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Sample records for addressing diarrhea prevalence

  1. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin.

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    Pande, Saket; Keyzer, Michiel A; Arouna, Aminou; Sonneveld, Ben G J S

    2008-04-23

    In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB), to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of other conditions, not suffer diarrhea very often. Second

  2. Addressing diarrhea prevalence in the West African Middle Belt: social and geographic dimensions in a case study for Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arouna Aminou

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In West Africa, the Northern Sahelian zone and the coastal areas are densely populated but the Middle Belt in between is in general sparsely settled. Predictions of climate change foresee more frequent drought in the north and more frequent flooding in the coastal areas, while conditions in the Middle Belt will remain moderate. Consequently, the Middle Belt might become a major area for immigration but there may be constraining factors as well, particularly with respect to water availability. As a case study, the paper looks into the capacity of the Middle Belt zone of Benin, known as the Oueme River Basin (ORB, to reduce diarrhea prevalence. In Benin it links to the Millennium Development Goals on child mortality and environmental sustainability that are currently farthest from realization. However, diarrhea prevalence is only in part due to lack of availability of drinking water from a safe source. Social factors such as hygienic practices and poor sanitation are also at play. Furthermore, we consider these factors to possess the properties of a local public good that suffers from under provision and requires collective action, as individual actions to prevent illness are bound to fail as long as others free ride. Methods Combining data from the Demographic Health Survey with various spatial data sets for Benin, we apply mixed effect logit regression to arrive at a spatially explicit assessment of geographical and social determinants of diarrhea prevalence. Starting from an analysis of these factors separately at national level, we identify relevant proxies at household level, estimate a function with geo-referenced independent variables and apply it to evaluate the costs and impacts of improving access to good water in the basin. Results First, the study confirms the well established stylized fact on the causes of diarrhea that a household with access to clean water and with good hygienic practices will, irrespective of

  3. Prevalence of Clostridium Difficile- Associated Diarrhea in Hospitalized Patients with Nosocomial Diarrhea

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    N Sadeghifard

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile is a frequently identified cause of nosocomial gastrointestinal disease. It has been proved to be a causative agent in antibiotic-associated diarrhea, antibiotic-associated colitis, and pseudomembraneous colitis. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of C.difficile- associated diarrhea in hospitalized patients with nosocomial diarrhea. The 942 hospitalized patients stool samples with nosocomial diarrhea were collected at three hospitals in Tehran from Dec 2002 to Feb 2004.All the stool samples were cultured and in 97 (prevalence: 10.9% samples grew C.difficile that 57 (prevalence: 6.1% isolates were toxigenic by cytotoxicity assay and so 57 patients had C.difficile- associated diarrhea. Results of statistical analysis showed significant difference between the rate of C.difficile associated diarrhea and the patients ages (P<0.05.

  4. Diarrhea

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    ... lactose intolerance. Diseases that affect the stomach, small intestine, or colon, such as Crohn's disease Problems with how the colon functions, such as irritable bowel syndrome Some people also get diarrhea after stomach surgery, ...

  5. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

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    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Prevalence of diarrhea disease and risk factors in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

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    Yilgwan, Christopher S; Okolo, S N

    2012-01-01

    Diarrhea is widely recognized as a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in many developing countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. According to World Health Organization (WHO) report in the African region, diarrheal diseases are still leading causes of mortality and morbidity in children under five years of age. This same report indicates that each child in the said region has five episodes of diarrhea per year and that 800,000 die each year from diarrhea and dehydration. This study examined diarrheal morbidity and associated risk factors in children under five years in Jos. A total of 340 children were seen in the Diarrhea Training Unit (DTU) of the Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos, over a period of 24 months (Jan 2008-Dec 2009). A semi-structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to generate the data. All women whose children presented with diarrhea were interviewed and data generated analyzed using Epi info version 3.5.1 statistical software. During the study period, 13,076 children were seen in our facility, of which 340 were suffering from diarrhea, thus giving a diarrhea prevalence of 2.7%. There were 183 (54%) male and 157 (40%) female children seen with diarrhea. The mean age was 11 ± 8.5 months. The mean duration of diarrhea was found to be 4 ± 3.6 days. A majority of children were aged less than 6 months, consisting of 235 infants, 95 toddlers, and 10 pre-schoolers. Of the number of women seen, 242 (61%) had at least primary education, while 98 (29%) had no formal education. Diarrheal episodes were found to have a bivariate association with mothers' educational status, family type, family size, breastfeeding, and sex of child. However, only mother's educational status, diarrhea in other sibling, and breast feeding were significantly associated with the occurrence of diarrhea. Although there were more male children with diarrhea, the odds of having diarrhea was not significantly related to sex. Our study

  7. Strongyloidiasis: prevalence, risk factors, clinical and laboratory features among diarrhea patients in Ibadan Nigeria.

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    Dada-Adegbola, H O; Oluwatoba, O A; Bakare, R A

    2010-12-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic infection caused by Strongyloides stercoralis. The infection is usually mild or asymptomatic in normal immunocompetent individuals, but could be very severe or even fatal due to hyper infection in individuals who are immunosuppressed. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, risk factors and features of strongyloidiasis among diarrhea patients in Ibadan. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of diarrhea patients from a teaching hospital, three major government hospitals and one mission hospital in Ibadan. Self administered questionnaire, clinical assessment and laboratory investigations were used to confirm health status and presence of S. stercoralis. Diagnosis was made by microscopic examination of stool in saline preparation and formol-ether concentration. One thousand and ninety patients, (562 (51.6%) males and 528 (48.4%) females) consisting 380 (34.9%) children and 710 (65.1%) adults who had diarrhea were studied. The prevalence rate for the parasite among diarrhea patients was 3.0%. While the risk factor for infection remains contact with contaminated soil, malnutrition, steroid therapy, HIV/AIDS, lymphomas, tuberculosis, and chronic renal failure. Others are maleness, institutionalism and alcoholism. Predominant clinical presentations are abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, and bloating and weight loss, Strongyloides stercoralis should be considered in diarrhea patients who are either malnourished or immunosuppressed.

  8. Maternal agency influences the prevalence of diarrhea and acute respiratory tract infections among young Indonesian children.

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    Agustina, Rina; Shankar, Anita V; Ayuningtyas, Azalea; Achadi, Endang L; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2015-05-01

    To examine the relationship between measures of mother's caretaking, practice and individual agency on acute diarrhea and respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) of Indonesian children. Using population-based household data from the Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys for 2002-2003 (n = 9,151 children) and 2007 (n = 9,714 children), we selected 28 indicators related to mother' caretaking, and applied principal component analysis to derive indices for access to care, practice and experience, and agency. The association between index quartiles (level 1-4) and the prevalence of diarrhea and ARTIs in the youngest child Children of mothers with higher levels (level 4) of agency were protected against both diarrhea (adjusted OR 0.68, 95 % CI 0.60-0.77) and ARTIs (adjusted OR 0.77, 95 % CI 0.66-0.91). Stratified analyses with child's age and mother's education, and tests of interaction, showed that agency had a stronger effect on diarrhea and ARTIs prevalence in children diarrhea and ARTIs in younger children. Interventions specifically designed to promote maternal autonomy and decision-making may lead to improved child health.

  9. Prevalence of microsporidia in healthy individuals and immunocompetent patients with acute and chronic diarrhea.

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    Mumcuoglu, Ipek; Cetin, Feyza; Dogruman Al, Funda; Oguz, Ilkiz; Aksu, Neriman

    2016-02-01

    Previously published studies of microsporidial infections have primarily focused on immunodeficient or immunocompromised patients. Data regarding infections caused by this microorganism in immunocompetent subjects are lacking. In the present study, we investigated the prevalence of microsporidia in healthy individuals and immunocompetent patients with acute and chronic diarrhea. The study included stool samples from 74 patients with acute diarrhea, 41 patients with chronic diarrhea, and 88 healthy volunteers. Slides were prepared after concentration with a formalin-ethyl acetate technique and were stained with modified trichrome, calcofluor white, and Uvitex 2B stains. The number of spores observed in each magnification field (×1000) was scored as follows: 1+, 1-10; 2+, 11-20; 3+, > 20. The prevalence of microsporidia was 27.0% in patients with acute diarrhea, 34.1% in patients with chronic diarrhea, and 45.5% in healthy volunteers. The parasite score was 1 + in all positive samples. The rate of microsporidia positivity was higher in solid stools (51.4%), and the rate of positivity increased with advancing age. Unexpectedly, a high prevalence of microsporidia was found in immunocompetent individuals in our region. There was no relationship between positivity for microsporidia and the presence of symptoms, due to higher rates both in solid stools and in healthy subjects. The parasite score was the same in all groups. Our results indicate that there is high exposure to microsporidia in immunocompetent subjects in our region. Natural reservoirs and environmental sources of microsporidia should be determined to design strategies for effective prevention of transmission.

  10. Prevalence of Iron Deficiency and Anemia among Young Children with Acute Diarrhea in Bhaktapur, Nepal

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    Chandyo, Ram K.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Adhikari, Ramesh K.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron deficiency anemia is still common in children under five years of age and may impair their growth and cognitive development. Diarrhea is the second most common reason for seeking medical care for young children in Nepal. However, neither screening programs nor effective preventive measures for anemia and iron deficiencies are in place among children with diarrhea in many developing countries. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency and explore their associations with clinical, socioeconomic, and anthropometric parameters in Nepalese children. This was a cross-sectional study based on 1232 children, six to 35 months old, with acute diarrhea participating in a zinc supplementation trial. The mean (SD) hemoglobin was 11.2 g/dL (1.2). Anemia was found in 493 children (40%); this estimate increased to 641 (52%) when we adjusted for the altitude of the study area (hemoglobin <11.3 g/dL). One in every three children had depleted iron stores and 198 (16%) of the children had both depleted iron stores and anemia, indicating iron deficiency anemia. The prevalence of anemia among children presenting with acute diarrhea was high but the degree of severity was mainly mild or moderate. Iron deficiency explained less than half of the total anemia, indicating other nutritional deficiencies inducing anemia might be common in this population. PMID:27417782

  11. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

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    Agustina, R.; Sari, T.P.; Satroamidjojo, S.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian

  12. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agustina, R.; Sari, T.P.; Satroamidjojo, S.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian chil

  13. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agustina, R.; Sari, T.P.; Satroamidjojo, S.; Bovee-Oudenhoven, I.M.J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian chil

  14. Prevalence of, and predictors of, bile acid malabsorption in outpatients with chronic diarrhea.

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    Gracie, D J; Kane, J S; Mumtaz, S; Scarsbrook, A F; Chowdhury, F U; Ford, A C

    2012-11-01

    Many physicians do not consider the diagnosis of bile acid malabsorption in patients with chronic diarrhea, or do not have access to testing. We examined yield of 23-seleno-25-homo-tauro-cholic acid (SeHCAT) scanning in chronic diarrhea patients, and attempted to identify predictors of a positive test. Consecutive patients with chronic diarrhea undergoing SeHCAT scan over a 7-year period were identified retrospectively. Bile acid malabsorption was defined as present at a retention of factors. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded, and patients were classified as having diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) if they reported abdominal pain or discomfort. Independent risk factors were assessed using multivariate logistic regression, and odds ratios (ORs) with 99% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Of 373 patients, 190 (50.9%) had bile acid malabsorption. Previous cholecystectomy (OR 2.51; 99% CI 1.10-5.77), terminal ileal resection or right hemicolectomy for Crohn's disease (OR 12.4; 99% CI 2.42-63.8), and terminal ileal resection or right hemicolectomy for other reasons (OR 7.94; 99% CI 1.02-61.6) were associated with its presence. Seventy-seven patients had IBS-D, and 21 (27.3%) tested positive. There were 168 patients with no risk factors for a positive SeHCAT scan, other than chronic diarrhea, and 63 (37.5%) had bile acid malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption was present in 50% of patients undergoing SeHCAT scanning. Almost 40% of those without risk factors had evidence of bile acid malabsorption, and in those meeting criteria for IBS-D prevalence was almost 30%. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors of Clostridium difficile - associated diarrhea in Iranian hospitalized patients

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    Shohreh Farshad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Clostridium difficile is a frequently identified cause of nosocomial gastrointestinal disease. It has been proved to be a causative agent in antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Aims: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD in hospitalized patients with nosocomial diarrhea in Shiraz, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this study from June to December 2012, a total of 122 stool samples of patients with nosocomial antibiotic associated diarrhea that were admitted in to the intensive care units (ICUs (41, surgery (16 and organ transplantation wards (65 in Namazi hospital, Shiraz, Iran were collected. All stool samples were cultured on a selective Cycloserine Cefoxitin Fructose Agar and grew isolates were analyzed by cytotoxicity assay and enzyme immune assay for detection and conformation of toxins. Results: The mean ± standard deviation of age was 49.4 ± 13.8 and 75 (61.5% of patients were male. Nine (7.4% cases of nosocomial diarrhea were diagnosed as CDAD that all isolates were toxigenic. Five of 65 organs receive transplant patients and 4/41 hospitalized patients in ICUs ward were developed CDAD. None of samples that obtained from surgery ward infected with C. difficile. Ceftazidime and Ampicilline-Sulbactam were the most common antimicrobial drugs used. Multivariate analysis showed that use of diapers, antibiotic and immunosuppressive therapies were significantly associated with CDAD (P < 0.05. Conclusions: Hospital transmission of C. difficile commonly occurred, supporting infection-appropriate measures directed toward the reduction of CDAD.

  16. A cross-sectional study of acute diarrhea in Pudong, Shanghai, China: prevalence, risk factors, and healthcare-seeking practices.

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    Yu, J-X; Zhu, W-P; Ye, C-C; Xue, C-Y; Lai, S-J; Zhang, H-L; Zhang, Z-K; Geng, Q-B; Yang, W-Z; Sun, Q; Li, Z-J

    2017-10-01

    Diarrhea is a common cause of morbidity and mortality and the incidence of diarrhea in the world has changed little over the past four decades. To assess the prevalence of and healthcare practices for diarrhea, a cross-sectional study was conducted in Pudong, Shanghai, China. In October 2014, a total of 5324 community residents were interviewed. Respondents were asked if they had experienced diarrhea (defined as ⩾3 passages of watery, loose, bloody, or mucoid stools within a 24-h period) in the previous month prior to the interview. The monthly prevalence of diarrhea was 4·1% (95% CI: 3·3-4·8), corresponding to an incidence rate of 0·54 episodes per person-year. The proportion of individuals with diarrhea who sought healthcare was 21·2% (95% CI: 13·4-29·0). Diarrhea continues to impose a considerable burden on the community and healthcare system in Pudong. Young age and travel were identified as predictors of increased diarrhea occurrence.

  17. [Prevalence of infantile diarrhea in districts of Nouakchott (Mauritania) in 2008: analysis of local hygiene].

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    Sy, I; Keita, M; Lô, B; Tanner, M; Cissé, G

    2012-01-01

    In urban areas in Nouakchott, diarrheal diseases present a major public health problem, especially for children and adolescents. In August, 2008, a cross-sectional survey of 300 households in two adjacent districts of the city sought to study correlations between diarrheal disease and environmental health. The results show that 87 children of all ages had about 139 episodes of diarrhea, for an average prevalence of 14.8% that varied by age (23.6% in children younger than 5 years and 9.7% among children aged 5 to 14 years) and area (16.8% in Tevragh-Zeina and 28.3% in Sebkha). The univariate analysis indicates that 52% of the diarrhea risk was due to precarious basic hygiene. Studies of the specific causes of diarrheal diseases to help improve their treatment are necessary to supplement these epidemiological results.

  18. Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Enteric Viruses in Children with Diarrhea in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

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    Nafissatou Ouédraogo

    Full Text Available Enteric viruses are a major cause of diarrhea in children, especially those under five years old. Identifying the viral agents is critical to the development of effective preventive measures. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of common enteric viruses in children under five years old in Burkina Faso. Stool samples from children with (n = 263 and without (n = 50 diarrhea disorders were collected in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from November 2011 to September 2012. Rotavirus, norovirus, sapovirus, astrovirus, adenovirus and Aichivirus A were detected using real-time or end-point (RT-PCR. Rotavirus strains were G and P genotyped by multiplex RT-PCR and other viral strains were characterized by sequencing of viral subgenomic segements. At least one viral agent was detected in 85.6% and 72% of the symptomatic and asymptomatic patients, respectively. Rotavirus (63.5%, adenovirus (31.2% and genogroup II norovirus (18.2% were the most prevalent viruses in symptomatic patients, but only rotavirus and genogroup II norovirus were significantly associated with diarrhea (OR: 7.9, 95%CI: 3.7-17; OR: 3.5, 95%CI: 1-11.7, respectively. Sapovirus (10.3%, astrovirus (4.9%, genogroup I norovirus (2.7% and Aichivirus A (0.8% were less prevalent. The predominant genotype of rotavirus was G9P[8] (36.5%, and the predominant norovirus strain was GII.4 variant 2012 (71.4%. Among sapovirus, the genogroup II (87.5% predominated. Astrovirus type 1 (41.7% was the most frequent astrovirus identified. Aichivirus A belonged to the three genotypes (A, B and C. Enteric adenoviruses type 40 and 41 were identified in 10.2% and 5.1% respectively. Several cases of co-infections were detected. The results highlight the high prevalence and the high diversity of enteric viruses in Burkinabe children.

  19. Recurrent floods and prevalence of diarrhea among under five children: observations from Bahraich district, Uttar Pradesh, India.

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    Joshi, Pooran C; Kaushal, Sonia; Aribam, Bijaya S; Khattri, Prashant; D'Aoust, Olivia; Singh, Mongjam M; Marx, Michael; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhea is an important problem among the under-five children in India. The paper examines long-term impacts of recurrent floods on diarrhea among under-five children in Uttar Pradesh, India. A two stage stratified cluster survey was conducted in flood affected (exposed) and non-flood affected areas (unexposed). The long-term impact of the floods was not clearly marked in the overall prevalence of diarrhea with the exposed group having prevalence of 55.1% as against 56.2% in the unexposed group of children under five. Economic condition of the household is associated with the prevalence of diarrhea in both exposed and unexposed strata. Anemia was found to be a significant risk factor for diarrhea among children in both the flood exposed and non-flood exposed populations. The recurrent floods did not have any significant effect on the prevalence of diarrhea in relation to gender, religion, caste, and household size. The study indicates that the long-term impacts of floods are very differently manifested than the immediate impacts.

  20. Prevalence of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhea of unknown etiology in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and demography of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhea of unknown etiology and normal colonoscopy in Turkey. METHODS: Between March, 1998 to July, 2005, 129 patients with chronic non-bloody diarrhea of unexplained etiology who had undergone full colonoscopy with no obvious abnormalities were included in the study. Two biopsies were obtained from all colonic segments and terminal ileum for diagnosis of microscopic colitis. On histopathologic examination, criteria for lymphocytic colitis (intraepithelial lymphocyte ≥ 20 per 100 intercryptal epithelial cells, change in surface epithelium, mononuclear infiltration of the lamina propria) and collagenous colitis (subepithelial collagen band thickness ≥ 10 μm) were explored. RESULTS: Lymphocytic colitis was diagnosed in 12 (9%) patients (Female/Male: 7/5, mean age: 45 year, range: 27-63) and collagenous colitis was diagnosed in only 3 (2.5%) patients (all female, mean age: 60 years, range: 54-65). CONCLUSION: Biopsy of Turkish patients with the diagnosis of chronic non-bloody diarrhea of unexplained etiology and normal colonoscopic findings will reveal microscopic colitis in approximately 10% of the patients. Lymphocytic colitis is 4 times more frequent than collagenous colitis in these patients

  1. High Prevalence of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli among Children with Diarrhea in Kenya.

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    Iijima, Yoshio; Oundo, Joseph O; Hibino, Takumi; Saidi, Suleiman M; Hinenoya, Atsushi; Osawa, Kayo; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Osawa, Ro; Yamasaki, Shinji

    2017-01-24

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) is an important agent of endemic and epidemic diarrhea worldwide, particularly in developing countries. DEC cannot be differentiated from commensal E. coli on selective media, although there are a few exceptions. Most studies use the colony isolation method, which cannot detect low numbers of DEC, and therefore, these studies might underestimate the incidence of DEC. In the present study, we employed a colony sweep method with real-time PCR targeting virulence genes of 5 categories of DEC; this technique can detect very low numbers of DEC among hundreds of commensal E. coli. DEC was detected in 171 (55.9%) of 306 children with diarrhea in Kenya. The prevalence of DEC in Kenya was notably higher than that (30 in 143, 21.0%) in Indonesia. Occurrences of multiple DEC infection in Kenya were frequent (69 in 306, 23.2%), suggesting that the source of DEC infection may be related to grossly contaminated food and water. In contrast, only 9 (6.0%) of 150 healthy adults in Kenya carried DEC. Considering that healthy adults naturally harbor non-DEC, it is interesting how children exclude DEC but not non-DEC as they grow up. Several mechanisms, such as mucosal immunity and intestinal microbiota, might be involved in the exclusion of DEC.

  2. Prevalence and genetic diversity of norovirus among patients with acute diarrhea in Guatemala.

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    Estévez, Alejandra; Arvelo, Wences; Hall, Aron J; López, María R; López, Beatriz; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Gregoricus, Nicole; Vinjé, Jan; Parashar, Umesh D; Lindblade, Kim A

    2013-07-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks and sporadic cases of diarrhea in industrialized countries. To study the prevalence and genetic diversity of NoVs in Guatemala, stool specimens were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory patients presenting with diarrhea (≥3 loose or liquid stools in a 24-hr period) who were enrolled in a prospective surveillance system in the Departments of Santa Rosa (October 2007 to August 2010) and Quetzaltenango (August 2009 to August 2010), Guatemala. Specimens were tested for rotavirus, enteric bacteria, and parasites by routine methods and for genogroups I and II NoV by real-time reverse transcription-PCR. A total of 2,403 stool specimens were collected from hospitalized (n = 528) and ambulatory patients (n = 1,875). Overall, 341 (14%) samples tested positive for NoVs including 114 (22%) hospitalized and 227 (12%) ambulatory patients. NoVs disease peaked during the winter (November-January) months. Among the 341 NoVs-positive patients, 32 (9%) were also positive for rotavirus, 32 (9%) for bacteria, and 9 (3%) for protozoa. Nucleotide sequences were obtained from 84 samples collected from hospitalized children aged Guatemala. The findings highlight the need to implement laboratory diagnostics for NoVs to improve appropriate clinical management of diarrheal diseases and guide vaccine development.

  3. Association of food-hygiene practices and diarrhea prevalence among Indonesian young children from low socioeconomic urban areas.

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    Agustina, Rina; Sari, Tirta P; Satroamidjojo, Soemilah; Bovee-Oudenhoven, Ingeborg M J; Feskens, Edith J M; Kok, Frans J

    2013-10-19

    Information on the part that poor food-hygiene practices play a role in the development of diarrhea in low socioeconomic urban communities is lacking. This study was therefore aimed at assessing the contribution of food-hygiene practice to the prevalence of diarrhea among Indonesian children. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 274 randomly selected children aged 12-59 months in selected low socioeconomic urban areas of East Jakarta. The prevalence of diarrhea was assessed from 7-day records on frequency and consistency of the child's defecation pattern. Food-hygiene practices including mother's and child's hand washing, food preparation, cleanliness of utensils, water source and safe drinking water, habits of buying cooked food, child's bottle feeding hygiene, and housing and environmental condition were collected through home visit interviews and observations by fieldworkers. Thirty-six practices were scored and classified into poor (median and below) and better (above median) food-hygiene practices. Nutritional status of children, defined anthropometrically, was measured through height and weight. Among the individual food-hygiene practices, children living in a house with less dirty sewage had a significantly lower diarrhea prevalence compared to those who did not [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.03-0.73]. The overall food-hygiene practice score was not significantly associated with diarrhea in the total group, but it was in children aged hygiene practices did not contribute to the occurrence of diarrhea in Indonesian children. However, among children < 2 years from low socioeconomic urban areas they were associated with more diarrhea.

  4. Prevalence of Clostridium spp. and Clostridium difficile in children with acute diarrhea in São Paulo city, Brazil

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    Claudia EA Ferreira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Species of Clostridium are widely distributed in the environment, inhabiting both human and animal gastrointestinal tracts. Clostridium difficile is an important pathogen associated with outbreaks of pseudomembranous colitis and other intestinal disorders, such as diarrhea. In this study, the prevalence of Clostridium spp. and C. difficile, from hospitalized children with acute diarrhea, was examined. These children were admitted to 3 different hospitals for over 12 months. Eighteen (20% and 19 (21% stool specimens from children with (90 and without (91 diarrhea respectively, were positive to clostridia. Only 10 C. difficile strains were detected in 5.5% of the stool samples of children with diarrhea. None healthy children (without diarrhea harbored C. difficile. From these 10 C. difficile, 9 were considered as toxigenic and genotyped as tcdA+/tcdB+ or tcdA-/tcdB+, and 1 strain as nontoxigenic (tcdA-/tdcB-. They were detected by the citotoxicity on VERO cells and by the multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. Thirty clinical fecal extracts produced minor alterations on VERO cells. The presence of C. difficile as a probable agent of acute diarrhea is suggested in several countries, but in this study, the presence of these organisms was not significant. More studies will be necessary to evaluate the role of clostridia or C. difficile in diarrhoeal processes in children.

  5. Prevalence of Aeromonas Hydrophila and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Children with Acute Diarrhea Attending Health Centers in Hamadan

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    S. Kazemi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diarrhea is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in all age groups, especially children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. Various studies have been reported regarding the relationship between the children acute diarrhea and Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of the bacteria and their sensitivity to common antibiotics and the prevalence of virulence genes in the bacteria in Hamadan, Iran. Materials & Methods: In this study, 120 stool samples collected from children less than 10 years of age with acute diarrhea were examined for Aeromonashydrophila and Yersinia enterocolitica. Identification of the bacteria was performed by biochemical reactions and PCR using 16S rRNA genes. Moreover, the prevalence of virulence genes earA and hyl of Aeromonashydrophila and ail and ystB genes of Yersinia enterocolitica were investigated using PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was performed by disk diffusion method. Results: Out of 120 stool samples, 2 (1.7 % Aeromonashydrophila and 3 (2.5% Yersinia enterocolitica were isolated. All isolates of Aeromonashydrophila were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole, gentamicin, meropenem, amikacin and 50% of isolates were sensitive to the ceftriaxone and azithromycin. All Aeromonashydrophila isolates were resistant to erythromycin. All isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica were sensitive to the chloramphenicol, co-trimoxazole and meropenem. The 33.3% of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin and amikacin and 66.6% of them were susceptible to ceftriaxone. However, all of Yersinia enterocolitica isolates were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin. The prevalence aerA and hyl genes in Aeromonashydrophila were reported 100% and 50%, respectively. The prevalence of ail and ystB genes in Yersinia enterocolitica was reported as 66.6%. Conclusions: Identification and analysis of

  6. Prevalence, virulence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of Aeromonas spp. isolated from children with diarrhea

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    Soltan Dallal, Mohammad Mehdi; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Kavan Talkhabi, Morteza; Aghaiyan, Leyla; Salehipour, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Background Aeromonas spp. cause various intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. These bacteria are usually isolated from fecal samples, especially in children under five years old. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and their antimicrobial resistance profile in children with diarrhea referred to the Children Medical Center in Tehran, between 2013 and 2014. Methods A total number of 391 stool samples were collected from children with ages between 1 day and 14 years old, with diarrhea (acute or chronic), referred to the Children Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between 2013 and 2014. Samples were enriched in alkaline peptone water broth for 24 hours at 37 °C and then cultured. Suspicious colonies were analyzed through biochemical tests. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out for the isolates. Isolates were further studied for act, ast, alt, aerA and hlyA virulence genes using polymerase chain reaction. Results In total, 12 isolates (3.1%) were identified as Aeromonas spp.; all were confirmed using the API-20E test. Of these isolates, five A. caviae (42%), four A. veronii (33%) and three A. hydrophila (25%) were identified in cases with gastroenteritis. Second to ampicillin (which was included in the growth medium used), the highest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against nalidixic acid and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (5 isolates each, 41.6%) and the lowest rate of antimicrobial resistance was seen against gentamicin, amikacin and cefepime (none of the isolates). Results included 76.4% act, 64.7% ast, 71.5% alt, 83.3% aerA and 11.7% hlyA genes. Conclusion Aeromonas spp. are important due to their role in diarrhea in children; therefore, isolation and identification of these fecal pathogens should seriously be considered in medical laboratories. Since virulence genes play a significant role in gastroenteritis symptoms caused by these bacteria, Aeromonas species that include virulence genes are potentially

  7. High Prevalence of Idiopathic Bile Acid Diarrhea Among Patients With Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome Based on Rome III Criteria.

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    Aziz, Imran; Mumtaz, Saqib; Bholah, Hassan; Chowdhury, Fahmid U; Sanders, David S; Ford, Alexander C

    2015-09-01

    Some studies have found that patients with idiopathic bile acid diarrhea (BAD) present with symptoms of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS). However, these studies either were retrospective, did not define D-IBS according to current criteria, or included patients with chronic functional diarrhea. We performed a prospective study of the prevalence of idiopathic BAD in consecutive patients fulfilling the Rome III criteria for D-IBS. We analyzed data from 118 consecutive adult patients who fulfilled the Rome III criteria for D-IBS (mean age, 41.7 y; 72.9% female), seen at 2 gastroenterology clinics in the United Kingdom. We excluded patients with risk factors for BAD (previous history of cholecystectomy, terminal ileal Crohn's disease, terminal ileal resection or right hemicolectomy, pelvic or abdominal radiotherapy, celiac disease, or microscopic colitis). Participants completed questionnaires at baseline (on demographics, hospital anxiety, somatization, and depression, as well as the patient health questionnaire-12 and the Short Form-36), and then received the (75)selenium homocholic acid taurine retention test. Retention of (75)selenium homocholic acid taurine 7 days after administration was used to identify patients with idiopathic BAD (mild BAD, 10%-14.9%; moderate BAD, 5.1%-9.9%; and severe BAD, ≤5%). Twenty-eight patients were found to have BAD (23.7% of total), with similar percentages at each study site (25.3% and 20%; P = .54). Eight patients had mild BAD (28.6%), 8 patients had moderate BAD (28.6%), and 12 patients had severe BAD (42.8%). There was no statistical difference in age, sex, depression, patient health questionnaire-12 responses, or SF-36 scores between individuals with vs without BAD. However, patients with BAD had a higher mean body mass index than patients without BAD (31.6 vs 26.4; P = .003). Physical activity (based on the Short Form-36) was significantly lower in subjects with moderate (43.8) or severe BAD (41

  8. A molecular study on the prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas spp. recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel.

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    Yigal Senderovich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Species of the genus Aeromonas are native inhabitants of aquatic environments and have recently been considered emerging human pathogens. Although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the most common anatomic site from which aeromonads are recovered, their role as etiologic agents of bacterial diarrhea is still disputed. Aeromonas-associated diarrhea is a phenomenon occurring worldwide; however, the exact prevalence of Aeromonas infections on a global scale is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The prevalence and virulence potential of Aeromonas in patients suffering from diarrhea in Israel was studied using molecular methods. 1,033 diarrheal stools were sampled between April and September 2010 and Aeromonas species were identified in 17 (∼2% patients by sequencing the rpoD gene. Aeromonas species identity and abundance was: A. caviae (65%, A. veronii (29% and Aeromonas taiwanensis (6%. This is the first clinical record of A. taiwanensis as a diarrheal causative since its recent discovery from a wound infection in a patient in Taiwan. Most of the patients (77% from which Aeromonas species were isolated were negative for any other pathogens. The patients ranged from 1 to 92 years in age. Aeromonas isolates were found to possess different virulence-associated genes: ahpB (88%, pla/lip/lipH3/apl-1 (71%, act/hlyA/aerA (35%, alt (18%, ast (6%, fla (65%, lafA (41%, TTSS ascV (12%, TTSS ascF-ascG (12%, TTSS-dependent ADP-ribosylating toxins aexU (41% and aexT (6% in various combinations. Most of the identified strains were resistant to beta-lactam antibiotics but susceptible to third-generation cephalosporin antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Aeromonas may be a causative agent of diarrhea in patients in Israel and therefore should be included in routine bacteriological screenings.

  9. Prevalence of rotavirus (GARV) and coronavirus (BCoV) associated with neonatal diarrhea in calves in western Algeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Selles Sidi Mohammed Ammar; Kouidri Mokhtaria; Belhamiti Belkacem Tahar; Ait Amrane Amar; Benia Ahmed Redha; Bellik Yuva; Hammoudi Si Mohamed; Niar Abdellatif; Boukra Laid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the prevalence of bovine group A rotavirus (GARV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) in diarrheic feces from calves and the sensitive’s parameters such as age group and sex.Methods:Feces samples from 82 diarrheic dairy calves from farms around Tiaret (Western Algeria) were collected. These samples were tested by ELISA assay.Results:The present study demonstrates that the both BCoV and GARV are involved in the (12.2% alone and 2.43% associated with bovine coronavirus) and 20.73% (18.3% alone and 2.43%associated with GARV), respectively.Conclusions:The results showed that the prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus infection are 14.63%neonatal calves’ diarrhea, where the frequency of BCoV is clearly higher than that of GARV.

  10. Prevalence of rotavirus (GARV) and coronavirus (BCoV) associated with neonatal diarrhea in calves in western Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Selles Sidi Mohammed; Mokhtaria, Kouidri; Tahar, Belhamiti Belkacem; Amar, Ait Amrane; Redha, Benia Ahmed; Yuva, Bellik; Mohamed, Hammoudi Si; Abdellatif, Niar; Laid, Boukrâa

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the prevalence of bovine group A rotavirus (GARV) and bovine coronavirus (BCoV) in diarrheic feces from calves and the sensitive's parameters such as age group and sex. Methods Feces samples from 82 diarrheic dairy calves from farms around Tiaret (Western Algeria) were collected. These samples were tested by ELISA assay. Results The results showed that the prevalence of rotavirus and coronavirus infection are 14.63% (12.2% alone and 2.43% associated with bovine coronavirus) and 20.73% (18.3% alone and 2.43% associated with GARV), respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the both BCoV and GARV are involved in the neonatal calves' diarrhea, where the frequency of BCoV is clearly higher than that of GARV. PMID:25183104

  11. Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of juiz de fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity

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    Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, during the period from January, 2005 through December, 2008, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Files from 6,201 children from 0 to 6 years of age, hospitalized in two public teaching institutions (which account for 84% of all the hospitalizations in the municipality, were assessed. Acute diarrhea was defined as the presence of at least three evacuations of liquid or loose stools, within 24 hours, for a maximum period of 14 days. The patients with acute diarrhea were divided in two groups, according to disease severity, severe diarrhea being considered whenever hospitalization lasted for at least 4 days. Epidemiologic and clinical data were assessed and compared through the application of the chi-squared test and the binomial logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence rate for admission due to acute diarrhea was 8.4%. The factors significantly associated with the severity of the diarrheic episode were: age under 6 months (P = 0.01, OR = 2.762; disease onset during fall (P = 0.033, OR = 1.742, presence of fever (P = 0.017, OR = 1.715 and antibiotic use during hospitalization (P = 0.000, OR = 3.872. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea is the third most common cause of hospitalization among children under 6 years of age in Juiz de Fora. Young age (under or equal to 6 months, fever, antibiotic use during hospitalization and disease onset during fall are risk factors associated with longer hospital stay.

  12. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and other intestinal parasites in children with diarrhea

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    Mutalip Çiçek

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was planned to determine the role of Cryptosporidium sp. and other intestinal parasites in the diarrheal diseases in children with 0-15 years old Van district.Materials and methods: In this study, stool samples of 450 children were examined for parasites. In the study, nativ-lugol, formaldehyde-ethyl acetate sedimentation methods and trichrome staining methods were used to detect parasites in stool samples. Additionally, sedimentation methods and modified acid fast staining method were used to detect the Cryptosporidium oocysts.Results: Parasites were found in 154 (34.2% among 450 children’s with diarrhea. In this study; the ratios of parasites were as follow: Giardia intestinalis 13.5%, Blastocystis hominis 10%, Entamoeba coli 3.78%, Cryptosporidium spp. 2.2%, Hymenolepis nana 1.33 %ve Ascaris lumbricoides 1.11%.Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar 0.89%, Chilomastix mesnili 1.78%, Iodamoeba butschlii 0.89%, Entamoeba hartmanni 0.89%, Trichomonas hominis 0.67%, Enteromonas hominis 0.67%,Conclusion: In the investigate, it was found that Giardia intestinalis and Blastocystis hominis were most prominent agents in children with diarrhea in our vicinity and Cryptosporidium spp also was an important agent which should be investigated carefully in especially risk group in routine laboratory studies.

  13. Prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in children with diarrhea in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil

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    Marcia Regina Franzolin

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the frequency of the different diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC categories isolated from children with acute endemic diarrhea in Salvador, Bahia. The E. coli isolates were investigated by colony blot hibridization whit the following genes probes: eae, EAF, bfpA, Stx1, Stx2, ST-Ih, ST-Ip, LT-I, LT-II, INV, and EAEC, as virulence markers to distinguish typical and atypical EPEC, EHEC/STEC, ETEC, EIEC, and EAEC. Seven of the eight categories of DEC were detected. The most frequently isolated was atypical EPEC (10.1% followed by ETEC (7.5%, and EAEC (4.2%. EHEC, STEC, EIEC, and typical EPEC were each detected once. The strains of ETEC, EAEC, and atypical EPEC belonged to a wide variety of serotypes. The serotypes of the others categories were O26:H11 (EHEC, O21:H21 (STEC, O142:H34 (typical EPEC, and O?H55 (EIEC. We also present the clinical manifestations and other pathogenic species observed in children with DEC. This is the first report of EHEC and STEC in Salvador, and one of the first in Brazil.

  14. School Nurses' Perceived Prevalence and Competence to Address Student Mental Health Problems

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    Stephan, Sharon H.; Connors, Elizabeth H.

    2013-01-01

    Due to under-identification of student mental health problems and limited specialty mental health providers in schools, school nurses are often faced with identifying and addressing student mental health needs. This exploratory study assessed prevalence and types of student mental health problems encountered by school nurses, as well as their…

  15. High Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta Lactamases among Salmonella enterica Typhimurium Isolates from Pediatric Patients with Diarrhea in China

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    Yu, Fangyou; Chen, Qiang; Yu, Xiaojun; Li, Qiaoqiao; Ding, Baixing; Yang, Lehe; Chen, Cong; Qin, Zhiqiang; Parsons, Chris; Zhang, Xueqing; Huang, Jinwei; Luo, Yun; Wang, Liangxing; Pan, Jingye

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the extended-spectrum beta lactamases among 62 Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates recovered from children with diarrhea in a Chinese pediatric hospital. A large proportion of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (90.3%), tetracycline (80.6%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.2%), chloramphenicol (66.1%), cefotaxime (27.4%). Forty-nine (79.0%) of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were positive for blaTEM-1b and resistant to ampicillin. Thirteen S. enterica Typhimurium isolates (21.0%) were positive for blaCTX-M-1-group and blaCTX-M-9-group, and all isolates harboring blaCTX-M genes were positive for ISEcp1. Two main clones (PFGE type A and D) accounted for nearly 70% of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates, and 7 CTX-M-producing isolates belonged to PFGE type D. Collectively, our data reveal multi-drug resistance and a high prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamases among S. enterica Typhimurium isolates from children in China. In addition, we report the first identification of blaCTX-M-55 within Salmonella spp. Our data also suggest that clonal spread is responsible for the dissemination of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates. PMID:21390297

  16. High prevalence of extended-spectrum beta lactamases among Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates from pediatric patients with diarrhea in China.

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    Fangyou Yu

    Full Text Available We investigated the extended-spectrum beta lactamases among 62 Salmonella enterica Typhimurium isolates recovered from children with diarrhea in a Chinese pediatric hospital. A large proportion of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were resistant to multiple antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin (90.3%, tetracycline (80.6%, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (74.2%, chloramphenicol (66.1%, cefotaxime (27.4%. Forty-nine (79.0% of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates were positive for bla(TEM-1b and resistant to ampicillin. Thirteen S. enterica Typhimurium isolates (21.0% were positive for bla(CTX-M-1-group and bla(CTX-M-9-group, and all isolates harboring bla(CTX-M genes were positive for ISEcp1. Two main clones (PFGE type A and D accounted for nearly 70% of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates, and 7 CTX-M-producing isolates belonged to PFGE type D. Collectively, our data reveal multi-drug resistance and a high prevalence of extended spectrum beta lactamases among S. enterica Typhimurium isolates from children in China. In addition, we report the first identification of bla(CTX-M-55 within Salmonella spp. Our data also suggest that clonal spread is responsible for the dissemination of S. enterica Typhimurium isolates.

  17. Herd-level prevalence and risk factors for bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in cattle in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Leise Gomes; Nogueira, Adriana Hellmeister de Campos; De Stefano, Eliana; Pituco, Edviges Maristela; Ribeiro, Cláudia Pestana; Alves, Clebert José; Oliveira, Tainara Sombra; Clementino, Inácio José; de Azevedo, Sérgio Santos

    2016-01-01

    Serological surveys based on a planned sampling on bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in Brazilian cattle herds are scarce. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine herd- and animal-level seroprevalences and to identify risk factors associated with herd-level seroprevalence for BVDV infection in the State of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil, from September 2012 to January 2013. The state was divided into three sampling strata, and for each stratum, the prevalence of herds infected with BVDV and the prevalence of seropositive animals was estimated by a two-stage sampling survey. In total, 2443 animals were sampled from 478 herds. A virus-neutralization test was used for BVDV antibody detection. A herd was considered positive when at least one seropositive animal was detected. The herd- and animal-level prevalences in the State of Paraíba were 65.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 61.1-69.7%) and 39.1% (95% CI = 33.1-45.6%), respectively. The frequency of seropositive animals per herd ranged from 10 to 100% (median of 50%). The risk factors identified were as follows: more than six calves aged ≤12 months (odds ratio (OR) = 3.72; 95% CI = 2.08-6.66), animal purchasing (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.08-2.55), pasture rental (OR = 2.15; 95% CI = 1.35-3.55), and presence of veterinary assistance (OR = 2.04; 95% CI = 1.10-3.79). Our findings suggest that the implementation of control and prevention measures among farmers, with the aim of preventing dissemination of the agent in the herds, is necessary. Special attention should be given to addressing the identified risk factors, such as sanitary control prior to animal purchasing and to discourage the pasture rental, as well as to encourage the vaccination in the herds.

  18. Prevalence of Escherichia coli virulence genes in patients with diarrhea and a subpopulation of healthy volunteers in Madrid, Spain

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    Adriana eCabal

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Etiological diagnosis of diarrheal diseases may be complicated by their multi-factorial nature. In addition, Escherichia coli strains present in the gut can occasionally harbor VGs without causing disease, which complicates the assessment of their clinical significance in particular.The aim of this study was to detect and quantify nine VGs (stx1, stx2, eae, aggR, ehxA, invA, est and elt typically present in five E. coli enteric pathotypes (EHEC, ETEC, EPEC, EAEC and EIEC in fecal samples collected from 49 patients with acute diarrhea and 32 healthy controls from Madrid, Spain. In addition, the presence of four serotype-related genes (wzxO104 and fliCH4, rbfO157 and fliCH7 was also determined. Presence of target genes was assessed using a quantitative real-time PCR assay previously developed, and the association of presence and burden of VGs with clinical disease and/or other risk factors was explored. Prevalence of ehxA (typically associated with STEC and EPEC, invA (EIEC and the rbfO157+fliCH7 (STEC and/or STEC/EAEC combination were significantly (p<0.02 higher in the diarrheic group, while the wzxO104+fliCH4 combination was significantly (p=0.014 more prevalent in the control group. On the other hand, eae was detected in more than 90% of the individuals in both patient and control populations, and it was not associated with bfpA, suggesting the absence of typical EPEC. No significant differences in the quantitative values were detected for any VG among study groups, but the difference in the load of aggR (EAEC and invA in the patients with respect to the controls was close to the significance, suggesting a potential role of these VGs in the clinical signs observed when they are present at high levels.

  19. Prevalence of Escherichia coli Virulence Genes in Patients with Diarrhea and a Subpopulation of Healthy Volunteers in Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, Adriana; García-Castillo, María; Cantón, Rafael; Gortázar, Christian; Domínguez, Lucas; Álvarez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Etiological diagnosis of diarrheal diseases may be complicated by their multi-factorial nature. In addition, Escherichia coli strains present in the gut can occasionally harbor virulence genes (VGs) without causing disease, which complicates the assessment of their clinical significance in particular. The aim of this study was to detect and quantify nine VGs (stx1, stx2, eae, aggR, ehxA, invA, est, elt and bfpA) typically present in five E. coli enteric pathotypes [enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC)] in fecal samples collected from 49 patients with acute diarrhea and 32 healthy controls from Madrid, Spain. In addition, the presence of four serotype-related genes (wzx O104 and fliCH4, rfb O157, and fliCH7) was also determined. Presence of target genes was assessed using a quantitative real-time PCR assay previously developed, and the association of presence and burden of VGs with clinical disease and/or other risk factors was explored. Prevalence of ehxA [typically associated with Shigatoxin producing E. coli (STEC) and (EPEC), invA (EIEC), and the rfb O157+fliCH7 (STEC)] combination were significantly (p < 0.02) higher in the diarrheic group, while the wzx O104+fliCH4 combination was significantly (p = 0.014) more prevalent in the control group. On the other hand, eae was detected in more than 90% of the individuals in both patient and control populations, and it was not associated with bfpA, suggesting the absence of typical EPEC. No significant differences in the quantitative values were detected for any VG among study groups, but the difference in the load of aggR (EAEC) and invA in the patients with respect to the controls was close to the significance, suggesting a potential role of these VGs in the clinical signs observed when they are present at high levels.

  20. Sanitation facilities, hygienic conditions, and prevalence of acute diarrhea among under-five children in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Baseline survey of a longitudinal study.

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    Adane, Metadel; Mengistie, Bezatu; Kloos, Helmut; Medhin, Girmay; Mulat, Worku

    2017-01-01

    In developing countries, children under the age of five years who live in slums are highly vulnerable to diarrhea. However, there is a paucity of information on the relationship between sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions to acute diarrhea among under-five children in slum areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Therefore, this study examines the sanitation facilities and hygienic conditions in the slums of Addis Ababa and identifies the main factors significantly associated with acute diarrhea among children aged 0-50 months in those slums. A community-based cross-sectional household survey was carried out between September and November 2014, that then served as the baseline survey of a longitudinal study. For this survey, 697 children aged 0-50 months were recruited from two slum districts in Addis Ababa. A pre-tested structured questionnaire and an observational checklist were used for data collection. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sanitation facilities and hygiene-related factors that were significantly associated with acute diarrhea by controlling potential confounding effects of selected socio-demographic factors. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to quantify the strength of association. The prevalence of acute diarrhea among children aged 0-50 months in the study area was 11.9% and 94.6% of the sanitation facilities were unimproved. Sharing of a sanitation facility by six or more households (AOR = 4.7; 95% CI: 2.4-9.4), proximity of sanitation facilities within 15 meters of homes (AOR = 6.6; 95% CI: 2.5-17.0), presence of feces (AOR = 3.9; 95% CI: 1.5-10.3) and flies (AOR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.3-5.0) on the floor of and/or around sanitation facilities, and presence of uncollected garbage inside house compounds (AOR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.2-8.4) were significantly associated with acute diarrhea. This study reveals the slum environment to be high risk for diarrhea due to close proximity

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for shedding of thermophilic Campylobacter in calves with and without diarrhea in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D; Alispahic, M; Sofka, D; Iwersen, M; Drillich, M; Hilbert, F

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter in feces of calves with and without diarrhea on dairy farms and to survey farm characteristics and management practices to define risk factors for the presence of Campylobacter. Fifty dairy farms were chosen based on the presence of calf diarrhea, and 50 farms in which calves were free from diarrhea served as a standard of comparison. In total, fecal samples were taken from 382 calves. Farm data and management practices were surveyed using a questionnaire on farm. Campylobacter were isolated from fecal samples and colonies were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Campylobacter spp., mainly Campylobacter jejuni (93% of isolated species), were detected on 33% of the farms and in 14.9% of the calves. Detection of Campylobacter did not differ between farms or between calves with and without diarrhea, although we found a tendency for calves suffering from diarrhea to shed Campylobacter more often. Calves may act as a reservoir of Campylobacter and may therefore lead to infections of other animals and humans. To define control strategies to reduce Campylobacter in calves, we identified on-farm risk factors. The presence of poultry on the farm, the time of cow-calf separation following birth, the use of an individual bucket for each calf, the feeding of waste milk, and the duration of individual housing were variables significantly associated with the appearance or absence of Campylobacter. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Typical enteroaggregative Escherichia coli is the most prevalent pathotype among E. coli strains causing diarrhea in Mongolian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarantuya, Jav; Nishi, Junichiro; Wakimoto, Naoko; Erdene, Shirchin; Nataro, James P; Sheikh, Jalaluddin; Iwashita, Mayumi; Manago, Kunihiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Yoshinaga, Masao; Miyata, Koichiro; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2004-01-01

    Diarrhea remains one of the main sources of morbidity and mortality in the world, and a large proportion is caused by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. In Mongolia, the epidemiology of diarrheagenic E. coli has not been well studied. A total of 238 E. coli strains from children with sporadic diarrhea and 278 E. coli strains from healthy children were examined by PCR for 10 virulence genes: enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) eae, tir, and bfpA; enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) lt and st; enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) ipaH; enterohemorragic E. coli stx1 and stx2; and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) aggR and astA. EAEC strains without AggR were identified by the HEp-2 cell adherence test. The detection of EAEC, ETEC, EPEC, and EIEC was significantly associated with diarrhea. The incidence of EAEC (15.1%), defined by either a molecular or a phenotypic assay, was higher in the diarrheal group than any other category (0 to 6.0%). The incidence of AggR-positive EAEC in the diarrheal group was significantly higher than in the control group (8.0 versus 1.4%; P = 0.0004), while that of AggR-negative EAEC was not (7.1 versus 4.3%). Nineteen AggR-positive EAEC strains harbored other EAEC virulence genes-aggA, 2 (5.5%); aafA, 4 (11.1%); agg-3a, 5 (13.8%); aap, 8 (22.2%); aatA, 11 (30.5%); capU, 9 (25.0%); pet, 6 (16.6%); and set, 3 (8.3%)-and showed 15 genotypes. EAEC may be an important pathogen of sporadic diarrhea in Mongolian children. Genetic analysis showed the heterogeneity of EAEC but illustrated the importance of the AggR regulon (denoting typical EAEC) as a marker for virulent EAEC strains.

  3. Diarrhea (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinking water contaminated with organisms like bacteria and parasites. Medications can also cause diarrhea, especially antibiotics, laxatives containing magnesium, and chemotherapy for cancer treatment.

  4. Etiology of Acute Diarrhea in Tunisian Children with Emphasis on Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli: Prevalence and Identification of E. coli Virulence Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Ben Salem-Ben Nejma

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal diseases can be caused by viral, bacterial and parasitic infections. This paper provides a preliminary image of diarrhea with regards to etiology and epidemiologic factors in Tunisian children less than five years of age.Overall, 124 diarrhoeal stools were collected from patients suffering from acute diarrhea and 54 stool samples from healthy children. All stools were examined for the presence of enteric pathogens.In diarrheagenic children, 107 pathogenic bacteria were isolated (12 Salmonella spp. (9.7% and 95 diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains (76.6%: 29 enteroaggregative E.coli (EAEC (23.4%, 15 enteroinvasive E.coli (EIEC (12.1%, 17 enteropathogenic E.coli (EPEC (13.7%, 26 enterotoxigenic E.coli (ETEC (21% and 2 enterohemoragic E.coli (EHEC (1.6%. However, in the control group, 23 pathogenic E.coli strains were isolated (42.6%: 8 EAEC (14.8%, 12 EIEC (22.2% and 3 EPEC (5.5%. Among diarrheagenic E.coli (DEC, only ETEC strains were significantly recovered from diarrheagenic children than from healthy controls (P < 0.0003. Group A rotavirus was identified in 33.9% (n=42 of diarrheagenic children and in 11.1% among the control group (n=6. Concerning norovirus, 8.9% (n=11 of the samples collected from diarrheagenic children and 9.2% (n=5 from the control group were positive. The prevalence of rotaviruses and Salmonella spp were also significantly higher in patients with diarrhea than in controls (P = 0.002 and P < 0.019, respectively. Finally, enteropathogenic parasites (Entamoeba coli and cryptosporidium Oocystes were isolated from 4.8% and 9.2% of diarrheagenic and control children, respectively.These results provide baseline data about the relative importance of different enteropathogens in Tunisian children.

  5. Diarrhea - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause of diarrhea is the stomach flu ( viral gastroenteritis ). This mild viral infection goes away on its own within a few days. Eating or drinking food or water that contains certain types of bacteria or parasites can also lead to diarrhea. This ...

  6. Prevalência baixa de adenovírus em crianças com diarreia em Belo Horizonte-MG Low prevalence of adenoviruses in children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jenner Duarte

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Diversos microrganismos são reconhecidos como agentes de diarreia aguda, entre eles, os adenovírus, cuja associação com a doença apresenta variações geográficas e é pouco conhecida no Brasil. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a presença de adenovírus em fezes de crianças com diarreia aguda e sem diarreia, em Belo Horizonte-MG, e estudar os fatores epidemiológicos associados à adenovirose intestinal. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: O teste imunocromatográfico qualitativo (kit VIKIA® Rota-Adeno, bioMérieux foi utilizado para pesquisa de antígenos de adenovírus em amostras fecais obtidas de 268 crianças com diarreia aguda e 124 sem diarreia, em 2005 e 2006, no Hospital Infantil João Paulo II, Belo Horizonte-MG. Dados laboratoriais, clínicos e epidemiológicos foram registrados em banco de dados (SPSS Statistical package, IBM. RESULTADOS: Adenovírus foi detectado nas fezes de 16 crianças (4,1%: 12 (4,5% com diarreia e quatro (3,2% sem diarreia. A virose foi mais comum em meninas e a distribuição etária da infecção foi homogênea. Entre as 16 crianças com infecção pelo vírus, 11 (68,8% tinham até 12 meses de idade. Entretanto, diferença significativa não foi observada para os parâmetros analisados. Distribuição sazonal da infecção por adenovírus não foi detectada. CONCLUSÃO: Nossos dados demonstram que a prevalência da adenovirose é baixa na população pediátrica no nosso meio.INTRODUCTION: Several microorganisms, among them enteric adenovirus, are widely recognized as etiological agents of acute diarrhea. The association between adenovirus and the disease varies among geographical regions and is poorly known in Brazil. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the presence of adenovirus in stool samples from children with and without diarrhea in Belo Horizonte-MG. To study factors associated with enteric adenovirus infection. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A qualitative immunochromatographic assay (kit VIKIA® Rota-Adeno, bio

  7. [Persistent diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, J A; Moreira, C; Fagundes Neto, U

    2000-07-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent diarrhea has high impact on infantile morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. Several studies have shown that 3 to 20% of acute diarrheal episodes in children under 5 years of age become persistent. DEFINITION: Persistent diarrhea is defined as an episode that lasts more than 14 days. ETIOLOGY: The most important agents isolated in persistent diarrhea are: Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), Salmonella, Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Klebisiella and Cryptosporidium. CLINICAL ASPECTS: In general, the clinical characteristics of patients with persistent diarrhea do not change with the pathogenic agent. Persistent diarrhea seems to represent the final result of a several insults a infant suffers that predisposes to a more severe episode of diarrhea due to a combination of host factors and high rates of enviromental contamination. Therefore, efforts should be made to promptly treat all episodes of diarrhea with apropriate follow-up. THERAPY: The aim of the treatment is to restore hydroelectrolytic deficits and to replace losses until the diarrheal ceases. It is possible in the majority of the cases, using oral rehydration therapy and erly an appropriate type of diet. PREVENTION: It is imperative that management strategies also focus on preventive aspects. The most effective diarrheal prevention strategy in young infants worldwide is promotion of exclusive breast feeding.

  8. The Effect of Improved Water Supply on Diarrhea Prevalence of Children under Five in the Volta Region of Ghana: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seungman; Kang, Douk; Tuffuor, Benedict; Lee, Gyuhong; Cho, Jungmyung; Chung, Jihye; Kim, Myongjin; Lee, Hoonsang; Lee, Jaeeun; Oh, Chunghyeon

    2015-09-25

    Although a number of studies have been conducted to explore the effect of water quality improvement, the majority of them have focused mainly on point-of-use water treatment, and the studies investigating the effect of improved water supply have been based on observational or inadequately randomized trials. We report the results of a matched cluster randomized trial investigating the effect of improved water supply on diarrheal prevalence of children under five living in rural areas of the Volta Region in Ghana. We compared the diarrheal prevalence of 305 children in 10 communities of intervention with 302 children in 10 matched communities with no intervention (October 2012 to February 2014). A modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio. An intention-to-treat analysis was undertaken. The crude prevalence ratio of diarrhea in the intervention compared with the control communities was 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.97) for Krachi West, 0.96 (0.87-1.05) for Krachi East, and 0.91 (0.83-0.98) for both districts. Sanitation was adjusted for in the model to remove the bias due to residual imbalance since it was not balanced even after randomization. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 0.82 (95% CI 0.71-0.96) for Krachi West, 0.95 (0.86-1.04) for Krachi East, and 0.89 (0.82-0.97) for both districts. This study provides a basis for a better approach to water quality interventions.

  9. The Effect of Improved Water Supply on Diarrhea Prevalence of Children under Five in the Volta Region of Ghana: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungman Cha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Although a number of studies have been conducted to explore the effect of water quality improvement, the majority of them have focused mainly on point-of-use water treatment, and the studies investigating the effect of improved water supply have been based on observational or inadequately randomized trials. We report the results of a matched cluster randomized trial investigating the effect of improved water supply on diarrheal prevalence of children under five living in rural areas of the Volta Region in Ghana. We compared the diarrheal prevalence of 305 children in 10 communities of intervention with 302 children in 10 matched communities with no intervention (October 2012 to February 2014. A modified Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio. An intention-to-treat analysis was undertaken. The crude prevalence ratio of diarrhea in the intervention compared with the control communities was 0.85 (95% CI 0.74–0.97 for Krachi West, 0.96 (0.87–1.05 for Krachi East, and 0.91 (0.83–0.98 for both districts. Sanitation was adjusted for in the model to remove the bias due to residual imbalance since it was not balanced even after randomization. The adjusted prevalence ratio was 0.82 (95% CI 0.71–0.96 for Krachi West, 0.95 (0.86–1.04 for Krachi East, and 0.89 (0.82–0.97 for both districts. This study provides a basis for a better approach to water quality interventions.

  10. Travelers' Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visiting Friends and Family in Areas with Chikungunya, Dengue, or Zika Visiting Friends or Family in an ... East, Africa, Mexico, and Central and South America. Prevention In otherwise healthy adults, diarrhea is rarely serious ...

  11. Acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobillo, E T; Schwartz, S M

    1998-10-01

    Diarrhea can result from damage to the intestinal lining caused by viruses or bacteria, malabsorption, inflammatory processes, bile salt and pancreatic enzyme deficiency, abnormal motility, or the presence of osmotically active solutes in the gut. While it is important to elicit information to determine the possible cause of diarrhea, be sure to check circulatory status first. Some patients may need rehydration therapy more urgently than they need a diagnosis. The main goals of treatment are to prevent dehydration and correct electrolyte imbalance, to provide supportive and symptomatic therapy, and to treat underlying disease. In most cases, a specific diagnosis is not necessary to guide initial treatment.

  12. Postpartum depression in an Indian community: more prevalent less addressed issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Nigam

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: There is high prevalence of postpartum depression outskirts of Lucknow. Thus it appears pertinent to screen all women for postpartum depression after child-birth in this area so as to improve maternal and child health. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2691-2695

  13. Postpartum depression in an Indian community: more prevalent less addressed issue

    OpenAIRE

    Aruna Nigam; Anupam Prakash; Neha Maheshwari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is major health concern which not only has effect on maternal mortality and morbidity but also have effect on the cognitive and behavioral development of the child. Aims of the study was to study the prevalence of postpartum depression and its correlates. Methods: 100 women between 2 to 6 weeks of postpartum period were subjected to a pre-tested pre-structured standard questionnaire. Diagnosis of depression was made using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression...

  14. Syndromic (phenotypic) diarrhea in early infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bodemer Christine; Brousse Nicole; Roquelaure Bertrand; Vinson Christine; Goulet Olivier; Cézard Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea (SD), also known as phenotypic diarrhea (PD) or tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (THE), is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset of severe diarrhea requiring parenteral nutrition (PN). To date, no epidemiological data are available. The estimated prevalence is approximately 1/300,000–400,000 live births in Western Europe. Ethnic origin does not appear to be associated with SD. Infants are born small for gestational age and present with facial dysmorph...

  15. Syndromic (phenotypic) diarrhea in early infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bodemer Christine; Brousse Nicole; Roquelaure Bertrand; Vinson Christine; Goulet Olivier; Cézard Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea (SD), also known as phenotypic diarrhea (PD) or tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (THE), is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset of severe diarrhea requiring parenteral nutrition (PN). To date, no epidemiological data are available. The estimated prevalence is approximately 1/300,000–400,000 live births in Western Europe. Ethnic origin does not appear to be associated with SD. Infants are born small for gestational age and present with facial dysmorph...

  16. Prevalence study and genetic typing of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV in four bovine species in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Deng

    Full Text Available To determine the nationwide status of persistent BVDV infection in different bovine species in China and compare different test methods, a total of 1379 serum samples from clinical healthy dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks (Bos grunniens, and water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis were collected in eight provinces of China from 2010 to 2013. The samples were analyzed using commercial antibody (Ab and antigen (Ag detection kits, and RT-PCR based on the 5'-UTR and Npro gene sequencing. Results showed that the overall positive rates for BVDV Ab, Ag and RT-PCR detection were 58.09% (801/1379, 1.39% (14/1010, and 22.64% (146/645, respectively, while the individual positive rates varied among regions, species, and farms. The average Ab-positive rates for dairy cattle, beef cattle, yaks, and water buffalo were 89.49% (298/333, 63.27% (248/392, 45.38% (236/520, and 14.18% (19/134, respectively, while the Ag-positive rates were 0.00% (0/116, 0.77% (3/392, 0.82% (3/368, and 5.97% (8/134, respectively, and the nucleic acid-positive rates detected by RT-PCR were 32.06% (42/131, 13.00% (26/200, 28.89% (52/180, and 19.40% (26/134, respectively. In addition, the RT-PCR products were sequenced and 124 5'-UTR sequences were obtained. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5'-UTR sequences indicated that all of the 124 BVDV-positive samples were BVDV-1 and subtyped into either BVDV-1b (33.06%, BVDV-1m (49.19%, or a new cluster, designated as BVDV-1u (17.74%. Phylogenetic analysis based on Npro sequences confirmed this novel subtype. In conclusion, this study revealed the prevalence of BVDV-1 in bovine species in China and the dominant subtypes. The high proportion of bovines with detectable viral nucleic acids in the sera, even in the presence of high Ab levels, revealed a serious threat to bovine health.

  17. Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Antibiotic-associated diarrhea refers to passing loose, watery stools ... after taking medications used to treat bacterial infections (antibiotics). Most often, antibiotic-associated diarrhea is mild and ...

  18. Bovine viral diarrhea virus in free-ranging wild ruminants in Switzerland: low prevalence of infection despite regular interactions with domestic livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casaubon Julien

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the frame of an eradication program for bovine viral diarrhea (BVD in Swiss livestock, the question was raised whether free-ranging wildlife could threaten the success of this sanitary measure. Therefore, we conducted serological and virological investigations on BVD virus (BVDV infections in the four indigenous wild ruminant species (roe deer, red deer, Alpine chamois and Alpine ibex from 2009 to 2011, and gathered information on interactions between wild and domestic ruminants in an alpine environment by questionnaire survey. Results Thirty-two sera out of 1’877 (1.7%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2-2.4 were seropositive for BVDV, and a BVDV1 sub genotype h virus was found in a seropositive chamois (0.05%, 95% CI 0.001-0.3. The seropositive animals originated from sub-alpine or alpine regions and significantly more seropositive red deer, chamois and ibex than roe deer were found. There were no statistically significant differences between sampling units, age classes, genders, and sampling years. The obtained prevalences were significantly lower than those documented in livestock, and most positive wild ruminants were found in proximity of domestic outbreaks. Additionally, BVDV seroprevalence in ibex was significantly lower than previously reported from Switzerland. The survey on interspecific interactions revealed that interactions expected to allow BVDV transmission, from physical contacts to non-simultaneous use of the same areas, regularly occur on pastures among all investigated ruminant species. Interactions involving cervids were more often observed with cattle than with small ruminants, chamois were observed with all three domestic species, and ibex interacted mostly with small ruminants. Interactions related to the use of anthropogenic food sources were frequently observed, especially between red deer and cattle in wintertime. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of BVDV RNA isolated from an

  19. Does childhood diarrhea influence cognition beyond the diarrhea-stunting pathway?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa L Fischer Walker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity among children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries yet the additional effects and sequelae, such as cognitive impairment associated with diarrhea, have not been quantified. METHODS: We quantified the association between diarrhea prevalence and cognitive outcomes while controlling for linear growth in 4 study populations. Cognition was assessed using different methods across sites and was expressed in standardized units. We built linear regression models for each study with standardized cognitive score as the outcome and diarrhea prevalence as the main predictor variable. We then conducted meta-analyses of the regression coefficients to generate pooled estimates of the association between diarrhea prevalence and cognition whilst controlling for anthropometric status and other covariates. RESULTS: Diarrhea was not a significant predictor of cognitive score in any site in the regression models or in the meta-analyses (Coefficient = 0.07; 95% CI: -0.1, 0.2. The length for age Z- score was negatively related to cognition in all sites (0.18; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.21, with coefficients remarkably similar across sites (Coefficient Range: 0.168-0.186. CONCLUSIONS: We did not demonstrate an association between diarrhea and cognition with stunting included in the model. The links between diarrhea, stunting, and cognition provide additional rationale for accelerating interventions to reduce diarrhea.

  20. Prevalence of Shigella, Salmonella and Cmpylobacter Species and Their Susceptibility Patters Among Under Five Children With Diarrhea in Hawassa Town, South Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mulatu, Getamesay; Beyene, Getenet; Zeynudin, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, up-to-date data on etiologic agent and susceptibility pattern are important for the management of bacterial diarrhea in under-five children, which was the main objective of this study. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa Adare Hospital and Millennium Health Center from June 6 to October 28, 2011. A total of 158 under-five childre...

  1. Diarrhea (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hospitalization. Another group of viruses that can cause diarrhea in children, especially during the summer months, are enteroviruses, particularly ... water, this parasite often is the culprit behind diarrhea epidemics in child-care centers and other public places. Cryptosporidiosis often ...

  2. Diarrhea in infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby food that makes diarrhea worse, such as: Apple juice Milk Fried foods Full-strength fruit juice ... Diarrhea Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  3. Presentation of postweaning Escherichia coli diarrhea in southern Ontario, prevalence of hemolytic E. coli serogroups involved, and their antimicrobial resistance patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amezcua, Rocio; Friendship, Robert M; Dewey, Catherine E; Gyles, Carlton; Fairbrother, John M

    2002-04-01

    Post-weaning Escherichia coli diarrhea (PWECD) in Ontario was investigated using a case-control study involving 50 Ontario nurseries. The clinical signs and the impact on productive parameters were determined by means of a producer survey. The hemolytic E. coli serogroups involved in PWECD (O149:K91:K88) were examined in this study. Based on a polymerase chain reaction test, the hemolytic E. coli from 82% of the case herds were positive for 3 enterotoxins (STa, STb, and LT), those from 12% of the case herds were positive for STb and LT only, and those from one herd (6%) were positive for 3 enterotoxins, as well as for verotoxin and F18 pili. The E. coli involved in disease were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Case farms commonly used a wide variety of antibiotics either in the feed or water, or as injectable drugs. The most common antibiotic used to treat PWECD on the study farms was apramycin, but evidence of resistance to this antibiotic was noted. The PWECD problem was commonly seen within a week of weaning but onset of diarrhea was reported as late as the grower-finisher stage. Growth rate was poorer in case herds and mortality was higher than in control herds, demonstrating that PWECD is an economically important disease in Ontario.

  4. 乳糜泻在中国慢性腹泻患儿中的发病情况%Prevalence of celiac disease in children with chronic diarrhea in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王歆琼; 刘伟; 徐俊杰; 梅红; 彭罕鸣; 高原; 袁岚; 许春娣

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of celiac disease in children with chronic diarrhea in China.Methods Inpatients of the pediatric hospitals in Shanghai,Jinan,Wuhan and Chengdu who were diagnosed as chronic diarrhea were recruited from Jan.2005 to Dec.2008.Their clihical history,physical examination and laboratory data were collected.The SPSS version 11.5 statistical package for Microsoft Windows was used for statistical analysis.Results Data of 199 patients and finally enrolled 118 hospitalized chronic diarrhea inpatients during the observation period were collected and 14(12%)of the chronic diarrhea Patients were suspected as having celiac disea8e and in one the diagnosis of celiac disease was confirmed.Gluten-free diet(CFD)treatment was effective.M/F:12/2,the age ranged from 6 months to 12 years;43%(6/14)had malnutrition,29%(4/14)had anemia,villous atrophy was found in 4 patients by endoscopy.Duodenal biopsies revealed stage Ⅰ in 1,stage Ⅱ in 2,stage Ⅲa in 7,stage Ⅲb in 3 and stage Ⅲc in 1 patient according to the modified Marsh classification.Conclusion This study was the first time to report the research of celiac disease in children with chronic diarrhea in China.The percentage of suspicious celiac disease patients was 12%(14/118)in children and one was confirmed.CD exists in China.Chinese pediatricians should pay attention to the disease.%目的 研究乳糜泻在中国慢性腹泻患儿中的发病情况.方法 收集2005年1月至2008年12月上海、济南、武汉、成都等地的慢性腹泻住院患儿进行临床多中心研究.详细记录所有患儿的病史、营养发育情况及相关辅助检查.数据处理采用SPSS11.5统计软件统计.结果共收集慢性腹泻患儿199例,纳入研究者118例,疑似乳糜泻的患儿14例(12%),其中1例确诊.去麸质饮食治疗有效.疑似病例男女比为12∶2.年龄6个月~12岁.14例疑似患儿中6例伴随营养不良,4例伴有贫血.内镜诊断

  5. The Effect of Improved Water Supply on Diarrhea Prevalence of Children under Five in the Volta Region of Ghana: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cha, Seungman; Kang, Douk; Tuffuor, Benedict; Lee, Gyuhong; Cho, Jungmyung; Chung, Jihye; Kim, Myongjin; Lee, Hoonsang; Lee, Jaeeun; Oh, Chunghyeon

    2015-01-01

    .... We report the results of a matched cluster randomized trial investigating the effect of improved water supply on diarrheal prevalence of children under five living in rural areas of the Volta Region in Ghana...

  6. Insect Consumption to Address Undernutrition, a National Survey on the Prevalence of Insect Consumption among Adults and Vendors in Laos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Barennes

    Full Text Available Insect consumption (entomophagy is a potentially high nutritious and healthy source of food with high fat, protein, vitamin, fiber and micronutrient content. At least 2 billion people globally eat insects (over 1900 edible species though this habit is regarded negatively by others. There is a limited amount of data on the perception and consumption of insects. We conducted a national cross-sectional survey in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos to assess the prevalence and characteristics of insect consumption among adult lay people and insect vendors.We conducted a multi stage randomized national survey in 1303 households in 96 villages in 16 Lao provinces. Three insect vendors or collectors per village were also included. A standardized pretested questionnaire addressed the following issues: socioeconomic characteristics, type of insects consumed and frequency of consumption, reasons and trends in consumption as well as reports on side effects, over the last 10 years.A total of 1059 adults (Sex ratio F/M: 1.2, 30 ethnic groups, and 256 vendors were enrolled. A total of 1025 (96.8% lay people were currently insect consumers, 135 (13.0% daily or weekly consumers, and 322 (31.1% consumed several times per month. For the majority (575, 55.6% the consumption was infrequent (less than a few times per year and only 22 (2% had never eaten insects. Consumption started in childhood. Insect availability was seasonal (670, 63.2% and respondents would have eaten more insects, if they had been more available (919, 86.7%. Hmong and Leu ethnic groups had significantly lower consumption levels than the general population. Eggs of weaver ants, short-tailed crickets, crickets, grasshoppers, and cicadas were the top 5 insects consumed. Consumption had decreased in the last decade, mostly due to less availability (869; 84.0% and change of life (29; 5.5%. Of 1059, 80 (7.5% reported allergy problems and 106 (10.0% reported some use in traditional medicine. A

  7. 牛病毒性腹泻病研究进展及防控建议%Analysis of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Prevalence and Comprehensive Prevention and Control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝宝成; 梁剑平; 王学红; 郭文柱; 郭志廷; 杨贤鹏

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus that is enzootic in most cattle populations throughout the world. This virus is present throughout the body of persistently infected cattle. In recent years, as more and more common the formation and development of large-scale farming. The jeopardized of Bovine viral diarrhea / mucosal disease for farming industry has become increasingly apparent. The BVDV's morphology of pathogens, genotype classification, hazards, diagnostic tests, the prevalence and prevention and control status were summarized in order to improve the prevention and control system and purification of eliminating the disease provide a reference for the country as soon as possible.%牛病毒性腹泻病由牛病毒性腹泻病毒引起,主要感染牛并引发疾病,呈世界性分布,可造成严重的经济损失.近年来,随着规模化养殖的发展,牛病毒性腹泻病对养殖业的危害日益显现.本文主要对牛病毒性腹泻病的病原特性、基因型分类、危害、诊断检测方法、国内流行情况和防控现状等进行综述,以期为国家尽快建立完善的防控体系和净化消除该病提供参考.

  8. Predictors of under-five childhood diarrhea: Mecha District, West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Results: The prevalence of diarrhea among mothers and under-five children was 8.2% and 18.0%, respectively. Maternal .... unsafe sources as the main source of their drinking water. ..... hygiene practices have important impacts on the.

  9. The Effect of Improved Water Supply on Diarrhea Prevalence of Children under Five in the Volta Region of Ghana: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Seungman Cha; Douk Kang; Benedict Tuffuor; Gyuhong Lee; Jungmyung Cho; Jihye Chung; Myongjin Kim; Hoonsang Lee; Jaeeun Lee; Chunghyeon Oh

    2015-01-01

    Although a number of studies have been conducted to explore the effect of water quality improvement, the majority of them have focused mainly on point-of-use water treatment, and the studies investigating the effect of improved water supply have been based on observational or inadequately randomized trials. We report the results of a matched cluster randomized trial investigating the effect of improved water supply on diarrheal prevalence of children under five living in rural areas of the Vo...

  10. Acute diarrhea in hospitalized children of the municipality of juiz de fora, MG, Brazil: prevalence and risk factors associated with disease severity Diarreia aguda em crianças hospitalizadas no município de Juiz de Fora, MG: prevalência e fatores de risco associados à gravidade da doença

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Couto Guedes Sejanes da Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Acute diarrhea is a common cause of hospitalization among children under 5 years of age. Knowing the prevalence and risk factors associated with the severity of acute diarrhea is essential to control morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: Describe the prevalence of demographic, epidemiologic and clinical features of children under 6 years of age hospitalized for acute diarrhea, and investigate the association between these determinants and the severity of the diarrheic episode. METHOD: Retrospective, cross-sectional study, during the period from January, 2005 through December, 2008, in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil. Files from 6,201 children from 0 to 6 years of age, hospitalized in two public teaching institutions (which account for 84% of all the hospitalizations in the municipality, were assessed. Acute diarrhea was defined as the presence of at least three evacuations of liquid or loose stools, within 24 hours, for a maximum period of 14 days. The patients with acute diarrhea were divided in two groups, according to disease severity, severe diarrhea being considered whenever hospitalization lasted for at least 4 days. Epidemiologic and clinical data were assessed and compared through the application of the chi-squared test and the binomial logistic regression model. RESULTS: The prevalence rate for admission due to acute diarrhea was 8.4%. The factors significantly associated with the severity of the diarrheic episode were: age under 6 months (P = 0.01, OR = 2.762; disease onset during fall (P = 0.033, OR = 1.742, presence of fever (P = 0.017, OR = 1.715 and antibiotic use during hospitalization (P = 0.000, OR = 3.872. CONCLUSIONS: Diarrhea is the third most common cause of hospitalization among children under 6 years of age in Juiz de Fora. Young age (under or equal to 6 months, fever, antibiotic use during hospitalization and disease onset during fall are risk factors associated with longer hospital stay

  11. Surveillance of rotavirus diarrhea

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    Titis Widowati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Rotavirus is a major cause of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children worldwide. Data on the burden of disease in Indonesia is limited. Objective To provide an epidemiological profile of rotavirus infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Mohammad Hoesin Hospital, Palembang. Methods In January - December 2006, a prospective, hospital-based surveillance was carried out in children aged less than five years, presenting with diarrhea. Stool samples were examined for rotavirus using enzyme immunoassay (EIA. G- and P-typing were performed on specimens confirmed to be positive by EIA. Results A total of 513 fecal specimens from 534 children were tested for rotavirus. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of the specimens, mostly of the G9 type (62.5%. Incidence of rotavirus diarrhea was highest in the 6 month to 2 years age group (60.4%. Children with rotavirus diarrhea were more likely to present with dehydration, compared to those with non-rotavirus diarrhea (94% vs 70%, respectively, P=0.03. Conclusion Rotavirus was the most common pathogen found in children with diarrhea. Rotavirus was detected in 64% of pediatric diarrheal specimens tested in our study. This finding warrants the use of a large-scale program to prevent disease, such as vaccination against rotavirus. [Paediatr Indones. 2012;52:22-7].

  12. Prevalence of microsporidiosis due to Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis among patients with AIDS-related diarrhea: determination by polymerase chain reaction to the microsporidian small-subunit rRNA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, C M; Wittner, M; Kotler, D P; Noyer, C; Orenstein, J M; Tanowitz, H B; Weiss, L M

    1996-11-01

    Microsporidia are emerging as opportunistic pathogens in patients with AIDS. Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon (Septata) intestinalis have been implicated in enteric infections in AIDS patients with chronic diarrhea, a wasting syndrome, and malabsorption. We used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and primers that amplify the conserved regions of the small-subunit rRNA (SSU-rRNA) gene of E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis in tissue specimens from HIV-infected patients with and without diarrhea to examine the association between microsporidia and diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Tissue specimens were obtained from 68 patients with AIDS and diarrhea (mean CD4 lymphocyte count, 21/mm3) and 43 AIDS patients without diarrhea (mean CD4 lymphocyte count, 60/mm3). By means of PCR with use of the SSU-rRNA primers specific for E. bieneusi and E. intestinalis, we found that 44% of patients with diarrhea were infected with microsporidia, whereas only 2.3% of the patients without diarrhea were infected with microsporidia (P < .001). There was a clear association between the presence of microsporidia and diarrhea. In addition, the SSU-rRNA primers proved to be sensitive and specific when used in this clinical setting.

  13. Diarrhea in the immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krones, Elisabeth; Högenauer, Christoph

    2012-09-01

    Diarrhea is a common problem in patients with immunocompromising conditions. The etiologic spectrum differs from patients with diarrhea who have a normal immune system. This article reviews the most important causes of diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, ranging from infectious causes to noninfectious causes of diarrhea in the setting of HIV infection as a model for other conditions of immunosuppression. It also deals with diarrhea in specific situations, eg, after hematopoietic stem cell or solid organ transplantation, diarrhea induced by immunosuppressive drugs, and diarrhea in congenital immunodeficiency syndromes.

  14. Prevalence

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    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of spontaneous bacterial pleuritis in the studied group of patients with hepatic hydrothorax was 14.3%. Patients with advanced liver disease, low pleural fluid protein, or SBP are at risk for spontaneous bacterial pleuritis.

  15. Carbamazepine-Induced Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1992-01-01

    Intractable diarrhea induced by carbamazepine (CBZ) in 3 patients and necessitating discontinuation of the drug is reported from the Departments of Neurology and Medicine, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Kentucky.

  16. Entamoeba moshkovskii Is Associated With Diarrhea in Infants and Causes Diarrhea and Colitis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Chikako; Kabir, Mamun; Taniuchi, Mami; Mondal, Dinesh; Kobayashi, Seiki; Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Sobuz, Shihab U.; Senba, Masachika; Houpt, Eric; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.; Hamano, Shinjiro

    2012-01-01

    Background.Entamoeba moshkovskii is prevalent in developing countries and morphologically indistinguishable from pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and nonpathogenic Entamoeba dispar. It is not known if E. moshkovskii is pathogenic. Methods.Mice were intracecally challenged with the trophozoites of each Entamoeba spp. to test the ability to cause diarrhea, and infants in Bangladesh were prospectively observed to see if newly acquired E. moshkovskii infection was associated with diarrhea. Results.E. moshkovskii and E. histolytica caused diarrhea and weight loss in susceptible mice. E. dispar infected none of the mouse strains tested. In Mirpur, Dhaka, Bangladesh, E. moshkovskii, E. histolytica, and E. dispar were identified in 42 (2.95%), 66 (4.63%), and 5 (0.35%), respectively, of 1426 diarrheal episodes in 385 children followed prospectively from birth to one year of age. Diarrhea occurred temporally with acquisition of a new E. moshkovskii infection: in the 2 months preceding E. moshkvskii-associated diarrhea, 86% (36 of 42) of monthly surveillance stool samples were negative for E. moshkovskii. Conclusions.E. moshkovskii was found to be pathogenic in mice. In children, the acquisition of E. moshkovskii infection was associated with diarrhea. These data are consistent with E. moshkovskii causing disease, indicating that it is important to reexamine its pathogenicity. PMID:22723640

  17. Prevalence of diarrhea-associated virulence genes and genetic diversity in Escherichia coli isolates from fecal material of various animal hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Abhirosh; Mazumder, Asit

    2013-12-01

    In order to assess the health risk associated with a given source of fecal contamination using bacterial source tracking (BST), it is important to know the occurrence of potential pathogens as a function of host. Escherichia coli isolates (n=593) from the feces of diverse animals were screened for various virulence genes: stx1 and stx2 (Shiga toxin-producing E. coli [STEC]), eae and EAF (enteropathogenic E. coli [EPEC]), STh, STp, and LT (enterotoxigenic E. coli [ETEC]), and ipaH (enteroinvasive E. coli [EIEC]). Eleven hosts were positive for only the eae (10.11%) gene, representing atypical EPEC, while two hosts were positive for both eae and EAF (1.3%), representing typical EPEC. stx1, stx2, or both stx1 and stx2 were present in 1 (0.1%,) 10 (5.56%), and 2 (1.51%) hosts, respectively, and confirmed as non-O157 by using a E. coli O157 rfb (rfbO157) TaqMan assay. STh and STp were carried by 2 hosts (2.33%) and 1 host (0.33%), respectively, while none of the hosts were positive for LT and ipaH. The repetitive element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis identified 221 unique fingerprints with a Shannon diversity index of 2.67. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that majority of the isolates clustered according to the year of sampling. The higher prevalence of atypical EPEC and non-O157 STEC observed in different animal hosts indicates that they can be a reservoir of these pathogens with the potential to contaminate surface water and impact human health. Therefore, we suggest that E. coli from these sources must be included while constructing known source fingerprint libraries for tracking purposes. However, the observed genetic diversity and temporal variation need to be considered since these factors can influence the accuracy of BST results.

  18. Prevalence

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    Mohammed Al-Darwish

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  19. Fluid curtailment during childhood diarrhea: a countdown analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perin, Jamie; Carvajal-Velez, Liliana; Carter, Emily; Bryce, Jennifer; Newby, Holly

    2015-06-26

    The foundation of recommended diarrhea management in young children is increased fluids and continued feeding. This increase in fluids is necessary to replace those lost during diarrhea and ultimately prevent dehydration. There may be an opportunity to prevent deaths in children under five by discouraging the practice of reducing or curtailing fluids during diarrhea episodes across different settings worldwide. We quantify and describe the extent of fluid curtailment in children with diarrhea in a selection of countries (Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda) with high burden of diarrhea-related mortality with national cross sectional survey data. We examine the practice of fluid curtailment in these countries and its relationship to child and household traits and to characteristics of diarrhea management. The prevalence of fluid curtailment among children under five with diarrhea is strikingly high in these countries: 55 % in Nigeria, 49 % in Ethiopia, 44 % in Uganda, 37 % in Tanzania, 36 % in DR Congo and 32 % in Burkina Faso. Fluid curtailment is associated with giving less food, potentially worsening the impact of this harmful practice. Children who were reported to have had fluids curtailed during diarrhea episodes were also 3.51 (95 % confidence, 2.66 - 4.64) times more likely to be reported to have food withheld (α = 0.05; p water source. Children of poorer or less educated mothers and those living in rural areas are more likely to have curtailed fluids, compared to children of less poor or more educated mothers, or those living in urban areas. The harmful practice of curtailing fluids for a child with diarrhea is highly prevalent, representing an increased risk of dehydration and complications due to diarrhea, including death, especially for children in specific subgroups.

  20. Breastfeeding and the risk for diarrhea morbidity and mortality

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    Victora Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and no breastfeeding among children 6-23 months of age are associated with increased diarrhea morbidity and mortality in developing countries. We estimate the protective effects conferred by varying levels of breastfeeding exposure against diarrhea incidence, diarrhea prevalence, diarrhea mortality, all-cause mortality, and hospitalization for diarrhea illness. Methods We systematically reviewed all literature published from 1980 to 2009 assessing levels of suboptimal breastfeeding as a risk factor for selected diarrhea morbidity and mortality outcomes. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to generate pooled relative risks by outcome and age category. Results We found a large body of evidence for the protective effects of breastfeeding against diarrhea incidence, prevalence, hospitalizations, diarrhea mortality, and all-cause mortality. The results of random effects meta-analyses of eighteen included studies indicated varying degrees of protection across levels of breastfeeding exposure with the greatest protection conferred by exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age and by any breastfeeding among infants and young children 6-23 months of age. Specifically, not breastfeeding resulted in an excess risk of diarrhea mortality in comparison to exclusive breastfeeding among infants 0-5 months of age (RR: 10.52 and to any breastfeeding among children aged 6-23 months (RR: 2.18. Conclusions Our findings support the current WHO recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life as a key child survival intervention. Our findings also highlight the importance of breastfeeding to protect against diarrhea-specific morbidity and mortality throughout the first 2 years of life.

  1. Acute diarrhea associated with Salmonella enterica in Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalence and characterization of isolates Diarreia aguda associada a Salmonella enterica em Belo Horizonte-MG: prevalência e caracterização das amostras isoladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireille Ângela Bernardes Sousa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute infectious diarrhea is still regarded as a public health problem associated with a wide range of etiologic agents, from which Salmonella enterica is particularly worth mentioning inasmuch as it is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhea in both developed and developing countries. Objective: To assess the distribution of S. enterica among children with acute diarrhea in Belo Horizonte and to characterize bacterium isolates. Material and methods: The study group comprised a total of 157 children from low socioeconomic background. Stool samples were collected for leukocyte analysis and Salmonella bacterial culture. The isolates were serotyped and evaluated as to antimicrobial susceptibility profile, extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL production, and presence of virulence markers (invA, iroB, and spvC. RESULTS: A total of 5/3.2% children were infected by S. enterica, 3/60% by S. enterica Typhimurium, 1/20% by S. enterica Enteritidis and 1/20% S. enterica subsp. enterica serotype 8.20:z4,z23:-. Fecal leucocytes were detected in two out of five fecal specimens positive for S. enterica. Isolates from three children were resistant to nalidixic acid, nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid + chloramphenicol + ampicillin. ESBL production was not detected. All samples presented invA and iroB genes. spvC marker was observed in isolates from two children infected by S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that S. enterica infection is uncommon among children from our region. Furthermore, they indicate the need for periodic monitoring of bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility profile in order to establish suitable antimicrobial therapy when required.INTRODUÇÃO: A diarreia infecciosa aguda é considerada um problema de saúde pública associado a uma ampla gama de agentes etiológicos, entre os quais destaca-se Salmonella enterica, causa importante de diarreia inflamatória em pa

  2. Syndromic (phenotypic diarrhea in early infancy

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    Bodemer Christine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syndromic diarrhea (SD, also known as phenotypic diarrhea (PD or tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (THE, is a congenital enteropathy presenting with early-onset of severe diarrhea requiring parenteral nutrition (PN. To date, no epidemiological data are available. The estimated prevalence is approximately 1/300,000–400,000 live births in Western Europe. Ethnic origin does not appear to be associated with SD. Infants are born small for gestational age and present with facial dysmorphism including prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism. Hairs are woolly, easily removed and poorly pigmented. Severe and persistent diarrhea starts within the first 6 months of life (≤ 1 month in most cases and is accompanied by severe malabsorption leading to early and relentless protein energy malnutrition with failure to thrive. Liver disease affects about half of patients with extensive fibrosis or cirrhosis. There is currently no specific biochemical profile, though a functional T-cell immune deficiency with defective antibody production was reported. Microscopic analysis of the hair show twisted hair (pili torti, aniso- and poilkilotrichosis, and trichorrhexis nodosa. Histopathological analysis of small intestine biopsy shows non-specific villous atrophy with low or no mononuclear cell infiltration of the lamina propria, and no specific histological abnormalities involving the epithelium. The etiology remains unknown. The frequent association of the disorder with parental consanguinity and/or affected siblings suggests a genetic origin with an autosomal recessive mode of transmission. Early management consists of total PN. Some infants have a rather milder phenotype with partial PN dependency or require only enteral feeding. Prognosis of this syndrome is poor, but most patients now survive, and about half of the patients may be weaned from PN at adolescence, but experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Disease name

  3. Malaria parasitemia and childhood diarrhea in a peri-urban area of Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare;

    1999-01-01

    To examine the association between diarrhea in early childhood and malaria parasitemia, we conducted a nested case-control study in Guinea-Bissau of 297 children with diarrhea and a similar number of children without diarrhea matched for age, season, and residential area. There were no associations...... between diarrhea and parasite rate, parasite density, or clinical malaria. However, anti-malarials were easily available and frequently used, which was reflected by a 0.7% prevalence of children with a parasite density > 100/200 leukocytes. Thus, the findings do not preclude that diarrhea may be a sign...

  4. [Parasitic diarrhea in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendrel, D

    2003-12-01

    In many areas, Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar are found together and their microscopic appearance is identical. Biochemical tests which can show cell wall differences are often falsely negative and the only possible way is to treat with metronidazole when amoebiasis is suspected. In case of clinical failure of metronidazole, a bacterial diarrhea is frequently found. Giardia is an other protozoa frequently found in stools of children in endemic areas. Diarrheas due to Giardia are possible in normal children and frequent in malnourished. They can determine severe atrophy of jejunal mucosa and must be treated. Cryptoridiosis is frequently asymptomatic but induces diarrhea in malnourished children. Diarrhea due to helminths is rare and only Strongyloides stercoralis induces severe diarrhea in malnourished child and must be treated in emergency with Ivermectin to avoid dissemination. In immune deficiency induced by corticosteroid treatment or cancer chemotherapy, a prophylactic treatment with Ivermectin against Strongyloides stercoralis must be given in endemic areas or after return, and probably also with metronidazole against Giardia.

  5. 四川省农村5岁以下儿童腹泻患病状况及影响因素研究%Analysis the prevalence status and influence factors of diarrhea among children under 5 years in rural areas of sichuan province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王珍; 张菊英; 陈瑾; 谭铃; 范晖; 甘华平

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To understand the prevalence of diarrhea among children aged under 5 years and the influencing factors in the rural areas of Sichuan Province, so as to provide the evidence for prevention of diarrhea in these areas. METHODS Based on the data from the enlarged investigation in west China of the Fourth National Health Service Survey in Sichuan, we described the status of diarrhea among children under 5 years in rural areas. Multiple non-conditional Logistic regression were demonstrated to analyze the risk factors of diarrhea disease. RESULTS The two-week prevalence of diarrhea among children under 5 years old was 10.1% in the rural areas of Sichuan Province. The prevalence rate of diarrhea dropped along with increase in children's age, and peak of the prevalence appeared in 0-2 years of age. Multivariate analysis showed that children's age, parents' long-term workers outside, and whether the family use of safe drinking water were associated with diarrhea disease. CONCLUSION Children aged 0-2 years old in rural areas was the high risk population of diarrhea, we should promote rational feeding, improve water sanitation, maintain good hygiene and other aspects.%目的 了解四川省农村5岁以下儿童腹泻患病状况及其影响因素,为儿童腹泻病的防治提供建议.方法 利用第四次国家卫生服务调查西部扩点调查四川省的资料,描述性分析四川省农村5岁以下儿童腹泻患病状况,并采用Logis-tic回归模型探讨儿童腹泻患病的影响因素.结果 四川省农村5岁以下儿童腹泻两周患病率为10.1%.儿童腹泻两周患病率随着年龄的上升而下降,患病高峰在0~2岁.影响儿童腹泻的主要因素为年龄、父母是否均长期在外务工、家庭是否使用安全饮用水.结论 四川省农村儿童腹泻防治工作的重点对象为0~2岁儿童和留守儿童,并且儿童腹泻的防治应从提倡合理喂养、改善用水卫生、保持良好的卫生习惯等方面入手.

  6. Global challenges in acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-01-01

    Childhood diarrhea is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in the low and middle-income countries. The burden of child mortality because of diarrhea has declined, but still a lot is desired not only to reduce diarrhea-specific mortality but reduce the overall incidence, and hence the morbidity associated with childhood diarrhea. A recent Lancet series on diarrhea suggests that amplification of the current interventions can eliminate virtually all preventable diarrhea deaths. A refocused attention and strategy and collective effort from the multilateral entities to promote water sanitation and hygiene, rotavirus vaccination, nutrition, and improved case management can bridge gaps and tackle the existing undue burden of deaths because of diarrhea. Investment toward preventing and controlling childhood diarrhea should be a priority, especially when the existing solution is plausible for implementation at scale and in underprivileged settings.

  7. Traveler’s diarrhea diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk for getting traveler's diarrhea by avoiding water, ice, and food that may be contaminated. The goal of the traveler's diarrhea diet is to make your symptoms better and prevent you from getting ...

  8. Chronic Diarrhea in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Content Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) in Children Lactose Intolerance Ménétrier’s Disease Microscopic Colitis Ostomy Surgery of the ... and Diseases Diarrhea Celiac Disease IBS in Children Lactose Intolerance Related Diagnostic Tests Colonoscopy Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Upper GI ...

  9. Diarrhea and Swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if they swallow the water. If you have diarrhea, the most important thing you can do is to drink plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration. This is especially important for young children, pregnant women, and persons with weakened immune systems (such as those living with HIV/AIDS, ...

  10. Prevalence of Salmonella enterica in children aged less than 5 years with acute diarrhea and controls in Teresina-PI Prevalência de Salmonella enterica em crianças com idade inferior a 5 anos com diarreia aguda e controles em Teresina-PI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Rosário Conceição Moura Nunes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence of Salmonella enterica (SE among children (n = 400/250 with diarrhea in Teresina-PI from 2004 to 2007. SE Newport was isolated from two samples and O-C2-C3-ND, Enteritidis, and Muenchen serological variants were isolated from one sample each. SE infection was more prevalent among children aged less than six months. Increased fecal volume, 3-10 evacuations/day, vomit and fever were reported for all cases. Resistance to nalidixic acid (NAL and sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SXT was ubiquitous. Our data substantiate the need for monitoring SE infections worldwide and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.Foi estudada a prevalência de Salmonella enterica (SE em crianças (n = 400; 250 com diarreia em Teresina-PI, entre 2004 e 2007. SE Newport foi isolada de duas crianças e os sorotipos O-C2-C3-ND, Enteritidis e Muenchen foram encontrados em uma criança cada. A infecção foi mais comum em crianças com até 6 meses de idade. Volume fecal aumentado, três a 10 evacuações/dia, vômitos e febre foram relatados para todas as crianças. Foi comum resistência a ácido nalidíxico (NAL e sulfametoxazol-trimetoprima (SXT. Nossos dados demonstram a necessidade de monitoramento da magnitude das salmoneloses em diferentes regiões do mundo e da emergência de padrões de resistência.

  11. Risk factors of rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized children in Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Hendra; Karyana, I Putu Gede; Sanjaya-Putra, I Gusti Ngurah; Budiarsa, Soetjiningsih; Soenarto, Yati

    2014-03-26

    Diarrhea is a major public health concern throughout the world because the prevalence of morbidity of diarrhea has not changed significantly in the past decade. It remains the third leading cause of death among children less than 5 years of age. Recent surveillance studies have shown that rotavirus is a significant cause of pediatric hospitalization and death due to diarrhea. Indonesia has limited data on risk factors, disease burden, and deaths in children due to rotavirus diarrhea. The objective of this study was to examine the above mentioned factors related to rotavirus diarrhea in hospitalized children in Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. A prospective cohort study was conducted at Sanglah Hospital Denpasar from April 2009 to December 2011. The present study was part of a nationwide study on Extension for Hospital-based Surveillance and Strain Characterization of Rotavirus Diarrhea Indonesia involving four hospitals throughout Indonesia as a part of the Asian Rotavirus Surveillance Network. We studied children aged diarrhea, and analyzed their stool samples using an immunoassay that detects the rotavirus antigen. A total of 656 patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. Of 5805 patients under the age of 5 who were hospitalized between April 2009 and December 2011, the prevalence of diarrhea among hospitalized pediatric patients was 11.3% and the prevalence of rotavirus diarrhea was 49.8%. The male to female ratio of those affected by rotavirus was 1.6:1. The occurrence of vomiting was significantly higher in rotavirus diarrhea than in non-rotavirus diarrhea (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.70; p = 0.004). Diarrhea remains an important cause of hospitalization in children, and rotavirus was the most important etiology. We found that boys had a greatest risk of rotavirus infection than girls. Good nutritional status and breastfeeding provided the same protection against rotavirus and non-rotavirus diarrhea.

  12. Intestinal parasitic diarrhea among children in Baghdad--Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Kubaisy, Waqar; AL-Talib, Hassanain; Al-khateeb, Alyaa; Shanshal, Mohammad Mazin

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible.

  13. Viral causes of diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodgame, R W

    2001-09-01

    Viruses are important causes of diarrhea. In healthy adults, the main clinical manifestation is acute, self-limited gastroenteritis. Advances in molecular diagnostics have shown that epidemics of acute gastroenteritis most frequently are due to caliciviruses spread through contaminated food or through person-to-person contact. Application of similar technology is needed to make a definitive statement about the role of such candidate viruses as rotavirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus as the cause of nonepidemic acute gastroenteritis in adults. Rarely a previously healthy adult gets acute CMV colitis. CMV and EBV mainly cause diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, however. Advances in prophylaxis and treatment have reduced the frequency and severity of these diseases. Acute infantile gastroenteritis is caused by rotavirus, calcivirus, astrovirus, and adenovirus. These viral diseases of the gut are seen by the physician as routine and rare clinical problems.

  14. Epidemiology of traveler's diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, F; Carosi, G

    1995-01-01

    Annually, over 75 million international passengers travel to tropical areas, more than 20 million of whom come from industrialized countries. They experience a high rate of traveler's diarrhea (TD), varying from 20 to 56%, which may result in serious limitations to their activities. The cause of TD is considered to be infectious in the overwhelming majority of cases and, apart from differences in relative importance, the list of responsible microbial agents is fairly constant regardless of geographic origin. The ingestion of contaminated food or water is considered to be the principal mode of transmission of the enteric pathogens of TD. Several factors have been proposed as playing a role in the etiogenesis of diarrhea in travelers, including personal (age, socioeconomic status, body weight, preexisting gastrointestinal illnesses), behavioral (mode of travel, standard of accommodation, eating in public places, dietary errors) and travel-related (destination, duration of stay, country of origin, season) factors, which are reviewed in detail.

  15. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reduction of fluid and electrolyte loss and an increase in stool consistency. Cholestyramine is a bile acid sequestrant that is generally considered as the first-line treatment for bile acid diarrhea. 5-HT3 receptor antagonists have significant benefits in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with diarrhea. Ramosetron improves stool consistency as well as global IBS symptoms. Probiotics may have a role in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. However, data on the role of probiotics in the treatment of chronic diarrhea are lacking. Diosmectite, an absorbent, can be used for the treatment of chronic functional diarrhea, radiation-induced diarrhea, and chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. Antispasmodics including alverine citrate, mebeverine, otilonium bromide, and pinaverium bromide are used for relieving diarrheal symptoms and abdominal pain. Rifaximin can be effective for chronic diarrhea associated with IBS and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Budesonide is effective in both lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. The efficacy of mesalazine in microscopic colitis is weak or remains uncertain. Considering their mechanisms of action, these agents should be prescribed properly.

  16. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  17. Systems Approach to Climate, Water, and Diarrhea in Hubli-Dharwad, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan; Kumpel, Emily; Ercumen, Ayse; Zimmerman, Julie

    2016-12-06

    Anthropogenic climate change will likely increase diarrhea rates for communities with inadequate water, sanitation, or hygiene facilities including those with intermittent water supplies. Current approaches to study these impacts typically focus on the effect of temperature on all-cause diarrhea while excluding precipitation and diarrhea etiology while not providing actionable adaptation strategies. We develop a partially mechanistic, systems approach to estimate future diarrhea prevalence and design adaptation strategies. The model incorporates downscaled global climate models, water quality data, quantitative microbial risk assessment, and pathogen prevalence in an agent-based modeling framework incorporating precipitation and diarrhea etiology. It is informed using water quality and diarrhea data from Hubli-Dharwad, India-a city with an intermittent piped water supply exhibiting seasonal water quality variability vulnerable to climate change. We predict all-cause diarrhea prevalence to increase by 4.9% (Range: 1.5-9.0%) by 2011-2030, 11.9% (Range: 7.1-18.2%) by 2046-2065, and 18.2% (Range: 9.1-26.2%) by 2080-2099. Rainfall is an important modifying factor. Rotavirus prevalence is estimated to decline by 10.5% with Cryptosporidium and E. coli prevalence increasing by 9.9% and 6.3%, respectively, by 2080-2099 in this setting. These results suggest that ceramic water filters would be recommended as a climate adaptation strategy over chlorination. This work highlights the vulnerability of intermittent water supplies to climate change and the urgent need for improvements.

  18. Update on chronic diarrhea: a run-through for the clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Davinder K; Surawicz, Christina

    2012-10-01

    Chronic diarrhea is a common patient complaint, with an estimated prevalence of 5 %. Diarrhea is defined as >200 g/day of stool with decreased consistency, and chronic diarrhea is defined as lasting more than 4 weeks. The purpose of this review is to guide the clinician's diagnostic evaluation and management of chronic diarrhea, rather than providing a textbook comprehensive review of the subject, focusing on the patient in developed countries and excluding the immune suppressed patient. While the investigation and treatment of chronic diarrhea can be challenging due to its myriad causes, when the clinician employs a practical approach, dividing chronic diarrhea into bloody, fatty, and watery causes, it simplifies and streamlines the work-up and management plan and leads to improved patient outcomes.

  19. pic gene of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and its association with diarrhea in Peruvian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, David; Contreras, Carmen A; Mosquito, Susan; Ruíz, Joaquim; Cleary, Thomas G; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) causes acute and persistent diarrhea among children, HIV-infected patients, and travelers to developing countries. We have searched for 18 genes-encoding virulence factors associated with aggregative adherence, dispersion, biofilm, toxins, serine protease autotransporters of Enterobacteriaceae (SPATEs) and siderophores, analyzed in 172 well-characterized EAEC strains (aggR(+)) isolated from stool samples of 97 children with diarrhea and 75 healthy controls from a passive surveillance diarrhea cohort study in Peru. Eighty-one different genetic profiles were identified, 37 were found only associated with diarrhea and 25 with control samples. The most frequent genetic profile was aggC(+)aatA(+)aap(+)shf(+)fyuA(+), present in 19 strains, including diarrhea and controls. The profile set1A(+)set1B(+)pic(+) was associated with diarrhea (P pic was associated with diarrhea (P < 0.05) and with prolonged diarrhea (diarrhea ≥ 7 days) (P < 0.05). In summary, this is the first report on the prevalence of a large set of EAEC virulence genes and its association with diarrhea in Peruvian children. More studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of each virulence factor.

  20. Human Bocavirus in an Immunocompromised Child Presenting with Severe Diarrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jutte J. C.; Bredius, Robbert G. M.; van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Smiers, Frans J. W.; Scholvinck, Elizabeth H.; Vossen, Ann C. T. M.; Claas, Eric C. J.; Niesters, Hubert G. M.

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is frequently detected in young children with respiratory symptoms. However, the prevalence and pathogenicity of HBoV in immunocompromised patients are largely unknown. This report describes a case of life-threatening hypovolemic shock due to diarrhea associated with

  1. Human Bocavirus in an Immunocompromised Child Presenting with Severe Diarrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Jutte J. C.; Bredius, Robbert G. M.; van Rheenen, Patrick F.; Smiers, Frans J. W.; Scholvinck, Elizabeth H.; Vossen, Ann C. T. M.; Claas, Eric C. J.; Niesters, Hubert G. M.

    2009-01-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is frequently detected in young children with respiratory symptoms. However, the prevalence and pathogenicity of HBoV in immunocompromised patients are largely unknown. This report describes a case of life-threatening hypovolemic shock due to diarrhea associated with dissemina

  2. Acute diarrhea in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radlović Nedeljko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea (AD is the most frequent gastroenterological disorder, and the main cause of dehydration in childhood. It is manifested by a sudden occurrence of three or more watery or loose stools per day lasting for seven to 10 days, 14 days at most. It mainly occurs in children until five years of age and particularly in neonates in the second half-year and children until the age of three years. Its primary causes are gastrointestinal infections, viral and bacterial, and more rarely alimentary intoxications and other factors. As dehydration and negative nutritive balance are the main complications of AD, it is clear that the compensation of lost body fluids and adequate diet form the basis of the child’s treatment. Other therapeutic measures, except antipyretics in high febrility, antiparasitic drugs for intestinal lambliasis, anti-amebiasis and probiotics are rarely necessary. This primarily regards uncritical use of antibiotics and intestinal antiseptics in the therapy of bacterial diarrhea. The use of antiemetics, antidiarrhetics and spasmolytics is unnecessary and potentially risky, so that it is not recommended for children with AD.

  3. Investigation of Diarrhea in AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus E Mönkemüller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic diarrhea is a common problem in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, resulting in significant morbidity and potential mortality. In the early stages of immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients are susceptible to infection with the same enteric pathogens that cause diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts, but with progressive immunodeficiency, these patients become susceptible to numerous opportunistic disorders. The main factor to consider when tailoring the work-up of diarrhea in the HIV-infected patient is the immune status, which is reflected by the total CD4 lymphocyte cell count. A CD4 count of less than 100 cells/µL is significantly correlated with opportunistic disorders. For the HIV-infected patient with diarrhea, repeated stool studies to investigate for bacteria, ova and parasites should be the first step. When either upper or lower gastrointestinal tract symptoms are present and stool studies are negative, endoscopy directed to the probable organ of involvement is appropriate. If localizing symptoms are absent, the most appropriate next test is sigmoidoscopy with biopsies. Not infrequently, despite extensive evaluation, the cause of diarrhea in patients with AIDS remains unexplained. Recently, the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, including protease inhibitors, has led to a change in the epidemiology of diarrhea in AIDS patients. As their immune status improves, HIV-infected patients treated with combination therapy become less prone to opportunistic disorders. However, diarrhea appears to be frequent because several antiretroviral agents can themselves cause diarrhea.

  4. Pharmacologic Agents for Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kwang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is usually associated with a number of non-infectious causes. When definitive treatment is unavailable, symptomatic drug therapy is indicated. Pharmacologic agents for chronic diarrhea include loperamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, diosmectite, cholestyramine, probiotics, antispasmodics, rifaximin, and anti-inflammatory agents. Loperamide, a synthetic opiate agonist, decreases peristaltic activity and inhibits secretion, resulting in the reductio...

  5. Childhood diarrhea in high and low hotspot districts of Amhara Region, northwest Ethiopia: a multilevel modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azage, Muluken; Kumie, Abera; Worku, Alemayehu; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C

    2016-05-16

    Childhood diarrhea is one of the major public health problems in Ethiopia. Multiple factors at different levels contribute to the occurrence of childhood diarrhea. The objective of the study was to identify the factors affecting childhood diarrhea at individual and community level. A cross-sectional study design was employed from February to March 2015 in high and low hotspot districts of Awi and West and East Gojjam zones in Amhara Region, northwest Ethiopia. Districts with high and low hotspots with childhood diarrhea were identified using SaTScan spatial statistical analysis. A total of 2495 households from ten (five high and five low hotspot) randomly selected districts were included in the study. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered and cleaned in Epi Info 3.5.2 version and analyzed using Stata version 12. A multilevel logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with childhood diarrhea. The prevalence of childhood diarrhea was 13.5 % and did not show significant variation between high [14.3 % (95 % CI 12.3-16.2 %)] and low [12.7 % (95 % CI 10.9-14.6 %)] hotspot districts. Individual- and community-level factors accounted for 35 % of childhood diarrhea variation across the communities in the full model. Age of children (6-35 months), complementary feeding initiation below 6 months, inadequate hand washing practices, limited knowledge of mothers on diarrhea, lowest wealth status of households, and longer time interval to visit households by health extension workers were factors for increasing the odds of childhood diarrhea at the individual level. At the community level, lack of improved water supply and sanitation and unvaccinated children with measles and rotavirus vaccine were the factors associated with childhood diarrhea. In this study, childhood diarrhea occurrences remained high. Both individual- and community-level factors determined the occurrence of diarrhea. Interventions should consider both

  6. [Study on the risk factors of diarrhea-related behaviors among adults in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chun-na; Wu, Shuang-sheng; Yang, Peng; Li, Hai-yue; Zhang, Yi; Li, Xin-yu; Wang, Quan-yi

    2012-01-01

    To study the risk behaviors on diarrhea among the adults of Beijing. 13 287 adults aged over 18 years in Dongcheng, Xicheng, Haidian, Changping, Huairou and Tongzhou districts in Beijing were selected with a multi-stage stratified sampling method. Information on the demographic characteristics, with or without symptoms on diarrhea in the last year, and behaviors related to diarrhea, were collected through a self-designed questionnaire. The reported total prevalence of diarrhea symptoms in the last year was 17.6% and, in urban areas as 16.8%, in rural areas as 18.2% respectively. The differences on the reported prevalence rates of diarrhea in different age groups, background of education and occupations groups among urban residents were statistically significant (P risk factors to diarrhea among adults from urban areas, with OR (95%CI) as 1.26 (1.07 - 1.48), 1.37 (1.16 - 1.63) and 1.38 (1.20 - 1.59), respectively. The reported diarrhea prevalence rates related to sex, age, education background and occupations among rural residents did not show significant differences (P > 0.05). Without hand-washing habit before eating or after toilet-using, eating raw seafood or freshwater products, using the same chopping block and knife at the time when processing raw and cooked food, not being used to regular physical exercise etc. seemed to be the risk factors on diarrhea among adults in the rural areas with the OR (95%CI) as 1.85 (1.51 - 2.25), 1.39 (1.17 - 1.67), 1.44 (1.24 - 1.67) and 1.46 (1.27 - 1.67), respectively. The prevalence reported on diarrhea symptoms among adults from the rural areas was higher than the urban adults. Diarrhea was related to health-related habits, eating habits and regularity of taking physical exercises.

  7. How to Do in Persistent Diarrhea of Children?: Concepts and Treatments of Chronic Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kun Song; Kang, Dong Soo; Yu, JeeSuk; Chang, Young Pyo; Park, Woo Sung

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is defined as passing watery stools that lasts for more than 2 weeks. Persistent diarrhea belongs to chronic diarrhea and is a chronic episode of diarrhea of infectious etiology. The etiology of chronic diarrhea is varied. It is important to consider the child's age and clinical manifestations with alarm signals for an application of proper treatments to children with chronic diarrhea. Vicious cycle is present in chronic diarrhea and nutritional rehabilitation can break the v...

  8. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  9. Nosocomial diarrhea in children:is astrovirus the leading pathogen?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anita Chakravarti; Manisha Jain; Mayank Singh Chauhan; Anju Sharma; Sayani Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To screen for the presence of mixed infection with rotavirus. Methods:The present study included 140 children aged less than 2 years with acute diarrhea. Fecal samples of all these patients were analyzed for the presence of astroviral antigen by enzyme immunoassay. Also 40 rotavirus positive fecal samples were screened for the presence of astrovirus. Results:In case of acute diarrhea in children the prevalence of astrovirus was around 34%(48/140). It was seen that even in rotavirus positive cases astrovirus co infection was 25%. Conclusions:Astrovirus is a growing problem which is often underrecognised. With the rotavirus vaccine licensure being imminent astrovirus will emerge out as the single most important cause of viral diarrhea.

  10. When your child has diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foods, pastries, donuts, and sausage. Avoid giving children apple juice and full-strength fruit juices, as they ... Diarrhea Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  11. Investigation of Diarrhea in AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Mönkemüller, Klaus E; C Mel Wilcox

    2000-01-01

    Chronic diarrhea is a common problem in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), resulting in significant morbidity and potential mortality. In the early stages of immunodeficiency, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are susceptible to infection with the same enteric pathogens that cause diarrhea in immunocompetent hosts, but with progressive immunodeficiency, these patients become susceptible to numerous opportunistic disorders. The main factor to consider ...

  12. Ethiop. J. Sci. & Technol. 9(1) 15-30, 2016 15 Prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    determined the prevalence of diarrhea causing intestinal protozoans and the associated risk factors in diarrheic ... potential risk factors for diarrhea should be given to caretakers/parents for ..... Child's age was found to be a significant predictor.

  13. Some Notes on Critical Appraisal of Prevalence Studies; Comment on: “The Development of a Critical Appraisal Tool for Use in Systematic Reviews Addressing Questions of Prevalence”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Harder

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Decisions in healthcare should be based on information obtained according to the principles of Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM. An increasing number of systematic reviews are published which summarize the results of prevalence studies. Interpretation of the results of these reviews should be accompanied by an appraisal of the methodological quality of the included data and studies. The critical appraisal tool for prevalence studies developed and tested by Munn et al. comprises 10 items and aims at targeting all kinds of prevalence studies. This comment discusses the pros and cons of different designs of quality appraisal tools and highlights their importance for systematic reviews of prevalence studies. Beyond piloting, which has been performed in the study by Munn et al., it is suggested here that the validity of the tool should be tested, including reproducibility and inter-rater reliability. It is concluded that studies as the one by Munn et al. will help to establish a critical understanding of methodological quality and will support the use of systematic reviews of non-intervention studies for health policy making.

  14. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Alexandre; Martinez-Vinson, Christine; Goulet, Olivier; Badens, Catherine

    2013-01-09

    Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases.

  15. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Huda, Tarique Md; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, M Sirajul; Arnold, Benjamin F; Johnston, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. Traveler's Diarrhea in Foreign Travelers in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kusolsuk, Teera; Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of origin and destination country on traveler's diarrhea incidence rates in Southeast Asia is poorly understood, and research generally only addresses diarrhea in travelers from the developed world. This study evaluated the attack rate and effects of traveler's diarrhea by origin and destination and analyzed key risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to foreign travelers departing Southeast Asia from Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. It evaluated travel...

  17. [CHRONIC DIARRHEA OF INFECTIOUS ETIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfán F G, Gustavo

    1997-01-01

    Chronic Diarrhea syndrome is due to several causes. In LatinAmericen countries, infectious and parasitic etiology is frequent. Withinthese infections, the following has been determined: parasitic and enterobacterial agents, overpopulation of bacteria syndrome in the upper small bowel (SOBIA, abbreviation for Síndrome de Sobrepoblación Bacteriana del Intestino Delgado Alto), intestinal TBC, and AIDS. In these processes, the precipitating factor may be unique or multifactor; or there could also exist a tendency towards pathologies for these infections. There has been evidence of SOBIA cases without associated factor in Latin American countries. A study made in Peru shows SOBIA cases in 30 percent of chronic diarrhea.In chronic diarrhea cases, and even more, in those diarrheas of infectiousetiology, a complete study should be made, considering the several factorsthat generate diarrhea in a same one case, such as the mechanisms ofimmunodeficiency, neurological, endocrinemetabolic, and others associated with intestinal infections. This approach will be helpful to make a complete diagnosis and apply timely treatment.

  18. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabre Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la

  19. Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Syndromic diarrhea/Tricho-hepato-enteric syndrome (SD/THE) is a rare and severe bowel disorder caused by mutation in SKIV2L or in TTC37, 2 genes encoding subunits of the putative human SKI complex. The estimated prevalence is 1/1,000,000 births and the transmission is autosomal recessive. The classical form is characterized by 5 clinical signs: intractable diarrhea of infancy beginning in the first month of life, usually leading to failure to thrive and requiring parenteral nutrition; facial dysmorphism characterised by prominent forehead and cheeks, broad nasal root and hypertelorism; hair abnormalities described as woolly and easily removable; immune disorders resulting from defective antibody production; intrauterine growth restriction. The aetiology is a defect in TTC37, a TPR containing protein, or in the RNA helicase SKIV2L, both constituting the putative human ski complex. The ski complex is a heterotetrameric cofactor of the cytoplasmic RNA exosome which ensures aberrants mRNAs decay. The diagnosis SD/THE is initially based on clinical findings and confirmed by direct sequencing of TTC37 and SKIV2L. Differential diagnosis with the other causes of intractable diarrhea is easily performed by pathologic investigations. During their clinical course, most of the children require parenteral nutrition and often immunoglobulin supplementation. With time, some of them can be weaned off parenteral nutrition and immunoglobulin supplementation. The prognosis depends on the management and is largely related to the occurrence of parenteral nutrition complications or infections. Even with optimal management, most of the children seem to experience failure to thrive and final short stature. Mild mental retardation is observed in half of the cases. Abstract in French Les diarrhées syndromiques ou syndrome tricho-hepato-enterique (SD/THE) sont un syndrome rare et sévère dont l’incidence est estimée à 1 cas pour 1 million de naissances et la transmission

  20. Postnatal Depression Symptoms are Associated with Increased Diarrhea among Infants of HIV-Positive Ghanaian Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Okronipa, Harriet E.T.; Marquis, Grace S.; Lartey, Anna; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    HIV infection is linked to increased prevalence of depression which may affect maternal caregiving practices and place young infants at increased risk of illness. We examined the incidence and days ill with diarrhea among infants of HIV positive (HIV-P), HIV negative (HIV-N), and unknown HIV status (HIV-U) women, and determined if symptoms of maternal postnatal depression (PND) modulated the risk of diarrhea. Pregnant women (n=492) were recruited from 3 antenatal clinics; mothers and infants ...

  1. Community unit performance: factors associated with childhood diarrhea and appropriate treatment in Nyanza Province, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Yoshito; Tanaka, Junichi; Ogawa, Kazuya; Ogendo, Kenneth; Honda, Sumihisa

    2017-02-16

    The government of Kenya launched its community health strategy in 2006 to improve certain aspects of its community health program. Under the strategy, community units (CUs) were established as level one of the Kenyan health system. A core member at this level is the community health worker (CHW). The objective of this study was to assess the relationship among the performance of the CUs, the prevalence of childhood diarrhea and appropriate treatment for it by controlling individual and community-level factors. The main dataset used in this study was the 2011 Nyanza Province county-based Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS). In addition, based on the list of community units in Nyanza Province, Kenya, we identified the area's CUs and their performance. MICS data and data on CUs were merged using sub-location names. There were 17 individual and two community-level independent variables in this study. Bivariate analysis and a multilevel logistic regression were performed. Factors significantly associated with a lower prevalence of diarrhea among children under five were the child's increasing age, middle-aged household heads, children who received more attention, water treatment and rural versus urban area residence, while male children and highly performing CUs were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of diarrhea. In addition, middle wealth index, severity of diarrhea and middle- and high-CU performance were significantly associated with appropriate treatment for childhood diarrhea. Although this study found that children living in areas of high CU performance were more likely to have diarrhea, these areas would have been identified as being more at risk for diarrhea prevalence and other health concerns, prioritized for the establishment of a CU and allocated more resources to improve the performance of CUs. A higher CU performance was significantly associated with the appropriate treatment. It was suggested that CHWs could have a positive effect on

  2. Role of probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, and recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawicz, Christina M

    2008-07-01

    The role of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Clostridium difficile diarrhea, and recurrent C. difficile diarrhea is reviewed. Various probiotics have variable efficacy. More studies are needed to define further their efficacies, roles, and indications.

  3. Diarrhea in neonatal intensive care unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Annalisa; Passariello; Gianluca; Terrin; Maria; Elisabetta; Baldassarre; Mario; De; Curtis; Roberto; Paludetto; Roberto; Berni; Canani

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the frequency,etiology,and current management strategies for diarrhea in newborn.METHODS:Retrospective,nationwide study involving 5801 subjects observed in neonatal intensive care units during 3 years.The main anamnesis and demographic characteristics,etiology and characteristics of diarrhea,nutritional and therapeutic management,clinical outcomes were evaluated.RESULTS:Thirty-nine cases of diarrhea(36 acute,3 chronic) were identified.The occurrence rate of diarrhea was 6.72 per 1000 hosp...

  4. Zinc therapy for different causes of diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Hafaz Zakky Abdillah; Supriatmo Supriatmo; Melda Deliana; Selvi Nafianti; Atan Baas Sinuhaji

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of diarrhea in Indonesia has declined in the past five years. In spite of the increasing number of studies on the treatment for acute diarrhea, especially the use of zinc, it is not known if bacterial vs. non-bacterial etiology makes a difference in the reduction of severity of acute diarrhea in children on zinc therapy. Objective To assess the effect of zinc therapy in reducing the severity of acute bacterial and non-bacterial diarrhea. Method...

  5. Calcium ameliorates diarrhea in immune compromised children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Sam X.; Bai, Harrison X.; Gonzalez-Peralta, Regino; Mistry, Pramod K.; Gorelick, Fred S.

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of infectious diarrheas remains a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients in whom infections usually persist and resultant diarrhea is often severe and protracted. Children with infectious diarrhea who become dehydrated are normally treated with oral or intravenous rehydration therapy. Although rehydration therapy can replace the loss of fluid, it does not ameliorate diarrhea. Thus, over the past decades, there has been continuous effort to search for ways to safely st...

  6. Risk Correlates of Diarrhea in Children Under 5 Years of Age in Slums of Bankura, West Bengal

    OpenAIRE

    Avisek Gupta; Gautam Sarker; Arup Jyoti Rout; Tanushree Mondal; Ranabir Pal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diarrheal diseases are an important cause of mortality and morbidity globally in children under 5 years of age. Objective: To find the prevalence and risk factors of diarrhea among children under 5 years. Materials and Methods: A population-based analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban slums of Bankura, West Bengal on the prevalence of diarrhea and feeding practices, nutrition, and immunization among 152 children under 5 years (69 males and 83 females). Results...

  7. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of the Association Between Giardia lamblia and Endemic Pediatric Diarrhea in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Levine, Myron M.

    2012-01-01

    We performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis examining the association between diarrhea in young children in nonindustrialized settings and Giardia lamblia infection. Eligible were case/control and longitudinal studies that defined the outcome as acute or persistent (>14 days) diarrhea, adjusted for confounders and lasting for at least 1 year. Data on G. lamblia detection (mainly in stools) from diarrhea patients and controls without diarrhea were abstracted. Random effects model meta-analysis obtained pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Twelve nonindustrialized-setting acute pediatric diarrhea studies met the meta-analysis inclusion criteria. Random-effects model meta-analysis of combined results (9774 acute diarrhea cases and 8766 controls) yielded a pooled OR of 0.60 (95% CI, .38–.94; P = .03), indicating that G. lamblia was not associated with acute diarrhea. However, limited data suggest that initial Giardia infections in early infancy may be positively associated with diarrhea. Meta-analysis of 5 persistent diarrhea studies showed a pooled OR of 3.18 (95% CI, 1.50–6.76; P Giardia with that syndrome. The well-powered Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) is prospectively addressing the association between G. lamblia infection and diarrhea in children in developing countries. PMID:23169940

  8. Prevalence, haemolysis and antibiograms of Campylobacters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-24

    Jan 24, 2011 ... The high prevalence rate of resistance to these drugs among C. coli and C. jejuni isolates ... ranges from a watery, nonbloody, noninflammatory diarrhea to a severe ..... infections has led to the disregard of the impact that less.

  9. Prevalence of Cyclospora cayetanensis among symptomatic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Naguib M. Massoud

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... In asymptomatic group, Cyclospora infected cases were males while in ... that the prevalence of diarrhea among children under five years of age was ..... two types of clinical manifestations were found; an acute type that can ...

  10. Management of childhood diarrhea and use of oral rehydration salts in a suburban West African community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    1999-01-01

    % of the episodes were treated with ORS and the amount given was insufficient. Mothers with no knowledge of ORS did not use it during the observed attack of diarrhea regardless of contact with a health center, which suggests that maternal knowledge is an important determinant of whether health personnel provide ORS...... on the quantity of ORS needed, early signs of dehydration, treatment of teething diarrhea, and breast feeding, and address mothers who have no prior knowledge of ORS. Management of diarrhea may be improved by a more liberal distribution of ORS sachets....

  11. Welcome Address

    OpenAIRE

    Shantanu Sengupta

    1983-01-01

    This article is part of the NEDA-PIDS Seminar-Workshop on the Philippine System of National Accounts. It outlines the seminar’s major objectives and the problems and issues that need to be addressed. It argues that coordination among institutions can lead to effective resolution to sensitive issues.

  12. Prevalence and associated risk factors for Giardia lamblia infection among children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil Prevalência e fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia em Goiânia, Goiás, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças Cabral Pereira

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors associated with Giardia lamblia infection in diarrheic children hospitalized for diarrhea in Goiânia, State of Goiás, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted and a comprehensive questionnaire was administered to the child's primary custodian. Fixed effects logistic regression was used to determine the association between infection status for G. lamblia and host, sociodemographic, environmental and zoonotic risk factors. A total of 445 fecal samples were collected and processed by the DFA methodology, and G. lamblia cysts were present in the feces of 44 diarrheic children (9.9%. A variety of factors were found to be associated with giardiasis in these population: age of children (OR, 1.18; 90% CI, 1.0 - 1.36; p = 0.052, number of children in the household (OR 1.45; 90% CI, 1.13 - 1.86; p = 0.015, number of cats in the household (OR, 1.26; 90% CI, 1.03 -1.53; p = 0.059, food hygiene (OR, 2.9; 90% CI, 1.34 - 6.43; p = 0.024, day-care centers attendance (OR, 2.3; 90% CI, 1.20 - 4.36; p = 0.034, living on a rural farm within the past six months prior hospitalization (OR, 5.4; CI 90%, 1.5 - 20.1; p = 0.03 and the number of household adults (OR, 0.59; 90% CI, 0.42 - 0.83; p = 0.012. Such factors appropriately managed may help to reduce the annual incidence of this protozoal infection in the studied population.O objetivo desse estudo foi estimar a prevalência e identificar fatores de risco associados à infecção por Giardia lamblia em crianças hospitalizadas com diarréia no município de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foi realizado um estudo transversal e um questionário estruturado foi administrado ao responsável pela criança. Análise multivariada foi realizada por meio de regressão logística para se determinar a associação entre infecção por G. lamblia e as variáveis sociodemográficas, ambientais e zoonóticas relacionadas ao

  13. Diarrhea among children in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nataro, James P

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea continues to stand among the most important causes of global morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. Although the introduction of oral rehydration and other case-management strategies have reduced acute diarrhea fatalities, many of the survivors develop persistent diarrhea and/or deficiencies of growth and cognition. Thus understanding the true global burden of diarrhea requires attention to acute diarrhea as well is its sequelae. To understand the etiology of moderate to severe diarrhea among children in high mortality areas of sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia we performed a comprehensive case-control study of children under 5 years of age at seven sites. Each site employed an identical case-control study design and each utilized a uniform comprehensive set of microbiological assays to identify the likely bacterial, viral and protozoal etiologies. Results of the studies will inform diarrhea prevention and management efforts worldwide.

  14. Factors that explain excretion of enteric pathogens by persons without diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Myron M; Robins-Browne, Roy M

    2012-12-01

    Excretion of enteropathogens by subjects without diarrhea influences our appreciation of the role of these pathogens as etiologic agents. Characteristics of the pathogens and host and environmental factors help explain asymptomatic excretion of diarrheal pathogens by persons without diarrhea. After causing acute diarrhea followed by clinical recovery, some enteropathogens are excreted asymptomatically for many weeks. Thus, in a prevalence survey of persons without diarrhea, some may be excreting pathogens from diarrheal episodes experienced many weeks earlier. Volunteer challenges with Vibrio cholerae O1, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli, Campylobacter jejuni, and Giardia lamblia document heterogeneity among enteropathogen strains, with some inexplicably not eliciting diarrhea. The immune host may not manifest diarrhea following ingestion of a pathogen but may nevertheless asymptomatically excrete. Some human genotypes render them less susceptible to symptomatic or severe diarrheal infection with certain pathogens such as Vibrio cholerae O1 and norovirus. Pathogens in stools of individuals without diarrhea may reflect recent ingestion of inocula too small to cause disease in otherwise susceptible hosts or of animal pathogens (eg, bovine or porcine ETEC) that do not cause human illness.

  15. Prevalence and characters of Entamoeba histolytica infection in Saudi infants and children admitted with diarrhea at 2 main hospitals at south Jeddah: a re-emerging serious infection with unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moustafa Abdelaal Hegazi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Entamoeba histolytica had high prevalence and unusual presentation by affecting high proportion of infants under 1 year; severe clinical manifestations, and laboratory findings that were known to be usually encountered in invasive amebiasis as significant leukocytosis for age, neutrophilic leukocytosis for age, and positive C-reactive protein were found among more than 50% of admitted Saudi infants and children with E. histolytica infection in our locality. E. histolytica can be a re-emerging serious infection when it finds favorable environmental conditions and host factors which are mainly attributed to inadequate breastfeeding in this study. This may occur in any other area of the world with the same risk factors, so we must be ready to tackle it with effective and more powerful preventive measures.

  16. Observational Study of Travelers' Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuris

    1995-03-01

    Background: European air travelers returning from Algeria, Egypt, Mexico, Morocco, and Tunisia were interviewed about their experience of travelers' diseases upon arrival in Brussels. Diarrhea was mentioned by 37% of the adults and 27% of the children. These subjects were questioned about the types of measures taken, type and duration of drug treatment (if any), and about duration of diarrhea and side effects experienced. Methods: Final analysis was performed based on 2160 interviews. The largest proportion of diarrhea was reported in the age group 15-24 years (46%). Results: The majority of the 2160 subjects had opted for drug treatment (81%): 927 subjects for loperamide alone, 235 for loperamide in combination with nifuroxazide, and 178 for nifuroxazide alone. Other drugs had been used less frequently. The median time to recovery was 2.4 days with loperamide compared to 3.2 days with nifuroxazide and to 3.4 days for the no-treatment group. Conclusions: A stratification of the results by severity of the diarrhea suggests a rank of antidiarrheal potency as follows: loperamide > nifuroxazide > no-drug treatment. The side effect with the highest incidence was constipation (2.4% with loperamide). (J Travel Med 2:11-15, 1995) Travelers' diarrhea is usually defined as the passage of at least three unformed stools per day or any number of such stools when accompanied by fever, abdominal cramping, or vomiting. The definition may be broadened to include more trivial bowel disturbance.1,2 The duration of this self-limited disease generally is 3 to 5 days. Medical intervention aims at shortening the duration of disease, thus allowing the sufferer to resume his or her usual activities at an early stage. A shortened period of recovery to physical well-being has obvious favorable economic implications if the traveler is on business and may help the maintenance of a desired level of quality of life while a traveler is on holiday. An observational study of various medical

  17. Viral Agents of Diarrhea in Young Children in Two Primary Health Centers in Edo State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imade, Paul Erhunmwunse; Eghafona, Nosakhare Odeh

    2015-01-01

    Enteric viruses have been shown to be responsible for diarrhea among children during their early childhood. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of rotavirus, adenovirus, and norovirus infection in young children with diarrhea in two primary health centers in Edo State, Nigeria. A total of 223 stool specimens were collected from children aged 0-36 months with clinical signs of diarrhea and 59 apparently healthy age-matched children as control. These specimens were investigated for three viral agents using immunochromatographic technique (ICT). The overall results showed that at least one viral agent was detected in 95/223 (42.6%) of the children with diarrhea while the control had none. The prevalence of rotavirus was 28.3%, adenovirus 19.3%, and norovirus 3.6%. There was a significant association between age group and infection (P < 0.0001). Seasonal pattern of enteric viruses was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). The overall coinfection rate was 7.6% and rotavirus-adenovirus coinfection had the highest with 5.4%. Rotavirus was the most prevalent viral agent. Coinfections are not uncommon among the population studied. The most commonly associated clinical symptom of viral diarrhea in this study was vomiting. Viral diagnostic tests are advocated for primary health care facilities in this locality.

  18. Risk factors for diarrhea in children under five years of age residing in peri-urban communities in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Perin, Jamie; Neiswender de Calani, Karen J; Norman, W Ray; Perry, Henry; Davis, Thomas P; Lindquist, Erik D

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood diarrhea prevalence and caregiver knowledge of the causes and prevention of diarrhea in a prospective cohort of 952 children diarrhea. Furthermore, when asked how to keep food safe for children to eat only 17% of caregivers reported hand washing before cooking and feeding a child. Lack of caregiver awareness of the importance of practices related to hygiene and sanitation for diarrhea prevention were significant risk factors for diarrheal disease in this cohort. The knowledge findings from this study suggest that health promotion in these communities should put further emphasis on increasing knowledge of how water treatment, hand washing with soap, proper disposal of child feces, and food preparation relate to childhood diarrhea prevention. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  20. Infectious diarrheas of infants and young children

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo

    1985-01-01

    artículo -- Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud. 1985 Acute diarrhea' disease was once attributed to "indigestion." Although shigellosis, cholera, salmonellosis, giardiasis, and amebiasis have long been recognized as distinct clinical entities, it was not too long ago that many medical personnel had difficulty accepting the fact that most diarrheas are of infectious origin. The occurrence of diarrhea with the onset of weaning in many animal speci...

  1. Management of childhood diarrhea and use of oral rehydration salts in a suburban West African community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Morten; Jakobsen, M S; Mølbak, Kare

    1999-01-01

    . Children with diarrhea considered to be caused by teething were less likely to receive ORS in the acute phase (risk ratio = 0.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.5-0.9). Univariate analyses showed that the use of ORS was related to number of reported symptoms, the mother being the care taker, consultations......, previous use of ORS, good knowledge of ORS, and having ORS sachets at home. Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that the presence of ORS sachets at home at the onset of diarrhea was the strongest predictor of use (hazard ratio = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.9-3.6). Improved health education should focus more...... on the quantity of ORS needed, early signs of dehydration, treatment of teething diarrhea, and breast feeding, and address mothers who have no prior knowledge of ORS. Management of diarrhea may be improved by a more liberal distribution of ORS sachets....

  2. Zinc therapy for different causes of diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Hafaz Zakky Abdillah; Supriatmo; Melda Deliana; Selvi Nafianti; Atan Baas Sinuhaji

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of diarrhea in Indonesia has declined in the past five years. In spite of the increasing number of studies on the treatment for acute diarrhea, especially the use of zinc, it is not known if bacterial vs. non-bacterial etiology makes a difference in the reduction of severity of acute diarrhea in children on zinc therapy. Objective To assess the effect of zinc therapy in reducing the severity of acute bacterial and non-bacterial diarrhea. Methods We performed a...

  3. Inaugural address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, P. S.

    2014-03-01

    From jets to cosmos to cosmic censorship P S Joshi Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005, India E-mail: psj@tifr.res.in 1. Introduction At the outset, I should like to acknowledge that part of the title above, which tries to capture the main flavour of this meeting, and has been borrowed from one of the plenary talks at the conference. When we set out to make the programme for the conference, we thought of beginning with observations on the Universe, but then we certainly wanted to go further and address deeper questions, which were at the very foundations of our inquiry, and understanding on the nature and structure of the Universe. I believe, we succeeded to a good extent, and it is all here for you in the form of these Conference Proceedings, which have been aptly titled as 'Vishwa Mimansa', which could be possibly translated as 'Analysis of the Universe'! It is my great pleasure and privilege to welcome you all to the ICGC-2011 meeting at Goa. The International Conference on Gravitation and Cosmology (ICGC) series of meetings are being organized by the Indian Association for General Relativity and Gravitation (IAGRG), and the first such meeting was planned and conducted in Goa in 1987, with subsequent meetings taking place at a duration of about four years at various locations in India. So, it was thought appropriate to return to Goa to celebrate the 25 years of the ICGC meetings. The recollections from that first meeting have been recorded elsewhere here in these Proceedings. The research and teaching on gravitation and cosmology was initiated quite early in India, by V V Narlikar at the Banares Hindu University, and by N R Sen in Kolkata in the 1930s. In course of time, this activity grew and gained momentum, and in early 1969, at the felicitation held for the 60 years of V V Narlikar at a conference in Ahmedabad, P C Vaidya proposed the formation of the IAGRG society, with V V Narlikar being the first President. This

  4. Molecular detection and characterization of bovine viral diarrhea virus in Mongolian cattle and yaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Odbileg, Raadan; Odzaya, Battogtokh; Gansukh, Shura; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is classified into two species, namely, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2, and affects cattle worldwide, resulting in significant economic loss. The prevalence of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 infections and its genotypes in Mongolian animals has not been studied. In this study, we surveyed BVDV infection in dairy cattle and yaks from Bornuur and Bulgan counties by RT-PCR, and the average infection rate in the sampling sites was 15.8 % and 20.0 %, respectively. In addition, molecular features of the 5'-UTR region of the BVDV genome in Mongolian cattle and yaks were identified as belonging to the subtypes BVDV-1a and BVDV-2a, respectively. Determining the prevalence, geographical distribution, and molecular diversity of BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 in various host species in Mongolia is important for further studies and process control programs.

  5. Zinc therapy for different causes of diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafaz Zakky Abdillah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background The incidence of diarrhea in Indonesia has declined in the past five years. In spite of the increasing number of studies on the treatment for acute diarrhea, especially the use of zinc, it is not known if bacterial vs. non-bacterial etiology makes a difference in the reduction of severity of acute diarrhea in children on zinc therapy. Objective To assess the effect of zinc therapy in reducing the severity of acute bacterial and non-bacterial diarrhea. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in the Secanggang District, Langkat Regency of North Sumatera, from August to November 2009 in children aged 2 months to 14 years. Microscopic stool examinations were undertaken to separate subjects into the acute bacterial or non-bacterial diarrhea groups. Both groups received 10 mg/day of zinc sulphate for subjects aged <6 months or 20 mg/day for those aged ≥6 months for 10 days. Measurement of disease severity was based on the frequency of diarrhea (times/day and the duration of diarrhea (hours after initial drug consumption. We performed independent T-test for statistical analysis. Results Sixty-two children participated in this study, with 31 children in the acute bacterial group, and the remainder in the non-bacterial group. There were no significant differences between the two groups in frequency of diarrhea (2.61 vs 2.70 times/day, respectively, P=0.27 or in duration of diarrhea (63.39 vs 66.68 hours, respectively, P=0.06. Conclusion Zinc is not more effective in reducing the severity of acute bacterial diarrhea compared to non-bacterial diarrhea in children. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:334-8.].

  6. [Clinical study of acute diarrhea caused by rotavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalache, Doina; Fîntînaru, Rodica; Iacob, Monica; Simonca, Cornelia

    2005-01-01

    To establish the implication of Rotavirus in acute diarrhea of babies and children. Prospective study on 164 patients aged between 1 month and 3 years with acute diarrhea, admitted in the Clinical Hospital of Infectious Diseases Iaşi between 01.01.2005 - 31.03.2005. Rotavirus cause the illness in 30 patients (18.29%). The disease was more prevalent among children with dystrophy or with other comorbidities like: iron-deficiency anemia, intestinal parasitosis, rhinopharyngitis, pneumococcal meningitidis. In seven cases the infectious was considered to be nosocomial. During the illness patients also accused other symptoms, while in order of frequency were: common respiratory infection (13.3%), nausea and vomiting (40%), maculopapular eruption and intestinal pneumonia (16.6%), acute pharyngitis (10%). In this study latex agglutination confirmed the diagnosis. Vomiting and diarrhea led in all cases to moderate or severe dehydration. Appropriate rehydration was necessary but only in 12 cases was made through intravenous access with: Ringer lactate, isotonic sodium chloride solutions. Most children recovered with in 5 days.

  7. Effective prophylaxis against rotavirus diarrhea using a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammarström Lennart

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is a worldwide cause of infectious infantile diarrhea that claims over 600,000 lives annually. Recently, two new vaccine candidates have been developed but their efficacy in developing countries, still remains to be proven. Oral delivery of specific immunoglobulins provides passive immunity and is a fast acting treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Probiotic bacteria have also gained considerable attention lately as treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Here we report an evaluation of the therapeutic potential of different probiotics and their combination with anti – rotavirus antibodies in a mouse model of rotavirus diarrhea. Results Of the six probiotic bacteria tested, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG had the strongest influence in reducing prevalence, duration and severity of diarrhea and was therefore chosen for combination treatment with immunoglobulins. The combination treatment reduced the diarrhea outcome measures significantly, prevented histopathological changes and reduced the virus load in the intestines. Conclusion The advantages associated with immunoglobulins and probiotics based therapy is that the treatment provides a rapid therapeutic effect and is cost efficient. These components do not require special storage conditions and could potentially complement the rehydration therapy that is currently used.

  8. [Clostridium difficile isolation in children hospitalized with diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, B; Guerra, L; García-Morín, M; González, E; Gonzálvez, A; Izquierdo, G; Martos, A; Santos, M; Navarro, M; Hernández-Sampelayo, M T; Saavedra-Lozano, J

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial and antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults, and its incidence has substantially risen over the last few years. The prevalence of this infection in children is difficult to assess due to the high rates of colonization in this setting. A one-year retrospective study was conducted on children under 15 years admitted to hospital with acute diarrhea. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory findings and outcome of children with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) were compared to other causes of diarrhea. Risk factors for CDI were identified by multivariate analysis. Two hundred and fifty children with acute diarrhea were identified. A microbiological pathogen was identified in 79 (45.4%) of 174 patients who underwent complete testing: 19 CDI (25.6%, 13 of which were enterotoxin-producing), 21 other bacteria (28.6%), and 34 viruses (45.8%; rotavirus n=31; adenovirus n=3). The estimated incidence of CDI was 3 cases/1,000 admissions, with 68.4% of them occurring in children younger than 2 years. Overall, 15.8% were community-acquired. Compared to other causes of diarrhea, CDI was associated with comorbidity (P<.0001), recent contact with the health-care system (P<.0001) or intensive care unit stay (P=.003) and exposure to antibiotics in the previous month (P<.0001). The clinical course of children with CDI was less symptomatic. There were no clinical differences between Clostridium difficile toxin-producers and non-toxin producers. Comorbidity was identified as the main risk factor associated with CDI (OR 40.02, 95% CI 6.84-232.32; P<.0001). The isolation of Clostridium difficile is common in hospitalized children with diarrhea in our setting. CDI is more frequent in children with comorbidity and recent contact with the health-care system, presenting a mostly oligosymptomatic clinical course. Further studies are needed to understand the epidemiology of this infection in pediatrics, especially the percentage of

  9. Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Possible Causes DiagnosisYour symptoms may be caused by LACTOSE INTOLERANCE. People who have this condition have trouble digesting ... dairy products.Self CareIf you think you have lactose intolerance, talk to your doctor. He or she may ...

  10. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  11. Localized, diffuse, and aggregative-adhering Escherichia coli from infants with acute diarrhea and matched-controls

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Magalhães; Amorim,Rosemary J. M.; Yoshifumi Takeda; Teizo Tsukamoto; Maria G. Antas; Seiki Tateno

    1992-01-01

    Of 126 infants under 2 years, enrolled in a study on the etiology of acute diarrhea in Recife, Brazil, we selected 37 from whom no recognized enteropathogens, except classic enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, were identified. For comparison, we also examined 37 matched-control infants without diarrhea seen at the same hospital setting. This paper had the purpose to determine the prevalence of localized, diffuse, and aggregative-adhering E. coli strains in both groups. Three to five fecal E. c...

  12. Serological screening for celiac disease in adult Chinese patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Wang (Hongling); G. Zhou (Guoying); L. Luo (Linjie); J.B.A. Crusius; A. Yuan (Anlong); J. Kou (Jiguang); G. Yang (Guifang); M. Wang (Min); J. Wu (Jing); B.M.E. von Blomberg (Mary); S.A. Morré (Servaas); A. Salvador Pena; B. Xia (Bing)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCeliac disease (CD) is common in Caucasians, but thought to be rare in Asians. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of CD in Chinese patients with chronic diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D). From July 2010 to August 2012, 395 adult patients with IBS-D and 363 age

  13. Genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in cattle from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infects cattle populations worldwide causing significant economic losses though its impact in animal health. Previous studies have reported the prevalence of BVDV species and subgenotypes in cattle from the United States and Canada. In this study, we investigated t...

  14. Stochastic simulation modeling to determine time to detect Bovine Viral Diarrhea antibodies in bulk tank milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Krogh, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate the time from introduction ofBovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in a herd to detection of antibodies in bulk tank milk(BTM) samples using three ELISAs. We assumed that antibodies could be detected, after afixed threshold prevalence...

  15. Solar disinfection improves drinking water quality to prevent diarrhea in under-five children in Sikkim, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B B Rai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Solar radiations improve the microbiological quality of water and offer a method for disinfection of drinking water that requires few resources and no expertise and may reduce the prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children. Aims and Objectives: To find out the reduction in the prevalence of diarrhea in the under-five children after consumption of potable water treated with solar disinfection method. Materials and Methods: This was a population-based interventional prospective study in the urban slum area of Mazegoan, Jorethang, south Sikkim, during the period 1 st May 2007 to 30 th November 2007 on 136 children in the under-five age group in 102 households selected by random sampling. Main outcome measure was the assessment of the reduction of the prevalence of diarrhea among under-five children after consumption of potable water treated with solar disinfection method practiced by the caregivers in the intervention group keeping water in polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles as directed by the investigators. The data were collected by the interview method using a pre-tested questionnaire prepared on the basis of socio-demographics and prevalence of diarrhea. The data were subjected to percentages and chi-square tests, which were used to find the significance. Results: After four weeks of intervention among the study group, the diarrhea prevalence was 7.69% among solar disinfection (SODIS users, while 31.82% prevalence was observed among non-users in that period; the reduction in prevalence of diarrhea was 75.83%. After eight weeks of intervention, the prevalence of diarrhea was 7.58% among SODIS users and 31.43% among non-users; the reduction in diarrhea was 75.88% in the study group. The findings were found to be statistically significant. Conclusions: In our study, we observed that the prevalence of diarrhea decreased significantly after solar disinfection of water was practiced by the caregivers keeping potable water in

  16. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I ...

  17. Dicrocoeliiasis with Signs of Chronic Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mahmoodi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A case who was suffering from abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea refered to Isfahan Health Training and Research Center, Institute of Public Health. Current treatments for chronic diarrhea incloding a traial of gluten fre diet were performed but these were not effective because he was infected by Dicrocoelium dentriticum. Then he was cured with parasitic treatment.

  18. LU's Combined Acupuncture Techniques for Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-fang; CHEN Chen; NI Zhi-zhen; ZHONG Chen; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    @@ Diarrhea refers to frequent discharge of loose, even watery stool. In clinic, we used the famous acupuncturist LU Shou-yan's combined acupuncture techniques of along-against, lifting-thrusting and quickslow reinforcing and reducing to treat diarrhea. Now it is reported as follows.

  19. The nutritional management of acute diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacLean William

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrhea may have a profound effect on nutritional status worldwide. After rehvdra-tion, proper nutritional management can mitigate these effects. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of continued feeding, emphasizing that breastfeeding should not be stopped during episodes of acute diarrhea.

  20. The nutritional management of acute diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    MacLean William

    1996-01-01

    Acute diarrhea may have a profound effect on nutritional status worldwide. After rehvdra-tion, proper nutritional management can mitigate these effects. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of continued feeding, emphasizing that breastfeeding should not be stopped during episodes of acute diarrhea.

  1. Etiology of acute diarrhea in the elderly in China: A six-year observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Qibin; Yang, Wanqi; Chen, Yu; Wu, Jianguo; Jing, Huaiqi; Yang, Weizhong; Li, Zhongjie

    2017-01-01

    Acute diarrhea leads to a substantial disease burden among the elderly worldwide. However, in the context of increasingly aging trend in China, the prevalence of etiological agents among elderly diarrheal patients was undetermined. This study aimed to explore the major enteropathogens of acute diarrhea among outpatients older than 65 years in China, and also the epidemiological features of the pathogens. Demographic and clinical data for acute diarrhea among outpatients older than 65 years were collected from 213 participating hospitals from 2009 to 2014. Stool specimens were collected and tested for 13 enteric viruses and bacteria. The proportion of outpatients positive for targeted pathogens was analyzed by residential areas and seasonal patterns. Among the 7,725 patients enrolled, 1,617 (20.9%)were positive for any one of the 13 study pathogens. The predominant pathogen was norovirus (9.0%), followed by diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) (5.5%), rotavirus (3.9%), non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) (2.9%), and Shigella spp. (2.5%). The prevalence of Shigella spp. among rural patients (6.9%) was higher than that among urban patients (1.6%) (p spp. in summer. A wide variety of enteropathogens were detected among the elderly with acute diarrhea in China, with norovirus and DEC being the most commonly isolated pathogens. A strong seasonal pattern was observed for major pathogens of acute diarrhea among the elderly. PMID:28323855

  2. Clostridium difficile infection in children hospitalized due to diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulęba, K; Pawłowska, M; Wietlicka-Piszcz, M

    2014-02-01

    The frequency of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)-related hospitalizations is increasing. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of CDI among children hospitalized with diarrhea, risk factors or predictors for severe CDI, the prevalence of NAP1, and to compare the course of CDI depending on bacteria toxicity profile. A retrospective analysis of case records of 64 children (age range 3 months-16 years, median age 2.12 years) with CDI as defined by diarrheal disease and positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test (Xpert C. difficile) was conducted. Modified national adult guidelines were used to assess the severity of CDI. CDIs represented 2.7 % of patients with diarrhea (13.5 cases per 1,000 admissions). Thirty-three CDIs (52 %) were community-associated. Antibacterial use preceded CDI in 61 patients (95 %). Seventeen cases (27 %) were binary toxin-positive (CDT+), 13 of which were NAP1 (20.5 %). Over 75 % of CDIs with NAP1 was hospital-acquired, and more often proceeded with generalized infection (p factors for severe CDI (34 %) included NAP1 [odds ratio (OR), 4.85; 95 % confidence interval (Cl), 1.23, 21.86) and co-morbidities (OR, 4.25; 95 % Cl, 1.34, 14.38). Diarrhea ≥10 stools daily was associated with severe CDI (p = 0.01). Recurrence occurred in three patients (4.5 %). There was no mortality. C. difficile is an important factor of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. Co-morbidities and NAP1 predispose to severe CDI.

  3. The rate of co-infection for piglet diarrhea viruses in China and the genetic characterization of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus and porcine kobuvirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z-P; Yang, Z; Lin, W-D; Wang, W-Y; Yang, J; Jin, W-J; Qin, A-J

    2016-03-01

    Piglet diarrhea epidemics result in major economic losses for the swine industry. Four viruses are closely linked to porcine diarrhea: porcine kobuvirus (PKV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), and porcine rotavirus (PRoV). We have conducted an epidemiology study to determine the frequency of infection and co-infection with these viruses in China, and characterized the genetic variation of the isolated PEDV and PKV strains. Stool and intestinal samples (n = 314) were collected from piglets with diarrhea in China from years 2012 to 2014. RT-PCR was used to detect PKV, PEDV, TGEV, and PRoV. Phylogenetic relationships between reference strains and the isolated PEDV and PKV strains were determined based on the M and 3D gene sequence. The rates of infection with PKV, PEDV, TGEV and PRoV were 29.9%, 24.2%, 1.91%, and 0.31%, respectively. Co-infections with PKV and the other three viruses were very common. Co-infection of PKV and PEDV was detected in 15.0% (47/314) of the samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the PKV 3D gene indicated that there were some phylogenetic differences in the PKV strains across regions within China. However, according to the PEDV M gene, strains clustered into three groups and the primary group was distinct from the vaccine strain CV777. This study provides insights in to the prevalence of diarrhea viruses and their prevention and control in China.

  4. Nosocomial diarrhea in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Marcon

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We made an epidemiological case-control study to examine risk factors for the development of diarrhea in the intensive care unit (ICU of a public hospital in Santo André, SP, from January to October 2002. Forty-nine patients with diarrhea (cases and 49 patients without diarrhea (controls, matched for age and gender, were included in the study. A stool culture and enzyme immunoassays for Clostridium difficile toxins A and B were performed on fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Fourteen of them presented positive cultures for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 22 patients presented positive ELISA for Clostridium diffícile. Nosocomial diarrhea was associated with several factors, including use of antibiotics (P=0.001, use of ceftriaxone (P=0.001, presence of infection (P=0.010 and length of hospital stay (P=0.0001.

  5. Nosocomial diarrhea in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Marcon

    Full Text Available We made an epidemiological case-control study to examine risk factors for the development of diarrhea in the intensive care unit (ICU of a public hospital in Santo André, SP, from January to October 2002. Forty-nine patients with diarrhea (cases and 49 patients without diarrhea (controls, matched for age and gender, were included in the study. A stool culture and enzyme immunoassays for Clostridium difficile toxins A and B were performed on fecal specimens from diarrhea patients. Fourteen of them presented positive cultures for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 22 patients presented positive ELISA for Clostridium diffícile. Nosocomial diarrhea was associated with several factors, including use of antibiotics (P=0.001, use of ceftriaxone (P=0.001, presence of infection (P=0.010 and length of hospital stay (P=0.0001.

  6. Enteric Pathogens Associated with Childhood Diarrhea in Tripoli-Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahouma, Amal; Klena, John D.; Krema, Zaineb; Abobker, Abdalwahed A.; Treesh, Khalid; Franka, Ezzedin; Abusnena, Omar; Shaheen, Hind I.; El Mohammady, Hanan; Abudher, Abdulhafid; Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw

    2011-01-01

    Stool samples from children < 5 years of age with diarrhea (N = 239) were examined for enteric pathogens using a combination of culture, enzyme-immunoassay, and polymerase chain reaction methods. Pathogens were detected in 122 (51%) stool samples; single pathogens were detected in 37.2% and co-pathogens in 13.8% of samples. Norovirus, rotavirus, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) were the most frequently detected pathogens (15.5%, 13.4%, and 11.2%, respectively); Salmonella, adenovirus, and Aeromonas were detected less frequently (7.9%, 7.1%, and 4.2%). The most commonly detected DEC was enteroaggregative E. coli (5.4%). Resistance to ≥ 3 antimicrobials was observed in 60% (18/30) of the bacterial pathogens. Salmonella resistance to ciprofloxacin (63.1%) has become a concern. Enteric viral pathogens were the most significant causative agents of childhood diarrhea in Tripoli. Bacterial pathogens were also important contributors to pediatric diarrhea. The emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella represents a serious health problem that must be addressed by Libyan health authorities PMID:21633024

  7. Socioeconomic, hygienic, and sanitation factors in reducing diarrhea in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuscia Shirota Imada

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the contributions of the socioeconomic, hygienic, and sanitation improvements in reducing the prevalence of diarrhea in a city of the Amazon. METHODS In this population-based cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from surveys conducted in the city of Jordão, Acre. In 2005 and 2012, these surveys evaluated, respectively, 466 and 826 children under five years old. Questionnaires were applied on the socioeconomic conditions, construction of houses, food and hygienic habits, and environmental sanitation. We applied Pearson’s Chi-squared test and Poisson regression to verify the relationship between origin of water, construction of homes, age of introduction of cow’s milk in the diet, place of birth and the prevalence of diarrhea. RESULTS The prevalence of diarrhea was reduced from 45.1% to 35.4%. We identified higher probability of diarrhea in children who did not use water from the public network, in those receiving cow’s milk in the first month after birth, and in those living in houses made of paxiúba. Children born at home presented lower risk of diarrhea when compared to those who were born in hospital, with this difference reversing for the 2012 survey. CONCLUSIONS Sanitation conditions improved with the increase of bathrooms with toilets, implementation of the Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF – Family Health Program, and water treatment in the city. The multivariate regression model identified a statistically significant association between use of water from the public network, construction of houses, late introduction of cow’s milk, and access to health service with occurrence of diarrhea.

  8. Water privatization, water source, and pediatric diarrhea in Bolivia: epidemiologic analysis of a social experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornheim, Jeffrey A; Morland, Kimberly B; Landrigan, Philip J; Cifuentes, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Water and sanitation services are fundamental to the prevention of pediatric diarrhea. To enhance both access to water and investment, some argue for the privatization of municipal water networks. Water networks in multiple Bolivian cities were privatized in the 1990s, but contracts ended following popular protests citing poor access. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in two Bolivian cities. Data were collected on family water utilization and sanitation practices and on the prevalence of diarrhea among 596 children. Drinking from an outdoor water source (OR, 2.08; 95%CI, 1.25-3.44) and shorter in-home water boiling times (OR, 1.99; 95%CI, 1.19-3.34) were associated with prevalence of diarrhea. Increased prevalence was also observed for children from families using private versus public water services, using off-network water from cistern trucks, or not treating their water in-home. Results suggest that water source, water provider, and in-home water treatment are important predictors of pediatric diarrhea.

  9. Comparing serologic response against enteric pathogens with reported diarrhea to assess the impact of improved household drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump, John A; Mendoza, Carlos E; Priest, Jeffrey W; Glass, Roger I; Monroe, Stephan S; Dauphin, Leslie A; Bibb, William F; Lopez, M Beatriz; Alvarez, Maricruz; Mintz, Eric D; Luby, Stephen P

    2007-07-01

    We evaluated enteric infection serology as an alternative outcome measure to diarrhea prevalence in a randomized controlled trial of household-based drinking water treatment; 492 households were randomly assigned to 5 household-based water treatment interventions or control. Individuals were followed weekly over 52 weeks to measure diarrhea prevalence. Study subjects of age diarrhea prevalence only for G. intestinalis (P = 0.0134). Serologic response to the antigens tested for G. intestinalis but not for Norovirus, C. parvum, and ETEC may be a useful health-effect measure. Larger intervention studies that yield a more marked effect on diarrheal disease, use additional and improved serologic assays, and that collect serum samples at more frequent intervals are needed.

  10. prevalence and predictors of intestinal helminthiasis among school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    2011-11-03

    Nov 3, 2011 ... prevalence and predictors of intestinal parasitosis among school children in four woredas of Jimma zone surrounding .... related factors such as risk behavior for infection ..... had bloody diarrhea during the study time(Table. 4).

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of late HIV diagnosis in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors ..... defining illnesses including, chronic diarrhea, esophageal and oral Candidiasis and recurrent upper .... "Predictors of Late HIV Diagnosis among Adult People Living.

  12. Hospitalizations for Diarrhea in Quebec Children from 1985 to 1998: Estimates of Rotavirus-Associated Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    René-Pierre Buigues; Bernard Duval; Louis Rochette; Nicole Boulianne; Monique Douville-Fradet; Pierre Déry; Gaston De Serres

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the incidence and duration of hospitalization due to diarrhea and to assess the proportion of hospitalizations that are attributed to rotavirus-associated diarrhea.DESIGN: Retrospective study of hospitalization data.SETTING: Hospitals located in Quebec.POPULATION STUDIED: Children from one to 59 months of age who were discharged from hospital from April 1, 1985 to March 31, 1998.MAIN RESULTS: There were 63,827 hospitalizations for diarrhea over the study period, for...

  13. Diarrhea and health inequity among Indigenous children in Brazil: results from the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Ana Lúcia; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Welch, James R; Horta, Bernardo L; Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Cardoso, Andrey M

    2015-02-27

    Globally, diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children under five. In Brazil, mortality due to diarrhea underwent a significant reduction in recent decades principally due to expansion of the primary healthcare network, use of oral rehydration therapy, reduced child undernutrition, and improved access to safe drinking water. The First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008-2009, was the first survey based on a nationwide representative sample to study the prevalence of diarrhea and associated factors among Indigenous children in the country. The survey assessed the health and nutritional status of Indigenous children diarrhea were calculated for independent variables and hierarchical multivariable analyses were conducted to assess associations. Information on diarrhea was obtained for 5,828 children (95.1% of the total sample). The overall prevalence of diarrhea was 23.5%. Regional differences were observed, with the highest rate being in the North (38.1%). Higher risk of diarrhea was observed among younger children and those who had less maternal schooling, lower household socioeconomic status, undernutrition (weight-for-age deficit), presence of another child with diarrhea in the household, and occurrence of upper respiratory infection. According to results of the First National Survey of Indigenous People's Health and Nutrition, almost a quarter of Indigenous children throughout the country had diarrhea during the previous week. This prevalence is substantially higher than that documented in 2006 for Brazilian children diarrhea in the final multivariable model provide an excellent reflection of the diverse social and health inequities faced by Indigenous peoples in contemporary Brazil.

  14. Probiotics and Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surawicz, Christina M.

    Diarrhea is a common side effect of antibiotics. Antibiotics can cause diarrhea in 5-25% of individuals who take them but its occurrence is unpredictable. Diarrhea due to antibiotics is called antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Diarrhea may be mild and resolve when antibiotics are discontinued, or it may be more severe. The most severe form of AAD is caused by overgrowth of Clostridium difficile which can cause severe diarrhea, colitis, pseudomembranous colitis, or even fatal toxic megacolon. Rates of diarrhea vary with the specific antibiotic as well as with the individual susceptibility.

  15. Health care seeking behavior for diarrhea in children under 5 in rural Niger: results of a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djibo Ali

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea remains the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age in sub-Saharan Africa. Health care seeking behavior for diarrhea varies by context and has important implications for developing appropriate care strategies and estimating burden of disease. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of children under five with diarrhea who consulted at a health structure in order to identify the appropriate health care levels to set up surveillance of severe diarrheal diseases. Methods A cluster survey was done on 35 clusters of 21 children under 5 years of age in each of four districts of the Maradi Region, Niger. Caretakers were asked about diarrhea of the child during the recall period and their health seeking behavior in case of diarrhea. A weighted cluster analysis was conducted to determine the prevalence of diarrhea, as well as the proportion of consultations and types of health structures consulted. Results In total, the period prevalence of diarrhea and severe diarrhea between April 24th and May 21st 2009 were 36.8% (95% CI: 33.7 - 40.0 and 3.4% (95% CI: 2.2-4.6, respectively. Of those reporting an episode of diarrhea during the recall period, 70.4% (95% CI: 66.6-74.1 reported seeking care at a health structure. The main health structures visited were health centers, followed by health posts both for simple or severe diarrhea. Less than 10% of the children were brought to the hospital. The proportion of consultations was not associated with the level of education of the caretaker, but increased with the number of children in the household. Conclusions The proportion of consultations for diarrhea cases in children under 5 years old was higher than those reported in previous surveys in Niger and elsewhere. Free health care for under 5 years old might have participated in this improvement. In this type of decentralized health systems, the WHO recommended hospital-based surveillance of

  16. Campylobacter spp.: prevalencia y caracterización feno-genotípica de aislamientos de pacientes con diarrea y de sus mascotas en la provincia de La Pampa, Argentina Campylobacter spp.: prevalence and pheno-genotypic characterization of isolates recovered from patients suffering from diarrhea and their pets in La Pampa Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L Tamborini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la prevalencia de Campylobacter spp. en 327 pacientes con diarrea y en 36 animales (perros, gatos y pollos que convivían con pacientes en los que se detectó este patógeno; el estudio se llevó a cabo en Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Se aisló Campylobacter spp. en 50/327 pacientes y en 12/36 animales, Campylobacter jejuni fue la especie más frecuente. Se detectó resistencia a ciprofoxacina (65 % y a tetraciclina (32 % en una selección de 35 aislamientos de origen humano. En el análisis por electroforesis de campo pulsado de 13 aislamientos de C. jejuni se identificaron siete subtipos genéticos. Dos subtipos agruparon aislamientos de pacientes y de sus respectivos perros, y un tercer subtipo agrupó 1 aislamiento humano y 2 de pollos de ese paciente. Si bien las aves son reconocidas como el principal reservorio, es importante fortalecer la vigilancia de Campylobacter spp. en mascotas, las cuales pueden ser portadores asintomáticos del patógeno.The prevalence of Campylobacter spp. was investigated in 327 patients suffering from diarrhea and in 36 animals (dogs, cats and chickens owned by the patients that presented infection by Campylobacter in Santa Rosa, La Pampa, Argentina. Campylobacter spp. was isolated in 50/327 patients and in 12/36 animals, being Campylobacter jejuni the most common species. Resistance to ciprofoxacin (65 % and tetracycline (32 % was found among 35 isolates of human origin studied. Seven genetic subtypes were observed among 13 C. jejuni isolates by pulsed feld gel electrophoresis. Two subtypes grouped isolates belonging to patients and their respective dogs whereas another subtype grouped one isolate of human origin and two isolates from the patient´s chickens. The results of this investigation highlight the need to strengthen surveillance of Campylobacter spp. not only in poultry, which is recognized as the main reservoir, but also in pets, which were shown to be asymptomatic carriers of the

  17. Risk Factors of Diarrhea in Children Under Five Years in Urban Slums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishna Kalakheti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrhea is a leading cause of mortality in children in developing countries and the condition is worse in slums. In order to provide effective preventive and management strategies, it is important to identify factors associated with the disease. This study was carried out to investigate the risk factors of diarrhea in  children under five years of age in urban slums.   Methods: Parents of all children under five years from the urban slums of Tansen municipality, Palpa, Nepal were interviewed using a standardized pretested questionnaire and proforma. Parental variables, environmental factors, and presence of diarrhea in those children in past three months were collected by trained enumerators and the data were analyzed with statistical software SPSS-10.   Results: A total of 450 under five years children were enrolled in the study. There were 216 (48% male and 234 (52% female children with F:M ratio of 1.08:1. Occurrence of diarrhea was lower if the children were breast-fed for more than six months, well-nourished, used fountain water for drinking, or used boiled or treated water. Similarly, diarrhea prevalence was lower if father had a regular job, daily income in the family was more than one US dollar, there was a toilet in the house, practice of hand washing was followed before feeding or preparing food, or there was no child suffering from diarrhea in the neighborhood.   Conclusion: There are a few variables that are significantly related to diarrhea in children under five years of age. In order to decrease the diarrheal episodes in children in the slums of the developing countries, priority could be given in the improvement of those variables.

  18. Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; SUN Xin-ting; ZENG Zheng; YU Yan-yan

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a marked global increase in the incidence of human Campylobacter enteritis in recent years. This study investigated the epidemiological and clinical features of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients suffering from acute diarrhea.Methods This was a retrospective review of Campylobacter enteritis in adult patients with acute diarrhea presenting at Beijing University First Hospital, Beijing, China, in the summer and autumn (April to October) of 2005 to 2009. The data collected included the species of campylobacter identified, and the age, gender, clinical manifestations and results of laboratory test on stool samples collected from the patients. Campylobacter sensitivity tests to various antimicrobial agents were conducted on 80 specimens. Chi-square tests were applied using SPSS13.0 software and a two-sided P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results Campylobacter spp. isolated from the stool specimens of 142 patients with diarrhea represented 14.9% of all the cases examined. C. jejuni was identified in 127 patients (89.4%) and C. coli in 15 others (10.6%). The infection incidence was highest in the age range of 21-30 years which comprised 21.7% of the total cases examined. Most cases of diarrhea (46 patients) occurred in June. Watery diarrhea (97.2%), abdominal pain (72.5%) and fever (64.8%) were the most common manifestations of enteric campylobacteriosis. Only four patients (2.8%) had bloody diarrhea. The antimicrobial resistance rates were: cefoperazone (100%), levofloxacin (61.3%), gentamicin (12.5%), erythromycin (6.3%), and azithromycin (2.5%).Conclusions Campylobacter was prevalent among adults with acute diarrhea from 2005 to 2009 in Beijing, China. The large number of those afflicted by the disease warrants the commission of a large multicenter study to determine the extent of enteric campylobacteriosis in this region.

  19. [Medication in infectious acute diarrhea in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cézard, J-P; Bellaiche, M; Viala, J; Hugot, J-P

    2007-10-01

    Acute infectious diarrhea in children remain still a frequent cause of morbidity. 50 % of them are due to rotavirus. Oral rehydration therapy and early realimentation have drastically reduced their mortality and morbidity. Beside oral or eventually IV rehydration therapy no medication has proven its efficacy based on the main HMO criteria (reduction of over 30 % of the stool output) except racecadotril and loperamide which is contre-indicated for the last one in children less than 2 years old. Other medications such as silicates or some probiotics have shown efficacy on diarrhea duration or stool consistency but not on stool output. They have so no formal indication in infectious diarrhea and should be considered as "comfort" treatment. Antibiotics, beside their indication in shigella, cholera and amibiasis could be used in invasive diarrhea in some debilating conditions or infants less than 3 months.

  20. [Chemotherapy-induced stomatitis and diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Shigenori; Yamaguchi, Kensei

    2011-11-01

    Chemotherapy-induced mucositis is a clinically important and sometimes dose-limiting toxicity of cancer treatment, including standard-dose chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Consequently, dose reductions or treatment delays resulting from mucositis may impair treatment effectiveness. Symptoms are oral mucositis, dysphagia, abdominal pain and diarrhea, depending on the affected site. Although the underlying pathobiology of oral mucositis has been considerably elucidated over the past decade, there are few interventions for the prevention or treatment validated by randomized trials. The most commonly accepted intervention is basic oral care. Diarrhea is most common in patients treated with irinotecan and in some cases, life-threatening. No definitive interventions for the prevention of diarrhea exist, but there is evidence that loperamide and octreotide are effective for chemotherapy-induced diarrhea. In future, there is a need for well designed trials, preferably including a placebo or no treatment control, validating more effective interventions for managing chemotherapy- induced mucositis.

  1. Parasitic diarrhea in normal and malnourished children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendrel, D; Treluyer, J M; Richard-Lenoble, D

    2003-04-01

    Diarrhea is only one of the many manifestations of intestinal parasites. Environmental influences are inescapable, regardless of an individual's state of health: in a highly endemic region, intestinal parasitic colonization is almost the rule. The clinical expression of the parasitoses, however, is largely determined by host defenses; and when they are weakened, parasitic diarrhea is frequent and severe. Protein-energy malnutrition is by far the most important cause of immune deficiency in developing countries. Diarrhea caused by Strongyloides or Giardia is common and severe in malnourished children, while well-nourished children remain healthy carriers. These parasites require specific treatment in the malnourished; and the well-nourished should have preventive treatment when they are to receive corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents. Diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium spp. may be severe in malnourished or immunodeficient children, and recovery is achieved only after renutrition or treatment of the immunodeficiency.

  2. Probiotics for children with diarrhea: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guandalini, Stefano

    2008-07-01

    This review focuses on the efficacy of probiotics for diarrhea in children in different settings: day-care centers, diarrhea acquired in the hospital, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and treatment of acute infectious diarrhea. For prevention of diarrhea acquired in day-care centers, 5 randomized and placebo-controlled trials have been published. Probiotics tested were Lactobacillus GG, Bifidobacterium lactis (alone or in combination with Streptococcus thermophilus), and Lactobacillus reuteri. The evidence of their efficacy in these settings is only modest: statistically significant for some strains only and in any case of minimal to mild clinical importance. Few trials have examined the potential role of probiotics in preventing the spread of diarrhea in hospitalized children, an event most commonly due to either rotavirus or Clostridium difficile, and they have yielded conflicting results. Overall, these studies provide only weak evidence on the efficacy of probiotics. On the other hand, a large number of trials on the role of probiotics in preventing the onset of antibiotic-associated diarrhea have been published. Most commonly employed probiotics were Lactobacillus GG, Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp., and the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii. In general, these trials do show clear evidence of efficacy, with the 2 most effective strains being Lactobacillus GG and S. boulardii. Today, we have a large number of published clinical trials on the role of probiotics in treating sporadic infectious diarrhea in children, and many of them are randomized, blinded, and controlled. They consistently show a statistically significant benefit and moderate clinical benefit of a few, well-identified probiotic strains-mostly Lactobacillus GG and S. boulardii, but also L. reuteri-in the treatment of acute watery diarrhea, primarily rotaviral, in infants and young children of developed countries. Such a beneficial effect seems to result in a reduction of diarrhea duration of

  3. Diarrhea and its effect on growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mata, Leonardo

    1986-01-01

    Artículo científico -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud, 1986 The predominant etiology of diarrhea in the general population of underdeveloped countries is infection by viruses and bacteria. Studies in rural areas clearly suggest an infectious cause. For example, diarrhea initially affects one individual in the family (index case) and then spreads to other family and community members. Infants and toddlers are affected more frequently than older children, ad...

  4. The fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea.

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    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal (GI diseases in various animal species, but only limited data is available about the microbiome in cats with GI disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome in cats with diarrhea. Fecal samples were obtained from healthy cats (n = 21 and cats with acute (n = 19 or chronic diarrhea (n = 29 and analyzed by sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and PICRUSt was used to predict the functional gene content of the microbiome. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA effect size (LEfSe revealed significant differences in bacterial groups between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea. The order Burkholderiales, the families Enterobacteriaceae, and the genera Streptococcus and Collinsella were significantly increased in diarrheic cats. In contrast the order Campylobacterales, the family Bacteroidaceae, and the genera Megamonas, Helicobacter, and Roseburia were significantly increased in healthy cats. Phylum Bacteroidetes was significantly decreased in cats with chronic diarrhea (>21 days duration, while the class Erysipelotrichi and the genus Lactobacillus were significantly decreased in cats with acute diarrhea. The observed changes in bacterial groups were accompanied by significant differences in functional gene contents: metabolism of fatty acids, biosynthesis of glycosphingolipids, metabolism of biotin, metabolism of tryptophan, and ascorbate and aldarate metabolism, were all significantly (p<0.001 altered in cats with diarrhea. In conclusion, significant differences in the fecal microbiomes between healthy cats and cats with diarrhea were identified. This dysbiosis was accompanied by changes in bacterial functional gene categories. Future studies are warranted to evaluate if these microbial changes correlate with changes in fecal concentrations of microbial metabolites in cats with diarrhea for the identification of potential diagnostic or

  5. Efficacy of synbiotic treatment in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ratna Dewi; Yati Soenarto; I Putu Gede Karyana

    2015-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children throughout the world, mostly due to rotavirus infection. In daily practice, we routinely use the World Health Organization Five steps for managing acute diarrhea.This practice has shown great success in diarrhea management, but concerns remain on reducing the duration of diarrhea to prevent complications. Synbiotics can reduce the severity of diarrhea. However, there has been limited data on synbiotic therap...

  6. Efficacy of synbiotic treatment in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Made Ratna Dewi; Yati Soenarto; I Putu Gede Karyana

    2016-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidityand mortality in children throughout the world, mostly due torotavirus infection. In daily practice, we routinely use the WorldHealth Organization Five steps for managing acute diarrhea.Thispractice has shown great success in diarrhea management, butconcerns remain on reducing the duration of diarrhea to preventcomplications. Synbiotics can reduce the severity of diarrhea.However, there has been limited data on synbiotic therapy fortr...

  7. Prevalence of intestinal microsporidiosis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected patients with diarrhea in major United States cities Prevalência de microsporidiose intestinal em pacientes infectados pelo HIV com diarréia nas principais cidades dos Estados Unidos da América do Norte

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    Mark S. Dworkin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of intestinal microsporidiosis in HIV-infected patients, we performed a prospective study of HIV-infected patients with diarrheal illnesses in three US hospitals and examined an observational database of HIV-infected patients in 10 US cities. Among 737 specimens from the three hospitals, results were positive for 11 (prevalence 1.5%; seven (64% acquired HIV through male-to-male sexual contact, two (18% through male-to-male sexual contact and injection drug use, and one (9% through heterosexual contact; one (9% had an undetermined mode of transmission. Median CD4 count within six months of diagnosis of microsporidiosis was 33 cells/µL (range 3 to 319 cells/µL. For the national observational database (n = 24,098, the overall prevalence of microsporidiosis was 0.16%. Prevalence of microsporidiosis among HIV-infected patients with diarrheal disease is low, and microsporidiosis is most often diagnosed in patients with very low CD4+ cell counts. Testing for microsporidia appears to be indicated, especially for patients with very low CD4+ cell counts.Para determinar a prevalência de microsporidiose intestinal em pacientes infectados pelo HIV foi realizado um estudo prospectivo em três hospitais dos Estados Unidos da América do Norte (EUA e analizada uma base de dados nacional composta de dados coletados de pacientes infectados pelo HIV em 10 cidades dos EUA. De um total de 737 amostras de fezes de pacientes infectados pelo HIV que apresentavam diarréia, amostras de 11 pacientes (prevalência de 1,5% foram positivas para microsporídios. Todos os positivos eram do sexo masculino e, entre eles, sete (64% pacientes adquiriram a infecção pelo HIV através de relação homossexual, dois (18% através de relação sexual e drogas injetáveis e um (9% através de contato heterosexual, enquanto que em um paciente o modo de transmissão do HIV não foi determinado. A contagem média de linfócitos CD4 realizada até seis

  8. Epidemiological analysis of acute diarrhea in children and inspection of pathogenic bacterium, viruses and other microorganisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hu; Yan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate of epidemiological analysis of acute diarrhea in children, and to discuss the inspection of pathogenic bacterium, viruses and other microorganisms, in order to provide theoretical basis for the prevention and treatment of the disease.Methods: Five hundred and sixty-two cases of children with acute diarrhea treated in our center were selected as the research subjects, whose epidemiological data were analyzed. The fecal samples were collected for bacterial culture and identification, and the distribution characteristics of pathogenic bacteria were collected, then their relative characteristics were analyzed.Results:Children with acute diarrhea were more common in men aged 1-2 years old,and the incidence of time was more concentrated in June-August. There were four hundred and eighty-nine strains in the five hundred and sixty-two cases of children, among which the rate of viruses was the most, and the human rotavirus accounted for 30.67%, and the Shigella bacterium accounted for 20.65% in the total microorganisms, which was the highest detection rate of pathogenic bacterium. Rotavirus infection occured mainly in Winter, but the bacterial and goblet viral diarrhea was prevalent in summer.Conclusions:Children with acute diarrhea were more common in men aged 1-2 years old , and the rate of viruses in the detection of microorganisms is the highest, so targeted treatment should be taken according to the type of infection.

  9. Risk factors of weaning diarrhea in puppies housed in breeding kennels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grellet, Aurélien; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie; Robin, Coralie; Feugier, Alexandre; Boogaerts, Cassandre; Boucraut-Baralon, Corine; Grandjean, Dominique; Polack, Bruno

    2014-11-01

    Diarrhea represents one of the most frequent disorders in dogs. In puppies, degradation of feces quality is associated with a reduced daily weight gain and an increased risk of death. Prevention of diarrhea in puppies requires a global approach encompassing enteropathogens, environment and management practices especially when housed in groups. The purpose of this study was to determine prevalence of enteropathogens in puppies in breeding kennels and to identify risk factors of diarrhea. Two hundred and sixty six puppies (between 5 and 14 weeks of age) from 29 French breeding kennels were included. For each kennel, data about environment, management of the kennel and puppies' characteristics (age, sex and breed) were collected. For each puppy, fecal consistency and fecal excretion of enteropathogens (viruses and parasites) was evaluated. At least one enteropathogen was identified in 77.1% of puppies and 24.8% of puppies presented abnormal feces. The main risk factor of weaning diarrhea was fecal excretion of canine parvovirus type 2 (odds ratio=5; confidence interval 95%: 1.7-14.7). A targeted sanitary and medical prophylaxis against canine parvovirus type 2 should be implemented to decrease risk of weaning diarrhea. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of Nosocomial Clostridium Difficile Diarrhea by Culture and Tissue Culture Methods

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    MH Salari

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clostridium difficult is an identified cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea, antibiotic-associated colitis, pseudomembranous colitis and nosocomial diarrhea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of nosocomial C. difficile-associated diarrhea in Tehran University of Medical Science Hospitals. Methods: In this study a total of 942 stool samples from patients with nosocomial diarrhea that were hospitalized in Imam Khomeini hospital, Shariati hospital and Children clinical center were collected. The samples were cultured on a selective cycloserine cefoxitin fructose agar (CCFA and incubated in anaerobic conditions, at 37 °C for 5 days. Isolated C. difficile by conventional biochemical tests, bacterial cytotoxicity by Vero tissue culture and antimicrobial sensitivity to antibiotics by Kirby Bauer method (disk diffusion were investigated. Results: Of the total patients, 57 Toxigenic C. difficile (6.1% were isolated. Results of statistical analysis show significant differences between the rate of isolated Toxigenic C. difficile and age group of patients (P< 0.05. Among the units of selected hospitals, Toxigenic C. difficile was isolated most frequently in gastroenterology of Children clinical center. Meanwhile, the isolated Toxigenic C. difficile were sensitive to vancomycin, Chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone. Conclusion: Our findings show that, Toxigenic C. difficile was found in 6.1% hospitalized patients. Therefore, further studies to evaluate the role of Toxigenic C. difficile in nosocomial diarrhea processes, ecological and pathogenic terms by culture, Tissue culture and molecular methodes are suggested.

  11. Role of the Gut Microbiota of Children in Diarrhea Due to the Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Carol A; Petri, Sarah E; Schneider, Brittany N; Reichman, Daniel J; Jiang, Nona; Begum, Sharmin; Watanabe, Koji; Jansen, Caroline S; Elliott, K Pamela; Burgess, Stacey L; Ma, Jennie Z; Alam, Masud; Kabir, Mamun; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A

    2016-05-15

    An estimated 1 million children die each year before their fifth birthday from diarrhea. Previous population-based surveys of pediatric diarrheal diseases have identified the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amebiasis, as one of the causes of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. We prospectively studied the natural history of E. histolytica colonization and diarrhea among infants in an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Approximately 80% of children were infected with E. histolytica by the age of 2 years. Fecal anti-galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine lectin immunoglobulin A was associated with protection from reinfection, while a high parasite burden and expansion of the Prevotella copri level was associated with diarrhea. E. histolytica infection was prevalent in this population, with most infections asymptomatic and diarrhea associated with both the amount of parasite and the composition of the microbiota. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  12. A study of dietetic on the diarrhea

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    Tae-Hyeun Baek

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This research examined about dietary therapy on the diarrhea based on the literary findings, for clinical treatment and prevention of the diarrhea. Methods : This Research examined on histories, compositions, applications, and effects of the diarrhea on about 100 cases of dietary therapy of the diarrhea from recent Chinese literatures Results : 1. Various vegetables, animals and mineral materials including herbs, grains, vegetables, fruits, food and drink were used for the dietary therapy. 2. Methods of the preparation for use as therapeutics were decoction, pulvis, gruel, medicinal wine, cake, tea, paste and gelatin and etc. 3. Frequently used materials were sesame oil, honey, ear mushroom, shiitake mushroom, kelp, walnut seed, hemp seed, groundnut, glutinous rice, apricot stone, yellow bean peel, radish, potato, spinage, and spring onion. Conclusion : Though dietary therapy for the diarrhea is not based on clinical or experimental data, but through experience. It is mostly based on Yin-Yang and five elements, visceral manifestation, channels and their collateral channels and chinese herbal medicine theories. If we use them properly according to oriental medicine method, it will be effective on treating and preventing the diarrhea.

  13. Microscopic colitis as a missed cause of chronic diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nooroudien Mohamed; Monique Marais; Juanita Bezuidenhout

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of increased in-traepithelial lymphocytes, using immunohistochemistry in patients with normal colonoscopy and near normal biopsy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all non-malig-nant colon mucosal biopsies between 2005 and 2007, reported as normal, chronic inflammation or melanosis coli in patients who were undergoing routine colonos-copy. Immunohistochemistry using CD3 was performed on all mucosal biopsies and an intraepithelial lympho-cyte count (IEL) was determined. Cases with an IEL count of ≥ 20 IELs per 100 surface epithelial cells were correlated with demographic, clinical and follow-up data. A further subgroup was evaluated for lymphocytic colitis.RESULTS: Twenty (8.3%) of 241 cases revealed an IEL count ≥ 20. Six (2.5%) patients were identified as having lymphocytic colitis (P < 0.001), of whom, five were missed on initial evaluation (P = 0.01). Four of these five patients were labeled with diarrhea-predom-inant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). On follow-up, three of the remaining 20 cases were diagnosed with malignancy (renal cell carcinoma and myelodysplastic syndrome) and one had an unknown primary tumor with multiple liver metastases. Two cases of collag-enous colitis with an IEL count < 10 were included in this study. Increased IELs were not confined to pa-tients with diarrhea as a primary presenting symptom, but were also present in patients with abdominal pain (n = 7), constipation (n = 3) and loss of weight (n = 1). CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemistry using CD3 is of value in identifying and quantifying IELs for the pres-ence of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS.

  14. Role of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Preventing Diarrhea

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    Hanifah Rohmah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk has protective factors for infants’ digestive tract. Infants are vulnerable to diseases, one of which is diarrhea. This cross-sectional study was designed to determine the relation between the proportion of diarrhea in infants and the administration of exclusive breastfeeding in Jatinangor. Methods: This study was an observational study. Data on mothers with 6 months old infants were collected from Jatinangor Primary Health Center (PHC infant records. The inclusion criteria applied were infants born in April 2012, alive, and living in Jatinangor subdistrict. One hundred and seventy one infants were recorded in April of 2012 in the PHC data. Thirty five were excluded because they were not born in April 2012. Another 45 were excluded because they were not permanent residents of Jatinangor subdistrict, while 4 infants died, and 23 had incomplete data. Therefore, only 66 infants were included as study subjects. Those infants came from 12 villages in the subdistrict of Jatinangor. Data collection was then performed using a questionnaire to the parents during the period of 21–31 October 2012. Results: From 66 infants, the proportion of diarrhea was 66.7%. Only 27.3% of all infants received exclusive breastfeeding. There was a difference in the proportion of diarrhea between infants who were exclusively breastfed and those who were not. Exclusive breastfeeding also reduced the risk of diarrhea (OR= 0.26, 95% CI 0.08–0.83. Conclusions: There is a relation between the proportion of diarrhea in infants and exclusive breastfeeding in Jatinangor. Breastfeeding has a protective effect against diarrhea in infants.

  15. [Probiotics for the treating acute diarrhea and preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Carlos

    2015-02-07

    Probiotics are helpful in the treatment of acute diarrhea. Several systematic reviews show that the use of probiotics shortens the duration of diarrhea in one day and reduces by 59% the risk of diarrhea lasting longer than 4 days. Hospital stay is 24 hours shorter in children treated with probiotics. The benefitial effect of probiotics is species-specific; Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Saccharomyces boulardii are the two species with proven efficacy in the treatment of acute diarrhea. The use of probiotics reduces by 50% the risk of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. No significant side effects were found in the clinical trials but rare cases of invasive infections have been reported in immunosuppressed children or those with indwelling central venous catheters.

  16. Probiotics for Infectious Diarrhea and Traveler's Diarrhea - What Do We Really Know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Patricia L.

    Worldwide, diarrhea is the sixth leading cause of premature death (Lopez et al., 2006), accounting for more than two million deaths each year. The majority of the burden is borne in lower and middle income countries, and in children under age 5 (Kosek et al., 2003). Even in the United States where there is easy access to “safe” food and water, there are an estimated 211-375 million episodes of acute diarrhea each year, resulting in 900,000 hospitalizations and 6,000 deaths (Herikstad et al., 2002; Mead et al., 1999). While mortality from diarrhea has decreased over the last 30 years, the incidence and morbidity associated with diarrhea has not improved (Kosek et al., 2003). During the same time period an ever increasing number of enteric pathogens as well as non-infectious conditions have been recognized as causes of acute diarrhea (Guerrant et al., 2001).

  17. What zinc supplementation does and does not achieve in diarrhea prevention: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Mamtani Manju

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevention of diarrhea has presented indomitable challenges. A preventive strategy that has received significant interest is zinc supplementation. Existing literature including quantitative meta-analyses and systematic reviews tend to show that zinc supplementation is beneficial however evidence to the contrary is augmenting. We therefore conducted an updated and comprehensive meta-analytical synthesis of the existing literature on the effect of zinc supplementation in prevention of diarrhea. Methods EMBASE®, MEDLINE ® and CINAHL® databases were searched for published reviews and meta-analyses on the use of zinc supplementation for the prevention childhood diarrhea. Additional RCTs published following the meta-analyses were also sought. Effect of zinc supplementation on the following five outcomes was studied: incidence of diarrhea, prevalence of diarrhea, incidence of persistent diarrhea, incidence of dysentery and incidence of mortality. The published RCTs were combined using random-effects meta-analyses, subgroup meta-analyses, meta-regression, cumulative meta-analyses and restricted meta-analyses to quantify and characterize the role of zinc supplementation with the afore stated outcomes. Results We found that zinc supplementation has a modest beneficial association (9% reduction with incidence of diarrhea, a stronger beneficial association (19% reduction with prevalence of diarrhea and occurrence of multiple diarrheal episodes (28% reduction but there was significant unexplained heterogeneity across the studies for these associations. Age, continent of study origin, zinc salt and risk of bias contributed significantly to between studies heterogeneity. Zinc supplementation did not show statistically significant benefit in reducing the incidence of persistent diarrhea, dysentery or mortality. In most instances, the 95% prediction intervals for summary relative risk estimates straddled unity. Conclusions Demonstrable

  18. Sources of emotional distress associated with diarrhea among late middle-age and older HIV-infected adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Karolynn; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Brown-Bradley, Courtney J; Lekas, Helen-Maria

    2010-09-01

    Although the experience of physical symptoms can adversely influence emotional well-being, the specific emotional reactions experienced in response to specific symptoms are not well understood. To examine the emotional impact of diarrhea among HIV+ late middle-age and older adults (i.e., age 50 years and older). In-depth interviews were conducted with 100 participants, of whom 29 had experienced diarrhea and spoke about the emotional impact it had had on them. Three principal themes emerged: 1) I don't control the diarrhea, the diarrhea controls me; 2) I feel ashamed, dirty, and tainted; and 3) I fear what the diarrhea is doing to me and what it means. Their inability to control when and where their diarrhea would occur was a great source of emotional distress for participants. Almost all feared the possibility of fecal incontinence while out in public and the humiliation it would bring. To avoid this, many greatly restricted their time outside the home or where they would go to ensure access to a restroom. Others felt shame and perpetually "dirty" even when not dealing with a bout of diarrhea. Many also worried about the effect the diarrhea would have on their health and whether it signaled progression to end-stage disease. The data strongly support the need to aggressively manage diarrhea in HIV-infected adults, as the social and emotional consequences can be profound. When it cannot be effectively controlled, physicians and social service agencies should address the isolation by providing home-based opportunities for social support and interaction. 2010 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of tubewell access and tubewell depth on childhood diarrhea in Matlab, Bangladesh

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    Wu Jianyong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past three decades in Bangladesh, millions of tubewells have been installed to reduce the prevalence of diarrheal disease. This study evaluates the impacts of tubewell access and tubewell depth on childhood diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. Methods A total of 59,796 cases of diarrhea in children under 5 were recorded in 142 villages of Matlab, Bangladesh during monthly community health surveys between 2000 and 2006. The location and depth of 12,018 tubewells were surveyed in 2002-04 and integrated with diarrhea and other data in a geographic information system. A proxy for tubewell access was developed by calculating the local density of tubewells around households. Logistic regression models were built to examine the relationship between childhood diarrhea, tubewell density and tubewell depth. Wealth, adult female education, flood control, population density and the child's age were considered as potential confounders. Results Baris (patrilineally-related clusters of households with greater tubewell density were associated with significantly less diarrhea (OR (odds ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.85-0.89. Tubewell density had a greater influence on childhood diarrhea in areas that were not protected from flooding. Baris using intermediate depth tubewells (140-300 feet were associated with more childhood diarrhea (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.19-1.29 than those using shallow wells (10-140 feet. Baris using deep wells (300-990 feet had less diarrheal disease than those using shallow wells, however, the difference was significant only when population density was low (2 or children were at the age of 13-24 months. Conclusions Increased access to tubewells is associated with a lower risk of childhood diarrhea. Intermediate- depth wells are associated with more childhood diarrhea compared to shallower or deeper wells. These findings may have implications for on-going efforts to reduce exposure to elevated levels of

  20. [Frequent causes of diarrhea: celiac disease and lactose intolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowiak, Carsten; Ludwig, Diether

    2008-06-15

    Celiac disease and lactose intolerance are both relatively frequent diseases with symptoms occurring after ingestion of certain food components. In celiac disease wheat gluten and related proteins of other cereals induce an inflammatory disease of the small intestine in predisposed individuals, leading to gastrointestinal and extraintestinal symptoms. Moreover, there is an association with many other diseases and besides classic symptoms (diarrhea, weight loss, malabsorption) atypical courses with less or lacking gastrointestinal symptoms exist. The prevalence is about 1 : 100 (Europe, USA) and higher than supposed earlier. Diagnostic criteria include serologic tests (tissue transglutaminase antibody, endomysial antibody) and characteristic small bowel histology (lymphocytic infiltration, villous atrophy). Therapy is a strict and lifelong gluten-free diet. Rarely, refractory disease or lack of compliance are associated with increased risk of malignancy and worse prognosis. Lactose intolerance is attributed to low intestinal lactase levels, due to reduced genetic expression or mucosal injury and consequent intolerance to dairy products. The frequency is varying in different ethnic groups, occurring in 10-15% of Northern European people. Intensity of clinical symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating) depends on the amount of ingested lactose and individual activity of intestinal lactase. The capacity of lactose malabsorption can be measured using the noninvasive lactose breath hydrogen test. The treatment is based on a reduced dietary lactose intake or in case of secondary form treatment of the underlying disease.

  1. [Parasitic diarrhea in eutrophic and malnourished children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendrel, D

    2003-01-01

    Almost all children living in endemic zones are infected by gastrointestinal parasites. However only 3 to 5% develop diarrhea directly related to parasite infection. Entamoeba hystolytica and Entamoeba dispar coexist in many areas. In the past Entamoeba dispar was called non-pathogenic ameba. The vegetating forms are microscopically identical and detection of wall differences using biochemical tests is unreliable. Thus since it is rarely possible to determine whether or not a vegetating ameba found in stools is hematophagous treatment using metronidazole is the only alternative. Failure of such treatment indicates that dysentery is probably due to a cause other than amibiasis, e.g., bacterial infection in most cases. Another protozoan commonly found in endemic areas is Giardia. Giardia can cause diarrhea and this is frequently the case in undernourished children. Giardia infection leads to severe atrophic villosity requiring appropriate specific treatment. In children cryptosporidioses may be asymptomatic or lead to diarrhea especially in cases associated with malnutrition or immunodeficiency related in particular to AIDS. Helminths are a rare cause of significant diarrhea except Anguillula in undernourished children. In children presenting severe malnutrition, anguilluliasis can lead to serious consequences and requires immediate treatment using ivermectin. To avoid severe diarrhea in children presenting immunodeficiency induced by corticotherapy or chemotherapy for cancer, prophylaxis is mandatory against anguilluliasis using ivermectin and usually against giardiasis using metronidazole.

  2. Probiotic bacteria in prevention and treatment of diarrhea

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    Jasmina Havranek

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic bacteria have beneficial effects in prevention and treatment of different diseases. The results of preventive and therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea during last ten years are shown in this paper. The greatest preventive and therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria was identified for acute diarrhea in children caused by rotaviruses. Significant, but slightly lower effect of probiotic bacteria was proved for antibiotic associated diarrhea. Positive effect in prevention of traveller’s diarrhea and radiation-induced diarrhea is not significant. Preventive and therapeutic effect on diarrhea is not dependent on the way of probiotic bacteria consumption, by fermented milk, capsule or oral rehydration solution.

  3. Diarrheal Illness and Healthcare Seeking Behavior among a Population at High Risk for Diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahima Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Diarrhea remains one of the major causes of death in Bangladesh. We studied diarrheal disease risk and healthcare seeking behavior among populations at high risk for diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey conducted during April and September 2010. The prevalence of diarrhea was calculated by age-group and sex. A generalized estimating equation with logit link function was used to predict diarrheal disease risk and seeking care from a professional healthcare provider. Of 316,766 individuals, 10% were young children (<5 years. The prevalence of diarrhea was 16 per 1000 persons among all ages; young children accounted for 44 per 1000 persons. Prevalence of diarrhea was significantly higher (p=.003 among younger males (<15 years compared to that among younger females. In contrast, prevalence of diarrhea was significantly higher (p<.0001 among older females (≥15 years compared to that among older males. An increased risk for diarrhea was observed in young children, males, and those staying in rented houses, lower family members in the house, using non-sanitary toilets, living in the area for short times, living in a community with less educated persons, living in a community with less use of safe water source for drinking, or living close to the hospital. About 80% of those with diarrhea sought care initially from a non-professional healthcare provider. Choice of the professional healthcare provider was driven by age of the patient, educational status of the household head, and hygienic practices by the household. The study reaffirms that young children are at greater risk for diarrhea. Like other developing countries most people in this impoverished setting of Dhaka are less likely to seek care from a professional healthcare provider than from a non-professional healthcare provider, which could be attributed to a higher number of diarrheal deaths among young children in Bangladesh. Dissemination of

  4. Molecular characterization of rotavirus isolated from alpaca (Vicugna pacos) crias with diarrhea in the Andean Region of Cusco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmendia, Antonio E; Lopez, Wellington; Ortega, Nastassja; Chamorro, Marycris J

    2015-10-22

    Alpacas (Vicugna pacos), a species of South American camelids (SAC), suffer high morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of alpaca cria mortality in Peru and elsewhere. In order to develop appropriate control and/or treatment, it is necessary to identify infectious pathogens that cause diarrhea in crias. Rotavirus was isolated in cell culture from feces collected from crias with acute diarrhea that tested positive to rotaviral antigen by rapid immunochromatographic methods in an earlier study. The isolates were identified as rotaviruses by RT-PCR run with specific primers for human rotavirus VP7 coding sequences using total RNA extracted from cells displaying cytopathic effects as template. These alpaca isolates were further identified as group A rotaviruses by means of a VP6-specific PCR and were designated as ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3368-10 and ALRVA-K'ayra/Perú/3386-10. Molecular G and P typing, placed the former as G3/P11 and the latter as G3/P?. Sequence analysis of two genome segments (coding for VP4 and VP7) from the alpaca isolates revealed partial homologies to swine and human rotaviruses, respectively. These results demonstrate that rotaviruses are associated with a proportion of cases of diarrhea in crias, although prevalence and impact remain to be determined. The isolation of rotaviruses from alpaca crias with diarrhea will contribute positively to further understand the pathogen and its role in the diarrhea complex.

  5. Probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jeffry A

    2006-03-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea is a common clinical problem occurring in up to 25% of patients, with diarrhea owing to Clostridium difficile accounting for up to a quarter of cases. The clinical and economic costs of antibiotic-associated diarrhea are significant and better treatments are needed. Probiotics may offer potential effective therapy for antibiotic-associated diarrhea by restoring intestinal microbial balance. A number of different probiotics have been evaluated in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults and children, including the nonpathogenic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii and multiple lactic-acid fermenting bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG). A careful review of the literature supports the efficacy of S. boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea recurrent C. difficile infection in adults, whereas LGG is useful in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. Not enough data exist to currently support the use of other probiotic preparations in these conditions. Although generally safe and well tolerated, both S. boulardii and LGG should be used cautiously in immunocompromised patients. Further study of probiotics, including large, well-designed, randomized controlled dose-ranging trials, comparative trials, and cost-benefit analyses are necessary.

  6. Socioeconomic, hygienic, and sanitation factors in reducing diarrhea in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Katiuscia Shirota Imada; Thiago Santos de Araújo; Pascoal Torres Muniz; Valter Lúcio de Pádua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the contributions of the socioeconomic, hygienic, and sanitation improvements in reducing the prevalence of diarrhea in a city of the Amazon. METHODS In this population-based cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from surveys conducted in the city of Jordão, Acre. In 2005 and 2012, these surveys evaluated, respectively, 466 and 826 children under five years old. Questionnaires were applied on the socioeconomic conditions, construction of houses, food and hy...

  7. [Place of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, E Yu; Zakharova, Yu V

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives data on the prevalence and etiopathogenesis of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and describes the major pathogens of this disease and methods for their diagnosis. It considers treatment policy in detail, with an emphasis on the use of probiotics for both the prevention and therapy of the disease described. Russian investigations on the alleged topic of a Linex probiotic complex, as well as the authors' original trial of this medication are presented.

  8. Protection against diarrhea associated with Giardia intestinalis is lost with Multi-Nutrient Supplementation: A Study in Tanzanian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenemans, J.; Mank, T.; Ottenhof, M.; Baidjoe, A.Y.; Mbugi, E.V.; Demir, A.Y.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Asymptomatic carriage of Giardia intestinalis is highly prevalent among children in developing countries, and evidence regarding its role as a diarrhea-causing agent in these settings is controversial. Impaired linear growth and cognition have been associated with giardiasis, presumably

  9. Protection against diarrhea associated with Giardia intestinalis is lost with Multi-Nutrient Supplementation: A Study in Tanzanian Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenemans, J.; Mank, T.; Ottenhof, M.; Baidjoe, A.Y.; Mbugi, E.V.; Demir, A.Y.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background - Asymptomatic carriage of Giardia intestinalis is highly prevalent among children in developing countries, and evidence regarding its role as a diarrhea-causing agent in these settings is controversial. Impaired linear growth and cognition have been associated with giardiasis, presumably

  10. Impact of norovirus/sapovirus-related diarrhea in renal transplant recipients hospitalized for diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos-Weil, Damien; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Lanternier, Fanny; Mamzer-Bruneel, Marie-France; Nochy, Dominique; Pothier, Pierre; Avettand-Fenoel, Véronique; Anglicheau, Dany; Snanoudj, Renaud; Bererhi, Lynda; Thervet, Eric; Lecuit, Marc; Legendre, Christophe; Lortholary, Olivier; Zuber, Julien

    2011-07-15

    Diarrhea of unspecified cause frequently occurs after renal transplantation and is usually ascribed to mycophenolic acid toxicity. Norovirus (NoV) and sapovirus (SaV) have been sporadically reported to cause chronic diarrhea in immunocompromised patients. We undertook a retrospective study (2008-2009) to examine the clinical and epidemiologic significance of NoV and SaV infections in adult renal transplant recipients hospitalized for acute or chronic diarrhea. Ninety-six renal transplant recipients were hospitalized for diarrhea at our institution during a 16-month period, 87 of whom were included in the study, including 46 patients with chronic diarrhea. Among 41 patients with unexplained diarrhea, 20 patients were screened for NoV/SaV, 16 of whom were positive. Fifteen of them (94%) had chronic diarrhea. When compared with bacterial and parasitic infections, NoV/SaV infections were associated with a greater weight loss at the time of admission, a 8.7-fold longer duration of symptoms and a more frequent need for mycophenolic acid dosage reduction. Eighty-one percent of patients hospitalized for NoV/SaV-associated diarrhea experienced acute renal failure. Five and one patients subsequently had biopsy-diagnosed active graft rejection and oxalate nephropathy, respectively. Ten of the 14 patients who underwent a longitudinal study of NoV/SaV stool's clearance exhibited a prolonged viral shedding period with a median time of 289 days (107-581 days). Our study indicates that NoV/SaV infection causes posttransplant chronic diarrhea potentially complicated by severe kidney graft impairment.

  11. [Protozoan infection causes diarrhea in calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, T; Claerebout, E; Vercruysse, J

    2005-12-01

    The role of protozoan parasites in the etiology of diarrhea in calves is highlighted with emphasis on correct diagnosis. In neonatal calves, Cryptosporidium parvum is isolated in more than 44% of the faeces of diarrhetic calves. In calves older than one month, both Eimeria bovis and E. zuernii, and Giardia duodenalis are associated with diarrhea and poor growth. Clinical diagnosis has to be confirmed by examination of host faecal material. Both for C. parvum and G. duodenalis immunological assays are available. Control measures must aim to reduce or prevent oocyst or cyst transmission, by combining management measures, desinfection and chemotherapeutic treatment.

  12. Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea in 200 Canadian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Morinville

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a major problem in adults. The present study was conducted to assess risk factors and outcomes in children with C difficile-associated diarrhea.

  13. The evolution of bovine viral diarrhea: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Goens, Denise

    2002-01-01

    The economic importance of bovine viral diarrhea is increasing with the emergence of seemingly more virulent viruses, as evidenced by outbreaks of hemorrhagic syndrome and severe acute bovine viral diarrhea beginning in the 1980s and 1990s. It appears that evolutionary changes in bovine viral diarrhea virus were responsible for these outbreaks. The genetic properties of the classical bovine viral diarrhea virus that contribute to the basis of current diagnostic tests, vaccines, and our unders...

  14. Zinc: Role in the management of diarrhea and cholera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, M Imran; Arshad, Arfa; Ahmad, Bashir

    2013-07-16

    Diarrhea and cholera are major health problems. Vibrio cholera, the causative agent of cholera, infects the small intestine, resulting in vomiting, massive watery diarrhea and dehydration. Reduced water and electrolyte absorption is also due to zinc deficiency. Zinc has an important role in recovery from the disease. The combination of zinc with cholera vaccine and oral rehydration solutions has a positive impact on cholera and diarrhea. It has led to a decrease in the mortality and morbidity associated with diarrhea.

  15. Adenovirus Infection in Children with Diarrhea Disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANNALS

    41(Ad41), can cause acute and severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. This study was ... specimen in adenovirus infected patients showed watery diarrhea in 87% (55/63), diarrhea with mucus in ..... However, the impact of these viruses ...

  16. Nutritional Management of Acute Diarrhea in Infants and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Food and Nutrition Board.

    Written primarily for health professionals advising on programs and policy related to nutrition and diarrhea therapy, this report is aimed at management of diarrhea in less-developed countries, but its information and technical insights are relevant to an understanding of diarrhea and its management throughout the world. Technical in orientation…

  17. Incidence of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Patients with Standard Enteral Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbu Ahmadi bonakdar

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Evaluation of patients receiving Milatech standard formula showed that diarrhea wasn’t seen in hospitalized patients. Diarrhea was reported by the nurses may refer to other diarrhea genic causes including of long length of stay, entral duration or medical side effects or infections.

  18. Traveler's Diarrhea in Foreign Travelers in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kusolsuk, Teera; Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong

    2015-09-01

    The effect of origin and destination country on traveler's diarrhea incidence rates in Southeast Asia is poorly understood, and research generally only addresses diarrhea in travelers from the developed world. This study evaluated the attack rate and effects of traveler's diarrhea by origin and destination and analyzed key risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to foreign travelers departing Southeast Asia from Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. It evaluated traveler demographics, relevant knowledge and practices, experiences of diarrhea, and the details and consequences of each diarrheal episode. A total of 7,963 questionnaires were completed between April 2010 and July 2011. Respondents were 56% male (mean age 35) with a mean and median duration of stay of 28 days and 10 days, respectively. Most respondents were from Europe (36.8%) or East Asia (33.4%). The attack rate of traveler's diarrhea was 16.1%, with an incidence rate of 32.05 per 100 person months. Travelers' origin and destination countries significantly related to diarrhea risk. Oceanians had the highest risk (32.9%) and East Asians the lowest (2.6%). Vietnam and Indonesia were the highest risk destinations (19.3%). Other significant factors were youth, trip duration, number of countries visited, and frequently drinking beverages with ice.

  19. Traveler's Diarrhea in Foreign Travelers in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kusolsuk, Teera; Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of origin and destination country on traveler's diarrhea incidence rates in Southeast Asia is poorly understood, and research generally only addresses diarrhea in travelers from the developed world. This study evaluated the attack rate and effects of traveler's diarrhea by origin and destination and analyzed key risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to foreign travelers departing Southeast Asia from Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. It evaluated traveler demographics, relevant knowledge and practices, experiences of diarrhea, and the details and consequences of each diarrheal episode. A total of 7,963 questionnaires were completed between April 2010 and July 2011. Respondents were 56% male (mean age 35) with a mean and median duration of stay of 28 days and 10 days, respectively. Most respondents were from Europe (36.8%) or East Asia (33.4%). The attack rate of traveler's diarrhea was 16.1%, with an incidence rate of 32.05 per 100 person months. Travelers' origin and destination countries significantly related to diarrhea risk. Oceanians had the highest risk (32.9%) and East Asians the lowest (2.6%). Vietnam and Indonesia were the highest risk destinations (19.3%). Other significant factors were youth, trip duration, number of countries visited, and frequently drinking beverages with ice. PMID:26123958

  20. Refractory diarrhea: A paraneoplastic syndrome of neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Wang, Huan-Min

    2015-07-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. Diarrheal NB is quite rare and is not easy to diagnose in the early stage. Six cases of diarrheal NB in our hospital treated from 1996 to 2006 were retrospectively analyzed, including characteristics such as electrolyte imbalance, pathologic features, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) immunohistochemical staining results, treatment, and prognosis. All patients were boys with 3-8 loose or watery stools each day and routine fecal tests were normal. Abdominal tumors were identified by B-ultrasound. Drugs were ineffective. Three patients underwent surgery, and the remaining three patients received surgery and chemotherapy. Diarrhea stopped after treatment in five patients. Two patients died due to intractable hypokalemia. The tumor was located in the adrenal gland in four patients, in the upper retroperitoneum in one patient, and in the presacral area in one patient. Pathologic findings were NB and ganglioneuroblastoma. Five patients were at clinical stage I-II, and one was at stage III. Four patients survived (followed-up for 6 mo to 4 years). Immunohistochemical staining for VIP was positive. Refractory diarrhea is a paraneoplastic syndrome of NB and is rare. Patients aged 1-3 years who present with chronic intractable diarrhea should be followed closely. Intractable diarrhea, hypokalemia, and dysplasia are the initial clinical manifestations. Increased VIP is characteristic of this disease. Potassium supplementation plays a vital role in the treatment procedure, especially preoperatively. The prognosis of diarrheal NB is good following appropriate treatment.

  1. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  2. When you or your child has diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor Chest radiation - discharge Daily bowel care program Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child Diet - clear liquid Diet - full liquid Eating extra calories when sick - children Mouth and neck radiation - discharge Pelvic radiation - discharge When you have nausea and ... Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  3. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  4. DETECTION OF THE BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA ANTIBODIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Goraichuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea is a widespread infection of cattle that has a wide range of clinical symptoms in domestic and wild ruminants. It is a major problem in cattle and causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. The virus infects bovines of all ages and causes both immunosuppression and reproductive, respiratory and digestive disorders. Persistently infected cattle are the main factor in transmission of the disease between and among herds. Comparative results of antibodies presence received by two methods of enzymoimmunoassay and virus neutralization test are given in the paper. During the work, 1010 samples of blood serum of cattle from three farms in the Kharkiv region were selected and analyzed. Bovine viral diarrhea virus concerning antibodies were found by enzymoimmunoassay in 704 samples (69.7% using commercial kit and in 690 samples (68.3% using in house method. After results clarification by virus neutralization test, bovine viral diarrhea antibodies were found in 712 samples (70.5%. Immunoenzyme analysis is recommended for mass screening of cattle for viral diarrhea occurrence. The results confirm that the sensitivity immunoenzyme analysis satisfies the requirements of the diagnostic methods. Using the neutralization reaction of viruses as the «gold standard» of serological methods, it is appropriate to clarify the results of immunoenzyme analysis. Since the results contain a signi ficant number of false positive results, it is necessary to carry out comprehensive studies using both serological and molecular genetics methods.

  5. Acupuncture for chronic diarrhea in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zongshi; Li, Bo; Wu, Jiani; Tian, Jinhui; Xie, Shang; Mao, Zhi; Zhou, Jing; Kim, Tae-Hun; Liu, Zhishun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: As 2 major common types of chronic diarrhea, functional diarrhea (FD) and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) affect 1.54% to 1.72% of people in China. Acupuncture is commonly used in clinical practice for patients with chronic diarrhea. Here, we present a protocol of systematic review aimed at systematically review all the clinical evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture for treating FD and IBS-D in adults. Methods: The review will be performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement. We will search the following databases from their inception to January 2017: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, China Biology Medicine disc, Wan-Fang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Citation Information by National Institute of Informatics, Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System by Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, and Japan Science and Technology Information Aggregator (J-stage). Clinical trial registrations will also be searched. Primary outcome measures are the change of bowel movements. The secondary outcomes include stool consistency, quality of life scales, other standardized rating scales, patient satisfaction, and acupuncture-related adverse effects assessment. Ethics and dissemination: This review does not require ethical approval and will be disseminated electronically or in print. PROSPERO registration number: CRD42015017574. PMID:28121941

  6. RACECADOTRIL IN ACUTE WATERY DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hypersecretory state of gut epithelium induced by toxins secreted by microorganisms is the main mechanism of fluid loss in diarrheal illness. Enkephalins (Endogenous Opioids secreted by gut epithelium have marked pro-absorptive activity and are inactivated by enzyme enkephalinase. Racecadotril, the study drug act by augmenting the levels of enkephalins by inactivating enzyme enkephalinase thus leading to increased intestinal absorption. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study the efficacy of racecadotril in acute watery diarrhea in children. PARTICIPANTS Total of 100 patients who met inclusion criteria in the age group of 6 months to 5 years admitted with acute watery diarrhea and some dehydration were enrolment in the study. Cases were randomly divided into racecadotril and placebo group study outcomes in form of number of stools during first 48 hours of admission, mean daily stool number, total duration of diarrheal illness and recovery time, weight on discharge, volume of oral rehydration solution intake during hospital stay and requirement for unscheduled intravenous infusion were observed. RESULTS There was a significant decrease (43.9% in mean number of stools passed per day in racecadotril group when compared to placebo group. Secondary outcome variables, i.e. mean daily stool number, duration of diarrhea and recovery time, total volume of oral rehydration solution during study period, requirement for unscheduled intravenous infusion also showed a statically significant difference in two groups. Complications rates were not different in the two groups. CONCLUSION Racecadotril can be used as an adjunctive therapy in acute watery diarrhea

  7. Consensus statement: octreotide dose titration in secretory diarrhea. Diarrhea Management Consensus Development Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A G; O'Dorisio, T M; Woltering, E A; Anthony, L B; Burton, F R; Geller, R B; Grendell, J H; Levin, B; Redfern, J S

    1995-07-01

    Octreotide is an effective therapeutic option in controlling secretory diarrhea of varied etiology. However, marked patient-to-patient differences in the antidiarrheal effects necessitate titration of octreotide dose in individual patients to achieve optimal symptom control. A consensus development panel established guidelines for octreotide dose titration in patients with secretory diarrhea. Overall, the panel recommended an aggressive approach in selecting the initial octreotide dose and in making subsequent dose escalations in patients with secretory diarrhea due to gastrointestinal tumors (eg, carcinoids, VIPomas), AIDS, dumping syndrome, short bowel syndrome, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy. To avoid hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes mellitus-associated secretory diarrhea, the panel recommended a low initial octreotide dose and a conservative titration regimen with close monitoring a blood glucose levels. The end point of therapy should focus on a reduction in diarrhea (frequency of bowel movements or stool volume) rather than normalization of hormonal profile. Overall, octreotide is well tolerated; principal side effects are transient injection site pain and gastrointestinal discomfort. For many patients with secretory diarrhea, octreotide therapy is expected to improve the overall health and quality of life and in the long run will lessen health care costs.

  8. prevalence of intestinaijparasites and its association with

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis in dilferent ... Intestinal parasites reportedly affect both on nutritional and immune status of ... socio-economic strata having inadequate safe water supply and lack of .... pain. diarrhea. vomiting, anemia and failure to thrive. Out. 110 of the total ...

  9. Effect of a probiotic on prevention of diarrhea and Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens shedding in foals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, Angelika; Staempfli, H R; Abrahams, M;

    2015-01-01

    of incidence and duration of diarrhea and fecal shedding of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile between treatment and age groups. RESULTS: The overall incidence of diarrhea was 41 of 72 (59%) and did not differ (P = 0.37) between treatment groups. Foals treated with probiotics were more likely...... of C. perfringens shedding was 55% with no difference between treatment groups (P = 0.23). The prevalence of C. difficile shedding was 11%. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: There was no benefit of administering a 3-week course of probiotics, but potential adverse effects were noted. Whether...

  10. [Estimation of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with constipation and diarrhea irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łokieć, Katarzyna; Klupińska, Grazyna; Walecka-Kapica, Ewa; Błońska, Aleksandra

    2014-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common reason for gastroenterology consultations. The diverse in symptomatology of the disease comes from its rich etiopathogenesis. Recently studies talk about infectious etiology of IBS and because of that it is necessary to expand its diagnostics by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) test. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth in patients with constipation (IBS-C) and diarrhea (IBS-D) irritable bowel syndrome with regard to nutrition. The study involved 46 subjects (33 women and 13 men) in average age of 44 years, which were divided into two groups: diarrhea and constipation IBS. All patients underwent hydrogen breath test studying bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine. In addition, each person had fulfilled a feeding questionnaire. Student's t-test, Pearson test. It has been shown that there is no statistical significances between the prevalence of SIBO in form of diarrheal IBS and constipation IBS and gender. Average value of increments of hydrogen in breath during the test was higher in IBS-C in comparison with IBS-D, which was the highest in the intestine bacterial overgrowth in patients with IBS-C. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS showed that there is no relationship between the type and frequency of consumption of milk, meat, fruit and vegetables, sweets and coffee and the prevalence of SIBO in form of diarrhea and constipation IBS. The occurrence of constipation or diarrhea irritable bowel syndrome is not related to gender. SIBO is more common in patients with IBS-C than in IBS-D group. There is no relationship between the type of food consumed and the amount of SIBO in people with IBS. Type of food intake do not affect the status of the intestinal flora of people with IBS.

  11. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  12. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  13. Cryptosporidiosis Among HIV-infected Patients with Diarrhea in Edo State, Midwesten Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbo, F. O.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis among HIV infected and HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea in Edo State, Nigeria, as well as the effect of CD4+ lymphocyte count on the prevalence of cryptosporidial infection among the HIV patients. Stool samples were collected from 300 patients consisting of 200 HIV-infected and 100 HIV non-infected patients with diarrhea. Blood samples were collected from the HIV-infected patients. The stool samples were processed to detect Cryptosporidium species using a modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, as well as other intestinal parasites using saline and iodine preparations. The blood samples were used to determine CD4+ lymphocyte count. The prevalence of intestinal parasites was higher in HIV-infected patients compared with their HIV non-infected counterparts (39% vs 24% respectively, p=0.0097. Cryptosporidiosis was diagnosed only among HIV-infected patients and was the only parasite whose prevalence was significantly different between HIV-infected and HIV non-infected patients. CD4+ lymphocyte count of <200 cells/µL among HIV-infected was a risk factor for acquiring cryptosporidial infection (OR=18.776, 95% CI=6.299, 55.964. A cryptosporidial infection prevalence of 18% among HIV-infected patients was observed and CD4+ count of <200 cells/µL was a risk factor for acquiring the disease. Routine examination of diarrhogenic stools of HIVinfected patients for cryptosporidiosis is advocated.

  14. Human intestinal microbiota gene risk factors for antibiotic-associated diarrhea: perspectives for prevention. Risk factors for antibiotic-associated diarrhea. : Diarrhea risk prediction from microbiota genes

    OpenAIRE

    De La Cochetière, Marie France; Montassier, Emmanuel; Hardouin, Jean-Benoît; Carton, Thomas; Le Vacon, Françoise; Durand, Tony; Lalande, Valérie; Petit, Jean-Claude; Potel, Gilles; Beaugerie, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    8 pages, 4 figures; International audience; Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is associated with altered intestinal microflora and other symptoms that may lead to possibly death. In critically ill patients, diarrhea increases rates of morbimortality. Assessing diarrhea risks is thus important for clinicians. For this reason, we conducted a hypothesis-generating study focused on AAD to provide insight into methods of prevention. We evaluated the hypothesis of predisposing factors within the...

  15. Diarrheal Illness and Healthcare Seeking Behavior among a Population at High Risk for Diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fahima; Khan, Iqbal Ansary; Patel, Sweta; Siddiq, Ashraf Uddin; Saha, Nirod Chandra; Khan, Ashraful I; Saha, Amit; Cravioto, Alejandro; Clemens, John; Qadri, Firdausi; Ali, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains one of the major causes of death in Bangladesh. We studied diarrheal disease risk and healthcare seeking behavior among populations at high risk for diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional survey conducted during April and September 2010. The prevalence of diarrhea was calculated by age-group and sex. A generalized estimating equation with logit link function was used to predict diarrheal disease risk and seeking care from a professional healthcare provider. Of 316,766 individuals, 10% were young children (Bangladesh. Dissemination of information on health education, increasing the supply of skilled healthcare providers, and low-cost and quality healthcare services may encourage more people to seek care from professional healthcare providers, thus may help reduce child mortality in the country. Further studies are warranted to validate the results.

  16. [Principles and management of the ambulatory treatment of traveller's diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, F; Beltrame, A; Carosi, G

    1998-01-01

    Traveller's Diarrhea (TD, turista) is the most common health disturbance in travellers, affecting 20-50% of two-week travellers depending on their origin, destination and eating habits. The etiological agents most frequently isolated from the stools are enterotoxinogenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., but the rate of isolation of Campylobacter spp. and non cholera vibrios is also high in Asia. Preventive measures in eating habits should in principle be able to curb the incidence of TD but compliance of travellers is usually poor. Antibiotic chemoprophylaxis has proved effective, but economic, safety and microbiological (drug resistance) considerations discourage its widespread use. Any treatment strategy should consider that TD is usually a self-limiting, benign illness in most travellers, even though infants, elderly people or persons with severe baseline diseases (heart diseases, diabetes, immunocompromised hosts, etc...) may sometimes suffer severe consequences. Adequate rehydration is the cornerstone of treatment and intestinal motility inhibitors may be used in adults (not in children) with severe diarrhea during the first 24 hours if the suspicion of invasive pathogen has been ruled out. Routine antibiotic treatment of TD is controversial, due to the benign nature of the syndrome and to the impossibility to ascertain its causative agent. It should be limited to severe and disabling cases. Among the many antibiotics tested, quinolones are now considered first-choice treatment worldwide, even though disturbing reports of the increasing prevalence of quinolone-resistant Campylobacter spp. from Asia have been recently published. Cotrimoxazole is efficient in Central America. The role of non absorbed antibiotics and probiotics is still to be fully elucidated.

  17. Harbingers for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Chaitanya; Madonia, Phillip N; Jordan, Paul; Manas, Kenneth; Bass, Pat

    2009-01-01

    : Recent research has recognized surrogate markers for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Among the most consistently identified markers are the leukocyte count, platelet count, and albumin level. Previous investigators failed to exclude patients with hematologic disorders that may have confounded their results. Therefore, the exclusion of this subset from our study lends it a unique perspective. : We undertook a retrospective review of inpatients at our institution that were diagnosed with nosocomial diarrhea and subsequently had a stool sample sent for C. difficile toxins A and B. Patients with major hematologic disorders were excluded. : A total of 77 C. difficile-positive patients and 91 C. difficile-negative patients were studied. Patients with CDAD had a significantly higher leukocyte and platelet count but a lower albumin level compared with patients without CDAD. : Our results support the conclusion of preceding studies that leukocytosis, thrombocytosis, and hypoalbuminemia are reliable clinical predictors for CDAD even after careful exclusion of confounding factors.

  18. Diarrhea and parasitosis in Salta, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramayo, Cristian F; Gil, José F; Cruz, Mercedes C; Poma, Hugo R; Last, Michael S; Rajal, Verónica B

    2009-03-01

    Salta city is the capital of the province with the same name located in the northwest of Argentina. Its great growth over the last decade was not organized and the population expanded to occupy places where water and sanitation were not yet available. Although the Arenales River, crossing the city, receives the impact of point and non-point source pollution, the water is used for many purposes, including domestic in the poorest areas, industrial, and recreational with children as the main users. According to the World Health Organization, an estimated 24% of the global disease burden and 23% of all deaths can be attributed to environmental factors. In particular, an estimated 94% of the diarrheal burden of disease is attributable to environment, and is associated with risk factors such as unsafe drinking water and poor sanitation and hygiene. Chronic diarrhea can be caused by an infection or other etiologies; however, most of the times the etiological agent is not identified. All the cases of diarrhea and parasitosis reported during 2005 in four public health centers of the city of Salta were classified by gender and age, analyzed, and represented geographically to show areas of higher morbidity rates, which were probably related to environmental factors. Water, poor sanitation, and pollution are candidate risk factors. Diarrhea cases showed seasonality, with the highest incidence during late spring and summer, while parasitosis was persistent throughout the year. Our spatial analysis permitted us to detect the regions of higher incidence of diarrhea and parasitosis during 2005 in the area of study.

  19. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus: current insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv C

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Chaochao Lv,1,* Yan Xiao,1,* Xiangdong Li,1 Kegong Tian,1,2 1National Research Center for Veterinary Medicine, Luoyang, People's Republic of China; 2College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this review Abstract: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV, an enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the genus Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, can infect pigs of all ages and causes acute and watery diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, and high mortality in neonatal piglets. This disease was first observed in England in 1971 and was subsequently reported in many swine-producing countries in Europe and Asia. In contrast to the situation in Europe, the disease has remained a major cause of diarrhea outbreaks on swine farms in Asia. Since late 2010, severe porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED epizootics caused by new variants have been affecting pigs in the People's Republic of China, resulting in substantial economic losses. In April 2013, PEDV was identified for the first time in the United States and resulted in the estimated death of over seven million piglets during a 1-year epidemic. Nowadays, it has spread into North and South America, Asia, and Europe, causing significant economic problems worldwide. More studies have been conducted in PEDV research, and the number of scientific literatures published during the last 5 years has exceeded the total of that in the past several decades. This review focuses on the current understanding of the etiology, molecular epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, and pathogenesis of PEDV, as well as the vaccine to prevent PEDV infection. Keywords: PEDV, molecular epidemiology, transmission, diagnosis, pathogenesis, immune response, vaccine

  20. [Trial chemoprophylaxis of traveler's diarrhea using nifuroxazide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourée, P; Kouchner, G

    1986-06-01

    Traveler's diarrhea is a very common condition that affects approximately 12 million subjects each year. This disorder is benign but nevertheless interferes with the traveler's plans in 40% of cases. Several drugs have been used for prophylaxis, in association with appropriate precautions concerning food and drink. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and cyclines are effective but may induce adverse effects. Nifuroxazide in a dose of 400 mg each day throughout the trip has proved effective. Tolerance was outstanding with no adverse effects.

  1. [Bovine viral diarrhea control in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliukin, M I; Iurov, K P; Glotov, A G; Donchenko, N A

    2013-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is one of the greatest challenges for breeding and commercial livestock. It is characterized by lesions of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, abortion, infertility, immune deficiency, and persistence of the pathogen. In this work, a set of measures for the rehabilitation and prevention of BVD in cattle is described. It includes the data of the literature, guidance documents for the diagnosis and control of BVD adopted by OIE, EU countries, USA, as well as the results of this research.

  2. Probiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Guandalini, Stefano; Lo Vecchio, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are increasingly used for prevention and treatment of diarrhea more in children than in adults. Given the broad spectrum of diarrhea, this review focuses on the main etiologies: acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). For each, we reviewed randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, and guidelines. For acute gastroenteritis we found 12 guidelines: 5 recommended probiotics and 7 did not. However, the guidelines containing positive recommendations provided proof of evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and Saccharomyces boulardii had the most compelling evidence of efficacy as they reduced the duration of the disease by 1 day. For AAD 4 meta-analyses were found, reporting variable efficacy of probiotics in preventing diarrhea, based on the setting, patient's age, and antibiotics. The most effective strains were LGG and S. boulardii. For NEC, we found 3 randomized controlled trials, 5 meta-analyses, and 4 position papers. Probiotics reduced the risk of NEC enterocolitis and mortality in preterm babies. Guidelines did not support a routine use of probiotics and asked for further data for such sensitive implications. In conclusion, there is strong and solid proof of efficacy of probiotics as active treatment of gastroenteritis in addition to rehydration. There is solid evidence that probiotics have some efficacy in prevention of AAD, but the number needed to treat is an issue. For both etiologies LGG and S. boulardii have the strongest evidence. In NEC the indications are more debated, yet on the basis of available data and their implications, probiotics should be carefully considered.

  3. Loperamide therapy for acute diarrhea in children: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ting T Li

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Loperamide is widely used in adults for acute diarrhea. However, its use in children has been discouraged by the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics owing to concerns over safety and efficacy in young children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To assess the efficacy and adverse effects of loperamide compared with placebo for acute diarrhea in children, we reviewed Medline, EMBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and bibliographies of known clinical trials and of review articles, and we also interviewed key investigators in the field. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of children younger than 12 y of age with acute diarrhea, comparing loperamide with placebo. Included trials reported data on diarrhea duration or severity, or provided data on adverse effects. Compared with patients who received placebo, patients allocated to loperamide were less likely to continue to have diarrhea at 24 h (prevalence ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57 to 0.78, had a shorter duration of diarrhea by 0.8 d (95% CI: 0.7 to 0.9 d, and had a lower count of stools at 24 h (0.84, 95% CI: 0.77 to 0.92. Results were similar when random-effects summaries were estimated. Serious adverse events, defined as ileus, lethargy, or death, were reported in eight out of 927 children allocated to loperamide (0.9%, 95% CI: 0.4% to 1.7%. Serious adverse events were not reported in any of the 764 children allocated to placebo (0%, 95% CI: 0% to 0.5%. Among the children allocated to loperamide, serious adverse events were reported only among children younger than 3 y. CONCLUSIONS: In children who are younger than 3 y, malnourished, moderately or severely dehydrated, systemically ill, or have bloody diarrhea, adverse events outweigh benefits even at doses

  4. Efficacy of synbiotic treatment in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ratna Dewi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children throughout the world, mostly due to rotavirus infection. In daily practice, we routinely use the World Health Organization Five steps for managing acute diarrhea.This practice has shown great success in diarrhea management, but concerns remain on reducing the duration of diarrhea to prevent complications. Synbiotics can reduce the severity of diarrhea. However, there has been limited data on synbiotic therapy for treating acute rotavirus diarrhea in children. Objective To compare the durations of acute rotavirus diarrhea treated with synbiotics vs. placebo. Methods This study was a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial, performed at the Pediatric Gastrohepatology Division, Sanglah and Wangaya Hospitals in Denpasar. Subjects were children aged 6 to 59 months with acute rotavirus diarrhea. Rotavirus was diagnosed by immune chromatography assay. The synbiotic group received probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus sp., Streptococcus sp., Bifidobacterium sp. (total viable count 1.00x109 CFU per dose, and prebiotic consisted of 990.00 mg fructooligosacharide (FOS. The placebo consisted of lactose monohydrate packaged similarly as the synbiotics. Subjects orally ingested 1 pack per day for 5 days. Results Seventy children with acute rotavirus diarrhea was involved in this study. The median duration of diarrhea in the synbiotic group was 50.0 (SE 1.1; 95%CI 47.9 to 52.1 hours, while that of the placebo group was 63.0 (SE 5.9; 95%CI 51.4 to 74.6 hours. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the duration of diarrhea in the synbiotic group was significantly shorter than that of the placebo group (log-rank test P <0.0001. Conclusion In children with acute rotaviral diarrhea, synbiotic reduces the duration of diarrhea compared to placebo. [Paediatr Indones. 2015;55:74-8.].

  5. A Prospective Multi-Center Observational Study of Children Hospitalized with Diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, CN; Phan, MV; Hoang, NV; Minh, PV; Vinh, NT; Thuy, CT; Nga, TT; Rabaa, MA; Duy, PT; Dung, TT; Phat, VV; Nga, TV; Tu, leTP; Tuyen, HT; K. Yoshihara

    2015-01-01

    : We performed a prospective multicenter study to address the lack of data on the etiology, clinical and demographic features of hospitalized pediatric diarrhea in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Over 2,000 (1,419 symptomatic and 609 non-diarrheal control) children were enrolled in three hospitals over a 1-year period in 2009-2010. Aiming to detect a panel of pathogens, we identified a known diarrheal pathogen in stool samples from 1,067/1,419 (75.2%) children with diarrhea and from 81/609 ...

  6. Developing a scorecard to assess global progress in scaling up diarrhea control tools: a qualitative study of academic leaders and implementers.

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    Alexander Anthony Rosinski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010, diarrhea caused 0.75 million child deaths, accounting for nearly 12% of all under-five mortality worldwide. Many evidence-based interventions can reduce diarrhea mortality, including oral rehydration solution (ORS, zinc, and improved sanitation. Yet global coverage levels of such interventions remain low. A new scorecard of diarrhea control, showing how different countries are performing in their control efforts, could draw greater attention to the low coverage levels of proven interventions. METHODS: We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 21 experts, purposively sampled for their relevant academic or implementation expertise, to explore their views on (a the value of a scorecard of global diarrhea control and (b which indicators should be included in such a scorecard. We then conducted a ranking exercise in which we compiled a list of all 49 indicators suggested by the experts, sent the list to the 21 experts, and asked them to choose 10 indicators that they would include and 10 that they would exclude from such a scorecard. Finally, we created a "prototype" scorecard based on the 9 highest-ranked indicators. RESULTS: Key themes that emerged from coding the interview transcripts were: a scorecard could facilitate country comparisons; it could help to identify best practices, set priorities, and spur donor action; and it could help with goal-setting and accountability in diarrhea control. The nine highest ranking indicators, in descending order, were ORS coverage, rotavirus vaccine coverage, zinc coverage, diarrhea-specific mortality rate, diarrhea prevalence, proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, proportion with access to improved drinking water, exclusive breastfeeding coverage, and measles vaccine coverage. CONCLUSION: A new scorecard of global diarrhea control could help track progress, focus prevention and treatment efforts on the most effective interventions, establish transparency and

  7. Developing a scorecard to assess global progress in scaling up diarrhea control tools: a qualitative study of academic leaders and implementers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinski, Alexander Anthony; Narine, Steven; Yamey, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, diarrhea caused 0.75 million child deaths, accounting for nearly 12% of all under-five mortality worldwide. Many evidence-based interventions can reduce diarrhea mortality, including oral rehydration solution (ORS), zinc, and improved sanitation. Yet global coverage levels of such interventions remain low. A new scorecard of diarrhea control, showing how different countries are performing in their control efforts, could draw greater attention to the low coverage levels of proven interventions. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 21 experts, purposively sampled for their relevant academic or implementation expertise, to explore their views on (a) the value of a scorecard of global diarrhea control and (b) which indicators should be included in such a scorecard. We then conducted a ranking exercise in which we compiled a list of all 49 indicators suggested by the experts, sent the list to the 21 experts, and asked them to choose 10 indicators that they would include and 10 that they would exclude from such a scorecard. Finally, we created a "prototype" scorecard based on the 9 highest-ranked indicators. Key themes that emerged from coding the interview transcripts were: a scorecard could facilitate country comparisons; it could help to identify best practices, set priorities, and spur donor action; and it could help with goal-setting and accountability in diarrhea control. The nine highest ranking indicators, in descending order, were ORS coverage, rotavirus vaccine coverage, zinc coverage, diarrhea-specific mortality rate, diarrhea prevalence, proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, proportion with access to improved drinking water, exclusive breastfeeding coverage, and measles vaccine coverage. A new scorecard of global diarrhea control could help track progress, focus prevention and treatment efforts on the most effective interventions, establish transparency and accountability, and alert donors and ministries of health

  8. Zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementation to reduce diarrhea and respiratory disease in South African children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kany-Kany Angelique Luabeya

    Full Text Available Prophylactic zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in children in many developing countries, but its efficacy in children in Africa is uncertain.To determine if zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, reduces diarrhea and respiratory disease prevalence.Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.Rural community in South Africa.THREE COHORTS: 32 HIV-infected children; 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers; and 187 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers.Children received either 1250 IU of vitamin A; vitamin A and 10 mg of zinc; or vitamin A, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E, and K and copper, iodine, iron, and niacin starting at 6 months and continuing to 24 months of age. Homes were visited weekly.Primary outcome was percentage of days of diarrhea per child by study arm within each of the three cohorts. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms and percentage of children who ever had pneumonia by maternal report, or confirmed by the field worker.Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, median percentage of days with diarrhea was 2.3% for 49 children allocated to vitamin A; 2.5% in 47 children allocated to receive vitamin A and zinc; and 2.2% for 46 children allocated to multiple micronutrients (P = 0.852. Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, median percentage of days of diarrhea was 2.4% in 56 children in the vitamin A group; 1.8% in 57 children in the vitamin A and zinc group; and 2.7% in 52 children in the multiple micronutrient group (P = 0.857. Only 32 HIV-infected children were enrolled, and there were no differences between treatment arms in the prevalence of diarrhea. The prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms or incidence of pneumonia did not differ by treatment arms in any of the cohorts.When compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc, or with zinc and multiple

  9. [Epidemiological and clinical features of calicivirus-associated diarrhea in hospitalized children in Chengdu, China from 2012 to 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Li-Hong; Xiong, Li-Jing; Liu, Li-Rong; Deng, Xiao-Zhi; Xie, Xiao-Li

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the epidemiological and clinical features of calicivirus-associated diarrhea in hospitalized children in Chengdu, China in recent years. The clinical data of 267 children with calicivirus-associated diarrhea aged calicivirus was 28.4%, 21.6%, and 27.1% in 2012, 2013, and 2014, respectively. Calicivirus was prevalent in summer and autumn (August to October). The detection rate of Norovirus II was 85.8% (229/267), and 244 children (91.4%) experienced an acute clinical course. Watery stool was the most common change in stool properties (82.0%, 219 children), and some specimens showed mucus and/or blood. Most children had moderate to severe fever. One hundred and thirty-eight children (53.9%) experienced a reduced serum prealbumin level. One hundred and fifty-nine children (59.6%) experienced flora imbalance. Calicivirus has become one of the major pathogens for diarrhea in children aged Calicivirus is prevalent in summer and autumn. Infants aged calicivirus-associated diarrhea, with watery stool as the most common manifestation.

  10. Intestinal coccidia in Cuban pediatric patients with diarrhea

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    Núñez FA

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From May to August 1999, we evaluated 401 patients from a pediatric hospital of Havana City. One group was composed of 113 patients with diarrhea admitted to the Gastroenterology ward and a second consisted of 288 patients without diarrhea, admitted for other reasons, and hospitalized within the same time period. Three stool samples were collected from each child and were examined using three parasitological techniques. When we compared the frequency of parasite species between both groups, we found Cryptosporidium spp. and Cyclospora cayetanensis, only in the group of children with diarrhea (P 0.05. In addition, in those children infected with Cryptosporidium, the diarrhea had a more prolonged duration (P < 0.01, while those infected with Cyclospora, the abdominal cramps or pain, and acute diarrhea were more frequently detected (P < 0.01. Our results showed that emerging intestinal coccidia are pathogens strongly associated in this group of children with diarrhea.

  11. [Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea: diagnostics and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Korinna; Layer, Peter; Andresen, Viola

    2016-09-01

    Chronic, non-infectious diarrhea can be caused by a variety of gastrointestinal diseases. In anamnesis, it is important to take accompanying warning symptoms and specific triggers into account. The fecal inflammatory marker calprotectin may help differentiating between organic and functional gastrointestinal disorders, but it is not specific. Among other options, gelling fibres, Loperamide and Cholestyramine as well as probiotics are available for the symptomatic treatment of chronic diarrhea. For long-term treatment of chronic diarrhea with the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril, which is approved for acute diarrhea, only limited data are available. Eluxadolin presents a new therapeutic option. It can alleviate abdominal pain and diarrhea by modulation of opioid receptors in the enteric nervous system. Additional approaches in intractable irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) include 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, the antibiotic Rifaximin as well as low-dose tricyclic antidepressants. Specific diets such as the low-FODMAP diet can also relieve symptoms in IBS.

  12. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  13. License Address List

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Address list generated from National Saltwater Angler Registry. Used in conjunction with an address-based sample as per survey design.

  14. [Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli as the cause of diarrhea in the Czech Republic, 1965-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marejková, M; Petráš, P

    2014-09-01

    Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is the cause of diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. The role of EHEC in the etiology of HUS in the Czech Republic has recently been described, but the prevalence, characteristics, and epidemiology of EHEC causing diarrhea have not been fully known. Therefore, this study analyzed the serotypes, stx genotypes, and virulence factors in EHEC strains isolated in 1965-2013 from patients with diarrhea or bloody diarrhea and their family contacts. In addition, we characterized diagnostically relevant phenotypes of EHEC strains, their antimicrobial susceptibility, seasonal trends, and distribution by administrative region. Serogrouped E. coli isolates from patients were referred to the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for E. coli and Shigella for the detection of Stx. Specimens of both human and non-human origin were referred to the NRL for epidemiological investigation. Serotyping was performed by conventional and molecular methods, PCR was applied to stx genotyping and identification of non-stx virulence factors, and standard methods were used for phenotypic analysis and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The epidemiological link between the human and animal isolates was confirmed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of 50 EHEC strains, 24 were recovered from patients with diarrhea without blood, 19 from patients with bloody diarrhea, six from family contacts, and one from an epidemiologically linked animal. EHEC cases were reported during the whole year, with peaks in May through October, most often in the Central Bohemian and Hradec Králové Regions. EHEC outbreaks occurred in three families: in one of them sheep-to-human transmission of EHEC was detected. The EHEC strains were assigned to five serotypes, with more than half of them being non-sorbitol fermenting (NSF) O157:H7/NM[fliCH7] and a third being strains O26:H11/NM[fliCH11]; serotypes O111:NM[fliCH8], O118:NM

  15. Fluid curtailment during childhood diarrhea: a countdown analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Perin, Jamie; Carvajal-Velez, Liliana; Carter, Emily; Bryce,Jennifer; Newby, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Background The foundation of recommended diarrhea management in young children is increased fluids and continued feeding. This increase in fluids is necessary to replace those lost during diarrhea and ultimately prevent dehydration. There may be an opportunity to prevent deaths in children under five by discouraging the practice of reducing or curtailing fluids during diarrhea episodes across different settings worldwide. Methods We quantify and describe the extent of fluid curtailment in chi...

  16. Zinc: Role in the management of diarrhea and cholera

    OpenAIRE

    Qadir, M Imran; Arshad, Arfa; Ahmad, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea and cholera are major health problems. Vibrio cholera, the causative agent of cholera, infects the small intestine, resulting in vomiting, massive watery diarrhea and dehydration. Reduced water and electrolyte absorption is also due to zinc deficiency. Zinc has an important role in recovery from the disease. The combination of zinc with cholera vaccine and oral rehydration solutions has a positive impact on cholera and diarrhea. It has led to a decrease in the mortality and morbidity...

  17. Probiotic bacteria in prevention and treatment of diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Jasmina Havranek; Šimun Zamberlin; Iva Dolenčić Špehar; Tamara Prtilo; Milna Tudor; Dubravka Samaržija

    2009-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria have beneficial effects in prevention and treatment of different diseases. The results of preventive and therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea during last ten years are shown in this paper. The greatest preventive and therapeutic effect of probiotic bacteria was identified for acute diarrhea in children caused by rotaviruses. Significant, but slightly lower effect of probiotic bacteria was proved for antibiotic associated diarrhea. Positive effect in preventi...

  18. Zinc: Role in the management of diarrhea and cholera

    OpenAIRE

    Qadir, M. Imran; Arshad, Arfa; Ahmad, Bashir

    2013-01-01

    Diarrhea and cholera are major health problems. Vibrio cholera, the causative agent of cholera, infects the small intestine, resulting in vomiting, massive watery diarrhea and dehydration. Reduced water and electrolyte absorption is also due to zinc deficiency. Zinc has an important role in recovery from the disease. The combination of zinc with cholera vaccine and oral rehydration solutions has a positive impact on cholera and diarrhea. It has led to a decrease in the mortality and morbidity...

  19. Characteristics of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaili-Jaha, Vlora; Shala, Muje; Azemi, Mehmedali; Hoxha-Kamberi, Teuta; Avdiu, Muharrem; Spahiu, Shqipe; Jaha, Luan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea is a leading cause of child mortality worldwide. Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of severe diarrhea and dehydration in children. Authors reviewed epidemiological and clinical data of the rotavirus diarrhea in Kosovo. Methods: This is a prospective study carried between January 1st and December 31st 2011. All data, comprising demographics, nutrition, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, management and outcome of the rotavirus diarrhea are collected on the specially designed form. Results: 116 children with rotavirus diarrhea are included in the study. The majority boys (74.4%) and children aged 0 – 12 months (82.75%). Mean age of children in the study was 16.38 months. Almost every third child in the study was hypotrophic (29.2%). More than half of the infants (55.2%) were on mixed food, somewhat more than every third was breast feeding (36.45%), and every twelfth (8.33%) was on artificial milk (animal or formula). Apart from diarrhea, present in all patients, vomiting (97.41%) and fever (43.96%) were characteristics of the clinical presentation of the diarrhea. Two thirds of the children had mild grade dehydration (70.7%). All patients recovered with no sequels. Conclusion: Rotavirus continues to be responsible for a significant portion of acute diarrhea in Kosovo. Clinical features, epidemiological data and the agglutination test are safe enough to establish the diagnosis. Treated correctly rotavirus diarrhea has a favorable outcome. PMID:25568634

  20. Chronic diarrhea associated with Campylobacter jejuni infection in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Claps, M; Beaucage, C M

    1986-08-15

    Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from a cat with chronic diarrhea. The diarrheic cat and another cat (which previously had diarrhea) in the same household had bactericidal antibody titers to the C jejuni. Clinical response to antibiotic therapy and not recovering Campylobacter sp from normal feces after treatment also supported the diagnosis of Campylobacter-associated diarrhea. Although the owner had a protracted episode of diarrhea, C jejuni was not isolated from the owner's feces, nor was a bactericidal antibody detected in the owner's serum.

  1. [Rotavirus and other viruses of diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajolet, O; Chippaux-Hyppolite, C

    1998-01-01

    Rotaviruses represent 80% of recognized viral etiologies and 140 million cases of diarrhea per year. They strike young children with similar frequency throughout the world, but the mortality rate is high in developing countries only, with some 870,000 deaths per year (WHO, 1997). Rotaviruses belong to the family of Reoviridae; they are segmented bicatenary RNA viruses, which explains their genetic variability, the presence of mixed infections, the establishment for some time already of a molecular epidemiology by electrophore types. The viruses are "naked" and thus resistant to the outside environment; their massive elimination, 10(8) to 10(10)viral particles per gram of faeces, begins with the first day of diarrhea. They are found in used water and can also be concentrated by shellfish; the environment thus constitutes a notable reservoir for the virus. Oral-faecal transmission is facilitated by deficient sanitary conditions. The 11 fragments of the genome each codify for 1 viral protein; 2 surface proteins, VP4 and VP7, bring about the formation of neutralizing antibodies, which are important for the protection and determination of different serotypes. A non structural protein--NSP4--would seem to intervene in the cytopathogenic effect and may act as a veritable viral enterotoxine. Numerous animal species are infected by rotaviruses which are district from the human ones. The pathology as it affects animals is of economic importance and of interest as an experimental and vaccinal model. Between human and animal rotaviruses there can be genetic rematchings and the VP6 protein is an antigen common to the group. The description of the other viruses responsible for diarrhea has benefited from widespread use of electronic microscopes from the very first years of study of rotaviruses. These other viruses belong to 6 different types: adenovirus, calcivirus, astrovirus, Norwalk agent and related viruses, coronavirus, enterovirus. They therefore have a structural and

  2. Efficacy of synbiotic treatment in children with acute rotavirus diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Ratna Dewi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Diarrhea is one of the major causes of morbidityand mortality in children throughout the world, mostly due torotavirus infection. In daily practice, we routinely use the WorldHealth Organization Five steps for managing acute diarrhea.Thispractice has shown great success in diarrhea management, butconcerns remain on reducing the duration of diarrhea to preventcomplications. Synbiotics can reduce the severity of diarrhea.However, there has been limited data on synbiotic therapy fortreating acute rotavirus diarrhea in children.Objective To compare the durations of acute rotavirus diarrheatreated with synbiotics vs. placebo.Methods This study was a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial,performed at the Pediatric Gastrohepatology Division, Sanglahand Wangaya Hospitals in Denpasar. Subjects were children aged6 to 59 months with acute rotavirus diarrhea. Rotavirus wasdiagnosed by immune chromatography assay. The synbiotic groupreceived probiotic comprised of Lactobacillus sp., Streptococcus sp.,Bifidobacterium sp. (total viable count 1.00x109 CFU per dose, andprebiotic consisted of 990.00 mg fructooligosacharide (FOS. Theplacebo consisted of lactose monohydrate packaged similarly as thesynbiotics. Subjects orally ingested 1 pack per day for 5 days.Results Seventy children with acute rotavirus diarrhea wasinvolved in this study. The median duration of diarrhea in thesynbiotic group was 50.0 (SE 1.1; 95%CI 47.9 to 52.1 hours, whilethat of the placebo group was 63.0 (SE 5.9; 95%CI 51.4 to 74.6hours. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the duration ofdiarrhea in the synbiotic group was significantly shorter than thatof the placebo group (log-rank test P <0.0001.Conclusion In children with acute rotaviral diarrhea, synbioticreduces the duration of diarrhea compared to placebo.

  3. Bacterial entropathogens and antimicrobial susceptibility in children with acute diarrhea in Babol, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeili Dooki, Mohammad Reza; Rajabnia, Ramazan; Barari Sawadkohi, Rahim; Mosaiebnia Gatabi, Zahra; Poornasrollah, Mohammad; Mirzapour, Mohaddeseh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Infectious diarrhea is one of common cause of children diarrhea causing mortality and morbidity worldwide. This study was performed to identify the common bacteria and their antimicrobial susceptibility in children with diarrhea.

  4. VP4 and VP7 genotyping by reverse transcription-PCR of human rotavirus in mexican children with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Castillo, A; Villa, A V; Ramírez González, J E; Mayén Pimentel, E; Melo Munguía, M; Díaz De Jesús, B; Olivera Díaz, H; García Lozano, H

    2000-10-01

    Dual typing (VP4 and VP7) of rotavirus obtained from 257 Mexican children during three epidemiological seasons was performed by reverse transcription-PCR. The P1G1 genotype was the most prevalent (40%), followed by P1G3 (19%) and P2G2 (16%). Thirty-one specimens (12%) presented mixed infections, while some genotypes were not found. This is the first dual typing of isolates from diarrhea cases in Mexico.

  5. Acute Renal Replacement Therapy in Children with Diarrhea-Associated Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Single Center 16 Years of Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Silviu Grisaru; Morgunov, Melissa A.; Samuel, Susan M.; Julian P Midgley; Wade, Andrew W; Tee, James B.; Hamiwka, Lorraine A.

    2011-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is becoming more prevalent among hospitalized children, its etiologies are shifting, and new treatment modalities are evolving; however, diarrhea-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (D+HUS) remains the most common primary disease causing AKI in young children. Little has been published about acute renal replacement therapy (ARRT) and its challenges in this population. We describe our single center's experience managing 134 pediatric patients with D+HUS out of whom 5...

  6. Life-Threatening Infantile Diarrhea from Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Salmonella enteric Typhimurium with Mutations in Both gyrA and parC

    OpenAIRE

    Nakaya, Hideo; Yasuhara, Akihiro; Yoshimura, Ken; Oshihoi, Yukio; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Watanabe, Haruo

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium DT12, isolated from a 35-day-old infant with diarrhea, was highly resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, gentamycin, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, and fluoroquinolones. The patient responded to antibiotic therapy with fosfomycin. Multidrug-resistance may become prevalent in Salmonella infections in Japan, as shown in this first case of a patient infected with fluoroquinolone-resistant Salmonella.

  7. Management of the Returning Traveler with Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: Traveler's diarrhea (TD) strikes 20—60% of travelers visiting developing countries. It occurs shortly after the return and can be distinguished into two categories: acute and persistent TD. Acute TD, mostly caused by bacterial and viral pathogens, is usually mild and self-limited, and deserves empirical symptomatic and/or antibiotic therapy in selected cases. Fluoroquinolones are progressively superseded in this indication by azithromycin, a well tolerated macrolide active against most bacteria responsible for TD, including the quinolone-resistant species of Campylobacter jejuni that are now pervasive, especially in Southeast Asia and India. Persistent TD in the returning traveler is much rarer than its acute counterpart and may be associated with three types of causes. Persistent infections, among which Giardia and possibly Entamoeba predominate, account for a significant proportion of cases. Postinfectious processes represent a second cause and comprise temporary lactose malabsorption and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, now considered a major cause of persistent TD. Finally, apparently unrelated chronic diseases causing diarrhea are occasionally unmasked by TD and represent a third type of persistent TD, among which the well established case of incident inflammatory bowel disease poses intriguing pathogenesis questions. This review discusses recent advances in the field and provides practical recommendations for the management of TD in adult, immunocompetent returning travelers. PMID:21180583

  8. Management of the returning traveler with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saussure, Philippe P H

    2009-11-01

    Traveler's diarrhea (TD) strikes 20-60% of travelers visiting developing countries. It occurs shortly after the return and can be distinguished into two categories: acute and persistent TD. Acute TD, mostly caused by bacterial and viral pathogens, is usually mild and self-limited, and deserves empirical symptomatic and/or antibiotic therapy in selected cases. Fluoroquinolones are progressively superseded in this indication by azithromycin, a well tolerated macrolide active against most bacteria responsible for TD, including the quinolone-resistant species of Campylobacter jejuni that are now pervasive, especially in Southeast Asia and India. Persistent TD in the returning traveler is much rarer than its acute counterpart and may be associated with three types of causes. Persistent infections, among which Giardia and possibly Entamoeba predominate, account for a significant proportion of cases. Postinfectious processes represent a second cause and comprise temporary lactose malabsorption and postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome, now considered a major cause of persistent TD. Finally, apparently unrelated chronic diseases causing diarrhea are occasionally unmasked by TD and represent a third type of persistent TD, among which the well established case of incident inflammatory bowel disease poses intriguing pathogenesis questions. This review discusses recent advances in the field and provides practical recommendations for the management of TD in adult, immunocompetent returning travelers.

  9. Fecal Viral Concentration and Diarrhea in Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Nelson; Chan, Martin C.W.; Wong, Bonnie; Choi, K. W.; Sin, Winnie; Lui, Grace; Chan, Paul K. S.; Lai, Raymond W. M.; Cockram, C S; Joseph J Y Sung; Leung, Wai K

    2007-01-01

    Fecal viral concentrations of 40 patients infected with norovirus genogroup GII.4 correlated with diarrhea duration and frequency of vomiting. Higher viral concentration and older age were independently associated with prolonged diarrhea (>4 days). These findings provide information on the pathogenesis and transmission of norovirus infections.

  10. Diarrhea after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Associated factors and predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Pin Yueh

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: We advise patients who have undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy to follow a low-fat diet for at least 1 week to reduce the possibility of diarrhea, especially when they are ≤45 years of age, of male sex, and had a high preoperative tendency for diarrhea.

  11. [Hypokalemia-induced paraplegia secondary to acute diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño Andériz, F; Cabello Clotet, N; de Diego Gamarra, R; Salaverría Garzón, I; Vázquez Rizaldos, S

    2002-02-01

    Hypokalemia can give a variety of syntomatology but more often courses without it or with inespecific clinical manifestations. In our enviroment the etiology of hypokalemia is wide but one of the most common causes in third world countries are diarrheas. We describe a case of severe hypokalemia due to acute diarrhea which was manifested with severe neurologic symtoms but improves with conventional treatment.

  12. Enteroendocrine and neuronal mechanisms in pathophysiology of acute infectious diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael; Nullens, Sara; Nelsen, Tyler

    2012-01-01

    While enterocyte secretion is the predominant mechanism considered responsible for secretory diarrhea in response to acute enteric infections, there are several lines of evidence that support alternative mechanisms controlling fluid and electrolyte secretion in diarrhea. To review enteroendocrine and neuronal mechanisms that participate in the development of acute infectious diarrhea. Acute infectious diarrheas due to bacterial toxins (e.g., cholera, E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin, C. difficile) and rotavirus are all associated with secretion of transmitters from enteroendocrine cells (e.g., 5-HT) and activation of afferent neurons that stimulate submucosal secretomotor neurons. The latter secrete acetylcholine (which binds to muscarinic receptors on epithelial cells) and VIP. Involvement of nerves was demonstrated by inhibition of bacterial toxin-induced secretion by hexamethonium (nicotinic), tetrodotoxin (Na(+) channel blocker), and lidocaine (visceral/mucosal afferents). Nicotinic receptors are present on secretomotoneurons and these are activated by release of acetylcholine from enteric interneurons or extrinsic efferent fibers. Specific organisms also modify other mechanisms that may contribute to development of acute diarrhea. Thus, mucin secretion, activation of motor mechanisms, increased mucosal permeability and inhibition of bile acid absorption have been reported in specific types of acute infectious diarrhea. New therapies targeting neural and transmitter mediation including 5-HT, VIP, NPY, as well as toxin receptors and channels activated during acute infectious diarrhea could usher in a novel approach to enhancing glucose-electrolyte solutions used in the treatment of acute diarrhea.

  13. DETECTION, RIBOTYPING AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PROPERTIES OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE STRAINS ISOLATED FROM THE CASES OF DIARRHEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouzegaran, Samaneh; Ganjifard, Mahmood; Tanha, Amir Saber

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile is the most prevalent cause of antibiotic-associated infectious diarrhea al-around the world. Prevalence of virulent and resistant strains of Clostridium difficile is increasing now a day. The present investigation was carried out to study the prevalence, ribotyping and antibiotic resistance pattern of C. difficile isolated from diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics. Materials and methods: Four-hundred stool specimens were collected from the diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics hospitalized due to the diseases other than diarrhea. Samples were cultured and their positive results were subjected to disk diffusion and PCR-based ribotyping. Results: Thirty-five out of 400 (8.75%) samples were positive for C. difficile. Prevalence of C. difficile in diarrheic and non-diarrheic pediatrics were 11.25% and 4.16%, respectively. Male had the higher prevalence of bacteria than female (P < 0.05). eight to twelve months old pediatrics were the most commonly infected group. R27 (14.28%), R1 (10.71%), R12 (7.14%), R13 (7.14%) and R18 (7.14%) were most commonly detected ribotypes. There were no positive results for studied ribotypes in non-diarrheic pediatrics. C. difficile strains had the highest levels of resistance against tetracycline (71.42%), erythromycin (57.14%), moxifloxacin (48.57%), metronidazole (28.57%) and clindamycin (22.85%) antibiotics. Conclusion: Prescription of antibiotics in diarrheic pediatrics, males and also 8-12 months old pediatrics should be done in a regular and cautious manner. PMID:27999477

  14. Human diarrhea infections associated with domestic animal husbandry: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Laura D; Levy, Karen; Menezes, Neia P; Freeman, Matthew C

    2014-06-01

    Domestic animal husbandry, a common practice globally, can lead to zoonotic transmission of enteric pathogens. However, this risk has received little attention to date. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the evidence for an association between domestic exposure to food-producing animals and cases of human diarrhea and specific enteric infections. We performed a systematic review of available literature to examine domestic livestock and poultry as risk factors for diarrhea and applied pre-determined quality criteria. Where possible, we carried out meta-analysis of specific animal-pathogen pairs. We found consistent evidence of a positive association between exposure to domestic food-producing animals and diarrheal illness across a range of animal exposures and enteric pathogens. Out of 29 studies included in the review, 20 (69.0%) reported a positive association between domestic animal exposure and diarrhea. Domestic exposure to poultry revealed a substantial association with human campylobacteriosis (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.90-3.93). Our results suggest that domestic poultry and livestock exposures are associated with diarrheal illness in humans. Failure to ascertain the microbial cause of disease may mask this effect. Exposure to domestic animals should be considered a risk factor for human diarrheal illness and additional studies may identify potential mitigation strategies to address this risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Persistent diarrhea: risk factors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, B; Biswal, Niranjan; Adhisivam, B; Parija, S C; Srinivasan, S

    2010-08-01

    To identify risk factors associated with Persistent diarrhea (PD) and deaths due to PD. This prospective case control study included 60 children with PD (cases) and 60 children (controls) with acute diarrhoea (AD). Detailed history, examination and appropriate investigations were done for all children. Crude Odds ratio was calculated for each risk factor by univariate analysis and adjusted odds ratio was calculated by multivariate logistic regression. Prior antibiotic use, steroid use, anemia, vitamin A deficiency, malnutrition, LRI, UTI, oral candidiasis, and hyponatremia, were statistically significant risk factors by univariate analysis. Prior antibiotic use, vitamin A deficiency, malnutrition and LRI were independently associated with PD by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The risk factors for mortality were stool frequency more than 10 times per day, severe malnutrition, oral candidiasis, hypoalbuminemia and HIV positivity. The presence of these risk factors should alert the clinician to take appropriate measures, to decrease the mortality.

  16. Acute diarrhea: evidence-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kátia Galeão; Castro Antunes, Margarida Maria de; Silva, Gisélia Alves Pontes da

    2015-01-01

    To describe the current recommendations on the best management of pediatric patients with acute diarrheal disease. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar. There has been little progress in the use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) in recent decades, despite being widely reported by international guidelines. Several studies have been performed to improve the effectiveness of ORS. Intravenous hydration with isotonic saline solution, quickly infused, should be given in cases of severe dehydration. Nutrition should be ensured after the dehydration resolution, and is essential for intestinal and immune health. Dietary restrictions are usually not beneficial and may be harmful. Symptomatic medications have limited indication and antibiotics are indicated in specific cases, such as cholera and moderate to severe shigellosis. Hydration and nutrition are the interventions with the greatest impact on the course of acute diarrhea. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Addressing Ozone Layer Depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information on EPA's efforts to address ozone layer depletion through regulations, collaborations with stakeholders, international treaties, partnerships with the private sector, and enforcement actions under Title VI of the Clean Air Act.

  18. Bottleneck analysis and strategic planning using Tanahashi model for childhood diarrhea management in Gujarat, Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupani, Mihir Prafulbhai; Gaonkar, Narayan T; Bhatt, Gneyaa S

    2016-10-01

    In spite of continued efforts, India is still lagging behind in achieving its MDG goals. The objectives of this study were to identify stake-holders who have a role to play in childhood diarrhea management, to identify gaps in childhood diarrhea management and to propose strategic options for relieving these gaps. Bottleneck analysis exercise was carried out based on the Tanahashi model in six High Priority Districts (HPDs) of Gujarat in period between July-November 2013. The major bottlenecks identified for Childhood Diarrhea management were poor demand generation, unsafe drinking water, poor access to improved sanitation facility and lack of equitable distribution and replenishment mechanisms for Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) packets and Zinc tablets till the front-line worker level. The main strategic options that were suggested for relieving these bottlenecks were Zinc-ORS roll out in scale-up districts, develop Information Education Communication/Behaviour Change Communication (IEC/BCC) plan for childhood diarrhea management at state/district level, use of Drug Logistics Information Management System (DLIMS) software for supply chain management of Zinc-ORS, strengthening of chlorination activity at household level, monitoring implementation of Nirmal Bharat Abhiyaan (NBA) for constructing improved sanitation facilities at household level and to develop an IEC/BCC plan for hygiene promotion and usage of sanitary latrines. Use of Zinc tablets need to be intensified through an effective scale-up. Adequate demand generation activity is needed. There is need to address safe drinking water and improved sanitation measures at household levels. Multi-sectoral engagements and ownership of Zinc-ORS program is the need of the hour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Addressivity in cogenerative dialogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Pei-Ling

    2014-03-01

    Ashraf Shady's paper provides a first-hand reflection on how a foreign teacher used cogens as culturally adaptive pedagogy to address cultural misalignments with students. In this paper, Shady drew on several cogen sessions to showcase his journey of using different forms of cogens with his students. To improve the quality of cogens, one strategy he used was to adjust the number of participants in cogens. As a result, some cogens worked and others did not. During the course of reading his paper, I was impressed by his creative and flexible use of cogens and at the same time was intrigued by the question of why some cogens work and not others. In searching for an answer, I found that Mikhail Bakhtin's dialogism, especially the concept of addressivity, provides a comprehensive framework to address this question. In this commentary, I reanalyze the cogen episodes described in Shady's paper in the light of dialogism. My analysis suggests that addressivity plays an important role in mediating the success of cogens. Cogens with high addressivity function as internally persuasive discourse that allows diverse consciousnesses to coexist and so likely affords productive dialogues. The implications of addressivity in teaching and learning are further discussed.

  20. Addressing Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salend, Spencer J.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that between 25% to 40% of students experience test anxiety, with students with disabilities and those from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds having higher prevalence rates. Since test anxiety impacts student well-being and the validity of the important educational decisions based on testing data, this article…

  1. Effects of Source- versus Household Contamination of Tubewell Water on Child Diarrhea in Rural Bangladesh: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unicomb, Leanne; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Colford Jr., John M.; Luby, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Shallow tubewells are the primary drinking water source for most rural Bangladeshis. Fecal contamination has been detected in tubewells, at low concentrations at the source and at higher levels at the point of use. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess whether improving the microbiological quality of tubewell drinking water by household water treatment and safe storage would reduce diarrhea in children water for fecal contamination, and record caregiver-reported child diarrhea prevalence (primary outcome). To assess reporting bias, we also collected data on health outcomes that are not expected to be impacted by our interventions. Findings Both interventions had high uptake. Safe storage, alone or combined with chlorination, reduced heavy contamination of stored water. Compared to controls, diarrhea in index children was reduced by 36% in the chlorine plus safe storage arm (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.64, 0.55-0.73) and 31% in the safe storage arm (PR = 0.69, 0.60-0.80), with no difference between the two intervention arms. One limitation of the study was the non-blinded design with self-reported outcomes. However, the prevalence of health outcomes not expected to be impacted by water interventions did not differ between study arms, suggesting minimal reporting bias. Conclusions Safe storage significantly improved drinking water quality at the point of use and reduced child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. There was no added benefit from combining safe storage with chlorination. Efforts should be undertaken to implement and evaluate long-term efforts for safe water storage in Bangladesh. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01350063 PMID:25816342

  2. Effects of source- versus household contamination of tubewell water on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ercumen

    Full Text Available Shallow tubewells are the primary drinking water source for most rural Bangladeshis. Fecal contamination has been detected in tubewells, at low concentrations at the source and at higher levels at the point of use. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess whether improving the microbiological quality of tubewell drinking water by household water treatment and safe storage would reduce diarrhea in children <2 years in rural Bangladesh.We randomly assigned 1800 households with a child aged 6-18 months (index child into one of three arms: chlorine plus safe storage, safe storage and control. We followed households with monthly visits for one year to promote the interventions, track their uptake, test participants' source and stored water for fecal contamination, and record caregiver-reported child diarrhea prevalence (primary outcome. To assess reporting bias, we also collected data on health outcomes that are not expected to be impacted by our interventions.Both interventions had high uptake. Safe storage, alone or combined with chlorination, reduced heavy contamination of stored water. Compared to controls, diarrhea in index children was reduced by 36% in the chlorine plus safe storage arm (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.64, 0.55-0.73 and 31% in the safe storage arm (PR = 0.69, 0.60-0.80, with no difference between the two intervention arms. One limitation of the study was the non-blinded design with self-reported outcomes. However, the prevalence of health outcomes not expected to be impacted by water interventions did not differ between study arms, suggesting minimal reporting bias.Safe storage significantly improved drinking water quality at the point of use and reduced child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. There was no added benefit from combining safe storage with chlorination. Efforts should be undertaken to implement and evaluate long-term efforts for safe water storage in Bangladesh.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01350063.

  3. Effects of source- versus household contamination of tubewell water on child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercumen, Ayse; Naser, Abu Mohd; Unicomb, Leanne; Arnold, Benjamin F; Colford, John M; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    Shallow tubewells are the primary drinking water source for most rural Bangladeshis. Fecal contamination has been detected in tubewells, at low concentrations at the source and at higher levels at the point of use. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess whether improving the microbiological quality of tubewell drinking water by household water treatment and safe storage would reduce diarrhea in children water for fecal contamination, and record caregiver-reported child diarrhea prevalence (primary outcome). To assess reporting bias, we also collected data on health outcomes that are not expected to be impacted by our interventions. Both interventions had high uptake. Safe storage, alone or combined with chlorination, reduced heavy contamination of stored water. Compared to controls, diarrhea in index children was reduced by 36% in the chlorine plus safe storage arm (prevalence ratio, PR = 0.64, 0.55-0.73) and 31% in the safe storage arm (PR = 0.69, 0.60-0.80), with no difference between the two intervention arms. One limitation of the study was the non-blinded design with self-reported outcomes. However, the prevalence of health outcomes not expected to be impacted by water interventions did not differ between study arms, suggesting minimal reporting bias. Safe storage significantly improved drinking water quality at the point of use and reduced child diarrhea in rural Bangladesh. There was no added benefit from combining safe storage with chlorination. Efforts should be undertaken to implement and evaluate long-term efforts for safe water storage in Bangladesh. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01350063.

  4. Optimal control of diarrhea transmission in a flood evacuation zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwina, N.; Aldila, D.; Soewono, E.

    2014-03-01

    Evacuation of residents and diarrhea disease outbreak in evacuation zone have become serious problem that frequently happened during flood periods. Limited clean water supply and infrastructure in evacuation zone contribute to a critical spread of diarrhea. Transmission of diarrhea disease can be reduced by controlling clean water supply and treating diarrhea patients properly. These treatments require significant amount of budget, which may not be fulfilled in the fields. In his paper, transmission of diarrhea disease in evacuation zone using SIRS model is presented as control optimum problem with clean water supply and rate of treated patients as input controls. Existence and stability of equilibrium points and sensitivity analysis are investigated analytically for constant input controls. Optimum clean water supply and rate of treatment are found using optimum control technique. Optimal results for transmission of diarrhea and the corresponding controls during the period of observation are simulated numerically. The optimum result shows that transmission of diarrhea disease can be controlled with proper combination of water supply and rate of treatment within allowable budget.

  5. A Study of Parasitic and Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Diarrhea in HIV-Positive Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongre, Vaishali; Kumar, Varun; Bharadwaj, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diarrhea is a common complication of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), occurring in almost 90% of AIDS patients in developing countries like India. The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence and microbiological profile of pathogens associated with diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients and their relation to CD4 counts. Materials and methods Forty-five successive HIV-positive patients, 27 with diarrhea (study group) and 18 without diarrhea (control group), were included in the three-month study. The HIV infection was confirmed by three different antibody detection tests. The stool samples were collected on two consecutive days and were examined for parasites by microscopy using wet mount and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain. They were examined for bacteria by Gram stain and conventional Ziehl-Neelsen stain and were inoculated on appropriate culture media. The isolates were identified by standard biochemical tests, followed by antibiotic susceptibility testing using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Results  Twenty-four pathogens were detected in diarrheal HIV-positive patients, including 14 parasites (58.33%), seven bacteria (29.17%), and three fungi (12.50%). Isospora sp. was the most common parasite (25.9%) followed by Cryptosporidium sp. (14.8%). Other parasites included Cyclospora sp., Strongyloides stercoralis, and Entamoeba histolytica (3.7% each).​ Escherichia coli (18.5%) was the most common bacterial isolate, of which, 80% were Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) while 20% were Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Other isolates included Shigella flexneri and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (3.7% each). The isolates were sensitive to furazolidone (94.11%), chloramphenicol (76.47%), and gentamicin (52.94%). The isolates from diarrheal patients showed resistance to norfloxacin (5.88% vs. 50%, p<0.05) as compared to those from non-diarrheal patients. The diarrheal HIV-positive patients

  6. Acute diarrhea during army field exercise in southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Bai; Ying-Chun Dai; Jian-Dong Li; Jun Nie; Qing Chen; Hong Wang; Yong-Yu Rui; Ya-Li Zhang; Shou-Yi Yu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: During emergency period, infectious diseases can bea major threat to military forces. During field training insouthern China, diarrhea is the main cause of nonbattleinjury. To evaluate the causes of and risk factors for diarrheain emergency period, we collected clinical and epidemiologicaldata from the People′s Liberation Army (PLA) during fieldtraining in southern China.METHODS: From September 25 to October 2 1997, 2636military personnel were investigated. Fecal sample cultures for lapactic pathogens were obtained from 103 military personnel with diarrhea. In addition, a questionnaire was administered to 103 cases and 206 controls to evaluate the association between illness and potential risk factors. At the same time,another questionnaire of 1:4 case-case control was administered to 22 severe cases (each severe case paired 4 mild cases).RESULTS: The training troop′s diarrhea incidence rate was significantly higher than that of garrison. The diarrhea incidence rate of officers was significantly lower than that of soldiers. A lapactic pathogen was identified in 63.1% (65/103) of the troops with diarrhea. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli(35.0%) and plesiomona shigelloides (16.5%) were the most common bacterial pathogens. All bacterial isolates were sensitive to norfloxacin and ceftazidine. However, almost all of them were resistant to sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole,oxytetracycline, doxycycline, furazolidone, ampicillin and cloromycetin to a different degree. Risk factors associated with diarrhea includediidrinking raw water, eating outside,contacting diarrhea patients, lacking sanitation, depression,lacking sleep, which were established by multiple-factor logistic regression analysis. In addition, the unit incidence rate was associated with the density of flies and the average daily boiled water available by regression and discriminate analysis.CONCLUSION: A series of risk factors are associated with the incidence rate of diarrhea. Our

  7. Molecular characterization and genetic susceptibility of sapovirus in children with diarrhea in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matussek, Andreas; Dienus, Olaf; Djeneba, Ouermi; Simpore, Jacques; Nitiema, Leon; Nordgren, Johan

    2015-06-01

    Sapoviruses (SaVs) are a common cause of gastroenteritis in children. In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a scarcity of information regarding SaV as an etiological agent of diarrhea. Here, we investigated the prevalence, molecular characterization and clinico-epidemiological features of SaV infections in children less than 5years of age with diarrhea in Burkina Faso. We further investigated the role of type 1 histo blood group antigens as susceptibility factors. In total, 309 fecal and 208 saliva samples from diarrheal children in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, were collected between May 2009 and March 2010. SaV was detected using real-time PCR, and genogrouped/genotyped by PCR or sequencing. Saliva samples were ABO, Lewis and secretor phenotyped using in house ELISA assays. We found a high prevalence (18%) and large genetic diversity with all 4 human genogroups, and 9 genotypes/genoclusters circulating during the study period. The SaV infections were generally associated with milder symptoms, and neither ABH, Lewis or secretor phenotypes affected susceptibility to SaV infections. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotypes and Endemic Diarrhea in Infants

    OpenAIRE

    M. Regina F. Toledo; Alvariza, M. do Carmo B.; Murahovschi, Jayme; Sonia R.T.S. RAMOS; Trabulsi, Luiz R.

    1983-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotypes were searched for in feces of 550 children with endemic diarrhea and in 129 controls, in São Paulo, in 1978 and 1979; serotypes O111ab:H−, O111ab:H2, and O119:H6 were significantly associated with diarrhea in children 0 to 5 months old and were the most frequent agents of diarrhea in this age group as compared with enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive E. coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. It is concluded that various ente...

  9. Molecular diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maya, L; Puentes, R; Reolón, E; Acuña, P; Riet, F; Rivero, R; Cristina, J; Colina, R

    2016-03-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) affects bovine production and reproduction causing significant economic losses all over the world. Two viral species has been recognized: BVDV-1 and BVDV-2, both distributed worldwide. Recently, novel specie of BVDV named HoBi-like pestivirus was discovered. The presence of BVDV was confirmed in 1996 in Uruguay, however, does not exist until today a schedule of compulsory vaccination along the country. Serological studies with samples from all Uruguayan herds were performed during 2000 and 2001 demonstrating that all of them were seropositive to BVDV with a mean prevalence of 69%. In addition, there have been no new studies done since those previously described and it is important to mention that the genetic diversity of BVD has never been described in Uruguay. Nowadays, there is strongly suspect that BVDV is one of the most important causes of reproductive failures in our herds. The aim of this study was to describe for the first time in Uruguay the genetic diversity of BVDV with samples collected from different regions along the country. Serological status of 390 non-vaccinated animals against BVDV with reproductive problems from farms of Rivera, Tacuarembó and Florida departments of Uruguay were studied. All herds were seropositive to BVDV and high proportion of animals were positive (298/390), while 4.1% (16/390) of the animals were positive to Antigen Capture ELISA test and Real Time PCR. Phylogenetic analysis performed with concatenated sequences from the 5'UTR and Npro genomic regions revealed that BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 are infecting our herds, being BVDV-1 the most frequently found. The major subtype was BVDV-1a, followed by BVDV-1i and BVDV-2b. This is the first study that describes the genetic diversity of BVDV in Uruguay and it will contribute to the elaboration of sanitization programs.

  10. molecular identification of rotavirus strains associated with diarrhea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    3Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Jos teaching Hospital, Jos, Nigeria. ABSTRACT ... associated with diarrhea among children in Kwara state, Nigeria. A total of 150 ... each case. ..... Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in Zaria,.

  11. current approach in the management of diarrhea in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fund (UNICEF) recommended their routine use in children with diarrhea alongside existing preventive .... assessed the therapeutic benefit of zinc supplement in ..... cholera. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2004, Issue 4. Art. No.

  12. [Travel diarrhea: attempt at a clinical-epidemiologic evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollaritsch, H; Kremsner, P G; Tobisch, P; Ambrosch, F; Stemberger, H

    1987-06-30

    Traveller's diarrhea is the most common tourist's disease in the tropics. Therefore epidemiological data for the evaluation of factors influencing the attack rates and the severity of the disease are being required. This paper deals with the data of 1058 Austrian tourists travelling to warm climate countries. 47.3% of all travellers suffered from an episode of traveller's diarrhea during their stay. However, it could be evaluated that besides the destination seasonal influences were very important. Factors like individual hygiene and accommodation did not influence the attack rates. Age and environmental conditions, however, did partially influence the frequency of diarrhea. Furthermore, additional symptoms were interpreted and it could be seen that suspected heterogenicity of etiology leads to a similar pattern of clinical symptoms. Clinical evaluation proves that traveller's diarrhea is commonly not severe, but due to the incidence and duration of the disease it is a major health problem in modern tourism.

  13. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Luby, SP; Halder, AK; Huda, TM; Unicomb, L; Islam, MS; Arnold, BF; Johnston, RB

    2015-01-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every...

  14. Diarrhea after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Associated factors and predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan-Pin Yueh; Fong-Ying Chen; Tsyr-En Lin; Mao-Te Chuang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diarrhea is part of the postlaparoscopic cholecystectomy syndrome, but is not well defined. Published reports have ignored possible associated factors such as the preoperative excretion pattern, gastrointestinal disorders, personality disorders, the effect of drugs, unsanitary food, and high-fat diets. Purpose: The aim of this study was to define the associated factors and predictors of postlaparoscopic cholecystectomy diarrhea (PLCD) at different time intervals after the opera...

  15. Mechanisms Underlying Dysregulation of Electrolyte Absorption in IBD Associated Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Priyamvada, Shubha; Gomes, Rochelle; Gill, Ravinder K.; Saksena, Seema; Alrefai, Waddah A.; Pradeep K Dudeja

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD), including Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic, relapsing inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Chronic inflammation of the intestine affects the normal fluid and electrolyte absorption leading to diarrhea, the hallmark symptom of IBD. The management of IBD associated diarrhea still remains to be a challenge, and extensive studies over the last two decades have focused on investigating the molecular mechanisms underly...

  16. Rifaximin for the treatment of acute infectious diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Kyoung Sup; Kim, Joo Sung

    2011-01-01

    Rifaximin is a nonabsorbable rifamycin derivative with an excellent safety profile and a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against a variety of enteropathogens causing acute infectious diarrhea. After oral ingestion, its bioavailability is known to be less than 0.4%, and it has a low potential for significant drug interactions. In the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea caused by noninvasive diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, it has been demonstrated that rifaximin significantly shortens the...

  17. Cryptosporidium, Enterocytozoon, and Cyclospora Infections in Pediatric and Adult Patients with Diarrhea in Tanzania.

    OpenAIRE

    Cegielski, J P; Ortega, Y. R.; McKee, S; Madden, J F; Gaido, L; Schwartz, D. A.; Manji, K; Jorgensen, A F; Miller, S E; Pulipaka, U P; Msengi, A E; Mwakyusa, D H; Sterling, C R; Reller, L B

    1999-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, and cyclosporiasis were studied in four groups of Tanzanian inpatients: adults with AIDS-associated diarrhea, children with chronic diarrhea (of whom 23 of 59 were positive [+] for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]), children with acute diarrhea (of whom 15 of 55 were HIV+), and HIV control children without diarrhea. Cryptosporidium was identified in specimens from 6/86 adults, 5/59 children with chronic diarrhea (3/5, HIV+), 7/55 children with acute diar...

  18. Isolated and Non-Isolated Enteric Pathogens in Children With Diarrhea and Related Laboratory Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Ghods

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:Diarrhea has been recognised as a major public health problem worldwide. Aprospective study was performed to determine the etiology,seasonal and age prevalence, relevant laboratory investigations,sensitivity of isolated microorganisms to current medication,and practical approaches to the diagnosis and management of diarrhea in Iran,as a developing country.Methods: All infants and children under age five (n=825, mean age 18.9 admitted to Tehran Children’s Hospital,Tehran,with diarrheal symptoms during the period of April 2005 to March 2006 were included in the study; 371 approximately age-matched controls (mean age 19.1 monthsfrom the same hospital but not having diarrhea formed the control group.   Results: The most frequent isolated pathogen was Escherichia coli (18.9%,followed by Shigella spp (0.7%, and Salmonella spp (0.4%. Prevalence of diarrheic children with either isolated or non-isolated pathogens were 66.5% in the colder seasons and 54.4% in warm seasons. E. coli was more prevalent in children younger than two years old while Sigella spp and Salmonella spp were common to all ages. Fecal leukocytes were associated with 100% of isolated Escherichia coli, 19.4% of non-isolated organisms, 2.5% of Shigella spp, 0.5% of Salmonella spp and none in controls. Escherichia coli was also associated with fecal red blood cells (29.4%, as were Shigella spp (83% and Salmonella spp (33.3%. White blood cell counts, polymorphonuclear cells, band cells, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein measurements had no diagnostic value. Amikacin was the global choice of antimicrobial treatment for Shigella spp in (99% of cases and for Escherichia coli in (91% of isolated cases. Only 70% of patients infected by Salmonella showed sensitivity to Gentamycin.   Conclusion:Diarrheal diseases in either isolated or non-isolated pathogens were more prevalent in the colder seasons and in children younger than two years of age. For

  19. Pathogenicity Island O-122 in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains is associated with diarrhea severity in children from Lima Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Erik H; Piscoche, Cristian; Contreras, Carmen; Durand, David; Riveros, Maribel; Ruiz, Joaquim; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2016-06-01

    EPEC is an attaching and effacing diarrheal pathogen that carries a large pathogenicity island, locus for enterocyte effacement (LEE). Recently, the pathogenicity island PAI O-122 was described among non-LEE effectors and found to be associated with diarrhea among atypical EPEC strains. It is unknown if incomplete PAI O-122 could be associated with diarrhea duration and severity. To identify these virulence determinants we analyzed 379 EPEC strains isolated from Peruvian children. EPEC was diagnosed by PCR(eae+, stx-) and classified as typical(t-EPEC) or atypical(a-EPEC). To characterize PAI O-122 we amplified three modules by PCR: Module 1(pagC), Module 2(senA, nleB and nleE) and Module 3(lifA/efa-1). To characterize the large ORF lifA/efa-1 we amplified the regions known as efa-N, efa-M and efa-C. Clinical information was obtained from the cohort study. A total of 379 EPEC strains were able to analyze PAI O-122 genes, 128 (10.4%) EPEC strains were isolated from 1235 diarrhea episodes and 251(9.2%) from 2734 healthy controls. t-EPEC strains were isolated from 14.8% (19/128) of children with diarrhea and 25/251(10.0%) from healthy controls. The most frequent PAI O-122 genes were nleE(37.7%), senA(34.6%) and nleB(37.5%), with similar prevalence among diarrhea and control samples. However, lifA/efa-1 was more common among diarrhea cases than healthy control cases (30.5% vs. 21.1%, p<0.05). The presence of complete PAI O-122 was associated with diarrhea episodes of higher severity among single pathogen infection (33.3% vs. 1.8%, p<0.05) mainly due to the presence of a complete lifA/efa-1 gene. In summary, the gene lifA/efa-1 is significantly associated with diarrheal episodes of higher severity, suggesting to be an important virulent factor.

  20. Frequency of E.coli pathotypes in acute diarrhea of children and its related factorsat Beassat hospital,Sanandaj

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalantar E; Solatni J; Khosravi B; Salehi A

    2009-01-01

    Objective:Diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries.The bacterial pathogen most commonly associated with childhood diarrhea is Escherichia coli.A one-year prospec-tive study was carried out in Sanandaj to determine the prevalence and roles of the different E.coli pathotypes in children less than five years of age with acute diarrhea.Methods:Rectal swab were collected prospectively from children with acute diarrhea and transported to the Department of Microbiology,School of Medicine, KUMS,Sanandaj during 2008.The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee.Results:During this study period,rectal swabs were investigated from a total of 466 children 1 to 144 months of age (mean, 29.97 months ±S.D)with diarrhea.Among the children,191 (41%,191 /466)were girls,and 275 (59%,275 /466)were boys.The age-specific incidence rates of acute diarrhea among children 13 -24 and 1-12 months of age were 37.37% (37 /99)and 26.26 % (26 /99),respectively,during the study period.A total of 99 strains of E.coli were detected.EPEC 59 (59.59%)and EIEC 22 (22.22%),were the most commonly found Escherichia coli strains detected in stools from children.Disk diffusion testing showed E.coli strains resistance to tetracycline (89.89 %),chloramphenicol (88.88%),Ampicillin (79.79%),Amoxi-cillin (75.75%)and Ceficime (75.75%).Among risk factors like age,sex,haemoglubin,father's and moth-er's education,food and weight of children only mother's education was significant (P =0.018).Conclusion:In most of the clinical laboratories in Iran,E.coli does not considered as an etiologic agent responsible for di-arrhea.Results in this study revealed that E.coli should be considered as an etiologic agent causing acute di-arrhea among children.We therefore,recommend the routine isolation and identification of E.coli strains in all the clinical laboratories in Sanandaj.Guidelines for appropriate use of antibiotics in Sanandaj need upda-ting.

  1. [Analysis of Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea in pediatric patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guoping; Li, Zihua; Dai, Xin; Wang, Zaihua; Cai, Ping; Chen, Li; Zhang, Zhen

    2015-03-01

    To analyze the incidence and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in pediatric patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Clinical data of totally 577 pediatric patients with AAD seen from January 2012 to January 2014 were collected; those children were divided according to age into 4 groups, 0.25 -1 year, >1 -4 years, >4 -12 years and >12 -18 years old groups, and 220 healthy children were enrolled as controls. CDI was tested by C. Diff Quik Chek Complete (QCC) and BD GeneOhm™ C. Diff Assay (BD-PCR) in all children, and the CDI incidence of four groups was added up. All pediatric patients with AAD were divided into mild, general and severe type according to different symptoms of diarrhea, and grading treatment, the general type and severe type of CDI children were treated with metronidazole and (or) vancomycin, afterwards, the results of grading treatment were analyzed. The number of pediatric patients with AAD were 178, 177, 132 and 90 in 0. 25 - 1 year, > 1 -4 years, > 4 - 12 years and > 12 - 18 years old group, respectively. The positive rate of CDI (22. 0% (39/177)) in > 1 -4 years old AAD patients was very significantly higher compared to the controls (4% (4/91), P 4 - 12 years old AAD pediatric patients was significantly higher compared to the controls (4% (2/53), P = 0. 004), the rates of CDI in 0. 25 - 1 year and > 12 - 18years old AAD groups were not significantly different from that of the controls (P >0. 05). There were 285 mild type AAD children (no CDI children), 176 general type AAD children (including 47 CDI children), and 116 severe type AAD children (including 81 CDI children). After grading and symptomatic treatment, there were 16 recurrent diarrhea in 128 CDI patients (severe type AAD), and the rest recovered. Two cases were transferred for referral treatment, 2 cases died, and the rest 12 recurrent diarrhea children fully recovered after administration of metronidazole, vancomycin, probiotics and symptomatic treatment

  2. Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Kotecha, Meena

    2015-01-01

    This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...

  3. An external evaluation of the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT program in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M Lamberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To address inadequate coverage of oral rehydration salts (ORS and zinc supplements for the treatment of diarrhea among children under–five, the Diarrhea Alleviation through Zinc and ORS Treatment (DAZT program was carried out from 2011–2013 in Gujarat and from 2011–2014 in Uttar Pradesh (UP, India. The program focused on improving the diarrhea treatment practices of public and private sector providers. We conducted cross–sectional household surveys in program districts at baseline and endline and constructed state–specific logistic regression models with generalized estimating equations to assess changes in ORS and zinc treatment during the program period. Between baseline and endline, zinc coverage increased from 2.5% to 22.4% in Gujarat and from 3.1% to 7.0% in UP; ORS coverage increased from 15.3% to 39.6% in Gujarat but did not change in UP. In comparison to baseline, children with diarrhea in the two–weeks preceding the endline survey had higher odds of receiving zinc treatment in both Gujarat (odds ratio, OR = 11.2; 95% confidence interval (CI 6.4–19.3 and UP (OR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4–3.9, but the odds of receiving ORS only increased in Gujarat (OR = 3.6; 95% CI 2.7–4.8; UP OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.7–1.2. Seeking care outside the home, especially from a public sector source, was associated with higher odds of receiving ORS and zinc. Conclusions During the duration of the DAZT program, there were modest improvements in the treatment of diarrhea among young children. Future programs should build upon and accelerate this trend with continued investment in public and private sector provider training and supply chain sustainability, in addition to targeted care–giver demand generation activities.

  4. Diarrhea outbreak during U.S. military training in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Matthew R; Lescano, Andres G; Lucas, Carmen; Gilles, Duncan; Biese, Brian J; Stolovitz, Gary; Reaves, Erik J

    2012-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea remains a major risk to deployed military units worldwide in addition to their impact on travelers and populations living in the developing world. This report describes an outbreak of diarrheal illness in the U.S. military's 130(th) Maneuver Enhancement Brigade deployed in San Vicente, El Salvador during a training and humanitarian assistance mission. An outbreak investigation team from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit-Six conducted an epidemiologic survey and environmental assessment, patient interviews, and collected stool samples for analysis in an at risk population of 287 personnel from May 31(st) to June 3(rd), 2011. Personnel (n = 241) completed an epidemiological survey (87% response rate) and 67 (27%) reported diarrhea and/or vomiting during the past two weeks. The median duration of illness was reported to be 3 days (IQR 2-4 days) and abdominal pain was reported among 30 (49%) individuals. Presentation to the medical aid station was sought by (62%) individuals and 9 (15%) had to stop or significantly reduce work for at least one day. Microscopy and PCR analysis of 14 stool samples collected from previously symptomatic patients, Shigella (7), Cryptosporidium (5), and Cyclospora (4) were the most prevalent pathogens detected. Consumption of food from on-base local vendors (RR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.53-10.5, p-value <0.001) and arriving on base within the past two weeks (RR = 2.79, 95% confidence [CI] = 1.35-5.76, p-value = 0.001) were associated with increased risk of developing diarrheal disease. The risk of infectious diarrhea is great among reserve military personnel during two week training exercises. The consumption of local food, prepared without proper monitoring, is a risk factor for deployed personnel developing diarrheal illness. Additional information is needed to better understand disease risks to personnel conducting humanitarian assistance activities in the Latin America Region.

  5. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  6. Diarrhea after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: associated factors and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Tuan-Pin; Chen, Fong-Ying; Lin, Tsyr-En; Chuang, Mao-Te

    2014-10-01

    Diarrhea is part of the postlaparoscopic cholecystectomy syndrome, but is not well defined. Published reports have ignored possible associated factors such as the preoperative excretion pattern, gastrointestinal disorders, personality disorders, the effect of drugs, unsanitary food, and high-fat diets. The aim of this study was to define the associated factors and predictors of postlaparoscopic cholecystectomy diarrhea (PLCD) at different time intervals after the operation and to identify the possible associated factors and predictors of PLCD. We also aimed to determine the effectiveness of a low-fat diet in these patients and to educate the patients about their diet after the operation. Data were obtained from clinical records and preoperative interviews with patients, who were also interviewed or contacted by telephone 1 week after the operation, and then surveyed by telephone 3 months later using standardized questionnaires. A total of 125 consecutive patients who were adequately informed and who had assented to accepting a prescription of a low-fat diet after undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy participated in this prospective study. Thirty-eight patients (25.2%) had diarrhea 1 week after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and seven patients (5.7%) had diarrhea 3 months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The important predictors of PLCD at 1 week were a low-fat diet (B = -0.177, p = 0.000) and a high score on a preoperative diarrhea scale (B = 0.311, p = 0.031). There was no predictor for PLCD 3 months after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We advise patients who have undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy to follow a low-fat diet for at least 1 week to reduce the possibility of diarrhea, especially when they are ≤45 years of age, of male sex, and had a high preoperative tendency for diarrhea. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Phylogenetic background of enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli from patients with diarrhea in Sirjan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taifeh Hoseinzade

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC strains are a major cause of intestinal syndromes in the developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC and enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC in relation to phylogenetic background from patients with diarrhea.Materials and Methods: A total of 110 E. coli isolates were obtained from diarrhea patients in Sirjan, southeast of Iran. The E. coli isolates were confirmed using biochemical and bacteriological tests. DNA of E. coli isolates was extracted by boiling method and checked for existence of ETEC (LT and ST genes and EIEC (ipaH gene pathotypes and also characterize the phylogenetic groups on the basis of presence or absence of the chuA, yjaA genes and an anonymous DNA fragment, TspE4. C2 by multiplex PCR.Results: Out of 110 E. coli isolates, 32 (29.09% were positive for ETEC (LT and ST genes and 6 (5.45% possessed EIEC (ipaH gene pathotypes. Isolates fall into four phylogenetic groups: A (39.09%, B1 (20%, B2 (15.45% and D (25.45%. Phylotyping of isolates of DEC indicated they were distributed in four phylogenetic groups including A (12 isolates, B1 (7, B2 (9 and D (10.Conclusion: In this study, the DEC isolates were segregated into different phylogenetic groups. The majority of isolates belonged to phylo-groups A and D.

  8. Phenotypic and phylogenetic analysis of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolates recovered from diarrhea cases in Guangdong Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baisheng; Luo, Jinyan; Tan, Hailing; Ke, Bixia; He, Dongmei; Ke, Changwen; Klena, John D; Zhang, Yonghui

    2015-05-04

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus has emerged as a common foodborne pathogen of global concern. In this study, 108 V. parahaemolyticus isolates that recovered from diarrhea cases (n=96) and seafood products (n=12) in Guangdong Province from 2007 to 2011 were characterized by serotyping, tdh and trh toxin gene detection and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The dominant serotypes from the cases were O3:K6, O4:K8 and O1: KUT (untyped). However, most isolates recovered from seafood products belonged to other serotypes. None of the isolates carried the trh gene, while the major isolates from the cases were tdh positive. MLST analysis revealed 31 sequence types (STs); 17 STs were unique in this study. eBURST analysis revealed four clonal complexes (CC), The majority of the isolates (n=58, all from cases and tdh+) were grouped into the CC3, which included O3:K6, O4:K68 and O1:KUT isolates. The CC3 was the most prevalent clonal complex, and all of the CC3 isolates were recovered from clinical cases of geographically diverse origin. As to the CC345, which was completely constituted by O4:K8, was another important clonal complex affecting Guangdong Province. Ongoing surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus in diarrhea patients and seafood products remains a public health priority for Guangdong Province, China.

  9. Evaluation of C. diff.-CUBE test for detection of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzynski, T A; Kimball, J L; Schultz, D A; Schell, R F

    1992-08-01

    The toxin B assay was used to evaluate C. diff.-CUBE, a new dot-immunobinding assay (DIA) for the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. The widely used latex agglutination test was also included for comparison. Stools from 100 patients suspected of having C. difficile-associated diarrhea were tested. The toxin B assay, latex agglutination, and DIA tests were positive for 12%, 9%, and 22% of the specimens, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the DIA test were 67%, 84%, 36%, and 95%, respectively, compared with the toxin B assay. The specificity (98%) and positive predictive value (78%) for the latex agglutination test were significantly higher than those of the DIA test. Of 13 specimens solely positive by the DIA test, 11 were cultured and none were positive. Clinical assessment supported only two of the 13 positive DIA results. When clinical assessment was included in the analysis, the DIA positive predictive value rose to 45%. Although the sensitivity and negative predictive values of the DIA test are comparable to the latex agglutination test, the low specificity and positive predictive values of the DIA test make it an inappropriate method to use for screening in a population with a low prevalence of true positives.

  10. Use of probiotics for prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P Delia; G Sansotta; V Donate; P Frosina; G Messina; C De Renzis; G Famularo

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the efficacy of a high-potency probiotic preparation on prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea in cancer patients.METHODS: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Four hundred and ninety patients who underwent adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy after surgery for sigmoid, rectal, or cervical cancer were assigned to either the high-potency probiotic preparation VSL#3 (one sachet t.i.d.,) or placebo starting from the first day of radiation therapy. Efficacy endpoints were incidence and severity of radiation-induced diarrhea, daily number of bowel movements, and the time from the start of the study to the use of loperamide as rescue medication.RESULTS: More placebo patients had radiation-induced diarrhea than VSL#3 patients (124 of 239 patients, 51.8%, and 77 of 243 patients, 31.6%; P < 0.001) and more patients given placebo suffered grade 3 or 4 diarrhea compared with VSL#3 recipients (55.4% and 1.4%, P < 0.001). Daily bowel movements were 14.7 ± 6 and 5.1 ± 3 among placebo and VSL#3 recipients (P < 0.05), and the mean time to the use of loperamide was 86 ± 6 h for placebo patients and 122 ± 8 h for VSL#3 patients (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION: Probiotic lactic acid-producing bacteria are an easy, safe, and feasible approach to protect cancer patients against the risk of radiation-induced diarrhea.

  11. Addressing antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kalpana

    2003-02-01

    Management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) has traditionally been based on 2 important principles: the spectrum of organisms causing acute UTI is highly predictable (Escherichia coli accounts for 75% to 90% and Staphylococcus saprophyticus accounts for 5% to 15% of isolates), and the susceptibility patterns of these organisms have also been relatively predictable. As a result, empiric therapy with short-course trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has been a standard management approach for uncomplicated cystitis.However, antibiotic resistance is now becoming a major factor not only in nosocomial complicated UTIs, but also in uncomplicated community-acquired UTIs. Resistance to TMP-SMX now approaches 18% to 22% in some regions of the United States, and nearly 1 in 3 bacterial strains causing cystitis or pyelonephritis demonstrate resistance to amoxicillin. Fortunately, resistance to other agents, such as nitrofurantoin and the fluoroquinolones, has remained low, at approximately 2%. Preliminary data suggest that the increase in TMP-SMX resistance is associated with poorer bacteriologic and clinical outcomes when TMP-SMX is used for therapy. As a result, these trends have necessitated a change in the management approach to community-acquired UTI. The use of TMP-SMX as a first-line agent for empiric therapy of uncomplicated cystitis is only appropriate in areas where TMP-SMX resistance prevalence is resistance to TMP-SMX exceeds this rate, alternative agents need to be considered.

  12. Antibiotic misuse among children with diarrhea in China: results from a national survey

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    Ruili Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Antibiotic resistance is one of the world’s biggest public health issues, and the situation in China is particularly grave. The objective of this study is to investigate the antibiotics usage pattern among Chinese children and provide further insight in developing strategies for promoting public health education. Methods This is a cross-sectional study, in the study, participants are from 53,665 guardians of children aged 0–6 years, who were recruited with multistage stratified random cluster sampling in 2013/2014 from 46 community health centers in 14 provinces across China Mainland. Children’s guardians completed surveys on their previous experience on using antibiotics in treating diarrhea of their children without a prescription from any pediatrician. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidential intervals (CIs for the association between antibiotic use and its predictors were estimated using multilevel logistic regression models, with antibiotic rational use group as a reference group. Results The prevalence of antibiotic misuse among children with diarrhea in the eastern, middle and western areas of China and associations between antibiotic misuse and its predictors were studied. The average rate of antibiotic misuse is 35.12%. Multilevel logistic regression revealed that living in urban areas (OR = 0.79 (0.76, 0.83, female children (OR = 0.92 (0.88, 0.96, guardians having higher education (OR = 0.60 (0.55, 0.66, being raised by parents (OR = 0.90 (0.85, 0.94, guardians having basic health knowledge (OR = 0.82 (0.79, 0.86 are protective factors and children’s age (1–3 years OR = 1.62 (1.54, 1.71; 4–6 years OR = 1.90 (1.77, 2.03 is a risk factor of antibiotic misuse among children aged 0–6 years with diarrhea in China. Conclusions Our findings confirmed that there has been a high rate of antibiotic misuse without a prescription in children with diarrhea in China, which requires considerable attention. Suitable regulations

  13. Antibiotic misuse among children with diarrhea in China: results from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruili; Xiao, Feng; Zheng, Xiaoguo; Yang, Huimin; Wang, Lihong; Yin, Delu; Yin, Tao; Xin, Qianqian; Chen, Bowen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the world's biggest public health issues, and the situation in China is particularly grave. The objective of this study is to investigate the antibiotics usage pattern among Chinese children and provide further insight in developing strategies for promoting public health education. This is a cross-sectional study, in the study, participants are from 53,665 guardians of children aged 0-6 years, who were recruited with multistage stratified random cluster sampling in 2013/2014 from 46 community health centers in 14 provinces across China Mainland. Children's guardians completed surveys on their previous experience on using antibiotics in treating diarrhea of their children without a prescription from any pediatrician. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidential intervals (CIs) for the association between antibiotic use and its predictors were estimated using multilevel logistic regression models, with antibiotic rational use group as a reference group. The prevalence of antibiotic misuse among children with diarrhea in the eastern, middle and western areas of China and associations between antibiotic misuse and its predictors were studied. The average rate of antibiotic misuse is 35.12%. Multilevel logistic regression revealed that living in urban areas (OR = 0.79 (0.76, 0.83)), female children (OR = 0.92 (0.88, 0.96)), guardians having higher education (OR = 0.60 (0.55, 0.66)), being raised by parents (OR = 0.90 (0.85, 0.94)), guardians having basic health knowledge (OR = 0.82 (0.79, 0.86)) are protective factors and children's age (1-3 years OR = 1.62 (1.54, 1.71)); 4-6 years OR = 1.90 (1.77, 2.03)) is a risk factor of antibiotic misuse among children aged 0-6 years with diarrhea in China. Our findings confirmed that there has been a high rate of antibiotic misuse without a prescription in children with diarrhea in China, which requires considerable attention. Suitable regulations and interventions are needed to solve this problem.

  14. Clostridium difficile associated infection, diarrhea and colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perry Hookman; Jamie S Barkin

    2009-01-01

    A new, hypervirulent strain of Clostridium difficile, called NAP1/BI/027, has been implicated in C. difficile outbreaks associated with increased morbidity and mortality since the early 2000s. The epidemic strain is resistant to fluoroquinolones in vitro, which was infrequent prior to 2001. The name of this strain reflects its characteristics, demonstrated by different typing methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NAP1), restriction endonuclease analysis (BI) and polymerase chain reaction (027). In 2004 and 2005, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasized that the risk of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is increased, not only by the usual factors, including antibiotic exposure, but also gastrointestinal surgery/manipulation, prolonged length of stay in a healthcare setting, serious underlying illness, immune-compromising conditions, and aging. Patients on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have an elevated risk, as do peripartum women and heart transplant recipients. Before 2002, toxic megacolon in C. difficile-associated colitis (CDAC), was rare, but its incidence has increased dramatically. Up to twothirds of hospitalized patients may be infected with C. difficile. Asymptomatic carriers admitted to healthcare facilities can transmit the organism to other susceptible patients, thereby becoming vectors. Fulminant colitis is reported more frequently during outbreaks of C. difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C. difficile infection with IBD carries a higher mortality than without underlying IBD. This article reviews the latest information on C. difficile infection, including presentation, vulnerable hosts and choice of antibiotics, alternative therapies, and probiotics and immunotherapy. We review contact precautions for patients with known or suspected C. difficileassociated disease. Healthcare institutions require accurate and rapid diagnosis for early detection of possible outbreaks, to initiate

  15. Novel Approach for Isolation and Identification of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV) Strain NJ Using Porcine Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wen; Jia, Shuo; Zhao, Haiyuan; Yin, Jiyuan; Wang, Xiaona; Yu, Meiling; Ma, Sunting; Wu, Yang; Chen, Ying; Fan, Wenlu; Xu, Yigang; Li, Yijing

    2017-01-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), which is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea in China and other countries, is responsible for serious economic losses in the pork industry. Inactivated PEDV vaccine plays a key role in controlling the prevalence of PEDV. However, consistently low viral titers are obtained during the propagation of PEDV in vitro; this represents a challenge to molecular analyses of the virus and vaccine development. In this study, we successfully isolated a PEDV isolate (strain NJ) from clinical samples collected during a recent outbreak of diarrhea in piglets in China, using porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IEC). We found that the isolate was better adapted to growth in IECs than in Vero cells, and the titer of the IEC cultures was 104.5 TCID50/0.1 mL at passage 45. Mutations in the S protein increased with the viral passage and the mutations tended towards attenuation. Viral challenge showed that the survival of IEC-adapted cultures was higher at the 45th passage than at the 5th passage. The use of IECs to isolate and propagate PEDV provides an effective approach for laboratory-based diagnosis of PEDV, as well as studies of the epidemiological characteristics and molecular biology of this virus. PMID:28117718

  16. Cobalamin and folate status in 6 to 35 months old children presenting with acute diarrhea in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjeswori Ulak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cobalamin and folate are essential micronutrients and are important in DNA and RNA synthesis, cell proliferation, growth, hematopoiesis, and cognitive function. However, data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking particularly from young children residing in low and middle income countries. OBJECTIVE: To measure cobalamin and folate status and identifies their predictors among 6 to 35 months old children presenting with acute diarrhea. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study in 823 children presenting with acute diarrhea. We measured plasma cobalamin, folate, methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine who sought treatment for acute diarrhea between June 1998 and August 2000. RESULTS: The mean (SD plasma concentrations of cobalamin, folate, total homocysteine and methylmalonic acid were 206 (124 pmol/L, 55 (32 nmol/L, 11.4 (5.6 µmol/L and 0.79 (1.2 µmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of low plasma cobalamin (10 µmol/L and elevated methylmalonic acid (>0.28 µmol/L were 73% and 52%, respectively. In the regression analyses, the plasma cobalamin concentration was positively associated with age, and introduction of animal or formula milk. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicated that poor cobalamin status was common particularly among breastfed children. Folate deficiency was virtually none existent. Possible consequences of cobalamin deficiency in young children need to be explored.

  17. Hospitalization and mortality among primarily nonbreastfed children during a large outbreak of diarrhea and malnutrition in Botswana, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creek, Tracy L; Kim, Andrea; Lu, Lydia; Bowen, Anna; Masunge, Japhter; Arvelo, Wences; Smit, Molly; Mach, Ondrej; Legwaila, Keitumetse; Motswere, Catherine; Zaks, Laurel; Finkbeiner, Thomas; Povinelli, Laura; Maruping, Maruping; Ngwaru, Gibson; Tebele, Goitebetswe; Bopp, Cheryl; Puhr, Nancy; Johnston, Stephanie P; Dasilva, Alexandre J; Bern, Caryn; Beard, R S; Davis, Margarett K

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, a pediatric diarrhea outbreak occurred in Botswana, coinciding with heavy rains. Surveillance recorded a 3 times increase in cases and a 25 fold increase in deaths between January and March. Botswana has high HIV prevalence among pregnant women (33.4% in 2005), and an estimated 35% of all infants under the age of 6 months are not breastfed. We followed all children <5 years old with diarrhea in the country's second largest referral hospital at the peak of the outbreak by chart review, interviewed mothers, and conducted laboratory testing for HIV and enteric pathogens. Of 153 hospitalized children with diarrhea, 97% were <2 years old; 88% of these were not breastfeeding. HIV was diagnosed in 18% of children and 64% of mothers. Cryptosporidium and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli were common; many children had multiple pathogens. Severe acute malnutrition (kwashiorkor or marasmus) developed in 38 (25%) patients, and 33 (22%) died. Kwashiorkor increased risk for death (relative risk 2.0; P = 0.05); only one breastfeeding child died. Many children who died had been undersupplied with formula. Most of the severe morbidity and mortality in this outbreak occurred in children who were HIV negative and not breastfed. Feeding and nutritional factors were the most important determinants of severe illness and death. Breastfeeding is critical to infant survival in the developing world, and support for breastfeeding among HIV-negative women, and HIV-positive women who cannot formula feed safely, may prevent further high-mortality outbreaks.

  18. 犊牛腹泻病原实验室诊断研究进展%Research Progress on Laboratory Diagnosis Methods of Infectious Etiology of Calf Diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹德琦; 何润霞; 龙淼

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is a common disease in calf rearing. Serious diarrhea always causes death of calf and brings huge economic loss to dairy cow breeding industry worldwide. While the emergence and prevalence of calf diarrhea was controlled in some of the dairy farms to some extent as the increase of feeding level, the calf diarrhea is still hard to be completely controlled due to the numerous infectious etiologies and the complex infection situation. The research progress on laboratory diagnosis methods of infectious etiology of calf diarrhea was reviewed in this paper, with the hope to provide theoretical foundation for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of calf diarrhea.%犊牛腹泻是犊牛培育过程中的常见疾病,严重时可导致犊牛死亡,常给奶牛养殖业造成严重的经济损失。随着奶牛场犊牛饲养管理水平的提高,犊牛腹泻的流行和发生在一定程度上得到了控制,但由于引起该病发生的病原种类较多、感染情况较为复杂,使得奶牛场对该病的防控仍存在一定难度。介绍了与犊牛腹泻有关的传染性病原的实验室诊断方法研究进展,以期为犊牛腹泻的诊断和防治提供理论依据。

  19. Diagnosis and Management of AIDS-related Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Johanson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of illness associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS has been increasing since the initial description in 1981. While virtually all organ systems may be affected, the gastrointestinal tract appears to be a major target. Diarrhea is the most common symptom, affecting up to half of all AIDS patients during the course of their disease. Although diarrhea occurs frequently, its optimal management remains controversial. An extensive evaluation including stool studies and endoscopic biopsies of both the colon and small intestine has been widely recommended to identify all potential pathogenic organisms. An alternative approach is a more limited evaluation consisting of stool and blood cultures followed by symptomatic treatment with antidiarrheal agents if no specific organisms are identified. The clinical presentation of the most common opportunistic pathogens are reviewed, including several recently discovered organisms. Recommendations for treatment are followed by a brief discussion of management strategies used to care for patients with AIDS-related diarrhea.

  20. Multicentric Castleman's Disease in a Child Revealed by Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmiloud, Sarra; Chaouki, Sana; Atmani, Samir; Hida, Moustapha

    2015-01-01

    Multicentric Castleman's disease is a rare benign and unexplained lymphoproliferative disorder that is extremely uncommon in children. It presents with fever, systemic symptoms, generalized lymphadenopathy, and laboratory markers of inflammation. Its treatment is not standardized and its prognosis is poor. We report a novel case of multicentric Castleman's disease in a 13-year-old girl who had presented with chronic diarrhea as the only initial presenting symptom. The diagnosis of celiac or inflammatory bowel diseases was suspected, but two and a half years later, the diagnosis of multicentric Castleman's disease was brought following the appearance of abdominal mass whose biopsy revealed Castleman's disease in the plasma cell form. The outcome was favorable after treatment by corticosteroid, chemotherapy, and surgery. The occurrence of diarrhea as the initial symptom of multicentric Castleman's disease without lymph node involvement is very rare. This case report underlines the diagnostic difficulties and the long interval between onset and diagnosis when diarrhea occurs first. PMID:25737793

  1. Acute diarrhea in West African children: diverse enteric viruses and a novel parvovirus genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Vo, Nguyen P; Bonkoungou, Isidore J O; Kapoor, Amit; Barro, Nicolas; O'Ryan, Miguel; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Wang, Chunling; Delwart, Eric

    2012-10-01

    Parvoviruses cause a variety of mild to severe symptoms or asymptomatic infections in humans and animals. During a viral metagenomic analysis of feces from children with acute diarrhea in Burkina Faso, we identified in decreasing prevalence nucleic acids from anelloviruses, dependoviruses, sapoviruses, enteroviruses, bocaviruses, noroviruses, adenoviruses, parechoviruses, rotaviruses, cosavirus, astroviruses, and hepatitis B virus. Sequences from a highly divergent parvovirus, provisionally called bufavirus, were also detected whose NS1 and VP1 proteins showed parvoviruses. Four percent of the fecal samples were PCR positive for this new parvovirus, including a related bufavirus species showing only 72% identity in VP1. The high degree of genetic divergence of these related genomes from those of other parvoviruses indicates the presence of a proposed new Parvoviridae genus containing at least two species. Studies of the tropism and pathogenicity of these novel parvoviruses will be facilitated by the availability of their genome sequences.

  2. Oral Zinc Supplementation for the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Gheibi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diarrheal diseases are a serious health problem and important causes of growth retardation and death in the developing world, especially those of prolonged duration. Since diarrhea is constantly found in children with zinc deficiency, very studies supported zinc supplements beneficial on the duration and severity of diarrhea among children. We review the impact of zinc effects on diarrhea in South-West Asia to update the evidences and to assess its effect on the global burden of diarrhea.   Materials and Methods: We conduct a systematic review through January 2014, for randomized controlled trials relevant to effect of zinc on diarrhea in children. We searched the MeSH terms zinc, acute gastroenteritis and children from various databases of Cochrane Library and PubMed, then clinical trials done in South-West Asia, selected for making written. Results: In recent years, several studies have reported the therapeutic effect of zinc supplementation on diarrheal diseases that was beneficial on decreased episode duration, stool output, stool frequency, hospitalization duration. In some countries in West Asia such as Lebanon, Israel, Saudi Arabia and Iran in clinical trials showed a faster improvement in acute gastroenteritis in children less than five years. But in some countries, such as Turkey, this effect was not significant.   Conclusions: Oral zinc supplementation significantly decreases diarrhea duration and has a greater effect on malnourished children. Zinc supplementation seems to be an appropriate public health strategy, mainly in areas of endemic deficiencies. Global attempts should is increased to support recommended regimen of therapeutic zinc by WHO in all areas. Keywords: Acute Gastroenteritis, Children, Zinc, South-West Asia.  

  3. Role of FODMAP content in enteral nutrition-associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmos, Emma P

    2013-12-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms including diarrhea are common complications of enteral nutrition (EN); however, the cause is unclear. Mode of EN delivery that alters digestion and possibly absorption is suggested to contribute to the high incidence of diarrhea; however, enteral formula is frequently blamed. Most research has focused on fiber-supplemented EN, with a meta-analysis showing that fiber reduces the incidence of diarrhea in non-intensive care unit studies. Other hypotheses include formula osmolality and FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols) content. FODMAPs are poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates that exert an osmotic effect. Dietary FODMAPs have been shown to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, in those with irritable bowel syndrome and, given a high-enough dose, will induce a laxative effect in most people. As FODMAPs are commonly added to enteral formula and EN is frequently used as the main source of nutrition, it is reasonable to hypothesize that EN provides more FODMAPs than usual dietary intake and increases risk for developing diarrhea. This hypothesis was assessed through a retrospective study showing that the standard-use enteral formula Isosource 1.5 had a protective effect of developing diarrhea. The only characteristic unique to Isosource 1.5 was the lower FODMAP content as determined through methodologies previously validated for food analysis. Methodologies for application to enteral formulas are currently undergoing formal validation. Once confirmed for application in enteral formula, future directions include FODMAP analysis of specific ingredients to increase understanding of potential problems associated with enteral formula and a randomized, controlled trial investigating the role of formula FODMAP content.

  4. Chronic Diarrhea Associated with High Teriflunomide Blood Concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Duquette, André; Frenette, Anne Julie; Doré, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report the case of a patient treated with leflunomide that presented with chronic diarrhea associated with high teriflunomide blood concentration. Case Summary An 84-year-old woman taking leflunomide 20 mg once daily for the past 2 years to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was investigated for severe chronic diarrhea that had been worsening for the past 5 months. The patient’s general condition progressively deteriorated and included electrolyte imbalances and a transient loss of ...

  5. The Efficacy of Probiotic in Adults with Acute Infectious Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawin Mahen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is a global health problem with high morbidity and mortality. In developing countries, acute diarrhea is most commonly caused by infectious pathogens. Regardless of the cause, diarrhea is primarily treated by fluid replacement therapy to decrease the risk of dehydration and death, although it does not affect the duration of diarrhea. Probiotics are able to shorten the duration of diarrhea in children, but its efficacy in adults is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the benefit of probiotic in reducing the duration of acute diarrhea in adults as compared to placebo. Systematic search was done using four databases: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and Embase, without limit on the year of publication. Randomized clinical trials were selected as the appropriate study design to answer the clinical question and two studies were considered relevant for appraisal. In conclusion, probiotics could improve the recovery of acute infectious diarrhea in adults (level of evidence 1b however more studies should be carried out since only very few strains of probiotics have been investigated. Keywords: probiotics, treatment efficacy, acute diarrhea, adults.     Efektivitas Probiotik pada Orang Dewasa dengan Diare:  Sebuah Laporan Kasus Berbasis Bukti   Abstrak Diare merupakan masalah kesehatan global dengan angka morbiditas dan mortalitas yang tinggi. Di negara berkembang, diare akut biasanya disebabkan oleh infeksi. Terlepas dari penyebabnya, tata laksana utama diare adalah terapi rehidrasi untuk mengurangi dehidrasi dan kematian walaupun hal tersebut tidak memengaruhi durasi diare. Probiotik dapat memperpendek durasi diare pada anak-anak, namun efektivitasnya pada orang dewasa masih belum jelas. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi efek probiotik dalam mengurangi durasi diare akut pada orang dewasa dibandingkan plasebo. Pencarian sistematik dilakukan pada empat database: PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, dan Embase, tanpa membatasi tahun publikasi

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection in dairy cattle herds in northeast Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilnont, Theerakul; Aiumlamai, Suneerat; Kanistanont, Kwankate; Inchaisri, Chaidate; Kampa, Jaruwan

    2016-08-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus causes a wide range of clinical manifestation with subsequent economic losses in dairy production worldwide. Our study of a population of dairy cattle in Thailand based on 933 bulk tank milk samples from nine public milk collection centers aimed to monitor infective status and to evaluate the effect of the infection in cows as well as to examine the reproductive performance of heifers to provide effective recommendations for disease control in Thailand. The results showed a moderate antibody-positive prevalence in the herd (62.5 %), with the proportion of class-3 herd, actively infected stage, being 17.3 %. Fourteen persistently infected (PI) animals were identified among 1196 young animals from the class-3 herds. Most of the identified PI animals, 11/14, were born in one sub-area where bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) investigation has not been performed to date. With respect to reproductive performance, class-3 herds also showed higher median values of reproductive indices than those of class-0 herds. Cows and heifers in class-3 herds had higher odds ratio of calving interval (CI) and age at first service (AFS) above the median, respectively, compared to class-0 herds (OR = 1.29; P = 0.02 and OR = 1.63; P = 0.02). Our study showed that PI animals were still in the area that was previously studied. Furthermore, a newly studied area had a high prevalence of BVDV infection and the infection affected the reproductive performance of cows and heifers. Although 37.5 % of the population was free of BVDV, the lack of official disease prevention and less awareness of herd biosecurity may have resulted in continuing viral spread and silent economic losses have potentially occurred due to BVDV. We found that BVDV is still circulating in the region and, hence, a national control program is required.

  7. Epidemiology of rotavirus A diarrhea in Chókwè, Southern Mozambique, from February to September, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langa, Jerónimo S; Thompson, Ricardo; Arnaldo, Paulo; Resque, Hugo Reis; Rose, Tatiana; Enosse, Sonia M; Fialho, Alexandre; de Assis, Rosane Maria Santos; da Silva, Marcelle Figueira Marques; Leite, José Paulo Gagliardi

    2016-10-01

    Acute diarrhea disease caused by Rotaviruses A (RVA) is still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children ≤5 years old in developing countries. An exploratory cross-sectional study was conducted between February and September, 2011 to determine the proportion of acute diarrhea caused by RVA. A total of 254 stool specimens were collected from children ≤5 years old with acute diarrhea, including outpatients (222 children) and inpatients (32 children), in three local health centers in Chókwè District, Gaza Province, South of Mozambique. RVA antigens were detected using enzyme immunoassay (EIA); the RVA G (VP7) and P (VP4) genotypes were determined by RT-PCR or analysis sequencing. Sixty (24%) out of 254 fecal specimens were positive for RVA by EIA; being 58 (97%) from children ≤2 years of age. RVA prevalence peaks in June and July (coldest and drier months) and the G[P] binary combination observed were G12P[8] (57%); G1P[8] (9%); G12P[6] (6%); and 2% for each of the following genotypes: G1P[6], G2P[6] G4P[6], and G9P[8]. Non-Typeable (NT) G and/or P genotypes were observed as follows: G12P [NT] (6%); G1P [NT], G3P[NT] and GNTP[NT] (4%). Considering the different GP combinations, G12 represented 67% of the genotypes. This is the first data showing the diversity of RVA genotypes in Mozambique highlighting the epidemiological importance of these viruses in acute diarrhea cases in children ≤2 years old. In addition, these findings will provide a baseline data before the introduction of the RVA monovalent (Rotarix(®) ) vaccine in the National Immunization Program in September 2015. J. Med. Virol. 88:1751-1758, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Treatment of Chronic Diarrhea with Point-irradiation of He-Ne Laser in 50 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tong-fa; SHI Bing-pei

    2003-01-01

    To treat 50 cases of chronic diarrhea by laser point-radiation on Shenque (CV 8 ), Tianshu (ST25), Zusanli (ST 36) and Point Anti-diarrhea with low power He-Ne laser. The total effective rate was 96%.

  9. Diarrhea-An uncommon presentation of tertiary adrenal insufficiency following heart transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanderkhel, Saad; Choudhry, M Waqas; Valentine, Vincent; Al-Dossari, Ghannam; Khalife, Wissam I

    2017-08-01

    Diarrhea following organ transplantation is usually associated with infection and immunosuppression therapy. We describe two patients with diarrhea following orthotopic heart transplantation due to tertiary adrenal insufficiency. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Socioeconomic, hygienic, and sanitation factors in reducing diarrhea in the Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Katiuscia Shirota; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Muniz, Pascoal Torres; Pádua, Valter Lúcio de

    2016-12-22

    To analyze the contributions of the socioeconomic, hygienic, and sanitation improvements in reducing the prevalence of diarrhea in a city of the Amazon. In this population-based cross-sectional study, we analyzed data from surveys conducted in the city of Jordão, Acre. In 2005 and 2012, these surveys evaluated, respectively, 466 and 826 children under five years old. Questionnaires were applied on the socioeconomic conditions, construction of houses, food and hygienic habits, and environmental sanitation. We applied Pearson's Chi-squared test and Poisson regression to verify the relationship between origin of water, construction of homes, age of introduction of cow's milk in the diet, place of birth and the prevalence of diarrhea. The prevalence of diarrhea was reduced from 45.1% to 35.4%. We identified higher probability of diarrhea in children who did not use water from the public network, in those receiving cow's milk in the first month after birth, and in those living in houses made of paxiúba. Children born at home presented lower risk of diarrhea when compared to those who were born in hospital, with this difference reversing for the 2012 survey. Sanitation conditions improved with the increase of bathrooms with toilets, implementation of the Programa de Saúde da Família (PSF - Family Health Program), and water treatment in the city. The multivariate regression model identified a statistically significant association between use of water from the public network, construction of houses, late introduction of cow's milk, and access to health service with occurrence of diarrhea. Analisar as contribuições das melhorias socioeconômicas, higiênicas e de saneamento na redução da prevalência de diarreia em uma cidade na Amazônia. Neste estudo transversal de base populacional, foram analisados dados dos inquéritos realizados no município de Jordão, Acre. Em 2005 e 2012, foram avaliadas, respectivamente, 466 e 826 crianças menores de cinco anos. Foram

  11. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  12. Infantile diarrhea in the Pediatric Ward of Dr. Pirngadi Hospital Medan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrizal; Sinuhaji, A B; Sutanto, A H

    1991-01-01

    A retrospective study was done on infants with diarrhea who were hospitalized at the Pediatric ward of Dr. Pirngadi Hospital, Medan in a period of one year (January 1 to December 31, 1986). There were 3317 hospitalized patients and 1506 (45.40%) of them had diarrhea. Of these, 773 (51.32%) were in the age group of under 2 years. Thirty eight patients (4.91%) with infantile diarrhea died and prolonged diarrhea was found in 54 (6.98%) cases.

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Diarrhea: Still an Issue in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dikman, Andrew E.; Schonfeld, Emily; Srisarajivakul, Nalinee C.; Poles, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Over half of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) experience diarrhea that contributes negatively to quality of life and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Opportunistic infectious agents that cause diarrhea in patients with HIV span the array of protozoa, fungi, viruses, and bacteria. With global use of ART, the incidence of diarrhea because of opportunistic infections has decreased; however, the incidence of noninfectious diarrhea has increased. The etiology of noninfect...

  14. Address Points, Addressing, Published in 2008, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Addressing'. Data by this publisher are often...

  15. New parvovirus in child with unexplained diarrhea, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tung G; Sdiri-Loulizi, Khira; Aouni, Mahjoub; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Pothier, Pierre; Deng, Xutao; Delwart, Eric

    2014-11-01

    A divergent parvovirus genome was the only eukaryotic viral sequence detected in feces of a Tunisian child with unexplained diarrhea. Tusavirus 1 shared 44% and 39% identity with the nonstructural protein 1 and viral protein 1, respectively, of the closest genome, Kilham rat parvovirus, indicating presence of a new human viral species in the Protoparvovirus genus.

  16. Human rotavirus genotypes causing acute watery diarrhea among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-17

    Jun 17, 2014 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Jan-Feb 2015 • Vol 18 • Issue 1. Abstract. Background: Diarrhea is a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in the .... Pennap et al. from Zaria, northern Nigeria, a case‑controlled.

  17. Diarréia por parasitas Parasites induced diarrheas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Farias Almeida Motta

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A diarréia é uma causa importante de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. Os agentes etiológicos mais comuns são os vírus e as bactérias. Este artigo tem o objetivo de analisar a ocorrência de diarréia como manifestação clínica de parasitose. Discute-se quais os protozoários e os helmintos que podem causar diarréia, as bases científicas atuais que explicam os mecanismos fisiopatológicos que desencadeiam a diarréia, bem como os exames complementares e o tratamento adequado para cada parasita implicado.Diarrhea is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The most common etiological agents are viruses and bacteria. This article has the objective of analyzing diarrhea as a clinical symptom of parasitosis. Protozoa and helminthes that may cause diarrhea are discussed, current scientific basis clarifying the pathological and physiological mechanisms causing diarrhea as well as supplementary tests and adequate treatment for each parasite involved are focused.

  18. Gut Microbial Succession Follows Acute Secretory Diarrhea in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Lawrence A.; Weil, Ana; Ryan, Edward T.; Calderwood, Stephen B.; Harris, Jason B.; Chowdhury, Fahima; Begum, Yasmin; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Disability after childhood diarrhea is an important burden on global productivity. Recent studies suggest that gut bacterial communities influence how humans recover from infectious diarrhea, but we still lack extensive data and mechanistic hypotheses for how these bacterial communities respond to diarrheal disease and its treatment. Here, we report that after Vibrio cholerae infection, the human gut microbiota undergoes an orderly and reproducible succession that features transient reversals in relative levels of enteric Bacteroides and Prevotella. Elements of this succession may be a common feature in microbiota recovery from acute secretory diarrhea, as we observed similar successional dynamics after enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection. Our metagenomic analyses suggest that multiple mechanisms drive microbial succession after cholera, including bacterial dispersal properties, changing enteric oxygen and carbohydrate levels, and phage dynamics. Thus, gut microbiota recovery after cholera may be predictable at the level of community structure but is driven by a complex set of temporally varying ecological processes. Our findings suggest opportunities for diagnostics and therapies targeting the gut microbiota in humans recovering from infectious diarrhea. PMID:25991682

  19. Chronic diarrhea and pancolitis caused by paracoccidioidomycosis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Eduar A; Zegarra, Arturo J; Piscoya, Alejandro; Pinto, José L; de Los Rios, Raúl E; Prochazka, Ricardo A; Huerta-Mercado, Jorge L; Mayo, Nancy L; Tagle, Martin

    2010-01-01

    South American blastomycosis is a systemic micosis caused by infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The most frequently affected sites are the lower lip buccal mucous membrane, palate, tongue, sublingual region, lymph glands, and lungs. However, colonic involvement is not a common expression of Paracoccidioidomycosis. We report a case of chronic diarrhea and pancolitis caused by Paracoccidioidomycosis with fatal outcome.

  20. Chronic Diarrhea and Pancolitis Caused by Paracoccidioidomycosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduar A. Bravo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available South American blastomycosis is a systemic micosis caused by infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. The most frequently affected sites are the lower lip buccal mucous membrane, palate, tongue, sublingual region, lymph glands, and lungs. However, colonic involvement is not a common expression of Paracoccidioidomycosis. We report a case of chronic diarrhea and pancolitis caused by Paracoccidioidomycosis with fatal outcome.

  1. Prevention and treatment of traveler's diarrhea. Focus on antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Francesco; Saleri, Nuccia; Tomasoni, Lina Rachele; Carosi, Giampiero

    2006-01-01

    Diarrhea, mostly due to bacterial infection of the gut, is the most frequent health complaint in the international traveler, affecting 20-70% of the traveling population depending on the destination and other factors. It is usually benign and self-limiting in nature, but symptoms may occasionally be distressing causing modifications of normal activities and sometimes confinement to bed or hospitalization. Prevention of traveler's diarrhea should ideally be based on dietary restrictions, but experience shows that this target is extremely difficult to achieve. Antibiotic chemoprophylaxis should be restricted to selected groups of travelers at risk of severe complications of diarrhea or when diarrhea-driven alterations of planned activities are highly undesirable (critical trips). The effectiveness of alternative prophylactic approaches, such as vaccination or the use of probiotics, still awaits confirmation. Treatment of mild diarrheal cases without intestinal symptoms may be limited to rehydration with or without antimotility agents. When antibiotic therapy is considered, non-absorbable antibiotics, such as rifaximin, may be considered a valid alternative to systemic antibiotics to treat uncomplicated cases, leaving fluoroquinolones and/or azithromycin for use in more severe cases or when invasive pathogens are suspected. Indeed, therapeutic use of doxycycline and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) is limited by widespread resistance of many enteropathogens. The addition of loperamide or other antimotility agents usually provides symptom relief and further shortens the duration of illness and may be therefore safely adopted in the healthy adult unless dysentery is present.

  2. Calicivirus from novel recovirus genogroup in human diarrhea, Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Smits (Saskia); M. Rahman (Mustafizur); C.M.E. Schapendonk (Claudia); M. van Leeuwen (Marije); S.M. Faruque (Shah M.); B.L. Haagmans (Bart); H.P. Endtz (Hubert); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractTo identify unknown human viruses in the enteric tract, we examined 105 stool specimens from patients with diarrhea in Bangladesh. A novel calicivirus was identified in a sample from 1 patient and subsequently found in samples from 5 other patients. Phylogenetic analyses classified this

  3. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nathaniel A; Ben Ami, Ronen; Guzner-Gur, Hanan; Santo, Moshe E; Halpern, Zamir; Maharshak, Nitsan

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is a problem most hospital-based physicians will face in their career. This review aims to refresh current knowledge with regard to Clostridium difficile infection and bring physicians up to date with the latest developments in the growing field of fecal microbiota transplantation, the benefits it offers, and the promise this and other developments hold for the future.

  4. Calicivirus from Novel Recovirus Genogroup in Human Diarrhea, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mustafizur; Schapendonk, Claudia M.E.; van Leeuwen, Marije; Faruque, Abu S.G.; Haagmans, Bart L.; Endtz, Hubert P.; Osterhaus, Albert D.M.E.

    2012-01-01

    To identify unknown human viruses in the enteric tract, we examined 105 stool specimens from patients with diarrhea in Bangladesh. A novel calicivirus was identified in a sample from 1 patient and subsequently found in samples from 5 other patients. Phylogenetic analyses classified this virus within the proposed genus Recovirus. PMID:22709854

  5. Drug-induced secretory diarrhea: A role for CFTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Changsuk; Zhang, Weiqiang; Sundaram, Nambirajan; Yarlagadda, Sunitha; Reddy, Vadde Sudhakar; Arora, Kavisha; Helmrath, Michael A; Naren, Anjaparavanda P

    2015-12-01

    Many medications induce diarrhea as a side effect, which can be a major obstacle to therapeutic efficacy and also a life-threatening condition. Secretory diarrhea can be caused by excessive fluid secretion in the intestine under pathological conditions. The cAMP/cGMP-regulated cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the primary chloride channel at the apical membrane of intestinal epithelial cells and plays a major role in intestinal fluid secretion and homeostasis. CFTR forms macromolecular complexes at discreet microdomains at the plasma membrane, and its chloride channel function is regulated spatiotemporally through protein-protein interactions and cAMP/cGMP-mediated signaling. Drugs that perturb CFTR-containing macromolecular complexes in the intestinal epithelium and upregulate intracellular cAMP and/or cGMP levels can hyperactivate the CFTR channel, causing excessive fluid secretion and secretory diarrhea. Inhibition of CFTR chloride-channel activity may represent a novel approach to the management of drug-induced secretory diarrhea.

  6. Hyperkalemia with concomitant watery diarrhea: an unusual association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jeremy G C; Zwillich, Clifford W; Kaehny, William D; Levi, Moshe; Popovtzer, Mordecai M

    2003-08-01

    Four patients presented to the emergency room with life-threatening hyperkalemia and concomitant watery diarrhea. Hypovolemia, acidosis, and renal insufficiency were present in all 4 cases. In 2 patients, hyperkalemia followed initiation of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy, whereas 1 patient experienced hyperkalemia after a dose increase of an ACE inhibitor, and the fourth patient was on continuous ACE-inhibitor therapy at the time of the hyperkalemia episode. Two of the 3 patients with functioning kidneys required hemodialysis to correct the hyperkalemia, whereas the other patient was on long-term hemodialysis therapy. In the 2 patients in whom transtubular potassium (K+) gradients were available, their values ranged far below normal, indicating tubular failure to secrete K+. This abnormality was attributed to decreased distal delivery of sodium and water and to renin/angiotensin II/aldosterone blockade. It has been proposed that aldosterone blockade impairs the capacity of the colonic epithelial cells to secrete K+. In all 4 patients the watery diarrhea ceased in parallel with the correction of serum K+ to normal values. It is suggested that hyperkalemia, most likely by stimulating intestinal motility, induced the watery diarrhea in all 4 patients. The watery diarrhea, however, failed to compensate for the renal tubular failure to secrete K+.

  7. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been established as pure, safe... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311 Section 113.311 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. The impact of improvement of water supply and sanitation facilities on diarrhea and intestinal parasites: a Brazilian experience with children in two low-income urban communities

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Gross; Bernd Schell; Maria Carmen Bisi Molina; Maria Antonia Cuelho Leão; Ulrike Strack

    1989-01-01

    During the second half of 1986 the impact of the improvement of water supply and excreta disposal facilities on diarrheal diseases and intestinal parasitosis was studied in 254 children up to six years of age from two favelas (shanty towns) of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The estimated incidence of diarrhea was 6.2 episodes/child year and the estimated period prevalence reached 31.0 episode days/ child/ year. The point prevalence of parasitosis was 70.7% (Ascaris lumbricoides: 55.4%, Trichuris tri...

  9. Strategic control of acute diarrhea of newborn calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance of beef cattle operations can be severely hampered by acute calfhood diarrhea. Accordingly, a study was conducted at Bbalitvet to identify the causal agents, reduce clinical incidence, and increase body weight gain of newborn calves. One potential control is application of suitable vaccines to pregnant cows. The study was begun by identifying cases of diarrhea followed by isolation and identification of the causal agents in 12 beef cattle farms in West Java. A field trial was then designed for controlling calf diarrhea in such farms. Inactive vaccines Ecoli-Closvak polivalen were administered to pregnant cows to increase specific resistance of the newborn calves. At 2 months prepartum, 12 pregnant cows were assigned either to a vaccination or a placebo group, with a booster vaccination 3 weeks prior to parturition. Strict hygenic management was provided to both groups, and all calves were provided adequately with colostrum. Subjects were observed for 5 months, starting from the time of initial vaccination until the calves were 3 months of age. In the initial farm surveys, entero-pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli serotype K99 and Clostridium perfringens type A and C were isolated and identified in fecal samples from 4 beef cattle farms in 3 districts (Garut, Tasikmalaya, Ciamis and 2 beef cattle farms in 2 districts (Tasikmalaya and Ciamis of West Java. In the vaccination trial, good immune responses to E. coli and C. perfringens alpha toxin measured by ELISA were observed. Application of effective control of calf diarrhea including vaccination and good livestock management showed good results. No death or signs of diarrhea were found in the new born calves up to 3 months of age. The rate of body weight gain was significantly higher in calves of vaccinated dams than in calves of non-vaccinated dams.

  10. Enteral Formula Containing Egg Yolk Lecithin Improves Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Tetsuro; Muto, Ayano; Takahashi, Yayoi; Nishiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome. Stool consistency or frequency improved on the day after using the aforementioned combination in 13/14 patients. Average particle size of the egg yolk lecithin emulsifier did not change by adding artificial gastric juice, whereas that of soy lecithin and synthetic emulsifiers increased. Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly higher in the egg yolk lecithin group compared with the soybean lecithin and synthetic emulsifier groups in bile duct-ligated rats. In rats with short bowels, the fecal consistency was a significant looser the dietary fiber (+) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 6 of test meal feedings. The fecal consistency was also a significant looser the egg yolk lecithin (-) group than the egg yolk lecithin (+) groups from day 4 of test meal feeding. The fecal consistency was no significant difference between the medium-chain triglycerides (-) and egg yolk lecithin (+) groups. Enteral formula emulsified with egg yolk lecithin promotes lipid absorption by preventing the destruction of emulsified substances by gastric acid. This enteral formula improved diarrhea and should reduce the burden on patients and healthcare workers.

  11. Growth assessment in Egyptian infants and children with chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ei-Deeb, Marwa T; Hamid, Dalia H Abdel

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the various growth parameters among patients presenting with chronic diarrhea and highlight the most common causes of chronic diarrhea among a sample of Egyptian infants and children. This cross-sectional study included 146 patients with chronic diarrhea. They were 87 males and 59 females, with age ranging between 2 and 198 months and a mean age of 27.3 +/- 34.5 months. Each patient was subjected to medical history taking including age of onset and duration of diarrhea, consistency of stools, presence of blood and mucus, vomiting with or without hematemesis, fever, allergic manifestations and family history of atopy. Dietetic history included milk feeding during the first 6 months and age of weaning and age of introduction of cow's milk products. Anthropometric measurements included weight and height and weight for height were assessed and z-scores were calculated using software WHO anthro v3.2.2. Laboratory investigations included stool analysis and culture, CBC and all other investigations necessary for diagnosis of the definite cause including RAST for specific IgE against cow's milk proteins, serology for celiac disease (anti-gliadin and anti tTG), Breath hydrogen test, endoscopy (colonoscopy or esophago-gastrodudenoscopy) and histopathologic assessment of endoscopic biopsies. CMA was diagnosed on basis of withdrawal and open re-challenge technique. Causes included chronic infections (40.4%), CMA (34.9%), celiac disease (10.3%), inflammatory bowel disease (6.8%) and lactose intolerance (3.4%). Rare causes were chronic non-specific diarrhea (1.3%), cystic fibrosis (0.7%), post-surgery short bowel syndrome (0.7%), neuroblastoma (0.7%) and IBS (0.7%).78.7% of patients enrolled in the study had a low WFA z-score (Infants with CMA had the lowest mean value of WFH z-score (-2.26 +/- 1.78).

  12. Surveillance of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrhea cases from children, adults and elderly at northwest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Canizalez-Roman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC strains are a main cause of gastrointestinal disease in developing countries. In this study we report the epidemiologic surveillance in a four-year period (January 2011 to December 2014 of DEC strains causing acute diarrhea throughout the Sinaloa State, Mexico. DEC strains were isolated from outpatients of all ages with acute diarrhea (N=1,037. Specific DEC pathotypes were identified by PCR-amplification of genes encoding virulence factors. The adhesion phenotype and antibiotic resistance were also investigated. DEC strains were detected in 23.3% (242/1037 of cases. The most frequently DEC strain isolated was EAEC (12.2%, 126/242 followed by EPEC (5.1%, 53/242, ETEC (4.3%, 43/242 DAEC (1.4%, 15/242, STEC (0.3%, 3/242 and EIEC (0.2%, 2/242. EHEC strains were not detected. Overall DEC strains were more prevalent in children ≤ 2 years of age with EPEC strains the most common of DEC pathotypes. While 65% of EAEC strains were classified as typical variant based on the aggregative adherence to in vitro cultures of HEp-2 cells, a high proportion of EPEC strains was classified as atypical strains. EAEC, EPEC, ETEC and DAEC strains were distributed in the north, central and south regions of Sinaloa state. Among all DEC strains, >90% were resistant to at least one commonly prescribed antibiotic. Strains were commonly resistant to first-line antibiotics such as tetracycline, ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. Furthermore, more than 80% of DEC isolates were multi-drug resistant and EPEC and DAEC were the categories with major proportion of this feature. In conclusion, in nearly one out of four cases of acute diarrhea in Northwestern Mexico a multi-drug resistant DEC strain was isolated, in these cases EAEC was the most prevalent (52% pathotype.

  13. A study to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility and impact of packaged interventions (“Diarrhea Pack”) for prevention and treatment of childhood diarrhea in rural Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Soofi, Sajid; Sadiq, Kamran; Samejo, Tariq; Hussain, Musawar; Mirani, Mushtaq; Rehmatullah, Asmatullah; Ahmed, Imran; Zulfiqar A. Bhutta

    2013-01-01

    Background Diarrhea remains one of the leading public health issues in developing countries and is a major contributor in morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Interventions such as ORS, Zinc, water purification and improved hygiene and sanitation can significantly reduce the diarrhea burden but their coverage remains low and has not been tested as packaged intervention before. This study attempts to evaluate the package of evidence based interventions in a “Diarrhea Pa...

  14. Search for Cytolethal Distending Toxin Production among Fecal Escherichia Coli Isolates from Brazilian Children with Diarrhea and without Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Lilian RM; Tavechio,Ana T; Abe, Cecilia Mari [UNIFESP; Gomes, Tania Aparecida Tardelli [UNIFESP

    2003-01-01

    The enteropathogenic role of cytolethal distending toxin-producing Escherichia coli was investigated by searching sequences homologous to the cdt genes of an O86 strain among 2,074 isolates from 200 children with acute diarrhea and 200 controls in Brazil. Only one (0.5%) diarrheic child and two (1.0%) nondiarrheic controls harbored cdt-positive isolates.

  15. Epidemiology of bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houe, H

    1995-11-01

    Prevalence studies around the world show that BVDV is widespread in most cattle raising countries. There are significant differences, however, in prevalence between areas, probably the result of differences in cattle population structure and management practice. Direct contact with PI animals is probably the most important method of transmission of infection; however, field studies have shown that some limited spread of infection also occurs in the absence of PI animals. This may be due to contact with acutely infected animals or contact with other species infected with BVDV. Different ways of indirect transmission such as contaminated needles and equipment have been proven experimentally, and indirect transmission is considered to have some importance. If a PI animal is introduced directly into a dairy herd, most animals will be infected within a few months. On many occasions, however, a herd gets infected by other means than direct introduction of PI animals. In these cases, the infection is often spread to only a few animals after which the infections stops. The infection is then reinforced when PI animals are born. Slow and hence prolonged spread of infection in herds without PI animals also has been described, but the mechanism is not fully understood. Family lines of PI animals delivering PI calves are fairly common and can cause the infection to continue for several years. The clinical manifestations, acute BVDV, reproductive disorders, birth of malformed, weak and undersized calves, unthrifty PI animals, and mucosal disease often appear within certain periods. Large variation, however, can occur between herd outbreaks due to variation in virulence of the BVDV strain, housing of the cattle, and variation in transmission patterns. The extensive transmission of infection from PI animals makes different surveillance methods possible. Thus testing of a screening sample of a few young stock of antibodies and determination of antibody titer in bulk milk will often

  16. Antibiogram of E. coli serotypes isolated from children aged under five with acute diarrhea in Bahir Dar town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, Ayrikim; Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh; Nibret, Endalkachew; Adal, Melaku

    2015-06-01

    Diarrheal disease and its complications remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children. The prevalence and antibiogram of E. coli as causative agents of diarrhea vary from region to region, and even within countries in the same geographical area. To determine the serotype and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli in children under-five years of age. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 children with diarrhea from December 2011 to February 2012. Identification of E. coli and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were done following standard procedures. The overall isolation rate of E. coli was 48.3%. Poly 2 sero-groups, poly 3 sero-groups, poly 4 sero-groups and E. coli O157:H7 accounted for 80 (39.2%), 40 (19.6%), 25 (12.3%), and 59 (28.9%) of the isolates, respectively. Poly 2 sero-groups, constituting isolates belonging to enteropathogenic E. coli were the most commonly isolated serotypes. E. coli exhibited high levels of antimicrobial resistance to ampicillin (86.8%), tetracycline (76%) and cotrimoxazole (76%). Low levels of resistance to ciprofloxacin (6.9%) and norfloxacin (9.3%) were documented. High prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli compounded by alarming antimicrobial resistances is a serious public health problem. Regular determination of antibiogram and public education are recommended.

  17. Seroprevalence of Bovine Herpes Virus-1, Bovine Herpes Virus-4 and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Dairy Cattle in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Elhassan*, M.A Fadol and A.M. El-Hussein

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine prevalence of antibodies against Bovine herpes virus-1 (BoHv-1, Bovine herpes virus-4 (BoHv-4 and Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD in dairy cattle in farms with reproductive problems in two areas in Sudan. Sera samples were collected from Khartoum state and central Sudan during 2005-2008 and analyzed using direct ELISA. The prevalence of antibodies was discussed with respect to age, season, sex, breed and locality BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in Khartoum state (51.7 and 50.4%, respectively while in central Sudan BoHv-1 (32.7% antibodies were the most prevalent followed by, BVD (25.7% and BoHv-4 (19.3%. The highest prevalence of antibodies against the three viruses in both areas was found during the rainy season (July to October. The prevalence of antibodies to viruses studied was significantly associated with female sex except for BoHv-1. Prevalence of antibodies to BoHv-4 was significantly associated with breed while those of BoHv-1 and BVD were not. The present results indicated that older cattle were more likely to be seropositive in case of BoHv-4 but to BoHv-1 or BVD viruses. Furthermore, it was found that BoHv-1 and BVD antibodies were highly prevalent in aborted dams. While, infertility problems were highly associated with BoHv-1 antibodies. BVD antibodies showed the highest prevalence in case of death after birth. The results of this study provide better understanding of viral epidemics of reproductive disorders and represent the first report of BoHv-4 antibodies in cattle in Sudan.

  18. Prevalence of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli in suckling rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) in suckling rabbit causes collibacillosis, which is characterized by sever yellow diarrhea, poor growth and high mortalities. This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of diarrheagenic E. coli in suckling rabbits in Egypt. Additionally, expression of some virulence-associated genes in the isolated E. coli serotypes were examined using the polymerase chain reaction. Finally, antibiogram of the identified E. coli serotypes was also investig...

  19. Probiotic Weisella paramesenteroides on enteropathogenic E. coli-induced diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslinar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC is a causative agent of intestinal inflammation and microfloral imbalance, leading to diarrhea. The presence of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in the feces is an indicator of inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. Dadih, (local made of fermented buffalo milk, contains probiotics and is widely consumed by the people in West Sumatera, Indonesia. Weisella paramesenteroides, a probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB, has been isolated from dadih and is believed to be useful for improving intestinal microflora balance and inhibiting the activity of harmful microbes. Objective To determine the efficacy of W. paramesenteroides administration in various doses and durations on bowel frequency, stool’s TNF-α levels, and intestinal microflora balance on mice with EPEC-induced diarrhea. Method This randomized experimental animal study examined two factors relating to the effects of W. paramesenteroides on induced diarrhea, namely doses of probiotics (factor A, and durations of observation (factor B. The subjects consisted of 100 male white mice (Mus musculus aged 8 weeks, with weights of 25-30 grams. The outcomes measured were bowel frequency, stool’s TNF-α levels, and the balance of intestinal microflora on mice with EPEC-induced diarrhea. Subjects were divided into 5 groups: the negative control group (received neither EPEC nor probiotic, positive control group (received only EPEC, and three experimental groups (received and different doses of W. paramesenteroides . Probiotics were given twice at the 12-hours and 24-hours for the experimental groups, while the durations of observation consisted of baseline, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours. Results After 36 hours, subjects with EPEC-induced diarrhea who received W. paramesenteroides administration in doses of 2x108 (A3, were found to have the largest decline of mean defecation (a 4.4-fold decline and the largest decline of stool’s mean TNF-α levels

  20. [Childhood diarrhea in rural Nicaragua: beliefs and traditional health practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, A C; Sánchez, G; Pauw, J; Pérez, R M; Sandiford, P; Smith, G D

    1995-11-01

    In Nicaragua, the principal cause of infant mortality is diarrhea, which is responsible for 40% of these deaths annually. This statistic reflects the low usage of health services and oral rehydration therapy (ORT). In an effort to improve the situation, several studies were carried out in Villa Carlos Fonseca municipio. This report describes two of those studies, one ethnographic and the other epidemiologic (conducted in 1989 and 1990, respectively), to find out beliefs and traditional health practices and their influence on the way in which mothers responded to their children's diarrheal illness. The ethnographic study involved interviewing 70 mothers with an average age of 28 years who had children under 2 years of age. The children represented two groups: one at high risk for diarrhea and the other at low risk. The objectives were to learn the traditional names for diarrhea, the perception of risk, and the treatments that were used. The epidemiologic study included 391 mothers over 14 years of age with one or more children under age 5 years, of whom 215 had had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. The objectives were to describe local beliefs and health practices and to determine the incidence of diarrheas according to the diagnosis made by the mothers. At least 12 types of diarrhea were identified, for which terms such as "empacho" and "sol de vista" were used. In most cases, the mothers had more confidence in folkloric treatments that they themselves or the traditional healers (curanderos) applied than in the services offered at health centers. This attitude limited their use of health services and ORT, although it was observed that in certain cases traditional treatments were used in combination with those of western medicine. There was a direct but nonsignificant correlation between the level of schooling of the mothers and the frequency with which they visited the health center. The authors suggest the effects of massages, herbal baths, and other

  1. Diarrhea outbreak during U.S. military training in El Salvador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Kasper

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhea remains a major risk to deployed military units worldwide in addition to their impact on travelers and populations living in the developing world. This report describes an outbreak of diarrheal illness in the U.S. military's 130(th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade deployed in San Vicente, El Salvador during a training and humanitarian assistance mission. An outbreak investigation team from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit-Six conducted an epidemiologic survey and environmental assessment, patient interviews, and collected stool samples for analysis in an at risk population of 287 personnel from May 31(st to June 3(rd, 2011. Personnel (n = 241 completed an epidemiological survey (87% response rate and 67 (27% reported diarrhea and/or vomiting during the past two weeks. The median duration of illness was reported to be 3 days (IQR 2-4 days and abdominal pain was reported among 30 (49% individuals. Presentation to the medical aid station was sought by (62% individuals and 9 (15% had to stop or significantly reduce work for at least one day. Microscopy and PCR analysis of 14 stool samples collected from previously symptomatic patients, Shigella (7, Cryptosporidium (5, and Cyclospora (4 were the most prevalent pathogens detected. Consumption of food from on-base local vendors (RR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.53-10.5, p-value <0.001 and arriving on base within the past two weeks (RR = 2.79, 95% confidence [CI] = 1.35-5.76, p-value = 0.001 were associated with increased risk of developing diarrheal disease. The risk of infectious diarrhea is great among reserve military personnel during two week training exercises. The consumption of local food, prepared without proper monitoring, is a risk factor for deployed personnel developing diarrheal illness. Additional information is needed to better understand disease risks to personnel conducting humanitarian assistance activities in the Latin America Region.

  2. [Risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea among cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Wang, Li; Feng, Shana; Wang, Shuai; Zheng, Cuiling; Wang, Jingzhi; Du, Chunxia; Feng, Yun; Li, Dan; Shi, Yuankai; Han, Xiaohong

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection and the risk factors for acquisition of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) among cancer patients who received chemotherapy or radiation therapy. We analyzed 277 stool samples from cancer patients with diarrhea between Sep 2010 and Dec 2011 in our hospital. Stool C. difficile toxin A/B test, stool culture for C. difficile and routine stool examination were performed. In addition, the risk factors for CDAD were investigated in a set of 41 C. difficile toxin-positive cancer patients and 82 matched C. difficile toxin-negative controls by univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Out of a total of 277 cancer patients with diarrhea, 41 (14.8%) were C. difficile toxin-positive. Among these 41 cases, 11 (26.8%, 11/41) were C. difficile culture-positive. Univariate analysis showed that antibiotics use (P = 0.853), proton pump inhibitor use (P = 0.718), hypoproteinemia (P = 0.139) and white blood cell count (P = 0.454) did not appear to be associated with acquisition of CDAD in cancer patients. However, receiving chemotherapy (P = 0.023), receiving radiotherapy (P = 0.003), a positive fecal occult blood test result (P = 0.005) and the presence of fecal leukocytes (P = 0.007) showed close association with acquisition of CDAD in cancer patients. Multivariate analysis showed that receiving chemotherapy (OR, 8.308; 95% CI, 1.997-34.572; P = 0.004) and a positive result of fecal occult blood test (OR, 8.475; 95% CI, 1.463-49.109; P = 0.017) were independent risk factors for acquisition of CDAD among cancer patients. Our results support that receiving chemotherapy and a positive fecal occult blood test result are independent risk factors for acquisition of CDAD among cancer patients. Cancer patients who are at high-risk for CDAD should take stool C. difficile toxin A/B test and stool culture for C. difficile regularly and prevention of CDAD.

  3. Diarrhea Outbreak during U.S. Military Training in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Matthew R.; Lescano, Andres G.; Lucas, Carmen; Gilles, Duncan; Biese, Brian J.; Stolovitz, Gary; Reaves, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea remains a major risk to deployed military units worldwide in addition to their impact on travelers and populations living in the developing world. This report describes an outbreak of diarrheal illness in the U.S. military’s 130th Maneuver Enhancement Brigade deployed in San Vicente, El Salvador during a training and humanitarian assistance mission. An outbreak investigation team from U.S. Naval Medical Research Unit – Six conducted an epidemiologic survey and environmental assessment, patient interviews, and collected stool samples for analysis in an at risk population of 287 personnel from May 31st to June 3rd, 2011. Personnel (n = 241) completed an epidemiological survey (87% response rate) and 67 (27%) reported diarrhea and/or vomiting during the past two weeks. The median duration of illness was reported to be 3 days (IQR 2–4 days) and abdominal pain was reported among 30 (49%) individuals. Presentation to the medical aid station was sought by (62%) individuals and 9 (15%) had to stop or significantly reduce work for at least one day. Microscopy and PCR analysis of 14 stool samples collected from previously symptomatic patients, Shigella (7), Cryptosporidium (5), and Cyclospora (4) were the most prevalent pathogens detected. Consumption of food from on-base local vendors (RR = 4.01, 95% CI = 1.53–10.5, p-value <0.001) and arriving on base within the past two weeks (RR = 2.79, 95% confidence [CI] = 1.35–5.76, p-value = 0.001) were associated with increased risk of developing diarrheal disease. The risk of infectious diarrhea is great among reserve military personnel during two week training exercises. The consumption of local food, prepared without proper monitoring, is a risk factor for deployed personnel developing diarrheal illness. Additional information is needed to better understand disease risks to personnel conducting humanitarian assistance activities in the Latin America Region. PMID:22815747

  4. Anonymous-address-resolution model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-jia SONG; Zhen-zhou JI

    2016-01-01

    Address-resolution protocol (ARP) is an important protocol of data link layers that aims to obtain the corresponding relationship between Internet Protocol (IP) and Media Access Control (MAC) addresses. Traditional ARPs (address-resolution and neighbor-discovery protocols) do not consider the existence of malicious nodes, which reveals destination addresses in the resolution process. Thus, these traditional protocols allow malicious nodes to easily carry out attacks, such as man-in-the-middle attack and denial-of-service attack. To overcome these weaknesses, we propose an anonymous-address-resolution (AS-AR) protocol. AS-AR does not publicize the destination address in the address-resolution process and hides the IP and MAC addresses of the source node. The malicious node cannot obtain the addresses of the destination and the node which initiates the address resolution; thus, it cannot attack. Analyses and experiments show that AS-AR has a higher security level than existing security methods, such as secure-neighbor discovery.

  5. Pneumobilia,chronic diarrhea,vitamin K malabsorption:A pathognomonic triad for cholecystocolonic fistulas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savvoula Savvidou; John Goulis; Alexandra Gantzarou; George Ilonidis

    2009-01-01

    Cholecystocolonic fistula (CF) is an uncommon type of internal biliary-enteric fistulas,which comprise rare complications of cholelithiasis and acute cholecystitis,with a prevalence of about 2% of all biliary tree diseases.We report a case of a spontaneous CF in a 75-year-old diabetic male admitted to hospital for the investigation of chronic watery diarrhea and weight loss.Massive pneumobilia demonstrated on abdominal ultrasound and computerized tomography,along with chronic,bile acid-induced diarrhea and a prolonged prothrombin time due to vitamin K malabsorption,led to the clinical suspicion of the fistula.Despite further investigation with barium enema and magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography,diagnosis of the fistulous tract between the gallbladder and the hepatic flexure of the colon could not be established preoperatively.Open cholecystectomy with fistula resection and exploration of the common bile duct was the preferred treatment of choice,resulting in an excellent postoperative clinical course.The incidence of biliary-enteric fistulas is expected to increase due to the parallel increase of iatrogenic interventions to the biliary tree with the use of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography and the increased rate of cholecystectomies performed.Taking into account that advanced imaging techniques fail to demonstrate the fistulas tract in half of the cases,and that CFs usually present with non-specific symptoms,our report could assist physicians to keep a high index of clinical suspicion for an early and valid diagnosis of a CF.

  6. Enteric Pathogens in Stored Drinking Water and on Caregiver’s Hands in Tanzanian Households with and without Reported Cases of Child Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Mia Catharine; Boehm, Alexandria B.; Davis, Jennifer; Harris, Angela R.; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Pickering, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of mortality in young children. Diarrheal pathogens are transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and for children the majority of this transmission is thought to occur within the home. However, very few studies have documented enteric pathogens within households of low-income countries. Methods and Findings The presence of molecular markers for three enteric viruses (enterovirus, adenovirus, and rotavirus), seven Escherichia coli virulence genes (ECVG), and human-specific Bacteroidales was assessed in hand rinses and household stored drinking water in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Using a matched case-control study design, we examined the relationship between contamination of hands and water with these markers and child diarrhea. We found that the presence of ECVG in household stored water was associated with a significant decrease in the odds of a child within the home having diarrhea (OR = 0.51; 95% confidence interval 0.27–0.93). We also evaluated water management and hygiene behaviors. Recent hand contact with water or food was positively associated with detection of enteric pathogen markers on hands, as was relatively lower volumes of water reportedly used for daily hand washing. Enteropathogen markers in stored drinking water were more likely found among households in which the markers were also detected on hands, as well as in households with unimproved water supply and sanitation infrastructure. Conclusions The prevalence of enteric pathogen genes and the human-specific Bacteroidales fecal marker in stored water and on hands suggests extensive environmental contamination within homes both with and without reported child diarrhea. Better stored water quality among households with diarrhea indicates caregivers with sick children may be more likely to ensure safe drinking water in the home. Interventions to increase the quantity of water available for hand washing, and to improve food hygiene, may reduce exposure to

  7. Enteric pathogens in stored drinking water and on caregiver's hands in Tanzanian households with and without reported cases of child diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Mia Catharine; Boehm, Alexandria B; Davis, Jennifer; Harris, Angela R; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Pickering, Amy J

    2014-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of mortality in young children. Diarrheal pathogens are transmitted via the fecal-oral route, and for children the majority of this transmission is thought to occur within the home. However, very few studies have documented enteric pathogens within households of low-income countries. The presence of molecular markers for three enteric viruses (enterovirus, adenovirus, and rotavirus), seven Escherichia coli virulence genes (ECVG), and human-specific Bacteroidales was assessed in hand rinses and household stored drinking water in Bagamoyo, Tanzania. Using a matched case-control study design, we examined the relationship between contamination of hands and water with these markers and child diarrhea. We found that the presence of ECVG in household stored water was associated with a significant decrease in the odds of a child within the home having diarrhea (OR = 0.51; 95% confidence interval 0.27-0.93). We also evaluated water management and hygiene behaviors. Recent hand contact with water or food was positively associated with detection of enteric pathogen markers on hands, as was relatively lower volumes of water reportedly used for daily hand washing. Enteropathogen markers in stored drinking water were more likely found among households in which the markers were also detected on hands, as well as in households with unimproved water supply and sanitation infrastructure. The prevalence of enteric pathogen genes and the human-specific Bacteroidales fecal marker in stored water and on hands suggests extensive environmental contamination within homes both with and without reported child diarrhea. Better stored water quality among households with diarrhea indicates caregivers with sick children may be more likely to ensure safe drinking water in the home. Interventions to increase the quantity of water available for hand washing, and to improve food hygiene, may reduce exposure to enteric pathogens in the domestic environment.

  8. ROLE OF PROBIOTICS IN PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF ANTIBIOTIC-ASSOCIATED DIARRHEA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Surkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous scientific studies have proved an important role of microbiota in maintaining adequate functioning of the macroorganism and thrown light upon the various issues associated with functional disturbances. Thus, one of the most common causes of intestinal dysbiosis in children is antibiotic therapy, in the setting whereof antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD associated with, but not limited to, pathological activity of Clostridium difficile byproducts — enterotoxin (toxin A, cytotoxin (toxin B and intestinal peristalsis-inhibiting protein — may develop. However, there are only few published research data on AAD prevalence in children all over the world, which is why it appears impossible to assess the large scale of the problem. That is why it is absolutely necessary to continuously upgrade perception of the role of normal microbiota, etiological factors inducing pathological alterations thereof and approaches to correction of dysbiotic disorders by various medical specialists. Analysis of the current scientific literature demonstrated that AAD prevalence in children varies from 6.2 to 80% depending on the country. The most common (23% cause of AAD is associated with amoxicillin/clavulanate intake. Moreover, there are data indicating that the AAD development risk is the highest in under-2 children.At the same time, there are data on the protective effect of probiotics, especially of the complex drugs containing a balancedcombination of bifidus and lactic bacteria, on microbiota. 

  9. commu ity's aware ess about i testi al schistosomiasis ad the prevale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    intestinal schistosomiasis as well as the prevalence of the disease in two rural communities of Ethiopia. METHODS: In .... depend on river/stream water for everyday activities such as washing .... bloody diarrhea is a common symptom of Bilharzia; out of whom, 20 (8 ... alternatives as well as low impact of the disease on their.

  10. Genome Sequence of a Canine Parvovirus Strain, CPV-s5, Prevalent in Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yiping; Huang, Yongliang; Wang, Yifei; Chen, Keren; Niu, Xuefeng; Luo, Yongwen; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-09

    A prevalent new field canine parvovirus type-2a (CPV-2a) strain, CPV-s5, was isolated from the feces of a dog with diarrhea in Shenzhen, China. The genome of CPV-s5 was determined and analyzed, which will facilitate further study of the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of CPV-2 field isolates in southern China.

  11. Prevalence of rotavirus among children under five years of age with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-16

    Aug 16, 2016 ... Diarrheal disease kills 1.8 million children under five years of age yearly.1 It is the ... A prevalence rate of 36.5% reported in a previous study by Wada-Kura15 was ..... Rotavirus diarrhea in Bangladesh children: correlation of ...

  12. Experimental infection of reindeer with bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Morton

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Two 8-month reindeer (Rangifer tarandus and a 1-month-old Hereford-Holstein calf (Bos taurus were inoculated intranasally with the Singer (cytopathogenic strain of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD virus. Clinical signs in reindeer included loose stools containing blood and mucus, and transient laminitis or coronitis. Signs in the calf were limited to bloody mucus in the stool and lesions in the nasal mucosa. Antibody titers to BVD virus in the reindeer were intermittent, and titers in the calf persisted from days 14 to 63 post-inoculation (PI. Viremia was detected on PI day 4 in one reindeer, days 3-7 in the other, and days 2-7 in the calf. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from the lung of the calf at necropsy (PI day 63.

  13. Molecular diagnosis of infectious diarrhea: focus on enteric protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkerke, Hans P; Sobuz, Shihab U; Petri, William A

    2014-11-01

    Robust detection of enteric protozoa is a critical step toward determining the etiology of diarrhea. Widespread use of conventional microscopy, culturing and antigen detection in both industrial and developing countries is limited by relatively low sensitivity and specificity. Refinements of these conventional approaches that reduce turnaround time and instrumentation have yielded strong alternatives for clinical and research use. However, advances in molecular diagnostics for protozoal, bacterial, viral and helminth infections offer significant advantages in studies seeking to understand pathogenesis, transmission and long-term consequences of infectious diarrhea. Quantitation of enteropathogen burden and highly multiplexed platforms for molecular detection dramatically improve predictive power in emerging models of diarrheal etiology, while eliminating the expense of multiple tests.

  14. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea after living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masao Hashimoto; Yasuhiko Sugawara; Sumihito Tamura; Junichi Kaneko; Yuichi Matsui; Junichi Togashi; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To assess the incidence and analyze the risk factors for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD)after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) in adult.METHODS: The micobiological data and medical records of 242 adult recipients that underwent LDLT at the Tokyo University Hospital were analyzed retrospectively. The independent risk factors for postoperative CDAD were identified.RESULTS: Postoperative CDAD occurred in 11 (5%)patients. Median onset of CDAD was postoperative d 19(range, 5-54). In the multivariate analyses, male gender (odds ratio, 4.56) and serum creatinine (≥ 1.5 mg/dL,odds ratio, 16.0) independently predicted postoperative CDAD.CONCLUSION: CDAD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with postoperative diarrhea after LDLT.

  15. Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Induces Autophagy to Benefit Its Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Guo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The new porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED has caused devastating economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Despite extensive research on the relationship between autophagy and virus infection, the concrete role of autophagy in porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV infection has not been reported. In this study, autophagy was demonstrated to be triggered by the effective replication of PEDV through transmission electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and Western blot analysis. Moreover, autophagy was confirmed to benefit PEDV replication by using autophagy regulators and RNA interference. Furthermore, autophagy might be associated with the expression of inflammatory cytokines and have a positive feedback loop with the NF-κB signaling pathway during PEDV infection. This work is the first attempt to explore the complex interplay between autophagy and PEDV infection. Our findings might accelerate our understanding of the pathogenesis of PEDV infection and provide new insights into the development of effective therapeutic strategies.

  16. CONTENT-ADDRESSABLE MEMORY SYSTEMS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The utility of content -addressable memories (CAM’s) within a general purpose computing system is investigated. Word cells within CAM may be...addressed by the character of all or a part of cell contents . Multimembered sets of word cells may be addressed simultaneously. The distributed logical...capabilities of CAM are extended to allow simultaneous transformation of multimembered sets and to allow communication between neighboring word cells. A

  17. Nosocomial transmission of rotavirus from patients admitted with diarrhea.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaggero, A.; Avendaño, L F; Fernández, J.; Spencer, E.

    1992-01-01

    We studied the transmission of rotavirus (RV) in 950 patients under 2 years of age hospitalized for diarrhea in Santiago, Chile. Stool samples were collected every other day from all patients during their entire hospital stay. To trace nosocomial transmission, we mapped the ward at the time of detection of RV. Comparative study by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of 315 RV isolates (180 detected upon admission of patients and 135 attributed to nosocomial transmission) allowed the identifica...

  18. Acute diarrhea | EU Clinical Trials Register [EU Clinical Trials Register

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ermina)Versus ORT Alone, Administered for 5 Days With the Treatment of Acute Diarrhea in Children A.3.1Title...on or disease under investigation E.1.1Medical condition(s) being investigated Acute...tigation E.1.2Version 17.1 E.1.2Level LLT E.1.2Classification code 10000706 E.1.2Term Acute

  19. Cytomegalovirus-associated colitis causing diarrhea in an immunocompetent patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Carter; David Olchovsky; Russell Pokroy; David Ezra

    2006-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of disabling and life threatening diarrhea in an immunocompetent elderly woman due to CMV colitis. The diagnosis of CMV was based on histological examination of tissues biopsied at colonoscopy, positive CMV antigen and high CMV-IgM titer in peripheral blood samples and a good response to systemic gancyclovir treatment.We conclude that CMV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of colitis in elderly immunocompetent patients.

  20. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in dialysis patients ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Sook Eui Oh; Seung Min Lee; Young-Ki Lee; Sun Ryoung Choi; Myung-Jin Choi; Jwa-Kyung Kim; Young Rim Song; Soo Jin Kim; Tae Jin Park; Sung Gyun Kim; Jieun Oh; Jang Won Suh; Jong-Woo Yoon; Ja-Ryong Koo; Hyung Jik Kim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dialysis patients have impaired host defense mechanisms and frequently require antibiotics for various infective complications. In this study, we investigated whether dialysis patients have greater risk for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD). Methods: During the 4-year study period (2004–2008), 85 patients with CDAD were identified based on a retrospective review of C difficile toxin assay or histology records. Nosocomial diarrheal patients without CDAD were consi...

  1. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  2. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  3. Modeling diarrhea disease in children less than 5 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Pauline Lorena; Hinde, John Philip; Nobre, Flávio Fonseca

    2004-07-01

    Identification of the temporal pattern of diarrhea disease in children less than 5 years of age in Rio de Janeiro City (1995-1998) to provide support for decisions about prevention and control of the disease. The weekly counts of hospitalizations and deaths due to diarrhea disease were analyzed separately. An initial generalized linear model (GLM) was derived using variables related to weather and month. Displays of fitted generalized additive models (GAM) including a spline smoothed function of time suggested additional predictors that were used to obtain new models. The initial models did not properly account for the observed cyclical pattern of the data. Graphical displays of the GAM model show a nonhomogeneous decline and annual cycles. Stepwise fitting of GLMs with two factors (cycle and season), and a time trend, showed that the full three-way interaction model was required. Plots of the residuals from the death model suggested a mixture of distributions while the residuals from the hospitalization model were approximately normal. The same general pattern for both time series was found by graphical inspection and fitting of appropriate GLMs. This study provides some additional evidence that severe cases of diarrhea disease may be attributed to rotavirus.

  4. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection: Etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and immunoprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kwonil; Saif, Linda J

    2015-05-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a member of the genera Alphacoronavirus in the family Coronaviridae, causes acute diarrhea/vomiting, dehydration and high mortality in seronegative neonatal piglets. For the last three decades, PEDV infection has resulted in significant economic losses in the European and Asian pig industries, but in 2013-2014 the disease was also reported in the US, Canada and Mexico. The PED epidemic in the US, from April 2013 to the present, has led to the loss of more than 10% of the US pig population. The disappearance and re-emergence of epidemic PED indicates that the virus is able to escape from current vaccination protocols, biosecurity and control systems. Endemic PED is a significant problem, which is exacerbated by the emergence (or potential importation) of multiple PEDV variants. Epidemic PEDV strains spread rapidly and cause a high number of pig deaths. These strains are highly enteropathogenic and acutely infect villous epithelial cells of the entire small and large intestines although the jejunum and ileum are the primary sites. PEDV infections cause acute, severe atrophic enteritis accompanied by viremia that leads to profound diarrhea and vomiting, followed by extensive dehydration, which is the major cause of death in nursing piglets. A comprehensive understanding of the pathogenic characteristics of epidemic or endemic PEDV strains is needed to prevent and control the disease in affected regions and to develop an effective vaccine. This review focuses on the etiology, epidemiology, disease mechanisms and pathogenesis as well as immunoprophylaxis against PEDV infection.

  5. Isolation and antibiotic sensitivity of Aeromonas from children with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiyanti Meiyanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas species are gram-negative, motile, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped, oxidase positive bacteria of the recently assigned family Aeromonadaceae. The significance of Aeromonas species as causative agent of human diarrhoea has recently been established. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution, and antibiotic sensitivity of Aeromonas in nonhospitalized children with diarrhea.One hundred and seventeen rectal swabs from children with diarhhea were cultured for isolation of Aeromonas organisms as the etiological agents. In addition to Aeromonas, other enteric pathogens were also isolated. Overall, the isolates of enteric pathogens amounted to 36.8%, consisting of Salmonella, Shigella, Aeromonas, and Vibrio. Aeromonas was only found in 5.1% of cultures, with a ratio of A. caviae and A. hydrophila of 2:1, while Salmonella made up the majority of causative organisms with an isolation frequency of 18.8%, followed by Shigella with 11.1%. In this study no isolates of Vibrio cholerae O1 were found as etiological agents of diarrhea; however, V. cholerae non-O1 and V. parahaemolyticus were found in small numbers (<1%. All isolates of Aeromonas were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, but sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone, as were the other enteric pathogens. Although the frequency of isolation of these enteric pathogens was higher than for Vibrio spp., their role in infective diarrhea was less clearcut in comparison with Salmonella and Shigella.

  6. Solanum paniculatum root extract reduces diarrhea in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonh A.B. Tenório

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Solanum paniculatum L., Solanaceae, locally known as "jurubeba", is widely used in Brazil for culinary purposes, and in folk medicine to treat of diverse disorder including gastric dysfunctions. In this study we investigated the antidiarrheal activity of S. paniculatum roots extract in rats at different concentrations (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o using different experimental models such as castor oil-induced diarrhea, enteropooling and gastrointestinal motility, determined by in vivo experimental models. The major compound of root extract was characterized as chlorogenic acid based in the IR, 1D and 2D NMR analysis. All the extract doses achieved antidiarrheal potency, as indicated by reduced weight of feces in castor oil-induced diarrhea, decreased intestinal motility and significantly inhibited castor oil-induced enteropooling compared to the vehicle group. The highest dose (500 mg/kg produced greater anti-motility effect and better reduction of enteropooling, similar to the reference drug Loperamide (5 mg/kg. Extract from S. paniculatum L. roots had antidiarrheal activity, as shown by the lower weight of the feces as well as decrease in the accumulation of intestinal fluid and slower transit, justifying the traditional use of plant for diarrhea.

  7. Case-control study of pathogens involved in piglet diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Vera L A; Bersano, Josete G; Carvalho, Aline F; Catroxo, Márcia H B; Chiebao, Daniela P; Gregori, Fábio; Miyashiro, Simone; Nassar, Alessandra F C; Oliveira, Trícia M F S; Ogata, Renato A; Scarcelli, Eliana P; Tonietti, Paloma O

    2016-01-11

    Diarrhea in piglets directly affects commercial swine production. The disease results from the interaction of pathogens with the host immune system and is also affected by management procedures. Several pathogenic agents such as Campylobacter spp., Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., group A rotavirus (RV-A), coronaviruses (transmissible gastroenteritis virus; porcine epidemic diarrhea virus), as well as nematode and protozoan parasites, can be associated with disease cases. All bacterial, viral, protozoan, and parasitic agents here investigated, with the exception of Salmonella spp. as well as both coronaviruses, were detected in varying proportions in piglet fecal samples, and positive animals were equally distributed between case and control groups. A statistically significant difference between case and control groups was found only for Cystoisospora suis (p = 0.034) and Eimeria spp. (p = 0.047). When co-infections were evaluated, a statistically significant difference was found only for C. perfringens β2 and C. suis (p = 0.014). The presence of pathogens in piglets alone does not determine the occurrence of diarrhea episodes. Thus, the indiscriminate use of antibiotic and anthelminthic medication should be re-evaluated. This study also reinforces the importance of laboratory diagnosis and correct interpretation of results as well as the relevance of control and prophylactic measures.

  8. Application of Xiyanping in treatment of infantile rotavirus diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Xiong Tang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To observe the application effect of Xiyanping in the treatment of infantile rotavirus diarrhea.Methods:A total of 80 children with rotavirus diarrhea who were admitted in our hospital from January, 2014 to April, 2015 were included in the study and randomized into the treatment group and the control group with 40 cases in each group. The patients in the two groups were given ribavirin 10 mg/kg.d, iv drip, qd. On this basis, the patients in the treatment group were given additional Xiyanping injection 7.5 mg/kg, iv drip, qd. The symptom and sign relieving time and temperature reduced degree after treatment in the two groups were compared. The serum BDNF, NGF, and NTF levels in the two groups were detected.Results:The treatment total effective rate in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group (P<0.05). The symptom and sign relieving time in the treatment group was significantly shorter than that in the control group (P<0.05), and the temperature recovering degree was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05). The serum BDNF, NGF, and NTF levels after treatment in the treatment group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions: Xiyanping in combined with ribavirin in the treatment of infantile rotavirus diarrhea can effectively relieve the symptoms and signs, and protect the neurological function, with efficacy superior to that by pure ribavirin treatment.

  9. SAffold viruses in pediatric patients with diarrhea in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn; Khamrin, Pattara; Chuchaona, Watchaporn; Saikruang, Wilaiporn; Malasao, Rungnapa; Chaimongkol, Natthawan; Kongsricharoern, Tipachan; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Maneekarn, Niwat

    2015-04-01

    Saffold virus (SAFV) is a newly discovered human virus which is classified into the genus Cardiovirus of the family Picornaviridae. A total of 608 fecal specimens collected during January 2012 to December 2013 from children with diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand were investigated for SAFV by RT-nested PCR and sequence analysis. Of these, nine out of 608 (1.5%) were positive for SAFVs and four genotypes were identified, SAFV1, SAFV2, SAFV3, and SAFV4. SAFV mono-infection was found in five cases (CMH-S038-12, CMH-S071-12, CMH-S102-12, CMH-N029-12, and CMH-S048-13), while co-infection with other viruses causing diarrhea was observed in four cases (CMH-S021-12, CMH-S115-12, CMH-N048-13 and CMH-N103-13). This study provides more information about the genetic background of SAFV circulating in pediatric patients with diarrhea in Thailand. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Probiotic Weisella paramesenteroides on enteropathogenic E. coli-induced diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslinar Aslinar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC is a causative agent of intestinal inflammation and microfloral imbalance, leading to diarrhea. The presence of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α in the feces is an indicator of inflammation in the intestinal mucosa. Dadih, (local made of fermented buffalo milk, contains probiotics and is widely consumed by the people in West Sumatera, Indonesia. Weisella paramesenteroides, a probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB, has been isolated from dadih and is believed to be useful for improving intestinal microflora balance and inhibiting the activity of harmful microbes. Objective To determine the efficacy of W. paramesenteroides administration in various doses and durations on bowel frequency, stool’s TNF-α levels, and intestinal microflora balance on mice with EPEC-induced diarrhea. Method This randomized experimental animal study examined two factors relating to the effects of W. paramesenteroides on EPEC-induced diarrhea, namely doses of probiotics (factor A, and durations of observation (factor B. The subjects consisted of 100 male white mice (Mus musculus aged 8 weeks, with weights of 25-30 grams. The outcomes measured were bowel frequency, stool’s TNF-α levels, and the balance of intestinal microflora on mice with EPEC-induced diarrhea.  Subjects were divided into 5 groups: the negative control group (received neither EPEC nor probiotic, positive control group (received only EPEC, and three experimental groups (received EPEC and different doses of W. paramesenteroides . Probiotics were given twice at the 12-hours and 24-hours for the experimental groups, while the durations of observation conssited of baseline, 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours. Results After 36 hours, subjects with EPEC-induced diarrhea who received W. Paramesenteroides administration in doses of 2 x 108 (A3, were found to have the largest decline of mean defecation (a 4.4-fold decline and the largest decline of stool’s mean

  11. A study to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility and impact of packaged interventions ("Diarrhea Pack") for prevention and treatment of childhood diarrhea in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Muhammad Atif; Soofi, Sajid; Sadiq, Kamran; Samejo, Tariq; Hussain, Musawar; Mirani, Mushtaq; Rehmatullah, Asmatullah; Ahmed, Imran; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-10-03

    Diarrhea remains one of the leading public health issues in developing countries and is a major contributor in morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Interventions such as ORS, Zinc, water purification and improved hygiene and sanitation can significantly reduce the diarrhea burden but their coverage remains low and has not been tested as packaged intervention before. This study attempts to evaluate the package of evidence based interventions in a "Diarrhea Pack" through first level health care providers at domiciliary level in community based settings. This study sought to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility and impact of diarrhea Pack on diarrhea burden. A cluster randomized design was used to evaluate the objectives of the project a union council was considered as a cluster for analysis, a total of eight clusters, four in intervention and four in control were included in the study. We conducted a baseline survey in all clusters followed by the delivery of diarrhea Pack in intervention clusters through community health workers at domiciliary level and through sales promoters to health care providers and pharmacies. Four quarterly surveillance rounds were conducted to evaluate the impact of diarrhea pack in all clusters by an independent team of Field workers. Both the intervention and control clusters were similar at the baseline but as the study progress we found a significant increase in uptake of ORS and Zinc along with the reduction in antibiotic use, diarrhea burden and hospitalization in intervention clusters when compared with the control clusters. We found that the Diarrhea Pack was well accepted with all of its components in the community. The intervention was well accepted and had a productive impact on the uptake of ORS and zinc and reduction in the use of antibiotics. It is feasible to deliver interventions such as diarrhea pack through community health workers in community settings. The intervention has the potential to be

  12. Diarrea funcional como causa de diarrea crónica Functional diarrhea as cause of chronic diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trini Fragoso Arbelo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La diarrea funcional se presenta con frecuencia en la práctica pediátrica, y generalmente no se asocia a alteraciones nutricionales, pero sí a esquemas dietéticos incorrectos. Se actualiza su importancia clínica, se hace énfasis en la patogenia, diagnóstico y en los métodos de tratamiento. Consideramos que es la causa más frecuente de diarrea crónica inespecífica, y que el interrogatorio dirigido según los criterios de Roma es útil para su diagnóstico. La mayoría de los pacientes con esta enfermedad en la infancia deben ser tratados en la atención primaria.The functional diarrhea is frequent in the pediatric practice and in general it is not associated with nutritional alterations, but to incorrect dietary schemes. Its clinical significance is updated and its pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment methods are emphasized. Authors considered that the functional diarrhea is the more frequent cause of unspecific chronic diarrhea and the questioning directed according the Rome criteria is very useful for its diagnosis. Most of patients presenting with this disease during childhood must to be treated in primary care services.

  13. The Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Characteritics of Rotavirus VP4(P Genotypes in Children With Acute Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haghshenas Z

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute gastroenteritis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. Rotaviruses are recognized as the most common etiologic factors of gastroenteritis. In this study, we determined the epidemiologic features, clinical symptoms and molecular structure of rotavirus VP4(P genotypes in children with acute diarrhea in Bahrami Hospital in Tehran Iran, during 2009 for justifying the routine use of rotavirus vaccines in children. Methods: One hundred fifty fecal samples from 150 children with acute diarrhea in Bahrami Pediatric Hospital in Tehran, Iran were collected from January to December 2009. The patients’ mean age was 20.90+18.19 years (ranging from 1 month to 14 years. Fecal samples were transported on ice to the laboratory of virology department of Pasture Institute of Iran. The demographic and clinical data for each case were entered in an author-devised questionnaire. Group A rotavirus was detected by dsRNA-PAGE. Subsequently, rotavirus genotyping (VP4 was performed by semi-nested multiple RT-PCR and the phylogenetic tree of the Rotavirus nucleotides was constructed. The data were analyzed by statistical tests including Wilcoxon signed and Mann-Whitney U. Results: Rotavirus was isolated in 19.3% of the samples, more than 90% of which had long RNA patterns. The predominant genotype (VP4 was P[8] (86% and other genotypes respectively were P[6] (6.9% and P[4] (6.9%. Conclusion: A high prevalence of the P[8] genotype was found to be the cause of acute diarrhea. The analysis of P[8] genotype sequence showed a high level of similarity of the virus in this study with those of other Asian countries.

  14. The gut at war: the consequences of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection as a factor of diarrhea and malnutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses Fagundes-Neto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal disease is still the most prevalent and important public health problem in developing countries, despite advances in knowledge, understanding, and management that have occurred over recent years. Diarrhea is the leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age. The impact of diarrheal diseases is more severe in the earliest periods of life, when taking into account both the numbers of episodes per year and hospital admission rates. This narrative review focuses on one of the major driving forces that attack the host, namely the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC and the consequences that generate malnutrition in an early phase of life. EPEC serotypes form dense microcolonies on the surface of tissue-culture cells in a pattern known as localized adherence (LA. When EPEC strains adhere to epithelial cells in vitro or in vivo they cause characteristic changes known as Attaching and Effacement (A/E lesions. Surface abnormalities of the small intestinal mucosa shown by scanning electron microscopy in infants with persistent diarrhea, although non-specific, are intense enough to justify the severity of the clinical aspects displayed in a very young phase in life. Decrease in number and height of microvilli, blunting of borders of enterocytes, loss of the glycocalyx, shortening of villi and presence of a mucus pseudomembrane coating the mucosal surface were the abnormalities observed in the majority of patients. These ultrastructural derangements may be due to an association of the enteric enteropathogenic agent that triggers the diarrheic process and the onset of food intolerance responsible for perpetuation of diarrhea. An aggressive therapeutic approach based on appropriate nutritional support, especially the utilization of human milk and/or lactose-free protein hydrolyzate-based formulas and the adequate correction of the fecal losses, is required to allow complete recovery from the damage caused by this devastating

  15. Use of multiplex real-time PCR for detection of common diarrhea causing protozoan parasites in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, John T; El Sayed Khalifa, Khalifa; von Thien, Heidrun; El-Sibaei, Mahmoud Mohamed; Abdel-Hamid, Magda Youssef; Tawfik, Ranya Ayman Samir; Tannich, Egbert

    2013-02-01

    Diarrhea is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, worldwide. Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba histolytica are the most common diarrhea-causing parasitic protozoa. Diagnosis of these parasites is usually performed by microscopy. However, microscopy lacks sensitivity and specificity. Replacing microscopy with more sensitive and specific nucleic acid based methods is hampered by the higher costs, in particular in developing countries. Multiplexing the detection of more than one parasite in a single test by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been found to be very effective and would decrease the cost of the test. In the present study, stool samples collected from 396 Egyptian patients complaining of diarrhea along with 202 faecal samples from healthy controls were examined microscopically by direct smear method and after concentration using formol-ethyl acetate. Frozen portions of the same samples were tested by multiplex real-time for simultaneous detection of E. histolytica, G. intestinalis, and Cryptosporidium spp. The results indicate that among diarrheal patients in Egypt G. intestinalis is the most common protozoan parasite, with prevalence rates of 30.5 and 37.1 %, depending on the method used (microscopy vs. multiplex real-time PCR). Cryptosporidium spp. was detected in 1 % of the diarrheal patients by microscopy and in 3 % by real-time PCR. While E. histolytica/dispar was detected in 10.8 % by microscopy, less than one fifth of them (2 %) were found true positive for Entamoeba dispar by real-time PCR. E. histolytica DNA was not detected in any of the diarrheal patients. In comparison with multiplex real-time PCR, microscopy exhibited many false positive and negative cases with the three parasites giving sensitivities and specificities of 100 and 91 % for E. histolytica/dispar, 57.8 and 85.5 % for G. intestinalis, and 33.3 and 100 % for Cryptosporidium spp.

  16. A Case Report of Fungal Diarrhea in a Preweaned Calf in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azimpour

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Diarrhea is the most common cause of death in neonatal calves. The most important agents of diarrhea in young calves include bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Only limited attention has been paid to the role of fungi in calves’ diarrhea. Case Presentation We report on a neonatal calf with fungal diarrhea caused by Candida albicans. The calf has had dysentery in the previous 10 days despite good appetite. The calf was then treated with oxytetracycline tabulations for 5 days. Conclusions Yeasts and molds are sometimes associated with lesions in the stomach or intestines of scouring calves, but there is very limited information about their role in calf diarrhea. In this study, C. albicans was isolated in a 15-day-old dysenteric calf. These organisms are not a primary cause of diarrhea in calves, but like in children, they are possibly opportunistic pathogens that proliferate and invade the intestinal mucosa following antibiotic therapy.

  17. The Effect of Probiotics on Diarrhea in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenov, Benedikte

    hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included number of days with diarrhea during outpatient treatment, diarrhea incidence, diarrhea severity according to the Vesikari scale, fever, vomit, pneumonia, weight gain and nutritional recovery. All outcomes were analyzed separately for in- and outpatient treatment......-seropositive. There was no effect of probiotics on days with diarrhea during inpatient treatment (adjusted difference +0.2 days [95% CI -0.8; 1.2], p=0.69). However a reduction in days with diarrhea was found in the probiotic group during outpatient treatment (adjusted difference -2.2 days [95% CI -3.5; -0.3], p=0.......025). There was no difference between the probiotic and placebo groups with regard to diarrhea incidence and severity, vomiting, fever, pneumonia, weight gain or nutritional recovery. Fortysix patients died, with 26 patients from the probiotic group and 20 patients from the placebo group (p=0.38). Caregivers understood...

  18. Childhood diarrhea in high and low hotspot districts of Amhara Region, northwest Ethiopia: a multilevel modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Azage, Muluken; Kumie, Abera; Worku, Alemayehu; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood diarrhea is one of the major public health problems in Ethiopia. Multiple factors at different levels contribute to the occurrence of childhood diarrhea. The objective of the study was to identify the factors affecting childhood diarrhea at individual and community level. Methods A cross-sectional study design was employed from February to March 2015 in high and low hotspot districts of Awi and West and East Gojjam zones in Amhara Region, northwest Ethiopia. Districts wit...

  19. Acute Rotavirus-Induced Diarrhea in Children: Clinical Picture, Diagnosis, Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Niankovskyi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the current aspects of epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical picture and treatment of acute rotavirus-induced diarrhea in children. There are presented the basic thesis of ESPGHAN consensus (2014 about acute diarrheas. There was analyzed the effectiveness of probiotic Subalin producing interferon for the treatment of acute rotavirus-induced diarrhea. It was demonstrated its effectiveness according to the literature review and own data.

  20. Effective prophylaxis against rotavirus diarrhea using a combination of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, Neha; Marcotte, Harold; Brüssow, Harald; Svensson, Lennart; Hammarström, Lennart

    2007-01-01

    Background Rotavirus is a worldwide cause of infectious infantile diarrhea that claims over 600,000 lives annually. Recently, two new vaccine candidates have been developed but their efficacy in developing countries, still remains to be proven. Oral delivery of specific immunoglobulins provides passive immunity and is a fast acting treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Probiotic bacteria have also gained considerable attention lately as treatment for rotavirus diarrhea. Here we report an evaluati...

  1. Assessment of chronic diarrhea in early infancy in Tehran Tertiary Care Center; Tehran-Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farzaneh Motamed; Naheid Kazemi; Raheleh Nabavizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic diarrhea of infancy is a heterogeneous syndrome that includes several diseases with different etiologies. The aim of this study was investigating chronic diarrhea, its etiologies, clinical features and outcomes in infancy.Materials and Methods Retrospective study investigating infants hospitalized in the gastroenterology department of Tehran tertiary care center.The main demographic data, etiology, characteristics of diarrhea, and outcome were evaluated. Data were analyze...

  2. Translating Molecular Physiology of Intestinal Transport into Pharmacologic Treatment of Diarrhea: Stimulation of Na+ Absorption

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Varsha; Yang, Jianbo; Chen, Tiane-e; Zachos, Nick; Kovbasnjuk, Olga; Verkman, Alan; Donowitz, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in developing countries while representing an important cause of morbidity worldwide. The WHO recommended low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions plus zinc save lives in patients with acute diarrhea1, but there are no approved, safe drugs which have been shown to be effective against most causes of acute diarrhea. Identification of abnormalities in electrolyte handling by the intestine in diarrhea, including i...

  3. Immune Response of Children Who Develop Persistent Diarrhea following Rotavirus Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Azim, Tasnim; Ahmad, S. Meshbahuddin; Khuda, Sefat-e-; Sarker, M. Safiullah; Unicomb, Leanne E.; De, Soma; Hamadani, Jena D.; Salam, Mohammed A; Wahed, M A; Albert, M John

    1999-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted with Bangladeshi children with rotavirus (RV) diarrhea to assess whether nutritional and clinical parameters, RV serotypes, levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and RV-specific antibody titers in plasma and stool were associated with the development of persistent diarrhea. Children with watery diarrhea for 6 to 8 days, selected from the Dhaka Hospital of the International ...

  4. Preparing Science Teachers to Address Contentious and Sensitive Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ado, Gustave

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Despite high HIV prevalence rates in Ivory Coast, the formal K-12 curriculum was not developed to address HIV/AIDS information completely for many African students. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that influenced Ivorian teachers' teaching of the HIV/AIDS curriculum in middle school science curricula in nine middle…

  5. Evaluation of the epidemiological and economic consequences of control scenarios for bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Mars, M H; van Duijn, L; van Schaik, G

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important endemic infection. However, no information was available on whether it would be economically beneficial to implement a national control program in the Netherlands. Therefore, a stochastic simulation model was developed in which control scenarios were added to compare the epidemiological and economic consequences of BVDV control in Dutch dairy herds in the next 10 yr. In the epidemiological part of the model, herds could be classified as susceptible, infectious, recovered, or vaccinated. The outputs of the epidemiological module served as input for the economic module. Net costs that could be attributed to bovine viral diarrhea consisted of production losses, costs for testing, and culling persistently infected cattle in the present voluntary Dutch BVDV control program and costs for vaccination. Four different control scenarios were simulated, involving testing and culling of persistently infected (based on serum or ear-notch testing), and monitoring BVDV statuses and vaccination and were derived from BVDV control programs that are currently executed in Europe. The costs and benefits of BVDV control in the current situation and in each of the simulated control scenarios were evaluated assuming an annual discount rate of 2%. The model estimated a mean BVDV herd prevalence of 18.0% in 2014 and showed a slightly decreasing prevalence over time. The outputs seemed realistic for the present situation in the Netherlands when compared with actual survey data. The average annual net costs associated with bovine viral diarrhea were estimated at €27.8 million for the dairy industry. Two control scenarios were beneficial in controlling BVDV during the study period (between 2015 and 2025). In the scenario where tracing and removing of PI animals and monitoring of the subsequent status was obligatory, the benefit to cost (B/C) ratio was 1.5 (€1.5 benefit for each invested euro). In the scenario in which the BVDV status of

  6. Deciphering the biology of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in the era of reverse genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeravechyan, Samaporn; Frantz, Phanramphoei Namprachan; Wongthida, Phonphimon; Chailangkarn, Thanathom; Jaru-Ampornpan, Peera; Koonpaew, Surapong; Jongkaewwattana, Anan

    2016-12-02

    Emergence of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) as a global threat to the swine industry underlies the urgent need for deeper understanding of this virus. To date, we have yet to identify functions for all the major gene products, much less grasp their implications for the viral life cycle and pathogenic mechanisms. A major reason is the lack of genetic tools for studying PEDV. In this review, we discuss the reverse genetics approaches that have been successfully used to engineer infectious clones of PEDV as well as other potential and complementary methods that have yet to be applied to PEDV. The importance of proper cell culture for successful PEDV propagation and maintenance of disease phenotype are addressed in our survey of permissive cell lines. We also highlight areas of particular relevance to PEDV pathogenesis and disease that have benefited from reverse genetics studies and pressing questions that await resolution by such studies. In particular, we examine the spike protein as a determinant of viral tropism, entry and virulence, ORF3 and its association with cell culture adaptation, and the nucleocapsid protein and its potential role in modulating PEDV pathogenicity. Finally, we conclude with an exploration of how reverse genetics can help mitigate the global impact of PEDV by addressing the challenges of vaccine development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Pedagogy to Address Plagiarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Elaine E.

    1993-01-01

    Presents strategies and methods by which writing teachers can openly address the potential problem of plagiarism. Details specific methods used by one teacher to train students how to quote and cite materials without plagiarizing. (HB)

  8. Predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and associated variables in children at the Lambayeque Regional Hospital, Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heber Silva-Díaz; Olinda Bustamante-Canelo; Franklin-Rómulo Aguilar-Gamboa; Katya Mera-Villasis; Jhonatan Ipanaque-Chozo; Eberth Seclen-Bernabe; Martha Vergara-Espinoza

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the type and frequency of predominant enteropathogens in acute diarrhea and their associated characteristics in children treated at Hospital Regional Lambayeque (HRL) - Peru...

  9. Mast Cells Play a Crucial Role in Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan-Induced Diarrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Bai-Sui; He, Shao-Heng; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Wu, Linda; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2007-01-01

    Bacterium-induced diarrhea results in 2 to 2.5 million deaths in the world each year. The mechanism needs to be further understood. Staphylococcus aureus infection has a close relation with diarrhea; its cell wall component peptidoglycan (PGN) has strong biological activity on immune cells and possibly plays a role in S. aureus-induced diarrhea. The present study showed that oral PGN-induced diarrhea in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Intestinal epithelial cells absorbed PGN via the intracel...

  10. 2011年西宁地区儿童腹泻病毒流行病学调查%Epidemiological investigation on diarrhea virus among children in Xining area in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂香; 易虎; 田登; 赵生仓; 杨维成; 徐琼; 石燕; 张华一

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To conduct an epidemiological investigation on diarrhea virus in Xining city in 2011, analyze epidemic strains and trend of diarrhea virus in Qinghai province, and provide experimental data for diarrhea induced by diarrhea virus to control prevalence of diarrhea virus. Methods: Nest - PCR and multiplex PCR were used to detect diarrhea virus among 488 infants in Xining area. Results : The detection rates of diarrhea virus in children with diarrhea in Xining area; group A rotavirus (6. 76% , 33 children, including 15 children of G9 type, 13 children of G3 type, 1 child of P6 type, 2 children of P8 type, and 2 children of P9 type) , group B/C rotavirus (0. 61% , 3 children) , calicivirus (4. 71% , 23 children, including 17 children with sapovirus and 6 children with norovirus of GⅡ type) , astrovirus (1. 43% , 7 children) . Conclusion: Group A rotavirus and calicivirus are main pathogens of infantile diarrhea in Xining area.%目的:对2011年西宁市腹泻病毒进行流行病学调查,对青海省腹泻病毒流行株和流行趋势进行统计分析,为腹泻病毒引起的腹泻提供实验室资料,更好地控制病毒性腹泻的流行.方法:用巢式PCR和多重PCR方法对西宁地区488例婴幼儿腹泻标本进行腹泻病毒检测.结果:西宁地区腹泻儿童中腹泻病毒的检出率分别为:轮状病毒A组阳性33例(6.76%),其中G9型15例、G3型13例、P6型1例、P8型2例、P9型2例;轮状病毒B/C组阳性3例(0.61%);杯状病毒阳性23例(4.71%),其中扎如病毒17例、诺如病毒GⅡ型6例;星状病毒阳性7例(1.43%).结论:轮状病毒A组和杯状病毒是西宁地区婴幼儿腹泻的主要病原体之一.

  11. Entamoeba spp. diagnosis in patients with inflmmatory diarrhea by staining, copro-antigen ELISA and multiplex PCR methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Gharibi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate Entamoeba spp. diagnosis in patients with inflammatory diarrhea by staining, copro-antigen ELISA and multiplex PCR methods. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional survey, 200 stool samples were randomly collected during 2015–2016. The stool samples were evaluated microscopically for the presence of the parasite using direct and formalin-ether concentration and trichrome staining methods. Then, the stool samples were examined by copro-antigen ELISA (Biomerica Company and multiplex PCR methods. Results: Of 200 samples, 17, 29 and 23 cases were positive for Entamoeba species by the staining, copro-antigen ELISA and multiplex PCR methods, respectively. Of 23 positive samples in multiplex PCR test, 13 and 10 samples were positive for Entamoeba dispar (E. dispar and Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica, respectively. Conclusions: Our finding indicated a relatively high prevalence of Entamoeba species in patients with inflammatory diarrhea in Ahvaz city. Due to the complications of E. histolytica/ dispar infection, the health authorities of the city must pay more attention to control and prevent the transmission of E. histolytica/dispar to individuals.

  12. Predictors of plasma zinc concentrations in children with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tor A; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Chandyo, Ram K; Sharma, Pushpa R; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2004-03-01

    Plasma and serum zinc concentrations are the most widely used markers of zinc status in individual persons and populations. The objective was to identify factors that influence plasma zinc concentrations during acute childhood diarrhea. This was a cross-sectional study of 1757 cases of acute diarrhea in 6-35-mo-old Nepalese children. The association between plasma zinc concentration and several clinical, anthropometric, socioeconomic, and biochemical variables was estimated in simple and multiple linear regression analyses. We observed a reduction in the mean plasma zinc concentration of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.74) micro mol/L per degree ( degrees C) increase in axillary temperature. Having dysentery and an elevated plasma C-reactive protein concentration was also independently associated with lower plasma zinc. Children with clinical features of dehydration had higher plasma zinc concentrations than did those who were not dehydrated. Furthermore, a decrease in plasma albumin of 1 g/L was associated with a decrease in plasma zinc of 0.25 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.29) micro mol/L. The plasma albumin concentration confounded the associations between some clinical variables and plasma zinc, but the association between axillary temperature and dehydration on one hand and plasma zinc on the other was not substantially influenced by the albumin concentration. Moreover, the plasma zinc concentration increased with an increase in observed hemolysis. Dehydration, clinical and biochemical indicators of inflammation and hemolysis, and, when possible, plasma albumin concentrations should be taken into account when the plasma zinc concentration is used to estimate zinc status during episodes of diarrhea in childhood.

  13. Chronic diarrhea and skin hyperpigmentation: A new association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Qoaer Khaled

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The objective of this study was to describe patients with chronic diarrhea and abnormal skin hyperpigmentation with distinct distribution. Methods: This is a retrospective review of children who presented with diarrhea and skin hyperpigmentation. The clinical presentation, laboratory investigations as well as endoscopic and histological data were reviewed. Results: Seven patients with chronic diarrhea had abnormal skin hyperpigmentation with distinct distribution and presented in the first two months of life. Six patients had other features such as abnormal hair and facial dysmorphism. Mental retardation was reported in one patient. Consanguinity was positive in six patients, and there was family history of consanguinity in four patients, with two patients being siblings. No significant immunodeficiency was reported. Intestinal biopsies were obtained in six patients and showed active chronic inflammation in three patients, partial villous atrophy in two patients, and eosinophilic infiltrate with mild villous atrophy in one patient. Colonic biopsies showed mild focal colitis in three patients and mild colitis with eosinophilic infiltrate in one patient. Skin biopsies showed a greater number of melanophagies with fibrosis of papillary derma in two patients but skin biopsy was normal in one patient. The hair of two patients was analyzed by electron microscopy, which showed an abnormal pattern with decreased pigmentation and diameter; however, its chemical analysis was normal. Two other patients had trichorrhexis nodosa, but no abnormalities were seen in one patient. Chromosomal number was normal in three patients. One patient died because of sepsis, and only one patient was dependent on total parenteral nutrition. Conclusions: We believe that this association might represent a new syndrome with an autosomal recessive inheritance that warrants further studies.

  14. [Feeding infants and young children with acute diarrhea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouraqui, J-P; Michard-Lenoir, A-P

    2007-10-01

    Acute gastroenteritis remains a common and often severe illness among infants and children throughout the world. The management of a child with acute diarrhea includes rehydration and maintenance fluids with oral rehydration solutions (ORS), combined with continued age-appropriate nutrition. However, although substantial data support the role of continued nutrition in improving gastrointestinal function and anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical outcomes, the practice of continued feeding during diarrheal episodes has been difficult to establish as accepted standard of care. Recommendations for maintenance dietary therapy depend on the age and diet history of the patient. It has been clear for many years that, when affected by gastroenteritis, breastfed infants should be continued on breast milk without any need for interruption and, by that way, will get faster recovery and improved nutrition. Moreover, many well-conducted studies have provided evidence that in formula-fed children not severely dehydrated, a rapid return to full feeding is well tolerated. Lactose intolerance and/or secondary cow's milk allergy are not a clinical concern for the vast majority of patients. In fact early refeeding i.e resumption of normal diet, in amounts sufficient to satisfy energy and nutrient requirements, should be the rule. However, in children younger than 6 months of age, the lack of suitable studies must lead to caution and use of specific lactose-free or extensively hydrolysate formulae, especially in case of severe and/or prolonged diarrhea. Several studies support the use of zinc supplementation or probiotics for acute diarrhea but some doubts persist in infant in developed countries.

  15. Dosimetric predictors of diarrhea during radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe [Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Endres, Eugene J.; Parker, Brent C. [Physics Dept., Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Sormani, Maria Pia [Biostatistics Unit, Univ. of Genoa (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    Purpose: to investigate dosimetric predictors of diarrhea during radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Patients and methods: all patients who underwent external-beam radiotherapy as part of treatment for localized prostate cancer at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA, from May 2002 to November 2006 were extracted from the own database. From the cumulative dose-volume histogram (DVH), the absolute volumes (V-value) of intestinal cavity (IC) receiving 15, 30, and 45 Gy were extracted for each patient. Acute gastrointestinal toxicity was prospectively scored at each weekly treatment visit according to CTC (common toxicity criteria) v2.0. The endpoint was the development of peak grade {>=} 2 diarrhea during RT. Various patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were evaluated using logistic regression. Results: 149 patients were included in the analysis, 112 (75.2%) treated with whole-pelvis intensity-modulated radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) and 37 (24.8%) with prostate-only RT, including or not including, the seminal vesicles (PORT {+-} SV). 45 patients (30.2%) developed peak grade {>=} 2 diarrhea during treatment. At univariate analysis, IC-V{sub 15} and IC-V{sub 30}, but not IC-V{sub 45}, were correlated to the endpoint; at multivariate analysis, only IC-V{sub 15} (p = 0.047) along with peak acute proctitis (p = 0.041) was independently correlated with the endpoint. Conclusion: these data provide a novel and prostate treatment-specific ''upper limit'' DVH for IC. (orig.)

  16. Farm characteristics and calf management practices on dairy farms with and without diarrhea: a case-control study to investigate risk factors for calf diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Jöbstl, D; Iwersen, M; Drillich, M

    2014-01-01

    Calf diarrhea is one of the most important problems in calf rearing on dairy farms worldwide. Besides pathogens, several noninfectious management factors, especially management around birth, colostrum management, calf housing, feeding, and hygiene are important in the pathogenesis of diarrhea. To date, few data are available concerning calf rearing management on small and medium-sized dairy farms that are typical for Austria and the alpine region. Consequently, the objectives of this case-control study were to evaluate routine calf management practices on Austrian dairy farms and to examine differences in management between farms with and without the presence of calf diarrhea to identify risk factors. Overall, 100 dairy farms were visited. Of these farms, 50 were chosen based on the history and presence of calf diarrhea (case farms). Another 50 farms with no presence of calf diarrhea were chosen to serve as a standard of comparison (control farms). On farms, management was evaluated by face-to-face interview, and health status and hygiene were surveyed. Several calf rearing management procedures were similar on all of the visited farms, especially in areas regulated by national and European law. These factors include colostrum management and feeding. Consequently, no influence of these factors on the appearance of calf diarrhea could be detected. In contrast, other areas such as hygiene measures differed between farms and showed a partial association with the presence of calf diarrhea on farm. Variables related to diarrhea on farm were farm size; that is, the number of cows on farm. Farms with diarrhea cases were larger (median 40 cows, interquartile range 24.5 to 64.0) compared with farms with no presence of diarrhea (median 28 cows, interquartile range 18.8 to 44.0). Other risk factors that influenced the presence of diarrhea were the presence of other farm animal species on the farm [odds ratio (OR) 26.89, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.64 to 273.5], frequency

  17. Inactivation of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus using heated water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele M. Zentkovich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV is a very contagious swine pathogen that spreads easily via the fecal-oral route, notably from contaminated fomites. The present study investigated heated water as a method for rapid thermal inactivation of PEDV. Cell-culture adapted PEDV was treated with water at varying temperatures and viral titers were measured at multiple time points post-treatment. Viable PEDV was not recovered after a ten second or longer treatment with water heated to ≥76 °C; however, PEDV nucleic acid was detected in all samples regardless of treatment. Hot water decontamination could be considered in settings where chemical disinfection is impractical.

  18. Outbreak of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus in Portugal, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, J R; Hakze-van der Honing, R; Almeida, A; Lourenço, M; van der Poel, W H M; Nascimento, M S J

    2015-12-01

    An outbreak of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in the South of Portugal in January 2015 and the spread of PEDV northwards in the territory are described. Comparative analysis of the amplified sequences showed a very high (99.0%) identity with the PEDV variant most recently reported in the United States and also show complete (100%) identity to the strains recently reported in Germany, supporting the hypothesis that a unique strain is currently circulating in Europe. The origin of this PEDV variant still needs to be elucidated and further studies in the remaining European countries may contribute to the knowledge.

  19. Furazolidone versus ampicillin in the treatment of traveler's diarrhea.

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    Ninety-four U.S. students who acquired diarrhea in Mexico were treated with furazolidone (47 subjects) or ampicillin (47 subjects) on a double-blind random basis. Of 47 students, 26 (55%) who received furazolidone (100 mg four times daily for 5 days) recovered from illness within 48 h after initiation of therapy, in contrast to 15 of 47 (32%) who received ampicillin (500 mg four times daily for 5 days) (P less than 0.05). Altogether, 74% of students treated with furazolidone and 49% of those ...

  20. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness.

  1. Probiotics for the Prevention of Pediatric Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Shelby R; Vargas, Ashley J

    Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea.Cochrane Database Syst Rev2015, Issue 12. Art. No.: CD004827. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004827.pub4. Antibiotics are frequently prescribed in children. They alter the microbial balance within the gastrointestinal tract, commonly resulting in antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD). Probiotics may prevent AAD via restoration of the gut microflora. The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose) used for the prevention of AAD in children. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, AMED, and the Web of Science (inception to November 2014) were searched along with specialized registers including the Cochrane IBD/FBD review group, CISCOM (Centralized Information Service for Complementary Medicine), NHS Evidence, the International Bibliographic Information on Dietary Supplements, as well as trial registries. Letters were sent to authors of included trials, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical companies, and experts in the field requesting additional information on ongoing or unpublished trials. Conference proceedings, dissertation abstracts, and reference lists from included and relevant articles were also searched. Randomized, parallel, controlled trials in children (0-18 years) receiving antibiotics, that compare probiotics to placebo, active alternative prophylaxis, or no treatment and measure the incidence of diarrhea secondary to antibiotic use were considered for inclusion. Study selection, data extraction, and methodological quality assessment using the risk of bias instrument were conducted independently and in duplicate by two authors. Dichotomous data (incidence of diarrhea and adverse events) were combined using a pooled risk ratio (RR) or risk difference (RD), and continuous data (mean duration of diarrhea and mean daily stool frequency) as mean difference (MD

  2. Recurrent diarrhea as a manifestation of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Murai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A woman with temporal lobe epilepsy manifesting with repeated episodes of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness is reported. A 63-year-old, right-handed female presented with chief complaints of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness for almost three decades. The first attack occurred in her 30s, and similar attacks repeated several times in a year. Her attacks comprised abrupt abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, sudden emergence of old memories relating to when she had played with her brother in her childhood, and loss of consciousness during defecation. She had no convulsion or automatism and fully recovered in a few minutes. Every time she was transferred to emergency hospital by ambulance, she had examinations such as blood test, head computed tomography, electrocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound, and electroencephalography (EEG, but no specific diagnosis was made. On admission to our hospital, vital signs, neurological examination, and blood tests did not show abnormal findings. During long-term video-EEG monitoring for 40 h, she had no habitual event. Interictal EEG showed intermittent irregular delta waves and sharp regional transients in the left anterio-midtemporal area. Sharp transients were not as outstanding from background activities as to be defined as epileptiform discharges, but they were reproducible in morphology and distribution and appeared not only in sleep but also in wakefulness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was unremarkable. Single-photon emission computed tomography showed a decrease of blood flow in the left frontal and temporal lobes. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—III showed a decline of verbal comprehension. We concluded that the patient was suffering from partial epilepsy originating from the left temporal lobe. Carbamazepine markedly improved her seizures. Temporal lobe epilepsy can manifest with diverse autonomic symptoms and signs. Abdominal sensations often herald the onset of epileptic seizures

  3. Adherence to zinc supplementation guidelines for the treatment of diarrhea among children under–five in Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Laura M Lamberti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence on adherence to the recommended dose and duration of zinc supplementation for diarrheal episodes in children under five years of age. In selected districts of Uttar Pradesh, India, we sought to assess adherence to the nationally advised zinc treatment regimen (ie, 10 mg/day for ages 2–6 months and 20 mg/day for ages 7–59 months for 14 days among caregivers of zinc–prescribed children. We identified and conducted follow–up visits to children advised zinc for the treatment of diarrhea. At the initial visit, we collected data on the treatment instructions received from providers. Caregivers were asked to record treatments administered on a pictorial tracking form and were asked to retain all packaging for collection at follow–up. We quantified the average dose and duration of zinc therapy and built logistic regression models to assess the factors associated with caregiver adherence to national guidelines. Caregivers administered zinc for an average of 10.7 days (standard deviation (SD = 3.9 days; median = 13 days, and 47.8% continued treatment for the complete 14 days. Among children receiving zinc syrups and tablets respectively, the age appropriate dose was received by 30.8% and 67.3%. Adherence to age appropriate dose and continuation of zinc for 14 days were highly associated with having received appropriate provider instructions. Our results indicate moderate–to–good adherence to national zinc treatment guidelines for diarrhea among caregivers in rural India. Our findings also highlight the importance of provider guidance in ensuring adherence to zinc dose and duration. Programs aiming to scale–up zinc treatment for childhood diarrhea should train providers to successfully communicate dosing instructions to caregivers, while also addressing the tendency of caregivers to terminate treatment once a child appears to have recovered from an acute diarrheal episode.

  4. Impact of respiratory disease, diarrhea, otitis and arthritis on mortality and carcass traits in white veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Bart; Hostens, Miel; Duchateau, Luc; Dewulf, Jeroen; De Bleecker, Koen; Deprez, Piet

    2013-04-15

    average and decreased carcass quality. Despite the massive use of group and individual treatments to alleviate the most prevalent health issues at the fattening period, the effects of BRD, diarrhea, otitis and arthritis on survival and performance are still considerable, especially in cases of chronic pneumonia with or without arthritis. Controlling calf health by effective preventive and therapeutic strategies and in particular the prevention of chronic BRD is key for the profitability of veal operations.

  5. Study of prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases amongst under five population

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    Shailesh Sutariya, Nitiben Talsania, Chintul Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute diarrheal disease with its accompanying dehydration has remained a challenging problem to the medical profession and the community in the third world countries especially in the age below five years. The current study was conducted to study the prevalence of diarrheal diseases amongst under five population and the seasonal distribution of diarrheal diseases amongst under five population. It was a longitudinal study conducted among 2408 children under 5 yrs age group including 541 infants. Maximum cases of diarrhea (81.89% were in infants. 90.60% episodes of diarrhea were treated at home with ORS and/or home available fluids. About half of the diarrheal episodes 2798 (46.39% were occurred in monsoon season.

  6. Predictors of Diarrhea after Hepatectomy and Its Impact on Gastrointestinal Quality of Life in Living Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Szu-Han; Ming, Ying-Zi; Lin, Ping-Yi; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Lin, Hui-Chuan; Hsieh, Chia-En; Hsu, Ya-Lan; Chen, Yao-Li

    2016-01-01

    Donor safety and preservation of donor health after living liver donation are of paramount importance. Diarrhea has a significant influence on gastrointestinal quality of life among donors who have undergone living donor hepatectomy. Thus, we aimed to investigate predictors of diarrhea after hepatectomy and its impact on gastrointestinal quality of life in living donors. We retrospectively examined the medical records of 204 living liver donors who underwent hepatectomy during the period January 2010 to June 2013 at a single medical center. Diarrhea was defined as the passing of three or more liquid stools per day. The Chinese version of the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) was used to assess the influence of diarrhea on quality of life in donors. During the study period, diarrhea was diagnosed in 62 (30.3%) of the 204 donors and the duration of diarrhea in the majority of them (n = 46, 74%) was factors associated with diarrhea included age [risk ratio (RR) = 0.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.79-0.89, risk difference = 16%], and chronic cholecystitis (RR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.24-0.99, risk difference = 52%). Compared to donors without diarrhea, donors with diarrhea had lower GIQLI scores in the following GIQLI domains: GI symptoms (1.8 vs. 3.6), physical function (2.1 vs. 3.5), emotional function (3.0 vs. 3.6), social function (3.3 vs. 3.7), and treatment reaction (2.6 vs. 3.7). Our findings show that younger donors and those without chronic cholecystitis are at increased risk for diarrhea after living donor hepatectomy and that diarrhea is associated with lower GIQLI scores after hepatectomy.

  7. Zinc and copper supplementation in acute diarrhea in children: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamtani Manju

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea causes an estimated 2.5 million child deaths in developing countries each year, 35% of which are due to acute diarrhea. Zinc and copper stores in the body are known to be depleted during acute diarrhea. Our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of zinc and copper supplementation when given with standard treatment to children with acute watery or bloody diarrhea. Methods We conducted a double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial in the Department of Pediatrics at Indira Gandhi Government Medical College Nagpur, India. Eight hundred and eight children aged 6 months to 59 months with acute diarrhea were individually randomized to placebo (Pl, zinc (Zn only, and zinc and copper (Zn+Cu together with standard treatment for acute diarrhea. Results The mean duration of diarrhea from enrolment and the mean stool weight during hospital stay were 63.7 hours and 940 grams, respectively, and there were no significant differences in the adjusted means across treatment groups. Similarly, the adjusted means of the amount of oral rehydration solution or intravenous fluids used, the proportion of participants with diarrhea more than 7 days from onset, and the severity of diarrhea indicated by more than three episodes of some dehydration or any episode of severe dehydration after enrolment, did not differ across the three groups. Conclusion The expected beneficial effects of zinc supplementation for acute diarrhea were not observed. Therapeutic Zn or Zn and Cu supplementation may not have a universal beneficial impact on the duration of acute diarrhea in children. Trial registration The study was registered as an International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial (ISRCTN85071383.

  8. Late, severe, noninfectious diarrhea after renal transplantation: high-risk factors, therapy, and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y J; Wen, J Q; Cheng, K; Ming, Y Z; She, X G; Liu, H; Liu, L; Ye, Q F; Ding, B N

    2013-01-01

    Late severe noninfectious diarrhea in renal transplant recipients can lead to malnutrition and even graft loss. The purpose of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with this condition and summarize therapy for these patients. For more than 36 months we observed a cohort of 541 recipients who underwent kidney transplantation from January 2001 to June 2007. They were provided a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) combined with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF). The four group includes a continuous cyclosporine (CsA); a preconversion to tacrolimus and a postconversion group as well as a continuous tacrolimus group. The rate of severe late noninfectious diarrhea was compared among the four groups. Risk factors were analyzed between the diarrhea and nondiarrhea cohorts. Clinical characteristics, efficacy, and safety were observed after modifying the immunosuppressive protocol for late severe noninfectious diarrhea recipients. Twenty-eight recipients presented with late sever noninfectious diarrhea. No patients displayed chronic diarrhea in the CsA (n = 145) or preconversion group (n = 95). The rate of diarrhea was 7.31% in the postconversion and 7.35% in the tacrolimus group. Using multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, factors associated with an increased risk of noninfectious diarrhea were cytochrome P450(CYP)3A5 *3/*3 type, chronic renal allograft dysfunction, and patient ingestion of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F. All diarrheal recipients experienced weight loss, hypoalbuminia, and an increased serum creatinine. All affected patients underwent adjustment of the immunosuppressive regimen to achieve remission. Renal allograft survival in recipients with diarrhea was worse than that in nondiarrheal recipients receiving tacrolimus combined with MMF. Tacrolimus with MMF increased the risk of late severe noninfectious diarrhea among renal transplant recipients compared with hosts treats with CsA plus MMF. The CYP3A5 *3/*3 type, chronic renal allograft dysfunction

  9. 大便常规检验在季节性腹泻诊治中的应用%Application of stool routine examination in seasonal diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海坤

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the clinical value of stool routine examination in the diagnosis of seasonal diarrhea.Methods:92 patients with diarrhea were selected.All of them were treated with routine inspection,and then assessment their test results. Results:The prevalence of shigella and escherichia have no seasonal characteristics,while salmonella and vibrio parahaemolyticus popular in summer and autumn.Conclusion:Taking routine inspection on patients with diarrhea can control the pathogenic factors and provide the basis on the diagnosis and treatment for medical personnel.%目的:探讨大便常规检验在季节性腹泻中的临床价值。方法:收治腹泻患者92例,对所有患者进行便常规检验,评估检验结果。结果:志贺菌、大肠埃希菌的流行不具有季节性特点,沙门菌和溶血性弧菌在夏秋季节流行。结论:对腹泻患者采用便常规检验,能够掌握患者的致病因素,为医护人员的诊治工作提供依据。

  10. Detection of EnteroinvasiveEscherichia coli by PCR technique in Children with Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    v Aein

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: EnteroinvasiveEscherichia coliis one of the important agents of invasion to intestinal epithelial cells, damage and cell death which due to dysentery. The aim of this study wastoDetection of EnteroinvasiveEscherichia coli by PCR technique from Children’s Diarrheain yasuj. Methods:This cross-sectional study was performed on 200 stool samples taken from children with diarrhea in Yasuj. After initial identification of E.coli strains by culture and biochemical tests, EIEC gene such as ipaH detected by PCR technicque and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was evaluated by using disc diffusion (CLSI method. Results: Out of all examined samples, 16(8% EIEC were separated. Antibiotic susceptibility test showed that the most susceptible antibiotic is ciprofloxacin for EIEC and also most resistant antibiotic is ceftizoxime. Conclusion: Results showed that EIEC strains have a moderate prevalence than other studies in our study area. Therefore, for importance of this strain to producing dysentery, hospital-wide surveillance using molecular techniques hase been proposed in other regions of country.

  11. Enterocytozoon bieneusi in Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) infected and noninfected cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juránková, J; Kamler, M; Kovařčík, K; Koudela, B

    2013-02-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi known as a causative agent of opportunistic infections instigating diarrhoea in AIDS patients was identified also in a number of immunocompetent patients and in a wide range of animals, including cattle. In the present study we tested if the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV), the most common pathogen underlying immunosuppressive Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), can enhance the occurrence of opportunistic infections with E. bieneusi in cattle. Six dairy farms were investigated using ELISA to detect antibodies against or antigens arising from BVDV in collected sera. A total of 240 individual faecal samples from four age groups were examined for the presence of E. bieneusi by nested PCR. Sequence analysis of six E. bieneusi positive samples revealed the presence of the genotype I of E. bieneusi, previously described in cattle. The hypothesis expecting higher prevalence of E. bieneusi in BVDV positive cattle herds was not confirmed in this study; however this is the first description about E. bieneusi in cattle in the Czech Republic.

  12. First report of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus antigen from pneumonic cattle in Sudan

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    Intisar Kamil Saeed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To explore the expected role of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV in pneumonia in cattle, cattle lungs (n=242 showing signs of pneumonia were collected from slaughter houses of three different localities located at Northern, Central and Western Sudan during 2010–2013. The collected samples were tested for the presence of BVDV antigen using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA, and Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT. Twenty six (10.7% out of 242 samples were found to be positive for BVDV. Positive results were seen in all the three studied areas, with the highest prevalence (16.7%; n=4/24 at Gezira State in Central Sudan. BVDV genome could be detected in all ELISA positive samples. The results indicated the existence of BVDV infection in cattle in different areas in Sudan, and its possible association with respiratory infections in cattle. Analysis using BLAST indicated that the sequence was identical to the previously reported BVDV-1 (GenBank accession AF220247.1.; nucleotide A was found in our study at position 9 of our sequence, whereas T was present instead in the reference virus. This is the first report of detecting BVDV antigen, genome, and its sequence analysis collected from cattle lungs in Sudan.

  13. Bovine virus diarrhea virus in free-living deer from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S S; Roensholt, L; Bitsch, V

    2000-07-01

    Free-living deer are suggested as a possible source of infection of cattle with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) virus. To examine this hypothesis blood samples from 476 free-living deer were collected during two different periods and tested for BVD virus and antibody in Denmark. In 1995-96, 207 animals were tested. These included 149 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 29 fallow deer (Dama dama), 20 red deer (Cervus elaphus) and one sika deer (Cervus sika). For the remaining eight animals no species information was available. In 1998-99, 269 animals were tested including 212 roe deer and 57 red deer. The animals were selected from areas with a relatively high prevalence of cattle herds with a BVD persistent infection status in 1997 and 1998. All 207 samples from 1995-96 were found antibody-negative except two samples from red deer. Only 158 of the 207 samples were tested for virus and were all found negative. Of the 269 samples from 1998-99 all but one were antibody negative. The positive sample was from a red deer. All samples were virus-negative. It appears that BVD infection does not occur in roe deer in Denmark. The presence of antibody in a few red deer from various districts in Jutland probably results from cattle to deer transmission, rather than spread among deer. Hence, the possibility of free-living deer as a source of infection for cattle in Denmark seems to be remote.

  14. [Risk factors of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shu; Xu, Xi-wei; Dong, Fang

    2012-07-10

    To explore the risk factors of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in children. From December 2010 to March 2011, the hospitalized diarrheal patients under 18 years old at Beijing Children's Hospital were tested for Clostridium difficile. The CDAD(+) patients were selected and their fecal specimens were PCR-positive for tcdA and (or) tcdB genes. And the patients with healthcare facility-associated-CDAD (HCFA-CDAD) were selected from the group of CDAD(+). The CDAD patients were selected and their fecal specimens were PCR-negative for tcdA and (or) tcdB genes. And the 1:3 matched controls per case were selected from those hospitalized patients without diarrhea at the same department with similar diseases during the same period. The potential predictors of CDAD included age, gender, co-morbidities, prior hospitalization, the administration of C. difficile-active antibiotics during prior 24 hours, recent (predictors of CDAD. Among 93 PCR tests, 35 were positive in fecal samples. There were HCFA-CDAD (n = 30) and CDAD(-) (n = 58). Thirty-five CDAD(+) hospitalized patients were compared with 105 controls. According to multivariate analyses, the predictors of CDAD included prior hospitalization (P < 0.01, OR = 0.002), CRP(P = 0.008, OR = 3.465), NSAID (P = 0.015, OR = 13.950) and WBC (P = 0.003, OR = 8.063). The administration of NSAID, elevated CRP and abnormal WBC are significantly associated with CDAD.

  15. Colonoscopic findings in Peruvian patients with chronic diarrhea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Villafuerte-Gálvez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report the colonoscopic and pathological findings in patients with chronic diarrhea from a gastroenterology unit during approximately 3 years in a general teaching hospital located in Lima-Peru. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with chronic diarrhea as the motive for colonoscopy from March 2008 to December 2010 were selected from the colonoscopy report computerized database. Colonoscopic findings were registered. Biopsies taken during the procedure were prospectively reviewed. RESULTS: 226 patients were included, of which 162 (71.7% had a colon biopsy available. The average age of the patients was 53.6±16.36. 85.8% of patients were reported to have a normal colon. 14.8% of patients were found to have a normal colonic mucosa or mucosal edema, 35.8% of patients had lymphocytic colitis and 28.4% had paucicelular colitis. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of colonoscopies were reported with unremarkable macroscopic findings. Lymphocytic colitis was unusually frequent compared to previous reports.

  16. Colonoscopic Findings in Peruvian Patients with Chronic Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafuerte-Gálvez, Javier; Sotelo-Olivera, María Isabel; Cok, Jaime; Piscoya-Rivera, Alejandro; Huerta-Mercado, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Objective To report the colonoscopic and pathological findings in patients with chronic diarrhea from a gastroenterology unit during approximately 3 years in a general teaching hospital located in Lima-Peru. Materials and Methods Patients with chronic diarrhea as the motive for colonoscopy from March 2008 to December 2010 were selected from the colonoscopy report computerized database. Colonoscopic findings were registered. Biopsies taken during the procedure were prospectively reviewed. Results 226 patients were included, of which 162 (71.7%) had a colon biopsy available. The average age of the patients was 53.6±16.36. 85.8% of patients were reported to have a normal colon. 14.8% of patients were found to have a normal colonic mucosa or mucosal edema, 35.8% of patients had lymphocytic colitis and 28.4% had paucicelular colitis. Conclusions The majority of colonoscopies were reported with unremarkable macroscopic findings. Lymphocytic colitis was unusually frequent compared to previous reports. PMID:23094029

  17. Proton pump inhibitors and risk for Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasmita Biswal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Increased incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI among in-patients is associated with significant increased mortality, morbidity, and stay in the hospitals. This has occurred despite heightened awareness of the risks of broad-spectrum antibiotics, overall reduction in antibiotic use and increased focus on hospital hygiene. So though the main risk factor for CDI is use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, the use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs as a novel potential contributor has been implicated, because of their ability to substantially reduce gastric acid secretion which is an important host defense mechanism in suppressing the ingested C. difficile or its spores. Antibiotic disruption of the normal intestinal flora and reduced gastric acidity have been suggested as the risk factors for C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD. Based on such assumptions the use of PPIs may be associated with an increased risk of CDAD. While a definite association between PPI use and CDAD has not yet been confirmed, the possibility and such an association however cannot be ruled out at present. Thus among the identified risk factors, the use of PPI is important, previously unrecognized and modifiable risk factors whose use should be carefully evaluated among hospital in-patients receiving antibiotics, especially in those with a diagnosis of C. difficile diarrhea.

  18. Probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Shira Idit; Hibberd, Patricia L; Gorbach, Sherwood L

    2008-07-01

    Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) occurs in approximately 25% of patients receiving antibiotics. Hospitalized patients with AAD are at increased risk for nosocomial infections and have a higher mortality. Probiotics are living microorganisms used to restore gut health by changing the intestinal microbiota. Several have been studied for the prevention of AAD. Five meta-analyses of trials of probiotics for the prevention of AAD have been performed. The results showed an overall reduction in the risk of AAD when probiotics were coadministered with antibiotics. McFarland conducted the largest meta-analysis to date analyzing 25 randomized controlled trials of probiotics for the prevention of AAD including 2810 subjects. More than half of the trials demonstrated efficacy of the probiotic. In particular, Lactobacillus GG, Saccharomyces boulardii, and the probiotic mixtures were effective. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews published a review of the literature on the use of probiotics for the prevention of pediatric AAD, including 10 randomized trials testing 1986 children. The per protocol pooled analysis, but not the intent-to-treat analysis, showed that probiotics are effective for preventing AAD with the number needed to treat to prevent 1 case of diarrhea being 10. Lactobacillus GG, Bacillus coagulans, and S. boulardii appeared to be most effective. Probiotics are generally safe, however, they should be used with caution in patients who have compromise of either the immune system or the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, and in the presence of a central venous catheter.

  19. The Effect of Probiotics on Diarrhea in Children with Severe Acute Malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grenov, Benedikte

    with diarrhea and dehydration during hospitalization. In addition the association between days with diarrhea as well as dehydration and mortality during hospitalization were assessed. Results The study children had a mean age of 17.0 months, 58% were boys, 66% had edematous malnutrition and 14% were HIV...

  20. Claudin-2 expression is upregulated in the ileum of diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimoto, Haruka; Oshima, Tadayuki; Sei, Hiroo; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Kondo, Takashi; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial barrier function is impaired in irritable bowel syndrome patients. Claudins are highly expressed in cells with tight junctions and are involved in the intestinal epithelial barrier function. The expression pattern of tight junction proteins in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome have not been fully elucidated. We therefore recruited 17 diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients and 20 healthy controls. The expression of the tight junction-related proteins was examined in the ileal, cecal, and rectal mucosa of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients using real-time PCR and immunofluorescence. Claudin-2 expression was high in the ileum of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients. Claudin-2 expression was the same in cecum and rectal mucosa of control and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients. Similarly, the expression of clauidn-1, claudin-7, JAM-A, occludin, and ZO-1 in the ileal, cecal, and rectal mucosa did not change between control and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome samples. Infiltration of eosinophil and mast cells in the mucosa of ileum, cecum and rectum was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining and was not affected by diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Claudin-2 was expressed on the apical side of villi and crypts of ileal mucosal epithelial cells. Clauidn-2 expression is upregulated in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients and may contribute to the pathogenesis of this condition. PMID:28366996

  1. Risk factors for diarrhea-associated infant mortality in the United States, 2005-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehal, Jason M; Esposito, Douglas H; Holman, Robert C; Tate, Jacqueline E; Callinan, Laura S; Parashar, Umesh D

    2012-07-01

    Diarrhea-associated deaths among US children increased from the mid-1980s through 2006, particularly among infants. Understanding risk factors for diarrhea-associated death could improve prevention strategies. Records of singleton infants with diarrhea listed anywhere on the death certificate were selected from the US Linked Birth/Infant Death data for the period, 2005 to 2007; characteristics of these infants were compared with those of infants who survived their first year. During 2005 to 2007, 1087 diarrhea-associated infant deaths were reported; 86% occurred among low birth weight (LBW, risk ratio: 91.9, 95% confidence interval: 77.4-109.0) and younger median age at death (7 versus 15 weeks, Pdiarrhea-associated death among LBW and NBW infants were sepsis (26%) and volume depletion (20%), respectively. Among LBW infants, 97% of diarrhea-associated deaths occurred in inpatient settings, whereas 27% of NBW infant deaths occurred in outpatient settings and 5.3% in the decedent's home. Male sex, black race, unmarried status and low 5-minute Apgar score (diarrhea-associated morality should focus on understanding and improving management of diarrhea in vulnerable LBW infants. For prevention of diarrhea-associated deaths in NBW infants, educating mothers who fit the high-risk profile regarding home hydration therapy and timely access to medical treatment is important.

  2. Cancer treatment-induced diarrhea: interventions to minimize the roller coaster ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This program used a case-study approach to discuss interventions that nurses can implement in their daily clinical environment to minimize cancer treatment-induced diarrhea. Manifestations of cancer treatment-induced diarrhea, medical treatment options, and nutritional interventions were covered.

  3. Determining bovine viral diarrhea virus genotypes and biotypes circulating in cattle populations in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) is the disease in cattle that results from infection with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV). BVDV is found in cattle populations throughout the world. While the term BVD encompasses a wide range of clinical manifestations, including severe respiratory disease, gastroe...

  4. Treatment of 128 Cases of Lienteric Diarrhea by Acupuncture and Spine Pinching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文娟; 黄鹂; 李稚萍; 肖元春

    2009-01-01

    @@ Lienteric diarrhea is a disorder characterized by increased frequency of bowel movements with loose or watery stools. It may happen in any seasons, but more frequently in summer and autumn. We treated 128 cases of lienteric diarrhea by acupuncture and spine pinching, and reported it as follows.

  5. Mutations in SPINT2 Cause a Syndromic Form of Congenital Sodium Diarrhea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinz-Erian, Peter; Mueller, Thomas; Krabichler, Birgit; Schranz, Melanie; Becker, Christian; Rueschendorf, Franz; Nuernberg, Peter; Rossier, Bernard; Vujic, Mihailo; Booth, Ian W.; Holmberg, Christer; Wijmenga, Cisca; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Kneepkens, C. M. Frank; Rosipal, Stefan; Mistrik, Martin; Kappler, Matthias; Michaud, Laurent; Doczy, Ludwig-Christoph; Siu, Victoria Mok; Krantz, Marie; Zoller, Heinz; Utermann, Gerd; Janecke, Andreas R.

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal-recessive congenital sodium diarrhea (CSD) is characterized by perinatal onset of a persistent watery diarrhea with nonproportionally high fecal sodium excretion. Defective jejunal brush-border Na(+)/H(+) exchange has been reported in three sporadic patients, but the molecular basis of the

  6. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  7. Molecular characterization of clinical isolates of Cyclospora cayetanensis from patients with diarrhea in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Cyclospora cayetanensis is an intestinal coccidian protozoan that has emerged as an important cause of both epidemic and endemic protracted diarrhea worldwide. Though humans appear to be the only natural hosts; the role of animals as natural reservoir is uncertain but of increasing concern. The present study aimed to study the prevalence of coccidian in different groups such as immunocompromised, clinically apparent immunocompetent and healthy individuals. Also, the study isolates were assessed for heterogeneity among the sequences. Materials and Methods: Stool samples from different groups of patients were collected. The parasite was detected in stool by different diagnostic tools such as light microscopy and nested PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism using 18S ribosomal RNA as the target gene. Results: The prevalence of C. cayetanensis was 2.4% (19/800 in the present study. The PCR assay amplified Cyclospora cayetanensis DNA in only 89% (17/19 isolates. Further, sequencing revealed no significant difference among the study isolates and the non-primates. Phylogenetic analysis of the study isolates however, formed two clusters. While one cluster showed close evolutionary association with the C. cayetanensis strains, the other cluster showed evolutionary association with the two non-primate species. Conclusion: The methods described here for detection of C. cayetanensis oocysts are simple, efficient, specific, and sensitive and therefore can be effectively applied for laboratory diagnosis and environmental assessment of fresh produce and water sources. Clinicians should include Cyclospora infection in the differential diagnosis of prolonged or relapsing diarrheal illness even in clinically apparent immunocompetent individuals.

  8. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Children With Acute Diarrhea in Health Centers of Hamadan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastyani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Enteritis caused by Campylobacter is considered as the most common acute bacterial diarrhea around the world. In most cases, infection occurs as a result of consuming contaminated water or food, especially raw meat of fowls. Objectives The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of campylobacter species among pediatrics of Hamadan city, Iran. Patients and Methods A total of 120 stool samples from children less than 10 years old were examined from January 2013 to December 2014 in Hamadan, Iran. The samples were incubated in Campy-Thio enrichment medium for 1 - 2 hours and then cultured on a specific medium; after that, the suspected colonies were analyzed for Campylobacter spp. identification by conventional tests. The identified species by biochemical methods were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by disk agar diffusion (DAD method. Results Twelve (10% Campylobacter spp. from 120 stool samples were isolated including C. coli and C. jejuni. In the antibiotic susceptibility test, the most frequent resistance was observed to ciprofloxacin 8 (88.8%, followed by 7 (77.7% resistant strains to tetracycline, 7 (77.7% to erythromycin, 6 (66.6% to clindamycin, 5 (55.5% to meropenem, 4 (44.4% to gentamicin, 3 (33.3% to nalidixicacid and only 1 (11.1% to chloramphenicol. Conclusions Campylobacter is responsible for some important clinical problems such as enteritis and is also associated with meningitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. It is imperative to monitor the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter spp. as well as other the zoonotic bacteria.

  9. ESCHERICHIA COLI PATHOTYPES ASSOCIATED WITH DIARRHEA IN HUMAN AND DOMESTIC ANIMALS

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    I.I. Shabana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ruminants are important reservoirs for zoonotic pathogenic E. coli. The objective of this study was to characterize pathogenic E. coli isolates from cattle and sheep linked to human illness with respect to their pathotypes, serotypes and genotypes. E. coli O157:H7 isolated from cattle, sheep and human patients were compared for their genomic similarity by Pulsed-Field Gel-Electrophoresis (PFGE. PCR detection of virulence factors associated with different E. coli pathotypes (VTEC, ETEC, EPEC, EAEC and EIEC revealed that VTEC was the most prevalent pathotype (22/45; 48.9%, followed by EAEC (3/45; 6.7%, EPEC (1/45; 2.2%, a EPEC (3/45; 6.7%, ETEC (1/45; 2.2% and EIEC (1/45; 2.2%. E. coli O157:H7 represented the most prevalent VTEC serotypes (11/22; 50%. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis typing revealed exact matches between E. coli O157:H7 isolates from the human patients, sheep and cattle in the same municipality. VTEC play an important cause of diarrhea in human, sheep and cattle. The molecular relatedness between PFGE profiles of E. coli O157:H7 isolates from human, sheep and cattle supported the hypothesis that ruminants especially cattle and sheep act as reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7 for human infection.

  10. Diagnosis of natural exposure to bovine viral diarrhea in a vaccinated herd by measuring extended antibody titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Jeremy

    2003-01-01

    Two abortions occurred in a 150-head commercial cow-calf herd. Bovine viral diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by measuring extended titers against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a sample of 15 breeding females. Fifteen were sero-positive and 11 had significantly high titers (1:972–1:8748), likely due to natural exposure to cattle persistently infected with BVDV.

  11. Diarrheal Illness and Healthcare Seeking Behavior among a Population at High Risk for Diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh: e0130105

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fahima Chowdhury; Iqbal Ansary Khan; Sweta Patel; Ashraf Uddin Siddiq; Nirod Chandra Saha; Ashraful I Khan; Amit Saha; Alejandro Cravioto; John Clemens; Firdausi Qadri; Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

      Diarrhea remains one of the major causes of death in Bangladesh. We studied diarrheal disease risk and healthcare seeking behavior among populations at high risk for diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh...

  12. Community prevalence of fever and relationship with malaria among infants and children in low-resource areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Namrata; Sharples, Katrina J; Murdoch, David R; Crump, John A

    2015-07-01

    We used Demographic and Health Survey data to describe the 2-week period prevalence of fever, cough, and diarrhea among children aged fever and national malaria risk. Fever and isolated fever occurred in 26.7% and 7.0% of children, respectively, and was not fully explained by malaria.

  13. Risk factors for diarrhea in a cohort of dairy heifer calves reared in individual outdoor hutches in Piraí, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thais Ferreira Fagundes; Letícia Gabriela Poblete Vidal; Pedro Afonso Moreira Alves; Wagner de Souza Tassinari; Rita de Cássia Alves Alcântara de Menezes; Adevair Henrique da Fonseca; Maria Julia Salim Pereira

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between diarrhea and risk factors potentially related to diarrhea incidence, such as Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Eimeria and nematode infection, animal age...

  14. Knowledge of the mothers of hospitalized children in a university hospital regarding diarrhea

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    Ana Paula do Rego

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research aimed at identifying the knowledge of the mothers regarding diarrhea. It was conducted with eight mothers of hospitalized children in a university hospital located in Santa Cruz, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, in 2012. Data were collected through open interviews and the analysis was based on Bardin. The categories emerging from the analysis were: understanding diarrhea and preventing/treating diarrhea. Regarding the understanding of diarrhea, mothers conceptualize and understand it from the symptoms, habits/eating mistakes and/or cultural beliefs. Concerning the prevention and treatment of the disease, the mothers highlight hygiene and home cleaning as preventive measures, as well the importance of home and hospital care measures. The interviewees have basic knowledge of pathology, further studies are necessary in order to define the current gap between the knowledge of mothers and recurrence of diarrhea cases, resulting in hospitalization and expenses with unnecessary treatment.

  15. PREVALENCE OF SOME DISEASES OF DOGS AND CATS AT THE STATE GOVERNMENT VETERINARY CLINIC IN MAIDUGURI (NIGERIA

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    A. William, S.U.R. Chaudhari1 and N.N. Atsandac2

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A 3-year (retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of diseases; clinical conditions of dogs and cats presented at the Government Veterinary Clinic, Maiduguri from January 1995 to December 1997. The prevalent diseases; conditions of dogs included helminthosis (19.19%, accidental injury (18.18%, tick infestation ( 15.15% , canine distemper (8.42% , diarrhoea ( 6.73%, mange ( 7.41%, rabies (5.05% and babesiosis (4.71%, Prevalent diseases/conditions of cats included helminthosis (26.67%. tick infestation ( 8.89%. diarrhea ( 16.67%, nutritional deficiencies ( 15.56% and respiratory infections ( 12.22%. Of highest prevalence in both dogs and cats was helminthosis (20.93%, followed by tick infestation (13. 70% and diarrhea (9.04% suggesting a poor husbandy of these pets in Maiduguri area. Cases of automobile accidental injury of dogs were also high, probably due to the same factors of poor husbandry.

  16. Association of Safe Disposal of Child Feces and Reported Diarrhea in Indonesia: Need for Stronger Focus on a Neglected Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Aidan A.; Susy Katikana Sebayang; Harriet Torlesse; Robin Nandy

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia still faces several challenges in the areas of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). Diarrhea remains a major killer of children and it is important to understand the local diarrhea transmission pathways to prioritise appropriate WASH interventions to reduce diarrhea burden. This study used a cross-sectional data set from a recent national household survey (the 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey) to examine the associations between diarrhea in children aged less than 24 m...

  17. Incidence of and Risk Factors for Hospital-Acquired Diarrhea in Three Tertiary Care Public Hospitals in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Luby, Stephen P.; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Rahman, M. Waliur; Sharker, M. A. Yushuf; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Rasul, Choudhury H.; Ekram, A. R. M. Saifuddin; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Gurley, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    During April 2007–April 2010, surveillance physicians in adult and pediatric medicine wards of three tertiary public hospitals in Bangladesh identified patients who developed hospital-acquired diarrhea. We calculated incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea. To identify risk factors, we compared these patients to randomly selected patients from the same wards who were admitted > 72 hours without having diarrhea. The incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea was 4.8 cases per 1,000 patient-days. ...

  18. Exploring spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai, Thailand

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    Tripathi Nitin K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diarrhea is a major public health problem in Thailand. The Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, has been trying to monitor and control this disease for many years. The methodology and the results from this study could be useful for public health officers to develop a system to monitor and prevent diarrhea outbreaks. Methods The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemic outbreak patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province, Northern Thailand, in terms of their geographical distributions and hotspot identification. The data of patients with diarrhea at village level and the 2001–2006 population censuses were collected to achieve the objective. Spatial analysis, using geographic information systems (GIS and other methods, was used to uncover the hidden phenomena from the data. In the data analysis section, spatial statistics such as quadrant analysis (QA, nearest neighbour analysis (NNA, and spatial autocorrelation analysis (SAA, were used to identify the spatial patterns of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province. In addition, local indicators of spatial association (LISA and kernel density (KD estimation were used to detect diarrhea hotspots using data at village level. Results The hotspot maps produced by the LISA and KD techniques showed spatial trend patterns of diarrhea diffusion. Villages in the middle and northern regions revealed higher incidences. Also, the spatial patterns of diarrhea during the years 2001 and 2006 were found to represent spatially clustered patterns, both at global and local scales. Conclusion Spatial analysis methods in GIS revealed the spatial patterns and hotspots of diarrhea in Chiang Mai province from the year 2001 to 2006. To implement specific and geographically appropriate public health risk-reduction programs, the use of such spatial analysis tools may become an integral component in the epidemiologic description, analysis, and risk assessment of diarrhea.

  19. Geocoding Patient Addresses for Biosurveillance

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Karen L; Kenneth D Mandl

    2002-01-01

    New biosurveillance information systems are being developed to detect clusters of disease using temporal and spatial characteristics. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can use patient addresses stored in hospital information systems to assign latitude and longitude coordinates, enabling the detection of spatial clusters. However, inaccuracy can be introduced during the geocoding process and this could have a profound adverse effect on detection sensitivity. In an analysis of three years ...

  20. Atomic clusters with addressable complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, David J.

    2017-02-01

    A general formulation for constructing addressable atomic clusters is introduced, based on one or more reference structures. By modifying the well depths in a given interatomic potential in favour of nearest-neighbour interactions that are defined in the reference(s), the potential energy landscape can be biased to make a particular permutational isomer the global minimum. The magnitude of the bias changes the resulting potential energy landscape systematically, providing a framework to produce clusters that should self-organise efficiently into the target structure. These features are illustrated for small systems, where all the relevant local minima and transition states can be identified, and for the low-energy regions of the landscape for larger clusters. For a 55-particle cluster, it is possible to design a target structure from a transition state of the original potential and to retain this structure in a doubly addressable landscape. Disconnectivity graphs based on local minima that have no direct connections to a lower minimum provide a helpful way to visualise the larger databases. These minima correspond to the termini of monotonic sequences, which always proceed downhill in terms of potential energy, and we identify them as a class of biminimum. Multiple copies of the target cluster are treated by adding a repulsive term between particles with the same address to maintain distinguishable targets upon aggregation. By tuning the magnitude of this term, it is possible to create assemblies of the target cluster corresponding to a variety of structures, including rings and chains.

  1. Association of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Pathotypes with Infection and Diarrhea among Mexican Children and Association of Atypical Enteropathogenic E. coli with Acute Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Garcia, Teresa; Lopez-Saucedo, Catalina; Thompson-Bonilla, Rocio; Abonce, Maricela; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Santos, Jose Ignacio; Rosado, Jorge L.; DuPont, Herbert L.; Long, Kurt Z.

    2009-01-01

    Seventy-six children ≤2 years old were prospectively followed for 1 year in a peri-urban community of Mexico City to determine asymptomatic infection and acute diarrhea associated with diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEPs). By use of a pathogen-specific multiplex PCR, DEPs were sought in 795 stool samples, of which 125 (16%) were positive for DEP; of these, 4 represented shedding episodes and 4 parasite coinfections. Most single-DEP infections (85/117) were asymptomatic (P < 0.001), and of the 32 DEP diarrhea episodes, 41% were associated with atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), 37.5% with enterotoxigenic E. coli, 9% with typical EPEC, 9% with enteroinvasive E. coli, and 3% with Shiga toxin-producing E. coli strains. Among the 76 children, 54 had at least one stool positive for DEP, of which 23 experienced a DEP-associated diarrhea episode. In the last group of children, DEP infection was significantly associated with a diarrhea episode (relative risk [RR] = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79 to 3.57; P < 0.001), with ETEC (RR = 2.30; 95% CI, 1.49 to 3.54; P = 0.003) and aEPEC (RR = 1.92; 95% CI, 1.23 to 3.0; P = 0.019) being the pathotypes associated with diarrhea. aEPEC-associated diarrhea episodes were frequently in the <12-month age group (RR = 2.57; 95% CI, 1.05 to 6.27; P = 0.04). aEPEC infections were distributed all year round, but associated diarrheal episodes were identified from April to October, with a May-June peak (rainy season). Most ETEC infections and diarrhea episodes characteristically occurred during the summer (rainy season), with a diarrhea peak in August. Of all DEPs, only aEPEC was associated with acute diarrhea episodes lasting 7 to 12 days (P = 0.019). DEPs are important causes of community-acquired enteric infection and diarrhea in Mexican children. PMID:19020055

  2. Prevalence and clinical features of celiac disease in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ventura

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder with an average prevalence of 1% in Europe and the United States. Because of strong European ancestry in southern Brazil, this study aimed to evaluate the seroprevalence of celiac disease among autoimmune thyroiditis patients.DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital.METHODS: This cross-sectional prevalence study included autoimmune thyroiditis patients who were tested for anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies between August 2010 and July 2011.RESULTS: Fifty-three patients with autoimmune thyroiditis were included; 92.5% were women, with mean age of 49.0 ± 13.5 years. Five patients (9.3% were serologically positive for celiac disease: three of them (5.6% were reactive for anti-endomysial antibodies and two (3.7% for anti-transglutaminase. None of them exhibited anemia and one presented diarrhea. Endoscopy was performed on two patients: one with normal histology and the other with lymphocytic infiltrate and villous atrophy.CONCLUSION: The prevalence of celiac disease among patients with autoimmune thyroid disease was 9.3%; one patient complained of diarrhea and none presented anemia. Among at-risk populations, like autoimmune thyroiditis patients, the presence of diarrhea or anemia should not be used as a criterion for indicating celiac disease investigation. This must be done for all autoimmune thyroiditis patients because of its high prevalence.

  3. A novel prion disease associated with diarrhea and autonomic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Simon; Gandhi, Sonia; Beck, Jon; Caine, Diana; Gallujipali, Dillip; Carswell, Christopher; Hyare, Harpreet; Joiner, Susan; Ayling, Hilary; Lashley, Tammaryn; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Al-Doujaily, Huda; Sharps, Bernadette; Revesz, Tamas; Sandberg, Malin K; Reilly, Mary M; Koltzenburg, Martin; Forbes, Alastair; Rudge, Peter; Brandner, Sebastian; Warren, Jason D; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Wood, Nicholas W; Holton, Janice L; Collinge, John

    2013-11-14

    Human prion diseases, although variable in clinicopathological phenotype, generally present as neurologic or neuropsychiatric conditions associated with rapid multifocal central nervous system degeneration that is usually dominated by dementia and cerebellar ataxia. Approximately 15% of cases of recognized prion disease are inherited and associated with coding mutations in the gene encoding prion protein (PRNP). The availability of genetic diagnosis has led to a progressive broadening of the recognized spectrum of disease. We used longitudinal clinical assessments over a period of 20 years at one hospital combined with genealogical, neuropsychological, neurophysiological, neuroimaging, pathological, molecular genetic, and biochemical studies, as well as studies of animal transmission, to characterize a novel prion disease in a large British kindred. We studied 6 of 11 affected family members in detail, along with autopsy or biopsy samples obtained from 5 family members. We identified a PRNP Y163X truncation mutation and describe a distinct and consistent phenotype of chronic diarrhea with autonomic failure and a length-dependent axonal, predominantly sensory, peripheral polyneuropathy with an onset in early adulthood. Cognitive decline and seizures occurred when the patients were in their 40s or 50s. The deposition of prion protein amyloid was seen throughout peripheral organs, including the bowel and peripheral nerves. Neuropathological examination during end-stage disease showed the deposition of prion protein in the form of frequent cortical amyloid plaques, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and tauopathy. A unique pattern of abnormal prion protein fragments was seen in brain tissue. Transmission studies in laboratory mice were negative. Abnormal forms of prion protein that were found in multiple peripheral tissues were associated with diarrhea, autonomic failure, and neuropathy. (Funded by the U.K. Medical Research Council and others.).

  4. Impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea on performance of growing pigs.

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    Julio Alvarez

    Full Text Available The impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv infection on the US pork industry has mainly been attributed to the mortality that it causes in suckling piglets, and, consequently, much effort has been invested in the quantification of its effect in sow farms. However, no information on the performance of surviving pigs that were exposed to the PEDv as piglets is available. Here, a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv infection on growing pigs' performance, as indicated by mortality, average daily gain (ADG, average daily feed intake (ADFI, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was performed using production records from weaned pigs in nursery and wean-to-finish sites from sow farms that became PEDv-infected between May 2013 and June 2014. Production records from the first batch of growing pigs weaned in infected flows after the PEDv outbreak ("infected batches" were compared with those from pigs weaned within the previous 14 to 120 days ("control batches". Performance records from infected and control batches, paired by flow, were compared using non-parametric paired tests. Mortality, ADG and FCR were significantly different in PEDv-positive (infected compared with PEDv-negative (control batches, with a mean increase of mortality and FCR of 11% and 0.5, respectively, and a decrease of ADG of 0.16 lb/day. Our results demonstrate a poorer performance of growing pigs weaned after a PEDv outbreak compared with those weaned within the previous 14-120 days, suggesting that in addition to the mortality induced by PEDv in suckling pigs, the disease also impairs the performance of surviving pig. These findings help to quantify the impact of PEDv infection in the US and, ultimately, contribute to efforts to quantify the cost-effectiveness of disease prevention and control measures.

  5. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  6. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating.

  7. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  8. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter jejuni

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    Salehi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Campylobacter spp. are Gram-negative bacilli enteric pathogens that pose a major public health problem worldwide. In this genus, the most important species is Campylobacter jejuni. This bacterium causes diarrhea as its main symptom, which its intensity varies from mild to severe. Patients’ stools may be watery or bloody. Objectives In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of the species of Campylobacter. jejuni in Zahedan, a major city in southeastern Iran. Patients and Methods Fecal samples from 164 patients with acute diarrhea from Zahedan hospitals were collected from 2011 to 2013. Then the samples were streaked onto a campylobacter selective agar containing supplement and 7% defibrinated sheep blood. Conventional bacteriological tests (such as culture and biochemical tests were performed to confirm the genus and differentiate at the species level. Finally, disk diffusion method was performed according to the recommendation of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI to determine the susceptibility of isolates to antibacterial agents. Results Out of 164 samples, 19 (11.6% were reported positive by culture which confirmed by biochemical tests. Fifteen (78.9% patients, whose samples were positive, hospitalized in infant ward. Two (10.5% patients treated as outpatients. Two remaining (10.5% patients were admitted in internal medicine ward. All of isolated strains were susceptible or moderately susceptible to erythromycin as the drug of choice. Conclusions In this study, the prevalence of the disease (11.6% is found to be more than other parts of Iran. The symptomatic infection mainly affects children younger than 5 years.

  9. Risk factors for extended duration of acute diarrhea in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tor A; Sharma, Pushpa R; Gjessing, Håkon K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram K; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2012-01-01

    We sought to identify predictors of extended duration of diarrhea in young children, which contributes substantially to the nearly 1 1/2 million annual diarrheal deaths globally. We followed 6-35 month old Nepalese children enrolled in the placebo-arm of a randomized controlled trial with 391 episodes of acute diarrhea from the day they were diagnosed until cessation of the episode. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, we identified independent risk factors for having diarrhea for more than 7 days after diagnosis. Infants had a 17 (95% CI 3.5, 83)-fold and toddlers (12 to 23 month olds) a 9.9 (95% CI 2.1, 47)-fold higher odds of having such illness duration compared to the older children. Not being breastfed was associated with a 9.3 (95% CI 2.4, 35.7)-fold increase in the odds for this outcome. The odds also increased with increasing stool frequency. Furthermore, having diarrhea in the monsoon season also increased the risk of prolonged illness. We found that high stool frequency, not being breastfed, young age and acquiring diarrhea in the rainy season were risk factors for prolonged diarrhea. In populations such as ours, breastfeeding may be the most important modifiable risk factor for extended duration of diarrhea.

  10. Risk factors for extended duration of acute diarrhea in young children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor A Strand

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: We sought to identify predictors of extended duration of diarrhea in young children, which contributes substantially to the nearly 1 1/2 million annual diarrheal deaths globally. METHODS: We followed 6-35 month old Nepalese children enrolled in the placebo-arm of a randomized controlled trial with 391 episodes of acute diarrhea from the day they were diagnosed until cessation of the episode. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, we identified independent risk factors for having diarrhea for more than 7 days after diagnosis. RESULTS: Infants had a 17 (95% CI 3.5, 83-fold and toddlers (12 to 23 month olds a 9.9 (95% CI 2.1, 47-fold higher odds of having such illness duration compared to the older children. Not being breastfed was associated with a 9.3 (95% CI 2.4, 35.7-fold increase in the odds for this outcome. The odds also increased with increasing stool frequency. Furthermore, having diarrhea in the monsoon season also increased the risk of prolonged illness. CONCLUSION: We found that high stool frequency, not being breastfed, young age and acquiring diarrhea in the rainy season were risk factors for prolonged diarrhea. In populations such as ours, breastfeeding may be the most important modifiable risk factor for extended duration of diarrhea.

  11. Expression of serotonin receptors in the colonic tissue of chronic diarrhea rats

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    Tong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the difference among the expression of serotonin receptors (5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in colonic tissue of chronic diarrhea rats. Materials and Methods: A rat model of chronic diarrhea was established by lactose diet. The expression of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the colonic tissue was detected using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blotting techniques. Results: There is no significant difference on the protein expression of 5-HT3receptor between the normal group and the chronic diarrhea model group. The mRNA expression of 5-HT3 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (n = 10; P< 0.01. The protein and mRNA expression of 5-HT4 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (n = 10; P< 0.05, P< 0.01. On the contrary, the protein and mRNA expressions of 5-HT7 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly decreased compared with the normal group (n = 10; P< 0.01, P< 0.01. Conclusions: The results suggested the receptors of 5-HT4and 5-HT7 may be involved in inducing diarrhea by lactose diet.

  12. Can Giardia lamblia infection lower the risk of acute diarrhea among preschool children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Cohen, Dani; Levine, Myron M

    2014-04-01

    There are inconsistent findings concerning the role of Giardia lamblia in pediatric diarrhea. A prospective cohort study of the incidence of acute diarrhea among Israeli Arab preschool children offered the opportunity to examine the association between G. lamblia infection (at baseline) and subsequent diarrhea. Following baseline screening by light microscopy for the presence of Giardia in their stools, a cohort was assembled of 142 children who were followed between October 2003 and August 2004 for the incidence of diarrhea. Surveillance was performed through maternal interviews. At baseline, 21 children tested Giardia-positive. During the prospective surveillance, acute diarrhea occurred less often among Giardia-positive children (9.5%) than among children who were not infected with Giardia (26.5%). G. lamblia infection was associated with lower risk of acute diarrhea; adjusted odds ratio of 0.18 (95% confidence interval 0.04-0.93) (p = 0.041). This prospective study provides additional evidence that Giardia may lower the risk of subsequent acute diarrhea among preschool children.

  13. Nitazoxanide in Acute Rotavirus Diarrhea: A Randomized Control Trial from a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatro, Samarendra; Mahilary, Nijwm; Satapathy, Amit Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Background. Acute diarrhea is one of the leading causes of childhood mortality, with rotavirus being an important pathogen. Nitazoxanide, an antiparasitic agent, has been shown to inhibit rotavirus. Objective. This double-blind, randomized trial was designed to study the role of nitazoxanide in acute rotavirus diarrhea. Methods. Of 174 children (12 months to 5 years) with acute diarrhea, 50 rotavirus positive cases were randomized. The intervention group received syrup nitazoxanide twice daily (100 mg in 12–47 months, 200 mg in ≥4 yr) for 3 days along with standard treatment of diarrhea. Duration of diarrhea was the primary outcome measure. Results. The median duration (hrs) of diarrhea (54 versus 80; 95% CI: –26 [–13.2 to –38.8]) and hospitalization (68 versus 90; 95% CI: –22 [–12.98 to –31.02]) was significantly shorter in the nitazoxanide group. No significant difference was seen in the median duration (hrs) of fever or vomiting or the proportion of children requiring parenteral rehydration. There was no report of any adverse events. Conclusions. Oral nitazoxanide is effective and safe in the management of acute rotavirus diarrhea in Indian children (CTRI REF/2016/10/012507). PMID:28331496

  14. Nitazoxanide in Acute Rotavirus Diarrhea: A Randomized Control Trial from a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samarendra Mahapatro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute diarrhea is one of the leading causes of childhood mortality, with rotavirus being an important pathogen. Nitazoxanide, an antiparasitic agent, has been shown to inhibit rotavirus. Objective. This double-blind, randomized trial was designed to study the role of nitazoxanide in acute rotavirus diarrhea. Methods. Of 174 children (12 months to 5 years with acute diarrhea, 50 rotavirus positive cases were randomized. The intervention group received syrup nitazoxanide twice daily (100 mg in 12–47 months, 200 mg in ≥4 yr for 3 days along with standard treatment of diarrhea. Duration of diarrhea was the primary outcome measure. Results. The median duration (hrs of diarrhea (54 versus 80; 95% CI: –26 [–13.2 to –38.8] and hospitalization (68 versus 90; 95% CI: –22 [–12.98 to –31.02] was significantly shorter in the nitazoxanide group. No significant difference was seen in the median duration (hrs of fever or vomiting or the proportion of children requiring parenteral rehydration. There was no report of any adverse events. Conclusions. Oral nitazoxanide is effective and safe in the management of acute rotavirus diarrhea in Indian children (CTRI REF/2016/10/012507.

  15. Lanreotide Autogel in the Treatment of Persistent Diarrhea following a Total Colectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeters, Patrick; De Pooter, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common complications following colectomy in patients with slow transit constipation (STC). Early postoperative diarrhea is usually treated with opioid agonists; however, to date, published data on the management of persistent diarrhea after colectomy for STC are scarce. Here, we report a case of severe diarrhea after a total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis. One year after the surgery, the patient presented with persistent diarrhea. Treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue, lanreotide Autogel, was initiated. One month after the first injection of lanreotide Autogel the diarrhea was resolved. The patient's stool transit was markedly improved (type 4 or type 5 according to the Bristol Stool Chart compared to type 7 before the treatment), positively affecting the patient's quality of life (mean score of 2.1 on the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life questionnaire compared to 3.9 before the treatment). This case report describes a successful use of lanreotide Autogel in a patient with persistent diarrhea after a total colectomy.

  16. Lanreotide Autogel in the Treatment of Persistent Diarrhea following a Total Colectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schoeters

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is one of the most common complications following colectomy in patients with slow transit constipation (STC. Early postoperative diarrhea is usually treated with opioid agonists; however, to date, published data on the management of persistent diarrhea after colectomy for STC are scarce. Here, we report a case of severe diarrhea after a total colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis. One year after the surgery, the patient presented with persistent diarrhea. Treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue, lanreotide Autogel, was initiated. One month after the first injection of lanreotide Autogel the diarrhea was resolved. The patient’s stool transit was markedly improved (type 4 or type 5 according to the Bristol Stool Chart compared to type 7 before the treatment, positively affecting the patient’s quality of life (mean score of 2.1 on the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life questionnaire compared to 3.9 before the treatment. This case report describes a successful use of lanreotide Autogel in a patient with persistent diarrhea after a total colectomy.

  17. Relationship between diarrhea and peripheral leukocyte population in neonatal Japanese black calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Mukai, Machiko; Tanami, Erika; Tokita, Mayumi; Hashiba, Yayoi; Kohiruimaki, Masayuki; Shibano, Ken-Ichi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Morris, Stephen

    2011-11-01

    Neonatal Japanese Black (JB) calves show a high incidence of diarrhea. The objective of this study was to analyze the immune cell populations of neonatal JB calves in detail and examine its correlation with the incidence of diarrhea immediately after birth. Understanding the immune cell populations is helpful in clinics in order to determine the condition of the immune system for prevention of diseases. Blood samples were obtained from JB calves on the day of birth. The peripheral leukocyte populations were analyzed separately for calves that had diarrhea within 2 weeks after birth (diarrhea group; n = 26) and for calves without diarrhea (control group; n = 74). The numbers of the peripheral blood CD3(+)TcR1-N12(+) and CD8(+) T cells were significantly lower in the diarrhea group compared with the control group. These findings suggest that the congenital lower peripheral γδ and CD8(+) T cells results in a high risk of diarrhea in neonatal JB calves.

  18. Changes in Childhood Diarrhea Incidence in Nicaragua Following 3 Years of Universal Infant Rotavirus Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Paniagua, Margarita; Dominik, Rosalie; Cao, Hongyuan; Shah, Naman K.; Morgan, Douglas R.; Moreno, Gilberto; Espinoza, Félix

    2011-01-01

    Background While the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine was highly efficacious against rotavirus diarrhea in clinical trials, the vaccine’s effectiveness under field conditions in the developing world is unclear. In October, 2006, Nicaragua became the first developing nation to implement universal infant immunization with the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine. To assess the impact of the immunization program, we examined the incidence of diarrhea episodes between 2003 and 2009 among children in the state of León, Nicaragua. Methods We extracted data on diarrhea episodes from health ministry records. We used scaled Poisson regression models to estimate diarrhea incidence rate ratios (IRR) for the period following the program’s implementation to the period before implementation. Results Following implementation of the immunization program, diarrhea episodes among infants were reduced (IRR 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–1.02) during the rotavirus season, but appear to have increased during other months. Conclusions While the immunization program appears effective in reducing diarrhea episodes during the rotavirus season, a large burden of diarrhea persists during the remainder of the year. PMID:20881511

  19. Characterization of microbial dysbiosis and metabolomic changes in dogs with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guard, Blake C; Barr, James W; Reddivari, Lavanya; Klemashevich, Cory; Jayaraman, Arul; Steiner, Jörg M; Vanamala, Jairam; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the metabolic consequences of intestinal dysbiosis in dogs with acute onset of diarrhea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fecal microbiome, fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), as well as serum and urine metabolites in healthy dogs (n=13) and dogs with acute diarrhea (n=13). The fecal microbiome, SCFAs, and serum/urine metabolite profiles were characterized by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes, GC/MS, and untargeted and targeted metabolomics approach using UPLC/MS and HPLC/MS, respectively. Significantly lower bacterial diversity was observed in dogs with acute diarrhea in regards to species richness, chao1, and Shannon index (p=0.0218, 0.0176, and 0.0033; respectively). Dogs with acute diarrhea had significantly different microbial communities compared to healthy dogs (unweighted Unifrac distances, ANOSIM p=0.0040). While Bacteroidetes, Faecalibacterium, and an unclassified genus within Ruminococcaceae were underrepresented, the genus Clostridium was overrepresented in dogs with acute diarrhea. Concentrations of fecal propionic acid were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0033), and were correlated to a decrease in Faecalibacterium (ρ=0.6725, p=0.0332). The predicted functional gene content of the microbiome (PICRUSt) revealed overrepresentations of genes for transposase enzymes as well as methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins in acute diarrhea. Serum concentrations of kynurenic acid and urine concentrations of 2-methyl-1H-indole and 5-Methoxy-1H-indole-3-carbaldehyde were significantly decreased in acute diarrhea (p=0.0048, 0.0185, and 0.0330, respectively). These results demonstrate that the fecal dysbiosis present in acute diarrhea is associated with altered systemic metabolic states.

  20. [Detection of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar by PCR in children, less than five years of age with diarrhea, in Maracaibo, Venezuela. A preliminary study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho Mora, Angela; Rivero de Rodríguez, Zulbey; Arraiz, Nailet; Villalobos, Rafael; Urdaneta, Haydee

    2013-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica as a producer of diarrhea, a study was conducted in children, less than five years of age, with diarrhea who attended several out patient clinics of the Servicio Aut6nomo Hospital Universitario, Maracaibo, Venezuela. A macroscopic and microscopic examination with physiological saline, lugol and Kinyoun staining were performed to the stool samples obtained. The remainder of the sample was frozen until DNA extraction, and PCR amplification was performed separately for E. histolytica and E. dispar. Microscopic examination showed no trophozoites and/or cysts of Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii, or intestinal coccidians in any of the 50 samples analyzed. Parasites detected were Giardia lamblia (6%), Blastocystis sp. (4%), Pentatrichomonas hominis (2%), Ascaris lumbricoides (2%) and Trichuris trichiura (2%). By PCR, six samples (12%) had DNA of E. dispar and two (4%) had DNA from E. histolytica; no child showed association of both amoebae. The two children who had E. histolytica were one-year-old. E. dispar was detected in younger children. We suggest that the prevalence of E. histolytica in children under five years is really low.

  1. Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria syndrome due to an adrenal pheochromocytoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shin-ichi Ikuta; Chiaki Yasui; Masahiro Kawanaka; Tsukasa Aihara; Hidenori Yoshie; Hidenori Yanagi; Masao Mitsunobu; Ayako Sugihara; Naoki Yamanaka

    2007-01-01

    Watery diarrhea, hypokalemia and achlorhydria (WDHA)syndrome caused by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) -producing tumor only rarely occurs in patients with nonpancreatic disease. A 49-year-old woman was referred for evaluation of a right adrenal tumor incidentally diagnosed by abdominal ultrasound during the investigation of chronic watery diarrhea. Laboratory findings showed hypokalemia and excessive production of VIP and catecholamines. After surgical resection of the tumor, diarrhea subsided and both electrolytes and affected hormone levels normalized. Immunohistochemical examination confirmed a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma,which contained VIP-positive ganglion-like cells. We herein present the clinical and histogenetic implications of this rare clinical entity, with literature review.

  2. TREATMENT OF 80 CASES OF INFANTILE DIARRHEA WITH ABDOMINAL ACUPUNCTURE AND MOXIBUSTION ON SHENQUE (CV 8)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PU Shang-xi; CHEN Pu-qing

    2006-01-01

    @@ Infantile diarrhea is the common and frequently-occurred disease in the pediatric department, fallen into the cate gory of "Xiaoer Xiexie" (infantile diarrhea) in Chinese medicine, which is commonly caused by the invasion of exogenous pathogenic factors, improper diet, the yang deficiency of the spleen and kidney and the weakness of the spleen and stomach. Eighty cases of infantile diarrhea had been treated with the abdominal acupuncture and moxibustion on Shenque (神阙CV 8) and the satisfactory results had been achieved. The report is as follows.

  3. Assessment of the maternal self-efficacy for child diarrhea prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Taís Capistrano Lopes; Anne Fayma Lopes Chaves; Emanuella Silva Joventino; Rebeca Silveira Rocha; Ana Rita Pimentel Castelo; Mônica Oliveira Batista Oriá

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at assessing self-efficacy for preventing child diarrhea among mothers of children living in Quixadá, Ceará, Brazil. A descriptive, quantitative study was conducted in three Basic Health Units of Quixadá, CE, Brazil from March to May2012.We interviewed 150 mothers of children under five years, using the socio demographic form and the Maternal Self-Efficacy Scale for Child Diarrhea Prevention. 51.3% of children had had diarrhea, 89% of the mothers had low self-efficacy for prev...

  4. Bacteremia in equine neonatal diarrhea: a retrospective study (1990-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, A R; Wilkins, P A; Palmer, J E; Boston, R C

    2008-01-01

    Bacteremia in sick foals is associated with survival, but the association of bacteremia and diarrhea is not reported. Neonatal foals with diarrhea will commonly be bacteremic. One hundred and thirty-three neonatal foals. Records of all foals spp. (22 isolates, 29%), followed by Pantoea agglomerans (13 isolates, 17%). IgG concentration at admission was not associated with blood culture status. Blood culture status was not associated with survival to hospital discharge. Bacteremia is common in neonatal foals with diarrhea. Decisions regarding antimicrobial selection should be made with these differences in mind.

  5. Etiology and pharmacologic management of noninfectious diarrhea in HIV-infected individuals in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Rodger D; DuPont, Herbert L

    2012-09-01

    Diarrhea remains a common problem for patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection despite highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) and can negatively affect patient quality of life and lead to discontinuation or switching of HAART regimens. In the era of HAART, diarrhea from opportunistic infections is uncommon, and HIV-associated diarrhea often has noninfectious causes, including HAART-related adverse events and HIV enteropathy. Diarrhea associated with HAART is typically caused by protease inhibitors (eg, ritonavir), which may damage the intestinal epithelial barrier (leaky-flux diarrhea) and/or alter chloride ion secretion (secretory diarrhea). HIV enteropathy may result from direct effects of HIV on gastrointestinal tract cells and on the gastrointestinal immune system and gut-associated lymphoid tissue, which may be active sites of HIV infection and ongoing inflammation and mucosal damage. New therapies targeting the pathogenic mechanisms of noninfectious diarrheas are needed.

  6. The use of probiotics in the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea with special interest in Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Cynthia L; Bartolini, Vickie; Jones, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobials are effective agents used to combat virulent bacterial, yeast, and fungal infections that may otherwise cause rampant disease leading to skyrocketing social/economic costs and possible epidemic morbidity and mortality rates. Antibiotics are designed to attack specific bacterial pathogens but, in the process, indiscreetly reduce the number of beneficial human microbiota that is part of the gut-associated lymphatic tissue. Broad-spectrum antibiotics can upset this uniquely balanced gut ratio, allowing pathogens to propagate in a largely unrestrained environment, which may result in antibiotic-induced diarrhea. Critical illness, age, immunosuppression, exposure to nosocomial microorganisms, and the length of hospitalization are additional factors that contribute to the overgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. In mild to moderate cases of diarrhea, absorptive impairment may occur, thereby reducing micro/macronutrient assimilation, resulting in malnutrition and growth issues in children. In severe cases, infectious diarrhea can have devastating complications. Of particular interest is the bacterium Clostridium difficile, which has the potential to cause a host of symptoms ranging from mild diarrhea to severe life-threatening conditions. C. difficile infection can increase mortality rates by 10%-30%. Probiotic supplementation may prevent and treat antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Specific probiotics may modulate the intestinal mucosa by antagonizing pathogens through the production of antimicrobial compounds and chemicals, thereby reducing the rate of nosocomial infection and recurrence of C. difficile.

  7. Assessing what to address in science communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruine de Bruin, Wändi; Bostrom, Ann

    2013-01-01

    As members of a democratic society, individuals face complex decisions about whether to support climate change mitigation, vaccinations, genetically modified food, nanotechnology, geoengineering, and so on. To inform people’s decisions and public debate, scientific experts at government agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and other organizations aim to provide understandable and scientifically accurate communication materials. Such communications aim to improve people’s understanding of the decision-relevant issues, and if needed, promote behavior change. Unfortunately, existing communications sometimes fail when scientific experts lack information about what people need to know to make more informed decisions or what wording people use to describe relevant concepts. We provide an introduction for scientific experts about how to use mental models research with intended audience members to inform their communication efforts. Specifically, we describe how to conduct interviews to characterize people’s decision-relevant beliefs or mental models of the topic under consideration, identify gaps and misconceptions in their knowledge, and reveal their preferred wording. We also describe methods for designing follow-up surveys with larger samples to examine the prevalence of beliefs as well as the relationships of beliefs with behaviors. Finally, we discuss how findings from these interviews and surveys can be used to design communications that effectively address gaps and misconceptions in people’s mental models in wording that they understand. We present applications to different scientific domains, showing that this approach leads to communications that improve recipients’ understanding and ability to make informed decisions. PMID:23942122

  8. Obesity Prevalence Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Adult Obesity Prevalence Maps Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Obesity Prevalence in 2016 by Education and Age Obesity ...

  9. Effective treatment of common variable immunodeficiency associated diarrhea Diarrea asociada a inmunodeficiencia común variable tratada con budesonida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Córdova Guevara

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID, the commonest symptomatic primary antibody deficiency syndrome, is characterised by recurrent bacterial infections, particularly of the upper and lower airways; it is also associated with an increased incidence of autoimmune and neoplastic disorders. CVID has a high prevalence of infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic gastrointestinal diseases. Up to 60% of the patients with non-treated CVID develop diarrhea and 10% associated idiopathic malabsorption with weight loss. The case of a 50-year-old woman with CVID-associated diarrhea, abdominal pain and bloating of one year's duration is reported. An exhaustive evaluation made for secondary causes of her symptoms was unrevealing; she was treated with loperamide and diet, without improvement. She later followed a course of oral budesonide for 3 months; her clinical symptoms disappeared and her quality of life improved. In conclusion, we report the case of a patient with CVID-related chronic diarrhea who responded well to oral budesonide treatment. This outcome provides the gastroenterologist with a new therapeutic option in this difficult group of patients.La inmunodeficiencia común variable (IDCV es la deficiencia primaria de anticuerpos sintomática más frecuente y está caracterizada por infecciones bacterianas recurrentes, especialmente de las vías aéreas superiores e inferiores, y también asociada a incremento de enfermedades autoinmunes y neoplasias. Presenta alta prevalencia de enfermedades gastrointestinales infecciosas, inflamatorias y neoplásicas. Hasta el 60% de los pacientes con IDCV no tratados desarrollan diarrea y el 10% desarrollan malabsorción idiopática asociado a pérdida de peso. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 50 años con IDCV que presenta diarrea crónica, con dolor y distensión abdominal desde hace 1 año. Realizándose múltiples exploraciones y descartando causas secundarias de diarrea crónica, se inicia

  10. A 3-YEAR FOLLOW-UP OF A BRAZILIAN AIDS PATIENT WITH PROTRACTED DIARRHEA CAUSED BY Enterocytozoon bieneusi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia BRASIL

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most prevalent microsporidian parasite that causes gastrointestinal infection in persons with AIDS. Microsporidia are increasingly recognized as important opportunistic pathogens all over the world but in Brazil only few cases have been reported due either to the non awareness of the clinical presentation of the disease or to difficulties in the laboratory diagnosis. We report a 3-year follow-up of a Brazilian HIV-positive patient in whom microsporidial spores were detected in stools and were identified as E. bieneusi using electron microscopy and PCR. The patient presented with chronic diarrhea, CD4 T-lymphocytes count below 100/mm3 and microsporidial spores were consistently detected in stools. Albendazole was given to the patient in several occasions with transient relief of the diarrhea, which reappeared as soon as the drug was discontinued. Nevertheless, a diarrhea-free period with weight gain up to 18 Kg occurred when a combination of nucleoside and protease inhibitors was initiated as part of the antiviral treatment.Enterocytozoon bieneusi é o mais comum microsporídio agente de infecções gastrointestinais que ocorre predominantemente em pessoas com AIDS. Em todo o mundo os microsporídios são reconhecidos como importantes patógenos oportunistas, entretanto poucos casos já foram diagnosticados no Brasil, provavelmente devido ao pouco conhecimento do quadro clínico que os agentes produzem ou a dificuldades no diagnóstico laboratorial. No presente trabalho relatamos o caso de um paciente brasileiro HIV-positivo acompanhado durante 3 anos, em que foram detectados esporos de microsporídios nas fezes, identificados como Enterocytozoon bieneusi por microscopia eletrônica e PCR. O paciente apresentava diarréia crônica, contagem de linfócitos CD4 abaixo de 100/mm3 e fez uso de albendazol em diferentes ocasiões com melhora transitória da diarréia, que reaparecia logo que a droga era suspensa

  11. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  12. Human group C rotavirus in children with diarrhea in the Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teixeira J.M.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Group C rotaviruses are fastidious in their in vitro cell culture requirements. Recent serosurveys indicate that antibody to group C rotavirus is present in 3-45% of the human population in certain geographic locations, suggesting that rotavirus group C infection is more prevalent than previously believed and that the low rate of detection of these agents is probably due to the lack of sensitive diagnostic assays. From March to December 1994, 406 fecal specimens were collected from children under five years of age who were outpatients at the emergency services of nine public hospitals in Brasília, Federal District, Brazil. In addition to the samples from children, one public outpatient unit requested virological investigation of a stool sample from an HIV-seropositive adult male with diarrhea of sudden onset. All samples were analyzed by enzyme immunoassay for group A rotavirus and adenovirus (EIARA and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE. One hundred and seven (26% were positive for group A rotavirus. Four samples from children and the sample from the HIV-seropositive patient, although negative by EIARA, showed a group C rotavirus profile by PAGE and were positive for rotavirus by electron microscopy. Using specific VP6 and VP7 primers for group C rotavirus, a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR was performed and products were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis and ethidium bromide staining. These products were confirmed to be specific for group C rotavirus by using digoxigenin-oligonucleotide probes, Southern hybridization and chemiluminescent detection. The five positive group C rotavirus samples were detected in August (3 samples and September (2 samples. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of group C rotavirus detected in the Federal District, Brazil and in an HIV-seropositive patient with acute gastroenteritis.

  13. Stochastic simulation modeling to determine time to detect Bovine Viral Diarrhea antibodies in bulk tank milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foddai, Alessandro; Enøe, Claes; Krogh, Kaspar; Stockmarr, Anders; Halasa, Tariq

    2014-11-01

    A stochastic simulation model was developed to estimate the time from introduction of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) in a herd to detection of antibodies in bulk tank milk (BTM) samples using three ELISAs. We assumed that antibodies could be detected, after a fixed threshold prevalence of seroconverted milking cows was reached in the herd. Different thresholds were set for each ELISA, according to previous studies. For each test, antibody detection was simulated in small (70 cows), medium (150 cows) and large (320 cows) herds. The assays included were: (1) the Danish blocking ELISA, (2) the SVANOVIR(®)BVDV-Ab ELISA, and (3) the ELISA BVD/MD p80 Institute Pourquier. The validation of the model was mainly carried out by comparing the predicted incidence of persistently infected (PI) calves and the predicted detection time, with records from a BVD infected herd. Results showed that the SVANOVIR, which was the most efficient ELISA, could detect antibodies in the BTM of a large herd 280 days (95% prediction interval: 218; 568) after a transiently infected (TI) milking cow has been introduced into the herd. The estimated time to detection after introduction of one PI calf was 111 days (44; 605). With SVANOVIR ELISA the incidence of PIs and dead born calves could be limited and the impact of the disease on the animal welfare and income of farmers (before detection) could be minimized. The results from the simulation modeling can be used to improve the current Danish BVD surveillance program in detecting early infected herds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Commercially available probiotic drinks containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 reduce antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Christoph G; Kottmann, Tanja; Alavi, Manuela

    2014-11-14

    To investigate the effect of Lactobacillus-containing commercially available probiotic formulations in Germany during antibiotic treatment with an analysis of cost-efficiency. In an observational study, we analyzed the frequency of bowel movements from 258 patients with infections in a primary care hospital in western Germany; 107 of the patients were offered a probiotic drink containing at least 10 billion cultures of Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 b.i.d. The economic analysis was based on the costs of patient isolation vs preventive intake of probiotics. In a second pilot study, two commercially available probiotic drinks with different Lactobacillus casei strains were directly compared in 60 patients in a randomized controlled fashion. In the first study, the incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) was significantly reduced in the intervention group (6.5% vs 28.4%), and the duration of AAD in days was significantly shorter (1.7 ± 1.1 vs 3.1 ± 2.1). Higher age and creatinine and lower albumin were identified as risk factors for AAD. Ampicillin was the antibiotic with the highest rate of AAD (50%) and with the greatest AAD reduction in the probiotic group (4.2%, relative risk reduction 92%). The economic analysis showed a cost advantage of nearly 60000 €/year in a department of this size. The second study confirmed the preventive effect of the drink with Lactobacillus casei DN114001; however, there were no advantages found for the other tested probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota. In contrast to a drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota, a commercially available probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN 114001 cost-efficiently reduces the prevalence of AAD during antibiotic treatment.

  15. Chronic diarrhea due to duodenal candidiasis in a patient with a history of kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri-Majalan, Nader; Moghaddasi, Sarasadat; Qane, Mohammad Davud; Shefaie, Farzane; Masoumi Dehshiri, Roghayyeh; Amirbaigy, Mohammad Kassem; Baghbanian, Mahmoud

    2014-11-01

    Candida infection in the small intestine is uncommon. We report an unusual case of duodenal candidiasis that presented as chronic diarrhea in a patient who had previously undergone kidney transplantation. A 60-year-old man presented with profuse watery diarrhea that had lasted 6 months 13 years after kidney transplantation. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy results indicated candidiasis within the esophagus and duodenum. Biopsy results revealed active duodenitis with hyphal and yeast forms of Candida overlying the duodenal epithelium in periodic acid Schiff staining. The patient was successfully treated with fluconazole. After 6 months of follow-up, the patient had no complaint of diarrhea. Duodenal candidiasis may be the result of chronic diarrhea in patients with a history of kidney transplantation.

  16. Management of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients: current treatment options, challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Elfstrand

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Lidia Elfstrand, Claes-Henrik FlorénDepartment of Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, SwedenAbstract: Diarrhea is a common clinical manifestation of HIV infection regardless of whether the patients have AIDS. HIV and malnutrition tend to occur in the same populations, the underprivileged and resource-poor. Malnutrition increases severity and mortality of infection. Occurrence of chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, gut status and pathogenic agents, nutritional status and the crucial role of nutrition are reviewed. Bovine colostrum-based food can be useful for managing chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected patients, enhancing both nutritional and immunological status.Keywords: HIV, diarrhea, nutrition, bovine colostrum, CD4+ 

  17. Treating children diarrhea by massage%推拿手法治疗小儿泄泻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学涛; 汪斌; 牟慧琴

    2013-01-01

      目的:对推拿手法治疗小儿泄泻进行探讨。方法:将小儿泄泻进行分类。用推拿手法对一名患儿进行治疗,推拿2次/d。结果:患儿按摩一周痊愈。结论:用中医推拿治疗小儿泄泻,疗效显著,值得在临床中推广。%  Objective:To investigate clinical effects of the massage on treating diarrhea in children. Methods:Classify the diarrhea in children. One patient was given massage therapy twice a day. Results:The diarrhea cured after three courses. Conclusion:The massage was effective in treating diarrhea in children, worthy of a wide application.

  18. An outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in piglets in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the substantial role of Clostridium difficile in causing diarrhea in piglets, there have been few reports of the disease caused by this bacterium in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In this paper, we describe an outbreak of C. difficile-associated diarrhea in a pig farm in Brazil. The diarrhea rate increased in piglets 1-to-7 days old from an average of 2% to approximately 20%. Necropsied piglets showed mesocolon edema, and in a histological evaluation, severe necrotizing neutrophilic colitis was observed. The intestinal contents were positive for the A/B toxins of C. difficile and negative for other tested enteropathogens. The association between the clinical signs, post mortem findings and laboratory exams confirmed the diagnosis of C. difficile-associated diarrhea. The present report confirms C. difficile as a pathogen in swine in Brazil and highlights the need for up to date routine laboratory protocols for the diagnosis of this disease in swine.

  19. BLASTOCYSTIS SP. AND BLASTOCYSTIS RATTI IN A BRAZILIAN PORCUPINE (COENDOU PREHENSILIS) WITH DIARRHEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goe, Alexandra M; Heard, Darryl J; Easley, J Roger; Weeden, Amy L; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2016-06-01

    A hand-raised, 5-mo-old, intact male Brazilian porcupine (Coendou prehensilis) was evaluated for chronic diarrhea, failure to thrive, and anorexia. On presentation the porcupette was dull, dehydrated, and passing yellow, malodourous, watery diarrhea. Cytologic examination of feces revealed a large number of organisms, morphologically consistent with Blastocystis. Blastocystis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) performed on feces was positive. Direct sequencing on two sequential samples confirmed the presence of Blastocystis ratti and a novel Blastocystis sequence. The porcupette was treated supportively, which included a 4-wk metronidazole course. Diarrhea resolved within 2 wk of treatment, and the animal's growth rate dramatically improved. Recheck PCR was negative for Blastocystis. Although an important and controversial cause of diarrhea in immunocompromised humans, this organism is not well recognized as a potential pathogen and zoonosis in zoo animals. Clinicians should be aware of the potential for disease associated with this organism, especially in immunocompromised animals.

  20. Fluorescence in situ hybridization investigation of potentially pathogenic bacteria involved in neonatal porcine diarrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonach, Beata Renata; Boye, Mette; Stockmarr, Anders

    2014-01-01

    pathogens. The microorganisms that for decades have been associated with enteritis and diarrhea in suckling piglets are: rotavirus A, coronavirus, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), Clostridium perfringens type C, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., Cystoisospora suis and Strongyloides ransomi...