction, the ratio of product ions resulting from either R(1)COOH or R(2)COOH neutral losses is dependent on the nature of the phospholipid polar headgroup. Ag(+) ion chromatography, in which silver ions are part of the stationary phase, can provide information on double bond number/distribution as well as double bond configuration (cis/trans) because of interaction between Ag(+) ions and olefinic π electrons of fatty acids and lipids. We hypothesized that interactions between double bonds and Ag(+) may be utilized to also reveal phospholipid esterification site information in tandem mass spectrometry. CAD and IRMPD of Ag-adducted phospholipids with unsaturated fatty acids (R(x)COOH, x = 1 or 2) provided characteristic product ions, [R(x)COOH + Ag](+), and their neutral losses. The characteristic product ions and their abundances do not depend on the type of polar headgroup or the number of double bonds of unsaturated acyl chains. Tandem mass spectrometry of Cu-adducted phospholipids was also performed for comparison based on the Lewis acid and base properties of Cu(+) and phospholipid double bonds, respectively.

  5. A STUDY ON EFFICACY OF MANUAL SMALL INCISION CATARACT SURGERY BY TEMPORAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Kannan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (MSICS is a well-known technique of cataract surgery owing to its advantage of a selfsealing suture less incision with least surgically induced astigmatism at a low cost. It is a safe, simple, consistent, stable and cost-effective technique with various modifications that involve site, size, type of incision and method of nucleus delivery. One such modification is Temporal Incision MSICS, where the cataract surgery is done by a temporal approach, which is equally good compared to the superior incision. This study was done retrospectively to analyse the visual outcome of patients operated by Manual SICS - Temporal Approach, using the WHO criteria and to establish its efficacy as a good surgical technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS Records of patients operated for senile cataract by a single surgeon by Temporal MSICS using a temporal sclerocorneal incision of 6-6.5 mm, during a 1-year period, were analysed retrospectively. Post-operative followup records of POD-1 and subsequent follow-ups at 1 st week and 6 th week were recorded for visual outcome. RESULTS Out of the 83 cases analysed retrospectively, majority of them were found to be between 61-70 years with a female Preponderance. Most of the cases were found to have senile immature cataract (55 patients, with Grade III nuclear sclerosis (52 cases. The pre-operative visual acuity was poor <6/60 in 72 cases (86.7% and borderline in 11 cases (14.5%. 55 cases (66.3% had a 6.5 mm scleral incision and the remaining 28 cases (33.7% had a 6 mm incision. Average duration of surgery noted was 8.35 minutes. Striate Keratopathy was the most common 1 st POD complication followed by corneal oedema. Striate keratopathy was the most common complication at the 1 st week followup followed by pigment dispersion. Majority of cases (76 cases were found to have been complication free at the end of 6 weeks. At the end of 6 weeks post-operatively as per records, 80 cases

  6. Formation and persistence of DNA adducts from the carcinogen N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene in rat mammary gland in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaben, W.T.; Weis, C.C.; Fullerton, N.F.; Beland, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    The rat mammary carcinogen, N-hydroxy-2-acetylaminofluorene (N-hydroxy-2-AAF), has been proposed to be metabolically activated by mammary cytosolic N,O-acetyltransferase to a DNA binding species. To test this hypothesis, adult female Sprague-Dawley derived CD rats were treated, i.p., with 4.0 mg/kg [ring- 3 H]N-hydroxy-2-AAF. After 4 h, 1, 3, 14, and 28 days, the animals were killed, the mammary epithelium DNA was isolated and the carcinogen-deoxyribonucleoside adducts present were analyzed by high pressure liquid chromatography. At each time, only one adduct was detected and it was chromatographically identical to N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-aminofluorene. The level of the adduct was maximal at 4 h (1.5 adducts/10(6) nucleotides) and then decreased, following first order kinetics with a t1/2 of 14.2 days. The detection of a single non-acetylated aminofluorene adduct is consistent with N,O-acyltransferase being involved in the metabolic activation of N-hydroxy-2-AAF in the rat mammary gland

  7. Oral subcutaneous midline leiomyomatous hamartoma presenting as congenital incisive papilla overgrowth in a toddler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Loomba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital soft-tissue tumors of oral cavity are mostly hyperplastic and benign in nature. This article presents an unusual case of congenital subcutaneous hamartoma of incisive papilla in a 2-year-old female child causing feeding and breathing difficulty. Total excisional biopsy was done under local anesthesia. Histopathology of tissue in reticulin-stained slide showed the presence of immature muscle fibers whereas Masson's trichrome stain revealed collagen fibers and smooth muscles confirming the diagnosis of oral midline subcutaneous smooth muscle (leiomyomatous hamartoma of incisive papilla. It is important for dental professionals to be aware of this oral lesion present from birth mimicking overgrowth of incisive papilla, by its presentation, differential diagnosis, histopathology, and management.

  8. High transverse skin incisions may reduce wound complications in obese women having cesarean sections: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Robert B; Shnaekel, Kelsey L; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T; Napolitano, Peter G; Magann, Everett F

    2017-11-01

    Women having cesarean section have a high risk of wound complications. Our objective was to determine whether high transverse skin incisions are associated with a reduced risk of cesarean wound complications in women with BMI greater than 40. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken of parturients ages 18-45 with BMI greater than 40 having high transverse skin incisions from January 2010 to April 2015 at a tertiary maternity hospital. Temporally matched controls had low transverse skin incisions along with a BMI greater than 40. The primary outcome, wound complication, was defined as any seroma, hematoma, dehiscence, or infection requiring opening and evacuating/debriding the wound. Secondary outcomes included rates of endometritis, number of hospital days, NICU admission, Apgar scores, birth weight, and gestational age at delivery. Analysis of outcomes was performed using two-sample t-test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous variables and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Thirty-two women had high transverse incisions and were temporally matched with 96 controls (low transverse incisions). The mean BMI was 49 for both groups. There was a trend toward reduced wound complications in those having high transverse skin incisions, but this did not reach statistical significance (15.63% versus 27.08%, p = .2379). Those having high transverse skin incisions had lower five minute median Apgar scores (8.0 versus 9.0, p = .0021), but no difference in umbilical artery pH values. The high transverse group also had increased NICU admissions (28.13% versus 5.21%, p = .0011), and early gestational age at delivery (36.8 versus 38.0, p = .0272). High transverse skin incisions may reduce the risk of wound complications in parturients with obesity. A study with more power should be considered.

  9. S-shaped versus conventional straight skin incision: Impact on primary functional maturation, stenosis and thrombosis of autogenous radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula: Impact of incision on maturation, stenosis & failure of RCAVF. Study design: Prospective observational comparative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordzadeh, Ali; Panayiotopolous, Yiannis

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to test the null hypothesis that an S-shaped surgical incision versus conventional (straight) skin incision in the creation of autogenous radiocephalic arteriovenous fistulas (RCAVFs) have no impact on the primary end-point of primary functional maturation and secondary end points of stenosis and thrombosis. A prospective observational comparative consecutive study with intention-to-treat on individuals undergoing only radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (RCAVFs) over a period of 12 months was conducted. Variables on patient's demographics, comorbidities, anesthesia type, mean arterial blood pressure, thrill, laterality, cephalic vein and radial artery diameter were collated. The test of probability was assessed through Chi-Square, Kaplan-Meier survival estimator and Log-Rank analysis. Total of n = 83 individuals with median age of 67 years (IQR, 20-89) and male predominance 83% during this period were subjected to RCAVF formation. Total of n = 45 patients in straight skin incision were compared to n = 38 individuals in S-shaped group. Despite equal prevalence of demographics, comorbidities, anesthesia type, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), thrill, laterality, cephalic vein and radial artery diameter ( p  > 0.05) higher incidence of juxta-anastomotic stenosis was noted in the straight skin incision group ( p  = 0.029) in comparative and survival analysis (Log-Rank, p  = 0.036). The maturation of the entire cohort was 69% (S-shaped 76% vs. straight group 62%) (p > 0.05). The outcome of this study demonstrates that S-shaped surgical skin incision is associated with a lower incidence of stenosis in comparison to straight incision type in RCAVF formation.

  10. Rapid fluvial incision of a late Holocene lava flow: Insights from LiDAR, alluvial stratigraphy, and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kristin; Roering, Joshua J.

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions fundamentally alter landscapes, paving over channels, decimating biota, and emplacing fresh, unweathered material. The fluvial incision of blocky lava flows is a geomorphic puzzle. First, high surface permeability and lack of sediment should preclude geomorphically effective surface runoff and dissection. Furthermore, past work has demonstrated the importance of extreme floods in driving incision via column toppling and plucking in columnar basalt, but it is unclear how incision occurs in systems where surface blocks are readily mobile. We examine rapid fluvial incision of the Collier lava flow, an andesitic Holocene lava flow in the High Cascades of Oregon. Since lava flow emplacement ∼1600 yr ago, White Branch Creek has incised bedrock gorges up to 8 m deep into the coherent core of the lava flow and deposited >0.2 km3 of sediment on the lava flow surface. Field observation points to a bimodal discharge regime in the channel, with evidence for both annual snowmelt runoff and outburst floods from Collier glacier, as well as historical evidence of vigorous glacial meltwater. To determine the range of discharge events capable of incision in White Branch Creek, we used a mechanistic model of fluvial abrasion. We show that the observed incision implies that moderate flows are capable of both initiating channel formation and sustaining incision. Our results have implications for the evolution of volcanic systems worldwide, where glaciation and/or mass wasting may accelerate fluvial processes by providing large amounts of sediment to otherwise porous, sediment-starved landscapes.

  11. Evaluation of a new disposable silicon limbal relaxing incision knife by experienced users

    OpenAIRE

    Parvu Valentin; Dugue Geoffrey; Albanese John; Bajart Ann M; Lee Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research has suggested that the silicon BD Atomic Edge™ knife has superior performance characteristics when compared to a metal knife and performance similar to diamond knife when making various incisions. This study was designed to determine whether a silicon accurate depth knife has equivalent performance characteristics when compared to a diamond limbal relaxing incision (LRI) knife and superior performance characteristics when compared to a steel accurate dept...

  12. Characteristics of Bone Injuries Resulting from Knife Wounds Incised with Different Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Kumaratilake, Jaliya; Henneberg, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this research was to experimentally determine the characteristics of incised bone wounds, which are commonly found in defense injuries. A specially constructed pivoting arm device was used to inflict wounds with controlled forces and direction. Five knives were selected to inflict the wounds on porcine forelimbs. Eight incised wounds were made per knife per force. A larger knife and a greater force caused longer and wider bone wounds. Comparisons of individual knives at the two forces produced varying results in the bone wounds. A correlation was seen between the force and the length (r = 0.69), width (r = 0.63), and depth (r = 0.57) of bone wounds. Serrated-edge and nonserrated knives can be distinguished from the appearance of the wound. The outcomes may be applicable in forensic investigations to ascertain the forces associated with incised wounds and identify the specific knife used. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Association between mutation spectra and stable and unstable DNA adduct profiles in Salmonella for benzo[a]pyrene and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMarini, David M., E-mail: demarini.david@epa.gov [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hanley, Nancy M.; Warren, Sarah H.; Adams, Linda D.; King, Leon C. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Highlights: {yields} Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) induces stable DNA adducts and mutations primarily at guanine. {yields} Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) induces them primarily at adenine. {yields} BP induces abasic sites, but DBP does not in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. {yields} Stable DNA adducts alone appear to account for the mutation spectrum of DBP. {yields} Stable DNA adducts and possibly abasic sites account for the mutation spectrum of BP. - Abstract: Benzo[a]pyrene (BP) and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) are two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that exhibit distinctly different mutagenicity and carcinogenicity profiles. Although some studies show that these PAHs produce unstable DNA adducts, conflicting data and arguments have been presented regarding the relative roles of these unstable adducts versus stable adducts, as well as oxidative damage, in the mutagenesis and tumor-mutation spectra of these PAHs. However, no study has determined the mutation spectra along with the stable and unstable DNA adducts in the same system with both PAHs. Thus, we determined the mutagenic potencies and mutation spectra of BP and DBP in strains TA98, TA100 and TA104 of Salmonella, and we also measured the levels of abasic sites (aldehydic-site assay) and characterized the stable DNA adducts ({sup 32}P-postlabeling/HPLC) induced by these PAHs in TA104. Our results for the mutation spectra and site specificity of stable adducts were consistent with those from other systems, showing that DBP was more mutagenic than BP in TA98 and TA100. The mutation spectra of DBP and BP were significantly different in TA98 and TA104, with 24% of the mutations induced by BP in TA98 being complex frameshifts, whereas DBP produced hardly any of these mutations. In TA104, BP produced primarily GC to TA transversions, whereas DBP produced primarily AT to TA transversions. The majority (96%) of stable adducts induced by BP were at guanine, whereas the majority (80%) induced by DBP were at adenine

  14. Small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rasmus Søgaard; Lyhne, Niels; Grauslund, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    surgery was 0.07 ± 0.03 (logMAR). However, 12 eyes (1.6 %) lost 2 or more lines of CDVA from before surgery to 3 months postoperatively. Simultaneous treatment of up to 3.00 D of astigmatism was not associated with less predictable refractive outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In the short term, SMILE seemed......PURPOSE: To study the outcomes of small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients treated for myopia or myopic astigmatism with SMILE, using a VisuMax(®) femtosecond laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Jena, Germany...

  15. Single incision thoracoscopic sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Baram

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary hyperhidrosis is characterized by excessive sweating beyond physiological needs. It is a common disease (incidence 2.8% that causes intense discomfort for patients. In the last decade, advantages of Single-Incision Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy have become clear, particularly in decreasing morbidity of sympathectomy. Patients and methods: From January 2010 to December 2012, 39 patients (29 females and 10 males with primary palmar or axillary hyperhidrosis were treated by thoracoscopic sympathectomy. The age ranged from 18 to 40 years with a mean of 26.28 years. We used single incision thoracoscopic electrocoagulation through 10 mm incision for thoracic sympathetic chain (T2–T4. Results: The mean follow-up was 23.6 ± 14.2 months (range = 4–24 months. A total of 97.42% of patients were satisfied with the results. A total of 72.5% of patients had cure, one patient (2.5% and another patient (2.5% presented with recurrent axillary hyperhidrosis. The morbidity was 10.2% with no mortality. Percentage of compensatory sweating and gustatory sweating were 5.1% (p = .353 and 2.5% (p = .552, respectively. The result of sympathectomy in patients with both palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis was significantly better (17, 43.58% compared to palmar type (14, 35.89% or axillary type (7, 17.94%. Conclusion: Thoracoscopic sympathectomy is a simple, safe, and cost-effective therapy with good results and low complications.

  16. Treatment for incarcerated indirect hernia with “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qiang Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aims to evaluate the utility of the “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision for the surgical treatment of incarcerated indirect hernia (IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension. Materials and Methods: Patients of IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension were reviewed retrospectively. All patients received operation through the “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision. Results: There were totally 13 patients were included, male to female ratio was 9-4. The time for patients to resume oral feeding varying from 2 to 5 days after operation, no complications include delayed intestinal perforation, intra-abdominal abscess, and incision infection happened. Average postoperative hospital stay was 5.2 days. All cases were followed up for 6–18 months. No recurrence or iatrogenic cryptorchidism happened. Conclusion: “Cross-Internal Ring” inguinal oblique incision is a simple, safe, and reliable surgical method to treat pediatric IIH complicated with severe abdominal distension.

  17. Tubularized incised plate technique for recurrent hypospadias: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of recurrent hypospadias. Summary background ... The potential advantages of tubularized incised plate .... after a mean duration of 4.9 ± 3.1 years from the previous repair (Table 2). .... erection and the risk of infection, especially in patients older than 15 .... However, previous surgery often limits the availability ...

  18. Effects of Bank Vegetation and Incision on Erosion Rates in an Urban Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Arnold

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Changing land-use associated with urbanization has resulted in shifts in riparian assemblages, stream hydraulics, and sediment dynamics leading to the degradation of waterways. To combat degradation, restoration and management of riparian zones is becoming increasingly common. However, the relationship between flora, especially the influence of invasive species, on sediment dynamics is poorly understood. Bank erosion and turbidity were monitored in the Tookany Creek and its tributary Mill Run in the greater Philadelphia, PA region. To evaluate the influence of the invasive species Reynoutria japonica (Japanese knotweed on erosion, reaches were chosen based on their riparian vegetation and degree of incision. Bank pins and turbidity loggers were used to estimate sediment erosion. Erosion calculations based on bank pins suggest greater erosion in reaches dominated by knotweed than those dominated by trees. For a 9.5-month monitoring period, there was 29 cm more erosion on banks that were also incised, and 9 cm more erosion in banks with little incision. Turbidity responses to storm events were also higher (77 vs. 54 NTU (nephelometric turbidity unit in reaches with knotweed, although this increase was found when the reach dominated by knotweed was also incised. Thus, this study linked knotweed to increased erosion using multiple methods.

  19. Spectrophotometric studies on the formation of adducts involved in synergistic extraction of uranium (IV) by mixtures of HTTA and neutral donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.K.; Ramakrishna, V.V.; Ramanujam, A.

    1979-01-01

    Adduct formation between U(TTA) 4 and several neutral donor (S) was investigated by utilizing the changes in the absorption spectra of U(IV) resulting from the addition of neutral donors to a solution of U(TTA) 4 . All the donors used in the present work from 1:1 adducts with U(TTA) 4 . From the spectral changes, the equilibrium constants βsub(AB) for the adduct formation reaction viz U(TTA) 4 S reversible U(TTA) 4 .S were calculated for a few neutral donors. The log βsub(AB) values obtained in benzene medium, are :TOPO (6.23), TBPO (6.13), TPPO (4.72), DBBP(4.04) TBP(3.04), TIOTP(1.27) and MIBK(-0.10) and a value of 3.98 for TOPO in chloroform medium. The adduct formation was found to result in increasing the coordination number of U(IV) from 8 in U(TTA) 4 to 9 in the adducts it forms with the neutral donors. Similar absorption spectral studies with U(DBM) 4 revealed that it forms much weaker adducts than the corresponding ones with U(TTA) 4 . The absorption spectra of the organic extracts of U(IV) from perchloric acid with mixtures of HTTA and a neutral donor were identical with the spectra of the adduct between U(TTA) 4 and the neutral donor. This suggested that the adduct species viz U(TTA) 4 .S is involved in the synergistic extraction of U(IV). The extraction constants relating to the synergistic extraction of U(IV), from aqueous perchloric acid into benzene solutions of HTTA and some of the neutral donors, were derived. (author)

  20. 32P-postlabeling analysis of DNA adducts in liver of wild English sole (Parophrys vetulus) and winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varanasi, U.; Reichert, W.L.; Stein, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The 1-butanol adduct enhancement version of the 32P-postlabeling assay was used to measure the levels of hepatic DNA adducts in the marine flatfish, English sole (Parophrys vetulus), sampled from the Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor, Puget Sound, WA, where they are exposed to high concentrations of sediment-associated chemical contaminants and exhibit an elevated prevalence of hepatic neoplasms. Hepatic DNA was also analyzed from English sole from a reference area (Useless Bay, WA) and from reference English sole treated with organic-solvent extracts of sediments from the two contaminated sites. Autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatograms of 32P-labeled hepatic DNA digests from English sole from the contaminated sites exhibited up to three diagonal radioactive zones, which were not present in autoradiograms of thin-layer chromatogram maps of 32P-labeled DNA digests from English sole from the reference site. These diagonal radioactive zones contained several distinct spots as well as what appeared to be multiple overlapping adduct spots. The levels (nmol of adducts/mol of nucleotides) of total DNA adducts for English sole from Duwamish Waterway and Eagle Harbor were 26 +/- 28 (DS) and 17 +/- 9.6, respectively. All autoradiograms of DNA from fish from the contaminated sites exhibited a diagonal radioactive zone where DNA adducts of chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, and dibenz(a,h)anthracene, formed in vitro using English sole hepatic microsomes, were shown to chromatograph. English sole treated with extracts of the contaminated sediments had adduct profiles generally similar to those for English sole from the respective contaminated sites

  1. PHOSPHATO AND PHOSPHONATO ADDUCTS: SYNTHESIS AND SPECTROSCOPIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouhamadou Birame Diop

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Two new adducts have been synthesized and studied by infrared and NMR spectroscopy. The suggested structures are discrete or of infinite chain type with a phosphate behaving as a bidentate ligand, a phosphonate acting as a monodentate ligand, the environments around the tin centre being tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal. In all the studied compounds, supramolecular architectures are obtained when hydrogen bonds are considered.

  2. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid-Protein Adducts: Potential Non-invasive Biomarkers of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid-Induced Liver Toxicity and Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qingsu; Zhao, Yuewei; Lin, Ge; Beland, Frederick A; Cai, Lining; Fu, Peter P

    2016-08-15

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are phytochemicals present in hundreds of plant species from different families widely distributed in many geographical regions around the world. PA-containing plants are probably the most common type of poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. There have been many large-scale human poisonings caused by the consumption of food contaminated with toxic PAs. PAs require metabolic activation to generate pyrrolic metabolites to exert their toxicity. In this study, we developed a novel method to quantify pyrrole-protein adducts present in the blood. This method involves the use of AgNO3 in acidic ethanol to cleave the thiol linkage of pyrrole-protein (DHP-protein) adducts, and the resulting 7,9-di-C2H5O-DHP is quantified by HPLC-ES-MS/MS multiple reaction monitoring analysis in the presence of a known quantity of isotopically labeled 7,9-di-C2D5O-DHP internal standard. Using this method, we determined that diester-type PAs administered to rats produced higher levels of DHP-protein adducts than other types of PAs. The results suggest that DHP-protein adducts can potentially serve as minimally invasive biomarkers of PA exposure.

  3. Effect of acetylator genotype on the levels of carcinogen-DNA adducts in inbred hamsters treated with 2-aminofluorene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flammang, T.J.; Yerokun, T.; Hein, D.W.; Talaska, G.; Kirlin, W.G.; Ogolla, F.; Ferguson, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    A genetic polymorphism in N-acetyltransferase has been described previously in humans and in animal models that is known to affect an individual's susceptibility to certain drug toxicities and diseases including bladder cancer. In hamsters, the polymorphism is known to regulate the conversion of carcinogenic 2-aminofluorene to its amide and of N-hydroxy-2-aminofluorene to a reactive electrophile that forms a covalently-bound adduct with DNA; an event thought to initiate the tumorigenic process. A single dose of 2-aminofluorene (60 mg/kg body wt., i.p) was administered to homozygous rapid- (rr) and homozygous slow-acetylator (ss) hamsters, and the levels of aminofluorene-DNA adducts in bladder and liver were evaluated by a 32 P-postlabeling assay. Only a non-acetylated aminofluorene-DNA adduct was detected in the DNA samples. In this study, no differences were detected between the levels of hepatic 2-aminofluorene-DNA adducts in males or females or between the rr or ss hamsters. In contrast, the levels of 2-amino-fluorene-adducts in bladder DNA were 5-fold higher in the male rr than in the ss hamsters, and were 2-fold higher in the male rr than in the female rr animals

  4. Cost assessment of instruments for single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Nadia A; Al-Tayar, Haytham; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Specially designed surgical instruments have been developed for single-incision laparoscopic surgery, but high instrument costs may impede the implementation of these procedures. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of operative implements used for elective cholecystectomy performed...

  5. In vivo induction of 4-thiouridine-cytidine adducts in tRNA of E. coli B/r by near-ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramabhadran, T.V.; Fossum, T.; Jagger, J.

    1976-01-01

    Near-ultraviolet (near-UV; 320 to 405 nm) irradiation of Escherichia coli B/r induced the formation in vivo of 4 Srd-Cyd adducts in transfer RNA, as evidenced by (1) fluorescence spectrum changes of tRNA extracted from irradiated cells and reduced with NaBH 4 , (2) thin-layer chromatography on cellulose of hydrolysates of trichloroacetic acid-precipitable extracts of irradiated cells, and (3) comparison of these findings with adduct formation induced by near-UV irradiation of purified mixed tRNA from E.coli. The kinetics of induction of the 4 Srd-Cyd adduct in vivo, and the near-UV fluences required, provided strong support for our earlier hypothesis that formation of these adducts was responsible for near-UV-induced growth delay in E.coli. (author)

  6. Genetic polymorphisms in catalase and CYP1B1 determine DNA adduct formation by bento(a)pyrene ex vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schults, Marten A.; Chiu, Roland K.; Nagle, Peter; Kleinjans, J C; van Schooten, Frederik Jan; Godschalk, Roger W.

    Genetic polymorphisms can partially explain the large inter-individual variation in DNA adduct levels following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Effects of genetic polymorphisms on DNA adduct formation are difficult to assess in human studies because exposure misclassification

  7. A differential mobility spectrometry/mass spectrometry platform for the rapid detection and quantitation of DNA adduct dG-ABP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Amol; Klaene, Joshua; Hall, Adam B; Glick, James; Coy, Stephen L; Vouros, Paul

    2013-07-15

    There is continued interest in exploring new analytical technologies for the detection and quantitation of DNA adducts, biomarkers which provide direct evidence of exposure and genetic damage in cells. With the goal of reducing clean-up steps and improving sample throughput, a Differential Mobility Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry (DMS/MS) platform has been introduced for adduct analysis. A DMS/MS platform has been utilized for the analysis of dG-ABP, the deoxyguanosine adduct of the bladder carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP). After optimization of the DMS parameters, each sample was analyzed in just 30 s following a simple protein precipitation step of the digested DNA. A detection limit of one modification in 10^6 nucleosides has been achieved using only 2 µg of DNA. A brief comparison (quantitative and qualitative) with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry is also presented highlighting the advantages of using the DMS/MS method as a high-throughput platform. The data presented demonstrate the successful application of a DMS/MS/MS platform for the rapid quantitation of DNA adducts using, as a model analyte, the deoxyguanosine adduct of the bladder carcinogen 4-aminobiphenyl. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Crystal structure of the pyridine-diiodine (1/1) adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuikka, Matti; Haukka, Matti

    2015-07-01

    In the title adduct, C5H5N·I2, the N-I distance [2.424 (8) Å] is remarkably shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii. The line through the I atoms forms an angle of 78.39 (16)° with the normal to the pyridine ring.

  9. Microincision versus small-incision coaxial cataract surgery using different power modes for hard nuclear cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Chul; Byun, Yong Soo; Kim, Man Soo

    2011-10-01

    To compare the efficacy of microincision and small-incision coaxial phacoemulsification in treating hard cataracts using different ultrasound power modes. Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea. Randomized clinical trial. Eyes with hard cataract were randomized to have an initial incision of 1.80 mm, 2.20 mm, or 2.75 mm. The eyes in each group were equally randomized to treatment with burst, pulse, or continuous mode. Ultrasound time (UST), mean cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), surgically induced corneal astigmatism, incisional and central corneal thickness (CCT), and endothelial cell counts were evaluated. The study enrolled 180 eyes, 60 in each group. Two months postoperatively, there were no statistically significant differences in UST, CDE, CDVA, CCT, or percentage endothelial cell loss between the 3 incision groups. The 2.75 mm incision induced more astigmatism at 2 months and less incisional corneal edema at 1 week than the 1.80 mm or 2.20 mm incision (Phard cataract. The intraoperative energy use and ocular damage was less with the pulse and burst modes than with the continuous mode. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Sigma]-Adducts of pteridines and 3-deazapteridines, structure and reactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, A.

    1978-01-01

    In the introduction of this thesis the reactions of pteridines and pyrido[2,3- b ]-pyrazines with nucleophiles are reviewed. In the following chapters the results of an NMR investigation on the formation of σ-adducts between these azaaromatic ring systems and nitrogen

  11. Comparison of incision and drainage against needle aspiration for the treatment of breast abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad; Rahimnajjad, Muhammad Kazim; Rahimnajjad, Nasir Ali; Ahmed, Qazi Jalaluddin; Fazel, Pyar Ali; Owais, Muhammad

    2012-11-01

    We aim to compare the incision and drainage against ultrasound-guided aspiration for the treatment of breast abscesses. Sixty-four patients were randomly allocated to Group A (incision and drainage) and Group B (needle aspiration). Incision and drainage was done under general, whereas aspiration was done under local anesthesia with antibiotic coverage after the pus sample was taken for cultures. Time taken to resolve symptoms including point tenderness, erythema and hyperthermia, recurrence of breast abscess, and healing time was recorded. Patients were followed until 8 weeks. Culture and sensitivity of the pus were done. Data were analyzed in SPSS 16.0. The mean difference of healing time was significant (P = 0.001). A total of 93.3 per cent were healed in Group B and 76.6 per cent in Group A (P = 0.033). Twenty-two samples (34.37%) had no bacterial yield and the remaining 42 samples (65.6%) yielded 11 anaerobic cultures (17.18%) and 31 aerobic cultures (48.4%). Ultrasound-guided aspiration of breast abscesses with the judicious use of antibiotics is a better treatment modality than incision and drainage.

  12. Molecular dosimetry of DNA adducts in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to benzo(a)pyrene by different routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, D.; Clarius, T.M.; Wright, A.S.; Watson, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    Farm raised rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed by various routes to benzo(a)pyrene (BP) as a representative carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Following exposure of fish to the chemical by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, 32 P-postlabelling studies indicated that non-feral trout were relatively resistant to the formation of BP-DNA adducts in liver. No adducts were detected in fish exposed to single doses (20 mg/kg) of BP. Multiple exposures (e.g. 2 x 25 mg/kg) were necessary in order for adducts to be detected, indicating that induction of the metabolising enzymes required for the bioactivation of BP is necessary. These studies provided reference information on DNA adducts for comparison with data from subsequent experiments at environmentally realistic low level exposures. Two types of low level aquatic exposure were carried out. The first procedure exposed fish for 30 days to a nominally constant low level (1.2 and 0.4 μg/l) of a homogeneous dispersion of BP in water, to simulate low level aquatic environmental exposures. Following 32 P-postlabelling analysis of the liver DNA of exposed fish, BP-DNA adducts were not detected. In the second procedure, fish were exposed to a constant low level of BP (ca. 0.5 μg/l) for 15 days then to a pulse (60 μg/l) which was allowed to naturally decline (to ca. 2 μg/l) during a further 15 days. Following this exposure, significant levels of BP-DNA adducts were detected in livers of trout. The effect of dietary exposures was investigated by feeding trout a diet containing either 58 μg or 288 μg BP per day for 6 days, equivalent to total doses of 43 mg/kg and 216 mg/kg. In both cases BP-DNA adducts were detected in livers of exposed fish. The results provide useful information on the types of exposures to PAHs which may pose a genotoxic risk to fish in the environment. (orig.)

  13. Plasma and liver acetaminophen-protein adduct levels in mice after acetaminophen treatment: Dose–response, mechanisms, and clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGill, Mitchell R.; Lebofsky, Margitta; Norris, Hye-Ryun K.; Slawson, Matthew H.; Bajt, Mary Lynn; Xie, Yuchao; Williams, C. David; Wilkins, Diana G.; Rollins, Douglas E.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    At therapeutic doses, acetaminophen (APAP) is a safe and effective analgesic. However, overdose of APAP is the principal cause of acute liver failure in the West. Binding of the reactive metabolite of APAP (NAPQI) to proteins is thought to be the initiating event in the mechanism of hepatotoxicity. Early work suggested that APAP-protein binding could not occur without glutathione (GSH) depletion, and likely only at toxic doses. Moreover, it was found that protein-derived APAP-cysteine could only be detected in serum after the onset of liver injury. On this basis, it was recently proposed that serum APAP-cysteine could be used as diagnostic marker of APAP overdose. However, comprehensive dose–response and time course studies have not yet been done. Furthermore, the effects of co-morbidities on this parameter have not been investigated. We treated groups of mice with APAP at multiple doses and measured liver GSH and both liver and plasma APAP-protein adducts at various timepoints. Our results show that protein binding can occur without much loss of GSH. Importantly, the data confirm earlier work that showed that protein-derived APAP-cysteine can appear in plasma without liver injury. Experiments performed in vitro suggest that this may involve multiple mechanisms, including secretion of adducted proteins and diffusion of NAPQI directly into plasma. Induction of liver necrosis through ischemia–reperfusion significantly increased the plasma concentration of protein-derived APAP-cysteine after a subtoxic dose of APAP. While our data generally support the measurement of serum APAP-protein adducts in the clinic, caution is suggested in the interpretation of this parameter. - Highlights: • Extensive GSH depletion is not required for APAP-protein binding in the liver. • APAP-protein adducts appear in plasma at subtoxic doses. • Proteins are adducted in the cell and secreted out. • Coincidental liver injury increases plasma APAP-protein adducts at subtoxic doses

  14. Measurement of HNE-protein adducts in human plasma and serum by ELISA—Comparison of two primary antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Weber

    2013-01-01

    After modification and validation of the protocol for both antibodies, samples of two groups were analyzed: apparently healthy obese (n=62 and non-obese controls (n=15. Although the detected absolute values of HNE–protein adducts were different, depending on the antibody used, both ELISA methods showed significantly higher values of HNE–protein adducts in the obese group.

  15. Bulky DNA Adducts in Cord Blood, Maternal Fruit-and-Vegetable Consumption, and Birth Weight in a European Mother-Child Study (NewGeneris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie; Schoket, Bernadette; Godschalk, Roger W

    2013-01-01

    , Greece, Norway, and Spain were recruited in 2006-2010. Adduct levels were measured by the 32P-postlabeling technique in white blood cells from 229 mothers and 612 newborns. Maternal diet was examined through questionnaires.Results: Adduct levels in maternal and cord blood samples were similar...... versus lowest tertile of adducts. The negative association with birth weight was limited to births in Norway, Denmark, and England, the countries with the lowest adduct levels, and was more pronounced in births to mothers with low intake of fruits and vegetables (-248 g; 95% CI: -405, -92 g) compared......, Kleinjans JC, Segerbäck D, Kogevinas M. 2013. Bulky DNA adducts in cord blood, maternal fruit-and-vegetable consumption, and birth weight in a European mother-child study (NewGeneris). Environ Health Perspect 121:1200-1206; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206333....

  16. Ultrasonic diagnosis and transurethral incision of ureterocele with hydronephrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waaddegaard, P; Miskowiak, J; Stage, P

    1991-01-01

    In a 65-year-old woman with right-sided loin pain, ultrasonography revealed a grossly dilated and obstructed right pyelogram due to a 50-mm ureterocele. After transurethral lateral incision of the ureterocele, there was complete recovery without vesicoureteric reflux. Ultrasonography is advantage...

  17. Histomorphological and immunofluorescence evaluation of clear corneal incisions after microcoaxial phacoemulsification with 2.2 mm and 1.8 mm systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Abhay R; Johar, Kaid; Praveen, Mamidipudi R; Vasavada, Viraj A; Arora, Anshul I

    2013-04-01

    To compare changes in the incision's histomorphology and denaturation of collagen I in rabbit eyes having microcoaxial phacoemulsification through 2.2 mm and 1.8 mm incision-compatible systems. Randomized experimental trial. Iladevi Cataract & IOL Research Centre, Ahmedabad, India. Thirty rabbit eyes were randomized into Group 1 (microcoaxial phacoemulsification through 2.2 mm incisions using Infiniti system [torsional ultrasound]) and Group 2 (microcoaxial phacoemulsification through 1.8 mm incisions using Stellaris system [longitudinal ultrasound]). Each group was then divided into 3 subgroups of 5 eyes each based on 1 of the 3 intervention options: phacoemulsification only, intraocular lens (IOL) insertion only, and phacoemulsification with IOL insertion. Left eyes were randomized for microcoaxial phacoemulsification, and right eyes were treated as controls. After phacoemulsification, eyes in Group 1 showed loss of epithelium at the roof of the incisions and Descemet membrane detachment at the floor of the incisions. These findings did not change after IOL insertion. After phacoemulsification, eyes in Group 2 showed loss of epithelium, but Descemet membrane remained attached. There was a longitudinal split in the incision's stroma in the direction of internal entry. The stromal damage increased after IOL implantation. Immunofluorescence studies showed no obvious irregularities in the arrangement of collagen I in either group. A dot blot analysis showed significant denaturation of collagen I in Group 2. The histomorphology of the 2.2 mm system incision showed localized Descemet membrane detachment and endothelial cell loss. The 1.8 mm system incision showed exaggerated stromal damage after IOL insertion. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences in micronucleus frequency and acrylamide adduct levels with hemoglobin between vegetarians and non-vegetarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotova, Natalia; Frostne, Cecilia; Abramsson-Zetterberg, Lilianne; Tareke, Eden; Bergman, Rolf; Haghdoost, Siamak; Paulsson, Birgit; Törnqvist, Margareta; Segerbäck, Dan; Jenssen, Dag; Grawé, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Nutrients and food constituents can prevent or contribute to genotoxicity. In this study, the possible influence of a vegetarian/non-vegetarian diet on genotoxic effects was investigated in 58 non-smoking healthy vegetarians (V) and non-vegetarians (NV), age 21-37 years from the Stockholm area in Sweden. Physical activity and dietary habits were similar in both groups, with the exception of the intake of meat and fish. Using flow cytometry, we determined the formation of micronuclei (MN) in transferrin-positive immature peripheral blood reticulocytes (Trf-Ret) (Total: n = 53; V: n = 27; NV: n = 26). Dietary exposure to acrylamide was measured through hemoglobin (Hb) adducts in peripheral erythrocytes (Total: n = 53; V: n = 29; NV: n = 24). Hb adducts of both acrylamide and its genotoxic metabolite glycidamide were monitored as a measure of the corresponding in vivo doses. Our data demonstrated that compared with the non-vegetarians, the vegetarians exhibited lower frequencies of MN (fMN) in the Trf-Ret (p vegetarians and non-vegetarians. Furthermore, there were no significant relationships between the adduct levels and fMN in the individuals. The ratio of the Hb adduct levels from glycidamide and acrylamide, however, showed a significant difference (p vegetarian diet might be beneficial in lowering genomic instability in healthy individuals. The measured Hb adduct levels indicate that the total intake of acrylamide does not differ between the two studied groups and does not contribute to the observed difference in fMN, although an influence of the diet on the metabolic rates of acrylamide was indicated. In addition, the observed significant difference in the background fMN in the two groups demonstrated that the MN analysis method has a sensitivity applicable to the biomonitoring of human lifestyle factors.

  19. Role of CYP1B1 in PAH-DNA adduct formation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Russell, Marion L.; Muller, A.P.; Caleffi, M.; Eschiletti, J.; Graudenz, M.; Sohn, Michael D.

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that increased exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increases breast cancer risk. PAHs are products of incomplete burning of organic matter and are present in cigarette smoke, ambient air, drinking water, and diet. PAHs require metabolic transformation to bind to DNA, causing DNA adducts, which can lead to mutations and are thought to be an important pre-cancer marker. In breast tissue, PAHs appear to be metabolized to their cancer-causing form primarily by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP1B1. Because the genotoxic impact of PAH depends on their metabolism, we hypothesized that high CYP1B1 enzyme levels result in increased formation of PAH-DNA adducts in breast tissue, leading to increased development of breast cancer. We have investigated molecular mechanisms of the relationship between PAH exposure, CYP1B1 expression and breast cancer risk in a clinic-based case-control study. We collected histologically normal breast tissue from 56 women (43 cases and 13 controls) undergoing breast surgery and analyzed these specimens for CYP1B1 genotype, PAH-DNA adducts and CYP1B1 gene expression. We did not detect any difference in aromatic DNA adduct levels of cases and controls, only between smokers and non-smokers. CYP1B1 transcript levels were slightly lower in controls than cases, but the difference was not statistically significant. We found no correlation between the levels of CYP1B1 expression and DNA adducts. If CYP1B1 has any role in breast cancer etiology it might be through its metabolism of estrogen rather than its metabolism of PAHs. However, due to the lack of statistical power these results should be interpreted with caution.

  20. Effects of alkyl chain length and substituent pattern of fullerene bis-adducts on film structures and photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Umeyama, Tomokazu; Kurotobi, Kei; Imahori, Hiroshi

    2014-10-08

    A series of alkoxycarbonyl-substituted dihydronaphthyl-based [60]fullerene bis-adduct derivatives (denoted as C2BA, C4BA, and C6BA with the alkyl chain of ethyl, n-butyl, and n-hexyl, respectively) have been synthesized to investigate the effects of alkyl chain length and substituent pattern of fullerene bis-adducts on the film structures and photovoltaic properties of bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells. The shorter alkyl chain length caused lower solubility of the fullerene bis-adducts (C6BA > C4BA > C2BA), thereby resulting in the increased separation difficulty of respective bis-adduct isomers. The device performance based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and the fullerene bis-adduct regioisomer mixtures was enhanced by shortening the alkyl chain length. When using the regioisomerically separated fullerene bis-adducts, the devices based on trans-2 and a mixture of trans-4 and e of C4BA exhibited the highest power conversion efficiencies of ca. 2.4%, which are considerably higher than those of the C6BA counterparts (ca. 1.4%) and the C4BA regioisomer mixture (1.10%). The film morphologies as well as electron mobilities of the P3HT:bis-adduct blend films were found to affect the photovoltaic properties considerably. These results reveal that the alkyl chain length and substituent pattern of fullerene bis-adducts significantly influence the photovoltaic properties as well as the film structures of bulk heterojunction solar cells.

  1. Miscoding properties of 1,N{sup 6}-ethanoadenine, a DNA adduct derived from reaction with antitumor agent 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hang, Bo; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed; Singer, B.

    2003-03-05

    1,N{sup 6}-Ethanoadenine (EA) is an exocyclic adduct formed from DNA reaction with the antitumor agent, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). To understand the role of this adduct in the mechanism of mutagenicity or carcinogenicity by BCNU, an oligonucleotide with a site-specific EA was synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. We now report the in vitro miscoding properties of EA in translesion DNA synthesis catalyzed by mammalian DNA polymerases (pols) {alpha}, {beta}, {eta} and {iota}. These data were also compared with those obtained for the structurally related exocyclic adduct, 1,N{sup 6}-ethenoadenine ({var_epsilon}A). Using a primer extension assay, both pols {alpha} and {beta} were primarily blocked by EA or {var_epsilon}A with very minor extension. Pol {eta} a member of the Y family of polymerases, was capable of catalyzing a significant amount of bypass across both adducts. Pol {eta} incorporated all four nucleotides opposite EA and {var_epsilon}A, but with differential preferences and mainly in an error-prone manner. Human pol {iota}, a paralog of human pol {eta}, was blocked by both adducts with a very small amount of synthesis past {var_epsilon}A. It incorporated C and, to a much lesser extent, T, opposite either adduct. In addition, the presence of an A adduct, e.g. {var_epsilon}A, could affect the specificity of pol {iota} toward the template T immediately 3 feet to the adduct. In conclusion, the four polymerases assayed on templates containing an EA or {var_epsilon}A showed differential bypass capacity and nucleotide incorporation specificity, with the two adducts not completely identical in influencing these properties. Although there was a measurable extent of error-free nucleotide incorporation, all these polymerases primarily misincorporated opposite EA, indicating that the adduct, similar to {var_epsilon}A, is a miscoding lesion.

  2. The effect of kidney morcellation on operative time, incision complications, and postoperative analgesia after laparoscopic nephrectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affonso H. Camargo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Compare the outcomes between kidney morcellation and two types of open specimen extraction incisions, several covariates need to be taken into consideration that have not yet been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 153 consecutive patients who underwent laparoscopic nephrectomy at our institution, 107 who underwent specimen morcellation and 46 with intact specimen removal, either those with connected port sites with a muscle-cutting incision and those with a remote, muscle-splitting incision. Operative time, postoperative analgesia requirements, and incisional complications were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analysis, comparing variables such as patient age, gender, body mass index (BMI, laterality, benign versus cancerous renal conditions, estimated blood loss, specimen weight, overall complications, and length of stay. RESULTS: There was no significant difference for operative time between the 2 treatment groups (p = 0.65. Incision related complications occurred in 2 patients (4.4% from the intact specimen group but none in the morcellation group (p = 0.03. Overall narcotic requirement was lower in patients with morcellated (41 mg compared to intact specimen retrieval (66 mg on univariate (p = 0.03 and multivariate analysis (p = 0.049. Upon further stratification, however, there was no significant difference in mean narcotic requirement between the morcellation and muscle-splitting incision subgroup (p = 0.14. CONCLUSION: Morcellation does not extend operative time, and is associated with significantly less postoperative pain compared to intact specimen retrieval overall, although this is not statistically significant if a remote, muscle-splitting incision is made. Morcellation markedly reduces the risk of incisional-related complications.

  3. Three-dimensional observations of the incisive canal and the surrounding bone using cone-beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaumi, Rieko; Kawai, Taisuke; Sato, Iwao; Yoshida, Shunji; Yosue, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The shape of the anterior region of the maxilla is critical when planning implant treatment. The purpose of the present study was to assess the typical morphology of the incisive canal and surrounding bone. In total, 70 maxillae of Japanese dry skulls were used after being divided into dentate and edentulous groups. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of the maxilla were acquired by using standardized methods. Using the anterior nasal spine as a reference point, the change in position was measured and analyzed statistically. Also, three-dimensional (3-D) images of the incisive canal were classified into five subsets: cylinder, groove, penetration, bifurcation at the superior portion, and bifurcation at the inferior portion. The quantity of alveolar bone in the incisor region was greatly reduced from the alveolar ridge and labial surface. Moreover, the vertical position of the incisive foramen was significantly (P<0.05) superior in the edentulous groups. Regarding the classification of maxillae by the 3-D shape of the incisive canal, many canals were cylindrical. Horizontal bone reduction from the labial side and vertical bone reduction from the alveolar crest were conspicuous; thus, the angle of the anterior alveolar bone changed after the loss of teeth. The incisive canal diameter in the edentulous group was larger than in the dentate group. The nondestructive assessment of the incisive canals and surrounding bone with CBCT showed two typical shapes for the presence or absence of the incisors. These findings indicate the importance of image diagnosis before esthetic restoration. (author)

  4. Crystal structure of the pyridine–diiodine (1/1 adduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Tuikka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title adduct, C5H5N·I2, the N—I distance [2.424 (8 Å] is remarkably shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii. The line through the I atoms forms an angle of 78.39 (16° with the normal to the pyridine ring.

  5. Water table and overbank flow frequency changes due to suburbanization-induced channel incision, Virginia Coastal Plain, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, G.; Mattell, N.; Christianson, E.; Wacksman, J.

    2004-12-01

    Channel incision is a widely observed response to increased flow in urbanized watersheds, but the effects of channel lowering on riparian water tables is not well documented. In a rapidly incising suburban stream in the Virginia Coastal Plain, we hypothesize that incision has lowered floodplain water tables and decreased the overbank flow frequency, and suggest these changes impact vegetation distribution in a diverse, protected riparian habitat. The monitored stream is a tributary to the James River draining 1.3 km2, of which 15% is impervious cover. Incision has occurred largely through upstream migration of a one m high knickpoint at a rate of 1-2 m/yr, primarily during high flow events. We installed 33 wells in six floodplain transects to assess water table elevations beneath the floodplain adjacent to the incising stream. To document the impacts of incision, two transects are located 30 and 50 m upstream of the knickpoint in unincised floodplain, and the remainder are 5, 30, 70, and 100 m downstream of the knickpoint in incised floodplain. In one transect above and two below, pressure transducers attached to dataloggers provide a high-resolution record of water table response to storm events. Significant differences have been observed in the water table above and below the knickpoint. Above the knickpoint, the water table is relatively flat and is 0.2-0.4 m below the floodplain surface. Water table response to precipitation events is nearly immediate, with the water table rising to the floodplain surface in significant rainfall events. In the transect immediately downstream of the knickpoint, the water table possesses a steep gradient, rising from ~1 m below the floodplain at the stream to 0.3 m below the surface within 20 m. In the most downstream transects, the water table is relatively flat, but is one m below the floodplain surface, equivalent to the depth of incision generated by knickpoint passage. Upstream of the knickpoint, overbank flooding occurs

  6. In vivo induction of 4-thiouridine-cytidine adducts in tRNA of E. coli B/r by near-ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramabhadran, T V; Fossum, T; Jagger, J [Texas Univ., Dallas (USA)

    1976-05-01

    Near-ultraviolet (near-UV; 320 to 405 nm) irradiation of Escherichia coli B/r induced the formation in vivo of /sup 4/Srd-Cyd adducts in transfer RNA, as evidenced by (1) fluorescence spectrum changes of tRNA extracted from irradiated cells and reduced with NaBH/sub 4/, (2) thin-layer chromatography on cellulose of hydrolysates of trichloroacetic acid-precipitable extracts of irradiated cells, and (3) comparison of these findings with adduct formation induced by near-UV irradiation of purified mixed tRNA from E.coli. The kinetics of induction of the /sup 4/Srd-Cyd adduct in vivo, and the near-UV fluences required, provided strong support for our earlier hypothesis that formation of these adducts was responsible for near-UV-induced growth delay in E.coli.

  7. Heterotopic ossification in abdominal incision : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Yoon Sik; Nam, Kung Sook; Hwang, Im Kyung; Kim, Heung Chul [College of Medicine, Hallym Univ., Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-08-01

    Heterotopic ossification in abdominal incision is a rare post-surgical sequala and a subtype of myositis ossificans traumatica. Recognition of this rare condition is important because it may be misinterpreted as a retained foreign body or incisional neoplastic recurrence. We report a case involving a 59-year-old man who presented with a palpable epigastric mass and pronounced fatigability.

  8. HOMO AND HETEROPOLYNUCLEAR NEW OXALATOORGANOTIN (IV ADDUCTS. AN INFRARED AND MÖSSBAUER STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayat Qamar-Kane

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Six new oxalato homo (Sn only and hetero (Sn, Cd, Sb polynuclear adducts have been obtained on allowing (Me4N2(C2O4∙2H2O to react with SnPh2Cl2 or (Me4N2(C2O4SnPh2∙H2O to react with SnPh2Cl2, SnMe2Cl2, CdCl2, CdBr2∙4H2O or SbCl3 in specific ratio. The obtained adducts have been studied by elemental analyses and infrared spectroscopy and structures suggested on the basis of the spectroscopic data.

  9. Conformations of 1,3,3,5,7,7-Hexamethyl-1,5-diazacyclooctane and Its Bis-BH(3) Adduct. Mono- and Bis-BH(3) Adducts of Di-Tertiary Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livant, P.; Majors, A. W.; Webb, T. R.

    1996-05-03

    A variable-temperature (1)H- and (13)C-NMR study revealed a conformational equilibrium for 1,3,3,5,7,7-hexamethyl-1,5-diazacyclooctane (4) having DeltaG() = 8.8 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol at 184 K. This activation barrier connects a major and a minor form of 4. Molecular mechanics calculations on 4 led to the conclusion that the major form is a set of twist-chair-chairs interconverting rapidly via the chair-chair and that the minor form is most likely a set of twist-boat-boats interconverting rapidly via the boat-boat. The proximity of the two nitrogen lone pairs in the major form of 4 made plausible the expectation that 4, as well as a related diamine with apposed nitrogens, 3,7-dimethyl-3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (3), might bind a Lewis acid, namely BH(3), using both lone pairs simultaneously and equally. This proved not to be the case: for 3 only the bis-BH(3) adduct was found and for 4 the mono-BH(3) adduct utilized only one nitrogen lone pair. The structure of the bis-BH(3) adduct of 4 (12) was determined by X-ray crystallography to be a twist-boat-boat with BH(3)s cis. Molecular mechanics calculations on 12 were consistent with the solid state conformation found.

  10. Lateral Nail Fold Incision Technique for Venous Anastomosis in Fingertip Replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byung-Joon; Yang, Jae-Won; Roh, Si Young; Ki, Sae Hwi; Lee, Dong Chul; Kim, Jin Soo

    2016-01-01

    Successful venous anastomosis is one of the most important factors in fingertip replantation. Volar veins in the fingertip course proximally in a random pattern, which makes it difficult to find out the exact locations. Although dorsal veins in the lateral nail fold have constant location and adequate diameter for anastomosis, they have been known as hard to dissect from the immobile subcutaneous tissue. The authors present a new lateral nail fold incision technique for venous anastomosis in the fingertip amputations. From February 2010 to October 2010, 9 replantations using the new incision and venous anastomosis technique were performed in 9 patients. The levels of amputations were from the nail base to half of the nail bed. After repairing the proper digital arteries, a skin incision was made along the junction between the lateral nail fold and nail bed. Careful dissection was performed to isolate the veins in the lateral nail fold. After evaluation of the suitability of the vessel, venous anastomosis was performed. Seven male and 2 female patients were enrolled in this study. Appropriate dorsal veins for anastomosis could be found in 8 of 9 patients. All the replanted stumps survived without venous congestion and following additional procedures. A sizable volar or dorsal vein could not be found in 1 patient. The salvage technique was required in this patient. Dorsal veins in the lateral nail fold can be found easily because of the constant anatomical location. The new incision on the lateral nail fold provides not only sufficient operative field for anastomosis but also additional opportunity of successful venous anastomosis in the selected cases. The authors, therefore, propose this technique as an effective method for an alternative venous anastomosis in the zone I replantation.

  11. Biomarkers of exposure to tobacco smoke and environmental pollutants in mothers and their transplacental transfer to the foetus. Part I: Bulky DNA adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topinka, J.; Milcova, A.; Libalova, H.; Novakova, Z.; Rossner, P.; Balascak, I.; Sram, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    32 P-postlabelling and PAH-ELISA using the antiserum no. 29 were employed to analyze DNA adducts in venous and umbilical cord blood and the placenta of 79 mothers giving birth to 80 living babies in Prague (Czech Republic). Ambient air exposure was measured by stationary measurements of basic air pollutants (PM2.5, c-PAHs) during the entire pregnancy. Tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by questionnaire data and by plasma cotinine levels. The total DNA adduct levels in the lymphocytes of mothers and newborns were elevated by 30-40% (p 8 nucleotides vs. 0.15 ± 0.06 adducts/10 8 nucleotides) with newborns indicated a 30-40% increase of adducts in mothers. Almost equal PAH-DNA adduct levels were detected by anti-BPDE-DNA ELISA in the placenta of tobacco smoke-exposed and -unexposed mothers. Our results suggest a protective effect of the placental barrier against the genotoxic effect of some tobacco smoke components between the circulation of mother and child. We found a correlation between adduct levels in the blood of mothers and newborns.

  12. Genotoxic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids — Mechanisms Leading to DNA Adduct Formation and Tumorigenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Plants that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids are widely distributed in the world. Although pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been shown to be genotoxic and tumorigenic in experimental animals, the mechanisms of actions have not been fully understood. The results of our recent mechanistic studies suggest that pyrrolizidine alkaloids induce tumors via a genotoxic mechanism mediated by 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5Hpyrrolizine (DHP-derived DNA adduct formation. This mechanism may be general to most carcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, including the retronecine-, heliotridine-, and otonecinetype pyrrolizidine alkaloids. It is hypothesized that these DHP-derived DNA adducts are potential biomarkers of pyrrolizidine alkaloid tumorigenicity. The mechanisms that involve the formation of DNA cross-linking and endogenous DNA adducts are also discussed.

  13. Evaluating Metabolite-Related DNA Oxidation and Adduct Damage from Aryl Amines Using a Microfluidic ECL Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Itti; Bhakta, Snehasis; Jiang, Di; Keyes, Tia E; Martin, Aaron; Forster, Robert J; Rusling, James F

    2017-11-21

    Damage to DNA from the metabolites of drugs and pollutants constitutes a major human toxicity pathway known as genotoxicity. Metabolites can react with metal ions and NADPH to oxidize DNA or participate in S N 2 reactions to form covalently linked adducts with DNA bases. Guanines are the main DNA oxidation sites, and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) is the initial product. Here we describe a novel electrochemiluminescent (ECL) microwell array that produces metabolites from test compounds and measures relative rates of DNA oxidation and DNA adduct damage. In this new array, films of DNA, metabolic enzymes, and an ECL metallopolymer or complex assembled in microwells on a pyrolytic graphite wafer are housed in dual microfluidic chambers. As reactant solution passes over the wells, metabolites form and can react with DNA in the films to form DNA adducts. These adducts are detected by ECL from a RuPVP polymer that uses DNA as a coreactant. Aryl amines also combine with Cu 2+ and NADPH to form reactive oxygen species (ROS) that oxidize DNA. The resulting 8-oxodG was detected selectively by ECL-generating bis(2,2'-bipyridine)-(4-(1,10-phenanthrolin-6-yl)-benzoic acid)Os(II). DNA/enzyme films on magnetic beads were oxidized similarly, and 8-oxodG determined by LC/MS/MS enabled array standardization. The array limit of detection for oxidation was 720 8-oxodG per 10 6 nucleobases. For a series of aryl amines, metabolite-generated DNA oxidation and adduct formation turnover rates from the array correlated very well with rodent 1/TD 50 and Comet assay results.

  14. Diphenyl-phosphinyl-morpholide (DPPM) lanthanide trifluoroacetate adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, L.R.F. de; Kim, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Preparation and properties of adducts of lanthanide salts and diphenyl-phosphinyl-morpholide (DPPM) have been described in the literature. Addition compounds containing lanthanide nitrates, isothiocyanates, perchlorates, chlorides, bromides with DPPM have been obtained. In this article, the preparation and characterization of the addition compounds of lanthanide trifluoroacetates (TFA) with DPPM are reported. The compounds of general formula Ln (TFA) 3 . 3DPPM, Ln= La-Lu, Y were characterized by elemental analysis, melting ranges, infrared spectra, absorption and emission visible spectra, X-ray powder patterns. (Author) [pt

  15. Minimal Incision Scar-Less Open Umbilical Hernia Repair in Adults - Technical Aspects and Short Term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanoop Koshy Zachariah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is no gold standard technique for umbilical hernia repair .Conventional open umbilical hernia repair often produces an undesirable scar. Laparoscopic umbilical hernia repair requires multiple incisions beyond the umbilicus, specialized equipments, and expensive tissue separating mesh. We describe our technique of open umbilical hernia repair utilizing a small incision. The technique was derived from our experience with single incision laparoscopy. We report the technical details and short term results. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the first 20 patients who underwent minimal incision scar-less open umbilical hernia repair, from June 2011 to February 2014. A single intra-umbilical curved incision was used to gain access to the hernia sac. Primary suture repair was performed for defects upto 2cm.Larger defects were repaired using an onlay mesh. In patients with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or greater, onlay mesh hernioplasty was performed irrespective of the defect size.Results: A total of 20 patients, 12 males and 8 females underwent the procedure. Mean age was 50 (range 29 - 82 years. Mean BMI was 26.27 (range 20. -33.1 kg/m2. Average size of the incision was 1.96 range (1.5 to 2.5 cm. Mesh hernioplasty was done in 9 patients. 11 patients underwent primary suture repair alone. There were no postoperative complications associated with his technique. Average post operative length of hospital stay was 3.9 (range 2-10 days. Mean follow-up was 29.94 months, (2 weeks to 2.78 years. On follow up there was no externally visible scar in any of the patients. There were no recurrences on final follow up. Conclusion: This technique provides a similar cosmetic effect as obtained from single port laparoscopy. It is easy to perform safe, offers good cosmesis, does not require incisions beyond the umbilicus and cost effective, with encouraging results on short term follow up. Further research is needed to assess the true potential of the

  16. Chemical weathering as a mechanism for the climatic control of bedrock river incision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brendan P.; Johnson, Joel P. L.; Gasparini, Nicole M.; Sklar, Leonard S.

    2016-04-01

    Feedbacks between climate, erosion and tectonics influence the rates of chemical weathering reactions, which can consume atmospheric CO2 and modulate global climate. However, quantitative predictions for the coupling of these feedbacks are limited because the specific mechanisms by which climate controls erosion are poorly understood. Here we show that climate-dependent chemical weathering controls the erodibility of bedrock-floored rivers across a rainfall gradient on the Big Island of Hawai‘i. Field data demonstrate that the physical strength of bedrock in streambeds varies with the degree of chemical weathering, which increases systematically with local rainfall rate. We find that incorporating the quantified relationships between local rainfall and erodibility into a commonly used river incision model is necessary to predict the rates and patterns of downcutting of these rivers. In contrast to using only precipitation-dependent river discharge to explain the climatic control of bedrock river incision, the mechanism of chemical weathering can explain strong coupling between local climate and river incision.

  17. Small incision corneal refractive surgery using the small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) procedure for the correction of myopia and myopic astigmatism: results of a 6 month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekundo, Walter; Kunert, Kathleen S; Blum, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    This 6 month prospective multi-centre study evaluated the feasibility of performing myopic femtosecond lenticule extraction (FLEx) through a small incision using the small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) procedure. Prospective, non-randomised clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS; Ninety-one eyes of 48 patients with myopia with and without astigmatism completed the final 6 month follow-up. The patients' mean age was 35.3 years. Their preoperative mean spherical equivalent (SE) was −4.75±1.56 D. A refractive lenticule of intrastromal corneal tissue was cut utilising a prototype of the Carl Zeiss Meditec AG VisuMax femtosecond laser system. Simultaneously two opposite small ‘pocket’ incisions were created by the laser system. Thereafter, the lenticule was manually dissected with a spatula and removed through one of incisions using modified McPherson forceps. Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) and best spectacle corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) after 6 months, objective and manifest refraction as well as slit-lamp examination, side effects and a questionnaire. Six months postoperatively the mean SE was −0.01 D±0.49 D. Most treated eyes (95.6%) were within ±1.0 D, and 80.2% were within ±0.5 D of intended correction. Of the eyes treated, 83.5% had an UCVA of 1.0 (20/20) or better, 53% remained unchanged, 32.3% gained one line, 3.3% gained two lines of BSCVA, 8.8% lost one line and 1.1% lost ≥2 lines of BSCVA. When answering a standardised questionnaire, 93.3% of patients were satisfied with the results obtained and would undergo the procedure again. SMILE is a promising new flapless minimally invasive refractive procedure to correct myopia.

  18. A method of posterior fossa dural incision to minimize hemorrhage from the occipital sinus: the "mosquito" method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Chang; Lee, Ji Yeoun; Ryu, Seul Ki; Lim, Jang Mi; Chong, Sangjoon; Phi, Ji Hoon; Kim, Seung-Ki; Wang, Kyu-Chang

    2016-12-01

    The posterior fossa dural opening requires the ligation of the occipital sinus to gain successful exposure. However, there could be a prominent occipital sinus which is functioning as the main drainage route and is harboring the risk of unpredictable massive hemorrhage during the dural opening. We introduce a safe method of posterior fossa dural incision to minimize hemorrhage from the occipital sinus using four curved hemostat clamps. For the dural incision at the midline part of the posterior cranial fossa, we used four curved hemostat clamps to occlude the prominent occipital sinus: one pair of clamps at the proximal part and the other pair at the distal part to occlude the occipital sinus. Dural incision was made between the two pairs of the curved hemostat clamps. By clamping of the sinus, it allows observation of possible brain swelling after occlusion of the occipital sinus as well as minimizes hemorrhage during incision of the midline dura of the posterior fossa. This method allows observation of brain swelling after occipital sinus occlusion and is an easy and safe incision of the midline dura minimizing hemorrhage in selected cases with a prominent occipital sinus.

  19. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother–newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, Marie; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I.; Autrup, Herman; Brouwer, Abraham; Besselink, Harrie; Loft, Steffen; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006–2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) ® bioassay, 32 P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood (β 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  20. Maternal diet and dioxin-like activity, bulky DNA adducts and micronuclei in mother-newborns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Marie, E-mail: mpedersen@creal.cat [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark); Halldorsson, Thorhallur I., E-mail: lur@ssi.dk [Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, School of Health Sciences, University of Iceland Reykjavik (Iceland); Center for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Autrup, Herman, E-mail: ha@mil.au.dk [School of Public Health, Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Brouwer, Abraham, E-mail: Bram.Brouwer@bds.nl [BioDetection Systems B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Besselink, Harrie, E-mail: Harrie.Besselink@bds.nl [BioDetection Systems B.V., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loft, Steffen, E-mail: stl@sund.ku.dk [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark); Knudsen, Lisbeth E., E-mail: liek@sund.ku.dk [Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, CSS, Oester Farimagsgade, Copenhagen K (Denmark)

    2012-06-01

    Maternal diet can contribute to carcinogenic exposures and also modify effects of environmental exposures on maternal and fetal genetic stability. In this study, associations between maternal diet and the levels of dioxin-like plasma activity, bulky DNA adducts in white blood cells and micronuclei (MN) in lymphocytes from mother to newborns were examined. From 98 pregnant women living in the greater area of Copenhagen, Denmark in 2006-2007, maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, together with information on health, environmental exposure and lifestyle. Maternal diet was estimated on the basis of maternal food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) completed by the end of pregnancy. Biomarkers were detected in paired blood samples through the dioxin-responsive chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX){sup Registered-Sign} bioassay, {sup 32}P-postlabelling technique and cytokinesis-block MN assay. Maternal preference for meats with dark surface were significantly associated with higher bulky DNA adducts in both maternal ({beta} 95%CI; 0.46 (0.08, 0.84)) and cord blood ({beta} 95%CI; 0.46 (0.05, 0.86)) before and after adjustment for potential confounders. No other significant associations between the 18 dietary variables and the biomarkers measured in maternal and fetal samples were identified. The present study suggests that maternal intake of meats with dark surface contributes to the bulky DNA adduct levels in maternal and umbilical cord blood. Relationship between food preparation and bulky DNA adducts appear to be captured by a FFQ while potential associations for other biomarkers might be more complex or need larger sample size.

  1. Dose-dependent reduction of 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl-derived DNA adducts in colon and liver of rats administered celecoxib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravoori, Srivani; Feng Yi; Neale, Jason R.; Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Hein, David W.; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2008-01-01

    Colon cancer is second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. Diet and smoking, which contain aromatic and heterocyclic amines, are major risk factors for colon cancer. Colorectal cancers have a natural history of long latency and therefore provide ample opportunities for effective chemoprevention. 3,2'-Dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMABP) is an experimental aromatic amine that causes cancer in rat colon and serves as an experimental model for arylamine and heterocyclic amine mutagens derived from diet and smoking. In this study, we investigated the effects of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor on DMABP-induced DNA adduct formation in rat liver and colon. Male F-344 rats (5-week old) were provided free access to modified AIN-76A rat chow containing 0 (control), 500, 1000, or 1500 ppm celecoxib. Two weeks later, the rats received a subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg DMABP in peanut oil. Two days after DMABP treatment, the rats were killed and DMABP-derived adducts were analyzed in colon and liver DNA by butanol extraction-mediated 32 P-postlabeling. Two major DNA adducts, identified as dG-C8-DMABP and dG-N 2 -DMABP, were detected in liver and colon of rats treated with DMABP. These DNA adducts were diminished approximately 35-40% with 500 ppm and 65-70% with 1,000 ppm celecoxib. In the colon, no further decline in DNA adducts was observed at 1500 ppm. The same DMABP-DNA adducts also were detected in the liver and were also diminished by celecoxib treatment. The reduction in DMABP-DNA adduct levels in celecoxib-treated animals provides further support for celecoxib as a chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer

  2. Advantages of the modified double ring areolar incision over the traditional areolar incision in multicentric breast fibroadenoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingliang; Shen, Gongjin; Zhang, Song; Cui, Zhen; Qian, Jun

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the clinical advantages of modified double ring areola incision (MDRAI) compared to ordinary areola incision (OAI) in multicentric breast fibroadenoma in women. Sixty cases of multicentric benign breast tumor were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College from January to December 2016. The cases were divided into two groups according to surgical approach: MDRAI (n = 20) and OAI (n = 40). The operation duration, intraoperative blood loss, drainage time, and postoperative recurrence rate in the first six months were compared. The mean age and tumor locations were not statistically different between the groups (P > 0.05). However, more lesions and larger tumor diameter were found in the MDRAI group than in the OAI group, with statistical difference (P  0.05). However, the intraoperative blood loss was statistically different between the two groups (P < 0.05). All 60 cases received six months of follow-up. Eight recurrent cases were found in the OAI group, but none in the MDRAI group. The recurrence rate was significantly different (χ 2  = 4.62, P < 0.05). Compared with OAI, MDRAI offers greater advantages in the aspects of blood loss and recurrence for the treatment of breast benign tumor, especially for multicentric larger lesions. © 2017 The Authors. Thoracic Cancer published by China Lung Oncology Group and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Seismic evidence of glacial-age river incision into the Tahaa barrier reef, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Michael; Woodruff, Jonathan D.; Ashton, Andrew D.; Perron, J. Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Rivers have long been recognized for their ability to shape reef-bound volcanic islands. On the time-scale of glacial–interglacial sea-level cycles, fluvial incision of exposed barrier reef lagoons may compete with constructional coral growth to shape the coastal geomorphology of ocean islands. However, overprinting of Pleistocene landscapes by Holocene erosion or sedimentation has largely obscured the role lowstand river incision may have played in developing the deep lagoons typical of modern barrier reefs. Here we use high-resolution seismic imagery and core stratigraphy to examine how erosion and/or deposition by upland drainage networks has shaped coastal morphology on Tahaa, a barrier reef-bound island located along the Society Islands hotspot chain in French Polynesia. At Tahaa, we find that many channels, incised into the lagoon floor during Pleistocene sea-level lowstands, are located near the mouths of upstream terrestrial drainages. Steeper antecedent topography appears to have enhanced lowstand fluvial erosion along Tahaa's southwestern coast and maintained a deep pass. During highstands, upland drainages appear to contribute little sediment to refilling accommodation space in the lagoon. Rather, the flushing of fine carbonate sediment out of incised fluvial channels by storms and currents appears to have limited lagoonal infilling and further reinforced development of deep barrier reef lagoons during periods of highstand submersion.

  4. The Problem of the Pannus: Physician Preference Survey and a Review of the Literature on Cesarean Skin Incision in Morbidly Obese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Smiley, Sarah G; Schulkin, Jay; Stamilio, David M; Edwards, Rodney K; Stuebe, Alison M

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to determine preferences of a nationally representative sample of obstetrician/gynecologists (OB/GYNs) regarding cesarean delivery (CD) incision practices for women with morbid obesity (body mass index ≥ 40 kg/m(2)). We conducted an online survey using the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists database. We compared physician demographics, practice characteristics, and CD incision type preference. After exclusion of ineligible participants, 247 OB/GYNs completed the survey (42% response rate). In nonemergency CD of morbidly obese women, 84% of physicians preferred a Pfannenstiel skin incision (67% preferring taping the pannus; 17% without taping the pannus). In emergency CD, 66% preferred a Pfannenstiel incision (46% without taping the pannus; 20% with taping the pannus) and 20% a vertical incision. For both emergency and nonemergency CD, there was no difference in incision type preferences by provider years in practice, practice scope, or number of CD performed each year. Given the preference of a Pfannenstiel incision with taping the pannus during CD of morbidly obese women, further investigation is needed to assess the risks and benefits of this incision and the practice of elevating the pannus. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Impact of selective pituitary gland incision or resection on hormonal function after adenoma or cyst resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhoudarian, Garni; Cutler, Aaron R; Yost, Sam; Lobo, Bjorn; Eisenberg, Amalia; Kelly, Daniel F

    2015-12-01

    With the resection of pituitary lesions, the anterior pituitary gland often obstructs transsphenoidal access to the lesion. In such cases, a gland incision and/or partial gland resection may be required to obtain adequate exposure. We investigate this technique and determine the associated risk of post-operative hypopituitarism. All patients who underwent surgical resection of a pituitary adenoma or Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) between July 2007 and January 2013 were analyzed for pre- and post-operative hormone function. The cohort of patients with gland incision/resection were compared to a case-matched control cohort of pituitary surgery patients. Total hypophysectomy patients were excluded from outcome analysis. Of 372 operations over this period, an anterior pituitary gland incision or partial gland resection was performed in 79 cases (21.2 %). These include 53 gland incisions, 12 partial hemi-hypophysectomies and 14 resections of thinned/attenuated anterior gland. Diagnoses included 64 adenomas and 15 RCCs. New permanent hypopituitarism occurred in three patients (3.8 %), including permanent DI (3) and growth hormone deficiency (1). There was no significant difference in the rate of worsening gland dysfunction nor gain of function. Compared to a control cohort, there was a significantly lower incidence of transient DI (1.25 vs. 11.1 %, p = 0.009) but no significant difference in permanent DI (3.8 vs. 4.0 %) in the gland incision group. Selective gland incisions and gland resections were performed in over 20 % of our cases. This technique appears to minimize traction on compressed normal pituitary gland during removal of large lesions and facilitates better visualization and removal of cysts, microadenomas and macroadenomas.

  6. SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY OF SOME NEW MOLYBDATO AND HYDROGENOMOLYBDATO ADDUCTS AND COMPLEXES OF COBALT, ZINC, ANTIMONY AND CADMIUM CHLORIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERIGNE FALLOU POUYE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new molybdato (four and hydrogenomolybdato (one adducts and complexes have been synthesized and studied by infrared spectroscopy. The suggested structures are all discrete, the molybdate anion behaving as a trichelating, a monochelating, a bridging, a tetrachelating and a bichelating ligand. The environment around Zn, Co, Cd is tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal also for Zn - while being octahedral for Sb. The Cd pentanuclear adduct has a two metallic components structure, a tetranuclear anionic one with a tetrachelating molybdate, the second being a neutral dehydrated adduct component. The suggested structure for the hydrogenomolybdato adduct is discrete, the hydrogenomolybdate being present as a hydrogen bonded dimer behaves as a bridging bidentate ligand. The water molecules can be considered as a coordinating ligand or lattice. When secondary interactions through hydrogen bonds involving the water molecules are considered supramolecular architectures are obtained.

  7. Incision of the heart during meat inspection of fattening pigs - A risk-profile approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leps, J; Fries, R

    2009-01-01

    Meat inspection in the EU is based on Regulation (EC) 854/2004. Accordingly a risk based meat inspection should be implemented. In this paper, the incision of the heart in pig meat inspection is discussed with respect to efficacy. The incision especially can reveal the presence of endocarditis. Here, Erysipelothrixrhusiopathiae (E. rhusiopathiae) and/or Streptococcussuis (S. suis) are of particular concern. Both agents are regarded to be zoonotic agents. There is some evidence for infection of humans via an alimentary pathway. Hence, the occurrence of E. rhusiopathiae and S. suis is a concern of public health (PH) as well as veterinary public health (VPH). However, other measures, including on-farm disease prevention and diagnosis, seem to be more important for food safety. It is concluded that the incision and inspection of the heart is not justifiable with respect to PH aspects.

  8. Distinguishing Biologically Relevant Hexoses by Water Adduction to the Lithium-Cationized Molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew T; Chen, Dazhe; Wallbillich, Nicholas J; Glish, Gary L

    2017-10-03

    A method to distinguish the four most common biologically relevant underivatized hexoses, d-glucose, d-galactose, d-mannose, and d-fructose, using only mass spectrometry with no prior separation/derivatization step has been developed. Electrospray of a solution containing hexose and a lithium salt generates [Hexose+Li] + . The lithium-cationized hexoses adduct water in a quadrupole ion trap. The rate of this water adduction reaction can be used to distinguish the four hexoses. Additionally, for each hexose, multiple lithiation sites are possible, allowing for multiple structures of [Hexose+Li] + . Electrospray produces at least one structure that reacts with water and at least one that does not. The ratio of unreactive lithium-cationized hexose to total lithium-cationized hexose is unique for the four hexoses studied, providing a second method for distinguishing the isomers. Use of the water adduction reaction rate or the unreactive ratio provides two separate methods for confidently (p ≤ 0.02) distinguishing the most common biologically relevant hexoses using only femtomoles of hexose. Additionally, binary mixtures of glucose and fructose were studied. A calibration curve was created by measuring the reaction rate of various samples with different ratios of fructose and glucose. The calibration curve was used to accurately measure the percentage of fructose in three samples of high fructose corn syrup (<4% error).

  9. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of 14C-naphthalene-protein adducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Haack, Kurt W.; Sporty, Jennifer L.; Buckpitt, Alan R.; Morin, Dexter

    2010-01-01

    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose-(concentration)dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 μCi) of 14 C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 h post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with 14 C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts.

  10. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of 14C-naphthalene-protein adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Bruce A.; Haack, Kurt W.; Sporty, Jennifer L.; Buckpitt, Alan R.; Morin, Dexter

    2010-04-01

    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose-(concentration)dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 μCi) of 14C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 h post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with 14C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts.

  11. No-Drain Single Incision Liposuction Pull-Through Technique for Gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ashraf A; Ibrahim, Amr; Afifi, Ahmed M

    2017-04-01

    Several different methods have been proposed for treatment of gynecomastia, depending on the amount of breast enlargement and skin redundancy. The liposuction pull-through technique has been proposed as an efficacious treatment for many gynecomastia cases. This work aims to study the outcome of this technique when applied as an outpatient procedure, without the use of drains and through a single incision. Fifty-two patients with bilateral gynecomastia without significant skin excess were included in this study. The liposuction pull-through technique was performed through a single incision just above the inframammary fold and without the use of drains. Patients were followed up for 6 months. The proposed technique was able to treat the gynecomastia in all patients, with a revision rate of 1.9% to remove residual glandular tissues. There were no seromas, hematomas, nipple distortion, permanent affection of nipple sensation or wound healing problems. The liposuction pull-through technique is an effective treatment for gynecomastia without significant skin redundancy. It combines the benefits of the direct excision of glandular tissues, with the minimally invasive nature of liposuction. Performing the procedure through a single incision without the use of drains and without general anesthesia is a safe alternative. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors http://www.springer.com/00266 .

  12. Gynecomastia: glandular-liposculpture through a single transaxillary one hole incision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yung Ki; Lee, Jun Hee; Kang, Sang Yoon

    2018-04-01

    Gynecomastia is characterized by the benign proliferation of breast tissue in men. Herein, we present a new method for the treatment of gynecomastia, using ultrasound-assisted liposuction with both conventional and reverse-cutting edge tip cannulas in combination with a pull-through lipectomy technique with pituitary forceps through a single transaxillary incision. Thirty patients were treated with this technique at the author's institution from January 2010 to January 2015. Ten patients were treated with conventional surgical excision of the glandular/fibrous breast tissue combined with liposuction through a periareolar incision before January 2010. Medical records, clinical photographs and linear analog scale scores were analyzed to compare the surgical results and complications. The patients were required to rate their cosmetic outcomes based on the linear analog scale with which they rated their own surgical results; the mean overall average score indicated a good or high level of satisfaction. There were no incidences of skin necrosis, hematoma, infection and scar contracture; however, one case each of seroma and nipple inversion did occur. Operative time was reduced overall using the new technique since it is relatively simple and straightforward. According to the evaluation by the four independent researchers, the patients treated with this new technique showed statistically significant improvements in scar and nipple-areolar complex (NAC) deformity compared to those who were treated using the conventional method. Glandular liposculpture through a single transaxillary incision is an efficient and safe technique that can provide aesthetically satisfying and consistent results.

  13. S-adenosyl-L-methionine protection of acetaminophen mediated oxidative stress and identification of hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts by mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, James Mike [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Kuhlman, Christopher [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Terneus, Marcus V. [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Labenski, Matthew T. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Lamyaithong, Andre Benja; Ball, John G. [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Lau, Serrine S. [Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona Health Sciences Center, Tucson, AZ (United States); Valentovic, Monica A., E-mail: Valentov@marshall.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Physiology and Toxicology, Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is protected by S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) treatment 1 hour (h) after APAP in C57/Bl6 mice. This study examined protein carbonylation as well as mitochondrial and cytosolic protein adduction by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) using mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Additional studies investigated the leakage of mitochondrial proteins and 4-HNE adduction of these proteins. Male C57/Bl6 mice (n = 5/group) were divided into the following groups and treated as indicated: Veh (15 ml/kg water, ip), SAMe (1.25 mmol/kg, ip), APAP (250 mg/kg), and SAMe given 1 h after APAP (S + A). APAP toxicity was confirmed by an increase (p < 0.05) in plasma ALT (U/l) and liver weight/10 g body weight relative to the Veh, SAMe and S + A groups 4 h following APAP treatment. SAMe administered 1 h post-APAP partially corrected APAP hepatotoxicity as ALT and liver weight/10 g body weights were lower in the S + A group compared the APAP group. APAP induced leakage of the mitochondrial protein, carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) into the cytosol and which was reduced in the S + A group. SAMe further reduced the extent of APAP mediated 4-HNE adduction of CPS-1. MS analysis of hepatic and mitochondrial subcellular fractions identified proteins from APAP treated mice. Site specific 4-HNE adducts were identified on mitochondrial proteins sarcosine dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1). In summary, APAP is associated with 4-HNE adduction of proteins as identified by MS analysis and that CPS-1 leakage was greater in APAP treated mice. SAMe reduced the extent of 4-HNE adduction of proteins as well as leakage of CPS-1. - Highlights: • Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity protected by S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) • 4-Hydroxynonenal adducted to sarcosine dehydrogenase • 4-Hydroxynonenal adducted to carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-1 • SAMe reduced APAP mediated CPS-1 mitochondrial leakage.

  14. S-adenosyl-L-methionine protection of acetaminophen mediated oxidative stress and identification of hepatic 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, James Mike; Kuhlman, Christopher; Terneus, Marcus V.; Labenski, Matthew T.; Lamyaithong, Andre Benja; Ball, John G.; Lau, Serrine S.; Valentovic, Monica A.

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is protected by S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAMe) treatment 1 hour (h) after APAP in C57/Bl6 mice. This study examined protein carbonylation as well as mitochondrial and cytosolic protein adduction by 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) using mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Additional studies investigated the leakage of mitochondrial proteins and 4-HNE adduction of these proteins. Male C57/Bl6 mice (n = 5/group) were divided into the following groups and treated as indicated: Veh (15 ml/kg water, ip), SAMe (1.25 mmol/kg, ip), APAP (250 mg/kg), and SAMe given 1 h after APAP (S + A). APAP toxicity was confirmed by an increase (p < 0.05) in plasma ALT (U/l) and liver weight/10 g body weight relative to the Veh, SAMe and S + A groups 4 h following APAP treatment. SAMe administered 1 h post-APAP partially corrected APAP hepatotoxicity as ALT and liver weight/10 g body weights were lower in the S + A group compared the APAP group. APAP induced leakage of the mitochondrial protein, carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1) into the cytosol and which was reduced in the S + A group. SAMe further reduced the extent of APAP mediated 4-HNE adduction of CPS-1. MS analysis of hepatic and mitochondrial subcellular fractions identified proteins from APAP treated mice. Site specific 4-HNE adducts were identified on mitochondrial proteins sarcosine dehydrogenase and carbamoyl phosphate synthase-1 (CPS-1). In summary, APAP is associated with 4-HNE adduction of proteins as identified by MS analysis and that CPS-1 leakage was greater in APAP treated mice. SAMe reduced the extent of 4-HNE adduction of proteins as well as leakage of CPS-1. - Highlights: • Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity protected by S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) • 4-Hydroxynonenal adducted to sarcosine dehydrogenase • 4-Hydroxynonenal adducted to carbamoyl phosphate synthetase-1 • SAMe reduced APAP mediated CPS-1 mitochondrial leakage

  15. Triple pelvic osteotomy in Legg-Calve-Perthes disease using a single anterolateral incision: a 4-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conroy, Eimear

    2010-07-01

    Femoral head incongruency at skeletal maturity is associated with the development of osteoarthritis in early adulthood. Containment of the femoral head provides a larger surface area for remodelling of the collapsed femoral head and the development of spherical congruency. Triple pelvic osteotomy has a role to play in Legg-Calve-Perthes\\' disease by improving femoral head containment and preventing subluxation. This is traditionally a two-incision approach with significant associated morbidity. In our unit we perform triple osteotomies through a single anterolateral incision. To retrospectively review the clinical and radiographic outcome of children who had triple osteotomies performed through a single incision over a 4-year period. In our unit from 2003 to 2006 we performed eight triple osteotomies through a single incision in children aged between 6 and 12 years with Legg-Calve-Perthes\\' disease. The procedure was performed through a single anterolateral incision made beneath the middle of the iliac crest and carried forward according to Salter\\'s osteotomy. Image intensification was used to confirm iliac, pubic and ischial cuts. After performing a standard Salter\\'s osteotomy the acetabular fragment was free to rotate anteriorly and laterally. None of the children were casted and all were allowed immediate mobilization nonweight bearing with crutches for 6 weeks. Clinical results and hip function were measured preoperatively and postoperatively using the modified Harris hip score. The average length of hospital stay was 4.7 days. None of the children had a nonunion. The centre edge angle of Wiberg was measured on all preoperative and postoperative anteroposterior pelvic radiographs. In all our patients there was an improvement in the centre edge angle of Wiberg and in the modified Harris hip score. The preoperative modified Harris hip scores ranged from 38 to 60 and postoperatively ranged from 77 to 92. The preoperative centre edge angle of Wiberg ranged

  16. Kinetics, mechanism and thermodynamics of bisulfite-aldehyde adduct formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, T.M.; Boyce, S.D.; Hoffmann, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of bisulfite addition to benzaldehyde were studied at low pH in order to assess the importance of this reaction in stabilizing S(IV) in fog-, cloud-, and rainwater. Previously, the authors established that appreciable concentrations of the formaldehyde-bisulfite adduct (HMSA) are often present in fogwater. Measured HMSA concentrations in fogwater often do not fully account for observed excess S(IV) concentrations, however, so that other S(IV)-aldehyde adducts may be present. Reaction rates were determined by monitoring the disappearance of benzaldehyde by U.V. spectrophotometry under pseudo-first order conditions, (S(IV))/sub T/ >>(phi-CHO)/sub T/, in the pH range 0 - 4.4 at 25/sup 0/C. The equilibrium constant was determined by dissolving the sodium salt of the addition compound in a solution adjusted to pH 3.9, and measuring the absorbance of the equilibrated solution at 250 nm. A literature value of the extinction coefficient for benzaldehyde was used to calculate the concentration of free benzaldehyde. All solutions were prepared under an N/sub 2/ atmosphere using deoxygenated, deionized water and ionic strength was maintained at 1.0 M with sodium chloride.

  17. Two novel creatinine adducts of andrographolide in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Feng; Cui, Liang; Chen, Lixia; Sun, Jiawen; Yao, Xinsheng

    2012-09-01

    Andrographolide is a major labdane diterpenoid of the traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine. Andrographis paniculate (Burm) Nees, is used in clinical situations in China mainly to treat fever, cold, and inflammation. In our previous study, fifteen metabolites of andrographolide were identified in human urine. However, there are still two other unknown metabolites. The aim of this study was to elucidate the structures of these two metabolites. 3. The two metabolites which are probably epimers were identified as creatinine adducts, and their structures were determined to be 14-deoxy-12-(creatinine-5-yl)-andrographolide-19-O-β-D-glucuronide A (Metabolite 1) and 14-deoxy-12-(creatinine-5-yl)-andrographolide-19-O-β-D-glucuronide B (Metabolite 2) by means of spectroscopic evidences. 4. It is for the first time that the formation of creatinine adducts as a novel metabolic pathway is reported. The mechanism was presumed that β-carbon (C-12) of α, β-unsaturated carbonyl was attacked by a 5-anion intermediate of creatinine formed through elimination of a proton, followed by the double bond migration from 12(13) to 13(14) and elimination of the hydroxyl group at C-14.

  18. Cytochrome P-450 inactivation by 3-alkylsydnones. Mechanistic implications of N-alkyl and N-alkenyl heme adduct formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grab, L.A.; Swanson, B.A.; Ortiz de Montellano, P.R.

    1988-01-01

    Incubation of 3-(2-phenylethyl)-4-methylsydnone (PMS) with liver microsomes from phenobarbital-pretreated rats or with reconstituted cytochrome P-450b results in loss of the enzyme chromophore. Chromophore loss is NADPH-dependent even though the sydnone decomposes by an oxygen- but not enzyme-dependent process to give pyruvic acid and, presumably, the (2-phenylethyl)diazonium cation. N-(2-Phenylethyl)protoporphyrin IX and N-(2-phenylethenyl)protoporphyrin IX have been isolated from the livers of rats treated with PMS. Both deuteriums are retained in the N-(2-phenylethyl) adduct derived from 3-(2-phenyl[1,1- 2 H]ethyl)-4-methylsydnone, but one deuterium is lost in the N-(2-phenylethenyl) adduct. The N-(2-phenylethyl) to N-(2-phenylethenyl) adduct ratio is increased by deuterium substitution. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin trapping studies show that carbon radicals are formed in incubations of the sydnones with liver microsomes but by a process that is independent of chromophore destruction. It is proposed that the 2-phenylethyl radical formed by electron transfer to the sydnone-derived (2-phenylethyl)diazonium cation adds to the prosthetic heme group to give the N-(2-phenylethyl) adduct. This alkylation reaction is similar to that observed with (2-phenylethyl)hydrazine. Autoxidation of the Fe-CH(CH 2 Ph)-N bridged species expected from insertion of 2-phenyldiazoethane into one of the heme Fe-N bonds is proposed to explain the unprecedented introduction of a double bond into the N-(2-phenylethenyl)adduct

  19. Morphological changes of calcite single crystals induced by graphene-biomolecule adducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvaresi, Matteo; Di Giosia, Matteo; Ianiro, Alessandro; Valle, Francesco; Fermani, Simona; Polishchuk, Iryna; Pokroy, Boaz; Falini, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Calcite has the capability to interact with a wide variety of molecules. This usually induces changes in shape and morphology of crystals. Here, this process was investigated using sheets of graphene-biomolecule adducts. They were prepared and made dispersible in water through the exfoliation of graphite by tip sonication in the presence tryptophan or N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The crystallization of calcium carbonate in the presence of these additives was obtained by the vapor diffusion method and only calcite formed. The analysis of the microscopic observations showed that the graphene-biomolecule adducts affected shape and morphology of rhombohedral {10.4} faced calcite crystals, due to their stabilization of additional {hk.0} faces. The only presence of the biomolecule affected minimally shape and morphology of calcite crystals, highlighting the key role of the graphene sheets as 2D support for the adsorption of the biomolecules.

  20. Two Late Pleistocene climate-driven incision/aggradation rhythms in the middle Dnieper River basin, west-central Russian Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, Andrei; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Matlakhova, Ekaterina; Moska, Piotr; Novenko, Elena

    2017-06-01

    In valleys of the River Seim and its tributaries in the middle Dnieper basin (west-central Russian Plain), two low terraces (T1, 10-16 m, and T0, 5-7 m above the river) and a floodplain (2-4 m) with characteristic large and small palaeochannels exist. A range of field and laboratory techniques was applied and ∼30 new numerical ages (OSL and 14C dates) were obtained to establish a chronology of incision and aggradation events that resulted in the current valley morphology. Two full incision/aggradation rhythms and one additional aggradation phase from the previous rhythm were recognized in the Late Pleistocene - Holocene climate cycle. The following events were detected. (1) Late MIS 5 - early MIS 4: aggradation of Terrace T1 following the deep incision at the end of MIS 6. (2) Late MIS 4 (40-30 ka): incision into Terrace T1 below the present-day river, formation of the main scarp in the bottom of the valley between Terrace T1 and Terrace T0/Floodplain levels. (3) MIS 2: aggradation of Terrace T0, lateral migrations of a shallow braided channel located few meters above the present-day river since ∼25 ka through the LGM. (4) 18-13 ka: incision into Terrace T0 below the modern river. Multiple-thread channels concentrated in a single flow that at some places formed large meanders. In the period 15-13 ka, high floods that rose above the present-day floods left large levees and overbank loams on Terrace T0. (5) Younger Dryas - Holocene transition: aggradation up to the modern channel level, transformation of large Late Glacial to small Holocene meanders. The established incision/aggradation rhythms are believed to be manifested over the Central Russian Plain outside the influence of ice sheets in the north and base level changes in the south. The two-phase deepening of the valley occurred in the last quarter of the last glacial epoch but can not be attributed directly to the glacial-interglacial transition. Both the detected incision events correspond to relatively

  1. In vivo architectural analysis of 3.2 mm clear corneal incisions for phacoemulsification using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Luis F; Saez-Espinola, Fidelia; Colina, Juner M; Retchkiman, Myriam; Patel, Milan R; Agurto, Ricardo; Garcia, Gerardo; Diaz, Jose L; Huang, David; Schanzlin, David J; Chayet, Arturo S

    2006-11-01

    To analyze in vivo the architecture of clear corneal incisions (CCIs) for phacoemulsification using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Anterior Segment Department, Asociacion Para Evitar la Ceguera en Mexico, Hospital Dr Luis Sanchez Bulnes, Mexico. A prospective masked study analyzed 20 unsutured CCIs placed superiorly and created in a uniplanar fashion with a 3.2 mm slit-angled metal keratome. All wounds were evaluated with a retinal OCT model 1, 3, and 30 days postoperatively. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and incision leakage were checked. The architecture was described according to the angle of incidence, apposition of the epithelial and endothelial margins, and wound sealing. No leakage was detected. The angle varied from 33 to 85 degrees; angles greater than 75 degrees were done by a surgeon in training. Wound apposition at the epithelial margin was achieved in all cases. In contrast, imperfect apposition of the endothelial margin was seen in 45% of incisions on day 1 and in 15% on day 30. Incomplete sealing of the wound was seen by OCT in 25% of cases at 24 hours and persisted in 10% of all cases at 1 month. This gaping occurred on the endothelial side and never translated to the epithelial margin. No statistical correlation was found between gaping and the angle of the incision, IOP variations, or surgeon experience. Although in vivo CCIs caused minor anatomic imperfections, they were clinically stable independent of incision angle, IOP variation, and surgeon experience. Incision stability may be related to careful wound construction, epithelial viability, stromal edema, and efficient endothelial pumping.

  2. Quantitative analysis of the relationship between maxillary incisors and the incisive canal by cone-beam computed tomography in an adult Japanese population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomonari Matsumura

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In setting goals for orthodontic treatment, determining the morphologies of the alveolar bone and maxillary incisor root is important for avoiding root resorption, dehiscence, and fenestration. This study aimed to analyze the configurational relationships among maxillary incisors, the alveolar border, and the incisive canal by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Methods Cone-beam CT images of 93 orthodontic patients were evaluated for length of the incisive canal (L; angles between the palatal plane and the maxillary alveolar border (θ1, the incisive canal (θ2, and maxillary incisor (θ3; distance from the left maxillary incisor to the incisive canal (D; and cross-sectional areas of the incisive canal (CSAs at three vertical levels. Comparison of variables between male and female patients was performed with the two-sample t test. Correlations between parameters were examined by Pearson’s correlation analysis and Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Results Male patients exhibited significantly greater values of L than female patients. There were significant positive correlations between θ1 and θ2, θ2 and θ3, and θ3 and θ1. While the value of D was the lowest at the oral opening, that of the cross-sectional area of the incisive canal (CSA was the greatest at the incisal root apex. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the incisive canal had large inter-individual variability, and the proximity between the incisive canal and the incisal root could not be precisely predicted by the conventional cephalograms. Therefore, pre-treatment CBCT examination should be recommended when a large amount of maxillary anterior retraction and/or intrusion is planned in orthodontic diagnosis.

  3. Cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy in ceramic laminate veneering materials: A SEM analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemalatha Ranganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Marginal discrepancy influenced by the choice of processing material used for the ceramic laminate veneers needs to be explored further for better clinical application. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the amount of cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy associated with different ceramic laminate veneering materials. Settings and Design: This was an experimental, single-blinded, in vitro trial. Subjects and Methods: Ten central incisors were prepared for laminate veneers with 2 mm uniform reduction and heavy chamfer finish line. Ceramic laminate veneers fabricated over the prepared teeth using four different processing materials were categorized into four groups as Group I - aluminous porcelain veneers, Group II - lithium disilicate ceramic veneers, Group III - lithium disilicate-leucite-based veneers, Group IV - zirconia-based ceramic veneers. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy was measured using a scanning electron microscope. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA and post hoc Tukey honest significant difference (HSD tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy for four groups was Group I - 114.6 ± 4.3 μm, 132.5 ± 6.5 μm, Group II - 86.1 ± 6.3 μm, 105.4 ± 5.3 μm, Group III - 71.4 ± 4.4 μm, 91.3 ± 4.7 μm, and Group IV - 123.1 ± 4.1 μm, 142.0 ± 5.4 μm. ANOVA and post hoc Tukey HSD tests observed a statistically significant difference between the four test specimens with regard to cervical marginal discrepancy. The cervical and incisal marginal discrepancy scored F = 243.408, P < 0.001 and F = 180.844, P < 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: This study concluded veneers fabricated using leucite reinforced lithium disilicate exhibited the least marginal discrepancy followed by lithium disilicate ceramic, aluminous porcelain, and zirconia-based ceramics. The marginal discrepancy was more in the incisal region than in the cervical region in all the groups.

  4. Relationship between peri-incisional dysesthesia and the vertical and oblique incisions on the hamstrings harvest in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Laube Leite

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of peri-incisional dysesthesia according to the skin incision technique for hamstring tendon graft harvest in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with ACL rupture were separated in two groups: group 1, with 19 patients submitted to the oblique skin incision to access the hamstrings and group 2-14 patients operated by vertical skin incision technique. The selected patients were assessed after surgery. Demographic data and prevalence of dysesthesia was measured by digital pressure around the skin incision and classified according to the Highet scale. RESULTS: The total rate of dysesthesia was 42% (14 patients. Five patients (26% on the oblique incision group reported dysesthesia symptoms. On the group submitted to the vertical incision technique, the involvement was 64% (nine patients. On the 33 knees evaluated, the superior lateral area was the most affected skin region, while the superior medial and inferior medial regions were affected in only one patient (7.1%. No statistical differences between both groups were observed regarding patients' weight, age, and height¸ as well as skin incision length. CONCLUSION: Patients who underwent reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament using the oblique access technique had five times lower incidence of peri-incisional dysesthesia when compared with those in whom the vertical access technique was used.

  5. [Is there a relation between mammaplasties incisions and the final shape of the breast?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moufarrège, R; Dionyssopoulos, A; Aymeric, A; Sauvageau, J

    2010-04-01

    The results of reduction mammoplasty and mastopexy demonstrate a great variety of shapes derived from the particularities inherent to each technique. More precisely, it has become apparent to us that the usage of an abnormally long vertical scar leads to a suboptimal final shape of the breast due to the excessive projection compared to its height. Although our clientele continually asks to minimize scars, we have noticed a resurgence in the literature of vertical incision mammoplasty techniques albeit with a scar of an excessive length. The multitude of publications leads to an evident and consistent conclusion: breasts reconstructed with an overly long vertical incision all suffer the same deformity characterized by a banana or squash-shaped breast. We studied the totality of publications on vertical incision technique mammoplasty from the last 15 years and realised they all presented the same problem: an abnormally low height/projection ratio. These numbers have been confronted by the golden ratio established by the first author (2005) [1]. The breast's golden ratio developed by Moufarrège is optimal at a number close to, or superior to 2. Results between 2 and 1.5 are acceptable. All height/projection ratios inferior to 1.5 correspond to suboptimal breast shapes. Furthermore, the totality of results in the vertical scar mammoplasty technique which displayed unsatisfying results had a height/projection ratio inferior to 1.5. Those who promote the vertical incision have the greatest drive to encourage other plastic surgeons to abandon the traditional mutilating boat anchor scar. Nevertheless, they should always remember the deforming effect caused by exaggerated vertical incisions which may be avoided by transforming it into an inverted T with short horizontal branches, a small price to pay to obtain a superior aesthetic result. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. High-power diode laser in the circumvestibular incision for Le Fort I osteotomy in orthognathic surgery: a prospective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Filipe; Chiavaioli, Gustavo Marques; de Toledo, Guilherme Lacerda; Freire-Maia, Belini; Amaral, Marcio Bruno Figueiredo; Mesquita, Ricardo Alves

    2018-01-01

    The incisions during orthognathic surgery are classically performed with conventional scalpel or electrocautery. Considering that the high-power diode laser surgery may provide advantages when compared to conventional incision techniques, the current study aimed to present a prospective case series of patients submitted to circumvestibular incision for Le Fort I osteotomy. Ten patients with dentofacial deformities who underwent to rapid assisted maxillary expansion or bimaxillary orthognathic surgery were enrolled in the study. All incisions were performed by a single surgeon using an 808-nm diode laser, with an optical fiber of 600 μm, at a power of 2.5 W, in a continuous-wave mode. The performance of the incision was evaluated by incision velocity, bleeding, edema, secondary infection, clinical healing, and pain. The velocity of the incision ranged from 0.10 to 0.20 mm/s (mean 0.13 ± 0.03 mm/s). Considering bleeding during the soft tissue incision, all surgeries were classified as absent bleeding. All patients presented a clinical healing of the surgical wound in a period that range from 3 to 5 weeks and experienced swelling during the follow-up period. On average, approximately 50% of the swelling had resolved after the third postoperative week, and 28.8% of swelling remained after 2 months after the surgery. The pain decreased after 2 and 3 days, and 90.0% of the patients reported no pain after 7 postoperative days. High-power diode laser is effective and safety during circumvestibular incisions for Le Fort I osteotomy in orthognathic surgery decreasing bleeding, surgery time, pain, and edema after orthognathic surgery.

  7. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming W. Chou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP, at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the

  8. Metabolic Activation of the Tumorigenic Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid, Retrorsine, Leading to DNA Adduct Formation In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Ping; Fu, Peter P.; Chou, Ming W.

    2005-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids are naturally occurring genotoxic chemicals produced by a large number of plants. The high toxicity of many pyrrolizidine alkaloids has caused considerable loss of free-ranging livestock due to liver and pulmonary lesions. Chronic exposure of toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids to laboratory animals induces cancer. This investigation studies the metabolic activation of retrorsine, a representative naturally occurring tumorigenic pyrrolizidine alkaloid, and shows that a genotoxic mechanism is correlated to the tumorigenicity of retrorsine. Metabolism of retrorsine by liver microsomes of F344 female rats produced two metabolites, 6, 7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP), at a rate of 4.8 ± 0.1 nmol/mg/min, and retrorsine-N-oxide, at a rate of 17.6±0.5 nmol/mg/min. Metabolism was enhanced 1.7-fold by using liver microsomes prepared from dexamethasone-treated rats. DHP formation was inhibited 77% and retrorsine N-oxide formation was inhibited 29% by troleandomycin, a P450 3A enzyme inhibitor. Metabolism of retrorsine with lung, kidney, and spleen microsomes from dexamethasone-treated rats also generated DHP and the N-oxide derivative. When rat liver microsomal metabolism of retrorsine occurred in the presence of calf thymus DNA, a set of DHP-derived DNA adducts was formed; these adducts were detected and quantified by using a previously developed 32P-postlabeling/HPLC method. These same DNA adducts were also found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine. Since DHP-derived DNA adducts are suggested to be potential biomarkers of riddelliine-induced tumorigenicity, our results indicate that (i) similar to the metabolic activation of riddelliine, the mechanism of retrorsine-induced carcinogenicity in rats is also through a genotoxic mechanism involving DHP; and (ii) the set of DHP-derived DNA adducts found in liver DNA of rats gavaged with retrorsine or riddelliine can serve as biomarkers for the tumorigenicity induced by

  9. Differential repair of etheno-DNA adducts by bacterial and human AlkB proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdżalik, Daria; Domańska, Anna; Prorok, Paulina; Kosicki, Konrad; van den Born, Erwin; Falnes, Pål Ø; Rizzo, Carmelo J; Guengerich, F Peter; Tudek, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    AlkB proteins are evolutionary conserved Fe(II)/2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, which remove alkyl and highly promutagenic etheno(ɛ)-DNA adducts, but their substrate specificity has not been fully determined. We developed a novel assay for the repair of ɛ-adducts by AlkB enzymes using oligodeoxynucleotides with a single lesion and specific DNA glycosylases and AP-endonuclease for identification of the repair products. We compared the repair of three ɛ-adducts, 1,N(6)-ethenoadenine (ɛA), 3,N(4)-ethenocytosine (ɛC) and 1,N(2)-ethenoguanine (1,N(2)-ɛG) by nine bacterial and two human AlkBs, representing four different structural groups defined on the basis of conserved amino acids in the nucleotide recognition lid, engaged in the enzyme binding to the substrate. Two bacterial AlkB proteins, MT-2B (from Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and SC-2B (Streptomyces coelicolor) did not repair these lesions in either double-stranded (ds) or single-stranded (ss) DNA. Three proteins, RE-2A (Rhizobium etli), SA-2B (Streptomyces avermitilis), and XC-2B (Xanthomonas campestris) efficiently removed all three lesions from the DNA substrates. Interestingly, XC-2B and RE-2A are the first AlkB proteins shown to be specialized for ɛ-adducts, since they do not repair methylated bases. Three other proteins, EcAlkB (Escherichia coli), SA-1A, and XC-1B removed ɛA and ɛC from ds and ssDNA but were inactive toward 1,N(2)-ɛG. SC-1A repaired only ɛA with the preference for dsDNA. The human enzyme ALKBH2 repaired all three ɛ-adducts in dsDNA, while only ɛA and ɛC in ssDNA and repair was less efficient in ssDNA. ALKBH3 repaired only ɛC in ssDNA. Altogether, we have shown for the first time that some AlkB proteins, namely ALKBH2, RE-2A, SA-2B and XC-2B can repair 1,N(2)-ɛG and that ALKBH3 removes only ɛC from ssDNA. Our results also suggest that the nucleotide recognition lid is not the sole determinant of the substrate specificity of AlkB proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B

  10. River longitudinal profiles and bedrock incision models: Stream power and the influence of sediment supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Leonard; Dietrich, William E.

    The simplicity and apparent mechanistic basis of the stream power river incision law have led to its wide use in empirical and theoretical studies. Here we identify constraints on its calibration and application, and present a mechanistic theory for the effects of sediment supply on incision rates which spotlights additional limitations on the applicability of the stream power law. On channels steeper than about 20%, incision is probably dominated by episodic debris flows, and on sufficiently gentle slopes, sediment may bury the bedrock and prevent erosion. These two limits bound the application of the stream power law and strongly constrain the possible combination of parameters in the law. In order to avoid infinite slopes at the drainage divide in numerical models of river profiles using the stream power law it is commonly assumed that the first grid cell is unchanneled. We show, however, that the size of the grid may strongly influence the calculated equilibrium relief. Analysis of slope-drainage area relationships for a river network in a Northern California watershed using digital elevation data and review of data previously reported by Hack reveal that non-equilibrium profiles may produce well defined slope-area relationships (as expected in equilibrium channels), but large differences between tributaries may point to disequilibrium conditions. To explore the role of variations in sediment supply and transport capacity in bedrock incision we introduce a mechanistic model for abrasion of bedrock by saltating bedload. The model predicts that incision rates reach a maximum at intermediate levels of sediment supply and transport capacity. Incision rates decline away from the maximum with either decreasing supply (due to a shortage of tools) or increasing supply (due to gradual bed alluviation), and with either decreasing transport capacity (due to less energetic particle movement) or increasing transport capacity (due less frequent particle impacts per unit bed

  11. CO2 temperature-controlled laser soldering of pig trachea incisions in vitro using flexible albumin bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharvit, Dan; Vasilyev, Tamar; Vasserman, Irena; Simhon, David; Kariv, Naam; DeRowe, Ari; Katzir, Abraham

    2005-04-01

    Resection of a segment of the trachea is a procedure applied for the removal of cervical tumors invading the trachea, or for the treatment of severe tracheal stenosis. The current method of anastomosis is based on multiple sutures. The main drawbacks of this method are: 1) A long procedure time, 2) An air leakage, and 3) An inflammatory response to the sutures. In this study we evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of the use of temperature controlled CO2 laser soldering of incisions in pig tracheas in vitro. A transverse incision was made in a separated pig trachea. A flexible albumin band was prepared and was laser soldered with albumin solder to the outer surface of the trachea, covering the incision. The soldered trachea ends were sealed and the burst pressure was measured. In a series of in vitro experiments, the mean burst pressure was found to be 230 mm Hg. These preliminary results demonstrated that laser soldering using a flexible albumin band may be a useful method for sealing an incision in the trachea.

  12. Single-incision laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer through a homemade single port access device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Gang; Zhao, Kun; Liu, Jiang; Ning, Li; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    We presented a series of single-incision laparoscopic distal gastrectomies for early gastric cancer patients through a type of homemade single port access device and some other conventional laparoscopic instruments. A single-incision laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with D1 + α lymph node dissection was performed on a 46 years old male patient who had an early gastric cancer. This single port access device has facilitated the conventional laparoscopic instruments to accomplish the surgery and we made in only 6 minutes. Total operating time for this surgery was 240 minutes. During the operation, there were about 100 milliliters of blood loss, and 17 lymph-nodes were retrieved. This homemade single port access device shows its superiority in economy and convenience for complex single-incision surgeries. Single-incision laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for early gastric cancer can be conducted by experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Fully take advantage of both SILS and fast track surgery plan can bring to successful surgeries with minimal postoperative pain, quicker mobilization, early recovery of intestinal function, and better cosmesis effect for the patients.

  13. Analytical determination of specific 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate hemoglobin adducts in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Wolfgang; Leng, Gabriele

    2013-09-01

    4,4'-Methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is one of the most important isocyanates in the industrial production of polyurethane and other MDI-based synthetics. Because of its high reactivity, it is known as a sensitizing agent, caused by protein adducts. Analysis of MDI is routinely done by determination of the nonspecific 4,4'-methylenedianiline as a marker for MDI exposure in urine and blood. Since several publications have reported specific adducts of MDI and albumin or hemoglobin, more information about their existence in humans is necessary. Specific adducts of MDI and hemoglobin were only reported in rats after high-dose MDI inhalation. The aim of this investigation was to detect the hemoglobin adduct 5-isopropyl-3-[4-(4-aminobenzyl)phenyl]hydantoin (ABP-Val-Hyd) in human blood for the first time. We found values up to 5.2 ng ABP-Val-Hyd/g globin (16 pmol/g) in blood samples of workers exposed to MDI. Because there was no information available about possible amounts of this specific MDI marker, the analytical method focused on optimal sensitivity and selectivity. Using gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry with negative chemical ionization, we achieved a detection limit of 0.02 ng ABP-Val-Hyd/g globin (0.062 pmol/g). The robustness of the method was confirmed by relative standard deviations between 3.0 and 9.8 %. Combined with a linear detection range up to 10 ng ABP-Val-Hyd/g globin (31 pmol/g), the enhanced precision parameter demonstrates that the method described is optimized for screening studies of the human population.

  14. Effects of thiourea and ammonium bicarbonate on the formation and stability of bifunctional cisplatin-DNA adducts : consequences for the accurate quantification of adducts in (cellular) DNA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.J.; Dijk-Knijnenburg, H.C.M. van; Dijt, F.J.; Velde-Visser, S.D. van der; Berends, F.; Baan, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cisplatin reacts with DNA by forming mainly bifunctional adducts via reactive monofunctional intermediates. When freshly platinated DNA was postincubated with thiourea (10 mM, at 23 or 37°C) for periods of up to 24 h, followed by determination of mono- and diadducts, a rapid initial decrease was

  15. Normalized Urinary Flow at Puberty after Tubularized Incised Plate Urethroplasty for Hypospadias in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marie; Doroszkiewicz, Monika; Arfwidsson, Charlotte; Abrahamsson, Kate; Sillén, Ulla; Holmdahl, Gundela

    2015-11-01

    An obstructive urinary flow pattern is frequently seen after tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for hypospadias. However, the significance of this finding has not been determined and long-term results are few. We describe postoperative long-term uroflowmetry results after puberty in males who underwent tubularized incised plate urethroplasty in childhood. A total of 126 boys underwent tubularized incised plate urethroplasty for distal penile to mid shaft hypospadias at Queen Silvia Children's Hospital in Gothenburg between 1999 and 2003. Of the patients 48 were toilet trained at surgery. We report on 40 patients who had data available at 2 and 12 months postoperatively, 7 years postoperatively and at puberty (median age 15.0 years, range 13.7 to 17.1). Of the patients 31 had distal and 9 had mid penile hypospadias. Clinical examination, urinary medical history, uroflowmetry and ultrasound measuring residual urine were performed. Maximum urinary flow was correlated to age and voided volume, using Miskolc nomograms for comparison of percentiles. At 1 year postoperatively 15 boys (37.5%) had normal urinary flow (above 25th percentile), compared to 16 (40%) at 7 years and 38 (95%) at puberty (p puberty for boys with hypospadias treated with tubularized incised plate urethroplasty. Unless symptoms occur, a conservative approach seems preferable. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of exposure route on DNA adduct formation and cellular proliferation by 1,2,3-trichloropropane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La, D K; Schoonhoven, R; Ito, N; Swenberg, J A

    1996-09-01

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) induces high incidences of tumors at multiple sites in mice and rats when administered chronically by gavage. The animal tumor data are being used to predict human risk from potential exposure to TCP in drinking water. Risk assessment may be affected by differences in the route of exposure. Gavage administration, which results in high bolus concentrations compared to drinking water exposure, may quantitatively affect toxicokinetics, cytotoxicity, and genotoxicity. We have examined the effects of TCP exposure by the two routes on the formation of DNA adducts and the induction of cellular proliferation. Male B6C3F1 mice were administered [14C]TCP for 1 week by gavage or in drinking water at the low dose (6 mg/kg) used in the NTP carcinogenesis bioassay. Two target organs (forestomach and liver) and two nontarget organs (glandular stomach and kidney) were examined for DNA adduct formation. Adducts were hydrolyzed from DNA, isolated by HPLC, and quantitated by measuring HPLC fractions for radioactivity. In the forestomach, liver, and kidney, gavage administration of TCP resulted in 1.4-to 2.4-fold greater yields of the major DNA adduct, previously identified as S-[1-(hydroxymethyl)-2-(N7-guanyl)ethyl]glutathione. Significant differences in cell proliferation, as determined by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into DNA, were also observed for the two routes. Gavage administration of TCP for 2 weeks resulted in up to a threefold greater cell proliferation rate relative to administration in drinking water. Our findings of exposure-related differences in TCP-induced DNA adduct formation and cell proliferation suggest that a risk assessment based on the existing gavage study may overestimate human risk.

  17. Dose-dependent reduction of 3,2'-dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl-derived DNA adducts in colon and liver of rats administered celecoxib

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravoori, Srivani [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Feng Yi; Neale, Jason R. [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Jeyabalan, Jeyaprakash [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Srinivasan, Cidambi [Department of Statistics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40502 (United States); Hein, David W. [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Gupta, Ramesh C. [James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)], E-mail: rcgupta@louisville.edu

    2008-02-01

    Colon cancer is second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. Diet and smoking, which contain aromatic and heterocyclic amines, are major risk factors for colon cancer. Colorectal cancers have a natural history of long latency and therefore provide ample opportunities for effective chemoprevention. 3,2'-Dimethyl-4-aminobiphenyl (DMABP) is an experimental aromatic amine that causes cancer in rat colon and serves as an experimental model for arylamine and heterocyclic amine mutagens derived from diet and smoking. In this study, we investigated the effects of celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor on DMABP-induced DNA adduct formation in rat liver and colon. Male F-344 rats (5-week old) were provided free access to modified AIN-76A rat chow containing 0 (control), 500, 1000, or 1500 ppm celecoxib. Two weeks later, the rats received a subcutaneous injection of 100 mg/kg DMABP in peanut oil. Two days after DMABP treatment, the rats were killed and DMABP-derived adducts were analyzed in colon and liver DNA by butanol extraction-mediated {sup 32}P-postlabeling. Two major DNA adducts, identified as dG-C8-DMABP and dG-N{sup 2}-DMABP, were detected in liver and colon of rats treated with DMABP. These DNA adducts were diminished approximately 35-40% with 500 ppm and 65-70% with 1,000 ppm celecoxib. In the colon, no further decline in DNA adducts was observed at 1500 ppm. The same DMABP-DNA adducts also were detected in the liver and were also diminished by celecoxib treatment. The reduction in DMABP-DNA adduct levels in celecoxib-treated animals provides further support for celecoxib as a chemopreventive agent for colorectal cancer.

  18. Effect of combined actions of hip adduction/abduction on the force generation and maintenance of pelvic floor muscles in healthy women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C Amorim

    Full Text Available Pelvic floor muscle (PFM force and coordination are related to urinary incontinence severity and to sexual satisfaction. Health professionals frequently combine classic PFM exercises with hip adduction/abduction contraction to treat these disorders, but the real benefits of this practice are still unknown. Based on a theoretical anatomy approach whereby the levator ani muscle is inserted into the obturator internus myofascia and in which force generated by hip movements should increase the contraction quality of PFMs, our aim was to investigate the effects of isometric hip adduction and abduction on PFM force generation. Twenty healthy, nulliparous women were evaluated using two strain-gauge dynamometers (one cylinder-like inside the vaginal cavity, and the other measuring hip adduction/abduction forces around both thighs while performing three different tasks: (a isolated PFM contraction; (b PFM contraction combined with hip adduction (30% and 50% maximum hip force; and (c PFM contraction combined with hip abduction (30% and 50% maximum hip force. Data were sampled at 100Hz and subtracted from the offset if existent. We calculated a gradient between the isolated PFM contraction and each hip condition (Δ Adduction and Δ Abduction for all variables: Maximum force (N, instant of maximum-force occurrence (s, mean force in an 8-second window (N, and PFM force loss (N.s. We compared both conditions gradients in 30% and 50% by paired t-tests. All variables did not differ between hip conditions both in 30% and 50% of maximum hip force (p>.05. PFM contraction combined with isometric hip abduction did not increase vaginal force in healthy and nulliparous women compared to PFM contraction combined with isometric hip adduction. Therefore, so far, the use of hip adduction or abduction in PFM training and treatments are not justified for improving PFM strength and endurance.

  19. Lack of evidence from HPLC 32P-post-labelling for tamoxifen-DNA adducts in the human endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, P L; Sardar, S; Crooks, N; Neven, P; Van Hoof, I; Ugwumadu, A; Bourne, T; Tomas, E; Hellberg, P; Hewer, A J; Phillips, D H

    1999-02-01

    Tamoxifen is associated with an increased incidence of endometrial cancer in women. It is also a potent carcinogen in rat liver and forms covalent DNA adducts in this tissue. A previous study exploring DNA adducts in human endometria, utilizing thin layer chromatography 32P-postlabelling, found no evidence for adducts in tamoxifen-treated women [Carmichael,P.L., Ugwumadu,A.H.N., Neven,P., Hewer,A.J., Poon,G.K. and Phillips,D.H. (1996) Cancer Res., 56, 1475-1479]. However, subsequent work utilizing HPLC 32P-post-labelling [Hemminki,K., Ranjaniemi,H., Lindahl,B. and Moberger,B. (1996) Cancer Res., 56, 4374-4377] suggested that very low levels could be detected. We have sought to investigate this question further by reproducing the HPLC methodology at two centres, and analysing endometrial DNA from 20 patients treated with 20 mg/day tamoxifen for between 22 and 65 months. Liver DNA isolated from tamoxifen-treated rats was used as a positive control. We found no convincing evidence for tamoxifen-derived DNA adducts in human endometrium. HPLC elution profiles of post-labelled DNA from tamoxifen-treated women were indistinguishable from those obtained with DNA from 14 untreated women and from six women taking toremifene, an analogue of tamoxifen.

  20. Nd:YAG laser incision of the vesical neck in obstructive BPH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Peter T. O.

    2003-06-01

    From February, 1995 through June, 2002, 68 patients underwent laser incision of the prostate at our clinic. By means of a 23 F cytoscope and a 600 micrometer lateral firing quartz fiber the vesical neck was incised at the 5 and 7 o'clock position at 60 W power. Total energy averaged 13648 J. Operative time did not exceed 15 minutes. General anesthesia was employed in all but one patient. 38 patients remained catheter-free whereas 30 patients were catheterized for two hours. Except for three cases, all patients were discharged on the same day, usually after the first micturition. Anti-inflammatory treatment was administered for two weeks, Cotrimoxazole for 5 days. No serious complications were encountered. Minor side effects included urinary retention (1 pat.), urinary infection (3 pat.) and retrograde ejaculation (1 pat.). Considering a mean follow-up of 21 months, the average Qmax improved enormously (25.4 ml/s versus 10.9 ml/s), as did residual urine volume (35 ml versus 95 ml) and IPSS (7.1 versus 20.5). Three patients required TUR-P 2-3 years after laser surgery and one patient underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy for prostate cancer 2 years later. In conclusion, Nd:YAG laser incision of the prostate is a simple, safe, reliable and cost-effective outpatient procedure.

  1. DYNAMIC HIP ADDUCTION, ABDUCTION AND ABDOMINAL EXERCISES FROM THE HOLMICH GROIN-INJURY PREVENTION PROGRAM ARE INTENSE ENOUGH TO BE CONSIDERED STRENGTHENING EXERCISES - A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krommes, Kasper; Bandholm, Thomas; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2017-01-01

    and external obliques during isometric adduction against a football placed between the ankles (IBA), isometric adduction against a football placed between the knees (IBK), folding knife (FK), cross-country skiing on one leg (CCS), adduction partner (ADP) and abduction partner (ABP). The EMG-signals were...

  2. Infra Patellar Branch of Saphenous Nerve Injury during Hamstring Graft Harvest: Vertical versus Oblique Incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, A; Kayasth, N; Shrestha, S; Kc, B R

    2016-09-01

    Autologous hamstring grafts are commonly used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The injury of infrapatellar branch of saphenous nerve is one of the concerns leading to various pattern of sensory loss in the operated leg. An oblique incision to harvest the graft has been reported to be better than the vertical one.The aim of this study was to compare the incidence, recovery of nerve injury and final outcome in patients with hamstring harvest of vertical or oblique incision. A total of 146 patients who underwent hamstring graft harvest for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, were included in the study. They were randomized into two (Vertical and Oblique) groups as per the incisions used. The sensory loss along the Infra Patellar Branch of Saphenous Nerve was documented on 3rd day. Recovery of the nerve injury was monitoredat three, six and 12 months follow-ups. At final follow up Tegner Lysholm score and scale was recorded to compare between two groups. The incidence of infrapatellar branch of saphenous nerve injury was 25% in vertical group and 16.36% in oblique group. Recovery of nerve injury started earlier in oblique group compared to vertical group. The mean TegnerLyshom score was not significantly different in both the groups. Oblique incision to harvest hamstring graft has lesser incidence of infrapatellar branch of saphenous nerve injury, recovers earlier and does not have any adverse effect on final outcome compared to the vertical incision.

  3. Virtual Incision Pattern Planning using Three-Dimensional Images for Optimization of Syndactyly Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge A. Hoevenaren, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Syndactyly is a congenital condition characterized by fusion of the fingers. If not treated correctly during infancy, syndactyly may hinder the normal development of hand function. Many surgical techniques have been developed, with the main goal to create a functional hand with the smallest number of operative corrections. Therefore, exact preoperative planning of the reconstructive procedure is essential. An imaging method commonly used for preoperative planning is 3-dimensional (3D surface imaging. The goal of this study was to implement the use of this technique in hand surgery, by designing a virtual planning tool for a desyndactylization procedure based on 3D hand images. A 3D image of a silicon syndactyly model was made on which the incision pattern was virtually designed. A surgical template of this pattern was printed, placed onto the silicon model and delineated. The accuracy of the transfer from the virtual delineation toward the real delineation was calculated, resulting in a mean difference of 0.82 mm. This first step indicates that by using 3D images, a virtual incision pattern can be created and transferred back onto the patient successfully in an easy and accurate way by using a template. Thereafter, 3D hand images of 3 syndactyly patients were made, and individual virtual incision patterns were created. Each pattern was transferred onto the patient by using a 3D printed template. The resulting incision pattern needed minor modifications by the surgeon before the surgery was performed. Further research and validation are necessary to develop the virtual planning of desyndactylization procedures.

  4. Quantifying incision rates since the early Miocene: novelties, potentialities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartégou, A.; Braucher, R.; Blard, P. H.; Bourlès, D. L.; Zimmermann, L.; Tibari, B.; Voinchet, P.; Bahain, J. J.; Sorriaux, P.; Leanni, L.; Team, A.

    2017-12-01

    The rates and chronologies of valley incision are closely modulated by the tectonic uplift of active mountain ranges and were controlled by repeated climate changes during the Quaternary. The Pyrenees are a continental collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates induced a double vergence orogen, which has been considered as a mature mountain range in spite of significant seismicity and evidence of neotectonics. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that the range may have never reached a steady state. One option for resolving this controversy is to quantify the incision rates since the Miocene by reconstructing the vertical movement of geometric markers. However, the few available ages from the Pyrenean terrace systems do not exceed the middle Pleistocene. To enlarge the time span of this dataset, we studied alluvium-filled horizontal epiphreatic passages in limestone karstic networks, which represent former valley floors. They record the transient position of former local base levels during the process of valley deepening. We used various suitable geochronological methods (26Al/10Be, 10Be/21Ne, ESR and OSL burial durations on quartz) on intrakarstic alluvial deposits from three valleys of the central and eastern Pyrenees, as well as on a recent analogue. In the Pyrenean context, under particular conditions, these geochronometers allow us to document incision processes since 16-13 Ma, and to study influences of external forcing and eustatism. In comparison with other studies, it appears that incision rates are higher in the central Pyrenees and for the Spanish slope. However, the density of horizontal levels on an altimetric range, the geodynamical and paleoclimatic contexts, the reorganization of the drainage networks can make the filling stories of the networks more complex than expected. Indeed, these radiometric approaches may be limited when some formations are reworked inside and/or outside the karst. The validity of dosimetric methods in a mountainous

  5. Structural features of an exocyclic adduct positioned opposite an abasic site in a DNA duplex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakdjian, M.; Patel, D.J.; Eisenberg, M.; Johnson, F.; Grollman, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    Structural studies have been extended to dual lesions where an exocyclic adduct is positioned opposite an abasic site in the center of a DNA oligomer duplex. NMR and energy minimization studies were performed on the 1,N 2 -propanodeoxyguanosine exocyclic adduct (X) positioned opposite a tetrahydrofuran abasic site (F) with the dual lesions located in the center of the (C1-A2-T3-G4-X5-G6-T7-A8-C9)·(G10-T11-A12-C13-F14-C15-A16-T17-G18) X·F 9-mer duplex. Two-dimensional NMR experiments establish that the X·F 9-mer helix is right-handed with Watson-Crick A·T and G·C base pairing on either side of the lesion site. NOEs are detected from the methylene protons of the exocyclic ring of X5 to the imino protons of G4·C15 and G6·C13 which flank the lesion site, as well as to the H1' and H1 double-prime protons of the cross strand F14 tetrahydrofuran moiety. These NMR results establish that the exocyclic adduct X5 is positioned between flanking G4·C15 and G6·C13 base pairs and directed toward the abasic lesion F14 on the partner strand. These studies establish that the exocyclic ring of the 1,N 2 -propanodeoxyguanosine adduct fits into the cavity generated by the abasic site

  6. Haemoglobin adducts of acrylonitrile and ethylene oxide in acrylonitrile workers, dependent on polymorphisms of the glutathione transferases GSTT1 and GSTM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, R; Lewalter, J; Kempkes, M; Selinski, S; Brüning, T; Bolt, H M

    1999-01-01

    Fifty-nine persons with industrial handling of low levels of acrylonitrile (AN) were studied. As part of a medical surveillance programme an extended haemoglobin adduct monitoring [N-(cyanoethyl)valine, CEV; N-(methyl)valine. MV: N-(hydroxyethyl)valine, HEV] was performed. Moreover, the genetic states of the polymorphic glutathione transferases GSTM1 and GSTT1 were assayed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Repetitive analyses of CEV and MV in subsequent years resulted in comparable values (means, 59.8 and 70.3 microg CEV/1 blood; 6.7 and 6.7 microg MV/1 blood). Hence, the industrial AN exposures were well below current official standards. Monitoring the haemoglobin adduct CEV appears as a suitable means of biomonitoring and medical surveillance under such exposure conditions. There was also no apparent correlation between the CEV and HEV or CEV and MV adduct levels. The MV and HEV values observed represented background levels, which apparently are not related to any occupational chemical exposure. There was no consistent effect of the genetic GSTM1 or GSTT1 state on CEV adduct levels induced by acrylonitrile exposure. Therefore, neither GSTM1 nor GSTT1 appears as a major AN metabolizing isoenzyme in humans. The low and physiological background levels of MV were also not influenced by the genetic GSTM1 state, but the MV adduct levels tended to be higher in GSTT1- individuals compared to GSTT1 + persons. With respect to the background levels of HEV adducts observed, there was no major influence of the GSTM1 state, but GST- individuals displayed adduct levels that were about 1/3 higher than those of GSTT1 + individuals. The coincidence with known differences in rates of background sister chromatid exchange between GSTT1- and GSTT1 + persons suggests that the lower ethylene oxide (EO) detoxification rate in GSTT1- persons, indicated by elevated blood protein hydroxyethyl adduct levels, leads to an increased genotoxic effect of the physiological EO background.

  7. Distribution of methyl and ethyl adducts following alkylation with monofunctional alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranek, D T

    1990-07-01

    Alkylating agents, because of their ability to react directly with DNA either in vitro or in vivo, or following metabolic activation as in the case of the dialkylnitrosamines, have been used extensively in studying the mechanisms of mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Their occurrence is widespread in the environment and human exposure from natural and pollutant sources is universal. Since most of these chemicals show varying degrees of both carcinogenicity and mutagenicity, and exhibit compound-specific binding patterns, they provide an excellent model for studying molecular dosimetry. Molecular dosimetry defines dose as the number of adducts bound per macromolecule and relates the binding of these adducts to the human mutagenic or carcinogenic response. This review complies DNA alkylation data for both methylating and ethylating agents in a variety of systems and discusses the role these alkylation products plays in molecular mutagenesis.

  8. Type of incision does not predict abdominal wall outcome after emergency surgery for colonic anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Kiim; Oma, Erling; Harling, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    for anastomotic leakage were included with a median follow-up of 5.4 years. Incisional hernia occurred in 41 of 227 (15.3%) patients undergoing midline incision compared with 14 of 81 (14.7%) following transverse incision, P = 1.00. After adjusting for confounders, there was no association between the type...... not predict abdominal wall outcome after emergency surgery for colonic anastomotic leakage....

  9. Can post-sternotomy mediastinitis be prevented by a closed incision management system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dohmen, Pascal M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] Post-sternotomy mediastinitis is a serious complication after cardiothoracic surgery and contribute significantly to post-operative morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Negative pressure wound therapy is today’s golden standard for post-sternotomy mediastinitis treatment. A systematic literature search was conducted at PubMed until October 2012 to analyse whether vacuum-assisted closure technique prevents mediastinitis after clean surgical incisions closure. Today’s studies showed reduction of post-sternotomy mediastinitis including a beneficial socio-economic impact. Current studies, however included only high-risk patients, hence furthermore, larger randomised controlled trials are warranted to clarify the benefit for using surgical incision vacuum management systems in the general patient population undergoing sternotomy and clarify risk factor interaction.

  10. Solo Single-Incision Laparoscopic Resectional Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass for Morbid Obesity with Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, So Hyun; Lee, Yoontaek; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2017-12-01

    With the advancement of laparoscopic devices and surgical technology, the era of minimal invasive surgery has progressed to reduced-port surgery, and finally to single-incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS). Several reports show successful application of SILS to various types of bariatric surgery. Oftentimes, this requires a skilled and experienced scopist to perform the procedure. To overcome the technical difficulties of single-incision Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, a manual scope holder was used instead of an assistant scopist, greatly stabilizing the field of view. This allows the surgery to be performed at any time without being influenced by the need of a highly experienced scopist. In this report, we describe in detail the world's first solo single-incision laparoscopic resectional Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

  11. Feasibility of vocal fold abduction and adduction assessment using cine-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, Marina Mat; Menys, Alex; Atkinson, David; Bassett, Paul; Morley, Simon; Beale, Timothy; Sandhu, Guri; Naduvilethil, Georgekutty; Stevenson, Nicola; Birchall, Martin A; Punwani, Shonit

    2017-02-01

    Determine feasibility of vocal fold (VF) abduction and adduction assessment by cine magnetic resonance imaging (cine-MRI) METHODS: Cine-MRI of the VF was performed on five healthy and nine unilateral VF paralysis (UVFP) participants using an axial gradient echo acquisition with temporal resolution of 0.7 s. VFs were continuously imaged with cine-MRI during a 10-s period of quiet respiration and phonation. Scanning was repeated twice within an individual session and then once again at a 1-week interval. Asymmetry of VF position during phonation (VF phonation asymmetry, VFPa) and respiration (VF respiration asymmetry, VFRa) was determined. Percentage reduction in total glottal area between respiration and phonation (VF abduction potential, VFAP) was derived to measure overall mobility. An un-paired t-test was used to compare differences between groups. Intra-session, inter-session and inter-reader repeatability of the quantitative metrics was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). VF position asymmetry (VFPa and VFRa) was greater (p=0.012; p=0.001) and overall mobility (VFAP) was lower (p=0.008) in UVFP patients compared with healthy participants. ICC of repeatability of all metrics was good, ranged from 0.82 to 0.95 except for the inter-session VFPa (0.44). Cine-MRI is feasible for assessing VF abduction and adduction. Derived quantitative metrics have good repeatability. • Cine-MRI is used to assess vocal folds (VFs) mobility: abduction and adduction. • New quantitative metrics are derived from VF position and abduction potential. • Cine-MRI able to depict the difference between normal and abnormal VF mobility. • Cine-MRI derived quantitative metrics have good repeatability.

  12. Modelling knee flexion effects on joint power absorption and adduction moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Hanatsu; Tatsumi, Ichiroh; Sarashina, Eri; Sparrow, W A; Begg, Rezaul K

    2015-12-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is commonly associated with ageing and long-term walking. In this study the effects of flexing motions on knee kinetics during stance were simulated. Extended knees do not facilitate efficient loading. It was therefore, hypothesised that knee flexion would promote power absorption and negative work, while possibly reducing knee adduction moment. Three-dimensional (3D) position and ground reaction forces were collected from the right lower limb stance phase of one healthy young male subject. 3D position was sampled at 100 Hz using three Optotrak Certus (Northern Digital Inc.) motion analysis camera units, set up around an eight metre walkway. Force plates (AMTI) recorded ground reaction forces for inverse dynamics calculations. The Visual 3D (C-motion) 'Landmark' function was used to change knee joint positions to simulate three knee flexion angles during static standing. Effects of the flexion angles on joint kinetics during the stance phase were then modelled. The static modelling showed that each 2.7° increment in knee flexion angle produced 2.74°-2.76° increments in knee flexion during stance. Increased peak extension moment was 6.61 Nm per 2.7° of increased knee flexion. Knee flexion enhanced peak power absorption and negative work, while decreasing adduction moment. Excessive knee extension impairs quadriceps' power absorption and reduces eccentric muscle activity, potentially leading to knee osteoarthritis. A more flexed knee is accompanied by reduced adduction moment. Research is required to determine the optimum knee flexion to prevent further damage to knee-joint structures affected by osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Free flow electrophoresis separation and AMS quantitation of {sup 14}C-naphthalene-protein adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: bbuchholz@llnl.go [Center for AMS, LLNL, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Haack, Kurt W.; Sporty, Jennifer L. [Center for AMS, LLNL, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buckpitt, Alan R.; Morin, Dexter [Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, UC Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Naphthalene is a volatile aromatic hydrocarbon to which humans are exposed from a variety of sources including mobile air sources and cigarette smoke. Naphthalene produces dose-(concentration)dependent injury to airway epithelial cells of murine lung which is observed at concentrations well below the current occupational exposure standard. Toxicity is dependent upon the cytochrome P450 mediated metabolic activation of the parent substrate to unstable metabolites which become bound covalently to tissue proteins. Nearly 70 proteins have been identified as forming adducts with reactive naphthalene metabolites using in vitro systems but very little work has been conducted in vivo because reasonably large amounts (100 muCi) of {sup 14}C labeled parent compound must be administered to generate detectable adduct levels on storage phosphor screens following separation of labeled proteins by 2D gel electrophoresis. The work described here was done to provide proof of concept that protein separation by free flow electrophoresis followed by AMS detection of protein fractions containing protein bound reactive metabolites would provide adducted protein profiles in animals dosed with trace quantities of labeled naphthalene. Mice were administered 200 mg/kg naphthalene intraperitoneally at a calculated specific activity of 2 DPM/nmol (1 pCi/nmol) and respiratory epithelial tissue was obtained by lysis lavage 4 h post injection. Free flow electrophoresis (FFE) separates proteins in the liquid phase over a large pH range (2.5-11.5) using low molecular weight acids and bases to modify the pH. The apparatus separates fractions into standard 96-well plates that can be used in other protein analysis techniques. The buffers of the fractions have very high carbon content, however, and need to be dialyzed to yield buffers compatible with {sup 14}C-AMS. We describe the processing techniques required to couple FFE to AMS for quantitation of protein adducts.

  14. Maternal infection rates after cesarean delivery by Pfannenstiel or Joel-Cohen incision: a multicenter surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Anne Marie; Girard, Raphaële; Ayzac, Louis; Caillat-Vallet, Emmanuelle; Tissot-Guerraz, Françoise; Vincent-Bouletreau, Agnès; Berland, Michel

    2009-12-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate maternal nosocomial infection rates according to the incision technique used for caesarean delivery, in a routine surveillance study. This was a prospective study of 5123 cesarean deliveries (43.2% Joel-Cohen, 56.8% Pfannenstiel incisions) in 35 maternity units (Mater Sud Est network). Data on routine surveillance variables, operative duration, and three additional variables (manual removal of the placenta, uterine exteriorization, and/or cleaning of the parieto-colic gutter) were collected. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for infection. The overall nosocomial infection and endometritis rates were higher for the Joel-Cohen than Pfannenstiel incision (4.5% vs. 3.3%, 0.8% vs. 0.3%, respectively). The higher rate of nosocomial infections with the Joel-Cohen incision was due to a greater proportion of patients presenting risk factors (i.e., emergency delivery, primary cesarean, blood loss > or =800 mL, no manual removal of the placenta and no uterine exteriorization). However, the Joel-Cohen technique was an independent risk factor for endometritis. The Joel-Cohen technique is faster than the Pfannenstiel technique but is associated with a higher incidence of endometritis.

  15. Addition of rectus sheath relaxation incisions to emergency midline laparotomy for peritonitis to prevent fascial dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwah, Sanjay; Marwah, Nisha; Singh, Mandeep; Kapoor, Ajay; Karwasra, Rajender Kumar

    2005-02-01

    The incidence of fascial dehiscence and incisional hernia after two methods for abdominal wound closure (rectus sheath relaxation incisions and conventional mass closure) was studied in a randomized prospective clinical trial in a consecutive series of 100 patients undergoing midline laparotomy for peritonitis. The two groups were well matched for etiologies of peritonitis, the surgical procedures performed, and the presence of known risk factors for fascial dehiscence. Fifty patients each were randomized either to the conventional continuous mass closure procedure or the rectus sheath relaxation incision technique (designed to increase wound elasticity and decrease tension in the suture line) using identical polypropylene sutures. The incidence of postoperative complications such as duration of ileus, chest infection, and wound infection were not statistically different between the two groups. The intensity of postoperative pain in the rectus sheath relaxation incision group was significantly less. The incidence of wound hematoma was significantly increased in the rectus sheath relaxation incision group. The incidences of fascial dehiscence (16% vs,28%; p cases of peritonitis using the rectus sheath relaxation technique is safe and less painful, provides increased wound elasticity and decreased tension on the suture line, and significantly decreases the incidence of wound dehiscence.

  16. Feasibility of single-incision laparoscopic surgery for appendicitis in abnormal anatomical locations: A single surgeon′s initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanoop K Zachariah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery is considered as a more technically demanding procedure than the standard laparoscopic surgery. Based on an initial and early experience, single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy (LA was found to be technically advantageous for dealing with appendicitis in unusual anatomical locations. This study aims to highlight the technical advantages of single-incision laparoscopic surgery in dealing with the abnormally located appendixes and furthermore report a case of acute appendicitis occurring in a sub-gastric position, which is probably the first such case to be reported in English literature. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the first 10 cases of single-incision LA which were performed by a single surgeon is presented here. Results: There were seven females and three males. The mean age of the patients was 30.6 (range 18-52 years, mean BMI was 22.7 (range 17-28 kg/m 2 and the mean operative time was 85.5 (range 45-150 min. The mean postoperative stay was 3.6 (range 1-7 days. The commonest position of the appendix was retro-caecal (50% followed by pelvic (30%. In three cases the appendix was found to be in abnormal locations namely sub-hepatic, sub-gastric and deep pelvic or para-vesical or para-rectal. All these cases could be managed with this technique without any conversions Conclusion: Single-incision laparoscopic surgery appears to be a feasible and safe technique for dealing with appendicitis in rare anatomical locations. Appendectomy may be a suitable procedure for the initial training in single-incision laparoscopic surgery.

  17. Acrolein- and 4-Aminobiphenyl-DNA adducts in human bladder mucosa and tumor tissue and their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Wook; Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Weng, Mao-wen; Hu, Yu; Chen, Wei-sheng; Chou, David; Liu, Yan; Donin, Nicholas; Huang, William C; Lepor, Herbert; Wu, Xue-Ru; Wang, Hailin; Beland, Frederick A; Tang, Moon-shong

    2014-06-15

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a major cause of human bladder cancer (BC). Two components in TS, 4-aminobiphenyl (4-ABP) and acrolein, which also are environmental contaminants, can cause bladder tumor in rat models. Their role in TS related BC has not been forthcoming. To establish the relationship between acrolein and 4-ABP exposure and BC, we analyzed acrolein-deoxyguanosine (dG) and 4-ABP-DNA adducts in normal human urothelial mucosa (NHUM) and bladder tumor tissues (BTT), and measured their mutagenicity in human urothelial cells. We found that the acrolein-dG levels in NHUM and BTT are 10-30 fold higher than 4-ABP-DNA adduct levels and that the acrolein-dG levels in BTT are 2 fold higher than in NHUM. Both acrolein-dG and 4-ABP-DNA adducts are mutagenic; however, the former are 5 fold more mutagenic than the latter. These two types of DNA adducts induce different mutational signatures and spectra. We found that acrolein inhibits nucleotide excision and base excision repair and induces repair protein degradation in urothelial cells. Since acrolein is abundant in TS, inhaled acrolein is excreted into urine and accumulates in the bladder and because acrolein inhibits DNA repair and acrolein-dG DNA adducts are mutagenic, we propose that acrolein is a major bladder carcinogen in TS.

  18. DNA polymerase eta participates in the mutagenic bypass of adducts induced by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide in mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alden C Klarer

    Full Text Available Y-family DNA-polymerases have larger active sites that can accommodate bulky DNA adducts allowing them to bypass these lesions during replication. One member, polymerase eta (pol eta, is specialized for the bypass of UV-induced thymidine-thymidine dimers, correctly inserting two adenines. Loss of pol eta function is the molecular basis for xeroderma pigmentosum (XP variant where the accumulation of mutations results in a dramatic increase in UV-induced skin cancers. Less is known about the role of pol eta in the bypass of other DNA adducts. A commonly encountered DNA adduct is that caused by benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE, the ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of the environmental chemical benzo[a]pyrene. Here, treatment of pol eta-deficient fibroblasts from humans and mice with BPDE resulted in a significant decrease in Hprt gene mutations. These studies in mammalian cells support a number of in vitro reports that purified pol eta has error-prone activity on plasmids with site-directed BPDE adducts. Sequencing the Hprt gene from this work shows that the majority of mutations are G>T transversions. These data suggest that pol eta has error-prone activity when bypassing BPDE-adducts. Understanding the basis of environmental carcinogen-derived mutations may enable prevention strategies to reduce such mutations with the intent to reduce the number of environmentally relevant cancers.

  19. Gas chromatography of adducts of rare earth dipivaloylmethanates with triphenylphosphine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magazeeva, N.V.; Martynenko, L.I.; Murav'eva, I.A.; Spitsyn, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    A gas chromatographic method for determination of stability provisional constants of dipivaloylmethanates of REE with triphenylphosphine oxide is suggested, and ML 3 xTPPO adduct stability is shown to decrease in Ho-Lu series. ML 3 chromatographing at the presence of TPPO is stated to increase the coefficients of REE separation

  20. [Surgical treatment for incisions fat colliquation or infections at early stage after operation of lumbar disc herniation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ting-Jin; Zheng, Liang-Guo; Sun, Peng; Li, Xing-Xue

    2014-05-01

    To explore the reason, key diagnosic point and therapeutic method of the incisions fat colliquation or infections at early stage after operation of lumbar disc herniation. From July 2007 to May 2012, clinical data of 11 patients with incision fat liquefaction or early infection after lumbar discectomy were retrospectively analyzed. There were 5 males and 6 females with an average age of 43.1 years, and the mean time of incisions fat colliquation or infection was 5 days and a half after operation. The main clinical features included local wound pain aggravating, fervescence, fresh seepage in the wound, and blood inflammatory index increased, etc. The wound could heal at the first treatment stage or not was an evaluation standard of curative effect. All patients were followed up with an average period of 21 months. The wounds of 10 cases healed at the first stage without recurrence and complications. In 1 case infected by staphylococcus aureus, distal part of the wound present local red, swelling and with wave motion at 2 months after operation, staphylococcus aureus infection was confirmed after puncture and bacterial culture, and 1 thrum was found after local incision. The wound healed after change dressings for 1 week, without recurrence after followed up for 13 months. Preventing the risk factors before operation, minimizing invasive technique during operation reasonable antibiotics application for the lumbar operation reguiring placement objects, and correctly handling with wound after operation could prevent and reduce the incidence of incisions fat liquefaction or infection after operation of lumbar disc herniation. For incision fat liquefaction or infection, early diagnosis, debridement, VSD negative pressure irrigation and drainage, to choosing sensitive antibiotics according to the results of drug sensitivity, may contribute to wound early healing and decrease complication.

  1. Feasibility of Performing Total Skin-Sparing Mastectomy in Patients With Prior Circumareolar Mastopexy or Reduction Mammoplasty Incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Carolyn J; Peled, Anne Warren; Esserman, Laura J; Foster, Robert D

    2013-06-19

    Total skin-sparing mastectomy (TSSM) techniques with preservation of the nipple-areolar complex (NAC) skin are becoming increasingly popular due to improved cosmesis without compromise in oncologic safety. However, these techniques are not routinely offered to patients who have undergone previous breast surgery involving circumareolar incisions due to concern for NAC viability. We reviewed the outcomes of TSSM in 11 patients who underwent 21 TSSM procedures at our institution between 2008 and 2011. All patients had undergone previous breast surgery including reduction mammaplasty (7 breasts), mastopexy (4 breasts), augmentation (3 breasts), and combined mastopexy-augmentation (7 breasts). Incisions from previous breast surgery included circumareolar (11 cases) and Wise pattern (10 cases) incisions. All patients underwent TSSM through an inframammary incision followed by immediate tissue expander reconstruction and subsequent implant exchange. Patient demographics, previous breast surgery details, tumor and treatment characteristics, and postoperative complications were reviewed. Mean patient age was 43 years (range, 35-53 years) and mean body mass index was 24 kg/m (range, 19-32 kg/m). Mean follow-up was 10.2 months (range, 3-20 months).Indications for TSSM included prophylactic risk reduction in 10 cases, in situ cancer in 2 cases, and invasive cancer in 9 cases. Mean time from previous breast surgery to mastectomy was 6.9 years (range, 6 months-26 years). Major complications requiring operative reintervention included 1 (4.8%) case of cellulitis requiring expander removal and 2 (9.5%) cases of wound breakdown requiring operative closure. There were no complications involving the NAC. Total skin-sparing mastectomy with immediate reconstruction can safely be performed in patients who have undergone previous breast surgery involving circumareolar incisions. Our preferred technique in this group of patients is to perform TSSM through an inframammary incision with 2

  2. Development and validation of a direct sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay for measuring DNA adducts of benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Kovács, Katalin; Kaila, Stella

    2012-01-01

    We have developed and validated a sandwich chemiluminescence immunoassay (SCIA) which measures polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts combining high throughput and adequate sensitivity, appropriate for evaluation of adduct levels in human population studies. Fragmented DNA is incubated...

  3. Cannabidiol Is a Potential Therapeutic for the Affective-Motivational Dimension of Incision Pain in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Genaro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain involves different brain regions and is critically determined by emotional processing. Among other areas, the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC is implicated in the processing of affective pain. Drugs that interfere with the endocannabinoid system are alternatives for the management of clinical pain. Cannabidiol (CBD, a phytocannabinoid found in Cannabis sativa, has been utilized in preclinical and clinical studies for the treatment of pain. Herein, we evaluate the effects of CBD, injected either systemically or locally into the rACC, on mechanical allodynia in a postoperative pain model and on the negative reinforcement produced by relief of spontaneous incision pain. Additionally, we explored whether CBD underlies the reward of pain relief after systemic or rACC injection.Methods and Results: Male Wistar rats were submitted to a model of incision pain. All rats had mechanical allodynia, which was less intense after intraperitoneal CBD (3 and 10 mg/kg. Conditioned place preference (CPP paradigm was used to assess negative reinforcement. Intraperitoneal CBD (1 and 3 mg/kg inverted the CPP produced by peripheral nerve block even at doses that do not change mechanical allodynia. CBD (10 to 40 nmol/0.25 μL injected into the rACC reduced mechanical allodynia in a dose-dependent manner. CBD (5 nmol/0.25 μL did not change mechanical allodynia, but reduced peripheral nerve block-induced CPP, and the higher doses inverted the CPP. Additionally, CBD injected systemically or into the rACC at doses that did not change the incision pain evoked by mechanical stimulation significantly produced CPP by itself. Therefore, a non-rewarding dose of CBD in sham-incised rats becomes rewarding in incised rats, presumably because of pain relief or reduction of pain aversiveness.Conclusion: The study provides evidence that CBD influences different dimensions of the response of rats to a surgical incision, and the results establish the rACC as a

  4. Positive/negative liquid secondary ion mass spectrometry of Ln-EDTA (1:1) complexes. Formation of molecular ion adducts with neutral species of the matrix or Ln-EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaziak, A.S.; Lis, S.; Elbanowski, M.

    1992-01-01

    The mass spectra of 1:1 complexes of EDTA with lanthanide cations (Ln=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb or Dy) upon positive/negative LSIMS are presented. In glycerol used as a matrix, adduct-ions such as [M+H] + , [M+H+nGly] + , [2M+H] + , [2M+H+Gly] + (positive LSIMS) or [M-H] - , [M-H+nGly] - , [2M-H] - , [2M-H+Gly] - (negative LSIMS), where n=1-3, are formed. Reactions leading to the formation of adduct-ions are suggested. (authors)

  5. Absolute configuration, stability, and interconversion of 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine valine adducts and their phenylthiohydantoin derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloid-containing plants are widespread in the world and probably the most common poisonous plants affecting livestock, wildlife, and humans. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids require metabolic activation to form dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids that bind to cellular proteins and DNA leading to hepatotoxicity, genotoxicity, and tumorigenicity. At present, it is not clear how dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids bind to cellular amino acids and proteins to induced toxicity. We previously reported that reaction of dehydromonocrotaline with valine generated four highly unstable 6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxy-1-hydroxymethyl-5H-pyrrolizine (DHP-derived valine (DHP-valine adducts that upon reaction with phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC formed four DHP-valine-PITC adduct isomers. In this study, we report the absolute configuration and stability of DHP-valine and DHP-valine-PITC adducts, and the mechanism of interconversion between DHP-valine-PITC adducts.

  6. Hemoglobin adducts in 1,3-butadiene exposed Czech workers: Female–male comparisons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vacek, P. M.; Albertini, R. J.; Šrám, Radim; Upton, P.; Swenberg, J. A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 188, č. 3 (2010), s. 668-676 ISSN 0009-2797 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : 3-Butadiene * metabolism * THB-Val hemoglobin adducts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.832, year: 2010

  7. Disposable skin staplers for closure of linear gastrointestinal incisions in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Zeev; Coolman, Bradley R

    2018-02-01

    To report the clinical features and outcomes of linear gastrointestinal incisions closed with skin staples in dogs. Historical cohort study. 333 client-owned dogs. Medical records from 1 private referral hospital were searched for dogs that underwent gastrointestinal surgery between November 1999 and October 2015. Cases were included if skin staplers were used to close linear gastrointestinal incisions. Information regarding preoperative, surgical, and postoperative factors was collected. Complications were diagnosed in 8 of 245 (3.27%) dogs, including 3 of 245 (1.22%) dogs that died or were euthanized, 3 of 245 (1.22%) dogs with incisional dehiscence, and 2 of 245 (0.81%) dogs with attachment of a linear foreign body to the staples at the intestinal lumen. Dehiscence was noted at the enterotomy sites in 3 dogs at a mean time of 44 hours after surgery (SD ± 6.93). Two dogs presented with another linear foreign body that was attached to the staples in the intestinal lumen at postoperative days 24 and 42. The risk factors associated with incisional dehiscence included multiple gastrointestinal incisions performed in 1 surgery (χ 2 , P indication for surgical intervention, surgery location in the gastrointestinal tract, or surgeon experience and incisional dehiscence. Skin staplers provide safe and effective closure of gastrotomies, enterotomies, and colonotomies in dogs. This method is reliable, efficient, and affordable in the hands of veterinary surgeons with varying skill levels. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. Modeling Long-Term Fluvial Incision : Shall we Care for the Details of Short-Term Fluvial Dynamics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lague, D.; Davy, P.

    2008-12-01

    Fluvial incision laws used in numerical models of coupled climate, erosion and tectonics systems are mainly based on the family of stream power laws for which the rate of local erosion E is a power function of the topographic slope S and the local mean discharge Q : E = K Qm Sn. The exponents m and n are generally taken as (0.35, 0.7) or (0.5, 1), and K is chosen such that the predicted topographic elevation given the prevailing rates of precipitation and tectonics stay within realistic values. The resulting topographies are reasonably realistic, and the coupled system dynamics behaves somehow as expected : more precipitation induces increased erosion and localization of the deformation. Yet, if we now focus on smaller scale fluvial dynamics (the reach scale), recent advances have suggested that discharge variability, channel width dynamics or sediment flux effects may play a significant role in controlling incision rates. These are not factored in the simple stream power law model. In this work, we study how these short- term details propagate into long-term incision dynamics within the framework of surface/tectonics coupled numerical models. To upscale the short term dynamics to geological timescales, we use a numerical model of a trapezoidal river in which vertical and lateral incision processes are computed from fluid shear stress at a daily timescale, sediment transport and protection effects are factored in, as well as a variable discharge. We show that the stream power law model might still be a valid model but that as soon as realistic effects are included such as a threshold for sediment transport, variable discharge and dynamic width the resulting exponents m and n can be as high as 2 and 4. This high non-linearity has a profound consequence on the sensitivity of fluvial relief to incision rate. We also show that additional complexity does not systematically translates into more non-linear behaviour. For instance, considering only a dynamical width

  9. Properties and adduct structure of rare earth tris-acetylacetonates with o-phenanthroline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyubenko, N.G.; Martynenko, L.I.

    1986-01-01

    Adducts of acetylacetonates of rare earths (M, REE) with O-phenanthroline (Phen) of the composition MA 3 xPhen (M=La-Lu, Y) are synthesized by different methods and studied. Phen coordination by M 3+ ion is proved using infrared spectroscopy, individual character of obtained preparations and their isostructure in a series of REE derivatives is confirmed by X-ray radiography. MA 3 xPhen thermal stability is much higher than that of corresponding hydrates of rare-earth acetylacetonates MA 3 xnH 2 O. In high vacuum under conditions of mass-spectrometric measurements MA 3 xPhen adducts degradate forming volatile rare earth acetylacetonates of MA 3 composition. When heating in vacuum (∼ 10 2 mm Hg) MA 3 xPhen are qualitatively sublimated not changing the composition. MA 3 xPhen volatility determined for the whole REE series may be of interest in practical problem solving

  10. Determination of Double Bond Positions and Geometry of Methyl Linoleate Isomers with Dimethyl Disulfide Adducts by GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibamoto, Shigeaki; Murata, Tasuku; Yamamoto, Kouhei

    2016-09-01

    The dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) adduct method is one of the convenient and effective methods for determining double bond positions of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) except conjugated FAME. When analyzed using gas chromatography/electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS), unsaturated FAME with DMDS added to the double bonds yields high intensity MS spectra of characteristic ions. The MS spectra of characteristic ions can then be used to easily confirm double bond positions. Here we explore the GC/EI-MS analysis of the DMDS adducts of methyl linoleate geometrical isomers isolated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a silver nitrate column. For C18:2-c9, c12 and C18:2-t9, t12, DMDS randomly formed adducts with double bonds at either carbon 9-10 or carbon 12-13, but not both at the same time due to steric hindrance. For C18:2-c9, t12 and C18:2-t9, c12, however, DMDS only formed adducts with the double bond in the cis configuration. Consequently, when analyzing fatty acids with methylene interrupted double bonds, with one double bond in the cis and one in the trans configuration, double bond positions cannot be completely confirmed.

  11. European Hernia Society guidelines on the closure of abdominal wall incisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muysoms, F E; Antoniou, S A; Bury, K

    2015-01-01

    using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach and methodological guidance was taken from Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN). The literature search included publications up to April 2014. The guidelines were written using the AGREE II...... of rapidly absorbable sutures. It is suggested using a slowly absorbable monofilament suture in a single layer aponeurotic closure technique without separate closure of the peritoneum. A small bites technique with a suture to wound length (SL/WL) ratio at least 4/1 is the current recommended method......, it is suggested using the smallest trocar size adequate for the procedure and closure of the fascial defect if trocars larger or equal to 10 mm are used. For single incision laparoscopic surgery, we suggest meticulous closure of the fascial incision to avoid an increased risk of incisional hernias....

  12. The influence of lip form on incisal display with lips in repose on the esthetic preferences of dentists and lay people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee; Topolski, Richard; Dickinson, Douglas; Ramos, Van

    2017-09-01

    Information is lacking for viewer preferences for incisal display with lips in repose. The purpose of this online survey was to establish measurement parameters to classify and define a lip form and to evaluate the influence of lip form on dentists' and laypersons' preferences for the amount of incisal display with lips in repose. Computer-generated male and female models were created using 3 different lip forms each, straight, moderate, and high. Three images of these models (frontal full face, zoomed-in frontal around the mouth, and oblique zoomed-in image of the mouth) were arranged in an interactive survey that was disseminated on the Websites Facebook, Instagram, DentalTown and by word-of-mouth. Respondents manipulated the incisal display of all 3 images in unison, using a slide bar, and the resulting incisal display was measured in millimeters and served as the primary dependent measure. Survey demographic data were obtained from an online survey site. Data were assessed for skewness, kurtosis, and outliers and analyzed with 5-way ANOVA: 2 sex levels for model, 2 levels for sex of respondent, 3 levels for lip height, 3 levels for occupation, and 5 levels of ethnicity, with multiple comparisons corrected with Bonferroni adjustments and post hoc comparisons performed using the Scheffé test (α=.05 for all comparisons). A total of 1039 individuals consented to the study. A final sample size of 687 respondents was obtained after excluding 352 who failed to complete the survey. The results indicated that lip form affected the esthetic perception of incisal display significantly (P<.001), with a preference for a greater amount of incisal display corresponding with increasing lip forms. Sex of the model was also significant, with greater incisal display being preferred for female faces. A significant difference was found for respondents' ethnicity, with African Americans generally preferring smaller incisal displays than other ethnic groups. No other main effects

  13. [EFFECTIVENESS OF ADVANCED SKIN FLAP AND V-SHAPED VENTRAL INCISION ALONG THE ROOT OF PENILE SHAFT FOR CONCEALED PENIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Junshan; Li, Dumiao; Zhang, Jianxing; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Yali; Lin, Li

    2015-09-01

    To investigate effectiveness of advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft for concealed penis in children. Between July 2007 and January 2015, 121 boys with concealed penis were treated with advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft. The age varied from 18 months to 13 years (mean, 7.2 years). Repair was based on a vertical incision in median raphe, complete degloving of penis and tacking its base to the dermis of the skin. Advanced skin flap and a V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft were used to cover the penile shaft. The operation time ranged from 60 to 100 minutes (mean, 75 minutes). Disruption of wound occurred in 1 case, and was cured after dressing change; and primary healing of incision was obtained in the others. The follow-up period ranged from 3 months to 7 years (median, 24 months). All patients achieved good to excellent cosmetic results with a low incidence of complications. The results were satisfactory in exposure of penis and prepuce appearance. No obvious scar was observed. The penis had similar appearance to that after prepuce circumcision. A combination of advanced skin flap and V-shaped ventral incision along the root of penile shaft is a simple, safe, and effective procedure for concealed penis with a similar appearance result to the prepuce circumcision.

  14. Competitive Deprotonation and Superoxide [O₂⁻•)] Radical-Anion Adduct Formation Reactions of Carboxamides under Negative-Ion Atmospheric-Pressure Helium-Plasma Ionization (HePI) Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Isra; Pinto, Spencer; Weisbecker, Carl; Attygalle, Athula B

    2016-03-01

    Carboxamides bearing an N-H functionality are known to undergo deprotonation under negative-ion-generating mass spectrometric conditions. Herein, we report that N-H bearing carboxamides with acidities lower than that of the hydroperoxyl radical (HO-O(•)) preferentially form superoxide radical-anion (O2(-•)) adducts, rather than deprotonate, when they are exposed to the glow discharge of a helium-plasma ionization source. For example, the spectra of N-alkylacetamides show peaks for superoxide radical-anion (O2(-•)) adducts. Conversely, more acidic amides, such as N-alkyltrifluoroacetamides, preferentially undergo deprotonation under similar experimental conditions. Upon collisional activation, the O2(-•) adducts of N-alkylacetamides either lose the neutral amide or the hydroperoxyl radical (HO-O(•)) to generate the superoxide radical-anion (m/z 32) or the deprotonated amide [m/z (M - H)(-)], respectively. For somewhat acidic carboxamides, the association between the two entities is weak. Thus, upon mildest collisional activation, the adduct dissociates to eject the superoxide anion. Superoxide-adduct formation results are useful for structure determination purposes because carboxamides devoid of a N-H functionality undergo neither deprotonation nor adduct formation under HePI conditions.

  15. Quantitative comparison between in vivo DNA adduct formation from exposure to selected DNA-reactive carcinogens, natural background levels of DNA adduct formation and tumour incidende in rodent bioassays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paini, A.; Scholz, G.; Marin-Kuan, M.; Schilter, B.; O'Brien, J.; Bladeren, van P.J.; Rietjens, I.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at quantitatively comparing the occurrence/formation of DNA adducts with the carcinogenicity induced by a selection of DNA-reactive genotoxic carcinogens. Contrary to previous efforts, we used a very uniform set of data, limited to in vivo rat liver studies in order to investigate

  16. Spectrophotometric study of the formation of adducts between U(TTA)4 and neutral organosulfoxide donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujam, A.; Gudi, N.M.; Nadkarni, M.N.; Ramakrishna, V.V.; Patil, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    Synergistic extraction of several tetravalent actinides by mixtures of a β diketone and a neutral donor has been fairly well studied except for U(IV). Presumably, this is due to the instability of U(IV) at tracer level which does not permit the use of usual distribution methods for the study of its synergistic extraction. However, it is known that the formation of adduct between metal β diketonate and the neutral donor occurs in the organic phase and its formation is mainly responsible for the synergistic enhancement in the extraction of the metal ion. U(TTA) 4 dissolved in benzene is stable in presence of excess HTTA and addition of a neutral donor to the same results in considerable spectral changes and this has been exploited in earlier studies on the adduct formation reaction between U(TTA) 4 and several organo phosphorous neutral donors. In the present study, the adduct formation between U(TTA) 4 and few neutral sulfoxide donors: dibenzyl sulfoxide (DBSO), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), dihexyl sulfoxide (DHSO) and dioctyl sulfoxide (DOSO) has been investigated in benzene medium. All the donors (S) used in the present work form 1:1 adduct with U(TTA) 4 and the equilibrium constants βsub(AB) for the reaction viz., U(TTA) 4 +S U(TTA) 4 .S have been calculated. The βsub(AB) values follow the order DBSO< DMSO< DHSP approx. DOSO. An attempt has been made to compare the values with those obtained using neutral organo phosphorous compounds and to explain the observed trends on the basis of the basicity of the neutral donors. (author)

  17. Incisive papilla and positions of maxillary anterior teeth among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: One hundred and twelve maxillary casts generated from participants aged 18-35 years (mean age 22.39±2.00 years), with well aligned arches were studied. The maxillary central incisor exhibited a mean of 14.93±1.52mm from the posterior limit of the incisive papilla while the inter-canine line scored a mean of ...

  18. Differential repair of platinum-DNA adducts in human bladder and testicular tumor continuous cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, P.; Fichtinger-Schepman, A.M.; Shellard, S.A.; Walker, M.C.; Masters, J.R.; Hill, B.T.

    1988-01-01

    The formation and removal of four platinum-DNA adducts were immunochemically quantitated in cultured cells derived from a human bladder carcinoma cell line (RT112) and from two lines derived from germ cell tumors of the testis (833K and SUSA), following exposure in vitro to 16.7 microM (5 micrograms/ml) cisplatin. RT112 cells were least sensitive to the drug and were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, whereas SUSA cells, which were 5-fold more sensitive, were deficient in the repair of DNA-DNA intrastrand cross-links in the sequences pApG and pGpG. Despite expressing a similar sensitivity to SUSA cells, 833K cells were proficient in the repair of all four adducts, although less so than the RT112 bladder tumor cells. In addition, SUSA cells were unable to repair DNA-DNA interstrand cross-links whereas 50-85% of these lesions were removed in RT112 and 833K cells 24 h following drug exposure. It is possible that the inability of SuSa cells to repair platinated DNA may account for their hypersensitivity to cisplatin

  19. Pd/NbOPO₄ multifunctional catalyst for the direct production of liquid alkanes from aldol adducts of furans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Qi-Neng; Cuan, Qian; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Gong, Xue-Qing; Lu, Guan-Zhong; Wang, Yan-Qin

    2014-09-08

    Great efforts have been made to convert renewable biomass into transportation fuels. Herein, we report the novel properties of NbO(x)-based catalysts in the hydrodeoxygenation of furan-derived adducts to liquid alkanes. Excellent activity and stability were observed with almost no decrease in octane yield (>90% throughout) in a 256 h time-on-stream test. Experimental and theoretical studies showed that NbO(x) species play the key role in C-O bond cleavage. As a multifunctional catalyst, Pd/NbOPO4 plays three roles in the conversion of aldol adducts into alkanes: 1) The noble metal (in this case Pd) is the active center for hydrogenation; 2) NbO(x) species help to cleave the C-O bond, especially of the tetrahydrofuran ring; and 3) a niobium-based solid acid catalyzes the dehydration, thus enabling the quantitative conversion of furan-derived adducts into alkanes under mild conditions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Equilibrium Dynamics of β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) and Its Carbamate Adducts at Physiological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, David; Goto, Joy J.; Krishnan, Viswanathan V

    2016-01-01

    Elevated incidences of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia complex (ALS/PDC) is associated with β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a non-protein amino acid. In particular, the native Chamorro people living in the island of Guam were exposed to BMAA by consuming a diet based on the cycad seeds. Carbamylated forms of BMAA are glutamate analogues. The mechanism of neurotoxicity of the BMAA is not completely understood, and BMAA acting as a glutamate receptor agonist may lead to excitotoxicity that interferes with glutamate transport systems. Though the interaction of BMAA with bicarbonate is known to produce carbamate adducts, here we demonstrate that BMAA and its primary and secondary adducts coexist in solution and undergoes a chemical exchange among them. Furthermore, we determined the rates of formation/cleavage of the carbamate adducts under equilibrium conditions using two-dimensional proton exchange NMR spectroscopy (EXSY). The coexistence of the multiple forms of BMAA at physiological conditions adds to the complexity of the mechanisms by which BMAA functions as a neurotoxin. PMID:27513925

  1. Equilibrium Dynamics of β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA and Its Carbamate Adducts at Physiological Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zimmerman

    Full Text Available Elevated incidences of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/Parkinsonism Dementia complex (ALS/PDC is associated with β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA, a non-protein amino acid. In particular, the native Chamorro people living in the island of Guam were exposed to BMAA by consuming a diet based on the cycad seeds. Carbamylated forms of BMAA are glutamate analogues. The mechanism of neurotoxicity of the BMAA is not completely understood, and BMAA acting as a glutamate receptor agonist may lead to excitotoxicity that interferes with glutamate transport systems. Though the interaction of BMAA with bicarbonate is known to produce carbamate adducts, here we demonstrate that BMAA and its primary and secondary adducts coexist in solution and undergoes a chemical exchange among them. Furthermore, we determined the rates of formation/cleavage of the carbamate adducts under equilibrium conditions using two-dimensional proton exchange NMR spectroscopy (EXSY. The coexistence of the multiple forms of BMAA at physiological conditions adds to the complexity of the mechanisms by which BMAA functions as a neurotoxin.

  2. Hemoglobin adducts of epoxybutene in workers occupationally exposed to 1,3-butadiene

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Begemann, P.; Šrám, Radim; Neumann, H. G.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 74, - (2001), s. 680-687 ISSN 0340-5761 Grant - others:EU(XC) CIPA-CT93-0228 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : biomonitoring * hemoglobin adducts Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 1.558, year: 2001

  3. Chemical-Biological Properties of Zinc Sensors TSQ and Zinquin: Formation of Sensor-Zn-Protein Adducts versus Zn(Sensor)2 Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Andrew B; Meeusen, Jeffrey W; Menden, Heather; Tomasiewicz, Henry; Petering, David H

    2015-12-21

    Fluorescent zinc sensors are the most commonly used tool to study the intracellular mobile zinc status within cellular systems. Previously, we have shown that the quinoline-based sensors Zinquin and 6-methoxy-8-p-toluenesulfonamido-quinoline (TSQ) predominantly form ternary adducts with members of the Zn-proteome. Here, the chemistries of these sensors are further characterized, including how Zn(sensor)2 complexes may react in an intracellular environment. We demonstrate that these sensors are typically used in higher concentrations than needed to obtain maximum signal. Exposing cells to either Zn(Zinquin)2 or Zn(TSQ)2 resulted in efficient cellular uptake and the formation of sensor-Zn-protein adducts as evidenced by both a fluorescence spectral shift toward that of ternary adducts and the localization of the fluorescence signal within the proteome after gel filtration of cellular lysates. Likewise, reacting Zn(sensor)2 with the Zn-proteome from LLC-PK1 cells resulted in the formation of sensor-Zn-protein ternary adducts that could be inhibited by first saturating the Zn- proteome with excess sensor. Further, a native SDS-PAGE analysis of the Zn-proteome reacted with either the sensor or the Zn(sensor)2 complex revealed that both reactions result in the formation of a similar set of sensor-Zn-protein fluorescent products. The results of this experiment also demonstrated that TSQ and Zinquin react with different members of the Zn-proteome. Reactions with the model apo-Zn-protein bovine serum albumin showed that both Zn(TSQ)2 and Zn(Zinquin)2 reacted to form ternary adducts with its apo-Zn-binding site. Moreover, incubating Zn(sensor)2 complexes with non-zinc binding proteins failed to elicit a spectral shift in the fluorescence spectrum, supporting the premise that blue-shifted emission spectra are due to sensor-Zn-protein ternary adducts. It was concluded that Zn(sensors)2 species do not play a significant role in the overall reaction between these sensors and

  4. Anterograde axonal transport and intercellular transfer of WGA-HRP in trigeminal-innervated sensory receptors of rat incisive papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K Y; Byers, M R

    1985-04-08

    The ultrastructure and identification of WGA-HRP-labeled sensory receptors in the rat incisive papilla (the most anterior part of hard palate) were studied using semiserial thin sections. Various sensory receptors were organized according to three locations: dome region (ventral), chemosensory corpuscle region (medial to orifice of incisive canal), and lateral labium (apposing the incisive canal). In the dome region, the sensory receptors were localized in three sensory zones that were associated with surface ridges (one medial and two lateral). In each of these zones, intraepithelial receptor axons and Merkel receptors occurred in the epithelium, while simple unencapsulated corpuscles, glomerular-Meissner corpuscles, and incisive (encapsulated) corpuscles occurred in the lamina propria. In the chemosensory corpuscle region, chemosensory corpuscles and intraepithelial receptor axons were located in the epithelium, and incisive corpuscles were present in the lamina propria. In the lateral labium, only intraepithelial receptor axons were prominent. In all these sensory receptors, the preterminal axons and axon terminals were labeled with the tracer protein. In addition, some nonneuronal cells closely associated with the axon terminals were selectively labeled, e.g., terminal Schwann cells, lamellar Schwann cells, Merkel cells, corpuscular basal cells and chemosensory cells. Other adjacent cells were not labeled, e.g., unspecialized epithelial cells, capsular cells, corpuscular sustentacular cells, and fibroblasts. In both labeled axons and cells, WGA-HRP was incorporated into vesicles, tubules, and vacuolar organelles. The specific intercellular transfer of tracer protein may indicate trophic interactions between axon terminals and support cells in sensory receptors. The specific organization of multiple sensory receptors in the rat incisive papilla may provide a useful alternative system for studying somatosensory physiology.

  5. Distinction of infected and non-infected post-surgical incisions with In-111-WBC scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Nabi, H.; Hinkle, G.H.; Olsen, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    To determine if In-111-WBCs scintigraphy can distinguish between healing and infection in post-surgical wounds, a prospective study was performed in patients with 3-14 day old surgical incisions. Eighteen patients (11 males and 7 females) were scanned 24 hrs after injection of 0.5 mCi of In-111 labeled autologous leukocytes. The scan findings were correlated with blood and/wound cultures results and diagnosis at time of discharge. Incisional uptake of In-111-WBCs was noted in 9 patients with infected surgical wounds and was absent in those 9 patients with non-infected surgical wounds. The results of the authors' study show that In-111-WBCs do not accumulate in non-infected surgical incisions. This confirms their previous findings in rats. The high specificity of In-111 leukocytes imaging makes it a valuable study in the evaluation of post-operative patients with suspected surgical wound infections. In-111 WBCs scintigraphy can distinguish between normal healing and infection at the site of recent (3-14 days) surgical incisions

  6. Determination of the major tautomeric form of the covalently modified adenine in the (+)-CC-1065-DNA adduct by 1H and 15N NMR studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Chin Hsiung; Hurley, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    (+)-CC-1065 is an extremely potent antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces zelensis. The potent cytotoxic effects of the drug are thought to be due to the formation of a covalent adduct with DNA through N3 of adenine. Although the covalent linkage sites between (+)-CC-1065 and DNA have been determined, the tautomeric form of the covalently modified adenine in the (+)-CC-1065-DNA duplex adduct was not defined. The [6- 15 N]deoxyadenosine-labeled 12-mer duplex adduct was then studied by 1 H and 15 N NMR. One-dimensional NOE difference and two-dimensional NOESY 1 H NMR experiments on the nonisotopically labeled 12-mer duplex adduct demonstrate that the 6-amino protons of the covalently modified adenine exhibit two signals at 9.19 and 9.08 ppm. Proton NMR experiments on the [6- 15 N]deoxyadenosine-labeled 12-mer duplex adduct show that the two resonance signals for adenine H6 observed on the nonisotopically labeled duplex adduct were split into doublets by the 15 N nucleus with coupling constants of 91.3 Hz for non-hydrogen-bonded and 86.8 Hz for hydrogen-bonded amino protons. The authors conclude that the covalently modified adenine N6 of the (+)-CC-1065-12-mer duplex adduct is predominantly in the doubly protonated form, in which calculations predict that the C6-N6 bond is shortened and the positive charge is delocalized over the entire adenine molecule

  7. Development and application of non-invasive biomarkers for carcinogen-DNA adduct analysis in occupationally exposed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaska, G; Cudnik, J; Jaeger, M; Rothman, N; Hayes, R; Bhatnagar, V J; Kayshup, S J

    1996-07-17

    Biological monitoring of exposures to carcinogenic compounds in the workplace can be a valuable adjunct to environmental sampling and occupational medicine. Carcinogen-DNA adduct analysis has promise as a biomarker of effective dose if target organ samples can be obtained non-invasively. We