WorldWideScience

Sample records for address heat tolerance

  1. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    and quantitative genetics in particular, plant phenotyping based quantitative trait loci (QTL) discovery for a physiological trait under heat stress. Chlorophyll a fluorescence trait, Fv/Fm was used as a phenotyping tool, as it reflects the effect of heat stress on maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem...... reveal how important these identified QTLs are in terms of improving heat tolerance in wheat. Similar approach of plant phenotyping based gene discovery can be used to understand other physiological traits in plants in response to different abiotic stresses, which may lead to identification of genes...... climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology...

  2. Fault-Tolerant Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Crowley, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    A compact, lightweight heat exchanger has been designed to be fault-tolerant in the sense that a single-point leak would not cause mixing of heat-transfer fluids. This particular heat exchanger is intended to be part of the temperature-regulation system for habitable modules of the International Space Station and to function with water and ammonia as the heat-transfer fluids. The basic fault-tolerant design is adaptable to other heat-transfer fluids and heat exchangers for applications in which mixing of heat-transfer fluids would pose toxic, explosive, or other hazards: Examples could include fuel/air heat exchangers for thermal management on aircraft, process heat exchangers in the cryogenic industry, and heat exchangers used in chemical processing. The reason this heat exchanger can tolerate a single-point leak is that the heat-transfer fluids are everywhere separated by a vented volume and at least two seals. The combination of fault tolerance, compactness, and light weight is implemented in a unique heat-exchanger core configuration: Each fluid passage is entirely surrounded by a vented region bridged by solid structures through which heat is conducted between the fluids. Precise, proprietary fabrication techniques make it possible to manufacture the vented regions and heat-conducting structures with very small dimensions to obtain a very large coefficient of heat transfer between the two fluids. A large heat-transfer coefficient favors compact design by making it possible to use a relatively small core for a given heat-transfer rate. Calculations and experiments have shown that in most respects, the fault-tolerant heat exchanger can be expected to equal or exceed the performance of the non-fault-tolerant heat exchanger that it is intended to supplant (see table). The only significant disadvantages are a slight weight penalty and a small decrease in the mass-specific heat transfer.

  3. Enhancement of reproductive heat tolerance in plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Burke

    Full Text Available Comparison of average crop yields with reported record yields has shown that major crops exhibit annual average yields three- to seven-fold lower than record yields because of unfavorable environments. The current study investigated the enhancement of pollen heat tolerance through expressing an Arabidopsis thaliana heat shock protein 101 (AtHSP101 that is not normally expressed in pollen but reported to play a crucial role in vegetative thermotolerance. The AtHSP101 construct under the control of the constitutive ocs/mas 'superpromoter' was transformed into cotton Coker 312 and tobacco SRI lines via Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Thermotolerance of pollen was evaluated by in vitro pollen germination studies. Comparing with those of wild type and transgenic null lines, pollen from AtHSP101 transgenic tobacco and cotton lines exhibited significantly higher germination rate and much greater pollen tube elongation under elevated temperatures or after a heat exposure. In addition, significant increases in boll set and seed numbers were also observed in transgenic cotton lines exposed to elevated day and night temperatures in both greenhouse and field studies. The results of this study suggest that enhancing heat tolerance of reproductive tissues in plant holds promise in the development of crops with improved yield production and yield sustainability in unfavorable environments.

  4. Genomic Selection Improves Heat Tolerance in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J. B.; Douglas, M. L.; Williams, S. R. O; Wales, W. J.; Marett, L. C.; Nguyen, T. T. T.; Reich, C. M.; Hayes, B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Dairy products are a key source of valuable proteins and fats for many millions of people worldwide. Dairy cattle are highly susceptible to heat-stress induced decline in milk production, and as the frequency and duration of heat-stress events increases, the long term security of nutrition from dairy products is threatened. Identification of dairy cattle more tolerant of heat stress conditions would be an important progression towards breeding better adapted dairy herds to future climates. Breeding for heat tolerance could be accelerated with genomic selection, using genome wide DNA markers that predict tolerance to heat stress. Here we demonstrate the value of genomic predictions for heat tolerance in cohorts of Holstein cows predicted to be heat tolerant and heat susceptible using controlled-climate chambers simulating a moderate heatwave event. Not only was the heat challenge stimulated decline in milk production less in cows genomically predicted to be heat-tolerant, physiological indicators such as rectal and intra-vaginal temperatures had reduced increases over the 4 day heat challenge. This demonstrates that genomic selection for heat tolerance in dairy cattle is a step towards securing a valuable source of nutrition and improving animal welfare facing a future with predicted increases in heat stress events. PMID:27682591

  5. Studies on heat tolerance at rest and orthostatic heat tolerance in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, S; Ihzuka, H

    1979-12-01

    Twelve young male Japanese were exposed to a hot environment in summer, and changes in systolic blood pressure induced by changing the position from recumbent to sitting were observed. Sweating was induced in a climatic chamber at 30 degree C with 70% relative humidity by immersing both legs up to the knees into a water bath of 42 degree C for 90 min after sitting on a chair at rest for 30 min in the chamber. The mean values of rise in rectal temperature, body weight loss and mean sodium concentration in sweat were 0.62 degree C, 0.67 kg and 46 mEq/l, respectively. The mean values of fall in systolic blood pressure associated with changing posture and its recovery time were 13.7 mm Hg and 77.5 sec, respectively. Heat tolerance at rest was assessed by a numerical heat tolerance index involving relative water loss, relative rise in rectal temperature, and relative salt loss. Values of relative water loss, relative rise in rectal temperature, and the numerical heat tolerance index correlated closely to those of fall in systolic blood pressure and its recovery time. PMID:555471

  6. Urban Physiology: City Ants Possess High Heat Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Angilletta, Michael J; Wilson, Robbie S; Niehaus, Amanda C.; Michael W Sears; Navas, Carlos A.; Ribeiro, Pedro L.

    2007-01-01

    Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12 degrees C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We tested these predications by measuring heat and cold tolerances of leaf-cutter ants from South America's largest city (São Paulo, Brazil). Specifically, we compared thermal tole...

  7. Assessing the heat tolerance of 17 beef cattle genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaughan, J. B.; Mader, T. L.; Holt, S. M.; Sullivan, M. L.; Hahn, G. L.

    2010-11-01

    Cattle production plays a significant role in terms of world food production. Nearly 82% of the world's 1.2 billion cattle can be found in developing countries. An increasing demand for meat in developing countries has seen an increase in intensification of animal industries, and a move to cross-bred animals. Heat tolerance is considered to be one of the most important adaptive aspects for cattle, and the lack of thermally-tolerant breeds is a major constraint on cattle production in many countries. There is a need to not only identify heat tolerant breeds, but also heat tolerant animals within a non-tolerant breed. Identification of heat tolerant animals is not easy under field conditions. In this study, panting score (0 to 4.5 scale where 0 = no stress and 4.5 = extreme stress) and the heat load index (HLI) [HLIBG 25°C = 8.62 + 0.38 × rh + 1.55 × BG - 0.5 × WS + e(2.4 - WS), where BG = black globe temperature (oC), rh = relative humidity (decimal form), WS = wind speed (m/s) and e is the base of the natural logarithm] were used to assess the heat tolerance of 17 genotypes (12,757 steers) within 13 Australian feedlots over three summers. The cattle were assessed under natural climatic conditions in which HLI ranged from thermonuetral (HLI 96; black globe temperature = 40.2°C, relative humidity = 64%, wind speed = 1.58 m/s). When HLI > 96 a greater number ( P Brahman cattle, and Brahman-cross cattle. The heat tolerance of the assessed breeds was verified using panting scores and the HLI. Heat tolerance of cattle can be assessed under field conditions by using panting score and HLI.

  8. Urban physiology: city ants possess high heat tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Angilletta

    Full Text Available Urbanization has caused regional increases in temperature that exceed those measured on a global scale, leading to urban heat islands as much as 12 degrees C hotter than their surroundings. Optimality models predict ectotherms in urban areas should tolerate heat better and cold worse than ectotherms in rural areas. We tested these predications by measuring heat and cold tolerances of leaf-cutter ants from South America's largest city (São Paulo, Brazil. Specifically, we compared thermal tolerances of ants from inside and outside of the city. Knock-down resistance and chill-coma recovery were used as indicators of heat and cold tolerances, respectively. Ants from within the city took 20% longer to lose mobility at 42 degrees C than ants from outside the city. Interestingly, greater heat tolerance came at no obvious expense of cold tolerance; hence, our observations only partially support current theory. Our results indicate that thermal tolerances of some organisms can respond to rapid changes in climate. Predictive models should account for acclimatory and evolutionary responses during climate change.

  9. Promoting Communication: Teaching Tolerance of Homosexual Persons While Addressing Religious Fears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, PJ

    This paper addresses how to teach tolerance of homosexual persons in a manner that is not threatening to those with religious scruples about homosexuals. It contains an example of a presentation for college students that is designed to teach them to respect their peers and future coworkers regardless of their sexual orientation. The presentation…

  10. Heat tolerance in sheep with white and dark coat under heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayanne Lopes Batista

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate heat tolerance of thirty crossbred sheep (Santa Ines with Dorper with white and black coat under heat stress. The experiment was conducted in September and October of 2012 and a completely randomized design was used. Before and after one hour exposure to solar radiation (14h00 - 15h00, rectal temperature, respiratory rate and surface temperature of the animals were measured. The Black Globe Temperature Humidity Index, the Heat Tolerance Index and the Heat Tolerance Coefficient were calculated. The values found for the Black Globe Temperature Humidity Index in the sun and in the shade were 89.08 and 82.81 respectively. Animals coat coloring did not influence on their rectal temperature and there was no difference on the heat tolerance index. It was verified the effect of coat coloring on the respiratory rate in dark colored hair coat sheep (P < 0.05 and the effect of the environment and coat coloring on the surface temperature and on the heat tolerance coefficient under the sun. Dark colored hair coat sheep presented lower heat tolerance.

  11. An addressable quantum dot qubit with fault-tolerant control-fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhorst, M; Hwang, J C C; Yang, C H; Leenstra, A W; de Ronde, B; Dehollain, J P; Muhonen, J T; Hudson, F E; Itoh, K M; Morello, A; Dzurak, A S

    2014-12-01

    Exciting progress towards spin-based quantum computing has recently been made with qubits realized using nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond and phosphorus atoms in silicon. For example, long coherence times were made possible by the presence of spin-free isotopes of carbon and silicon. However, despite promising single-atom nanotechnologies, there remain substantial challenges in coupling such qubits and addressing them individually. Conversely, lithographically defined quantum dots have an exchange coupling that can be precisely engineered, but strong coupling to noise has severely limited their dephasing times and control fidelities. Here, we combine the best aspects of both spin qubit schemes and demonstrate a gate-addressable quantum dot qubit in isotopically engineered silicon with a control fidelity of 99.6%, obtained via Clifford-based randomized benchmarking and consistent with that required for fault-tolerant quantum computing. This qubit has dephasing time T2* = 120 μs and coherence time T2 = 28 ms, both orders of magnitude larger than in other types of semiconductor qubit. By gate-voltage-tuning the electron g*-factor we can Stark shift the electron spin resonance frequency by more than 3,000 times the 2.4 kHz electron spin resonance linewidth, providing a direct route to large-scale arrays of addressable high-fidelity qubits that are compatible with existing manufacturing technologies. PMID:25305743

  12. Heat tolerance of dairy lactococcal c2 phages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig; Basheer, Aideh; Neve, H.;

    2011-01-01

    Nine Lactococcus lactis c2 phages propagated on different hosts were screened for thermal resistance in skimmed milk. Pronounced variations in thermal resistance were found. Three phages displayed high sensitivity towards heat resulting in >8 log reductions after 70 °C for 5 min, whereas the most...... thermal resistant phages required 80 °C for 5 min to obtain the same reduction. Inactivation kinetics were determined for a thermo-sensitive and a thermo-resistant phage at 60–70 °C and 65–78 °C, respectively, using a submerged-coil system with extremely short heating-up times. Inactivation followed first...... thermal inactivated lysates (15% phage inactivation) of the heat tolerant phage P635....

  13. Elevatated CO2 alleviates heat stress tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2014-01-01

    Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...... origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 µl l-1) and elevated (800 µl l-1) CO2 with a day/night temperature of 15/10°С. At the growth stages of tillering, booting and anthesis, the plants were subjected to heat stress of 40°С for three continuous days. Photosynthetic parameters, maximum quantum...... to the combination of elevated CO2 and heat stress. The results show that heat stress tolerance in wheat is related to cultivar origin, the phenological stage of the plants and can be alleviated by elevated CO2. This confirms the complex interrelation between environmental factors and genotypic traits that influence...

  14. A fault-tolerant addressable spin qubit in a natural silicon quantum dot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kenta; Kamioka, Jun; Otsuka, Tomohiro; Yoneda, Jun; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R; Amaha, Shinichi; Allison, Giles; Kodera, Tetsuo; Oda, Shunri; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-08-01

    Fault-tolerant quantum computing requires high-fidelity qubits. This has been achieved in various solid-state systems, including isotopically purified silicon, but is yet to be accomplished in industry-standard natural (unpurified) silicon, mainly as a result of the dephasing caused by residual nuclear spins. This high fidelity can be achieved by speeding up the qubit operation and/or prolonging the dephasing time, that is, increasing the Rabi oscillation quality factor Q (the Rabi oscillation decay time divided by the π rotation time). In isotopically purified silicon quantum dots, only the second approach has been used, leaving the qubit operation slow. We apply the first approach to demonstrate an addressable fault-tolerant qubit using a natural silicon double quantum dot with a micromagnet that is optimally designed for fast spin control. This optimized design allows access to Rabi frequencies up to 35 MHz, which is two orders of magnitude greater than that achieved in previous studies. We find the optimum Q = 140 in such high-frequency range at a Rabi frequency of 10 MHz. This leads to a qubit fidelity of 99.6% measured via randomized benchmarking, which is the highest reported for natural silicon qubits and comparable to that obtained in isotopically purified silicon quantum dot-based qubits. This result can inspire contributions to quantum computing from industrial communities. PMID:27536725

  15. A fault-tolerant addressable spin qubit in a natural silicon quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kenta; Kamioka, Jun; Otsuka, Tomohiro; Yoneda, Jun; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Amaha, Shinichi; Allison, Giles; Kodera, Tetsuo; Oda, Shunri; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    Fault-tolerant quantum computing requires high-fidelity qubits. This has been achieved in various solid-state systems, including isotopically purified silicon, but is yet to be accomplished in industry-standard natural (unpurified) silicon, mainly as a result of the dephasing caused by residual nuclear spins. This high fidelity can be achieved by speeding up the qubit operation and/or prolonging the dephasing time, that is, increasing the Rabi oscillation quality factor Q (the Rabi oscillation decay time divided by the π rotation time). In isotopically purified silicon quantum dots, only the second approach has been used, leaving the qubit operation slow. We apply the first approach to demonstrate an addressable fault-tolerant qubit using a natural silicon double quantum dot with a micromagnet that is optimally designed for fast spin control. This optimized design allows access to Rabi frequencies up to 35 MHz, which is two orders of magnitude greater than that achieved in previous studies. We find the optimum Q = 140 in such high-frequency range at a Rabi frequency of 10 MHz. This leads to a qubit fidelity of 99.6% measured via randomized benchmarking, which is the highest reported for natural silicon qubits and comparable to that obtained in isotopically purified silicon quantum dot–based qubits. This result can inspire contributions to quantum computing from industrial communities. PMID:27536725

  16. Chlorophyll a fluorescence to phenotype wheat genotypes for heat tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    . Chlorophyll a fluorescence has been a versatile tool in photosynthesis research to measure plant responses to various abiotic stresses that affect PSII. We aim to establish a reproducible protocol to measure response of wheat genotypes to high temperature, based on the physiological marker, maximum quantum......%. Our protocol seems to be stable over environments since interaction between genotypes and the three repeated experiments separated in time was not statistically significant. The chlorophyll a fluorescence protocol may enable identification of wheat lines reliably more or less tolerant to heat stress...

  17. Relationships between ultra drying tolerance and heat stable proteins in rice seeds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ Genotype differences on the ultra drying tolerances in rice have been reported, but the mechanism is still unknown. Here the relationship between ultra drying tolerance and heat stable proteins was studied in different rice.

  18. Identification for Heat Tolerance in Backcross Recombinant Lines and Screening of Backcross Introgression Lines with Heat Tolerance at Milky Stage in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Jiang-lin; ZHANG Hong-yu; SHAO Xue-lian; ZHONG Ping-an; HUANG Ying-jin

    2011-01-01

    The present study aimed at breeding new rice germplasms with similar genome but significantly differed in heat tolerance during the grain filling stage.A total of 791 BC1F8 backcross recombinant lines,derived from the cross of Xieqingzao B / N22∥Xieqingzao B,were used as materials.Each rice line was separated evenly into two groups,and the heat tolerance of all rice lines were evaluated at natural high temperature in fields.The rice lines with heat tolerant index higher than 90% or lower than 40% were selected to compare the phenotypic characters and further identify heat tolerance at the early milky stage in a phytotron.Rice lines with similar phenotypic characters but significantly differed in heat tolerance at the milky stage were analyzed by 887 simple sequence repeat markers that were evenly distributed on the 12 rice chromosomes.In the result,12 (6 pairs) rice lines with similar phenotypic characters but significantly differed in heat tolerance at the milky stage were obtained.Molecular marker analysis indicated that the genomic polymorphism between 703T and 704S was the smallest in the 6 pairs of rice lines,with only 16 polymorphic sites,including 22 different alleles.The application of these two backcross introgression rice lines for future study on the mechanisms of heat tolerance in rice at the milky stage will be theoretically beneficial in reducing the interference caused by genetic differences from experimental materials.

  19. Hot bats: extreme thermal tolerance in a desert heat wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenco, Artiom; Körtner, Gerhard; Geiser, Fritz

    2014-08-01

    Climate change is predicted to increase temperature extremes and thus thermal stress on organisms. Animals living in hot deserts are already exposed to high ambient temperatures ( T a) making them especially vulnerable to further warming. However, little is known about the effect of extreme heat events on small desert mammals, especially tree-roosting microbats that are not strongly protected from environmental temperature fluctuations. During a heat wave with record T as at Sturt National Park, we quantified the thermal physiology and behaviour of a single free-ranging little broad-nosed ( Scotorepens greyii, henceforth Scotorepens) and two inland freetail bats ( Mormopterus species 3, henceforth Mormopterus) using temperature telemetry over 3 days. On 11 and 13 January, maximum T a was ˜45.0 °C, and all monitored bats were thermoconforming. On 12 January 2013, when T a exceeded 48.0 °C, Scotorepens abandoned its poorly insulated roost during the daytime, whereas both Mormopterus remained in their better insulated roosts and were mostly thermoconforming. Maximum skin temperatures ( T skin) ranged from 44.0 to 44.3 °C in Scotorepens and from 40.0 to 45.8 °C in Mormopterus, and these are the highest T skin values reported for any free-ranging bat. Our study provides the first evidence of extensive heat tolerance in free-ranging desert microbats. It shows that these bats can tolerate the most extreme T skin range known for mammals (3.3 to 45.8 °C) and delay regulation of T skin by thermoconforming over a wide temperature range and thus decrease the risks of dehydration and consequently death.

  20. Heat-tolerant Asian HLB meets heat-sensitive African HLB in the Arabian Peninsula! Why?

    OpenAIRE

    Bové, Josy

    2014-01-01

    It will be recalled how the notions of “heat-sensitive/heat-tolerant HLB” and “African HLB/Asian HLB” were developed. These notions benefited from the possibility to confirm, for the first time, the non-specific HLB symptoms by reliable laboratory techniques: detection of the HLB-associated bacterium by transmission electron microscopy from 1970 onwards to DNA-hybridization and PCR of the liberibacters in the 1990s. With these tools, the early history of citrus HLB in the many countries surve...

  1. Adult Heat Tolerance Variation in Drosophila melanogaster is Not Related to Hsp70 Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Toft; Cockerell, Fiona Elizabeth; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard;

    2010-01-01

    Expression of heat-inducible Hsp70 is considered closely linked to thermotolerance in Drosophila melanogaster and other ectotherms. However, intra-specific variation of Hsp70 expression levels and its relationship to heat resistance has only been investigated in a few studies. Although...... in adult heat tolerance. Therefore, although Hsp70 expression is a major component of the cellular heat stress response, its influence on intra-specific heat tolerance variation may be life-stage specific. J. Exp. Zool. 313A:35-44, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc...... in Drosophila larvae Hsp70 expression may be a key determinant of heat tolerance, the evidence for this in adults is equivocal. We therefore examined heat-induced Hsp70 expression and several measurements of adult heat tolerance in three independent collections of D. melanogaster, measured in three laboratories...

  2. Rectal temperature as an indicator for heat tolerance in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing Y; Wei, Pei P; Xu, Shen Y; Geng, Zhao Y; Jiang, Run S

    2013-11-01

    High environmental temperature is perhaps the most important inhibiting factor to poultry production in hot regions. The objective of this study was to test adaptive responses of chickens to high ambient temperatures and identify suitable indicators for selection of heat-tolerant individuals. Full-sib or half-sib Anak-40 pullets (n = 55) with similar body weights were raised in a room with a temperature ranging from 24°C to 28°C, and relative humidity of 50% from 61 to 65 days of age. On day 66, the ambient temperature was increased within 60 min to 35 ± 1°C which was defined as the initial of heat stress (0 h). Rectal temperature (RT) was measured on each pullet at 0, 6, 18, 30, 42, 54 and 66 h. After 66 h the ambient temperature was increased within 30 min to 41 ± 1°C and survival time (HSST) as well as lethal rectal temperatures (LRT) were recorded for each individual. The gap between the RT and initial RT was calculated as ΔTn (ΔT6, ΔT18, ΔT30, ΔT42, ΔT54 and ΔT66), and the interval between LRT and initial RT as ΔTT, respectively. A negative correlation was found between HSST and ΔTn as well as ΔTT (rΔ T 18  = -0.28 and rΔ TT  = -0.31, respectively, P < 0.05; rΔT30  = -0.36, rΔ T 42  = -0.38, rΔT54  = -0.56, P < 0.01). Importantly, pullets with low ΔT18 showed a longer HSST (256.0 ± 208.4 min) than those with high ΔT18 (HSST = 123.7 ± 78.3 min). This observation suggested that the ΔT18 or early increment of RT under heat stress might be considered as a reliable indicator for evaluation of heat resistance in chickens.

  3. Post heat shock tolerance: a neuroimmunological anti-inflammatory phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazani Nima

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We previously showed that the progression of burn-induced injury was inhibited by exposing the peripheral area of injured skin to sublethal hyperthermia following the burn. We called this phenomenon post-heat shock tolerance. Here we suggest a mechanism for this phenomenon. Exposure of the peripheral primary hyperalgesic/allodynic area of burned skin to local hyperthermia (45°C, 30 seconds, which is a non-painful stimulus for normal skin, results in a painful sensation transmitted by nociceptors. This hyperthermia is too mild to induce any tissue injury, but it does result in pain due to burn-induced hyperalgesia/allodynia. This mild painful stimulus can result in the induction of descending anti-nociceptive mechanisms, especially in the adjacent burned area. Some of these inhibitory mechanisms, such as alterations of sympathetic outflow and the production of endogenous opioids, can modify peripheral tissue inflammation. This decrease in burn-induced inflammation can diminish the progression of burn injury.

  4. Simple Screening Methods for Drought and Heat Tolerance in Cowpea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Success in breeding for drought tolerance has not been as pronounced as for other traits. This is partly due to lack of simple, cheap and reliable screening methods to select drought tolerant plants/progenies from the segregating populations and partly due to complexity of factors involved in drought tolerance. Measuring drought tolerance through physiological parameters is expensive, time consuming and difficult to use for screening large numbers of lines and segregating populations. Since several factors/mechanisms (in shoot and root) operate independently and/or jointly to enable plants to cope with drought stress, drought tolerance appears as a complex trait. However, if these factors/mechanisms can be separated and studied individually, the components leading to drought tolerance will appear less complex and may be easy to manipulate by breeders. We have developed a simple box screening method for shoot drought tolerance in cowpea, which eliminates the effects of roots and permits non-destructive visual identification of shoot dehydration tolerance. We have also developed a 'root-box pin-board' method to study two dimensional root architecture of individual plants. Using these methods, we have identified two mechanisms of shoot drought tolerance in cowpea which are controlled by single dominant genes and major difference for root architecture among cowpea varieties. Combining deep and dense root system with shoot dehydration tolerance results into highly drought tolerant plants

  5. Use of Heat Stress Responsive Gene Expression Levels for Early Selection of Heat Tolerant Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cheul Ahn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cabbage is a relatively robust vegetable at low temperatures. However, at high temperatures, cabbage has disadvantages, such as reduced disease tolerance and lower yields. Thus, selection of heat-tolerant cabbage is an important goal in cabbage breeding. Easier or faster selection of superior varieties of cabbage, which are tolerant to heat and disease and have improved taste and quality, can be achieved with molecular and biological methods. We compared heat-responsive gene expression between a heat-tolerant cabbage line (HTCL, “HO”, and a heat-sensitive cabbage line (HSCL, “JK”, by Genechip assay. Expression levels of specific heat stress-related genes were increased in response to high-temperature stress, according to Genechip assays. We performed quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR to compare expression levels of these heat stress-related genes in four HTCLs and four HSCLs. Transcript levels for heat shock protein BoHsp70 and transcription factor BoGRAS (SCL13 were more strongly expressed only in all HTCLs compared to all HSCLs, showing much lower level expressions at the young plant stage under heat stress (HS. Thus, we suggest that expression levels of these genes may be early selection markers for HTCLs in cabbage breeding. In addition, several genes that are involved in the secondary metabolite pathway were differentially regulated in HTCL and HSCL exposed to heat stress.

  6. The Embodiment of Tolerance in Discourses and Practices Addressing Cultural Diversity in Italian Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, Maurizio; CANEVA, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Work Package 3: National Case Studies of Challenges to Tolerance in School Life The ACCEPT PLURALISM project (2010-2013) is funded by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Programme, Socio-economic Sciences and Humanities. (Call FP7-SSH-2009-A, Grant Agreement no: 243837). Coordinator: Prof. Anna Triandafyllidou, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, European University Institute.

  7. Heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura along a latitudinal gradient: Contrasting patterns between plastic and genetic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Luis E; Rezende, Enrico L; Santos, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    Susceptibility to global warming relies on how thermal tolerances respond to increasing temperatures through plasticity or evolution. Climatic adaptation can be assessed by examining the geographic variation in thermal-related traits. We studied latitudinal patterns in heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura reared at two temperatures. We used four static stressful temperatures to estimate the thermal death time (TDT) curves, and two ramping assays with fast and slow heating rates. Thermal death time curves allow estimation of the critical thermal maximum (CT(max)), by extrapolating to the temperature that would knock down the flies almost "instantaneously," and the thermal sensitivity to increasing stressful temperatures. We found a positive latitudinal cline for CT(max), but no clinal pattern for knockdown temperatures estimated from the ramping assays. Although high-latitude populations were more tolerant to an acute heat stress, they were also more sensitive to prolonged exposure to less stressful temperatures, supporting a trade-off between acute and chronic heat tolerances. Conversely, developmental plasticity did not affect CT(max) but increased the tolerance to chronic heat exposition. The patterns observed from the TDT curves help to understand why the relationship between heat tolerance and latitude depends on the methodology used and, therefore, these curves provide a more complete and reliable measurement of heat tolerance. PMID:26292981

  8. Identification and Characterization of Proteins Associated with Plant Tolerance to Heat Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingru Huang; Chenping Xu

    2008-01-01

    Heat stress is a major abiotic stress limiting plant growth and productivity in many areas of the world. Understanding mechanisms of plant adaptation to heat stress would facilitate the development of heat-tolerant cultivars for improving productivity in warm climatic regions. Protein metabolism involving protein synthesis and degradation is one of the most sensitive processes to heat stress. Changes in the level and expression pattern of some proteins may play an important role in plant adaptation to heat stress. The identification of stress-responsive proteins and pathways has been facilitated by an increasing number of tools and resources, including two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, and the rapidly expanding nucleotide and amino acid sequence databases. Heat stress may induce or enhance protein expression or cause protein degradation. The induction of heat-responsive proteins, particularly heat shock proteins (HSPs), plays a key role in plant tolerance to heat stress. Protein degradation involving various proteases is also important in regulating plant responses to heat stress. This review provides an overview of recent research on proteomic profiling for the identification of heat-responsive proteins associated with heat tolerance, heat induction and characteristics of HSPs, and protein degradation in relation to plant responses to heat stress.

  9. Germplasm Innovation of Heat Tolerance in Rice for Irrigated Lowland Conditions in the Philippines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Norvie L.MANIGBAS; Leslie Angela F.LAMBIO; Luvina B.MADRID; Corazon C.CARDENAS

    2014-01-01

    Heat-tolerant varieties, such as N22 and Dular, which were used in this study, usually have low yield potential and undesirable plant characteristics but combining them with high yielding and improved rice varieties, new heat-tolerant rice genotypes with high yield potential can be achieved. In this study, phenotyping and selecting desirable materials from various crosses were performed under high temperature conditions during the reproductive stage. Screening was performed in the field and glasshouse to select individuals with heat tolerance and high yield potential. Several advanced breeding lines from Gayabyeo/N22 cross produced desirable individuals with heat tolerance, resistance to pests and diseases, and high yield potential. The genetic variation in percent sterility among the selected backcross populations grown in high temperature environments showed that large number of plants can be identified and selected with lower percent sterility.

  10. An addressable quantum dot qubit with fault-tolerant control fidelity

    OpenAIRE

    Veldhorst, M.; Hwang, J. C. C.; Yang, C. H.; Leenstra, A. W.; de Ronde, B.; Dehollain, J. P.; Muhonen, J. T.; Hudson, F. E.; Itoh, K. M.; Morello, A.; Dzurak, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    Exciting progress towards spin-based quantum computing has recently been made with qubits realized using nitrogen-vacancy (N-V) centers in diamond and phosphorus atoms in silicon, including the demonstration of long coherence times made possible by the presence of spin-free isotopes of carbon and silicon. However, despite promising single-atom nanotechnologies, there remain substantial challenges in coupling such qubits and addressing them individually. Conversely, lithographically defined qu...

  11. A novel system for in situ determination of heat tolerance of plants: first results on alpine dwarf shrubs

    OpenAIRE

    Buchner, Othmar; Karadar, Matthias; Bauer, Ines; Neuner, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    Background Heat stress and heat damage to plants gain globally increasing importance for crop production and plant survival in endangered habitats. Therefore the knowledge of heat tolerance of plants is of great interest. As many heat tolerance measurement procedures require detachment of plants and protocols expose samples to various heat temperatures in darkness, the ecological relevance of such results may be doubted. To overcome these constraints we designed a novel field compatible Heat ...

  12. Chlorophyll a fluorescence to phenotype wheat genotypes for heat tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    In prospects of global climate change, heat stress is a rising constraint for the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It is a heat-susceptible crop beyond 17-23oC temperature throughout its phenological stages, flowering phase being the most sensitive stage. Chlorophyll a fluorescence...

  13. In vitro induction of variability through radiation for late blight resistance and heat tolerance in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro cultured shoots of potato, cvs. 'Kufri Jyoti' and 'Kufri Chandramukhi', were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Microtubers, obtained from MIV3 shoots multiplied in vitro, were planted in pots. The resulting plants were screened for resistance to late blight, using detached leaf method. In 'Kufri Chandramukhi', 42% plants and in 'Kufri Jyoti' 36% plants, obtained from 40 Gy treatment, showed resistance to late blight. The frequency of resistant plants was lower from 20 Gy treatment. The progenies of putatively resistant plants were grown in field, and inoculated with sporangial inoculum of late blight fungus. The field grown progeny segregated for disease resistance, and approximately 56% plants showed resistance. During the next propagation, the frequency of resistant plants increased to 72%. For developing heat tolerance, microtubers obtained from 20 and 40 Gy treatments and in vitro multiplied M1V3 shoots were cultured at high temperature of 28C. In both varieties, the number of the microtubers per plant was highly reduced and the resulting microtubers had distorted shape but showed better germination (62%), even in early sowing at relatively higher temperature. Of the two radiation doses, the higher dose of 40 Gy gave better results in both the varieties. Heat tolerance was also assessed from chlorophyll persistence. The progenies from putative heat-tolerant plants were tested in field by planting at higher temperature in two subsequent generations. The heat tolerant plants segregated in each generation, but the frequency of heat-tolerant plants increased. (author)

  14. Extremely heat tolerant photosymbiosis in a shallow marine benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christiane; Danna, Titelboim; Janett, Brandt; Raphael, Morard; Barak, Herut; Sigal, Abramovich; Ahuva, Almogi-Labin; Michal, Kucera

    2016-04-01

    Thermal stress leads to the loss of algal symbionts (bleaching) in many shallow marine calcifiers including foraminifera. The bleaching threshold often occurs at water temperatures, which are likely to be exceeded in the near future due to global warming. Preadaptation represents one mechanism allowing photosymbiotic organisms to persist under warmer conditions, providing the tolerance can be carried to new habitats. Here we provide evidence for the existence of such adaptation in the benthic foraminifera Pararotalia calcariformata recently discovered in the eastern Mediterranean. We identify its symbionts as a consortium of diatom species dominated by Minutocellus polymorphus. We show that in the field, the foraminifera retains its pigments at a thermally polluted site, where peak water temperatures reach 36°C. To test whether this tolerance represents a widespread adaptation, we conducted manipulative experiments exposing populations from an unpolluted site to elevated temperatures for up to three weeks. The populations were kept in co-culture with the more thermally sensitive diatom-bearing foraminifera Amphistegina lobifera. Reduced photosynthetic activity in A. lobifera occurred at 32°C whereas photochemical stress in P. calcariformata was first observed during exposure to 36°C and chronic photoinhibition (but not mortality) first occurred at 42°C. Survivorship was high in all treatments, and growth was observed under thermal conditions similar to summer maxima at the thermally polluted site (35-36°C). The photosymbiosis in P. calcariformata is unusually thermally tolerant for a photosymbiont-bearing eukaryote. The thermal tolerance of this photosymbiosis is present in a natural environment where its thermal threshold is never realized. These observations imply that photosymbiosis in marine protists can respond to elevated temperatures by drawing on a pool of naturally occurring pre-adaptations. It also provides a perspective on the massive occurrence of

  15. Sweat loss during heat stress contributes to subsequent reductions in lower-body negative pressure tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebekah A. I.; Ganio, Matthew S.; Pearson, James; Crandall, Craig G.

    2016-01-01

    The contribution of sweating to heat stress-induced reductions in haemorrhagic tolerance is not known. This study tested the hypothesis that fluid loss due to sweating contributes to reductions in simulated haemorrhagic tolerance in conditions of heat stress. Eight subjects (35 ± 8 years old; 77 ± 5 kg) underwent a normothermic time control and two heat stress trials (randomized). The two heat stress trials were as follows: (i) with slow intravenous infusion of lactated Ringer solution sufficient to offset sweat loss (IV trial); or (ii) without intravenous infusion (dehydration; DEH trial). Haemorrhage was simulated via progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope after core body (intestinal) temperature was raised by ~1.5°C using a water-perfused suit or a normothermic time control period. The LBNP tolerance was quantified via a cumulative stress index. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity (transcranial Doppler) and mean blood pressure (Finometer®) were measured continuously. Relative changes in plasma volume were calculated from haematocrit and haemoglobin. Increases in core body temperature and sweat loss (~1.6% body mass deficit) were similar (P > 0.05) between heat stress trials. Slow intravenous infusion (1.2 ± 0.3 litres) prevented heat-induced reductions in plasma volume (IV trial, −0.6 ± 6.1%; and DEH trial, −6.6 ± 5.1%; P = 0.01). Intravenous infusion improved LBNP tolerance (632 ± 64 mmHg min) by ~20% when compared with the DEH trial (407 ± 117 mmHg min; P = 0.01), yet tolerance remained 44% lower in the IV trial relative to the time control normothermic trial (1138 ± 183 mmHg min; P < 0.01). These data indicate that although sweat-induced dehydration impairs simulated haemorrhagic tolerance, this impairment is secondary to the negative impact of heat stress itself. PMID:22872657

  16. A three-tier phenotyping approach for hunting QTLs related to heat tolerance in bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    functionality, therefore, its physiological relevance in terms of overall plant performance was validated under moderate heat stress (36°C for a week) mimicking natural heat waves. Interestingly, the wheat cultivars previously selected for high Fv/Fm also showed higher net photosynthesis,chlorophyll content......, wheat is sensitive to heat stress, particularly at the reproductive phase. Heat tolerance is a complex trait. In the present study, a combined approach of physiological phenotyping and quantitative genetics was used to dissect the complex nature of heat tolerance into photosynthesis related traits......: Genotyping and linkage analysis of molecular markers was carried out to analyze quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in three bi-parental segregating populations derived from the parents contrasting for Fv/Fm. Three QTLs each explaining about 12-16% of the phenotypic variation were mapped at a resolution of around...

  17. Characterization of heat tolerance in wheat cultivars and effects on production components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adérico Júnior Badaró Pimentel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There is a need for heat tolerant wheat cultivars adapted to the expansion of cultivation areas in warmer regions due to the high demand of this cereal for human consumption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of high temperatures on grain yield and yield components of wheat and characterize heat tolerant wheat genotypes at different development stages. The genotypes were evaluated in the field with and without heat stress. High temperatures reduced the number of spikelets per spike (21%, number of grains per spike (39%, number of grains per spikelet (23%, 1000-grain weight (27% and grain yield (79%. Cultivars MGS 1 Aliança, Embrapa 42, IAC 24-Tucuruí and IAC 364-Tucuruí III are the most tolerant to heat stress between the stages double ridge and terminal spikelet; MGS 1 Aliança, BRS 264, IAC 24-Tucuruí, IAC 364-Tucuruí III and VI 98053, between meiosis and anthesis; and BRS 254, IAC-24-Tucuruí, IAC-364-Tucuruí III and VI 98053, between anthesis and physiological maturity. High temperatures reduce grain yield and yield components. The number of grains per spike is the most reduced component under heat stress. The genotypes differed in tolerance to heat stress in different developmental stages.

  18. The Relationship Between Heat-induced Chilling Tolerance and Endogenous ABA Levels in Mangoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shi-jiang; JI Zuo-liang

    2002-01-01

    Heating "Zhihua" mangoes (Mangifera indica L. cv. Zhihua) in hot air at 38℃ for 12hours significantly reduced the development of chilling injury following storage for 12days at 2℃. Prolonging the heating up to 72hours acquired similar results. During the 12 days' storage at 2℃ following heating for 72hours, the membrane leakage of the mango peels showed little change, while it increased with time for the control fruits, and the endogenous ABA levels in the heated fruits were higher than that in the control. These results indicated that higher ABA rates were linked with stronger chilling tolerance in mangoes.

  19. Infrared Thermography to Evaluate Heat Tolerance in Different Genetic Groups of Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is considered a limiting factor for sheep production. We used information from physiological characteristics linked to heat tolerance to determine whether infrared thermography temperatures were able to separate groups of animals and determine the most important variables in this differentiation. Forty-eight four-month-old male lambs from eight genetic groups were used. Physiological (rectal temperature–RT, heart rate–HR, respiratory rate–RR and blood traits, infrared thermography temperatures, heat tolerance indices, body measurements, weight and carcass traits were measured. Statistical analyses included variance, correlations, factor, discrimination and regression. Observing the correlations between physiological characteristics (RT, RR and HR with temperatures measured by infrared thermography, regions for further studies should include the mean temperature of flank, nose and rump. Results show that there are strong relationships between thermograph measurements and RR, RT and HR in lambs, which are suggested to be directly correlated with heat tolerance capacity of the different genetic groups evaluated in this study. The assessment of body surface temperature measured by the thermograph could be used as a noninvasive tool to assess heat tolerance of the animals.

  20. Creatine Use and Exercise Heat Tolerance in Dehydrated Men

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Greig; Douglas J Casa; Fiala, Kelly A; Hile, Amy; Roti, Melissa W; Healey, Julie C.; Lawrence E. Armstrong; Carl M. Maresh

    2006-01-01

    Context: Creatine monohydrate (CrM) use is highly prevalent in team sports (eg, football, lacrosse, ice hockey) and by athletes at the high school, college, professional, and recreational levels. Concerns have been raised about whether creatine use is associated with increased cramping, muscle injury, heat intolerance, and risk of dehydration.

  1. Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, van M.

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance entails acceptance of the very things one disagrees with, disapproves of or dislikes. Tolerance can be seen as ‘a flawed virtue’ (Schuyt, 2001), because it concerns acceptance of the differences between others and ourselves we would rather fight, ignore or overcome. Although tolerance carr

  2. Complex patterns of geographic variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels in the common frog Rana temporaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Pekkonen, Minna; Lindgren, Beatrice;

    2009-01-01

    1. We tested for geographical variation in heat tolerance and Hsp70 expression levels of Rana temporaria tadpoles along a 1500 km long latitudinal gradient in Sweden.   2. Temperature tolerance of the hatchling tadpoles did not differ among populations, but they tolerated stressful hot temperatur...

  3. Germplasm evaluation of heat tolerance in bread wheat in Tel Hadya, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emeka C Okechukwu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Breeding for heat tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a serious global concern due to the increasing threats of high temperature. Thus, 189 wheat genotypes coded from 1 to 189 were evaluated for heat tolerance in normal and late seasons in the International Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA, Tel Hadya, Syria, from 2010 to 2012. The experiments were laid out in alpha lattice designs with two replicates. Data collected on the grain yield, days to heading and maturity, grain filling duration and plant height were subjected to restricted maximum likelihood (REML analysis for generation of the best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs. Very highly significant effects (p < 0.001 of genotype, season, and genotype by season interaction on grain yield and other traits were obtained. The grain yield and other traits performance of the wheat genotypes were significantly (p < 0.05 higher in the normal season than in the late season. Genotype 148 was among the 30 top grain yielding genotypes in all the environments, while genotypes 172 and 124 were among the top yielding genotypes in all the environments except in late season 2. The relative heat tolerance of the genotypes ranged from -33.69% to -77.95% in late season 1 vs. normal season 1 and -65.28% to -95.83% in late season 2 vs. normal season 2. The high variability obtained in the germplasm underlies sufficient genetic variability for improving heat tolerance in bread wheat.

  4. Development of late blight resistance and heat tolerance through gamma irradiation of shoot cultures in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro shoot cultures of two potato varieties viz., Kufri jyoti and Kufri Chandramukhi were gamma irradiated at 20 Gy and 40 Gy. Micro tubers were induced in micro propagated M1V3 generation. For heat tolerance micro tubers were induced at elevated (28C) incubation temperature (optimum being 201C) and were characterized by early sowing, chlorophyll persistence and harvest index. The number of micro tubers/plant was highly reduced at elevated temperature and the resulting tubers exhibited distorted shapes and growth of apical buds. Thus obtained micro tubers exhibited better germination (62.3%) even in early sowing at relatively higher temperature. The progenies from putative heat tolerant plants were grown in the field by sowing at higher temperature for four subsequent generations. Heat tolerant plants segregated in each generation but the frequency of heat tolerant plants increased in the advanced generation. For developing late blight resistance micro tubers produced from irradiated shoot cultures were sown in pots and resulting plants were screened using detached leaf method. The progenies of putative resistant plants grown in the field were artificially inoculated with sporangial inoculum of Phytophthora infection's. Field grown plants exhibited segregation with respect to disease reaction and about 56 per cent plants showed resistance. Segregation was reduced during following generation and the frequency of resistant plants was increased up to 72.3 per cent. Thus, repeated selections has helped in developing stable mutants in both the varieties

  5. The importance of seed mass for the tolerance to heat shocks of savanna and forest tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro, L.C.; Barbosa, E.R.M.; Langevelde, van F.; Borghetti, F.

    2015-01-01

    Questions: Does seed mass influence the tolerance of seeds to the effects of heating in fires? Is the tolerance to heat shocks during fire events dependent mostly on seed mass itself or to other traits linked to the species ecological origin, e.g. non-fire-prone (forest) and fire-prone (savanna) env

  6. Plant tolerance to high temperature in a changing environment: scientific fundamentals and production of heat stress-tolerant crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bita, Craita E; Gerats, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Global warming is predicted to have a general negative effect on plant growth due to the damaging effect of high temperatures on plant development. The increasing threat of climatological extremes including very high temperatures might lead to catastrophic loss of crop productivity and result in wide spread famine. In this review, we assess the impact of global climate change on the agricultural crop production. There is a differential effect of climate change both in terms of geographic location and the crops that will likely show the most extreme reductions in yield as a result of expected extreme fluctuations in temperature and global warming in general. High temperature stress has a wide range of effects on plants in terms of physiology, biochemistry and gene regulation pathways. However, strategies exist to crop improvement for heat stress tolerance. In this review, we present recent advances of research on all these levels of investigation and focus on potential leads that may help to understand more fully the mechanisms that make plants tolerant or susceptible to heat stress. Finally, we review possible procedures and methods which could lead to the generation of new varieties with sustainable yield production, in a world likely to be challenged both by increasing population, higher average temperatures and larger temperature fluctuations. PMID:23914193

  7. Avian thermoregulation in the heat: efficient evaporative cooling allows for extreme heat tolerance in four southern hemisphere columbids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Andrew E; Whitfield, Maxine C; Smit, Ben; Gerson, Alexander R; Smith, Eric Krabbe; Talbot, William A; McWhorter, Todd J; Wolf, Blair O

    2016-07-15

    Birds show phylogenetic variation in the relative importance of respiratory versus cutaneous evaporation, but the consequences for heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity remain unclear. We measured evaporative water loss (EWL), resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body temperature (Tb) in four arid-zone columbids from southern Africa [Namaqua dove (Oena capensis, ∼37 g), laughing dove (Spilopelia senegalensis, ∼89 g) and Cape turtle dove (Streptopelia capicola, ∼148 g)] and Australia [crested pigeon (Ocyphaps lophotes), ∼186 g] at air temperatures (Ta) of up to 62°C. There was no clear relationship between body mass and maximum Ta tolerated during acute heat exposure. Maximum Tb at very high Ta was 43.1±1.0, 43.7±0.8, 44.7±0.3 and 44.3±0.8°C in Namaqua doves, laughing doves, Cape turtle doves and crested pigeons, respectively. In all four species, RMR increased significantly at Ta above thermoneutrality, but the increases were relatively modest with RMR at Ta=56°C being 32, 60, 99 and 11% higher, respectively, than at Ta=35°C. At the highest Ta values reached, evaporative heat loss was equivalent to 466, 227, 230 and 275% of metabolic heat production. The maximum ratio of evaporative heat loss to metabolic production observed in Namaqua doves, 4.66, exceeds by a substantial margin previous values reported for birds. Our results support the notion that cutaneous evaporation provides a highly efficient mechanism of heat dissipation and an enhanced ability to tolerate extremely high Ta. PMID:27207640

  8. Skin cooling maintains cerebral blood flow velocity and orthostatic tolerance during tilting in heated humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thad E.; Cui, Jian; Zhang, Rong; Witkowski, Sarah; Crandall, Craig G.

    2002-01-01

    Orthostatic tolerance is reduced in the heat-stressed human. The purpose of this project was to identify whether skin-surface cooling improves orthostatic tolerance. Nine subjects were exposed to 10 min of 60 degrees head-up tilting in each of four conditions: normothermia (NT-tilt), heat stress (HT-tilt), normothermia plus skin-surface cooling 1 min before and throughout tilting (NT-tilt(cool)), and heat stress plus skin-surface cooling 1 min before and throughout tilting (HT-tilt(cool)). Heating and cooling were accomplished by perfusing 46 and 15 degrees C water, respectively, though a tube-lined suit worn by each subject. During HT-tilt, four of nine subjects developed presyncopal symptoms resulting in the termination of the tilt test. In contrast, no subject experienced presyncopal symptoms during NT-tilt, NT-tilt(cool), or HT-tilt(cool). During the HT-tilt procedure, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) decreased. However, during HT-tilt(cool), MAP, total peripheral resistance, and CBFV were significantly greater relative to HT-tilt (all P skin-surface cooling prevents the fall in CBFV during upright tilting and improves orthostatic tolerance, presumably via maintenance of MAP. Hence, skin-surface cooling may be a potent countermeasure to protect against orthostatic intolerance observed in heat-stressed humans.

  9. Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated by the d...... these alternatives by returning to the notion of tolerance as the endurance of pain, linking this notion to exemplars and theories relevant to the politics of multiculturalism, religious freedom, and free speech.......Tolerance: A Sensorial Orientation to Politics is an experiment in re-orientation. The book is based on the wager that tolerance exceeds the more prevalent images of self-restraint and repressive benevolence because neither precludes the possibility of a more “active tolerance” motivated...... by the desire to experiment and to become otherwise. The objective is to discuss what gets lost, conceptually as well as politically, when we neglect the subsistence of active tolerance within other practices of tolerance, and to develop a theory of active tolerance in which tolerance's mobilizing character...

  10. Heat tolerance of automotive lead-acid batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Joern

    Starter batteries have to withstand a quite large temperature range. In Europe, the battery temperature can be -30 °C in winter and may even exceed +60 °C in summer. In most modern cars, there is not much space left in the engine compartment to install the battery. So the mean battery temperature may be higher than it was some decades ago. In some car models, the battery is located in the passenger or luggage compartment, where ambient temperatures are more moderate. Temperature effects are discussed in detail. The consequences of high heat impact into the lead-acid battery may vary for different battery technologies: While grid corrosion is often a dominant factor for flooded lead-acid batteries, water loss may be an additional influence factor for valve-regulated lead-acid batteries. A model was set up that considers external and internal parameters to estimate the water loss of AGM batteries. Even under hot climate conditions, AGM batteries were found to be highly durable and superior to flooded batteries in many cases. Considering the real battery temperature for adjustment of charging voltage, negative effects can be reduced. Especially in micro-hybrid applications, AGM batteries cope with additional requirements much better than flooded batteries, and show less sensitivity to high temperatures than suspected sometimes.

  11. FACTORS AFFECTING HEAT TOLERANCE IN CROSSBRED CATTLE IN CENTRAL BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the adaptation traits in common crosses of crossbred dairy cattle in central Brazil. Twenty animals of each of three genetic groups were used: zebu (Bos indicus, Simmental x Zebu (SZ and Holstein x Zebu (HZ. The test measured variations in rectal temperature (RT, respiration rate (RR and heart rate (HR of animals in the shade and after exposure to the sun, as well as mean daily milk production throughout the lactation period. The procedure was repeated three times. There were significant interactions between test group and genetic group for the traits investigated and the correlations among traits were low. The RR of the crossbred groups may be controlling body temperature in such a way as not to cause an increase in RT. Milk production influenced RR in crossbred cows exposed to the sun, confirming their poorer adaptation in comparison with zebu cows. We observed that the adaptation can be measured in terms of production within the same genetic group. In conclusion, the crosses with European breeds produced more milk than zebu, although they were influenced by heat/solar radiation.

  12. Interactive Effects of Elevated CO2 and Growth Temperature on the Tolerance of Photosynthesis to Acute Heat Stress in C3 and C4 Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. William Hamilton Ⅲ; Scott A. Heckathorn; Puneet Joshi; Dan Wang; Deepak Barua

    2008-01-01

    Determining effects of elevated CO2 on the tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat-stress (heat wave) is necessary for predicting plant responses to global warming, as photosynthesis is thermolabile and acute heat-stress and atmospheric CO2 will increase in the future. Few studies have examined this, and past results are variable, which may be due to methodological variation. To address this, we grew two C3 and two C4 species at current or elevated CO2 and three different growth temperatures (GT). We assessed photosynthetic thermotolerance in both unacclimated (basal tolerance) and preheat-stressed (preHS = acclimated) plants. In C3 species, basal thermotolerance of net photosynthesis (Pn) was increased In high CO2, but in C4 species, Pn thermotlerance was decreased by high CO2 (except Zea maya at low GT); CO2 effects in preHS plants were mostly small or absent, though high CO2 was detrimental in one C3 and one C4 species at warmer GT. Though high CO2 generally decreased stomatal conductance, decreases in Pn during heat stress were mostly due to non-stomatal effects. Photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was often decreased by high CO2 during heat stress, especially at high GT; CO2 effects on post-PSll electron transport were variable. Thus, high CO2 often affected photosynthetic theromotolerance, and the effects varied with photosynthetic pathway, growth temperature, and acclimation state. Most importantly, in heat-stressed plants at normal or warmer growth temperatures, high CO2 may often decrease, or not benefit as expected, tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat stress. Therefore, interactive effects of elevated CO2 and warmer growth temperatures on acute heat tolerance may contribute to future changes in plant productivity, distribution, and diversity.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulfide-improved heat tolerance in maize and involvement of proline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Ding, Xiao-Jiao; Du, Pei-Fang

    2013-05-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has long been considered as a phytotoxin, but nowadays as a cell signal molecule involved in growth, development, and the acquisition of stress tolerance in higher plants. In the present study, hydrogen sulfide donor, sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), pretreatment markedly improved germination percentage of seeds and survival percentage of seedlings of maize under heat stress, and alleviated an increase in electrolyte leakage of roots, a decrease in tissue vitality and an accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA) in coleoptiles of maize seedlings. In addition, pretreatment of NaHS could improve the activity of Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and lower proline dehydrogenase (ProDH) activity, which in turn induced accumulation of endogenous proline in maize seedlings. Also, application of proline could enhance endogenous proline content, followed by mitigated accumulation of MDA and increased survival percentage of maize seedlings under heat stress. These results suggest that sodium hydrosulfide pretreatment could improve heat tolerance of maize and the acquisition of this heat tolerance may be involved in proline.

  14. Heat priming induces trans-generational tolerance to high temperature stress in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao eWang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat plants are very sensitive to high temperature stress during grain filling. Effects of heat priming applied to the first generation on tolerance of the successive generation to post-anthesis high temperature stress were investigated. Compared with the progeny of non-heat primed plants (NH, the progeny of heat-primed plants (PH possessed higher grain yield, leaf photosynthesis and activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower cell membrane damage under high temperature stress. In the transcriptome profile, 1430 probes showed obvious difference in expression between PH and NH. These genes were related to signal transduction, transcription, energy, defense, and protein destination and storage, respectively. The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1 which was involved in histone demethylation related to epigenetic modification was up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. The proteome analysis indicated that the proteins involved in photosynthesis, energy production and protein destination and storage were up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. In short, thermos-tolerance was induced through heritable epigenetic alternation and signaling transduction, both processes further triggered prompt modifications of defense related responses in anti-oxidation, transcription, energy production, and protein destination and storage in the progeny of the primed plants under high temperature stress. It was concluded that trans-generation thermo-tolerance was induced by heat priming in the first generation, and this might be an effective measure to cope with severe high-temperature stresses during key growth stages in wheat production.

  15. Heat Priming Induces Trans-generational Tolerance to High Temperature Stress in Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Xin, Caiyun; Cai, Jian; Zhou, Qin; Dai, Tingbo; Cao, Weixing; Jiang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Wheat plants are very sensitive to high temperature stress during grain filling. Effects of heat priming applied to the first generation on tolerance of the successive generation to post-anthesis high temperature stress were investigated. Compared with the progeny of non-heat primed plants (NH), the progeny of heat-primed plants (PH) possessed higher grain yield, leaf photosynthesis and activities of antioxidant enzymes and lower cell membrane damage under high temperature stress. In the transcriptome profile, 1430 probes showed obvious difference in expression between PH and NH. These genes were related to signal transduction, transcription, energy, defense, and protein destination and storage, respectively. The gene encoding the lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) which was involved in histone demethylation related to epigenetic modification was up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. The proteome analysis indicated that the proteins involved in photosynthesis, energy production and protein destination and storage were up-regulated in the PH compared with NH. In short, thermos-tolerance was induced through heritable epigenetic alternation and signaling transduction, both processes further triggered prompt modifications of defense related responses in anti-oxidation, transcription, energy production, and protein destination and storage in the progeny of the primed plants under high temperature stress. It was concluded that trans-generation thermo-tolerance was induced by heat priming in the first generation, and this might be an effective measure to cope with severe high-temperature stresses during key growth stages in wheat production. PMID:27148324

  16. Molecular genetics of heat tolerance and heat shock proteins in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestri, Elena; Klueva, Natalya; Perrotta, Carla; Gulli, Mariolina; Nguyen, Henry T; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2002-01-01

    Heat stress is common in most cereal-growing areas of the world. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge on the molecular and genetic basis of thermotolerance in vegetative and reproductive tissues of cereals. Significance of heat stress response and expression of heat shock proteins (HSPs) in thermotolerance of cereal yield and quality is discussed. Major avenues for increasing thermotolerance in cereals via conventional breeding or genetic modification are outlined. PMID:11999842

  17. Efficiency of selection in early generations of potato families with a view toward heat tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabel Cristina Rodrigues de Figueiredo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of selection of potato families in early generations for heat tolerance. Thirty families were evaluated in the seedling generation (SG, first clonal generation (FCG in the field and greenhouse under high temperature conditions, and second clonal generation (SCG under mild temperatures. The mean of the families was obtained in each generation. The 16 most productive families in FCG were selected, and the clones of these families were evaluated in experiments in the winter and rainy crop seasons. The results showed that family selection for tuber shape may be applied as of the SG. It was also observed that family selection in the FCG and SCG for yield and tuber specific gravity contributed to identification of clones tolerant to heat and responsive to environmental improvement.

  18. Heat-tolerant methanotrophic bacteria from the hot water effluent of a natural gas field.

    OpenAIRE

    L. Bodrossy; Murrell, J.C.; Dalton, H; Kalman, M; Puskas, L. G.; Kovacs, K L

    1995-01-01

    Methanotrophic bacteria were isolated from a natural environment potentially favorable to heat-tolerant methanotrophs. An improved colony plate assay was developed and used to identify putative methanotrophic colonies with high confidence. Fourteen new isolates were purified and partially characterized. These new isolates exhibit a DNA sequence homology of up to 97% with the conserved regions in the mmoX and mmoC genes of the soluble methane monooxygenase (MMO)-coding gene cluster of Methyloc...

  19. Efficiency of selection in early generations of potato families with a view toward heat tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Izabel Cristina Rodrigues de Figueiredo; César Augusto Brasil Pereira Pinto; Guilherme Henrique Martins Rodrigues Ribeiro; Leandro de Oliveira Lino; Danilo Hottis Lyra; Carolina Mariane Moreira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of selection of potato families in early generations for heat tolerance. Thirty families were evaluated in the seedling generation (SG), first clonal generation (FCG) in the field and greenhouse under high temperature conditions, and second clonal generation (SCG) under mild temperatures. The mean of the families was obtained in each generation. The 16 most productive families in FCG were selected, and the clones of these families were e...

  20. Roles of Protein Synthesis Elongation Factor EF-Tu in Heat Tolerance in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Fu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available EF-Tu proteins of plastids, mitochondria, and the cytosolic counterpart EF-1α in plants, as well as EF-Tu proteins of bacteria, are highly conserved and multifunctional. The functions of EF-Tu include transporting the aminoacyl-tRNA complex to the A site of the ribosome during protein biosynthesis; chaperone activity in protecting other proteins from aggregation caused by environmental stresses, facilitating renaturation of proteins when conditions return to normal; displaying a protein disulfide isomerase activity; participating in the degradation of N-terminally blocked proteins by the proteasome; eliciting innate immunity and triggering resistance to pathogenic bacteria in plants; participating in transcription when an E. coli host is infected with phages. EF-Tu genes are upregulated by abiotic stresses in plants, and EF-Tu plays important role in stress responses. Expression of a plant EF-Tu gene confers heat tolerance in E. coli, maize knock-out EF-Tu null mutants are heat susceptible, and over-expression of an EF-Tu gene improves heat tolerance in crop plants. This review paper summarizes the current knowledge of EF-Tu proteins in stress responses in plants and progress on application of EF-Tu for developing crop varieties tolerant to abiotic stresses, such as high temperatures.

  1. A novel match-line selective charging scheme for high-speed, low-power and noise-tolerant content-addressable memory

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Muhammad Mubashwar

    2010-06-01

    Content-addressable memory (CAM) is an essential component for high-speed lookup intensive applications. This paper presents a match-line selective charging technique to increase speed and reduce the energy per bit per search while increasing the noise-tolerance. Simulation in TSMC 0.18 μm technology with 64×72 Ternary CAM shows the match-line energy reduction of 45% compared to the conventional currentsaving scheme with the reduction of minimum cycle time by 68% and the improvement of noise-tolerance by 96%.

  2. An exploration of heat tolerance in mice utilizing mRNA and microRNA expression analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminul Islam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals who rapidly develop hyperthermia during heat exposure (heat-intolerant are vulnerable to heat associated illness and injury. We recently reported that heat intolerant mice exhibit complex alterations in stress proteins in response to heat exposure. In the present study, we further explored the role of genes and molecular networks associated with heat tolerance in mice. METHODOLOGY: Heat-induced physiological and biochemical changes were assessed to determine heat tolerance levels in mice. We performed RNA and microRNA expression profiling on mouse gastrocnemius muscle tissue samples to determine novel biological pathways associated with heat tolerance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice (n = 18 were assigned to heat-tolerant (TOL and heat-intolerant (INT groups based on peak core temperatures during heat exposures. This was followed by biochemical assessments (Hsp40, Hsp72, Hsp90 and Hsf1 protein levels. Microarray analysis identified a total of 3,081 mRNA transcripts that were significantly misregulated in INT compared to TOL mice (p<0.05. Among them, Hspa1a, Dnajb1 and Hspb7 were differentially expressed by more than two-fold under these conditions. Furthermore, we identified 61 distinct microRNA (miRNA sequences significantly associated with TOL compared to INT mice; eight miRNAs corresponded to target sites in seven genes identified as being associated with heat tolerance pathways (Hspa1a, Dnajb1, Dnajb4, Dnajb6, Hspa2, Hspb3 and Hspb7. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of mRNA and miRNA data from the skeletal muscle of adult mice following heat stress provides new insights into the pathophysiology of thermoregulatory disturbances of heat intolerance.

  3. Physiological and molecular evidence of differential short-term heat tolerance in Mediterranean seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Guirao, Lazaro; Ruiz, Juan M; Dattolo, Emanuela; Garcia-Munoz, Rocio; Procaccini, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The increase in extreme heat events associated to global warming threatens seagrass ecosystems, likely by affecting key plant physiological processes such as photosynthesis and respiration. Understanding species' ability to acclimate to warming is crucial to better predict their future trends. Here, we study tolerance to warming in two key Mediterranean seagrasses, Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa. Stress responses of shallow and deep plants were followed during and after short-term heat exposure in mesocosms by coupling photo-physiological measures with analysis of expression of photosynthesis and stress-related genes. Contrasting tolerance and capacity to heat acclimation were shown by shallow and deep P. oceanica ecotypes. While shallow plants acclimated through respiratory homeostasis and activation of photo-protective mechanisms, deep ones experienced photosynthetic injury and impaired carbon balance. This suggests that P. oceanica ecotypes are thermally adapted to local conditions and that Mediterranean warming will likely diversely affect deep and shallow meadow stands. On the other hand, contrasting mechanisms of heat-acclimation were adopted by the two species. P. oceanica regulates photosynthesis and respiration at the level of control plants while C. nodosa balances both processes at enhanced rates. These acclimation discrepancies are discussed in relation to inherent attributes of the two species. PMID:27345831

  4. A comprehensive assessment of geographic variation in heat tolerance and hardening capacity in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgrò, C M; Overgaard, J; Kristensen, T N;

    2010-01-01

    knockdown temperature increased towards temperate latitudes, probably reflecting a greater capacity of temperate flies to withstand sudden temperature increases during summer in temperate Australia. Larval viability showed a quadratic association with latitude under heat stress. Thus, patterns of heat......We examined latitudinal variation in adult and larval heat tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia. Adults were assessed using static and ramping assays. Basal and hardened static heat knockdown time showed significant linear clines; heat tolerance increased towards the tropics......, particularly for hardened flies, suggesting that tropical populations have a greater hardening response. A similar pattern was evident for ramping heat knockdown time at 0.06 °C min-1 increase. There was no cline for ramping heat knockdown temperature (CTmax) at 0.1 °C min-1 increase. Acute (static) heat...

  5. Investigating inbreeding depression for heat stress tolerance in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kamilla Sofie; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Sørensen, Anders Christian;

    2012-01-01

    -year university students and discuss learning outcomes of the exercise as an example of inquiry-based science teaching. We use the model organism Drosophila melanogaster to test the ability of inbred and control (non-inbred) females to survive heat stress exposure. Flies were anaesthetised and collected...... the students to central topics in population genetics and demonstrates potential consequences of inbreeding and environmental stress on fitness. Furthermore, the practical gives insight into how to design, analyse, and interpret the results of a scientific study....... into vials before exposure to 38°C heat stress in a water bath for 1 h. Half an hour later the number of comatose inbred and control flies were scored and chi-square statistic procedures were used to test for different degrees of heat stress tolerance between the two lines of flies. The practical introduces...

  6. Evaluation of the xerovac process for the preparation of heat tolerant contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litamoi, J K; Ayelet, G; Rweyemamu, M M

    2005-04-01

    The study was conducted with the aim of evaluating the xerovac process as a method for preparing contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) vaccine with increased heat resistance. The thermo-protective effects of various concentrations of trehalose in mycoplasma growth medium, various concentrations of trehalose in the dehydration stabilizer and the importance of some divalent cations were assessed. The results obtained indicate that a rapid dehydration of CBPP vaccine following the xerovac method and in an excipient composed of a high concentration of trehalose, renders the product more heat tolerant than a similar vaccine prepared using a regular or an extended freeze drying regime. It was also demonstrated that the addition of chitosan as a mycoplasma precipitating agent conferred additional heat resistance to the vaccine. It is suggested that the application of the xerovac process in the dehydration of CBPP vaccine offers the advantages of a faster, cheaper and easier process over the conventional dehydration methods like freeze drying.

  7. Catharanthus roseus mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 confers UV and heat tolerance to Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raina, Susheel Kumar; Wankhede, Dhammaprakash Pandhari; Sinha, Alok Krishna

    2013-01-01

    Catharanthus roseus is an important source of pharmaceutically important Monoterpenoid Indole Alkaloids (MIAs). Accumulation of many of the MIAs is induced in response to abiotic stresses such as wound, ultra violet (UV) irradiations, etc. Recently, we have demonstrated a possible role of CrMPK3, a C. roseus mitogen-activated protein kinase in stress-induced accumulation of a few MIAs. Here, we extend our findings using Saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the role of CrMPK3 in giving tolerance to abiotic stresses. Yeast cells transformed with CrMPK3 was found to show enhanced tolerance to UV and heat stress. Comparison of CrMPK3 and SLT2, a MAPK from yeast shows high-sequence identity particularly at conserved domains. Additionally, heat stress is also shown to activate a 43 kDa MAP kinase, possibly CrMPK3 in C. roseus leaves. These findings indicate the role of CrMPK3 in stress-induced MIA accumulation as well as in stress tolerance. PMID:23221751

  8. Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Mechanisms of Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Fujita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available High temperature (HT stress is a major environmental stress that limits plant growth, metabolism, and productivity worldwide. Plant growth and development involve numerous biochemical reactions that are sensitive to temperature. Plant responses to HT vary with the degree and duration of HT and the plant type. HT is now a major concern for crop production and approaches for sustaining high yields of crop plants under HT stress are important agricultural goals. Plants possess a number of adaptive, avoidance, or acclimation mechanisms to cope with HT situations. In addition, major tolerance mechanisms that employ ion transporters, proteins, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, and other factors involved in signaling cascades and transcriptional control are activated to offset stress-induced biochemical and physiological alterations. Plant survival under HT stress depends on the ability to perceive the HT stimulus, generate and transmit the signal, and initiate appropriate physiological and biochemical changes. HT-induced gene expression and metabolite synthesis also substantially improve tolerance. The physiological and biochemical responses to heat stress are active research areas, and the molecular approaches are being adopted for developing HT tolerance in plants. This article reviews the recent findings on responses, adaptation, and tolerance to HT at the cellular, organellar, and whole plant levels and describes various approaches being taken to enhance thermotolerance in plants.

  9. The RdDM Pathway Is Required for Basal Heat Tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olga V.Popova; Huy Q.Dinh; Werner Aufsatz; Claudia Jonak

    2013-01-01

    Heat stress affects epigenetic gene silencing in Arabidopsis.To test for a mechanistic involvement of epigenetic regulation in heat-stress responses,we analyzed the heat tolerance of mutants defective in DNA methylation,histone modifications,chromatin-remodeling,or siRNA-based silencing pathways.Plants deficient in NRPD2,the common second-largest subunit of RNA polymerases Ⅳ and V,and in the Rpd3-type histone deacetylase HDA6 were hypersensitive to heat exposure.Microarray analysis demonstrated that NRPD2 and HDA6 have independent roles in transcriptional reprogramming in response to temperature stress.The misexpression of protein-coding genes in nrpd2 mutants recovering from heat correlated with defective epigenetic regulation of adjacent transposon remnants which involved the loss of control of heat-stress-induced read-through transcription.We provide evidence that the transcriptional response to temperature stress,at least partially,relies on the integrity of the RNA-dependent DNA methylation pathway.

  10. Plant tolerance to high temperature in a changing environment: scientific fundamentals and production of heat stress tolerant crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craita eBita

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Global warming is predicted to have a general negative effect on plant growth due to the negative effect of high temperatures on plant development. The increasing threat of climatological extremes, including very high temperatures might lead to catastrophic loss of crop productivity and result in wide spread famine. In this review we assess the impact of global climate change on the production of agricultural crop production. There is a differential effect of climate change both in terms of geographic location and the crops that have will be likely to show the most extreme reductions in yield as a result of warming in general and the expected fluctuations in temperature. High temperature stress has a wide range of effects on plants both in terms of physiology, biochemistry and gene regulation pathways. In this review we present the recent advances of research on all these level of investigation focusing on potential leads that may help to understand more fully the mechanisms that make plants tolerant or susceptible to heat stress. Finally we review possible mechanisms and methods which can lead to the generation of new varieties that will allow sustainable yield production in a world likely to be challenged both by increasing population, higher average temperatures and larger temperature fluctuations.

  11. Characterization of Metarhizium species and varieties based on molecular analysis, heat tolerance and cold activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, E.K.K.; Keyser, C.A.; Chong, J.P.; Rangel, D.E.N.; Miller, M.P.; Roberts, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The genetic relationships and conidial tolerances to high and low temperatures were determined for isolates of several Metarhizium species and varieties. Methods and Results: Molecular-based techniques [AFLP and rDNA (ITS1, ITS2 and 5??8S) gene sequencing] were used to characterize morphologically identified Metarhizium spp. isolates from a wide range of sources. Conidial suspensions of isolates were exposed to wet heat (45 ?? 0??2??C) and plated on potato dextrose agar plus yeast extract (PDAY) medium. After 8-h exposure, the isolates divided clearly into two groups: (i) all isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (Ma-an) and Metarhizium from the flavoviride complex (Mf) had virtually zero conidial relative germination (RG), (ii) Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum (Ma-ac) isolates demonstrated high heat tolerance (c. 70-100% RG). Conidial suspensions also were plated on PDAY and incubated at 5??C for 15 days, during which time RGs for Ma-an and Ma-ac isolates were virtually zero, whereas the two Mf were highly cold active (100% RG). Conclusions: Heat and cold exposures can be used as rapid tools to tentatively identify some important Metarhizium species and varieties. Significance and Impact of the Study: Identification of Metarhizium spp. currently relies primarily on DNA-based methods; we suggest a simple temperature-based screen to quickly obtain tentative identification of isolates as to species or species complexes. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Overexpression of Ferredoxin, PETF, Enhances Tolerance to Heat Stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Fen Huang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS produced by plants in adverse environments can cause damage to organelles and trigger cell death. Removal of excess ROS can be achieved through the ascorbate scavenger pathway to prevent plant cell death. The amount of this scavenger can be regulated by ferredoxin (FDX. Chloroplastic FDXs are electron transfer proteins that perform in distributing photosynthetic reducing power. In this study, we demonstrate that overexpression of the endogenous photosynthetic FDX gene, PETF, in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii could raise the level of reduced ascorbate and diminish H2O2 levels under normal growth conditions. Furthermore, the overexpressing PETF transgenic Chlamydomonas lines produced low levels of H2O2 and exhibited protective effects that were observed through decreased chlorophyll degradation and increased cell survival under heat-stress conditions. The findings of this study suggest that overexpression of PETF can increase the efficiency of ROS scavenging in chloroplasts to confer heat tolerance. The roles of PETF in the downregulation of the ROS level offer a method for potentially improving the tolerance of crops against heat stress.

  13. Comprehensive assessment of geographic variation in heat tolerance and hardening capacity in populations of Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sgro, Carla M.; Overgaard, Johannes; Kristensen, Torsten Nygård;

    2010-01-01

    (static) heat knockdown temperature increased towards temperate latitudes, probably reflecting a greater capacity of temperate flies to withstand sudden temperature increases during summer in temperate Australia. Larval viability showed a quadratic association with latitude under heat stress. Thus......We examined latitudinal variation in adult and larval heat tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster from eastern Australia. Adults were assessed using static and ramping assays. Basal and hardened static heat knockdown time showed significant linear clines; heat tolerance increased towards the tropics......, particularly for hardened flies, suggesting that tropical populations have a greater hardening response. A similar pattern was evident for ramping heat knockdown time at 0.06 degrees C min-1 increase. There was no cline for ramping heat knockdown temperature (CTmax) at 0.1 degrees C min-1 increase. Acute...

  14. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata”) and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam Ara; Korakot Nakkanong; Wenhui Lv; Jinghua Yang; Zhongyuan Hu; Mingfang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant inte...

  15. Phenotyping of wheat cultivars for heat tolerance using chlorophyll a fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    2012-01-01

    on a physiological trait, the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm). A chlorophyll fluorescence protocol was standardised and used for repeated screening with increased selection pressure with a view to identifying a set of cultivars extreme for the trait. An initial mass screening of 1274 wheat cultivars....... The identification of a set of wheat cultivars contrasting for their inherent photochemical efficiency may aid future studies to understand the genetic and physiological nature of heat stress tolerance in order to dissect quantitative traits into simpler genetic factors....

  16. ASSOCIATION OF HSP72 WITH THE NUCLEAR (TX-100-INSOLUBLE) FRACTION UPON HEATING TOLERANT AND NONTOLERANT HELA S3 CELLS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMPINGA, HH; MULLER, E; BRUNSTING, JF; HEINE, L; KONINGS, AWT; ISSELS, RD

    1993-01-01

    HSP72 levels in the cellular and the nuclear (TX-insoluble) fraction before and after heating of heat- and sodium arsenite-induced thermotolerant and non-tolerant HeLa S3 cells have been investigated by ID- and 2D-electrophoresis, followed by Western blotting and immunostaining, using a newly develo

  17. Using Solar Hot Water to Address Piping Heat Losses in Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matt [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solar thermal water heating is most cost effective when applied to multifamily buildings and some states offer incentives or other inducements to install them. However, typical solar water heating designs do not allow the solar generated heat to be applied to recirculation losses, only to reduce the amount of gas or electric energy needed for hot water that is delivered to the fixtures. For good reasons, hot water that is recirculated through the building is returned to the water heater, not to the solar storage tank. The project described in this report investigated the effectiveness of using automatic valves to divert water that is normally returned through the recirculation piping to the gas or electric water heater instead to the solar storage tank. The valves can be controlled so that the flow is only diverted when the returning water is cooler than the water in the solar storage tank.

  18. Effect of the C.-1 388 A>G polymorphism in chicken heat shock transcription factor 3 gene on heat tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-wu; KONG Li-na; ZHANG De-xiang; JI Cong-liang; ZHANG Xi-quan; LUO Qing-bin

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the main factors that inlfuence poultry production. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are known to affect heat tolerance. The formation of HSPs is regulated by heat shock transcription factor 3 (HSF3) in chicken. A DNA pool was established for identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the chicken HSF3, and 13 SNPs were detected. The bioinformatic analysis showed that 8 SNPs had the capacity to alter the transcription activity of HSF3. The dual luciferase report gene assay showed that there was a signiifcant difference (PG (S1) and C.–1 388 A>G (S4) sites at the 5´-untranslated region (UTR) of chicken HSF3. The elec-trophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the S4 site was a transcription binding factor. The analysis of the association of the S1 and S4 sites with heat tolerance index revealed that the S4 site was signiifcantly correlated with the CD3+T cel , corticosterone, and T3 levels in Lingshan chickens and with the heterophil/lymphocyte value in White Recessive Rock. These results showed that the S4 site at the 5´ UTR of chicken HSF3 might have an impact on heat tolerance in summer and could be used as a potential marker for the selection of chicken with heat tolerance in the future.

  19. Wheat cultivars differing in heat tolerance show a differential response to oxidative stress during monocarpic senescence under high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna-Chopra, Renu; Chauhan, Shakti

    2015-09-01

    Wheat crop may experience heat stress during post-anthesis phase associated with oxidative stress, enhanced senescence, and reduced productivity. Stay green is a desirable character for the selection for heat tolerance in wheat. In the present study, antioxidant metabolism was studied under post-anthesis heat stress in field during monocarpic senescence by comparing two wheat genotypes, namely Hindi62 (heat tolerant and delayed senescent) and PBW343 (heat susceptible and early senescent). Hindi62 exhibited lesser oxidative stress, membrane damage, and coordinated antioxidant defense as compared to PBW343 under heat stress during post-anthesis stage. Higher activity of SOD, CAT, APX, GR, and MDHAR under heat stress contributed towards delayed senescence in Hindi62 compared to PBW343. GSH/GSSG ratio was also maintained at higher level in Hindi62 under heat stress compared to PBW343 during senescence. Hence, the present study clearly shows that upregulated level of the total antioxidant capacity during grain development contributed towards delayed senescence and heat tolerance in Hindi62 compared to the heat-susceptible PBW343. PMID:25586109

  20. Molecular programs induced by heat acclimation confer neuroprotection against TBI and hypoxic insults via cross-tolerance mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eHorowitz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotection following prolonged exposure to high ambient temperatures (heat acclimation HA develops via altered molecular programs such as cross-tolerance (Heat Acclimation -Neuroprotection Cross-Tolerance -HANCT. The mechanisms underlying cross-tolerance depend on enhanced on-demand protective pathways evolving during acclimation. The protection achieved is long lasting and limits the need for de novo recruitment of cytoprotective pathways upon exposure to novel stressors. Using mouse and rat acclimated phenotypes, we will focus on the impact of heat acclimation on Angiotensin II-AT2 receptors in neurogenesis and on HIF-1 as key mediators in spontaneous recovery and HANCT after traumatic brain injury (TBI. The neuroprotective consequences of heat acclimation on NMDA and AMPA receptors will be discussed using the global hypoxia model. A behavioral-molecular link will be crystallized. The differences between HANCT and consensus preconditioning will be reviewed.

  1. Heat-stress Tolerance of Some Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge KESICI

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Physiological parameters were used to investigate genotypic variations in 15 strawberry cultivars [‘Aromas’, ‘Camarosa’, ‘Carmine’, ‘Cal. Giant 3’ (CG3, ‘Cal. Giant 5’ (CG5, ‘Elsanta’, ‘Fern’, ‘Festival’, ‘Honeoye’, ‘Kabarla’, ‘Redlands Hope’ (R.Hope, ‘Ruby Gem’, ‘Selva’, ‘Sweet Charlie’ and ‘Whitney’] and their relationship to heat-stress tolerance (HST. Cold stored (frigo strawberry seedlings were grown in pots for six weeks and then transferred to a growth chamber. The temperature in the growth chamber was increased stepwise from 35 to 40, 45 and 50°C to create a heat-stressed environment. Leaf relative water content (RWC, loss of turgidity and chlorophyll content were measured at each temperature. The ‘Elsanta’ and ‘R.Hope’ had the highest RWC, while the ‘Festival’ and ‘CG3’ had the lowest. However, ‘Elsanta’ and ‘R.Hope’ had the lowest loss of turgidity, while ‘Festival’ and ‘CG3’ had the highest. ‘Elsanta’ and ‘R.Hope’ showed the lowest chlorophyll content, and ‘CG3’ and ‘Whitney’ had the highest. To determine HST (LT50, leaf discs of each cultivar were exposed to 35, 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60°C. A considerable decrease in the LT50 was observed with increasing temperature in all cultivars. The LT50 of the cultivars ranged from 51.8 to 52.9°C. Based on the data collected, ‘Elsanta’, ‘R. Hope’ and ‘Camarosa’ were determined to be relatively heat-tolerant cultivars, while ‘Whitney’, ‘Fern’, ‘Festival’ and ‘CG3’ were heat-sensitive cultivars.

  2. Heat tolerance in Tuli-, Senepol-, and Brahman-sired F1 Angus heifers in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, A C; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Olson, T A; Randel, R D

    1998-06-01

    We investigated heat tolerance and growth rate in two trials under ambient conditions in central Florida. Trial 1 (1994) involved 38 Brahman (B), 21 Senepol (S), 19 B x Angus (A), 20 S x A, and 20 Tuli (T) x A heifers. Trial 2 (1995) involved 13 A, 35 B, 30 S, 23 B x A, 17 S x A, and 28 T x A heifers. Measurements were made on three consecutive weeks during the hotter and cooler seasons of each year and included rectal temperature (RT, degrees C), respiration rate (RR, bpm), temperament score (TS; 1 = very docile, 5 = very aggressive), blood packed-cell volume (PCV), and plasma cortisol concentration (CORT). Data for RT were transformed (log10 [RT - 37]) before analysis. On the hottest date in Trial 1, log10 RT was not different between B (.39 +/- .011) and B x A (.37 +/- .016) or between T x A (.35 +/- .015) and B x A, but log10 RT was lower (P Senepol, Brahman) with a temperate breed (Angus) is similar to heat tolerance displayed by purebred tropical breeds (Senepol, Brahman). PMID:9655576

  3. Differences in heat tolerance between preimplantation embryos from Brahman, Romosinuano, and Angus breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cerón, J; Chase, C C; Hansen, P J

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to 41 degrees C reduces development of embryos of heat-sensitive breeds (Holstein and Angus) more than for embryos of the heat-tolerant Brahman breed. Here it was tested whether embryonic resistance to heat shock occurs for a thermotolerant breed of different genetic origin than the Brahman. In particular, the thermal sensitivity of in vitro produced embryos of the Romosinuano, a Bos taurus, Criollo-derived breed, was compared to that for in vitro produced Brahman and Angus embryos. At d 4 after insemination, embryos > or = 8 cells were randomly assigned to control (38.5 degrees C) or heat shock (41 degrees C for 6 h) treatments. Heat shock reduced the proportion of embryos that developed to the blastocyst stage on d 8 after insemination. At 38.5 degrees C, there were no significant differences in development between breeds. Among embryos exposed to 41 degrees C, however, development was lower for Angus embryos than for Brahman and Romosinuano embryos. Furthermore, an Angus vs. (Brahman + Romosinuano) x temperature interaction occurred because heat shock reduced development more in Angus (30.3 +/- 4.6% at 38.5 degrees C vs. 4.9 +/- 4.6% at 41 degrees C) than in Brahman (25.1 +/- 4.6% vs. 13.6 +/- 4.6%) and Romosinuano (28.3 +/- 4.1% vs. 17.5 +/- 4.1%). Results demonstrate that embryos from Brahman and Romosinuano breeds are more resistant to elevated temperature than embryos from Angus. Thus, the process of adaptation of Brahman and Romosinuano breeds to hot environments resulted in both cases in selection of genes controlling thermotolerance at the cellular level. PMID:14765810

  4. Practical examples of how knowledge management is addressed in Point Lepreau heat transport ageing management programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slade, J. [NB Power Nuclear, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada)], E-mail: JSlade@NBPower.com; Gendron, T. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Greenlaw, G. [NB Power Nuclear, Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    In the mid-1990s, New Brunswick Power Nuclear implemented a Management System Process Model at the Point Lepreau Generating Station that provides the basic elements of a knowledge management program. As noted by the IAEA, the challenge facing the nuclear industry now is to make improvements in knowledge management in areas that are more difficult to implement. Two of these areas are: increasing the value of existing knowledge, and converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge (knowledge acquisition). This paper describes some practical examples of knowledge management improvements in the Point Lepreau heat transport system ageing management program. (author)

  5. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sae; Tanaka, Junko; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horikawa, Daiki D; Katayama, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble) and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble) proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble), as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments. PMID:25675104

  6. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Tanaka

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble, as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments.

  7. Influence of hydration status and fluid replacement on heat tolerance while wearing NBC protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, S S; McLellan, T M

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of hypohydration and fluid replacement on tolerance to an uncompensable heat stress. Eight healthy young males completed a matrix of six trials in an environmental chamber, set at 40 degrees C and 30% relative humidity, while wearing nuclear, biological, and chemical protective clothing. Subjects performed either light (3.5 km x h(-1), 0% grade, no wind) or heavy (4.8 km x h(-1), 4% grade, no wind) treadmill exercise combined with three hydration states [euhydration with fluid replacement (EU/F), euhydration without fluid replacement (EU/NF), and hypohydration with fluid replacement (H/F)]. Hypohydration of 2.2% body mass was achieved by exercise and fluid restriction on the day preceding the trials. No differences in the endpoint mean skin temperature (Tsk), sweat rate, or rectal temperature (Tre) were observed among the hydration conditions for either work rate. During light exercise, the change in Tre (deltaTre) was significantly higher with H/F than EU/F after 40 min, and heart rate was greater after 25 min. The heart rate was greater during EU/NF than during EU/F after 60 min. Tolerance times were significantly greater for EU/F than for either EU/NF or H/F. With heavy exercise, no differences in deltaTre were observed across hydration conditions. Compared to EU/F, heart rates were higher after 10 and 30 min for H/F and EU/NF, respectively. Tolerance times were significantly less during H/F than with either of the EU conditions. Stroke volume was significantly decreased in H/F trials compared to EU/F trials for both light and heavy work rates, but no differences in cardiac output were observed. It was concluded that even minor levels of hypohydration significantly impaired exercise tolerance in a severely uncompensable heat stress environment at both light and heavy exercise intensities. PMID:9459534

  8. Exercise tolerance in a hot and humid climate in heat-acclimatized girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Brown, A M; Rowland, T W; Ramírez-Marrero, F A; Santacana, G; Vann, A

    2006-12-01

    This study compared physiological responses associated with exercise tolerance in girls (G) and women (W) of similar fitness and heat acclimatization level during exercise in a hot and humid outdoor environment (33.4 degrees C and 55.1 % RH; WBGT = 29.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C). Nine pre-menarcheal G (age = 11.3 yr) and nine W (age = 26.8 yr), matched for aerobic capacity and heat acclimatization level, performed a cycling session at 60 % VO2max until fatigue. A sports drink was provided periodically to prevent dehydration. Tolerance time was not different between the groups (G = 56.9 +/- 6.3, W = 76.5 +/- 9.9 min, p > 0.05). During exercise, sweat rate (G = 9.1 +/- 1.1, W = 12.0 +/- 1.1 ml.m(-2).min(-1)), the increase in rectal temperature [T(re)] (G = 0.9 +/- 0.1, W = 1.1 +/- 0.1 degrees C), and heat storage (G = 10.6 +/- 5.3, W = 20.5 +/- 4.5 W.m(-2)) did not differ between the groups. At fatigue, T(re) (G = 38.2 +/- 0.1, W = 38.4 +/- 0.1 degrees C), heart rate (G = 167.3 +/- 7.3, W = 171 +/- 3.3 beats.min(-1)), stroke index (G = 48.3 +/- 1.5, W = 52.4 +/- 1.8 ml.m(-2)), and forearm skin blood flow (G = 9.5 +/- 1.3, W = 11.7 +/- 1.5 ml.100 ml(- 1).min(-1)) did not differ between the groups. Similar to women, the main reasons reported by girls to stop exercising in the heat were localized leg fatigue and gluteus muscle discomfort. We conclude that heat-acclimatized girls exhibit an adequate cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adjustment while exercising in a hot and humid outdoor environment when hypohydration is prevented. PMID:16739090

  9. Heat Tolerance in Curraleiro Pe-Duro, Pantaneiro and Nelore Cattle Using Thermographic Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Caio Cesar; Lima, Flávia Gontijo; Fioravanti, Maria Clorinda Soares; Egito, Andrea Alves do; Silva, Flávia Cristina de Paula E; Tanure, Candice Bergmann; Peripolli, Vanessa; McManus, Concepta

    2016-01-29

    The objective of this study was to compare physiological and thermographic responses to heat stress in three breeds of cattle. Fifteen animals of each of the Nelore, Pantaneiro and Curraleiro Pe-Duro breeds, of approximately two years of age, were evaluated. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal and surface temperature of animals as well as soil temperature were recorded at 8:30 and 15:30 on six days. Variance, correlation, principal factors and canonical analyses were carried out. There were significant differences in the rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rate between breeds (p < 0.001). Nelore and Pantaneiro breeds had the highest rectal temperatures and the lowest respiratory rate (p < 0.001). Breed was also significant for surface temperatures (p < 0.05) showing that this factor significantly affected the response of the animal to heat tolerance in different ways. The Curraleiro Pe-Duro breed had the lowest surface temperatures independent of the period evaluated, with fewer animals that suffered with the climatic conditions, so this may be considered the best adapted when heat challenged under the experimental conditions. Thermography data showed a good correlation with the physiological indexes, and body area, neck and rump were the main points.

  10. Heat Tolerance in Curraleiro Pe-Duro, Pantaneiro and Nelore Cattle Using Thermographic Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Cesar Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare physiological and thermographic responses to heat stress in three breeds of cattle. Fifteen animals of each of the Nelore, Pantaneiro and Curraleiro Pe-Duro breeds, of approximately two years of age, were evaluated. Heart and respiratory rates, rectal and surface temperature of animals as well as soil temperature were recorded at 8:30 and 15:30 on six days. Variance, correlation, principal factors and canonical analyses were carried out. There were significant differences in the rectal temperature, heart and respiratory rate between breeds (p < 0.001. Nelore and Pantaneiro breeds had the highest rectal temperatures and the lowest respiratory rate (p < 0.001. Breed was also significant for surface temperatures (p < 0.05 showing that this factor significantly affected the response of the animal to heat tolerance in different ways. The Curraleiro Pe-Duro breed had the lowest surface temperatures independent of the period evaluated, with fewer animals that suffered with the climatic conditions, so this may be considered the best adapted when heat challenged under the experimental conditions. Thermography data showed a good correlation with the physiological indexes, and body area, neck and rump were the main points.

  11. Food crops face rising temperatures: An overview of responses, adaptive mechanisms, and approaches to improve heat tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Kaushal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The rising temperatures are resulting in heat stress for various agricultural crops to limit their growth, metabolism, and leading to significant loss of yield potential worldwide. Heat stress adversely affects normal plant growth and development depending on the sensitivity of each crop species. Each crop species has its own range of temperature maxima and minima at different developmental stages beyond which all these processes get inhibited. The reproductive stage is on the whole more sensitive to heat stress, resulting in impaired fertilization to cause abortion of flowers. During seed filling, heat stress retards seed growth by affecting all the biochemical events to reduce seed size. Unfavorable temperature may significantly affect photosynthesis, respiration, water balance, and membrane stability of leaves. To combat heat stress, plants acquire various defense mechanisms for their survival such as maintaining membrane stability, and scavenging reactive oxygen species by generating antioxidants and stress proteins. Thermo-tolerance can be improved by the accumulation of various compounds of low molecular mass known as thermo-protectants as well as phyto-hormones. Exogenous application of these molecules has benefited plants growing under heat stress. Alternatively, transgenic plants over-expressing the enzymes catalyzing the synthesis of these molecules may be raised to increase their endogenous levels to improve heat tolerance. In recent times, various transgenics have been developed with improved thermo-tolerance having potential benefits for inducing heat tolerance in food crops. Updated information about of the effects of heat stress on various food crops and their responses as well as adaptive mechanisms is reviewed here.

  12. Thermal tolerance and survival responses to scenarios of experimental climatic change: changing thermal variability reduces the heat and cold tolerance in a fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Medina, Nadia R; Alruiz, José M; Cavieres, Grisel; Sabat, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Climate change poses one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Most analyses of the impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but increasing variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the combined effects of the mean and the variance of temperature on thermal tolerances-i.e., critical thermal maxima, critical thermal minima, scope of thermal tolerance, and survival in Drosophila melanogaster. Our six experimental climatic scenarios were: constant mean with zero variance or constant variance or increasing variance; changing mean with zero variance or constant variance or increasing variance. Our key result was that environments with changing thermal variance reduce the scope of thermal tolerance and survival. Heat tolerance seems to be conserved, but cold tolerance decreases significantly with mean low as well as changing environmental temperatures. Flies acclimated to scenarios of changing variance-with either constant or changing mean temperatures-exhibited significantly lower survival rate. Our results imply that changing and constant variances would be just as important in future scenarios of climate change under greenhouse warming as increases in mean annual temperature. To develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, such interactions between the mean and variance of environmental temperature should be considered.

  13. Thermal tolerance and survival responses to scenarios of experimental climatic change: changing thermal variability reduces the heat and cold tolerance in a fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinovic, Francisco; Medina, Nadia R; Alruiz, José M; Cavieres, Grisel; Sabat, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Climate change poses one of the greatest threats to biodiversity. Most analyses of the impacts have focused on changes in mean temperature, but increasing variance will also impact organisms and populations. We assessed the combined effects of the mean and the variance of temperature on thermal tolerances-i.e., critical thermal maxima, critical thermal minima, scope of thermal tolerance, and survival in Drosophila melanogaster. Our six experimental climatic scenarios were: constant mean with zero variance or constant variance or increasing variance; changing mean with zero variance or constant variance or increasing variance. Our key result was that environments with changing thermal variance reduce the scope of thermal tolerance and survival. Heat tolerance seems to be conserved, but cold tolerance decreases significantly with mean low as well as changing environmental temperatures. Flies acclimated to scenarios of changing variance-with either constant or changing mean temperatures-exhibited significantly lower survival rate. Our results imply that changing and constant variances would be just as important in future scenarios of climate change under greenhouse warming as increases in mean annual temperature. To develop more realistic predictions about the biological impacts of climate change, such interactions between the mean and variance of environmental temperature should be considered. PMID:27003422

  14. Heritability and Genetic Advance among Chili Pepper Genotypes for Heat Tolerance and Morphophysiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaji G. Usman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature tolerance is an important component of adaptation to arid and semiarid cropping environment in chili pepper. Two experiments were carried out to study the genetic variability among chili pepper for heat tolerance and morphophysiological traits and to estimate heritability and genetic advance expected from selection. There was a highly significant variation among the genotypes in response to high temperature (CMT, photosynthesis rate, plant height, disease incidence, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. At 5% selection intensity, high genetic advance as percent of the mean (>20% was observed for CMT, photosynthesis rate, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. Similarly, high heritability (>60% was also observed indicating the substantial effect of additive gene more than the environmental effect. Yield per plant showed strong to moderately positive correlations (r=0.23–0.56 at phenotypic level while at genotypic level correlation coefficient ranged from 0.16 to 0.72 for CMT, plant height, fruit length, and number of fruits. Cluster analysis revealed eight groups and Group VIII recorded the highest CMT and yield. Group IV recorded 13 genotypes while Groups II, VII, and VIII recorded one each. The results showed that the availability of genetic variance could be useful for exploitation through selection for further breeding purposes.

  15. Heritability and genetic advance among chili pepper genotypes for heat tolerance and morphophysiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, M Y; Ismail, M R; Malek, M A; Abdul Latif, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    High temperature tolerance is an important component of adaptation to arid and semiarid cropping environment in chili pepper. Two experiments were carried out to study the genetic variability among chili pepper for heat tolerance and morphophysiological traits and to estimate heritability and genetic advance expected from selection. There was a highly significant variation among the genotypes in response to high temperature (CMT), photosynthesis rate, plant height, disease incidence, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. At 5% selection intensity, high genetic advance as percent of the mean (>20%) was observed for CMT, photosynthesis rate, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. Similarly, high heritability (>60%) was also observed indicating the substantial effect of additive gene more than the environmental effect. Yield per plant showed strong to moderately positive correlations (r = 0.23-0.56) at phenotypic level while at genotypic level correlation coefficient ranged from 0.16 to 0.72 for CMT, plant height, fruit length, and number of fruits. Cluster analysis revealed eight groups and Group VIII recorded the highest CMT and yield. Group IV recorded 13 genotypes while Groups II, VII, and VIII recorded one each. The results showed that the availability of genetic variance could be useful for exploitation through selection for further breeding purposes. PMID:25478590

  16. Physiological tolerance to uncompensated heat stress in soldiers: Effects of various types of body cooling systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    directly improve heat tolerance, hydration state, decrease in the risk of heat illness, and extends the duration of soldiers’ exposure to extreme conditions.

  17. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show (P < 0.05) higher heat tolerance capabilities compared to purebred Damascus goats as well as manifested (P < 0.05) higher production performance compared to the purebred Aardi goats. Accordingly, these evidences could emphasize that the crossbreeding may enable these animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's production and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.

  18. HsfA1d, a Protein Identified via FOX Hunting Using Thellungiella salsuginea cDNAs Improves Heat Tolerance by Regulating Heat-Stress-Responsive Gene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yukari Higashi; Naohiko Ohama; Tomoko Ishikawa; Taku Katori; Ayaka Shimura; Kazuya Kusakabe; Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki

    2013-01-01

    Theilungiella salsuginea (formerly T.halophila),a species closely related to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana),is tolerant not only to high salt levels,but also to chilling,freezing,and ozone.Here,we report that T.salsuginea also shows greater heat tolerance than Arabidopsis.We identified T.salsuginea HsfAld (TsHsfAld) as a gene that can confer marked heat tolerance on Arabidopsis.TsHsfAld was identified via Full-length cDNA Over-eXpressing gene (FOX) hunting from among a collection of heat-stress-related T.salsuginea cDNAs.Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TsHsfAld showed constitutive up-regulation of many genes in the Arabidopsis AtHsfA1 regulon under normal growth temperature.In Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts,TsHsfAld was localized in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm.TsHsfAld also interacted with AtHSP90,which negatively regulates AtHsfAls by forming HsfA1-HSP90 complexes in the cytoplasm.It is likely that the partial nuclear localization of TsHsfAld induced the expression of the AtHsfAld regulon in the transgenic plants at normal temperature.We also discovered that transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtHsfAld were more heat-tolerant than wild-type plants and up-regulated the expression of the HsfAld regulon,as was observed in TsHsfAld-overexpressing plants.We propose that the products of both TsHsfAld and AtHsfAld function as positive regulators of Arabidopsis heat-stress response and would be useful for the improvement of heat-stress tolerance in other plants.

  19. Stage- and sex-specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanckenhorn, Wolf U; Gautier, Roland; Nick, Marcel; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schäfer, Martin A

    2014-12-01

    Thermal tolerance varies at all hierarchical levels of biological organization: among species, populations, individuals, and even within individuals. Age- or developmental stage- and sex-specific thermal effects have received relatively little attention in the literature, despite being crucial for understanding thermal adaptation in nature and responses to global warming. We document stage- and sex- specific heat tolerance in the yellow dung fly Scathophaga stercoraria (Diptera: Scathophagidae), a species common throughout the northern hemisphere that generally favours cool climates. Exposure of eggs to temperatures up to 32°C did not affect larval hatching rate, but subsequent egg-to-adult survival at a benign temperature was reduced. Permanent transfer from benign (18°C) to hot temperatures (up to 31°C) at different larval and pupal stages strongly decreased egg-to-adult survival, though survival continuously improved the later the transfer occurred. Temporary transfer for only two days increased mortality more weakly, survival being lowest when temperature stress was imposed early during the larval or pupal stages. Adult flies provided with sugar and water tolerated 31°C longer than previously thought (5 days in males to 9 days in females). Eggs were thus less susceptible to thermal stress than larvae, pupae or adults, in agreement with the hypothesis that more mobile stages require less physiological protection against heat because they can behaviourally thermoregulate. The probability of mating, of laying a clutch, and hatching success were generally independently reduced by exposure of females or males to warm temperatures (24°C) during the juvenile or adult stages, with some interactions evident. High temperature stress thus affects survival differentially depending on when it occurs during the juvenile or the pre-reproductive adult life stage, and affects reproductive success via the mating behaviour of both sexes, female physiology in terms of

  20. Tolerating Zero Tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian N.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of zero tolerance dates back to the mid-1990s when New Jersey was creating laws to address nuisance crimes in communities. The main goal of these neighborhood crime policies was to have zero tolerance for petty crime such as graffiti or littering so as to keep more serious crimes from occurring. Next came the war on drugs. In federal…

  1. Effect of the C.-1 388 A〉G polymorphism in chicken heat shock transcription factor 3 gene on heat tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-wu[1,2,3; KONG Li-na[1,2,3; ZHANG De-xian[1,4; JI Cong-liang[4; ZHANG Xi-quan[1,2; LUO Qing-bin[1,2,3

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the main factors that influence poultry production. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are known to affect heat tolerance. The formation of HSPs is regulated by heat shock transcription factor 3 (HSF3) in chicken. A DNA pool was established for identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the chicken HSF3, and 13 SNPs were detected. The bioinformatic analysis showed that 8 SNPs had the capacity to alter the transcdption activity of HSF3. The dual luciferase report gene assay showed that there was a significant difference (P〈0.01) in the Firefly luciferase/Renilla luciferase ratio (F/R) of C.-1 703 A〉G ($1) and C.-1 388 A〉G (S4) sites at the 5"-untranslated region (UTR) of chicken HSF3. The elec- trophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the S4 site was a transcription binding factor. The analysis of the association of the S1 and S4 sites with heat tolerance index revealed that the $4 site was significantly correlated with the CD3+ T cell, corticosterone, and T3 levels in Lingshan chickens and with the heterophil/lymphocyte value in White Recessive Rock. These results showed that the S4 site at the 5 UTR of chicken HSF3 might have an impact on heat tolerance in summer and could be used as a potential marker for the selection of chicken with heat tolerance in the future.

  2. LeCDJ1, a chloroplast DnaJ protein, facilitates heat tolerance in transgenic tomatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanying Kong; Yongsheng Deng; Guodong Wang; Jieru Wang; Xiaoqing Liang; Qingwei Meng

    2014-01-01

    The roles of a tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) chloroplast-targeted DnaJ protein (LeCDJ1) were investigat-ed using wild-type (WT) and sense transgenic tomatoes. The LeCDJ1 expression was upregulated by 38 °C, 42 °C, 45 °C, NaCl, PEG, methyl viologen (MV) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), but not by 30 °C and 35 °C. Meanwhile, LeCDJ1 was involved in the response of plants to abscisic acid (ABA). Under heat stress, the sense plants showed better growth, higher chlorophyll content, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and relative electrical conductivity (REC), and also less PSII photoinhibition than WT. Interestingly, the sense plants treated with streptomycin (SM), an inhibitor of organellar translation, still showed higher maximum photo-chemistry efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and D1 protein levels than the SM-untreated WT, suggesting that the protective effect of LeCDJ1 on PSII was, at least partially, independent of D1 protein synthesis. Furthermore, the relatively lower super-oxide radical (O2•?) and H2O2 levels in the sense plants were considered to be due to the higher ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, which seemed unlikely dependent on their transcription level. These results indicated that LeCDJ1 overexpression facilitated heat tolerance in transgenic tomatoes.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of heat shock proteins and ascorbate peroxidase by CtHsfA2b from African bermudagrass conferring heat tolerance in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuyun; Huang, Wanlu; Yang, Zhimin; Liu, Jun; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress transcription factor A2s (HsfA2s) are key regulators in plant response to high temperature. Our objectives were to isolate an HsfA2 gene (CtHsfA2b) from a warm-season grass species, African bermudagrass (Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy), and to determine the physiological functions and transcriptional regulation of HsfA2 for improving heat tolerance. Gene expression analysis revealed that CtHsfA2b was heat-inducible and exhibited rapid response to increasing temperature. Ectopic expression of CtHsfA2b improved heat tolerance in Arabidopsis and restored heat-sensitive defects of Arabidopsis hsfa2 mutant, which was demonstrated by higher survival rate and photosynthetic parameters, and lower electrolyte leakage in transgenic plants compared to the WT or hsfa2 mutant. CtHsfA2b transgenic plants showed elevated transcriptional regulation of several downstream genes, including those encoding ascorbate peroxidase (AtApx2) and heat shock proteins [AtHsp18.1-CI, AtHsp22.0-ER, AtHsp25.3-P and AtHsp26.5-P(r), AtHsp70b and AtHsp101-3]. CtHsfA2b was found to bind to the heat shock element (HSE) on the promoter of AtApx2 and enhanced transcriptional activity of AtApx2. These results suggested that CtHsfA2b could play positive roles in heat protection by up-regulating antioxidant defense and chaperoning mechanisms. CtHsfA2b has the potential to be used as a candidate gene to genetically modify cool-season species for improving heat tolerance. PMID:27320381

  4. Drought priming at vegetative growth stages improves tolerance to drought and heat stresses occurring during grain filling in spring wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Vignjevic, Marija; Liu, Fulai;

    2015-01-01

    Plants of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vinjett) were exposed to moderate water deficit at the vegetative growth stages six-leaf and/or stem elongation to investigate drought priming effects on tolerance to drought and heat stress events occurring during the grain filling stage. Compared...

  5. Establishment, Growth kinetics, and Susceptibility to AcMNPV of Heat Tolerant Lepidop teran Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-lei Wu; Lei Jiang; Yoshifumi Hashimoto; Robert R.Granados; Guo-xun Li

    2011-01-01

    Lepidopteran heat-tolerant(ht)cell lines have been obtained with sf-9,sf-21 and several Bombyx cells.They have a distinct karyotype,membrane lipid composition,morphology and growth kinetics from the parental cell lines.In this paper,we report the development of ht cell lines from other insect species and examination of their growth characteristics and virus susceptibility.Adaptation of cell lines sf-9,BTI-TN-5131-4(High5)and BTI-TN-MG1(MG 1)to 33℃ and 35℃ was carried out by shifting the culture temperature between 28℃ and higher temperatures by a gradual stepwise increase in temperature.The process of adaption to a higher culture temperature was accomplished over a period of 2 months.The cell lines with the temperature adaption were designated as sf9-ht33,sf9-ht35,High5-ht33,High5-ht35,MG1-ht33,MG1-ht35.These cell lines have been subcultured over 70 passages.Adaption to high temperatures was confirmed by a constant population doubling time with individual cell lines.The population doubling time of heat adapted cell lines were 1-4 h less than these of parental cell lines.Cell shapes did not show obvious change,however,the cell size of sf9-ht cells was enlarged and those of High5 and MG1 ht cells were reduced after heat adaption.When the cell lines were infected with Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus(AcMNPV)at 28℃,33℃,35℃ and 37℃,production of budded virus and occlusion bodies in each cell line was optimum at its own adapted temperature.

  6. Tick resistance and heat tolerance characteristics in cattle. II. Rectal temperature and respiratory frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The heat and Rhipicephalus microplus tick infestation are limiting factors to the livestock production in the tropics. Therefore, in a tropical sustainable livestock, cattle should be tick resistant and heat tolerant. The relationship between the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick infestation and heat characteristics like rectal temperature and respiratory frequency was studied in 6 Nellore and 4 Holstein, seven-month-old steers. They were submitted to an artificial infestation (a.i. with 10,000 larvae (Holstein and 20,000 larvae (Nellore of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick in 16/Apr/2011. Females ticks bigger than 4.0 mm were counted in the left side from day 19 to 27 after the artificial infestation. The infestation rate was calculated by summing and multiplying by two the number of ticks counted, assuming that females are half of infesting larvae (5,000 for Holstein and 10,000 for Nellore. In days 20, 23 and 24 after the infestation, the 10 bigger females ticks found in whole animal were weighed and put in a chamber (27 oC and 80% RH, weighing the egg mass of each female fourteen days after. The rectal temperature (RT, measured by a digital thermometer in the animal’s rectum and respiratory frequency (RF, respiratory movements per minute were measured on days 14/Apr (2 days before the a.i. and on day 05/May (19 days after the a.i.. The RT and RF were measured in the morning and in the afternoon, after they had been exposed to noon sun. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Analyses of variance for the random variables RT and RF to evaluate the effects of period of day, date and breed were performed using the SPSS 12.0. The RF was greater in the afternoon (64.82 ± 2.44 mov/min versus 38.42 ± 2.44 mov/min in the morning, P<0.001 and did not varied between dates; Nellore cattle had lower RF (41.50 ± 2.20 mov/min than Holstein (61.75 ± 2.70 mov/min, P<0.001. About RT, breed

  7. Metabolic pathways regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contributing to heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2016-07-26

    γ-Aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. The objectives of this study were to examine whether increased GABA could improve heat tolerance in cool-season creeping bentgrass through physiological analysis, and to determine major metabolic pathways regulated by GABA through metabolic profiling. Plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM GABA or water before exposed to non-stressed condition (21/19 °C) or heat stress (35/30 °C) in controlled growth chambers for 35 d. The growth and physiological analysis demonstrated that exogenous GABA application significantly improved heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass. Metabolic profiling found that exogenous application of GABA led to increases in accumulations of amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, threonine, serine, and valine), organic acids (aconitic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, and threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, and maltose), and sugar alcohols (mannitol and myo-inositol). These findings suggest that GABA-induced heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass could involve the enhancement of photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione cycle, the maintenance of osmotic adjustment, and the increase in GABA shunt. The increased GABA shunt could be the supply of intermediates to feed the tricarboxylic acid cycle of respiration metabolism during a long-term heat stress, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis.

  8. Metabolic pathways regulated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contributing to heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Yu, Jingjin; Peng, Yan; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid involved in various metabolic processes. The objectives of this study were to examine whether increased GABA could improve heat tolerance in cool-season creeping bentgrass through physiological analysis, and to determine major metabolic pathways regulated by GABA through metabolic profiling. Plants were pretreated with 0.5 mM GABA or water before exposed to non-stressed condition (21/19 °C) or heat stress (35/30 °C) in controlled growth chambers for 35 d. The growth and physiological analysis demonstrated that exogenous GABA application significantly improved heat tolerance of creeping bentgrass. Metabolic profiling found that exogenous application of GABA led to increases in accumulations of amino acids (glutamic acid, aspartic acid, alanine, threonine, serine, and valine), organic acids (aconitic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, oxalic acid, and threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, fructose, glucose, galactose, and maltose), and sugar alcohols (mannitol and myo-inositol). These findings suggest that GABA-induced heat tolerance in creeping bentgrass could involve the enhancement of photosynthesis and ascorbate-glutathione cycle, the maintenance of osmotic adjustment, and the increase in GABA shunt. The increased GABA shunt could be the supply of intermediates to feed the tricarboxylic acid cycle of respiration metabolism during a long-term heat stress, thereby maintaining metabolic homeostasis. PMID:27455877

  9. Tick resistance and heat tolerance characteristics in cattle. III. Sweating rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cattle in a sustainable tropical livestock should be heat tolerant and resistant to ticks. The relationship between Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus infestation and sweating rate, an important heat tolerance characteristic, was studied in six Nellore and four Holstein steers of seven-month-old. They were artificial infested (a.i. with 10,000 (Holstein and 20,000 (Nellore larvae in 16/Apr/2011. In days 20, 23 and 24 after the infestation, the 10 bigger females ticks found in whole animal were weighed and put in a chamber (27 oC and 80% RH, weighing the egg mass of each female tick fourteen days after. The sweating rate (SRskin, measured by Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method, in a shaved area of shoulder skin was evaluated in 14/Apr (2 days before the a.i. and in 05/May (19 days after a.i.. In 14/Apr the Scheleger and Turner, 1963, method was done on the coat not shaved (SRcoat. The sweating rate was measured in the afternoon (from 2 P.M., after 30 minutes of direct sunlight, on April. On May, the animals remained 60 minutes in direct sunlight because this day was colder. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Data from the steers’ sweating rate were analyzed using the General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using SRskin as dependent variable and breed and sampling date as independent variables. For SRcoat breed was the independent variable. Nellore, a tropical cattle breed, had higher SRskin (1,000.82 ± 64.59 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than Holstein (620.45 ± 79.10 g m-2 h-1. SRskin was higher on May (1,187.33 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1, P< 0.001 than on April (433.93 ± 71.49 g m-2 h-1. The correlation between the two different measurements of SR was positive and significant (r= 0,545, P<0,01, Pearson correlation. But in SRcoat the breed effect disappeared because the Holstein SRcoat increased (Holstein: 884.95 ± 472.12 g m-2 h-1 and Nellore: 1,060.72 ± 318.21 g m-2 h-1

  10. Cross acclimation between heat and hypoxia: Heat acclimation improves cellular tolerance and exercise performance in acute normobaric hypoxia

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    Ben James Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. The potential for cross acclimation between environmental stressors is not well understood. Thus the aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of fixed-workload heat or hypoxic acclimation on cellular, physiological and performance responses during post acclimation hypoxic exercise in humans. Method. Twenty-one males (age 22 ± 5 years; stature 1.76 ± 0.07m; mass 71.8 ± 7.9kg; V ̇O2 peak 51 ± 7mL.kg-1.min-1 completed a cycling hypoxic stress test (HST and self-paced 16.1km time trial (TT before (HST1, TT1, and after (HST2, TT2 a series of 10 daily 60 min training sessions (50% N V ̇O2peak in control (CON, n = 7; 18°C, 35%RH, hypoxic (HYP, n = 7; or hot (HOT, n = 7; 40°C, 25% RH conditions. Results. TT performance in hypoxia was improved following both acclimation treatments, HYP (-3:16 ± 3:10 mins:sec; p = 0.0006 and HOT (-2:02 ± 1:02 mins:sec; p = 0.005, but unchanged after CON (+0:31 ± 1:42 mins:sec. Resting monocyte heat shock protein 72 (mHSP72 increased prior to HST2 in HOT (62 ± 46% and HYP (58 ± 52%, but was unchanged after CON (9 ± 46%, leading to an attenuated mHSP72 response to hypoxic exercise in HOT and HYP HST2 compared to HST1 (p < 0.01. Changes in extracellular hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α followed a similar pattern to those of mHSP72. Physiological strain index (PSI was attenuated in HOT (HST1 = 4.12 ± 0.58, HST2 = 3.60 ± 0.42; p = 0.007 as a result of a reduced HR (HST1 = 140 ± 14 b.min-1; HST2 131 ± 9 b.min-1 p = 0.0006 and Trectal (HST1 = 37.55 ± 0.18°C; HST2 37.45 ± 0.14°C; p = 0.018 during exercise. Whereas PSI did not change in HYP (HST1 = 4.82 ± 0.64, HST2 4.83 ± 0.63. Conclusion. Heat acclimation improved cellular and systemic physiological tolerance to steady state exercise in moderate hypoxia. Additionally we show, for the first time, that heat acclimation improved cycling time trial performance to a magnitude similar to that achieved by hypoxic acclimation.

  11. The Arabidopsis transcriptional regulator DPB3-1 enhances heat stress tolerance without growth retardation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hikaru; Todaka, Daisuke; Kudo, Madoka; Mizoi, Junya; Kidokoro, Satoshi; Zhao, Yu; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, Kazuko

    2016-08-01

    The enhancement of heat stress tolerance in crops is an important challenge for food security to facilitate adaptation to global warming. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the transcriptional regulator DNA polymerase II subunit B3-1 (DPB3-1)/nuclear factor Y subunit C10 (NF-YC10) has been reported as a positive regulator of Dehydration-responsive element binding protein 2A (DREB2A), and the overexpression of DPB3-1 enhances heat stress tolerance without growth retardation. Here, we show that DPB3-1 interacts with DREB2A homologues in rice and soya bean. Transactivation analyses with Arabidopsis and rice mesophyll protoplasts indicate that DPB3-1 and its rice homologue OsDPB3-2 function as positive regulators of DREB2A homologues. Overexpression of DPB3-1 did not affect plant growth or yield in rice under nonstress conditions. Moreover, DPB3-1-overexpressing rice showed enhanced heat stress tolerance. Microarray analysis revealed that many heat stress-inducible genes were up-regulated in DPB3-1-overexpressing rice under heat stress conditions. However, the overexpression of DPB3-1 using a constitutive promoter had almost no effect on the expression of these genes under nonstress conditions. This may be because DPB3-1 is a coactivator and thus lacks inherent transcriptional activity. We conclude that DPB3-1, a coactivator that functions specifically under abiotic stress conditions, could be utilized to increase heat stress tolerance in crops without negative effects on vegetative and reproductive growth. PMID:26841113

  12. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a grass PpEXP1 gene exhibit enhanced tolerance to heat stress.

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    Qian Xu

    Full Text Available Heat stress is a detrimental abiotic stress limiting the growth of many plant species and is associated with various cellular and physiological damages. Expansins are a family of proteins which are known to play roles in regulating cell wall elongation and expansion, as well as other growth and developmental processes. The in vitro roles of expansins regulating plant heat tolerance are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to isolate and clone an expansin gene in a perennial grass species (Poa pratensis and to determine whether over-expression of expansin may improve plant heat tolerance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum was used as the model plant for gene transformation and an expansin gene PpEXP1 from Poa pratensis was cloned. Sequence analysis showed PpEXP1 belonged to α-expansins and was closely related to two expansin genes in other perennial grass species (Festuca pratensis and Agrostis stolonifera as well as Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing PpEXP1 were generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under heat stress (42°C in growth chambers, transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the PpEXP1 gene exhibited a less structural damage to cells, lower electrolyte leakage, lower levels of membrane lipid peroxidation, and lower content of hydrogen peroxide, as well as higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, relative water content, activity of antioxidant enzyme, and seed germination rates, compared to the wild-type plants. These results demonstrated the positive roles of PpEXP1 in enhancing plant tolerance to heat stress and the possibility of using expansins for genetic modification of cool-season perennial grasses in the development of heat-tolerant germplasm and cultivars.

  13. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-09-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show ( P environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.

  14. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  15. In vitro induction of variation through radiation for late blight resistance and heat tolerance in potato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vitro plants were obtained from nodal sections of sprouts of cvs. 'Kufri Jyoti' and 'Kufri Chandramukhi' of potato cultured on MS medium with 3% sucrose. Callus from leaves of in vitro cultured plantlets was induced on modified Linsmaier and Skoog medium supplemented with 5 mg/1 NAA. The obtained shoots and calli were irradiated with 20 and 40 Gy gamma rays. Irradiatied shoots were transferred to MS medium with 8% sucrose for multiplication, and then to MS medium with 8% sucrose and 10 mg/1 BAP to induce microtuber formation, which gave on average 1.3 microtubers per plant. The microtubers were planted in pots and variation was observed in plant morphology and tuber characters. To study variation for late blight resistance, irradiated calli were kept on Gamborg B-5 medium with culture filtrate of Phytophthora infestans. To induce variation for heat tolerance, in vitro shoots from irradiated material were mass-propagated and allowed to produce microtubers at high temperature. (author). 3 refs, 3 tabs

  16. Assessment of heat tolerance and production performance of Aardi, Damascus, and their crossbred goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad Mohammed; Abdoun, Khalid Ahmed; Okab, Aly Bassunny; Al-Badwi, Mohammed Abdo; El-Zarei, Mohamed Fawzy; Al-Seaf, Ali Mohamed; Al-Haidary, Ahmed Abrahim

    2016-01-01

    The question of whether the adaptability and production performance in goats may be enhanced using a crossbreeding program between bucks of a native and heat-tolerant breed and does of an exotic and dual-purpose breed was approached and examined herein by comparing purebred Aardi and Damascus goats and their crossbred lines (i.e., 1/2 Aardi 1/2 Damascus (½A½D) and 1/4 Aardi 3/4 Damascus (¼A¾D)) reared in a region characterized by dry and hot bioclimatic conditions. Twenty-four male 6-month-old kids randomly segregated into four groups (six replicates/group) were used for the experiment. Climatic, thermo-physiological, biophysiological, metabolic, blood hematological, and biochemical measurements were all determined. The obtained results indicated that such a program was proven to be successful. This conclusion was demonstrated by the findings that crossbred goats (i.e., 1/2A1/2D and 1/4A3/4D) under such bioclimatic conditions were able to show (P animals to display a simultaneous improvement of both traits by the possible benefits that could arise from heterosis and breed complementarity. Researches dealing with this aspect may very well improve our understanding of goat's production and welfare under harsh environmental conditions. Future studies should include an economic analysis of traits that have the potential to impact the overall profitability to a vertically coordinated system.

  17. Effects of feed restriction on the upper temperature tolerance and heat shock response in juvenile green and white sturgeon

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S; Hung, SSO; Fangue, NA; Haller, L.; Verhille, CE; Zhao, J; Todgham, AE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on whole-organism upper thermal tolerance and the heat shock response of green and white sturgeon to determine how changes in food amount might influence physiological performance of each species when faced with temperature stress. Two parallel feed restriction trials were carried out for juvenile green (202g; 222-day post hatch: dph) and white sturgeon (205g; 197-dph) to manipulate nutritional status at 12....

  18. NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling is not involved in elevated CO2-induced heat stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    OpenAIRE

    Ahammed, Golam Jalal; LI, XIN; Yu, Jingquan; Kai SHI

    2015-01-01

    Elevated CO2 can protect plants from heat stress (HS); however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we used a set of Arabidopsis mutants such as salicylic acid (SA) signaling mutants nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (npr1-1 and npr1-5) and heat-shock proteins (HSPs) mutants (hsp21 and hsp70-1) to understand the requirement of SA signaling and HSPs in elevated CO2-induced HS tolerance. Under ambient CO2 (380 µmol mol−1) conditions, HS (42°C, 24 h) drastically decrea...

  19. Synergistic effect of antioxidant system and osmolyte in hydrogen sulfide and salicylic acid crosstalk-induced heat tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), is a plant hormone with multifunction that is involved in plant growth, development and the acquisition of stress tolerance. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is emerging similar functions, but crosstalk between SA and H2S in the acquisition of heat tolerance is not clear. Our recent study firstly reported that SA treatment enhanced the activity of L-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES), a key enzyme in H2S biosynthesis, followed by induced endogenous H2S accumulation, which in turn improved the heat tolerance of maize seedlings. (1) In addition, NaHS, a H2S donor, enhanced SA-induced heat tolerance, while its biosynthesis inhibitor DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and scavenger hydroxylamine (HT) weakened SA-induced heat tolerance. Also, NaHS had no significant effect on SA accumulation and its biosynthesis enzymes phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and benzoic-acid-2-hydroxylase (BA2H) activities, as well as significant difference was not observed in NaHS-induced heat tolerance of maize seedlings by SA biosynthesis inhibitors paclobutrazol (PAC) and 2-aminoindan-2-phosph- onic acid (AIP) treatment. (1) Further study displayed that SA induced osmolytes (proline, betaine and trehalose) accumulation and enhancement in activity of antioxidant system in maize seedlings. These results showed that antioxidant system and osmolyte play a synergistic role in SA and H2S crosstalk-induced heat tolerance of maize seedlings.

  20. Overexpression of WsSGTL1 gene of Withania somnifera enhances salt tolerance, heat tolerance and cold acclimation ability in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Mishra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sterol glycosyltrnasferases (SGT are enzymes that glycosylate sterols which play important role in plant adaptation to stress and are medicinally important in plants like Withania somnifera. The present study aims to find the role of WsSGTL1 which is a sterol glycosyltransferase from W. somnifera, in plant's adaptation to abiotic stress. METHODOLOGY: The WsSGTL1 gene was transformed in Arabidopsis thaliana through Agrobacterium mediated transformation, using the binary vector pBI121, by floral dip method. The phenotypic and physiological parameters like germination, root length, shoot weight, relative electrolyte conductivity, MDA content, SOD levels, relative electrolyte leakage and chlorophyll measurements were compared between transgenic and wild type Arabidopsis plants under different abiotic stresses--salt, heat and cold. Biochemical analysis was done by HPLC-TLC and radiolabelled enzyme assay. The promoter of the WsSGTL1 gene was cloned by using Genome Walker kit (Clontech, USA and the 3D structures were predicted by using Discovery Studio Ver. 2.5. RESULTS: The WsSGTL1 transgenic plants were confirmed to be single copy by Southern and homozygous by segregation analysis. As compared to WT, the transgenic plants showed better germination, salt tolerance, heat and cold tolerance. The level of the transgene WsSGTL1 was elevated in heat, cold and salt stress along with other marker genes such as HSP70, HSP90, RD29, SOS3 and LEA4-5. Biochemical analysis showed the formation of sterol glycosides and increase in enzyme activity. When the promoter of WsSGTL1 gene was cloned from W. somnifera and sequenced, it contained stress responsive elements. Bioinformatics analysis of the 3D structure of the WsSGTL1 protein showed functional similarity with sterol glycosyltransferase AtSGT of A. thaliana. CONCLUSIONS: Transformation of WsSGTL1 gene in A. thaliana conferred abiotic stress tolerance. The promoter of the gene in W.somnifera was found

  1. Tick resistance and heat tolerance characteristics in cattle. I. Hair length and coat thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To be heat adapted and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus tick resistant are important characteristics for cattle in the Brazilian sustainable livestock, because this ectoparasite causes serious harm to the health of susceptible animals and, in the tropics, not heat adapted cattle have poor performance. Besides, the control of this tick is increasingly difficult due to drug resistance. Relationship between tick infestation and heat tolerance traits, as the hair length and coat thickness, are important because animals with long hair are easily identifiable, helping in the disposal of the least adapted cattle. In order to infer the relationship between tick infestation and fur characteristics, 6 Nellore and 4 Black and White Holstein steers, with about seven months old, underwent an artificial infestation (with 10,000 larvae on the Holstein, and 20,000 larvae on the Nellore in 16/April/2011. In days 20, 23 and 24 post-infestation, the bigger 10 females ticks found throughout the body were weighed and their egg mass weighed 14 days later. Hair length, HL (collected with pliers specially adapted for this purpose, and measured the 10 longest hair and the coat thickness, CT (measured with a metal ruler inserted perpendicular to the skin were evaluated in the middle of the shoulder on 11/April (5 days before artificial tick infestation and on 12/May (26 days after artificial tick infestation. The experimental design was a non-probability sample restricted to the 10 available animals. Data of HL and CT were analyzed using General linear models of the SPSS® statistical package (version 12.0 using breed and sampling day as independent variables. There were significant differences between the measurements obtained on April and May, respectively: HL Nellore: 9.53 ± 1.80 mm and 14.55 ± 1.77 mm; HL Holstein: 23.40 ± 9.29 and 34.05 ± 5.50 mm, P <0.001; CT Nellore: 2.83 ± 0.41 mm and 3.16 ± 0.98 mm; CT Holstein: 5.00 ± 1.63 mm and 13.75 ± 4.78 mm, P <0

  2. Some like it hot: heat tolerance of the Crab-eating Frog, Fejervarya cancrivora (Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett, W.A.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We used Critical Thermal Methodology to quantify thermal tolerance of the crab-eating frog, Fejervarya cancrivora,from Hoga Island, southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. The critical thermal maximum of F. cancrivora was 42.1 ± 0.76°C, and is perhaps the highest thermal tolerance value known in an anuran acclimatized to 25°C. The frogs’ ability to tolerate extreme high temperatures allows them to exploit abiotically harsh mangal habitats and accounts for their wide distribution across the tropical Pacific.

  3. 椰心叶甲耐热性初步研究%Heat Tolerance of Coconut Leaf Beetle, Brontispa longissima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青; 卢芙萍; 徐雪莲; 卢辉; 经福林; 彭正强

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is one of the important ecological factors for development and reproduction of coconut leaf beetle, Brontispa longissima. To investigate the mechanism of its ecological adaptation, the heat tolerance was preliminarily studied. The results showed that high temperature had a great effect on its development and reproduction, and it would not finish any development above 30 ℃; 2 h at 42 ℃ was its most heat-sensitive time; the activity increase of PPO, POD, AsA-POD, CAT and SOD were relative to its heat tolerance. The results would be much helpful for in-deep studies on the mechanism of heat tolerance and ecological adaptation of coconut leaf beetle.%温度是影响椰心叶甲生长发育与繁殖的重要生态因子之一.通过开展椰心叶甲耐热性研究,探讨椰心叶甲的生态适应性机理.结果表明,高温显著影响椰心叶甲的发育与繁殖,椰心叶甲在高于30℃温度下不能完成任何发育历期;42℃极端高温处理2h为椰心叶甲热最敏感时间;各龄期椰心叶甲PPO、POD、AsA-POD、CAT和SOD活性显著升高与椰心叶甲耐热性相关.上述结果为进一步探讨椰心叶甲耐热性分子机理及其生态适应性机理提供了理论依据与前期工作基础.

  4. Local adaptation constrains the distribution potential of heat-tolerant Symbiodinium from the Persian/Arabian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Cecilia; Hume, Benjamin C C; Burt, John; Smith, Edward G; Achterberg, Eric P; Wiedenmann, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    The symbiotic association of corals and unicellular algae of the genus Symbiodinium in the southern Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG) display an exceptional heat tolerance, enduring summer peak temperatures of up to 36 °C. As yet, it is not clear whether this resilience is related to the presence of specific symbiont types that are exclusively found in this region. Therefore, we used molecular markers to identify the symbiotic algae of three Porites species along >1000 km of coastline in the PAG and the Gulf of Oman and found that a recently described species, Symbiodinium thermophilum, is integral to coral survival in the southern PAG, the world's hottest sea. Despite the geographic isolation of the PAG, we discovered that representatives of the S. thermophilum group can also be found in the adjacent Gulf of Oman providing a potential source of thermotolerant symbionts that might facilitate the adaptation of Indian Ocean populations to the higher water temperatures expected for the future. However, corals from the PAG associated with S. thermophilum show strong local adaptation not only to high temperatures but also to the exceptionally high salinity of their habitat. We show that their superior heat tolerance can be lost when these corals are exposed to reduced salinity levels common for oceanic environments elsewhere. Consequently, the salinity prevailing in most reefs outside the PAG might represent a distribution barrier for extreme temperature-tolerant coral/Symbiodinium associations from the PAG. PMID:25989370

  5. Can sea urchins beat the heat? Sea urchins, thermal tolerance and climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sherman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The massive die-off of the long-spined sea urchin, Diadema antillarum, a significant reef grazer, in the mid 1980s was followed by phase shifts from coral dominated to macroalgae dominated reefs in the Caribbean. While Diadema populations have recovered in some reefs with concomitant increases in coral cover, the additional threat of increasing temperatures due to global climate change has not been investigated in adult sea urchins. In this study, I measured acute thermal tolerance of D. antillarum and that of a sympatric sea urchin not associated with coral cover, Echinometra lucunter, over winter, spring, and summer, thus exposing them to substantial natural thermal variation. Animals were taken from the wild and placed in laboratory tanks in room temperature water (∼22 °C that was then heated at 0.16–0.3 °C min−1 and the righting behavior of individual sea urchins was recorded. I measured both the temperature at which the animal could no longer right itself (TLoR and the righting time at temperatures below the TLoR. In all seasons, D. antillarum exhibited a higher mean TLoR than E. lucunter. The mean TLoR of each species increased with increasing environmental temperature revealing that both species acclimatize to seasonal changes in temperatures. The righting times of D. antillarum were much shorter than those of E. lucunter. The longer relative spine length of Diadema compared to that of Echinometra may contribute to their shorter righting times, but does not explain their higher TLoR. The thermal safety margin (the difference between the mean collection temperature and the mean TLoR was between 3.07–3.66 °C for Echinometra and 3.79–5.67 °C for Diadema. While these thermal safety margins exceed present day temperatures, they are modest compared to those of temperate marine invertebrates. If sea temperatures increase more rapidly than can be accommodated by the sea urchins (either by genetic adaptation, phenotypic plasticity

  6. A seed preferential heat shock transcription factor from wheat provides abiotic stress tolerance and yield enhancement in transgenic Arabidopsis under heat stress environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh Chauhan

    Full Text Available Reduction in crop yield and quality due to various abiotic stresses is a worldwide phenomenon. In the present investigation, a heat shock factor (HSF gene expressing preferentially in developing seed tissues of wheat grown under high temperatures was cloned. This newly identified heat shock factor possesses the characteristic domains of class A type plant HSFs and shows high similarity to rice OsHsfA2d, hence named as TaHsfA2d. The transcription factor activity of TaHsfA2d was confirmed through transactivation assay in yeast. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaHsfA2d not only possess higher tolerance towards high temperature but also showed considerable tolerance to salinity and drought stresses, they also showed higher yield and biomass accumulation under constant heat stress conditions. Analysis of putative target genes of AtHSFA2 through quantitative RT-PCR showed higher and constitutive expression of several abiotic stress responsive genes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants over-expressing TaHsfA2d. Under stress conditions, TaHsfA2d can also functionally complement the T-DNA insertion mutants of AtHsfA2, although partially. These observations suggest that TaHsfA2d may be useful in molecular breeding of crop plants, especially wheat, to improve yield under abiotic stress conditions.

  7. Hsp20, a small heat shock protein of Deinococcus radiodurans, confers tolerance to hydrogen peroxide in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harinder; Appukuttan, Deepti; Lim, Sangyong

    2014-08-01

    The present study shows that DR1114 (Hsp20), a small heat shock protein of the radiationresistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans, enhances tolerance to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) stress when expressed in Escherichia coli. A protein profile comparison showed that E. coli cells overexpressing D. radiodurans Hsp20 (EC-pHsp20) activated the redox state proteins, thus maintaining redox homeostasis. The cells also showed increased expression of pseudouridine (psi) synthases, which are important to the stability and proper functioning of structural RNA molecules. We found that the D. radiodurans mutant strain, which lacks a psi synthase (DR0896), was more sensitive to H2O2 stress than wild type. These suggest that an increased expression of proteins involved in the control of redox state homeostasis along with more stable ribosomal function may explain the improved tolerance of EC-pHsp20 to H2O2 stress.

  8. Temperature acclimation and heat tolerance of photosynthesis in Norwegian Saccharina latissima (Laminariales, Phaeophyceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sogn Andersen, Guri; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Nielsen, Søren Laurentius

    2013-01-01

    Kelps, seaweeds and seagrasses provide important ecosystem services in coastal areas, and loss of these macrophytes is a global concern. Recent surveys have documented severe declines in populations of the dominant kelp species, Saccharina latissima, along the south coast of Norway. S. latissima....... We investigated the potential for thermal acclimation and heat tolerance in S. latissima collected from three locations along the south coast of Norway. Plants were kept in laboratory cultures at three different growth temperatures (10, 15, and 20°C) for 4–6 weeks, after which their photosynthetic...

  9. Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Stem Cells Improve Heat Tolerance and Hypothalamic Damage in Heat Stressed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Shu Tseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Heatstroke is characterized by excessive hyperthermia associated with systemic inflammatory responses, which leads to multiple organ failure, in which brain disorders predominate. This definition can be almost fulfilled by a mouse model of heatstroke used in the present study. Unanesthetized mice were exposed to whole body heating (41.2°C for 1 hour and then returned to room temperature (26°C for recovery. Immediately after termination of whole body heating, heated mice displayed excessive hyperthermia (body core temperature ~42.5°C. Four hours after termination of heat stress, heated mice displayed (i systemic inflammation; (ii ischemic, hypoxic, and oxidative damage to the hypothalamus; (iii hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment (reflected by plasma levels of both adrenocorticotrophic-hormone and corticosterone; (iv decreased fractional survival; and (v thermoregulatory deficits (e.g., they became hypothermia when they were exposed to room temperature. These heatstroke reactions can be significantly attenuated by human umbilical cord blood-derived CD34+ cells therapy. Our data suggest that human umbilical cord blood-derived stem cells therapy may improve outcomes of heatstroke in mice by reducing systemic inflammation as well as hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis impairment.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide acts as a downstream signal molecule in salicylic acid-induced heat tolerance in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Xie, Lin-Run; Li, Xiao-Juan

    2015-04-01

    Salicylic acid (SA), 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, is a small phenolic compound with multifunction that is involved in plant growth, development, and the acquisition of stress tolerance. In recent years, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been found to have similar functions, but cross talk between SA and H2S in the acquisition of heat tolerance is not clear. In this study, pretreatment of maize seedlings with SA improved the survival percentage of seedlings under heat stress, indicating that SA pretreatment could improve the heat tolerance of maize seedlings. In addition, treatment with SA enhanced the activity of L-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES), a key enzyme in H2S biosynthesis, which in turn induced accumulation of endogenous H2S. Interestingly, SA-induced heat tolerance was enhanced by addition of NaHS, a H2S donor, but weakened by specific inhibitors of H2S biosynthesis DL-propargylglycine (PAG) and its scavenger hydroxylamine (HT). Furthermore, pretreatment with paclobutrazol (PAC) and 2-aminoindan-2-phosphonic acid (AIP), inhibitors of SA biosynthesis, had no significant effect on NaHS-induced heat tolerance of maize seedlings. Similarly, significant change in the activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and benzoic-acid-2-hydroxylase (BA2H), the key enzymes in SA biosynthesis, and the content of endogenous SA, was not observed in maize seedlings by NaHS treatment. All of the above-mentioned results suggest that SA pretreatment could improve the heat tolerance of maize seedlings, and H2S might be a novel downstream signal molecule in SA-induced heat tolerance.

  11. NPR1-dependent salicylic acid signaling is not involved in elevated CO2-induced heat stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammed, Golam Jalal; Li, Xin; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Elevated CO2 can protect plants from heat stress (HS); however, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we used a set of Arabidopsis mutants such as salicylic acid (SA) signaling mutants nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (npr1-1 and npr1-5) and heat-shock proteins (HSPs) mutants (hsp21 and hsp70-1) to understand the requirement of SA signaling and HSPs in elevated CO2-induced HS tolerance. Under ambient CO2 (380 µmol mol(-1)) conditions, HS (42°C, 24 h) drastically decreased maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) in all studied plant groups. Enrichment of CO2 (800 µmol mol(-1)) with HS remarkably increased the Fv/Fm value in all plant groups except hsp70-1, indicating that NPR1-dependent SA signaling is not involved in the elevated CO2-induced HS tolerance. These results also suggest an essentiality of HSP70-1, but not HSP21 in elevated CO2-induced HS mitigation.

  12. Effects of mineral nutrition conditions on heat tolerance of chufa (Сyperus esculentus L.) plant communities to super optimal air temperatures in the BTLSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklavtsova, E. S.; Ushakova, S. A.; Shikhov, V. N.; Anishchenko, O. V.

    2014-09-01

    The use of mineralized human wastes as a basis for nutrient solutions will increase the degree of material closure of bio-technical human life support systems. As stress tolerance of plants is determined, among other factors, by the conditions under which they have been grown before exposure to a stressor, the purpose of the study is to investigate the level of tolerance of chufa (Cyperus esculentus L.) plant communities grown in solutions based on mineralized human wastes to a damaging air temperature, 45 °C. Experiments were performed with 30-day-old chufa plant communities grown hydroponically, on expanded clay aggregate, under artificial light, at 690 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR and at a temperature of 25 °C. Plants were grown in Knop’s solution and solutions based on human wastes mineralized according to Yu.A. Kudenko’s method, which contained nitrogen either as ammonium and urea or as nitrates. The heat shock treatment lasted 20 h at 690 and 1150 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR. Chufa heat tolerance was evaluated based on parameters of CO2 gas exchange, the state of its photosynthetic apparatus (PSA), and intensity of peroxidation of leaf lipids. Chufa plants grown in the solutions based on mineralized human wastes that contained ammonium and urea had lower heat tolerance than plants grown in standard mineral solutions. Heat tolerance of the plants grown in the solutions based on mineralized human wastes that mainly contained nitrate nitrogen was insignificantly different from the heat tolerance of the plants grown in standard mineral solutions. A PAR intensity increase from 690 μmol m-2 s-1 to 1150 μmol m-2 s-1 enhanced heat tolerance of chufa plant communities, irrespective of the conditions of mineral nutrition under which they had been grown.

  13. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Jones

    Full Text Available One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  14. Potential costs of acclimatization to a warmer climate: growth of a reef coral with heat tolerant vs. sensitive symbiont types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alison; Berkelmans, Ray

    2010-05-03

    One of the principle ways in which reef building corals are likely to cope with a warmer climate is by changing to more thermally tolerant endosymbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) genotypes. It is highly likely that hosting a more heat-tolerant algal genotype will be accompanied by tradeoffs in the physiology of the coral. To better understand one of these tradeoffs, growth was investigated in the Indo-Pacific reef-building coral Acropora millepora in both the laboratory and the field. In the Keppel Islands in the southern Great Barrier Reef this species naturally harbors nrDNA ITS1 thermally sensitive type C2 or thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae of the genus Symbiodinium and can change dominant type following bleaching. We show that under controlled conditions, corals with type D symbionts grow 29% slower than those with type C2 symbionts. In the field, type D colonies grew 38% slower than C2 colonies. These results demonstrate the magnitude of trade-offs likely to be experienced by this species as they acclimatize to warmer conditions by changing to more thermally tolerant type D zooxanthellae. Irrespective of symbiont genotype, corals were affected to an even greater degree by the stress of a bleaching event which reduced growth by more than 50% for up to 18 months compared to pre-bleaching rates. The processes of symbiont change and acute thermal stress are likely to act in concert on coral growth as reefs acclimatize to more stressful warmer conditions, further compromising their regeneration capacity following climate change.

  15. Effects of feed restriction on the upper temperature tolerance and heat shock response in juvenile green and white sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyung; Hung, Silas S O; Fangue, Nann A; Haller, Liran; Verhille, Christine E; Zhao, Juan; Todgham, Anne E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on whole-organism upper thermal tolerance and the heat shock response of green and white sturgeon to determine how changes in food amount might influence physiological performance of each species when faced with temperature stress. Two parallel feed restriction trials were carried out for juvenile green (202g; 222-day post hatch: dph) and white sturgeon (205g; 197-dph) to manipulate nutritional status at 12.5%, 25%, 50%, or 100% of optimum feeding rate (100% OFR were 1.6% and 1.8% body weight/day, respectively) for four weeks. Following the trials, the critical thermal maximum (CTMax, 0.3°C/min) of sturgeon (N=12/treatment/species) was assessed as an indicator of whole-organism upper thermal tolerance. To assess temperature sensitivity, sturgeon (N=9/treatment/species) were acutely transferred to two temperature treatments (28°C and 18°C as a handling control) for 2h followed by 2h of recovery at 18°C before being sacrificed, and gill, brain, and mucus sampled for measurements of 70-kDa heat shock protein levels (Hsc/Hsp70). Feeding rate had species-specific effects on CTMax in green and white sturgeon such that CTMax of green sturgeon decreased as the magnitude of feed restriction increased; whereas, CTMax of white sturgeon did not change with feed restriction. Elevated temperature (28°C) and feed restriction increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the gill tissue of green sturgeon, while heat shock increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the mucus of white sturgeon. Our results suggest that green sturgeon may be more susceptible to temperature stress under food-limited conditions. PMID:27095630

  16. Recession-Tolerant Heat Flux Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I project will develop a suite of diagnostic sensors using Direct Write technology to measure temperature, surface recession depth, and heat flux of an...

  17. Physiological tolerance to uncompensated heat stress in soldiers: Effects of various types of body cooling systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Dalibor; Karkalić Radovan; Zeba Snježana; Pavlović Miroslav; Radaković Sonja S.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. In military services, emergency situations when soldiers are exposed to a combination of nuclear, biological and chemical (NBC) contamination combined with heat stress, are frequent and complex. In these specific conditions, usage of personal body cooling systems may be effective in reducing heat stress. The present study was conducted in order to evaluate the efficiency of four various types of contemporary personal body cooling systems bas...

  18. AtHsfA2 modulates expression of stress responsive genes and enhances tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunguang; CHEN Qijun; GAO Xinqi; QI Bishu; CHEN Naizhi; XU Shouming; CHEN Jia; WANG Xuechen

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for considerable interlinking between the responses to heat stress and oxidative stress, and recent researches suggest heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) play an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals. In this paper, we present evidence that AtHsfA2 modulated expression of stress responsive genes and enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. Using Northern blot and quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we demonstrated that the expression of AtHsfA2 was induced by not only HS but also oxidative stress. By functional analysis of AtHsfA2 knockout mutants and AtHsfA2 overexpressing transgenic plants, we also demonstrated that the mutants displayed reduced the basal and acquired thermotolerance as well as oxidative stress tolerance but the overexpression lines displayed increased tolerance to these stress. The phenotypes correlated with the expression of some Hsps and APX1, ion leakage, H2O2 level and degree of oxidative injuries. These results showed that, by modulated expression of stress responsive genes, AtHsfA2 enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in Arabidopsis. So we suggest that AtHsfA2 plays an important role in linking heat shock with oxidative stress signals.

  19. Hydrogen sulfide donor sodium hydrosulfide-induced heat tolerance in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) suspension cultured cells and involvement of Ca(2+) and calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Gong, Ming; Xie, Hong; Yang, Lan; Li, Jing

    2012-04-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is considered as a new emerging cell signal in higher plants. Hydrogen sulfide donor, sodium hydrosulfide, pretreatment significantly increased survival percentage of tobacco suspension cultured cells under heat stress and regrowth ability after heat stress, and alleviated decrease in vitality of cells, increase in electrolyte leakage and accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA). In addition, sodium hydrosulfide-induced heat tolerance was markedly strengthened by application of exogenous Ca(2+) and its ionophore A23187, respectively, while this heat tolerance was weakened by addition of Ca(2+) chelator ethylene glycol-bis(b-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), plasma membrane channel blocker La(3+), as well as calmodulin (CaM) antagonists chlorpromazine (CPZ) and trifluoperazine (TFP), respectively, but intracellular channel blocker ruthenium red (RR) did not. These results suggested that sodium hydrosulfide pretreatment could improve heat tolerance in tobacco suspension cultured cells and the acquisition of this heat tolerance requires the entry of extracellular Ca(2+) into cells across the plasma membrane and the mediation of intracellular CaM.

  20. A study on nuclear heat load tolerable for NET/TF coils cooled by internal flow of helium II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NbTi cables cooled by internal flow of superfluid helium are considered an option for the design of NET/TF coils with about 11 T peak fields. Starting from an available winding cross section of 0.61x0.61 m2 for a 8 MA turns coil made of a 16 kA conductor it is shown that sufficient hydraulic cross section can be provided within such cables to remove the expected thermal load resulting from nuclear heating with exponential decay from inboard to outboard side of the winding. The concept is a pancake type coil with 1.8 K helium fed-in the high field region of each pancake. The temperature distribution within such coils is calculated, and the local safety margin is determined from temperature and field. The calculation takes account of nuclear and a.c. heating, and of thermal conductance between the individual layers and the coil casing. It is shown that operation with 1.8 K inlet and about 3 K outlet temperature is possible. The electrical insulation with about 0.5 mm thickness proves to provide sufficient thermal insulation. No additional thermal shield is required between the coil casing and the winding package. Two different types of conductors are being considered: a) POLO type cable with quadratic cross section and a central circular coolant duct, and b) an LCT type cable with two conductors wound in hand. Both concepts with about 500 m length of the cooland channels are shown to meet the requirements resulting from a peak nuclear heat load of 0.3 mW/cm3 in the inboard turns. The hydraulic diameters are sufficient to operate each coils with self-sustained fountain effect pumps. Even appreciably higher heat loads with up to 3 mW/cm3 of nuclear heating can be tolerated for the POLO type cable when the hydraulic diameter is enlarged to its maximum of 17 mm. (orig.)

  1. Determining heat tolerance of interspecific (Cucurbita maxima x Cucurbita moschata) inbred line of squash ‘Maxchata’ and its parents through photosynthetic response

    OpenAIRE

    Ara, Neelam; Yang, Jing Hua; Hu, Zhong Yuan; Zhang, Ming Fang

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Development of heat tolerant cultivars is the need of hour to combat the challenges of global warming and food supply to increasing population. This study was conducted to determine the extent of heat tolerance of newly developed interspecific inbred line of squash named as ‘Maxchata’ through comparing its photosynthetic attributes with its parents C. maxima and C. moschata. Plants of these three cultivars were subjected to three different temperatures i.e 30°C day/ 25°C night as co...

  2. Exercise increases pressure pain tolerance but not pressure and heat pain thresholds in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaegter, H. B.; Bement, M. Hoeger; Madsen, A. B.;

    2016-01-01

    : On three different days, 20 healthy young men performed two submaximal isometric knee extensions (30% maximal voluntary contraction in 3 min) and a control condition (quiet rest). Before and immediately after exercise and rest, the sensitivity to heat pain and pressure pain was assessed in randomized......BACKGROUND: Exercise causes an acute decrease in the pain sensitivity known as exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH), but the specificity to certain pain modalities remains unknown. This study aimed to compare the effect of isometric exercise on the heat and pressure pain sensitivity. METHODS...

  3. Extremely heat tolerant photo-symbiosis in a shallow marine benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C.; Titelboim, D.; Brandt, J.; Herut, B.; Abramovich, S.; Almogi-Labin, A.; Kucera, M.

    2016-08-01

    Bleaching, the loss of algal symbionts, occurs in marine photosymbiotic organisms at water temperatures minimally exceeding average summer SST (sea surface temperatures). Pre-adaptation allows organisms to persist under warmer conditions, providing the tolerance can be carried to new habitats. Here we provide evidence for the existence of such adaptation in the benthic foraminifera Pararotalia calcariformata. This species occurs at a thermally polluted site in the Mediterranean, where water temperatures reach a maxima daily average of 36 °C during the summer. To test whether this occurrence represents a widespread adaptation, we conducted manipulative experiments exposing this species from an unpolluted site to elevated temperatures (20–42 °C). It was kept in co-culture with the more thermally sensitive foraminifera Amphistegina lobifera in two experiments (20–36 °C). Reduced photosynthetic activity in A. lobifera occurred at 32 °C whereas photochemical stress in P. calcariformata was first observed during exposure to 36 °C. Pararotalia calcariformata survived all treatment conditions and grew under 36 °C. The photosymbiosis in P. calcariformata is unusually thermally tolerant. These observations imply that marine eukaryote-eukaryote photosymbiosis can respond to elevated temperatures by drawing on a pool of naturally occurring pre-adaptations. It also provides a perspective on the massive occurrence of symbiont-bearing foraminifera in the early Cenozoic hothouse climate.

  4. Extremely heat tolerant photo-symbiosis in a shallow marine benthic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, C.; Titelboim, D.; Brandt, J.; Herut, B.; Abramovich, S.; Almogi-Labin, A.; Kucera, M.

    2016-08-01

    Bleaching, the loss of algal symbionts, occurs in marine photosymbiotic organisms at water temperatures minimally exceeding average summer SST (sea surface temperatures). Pre-adaptation allows organisms to persist under warmer conditions, providing the tolerance can be carried to new habitats. Here we provide evidence for the existence of such adaptation in the benthic foraminifera Pararotalia calcariformata. This species occurs at a thermally polluted site in the Mediterranean, where water temperatures reach a maxima daily average of 36 °C during the summer. To test whether this occurrence represents a widespread adaptation, we conducted manipulative experiments exposing this species from an unpolluted site to elevated temperatures (20-42 °C). It was kept in co-culture with the more thermally sensitive foraminifera Amphistegina lobifera in two experiments (20-36 °C). Reduced photosynthetic activity in A. lobifera occurred at 32 °C whereas photochemical stress in P. calcariformata was first observed during exposure to 36 °C. Pararotalia calcariformata survived all treatment conditions and grew under 36 °C. The photosymbiosis in P. calcariformata is unusually thermally tolerant. These observations imply that marine eukaryote-eukaryote photosymbiosis can respond to elevated temperatures by drawing on a pool of naturally occurring pre-adaptations. It also provides a perspective on the massive occurrence of symbiont-bearing foraminifera in the early Cenozoic hothouse climate.

  5. Enhancing heat tolerance of the little dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with introduction of a superoxide reductase gene from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinmin eGeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA, and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  6. Enhancing Heat Tolerance of the Little Dogwood Cornus canadensis L. f. with Introduction of a Superoxide Reductase Gene from the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Xing-Min; Liu, Xiang; Ji, Mikyoung; Hoffmann, William A; Grunden, Amy; Xiang, Qiu-Yun J

    2016-01-01

    Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be accelerated under various biotic and abiotic stresses causing lipid peroxidation, protein degradation, enzyme inactivation, and DNA damage. Superoxide reductase (SOR) is a novel antioxidant enzyme from Pyrococcus furiosus and is employed by this anaerobic hyperthermophilic archaeon for efficient detoxification of ROS. In this study, SOR was introduced into a flowering plant Cornus canadensis to enhance its heat tolerance and reduce heat induced damage. A fusion construct of the SOR gene and Green Fluorescent Protein gene (GFP) was introduced into C. canadensis using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Heat tolerance of the GFP-SOR expressing transgenic plants was investigated by observing morphological symptoms of heat injury and by examining changes in photosynthesis, malondialdehyde (MDA), and proline levels in the plants. Our results indicate that the expression of the P. furiosus SOR gene in the transgenic plants alleviated lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and photoinhibition of PS II, and decreased the accumulation of proline at 40°C. After a series of exposures to increasing temperatures, the SOR transgenic plants remained healthy and green whereas most of the non-transgenic plants dried up and were unable to recover. While it had previously been reported that expression of SOR in Arabidopsis enhanced heat tolerance, this is the first report of the successful demonstration of improved heat tolerance in a non-model plant resulting from the introduction of P. furiosus SOR. The study demonstrates the potential of SOR for crop improvement and that inherent limitations of plant heat tolerance can be ameliorated with P. furiosus SOR.

  7. Overexpression of Heat Shock Factor Gene HsfA3 Increases Galactinol Levels and Oxidative Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chieun; Chung, Woo Sik; Lim, Chae Oh

    2016-06-30

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are central regulators of abiotic stress responses, especially heat stress responses, in plants. In the current study, we characterized the activity of the Hsf gene HsfA3 in Arabidopsis under oxidative stress conditions. HsfA3 transcription in seedlings was induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), exogenous hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and an endogenous H2O2 propagator, 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone (DBMIB). HsfA3-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibited increased oxidative stress tolerance compared to untransformed wild-type plants (WT), as revealed by changes in fresh weight, chlorophyll fluorescence, and ion leakage under light conditions. The expression of several genes encoding galactinol synthase (GolS), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFOs), which function as antioxidants in plant cells, was induced in HsfA3 overexpressors. In addition, galactinol levels were higher in HsfA3 overexpressors than in WT under unstressed conditions. In transient transactivation assays using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, HsfA3 activated the transcription of a reporter gene driven by the GolS1 or GolS2 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that GolS1 and GolS2 are directly regulated by HsfA3 and that GolS enzymes play an important role in improving oxidative stress tolerance by increasing galactinol biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. PMID:27109422

  8. Non-lethal heat shock increased Hsp70 and immune protein transcripts but not Vibrio tolerance in the white-leg shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hong Loc

    Full Text Available Non-lethal heat shock boosts bacterial and viral disease tolerance in shrimp, possibly due to increases in endogenous heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 and/or immune proteins. To further understand the mechanisms protecting shrimp against infection, Hsp70 and the mRNAs encoding the immune-related proteins prophenoloxidase (proPO, peroxinectin, penaeidin, crustin and hemocyanin were studied in post-larvae of the white-leg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, following a non-lethal heat shock. As indicated by RT-qPCR, a 30 min abrupt heat shock increased Hsp70 mRNA in comparison to non-heated animals. Immunoprobing of western blots and quantification by ELISA revealed that Hsp70 production after heat shock was correlated with enhanced Hsp70 mRNA. proPO and hemocyanin mRNA levels were augmented, whereas peroxinectin and crustin mRNA levels were unchanged following non-lethal heat shock. Penaeidin mRNA was decreased by all heat shock treatments. Thirty min abrupt heat shock failed to improve survival of post-larvae in a standardized challenge test with Vibrio harveyi, indicating that under the conditions of this study, L. vannamei tolerance to Vibrio infection was influenced neither by Hsp70 accumulation nor the changes in the immune-related proteins, observations dissimilar to other shrimp species examined.

  9. Thermal shocks in solar boiler tubes and mechanical tolerance to heating velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boiler circular cross-section tubes are cooled by an internal flow and are subjected to a non uniform heat flux around their outer circumference that changes very rapidly with time. Thus thermal shocks can develop in the thickness of tube walls and may cause brittle fracture or fatigue damage. We solve the corresponding thermoelastic problem. The determination of temperature distribution through the wall thickness requires the solution of one-dimensional transient heat equation obtained by performing a Fourier expansion in the angular variable. For each harmonic, Galerkin's method with respect to the radial coordinate together with a finite difference scheme with respect to time permit to completely discretize the associated equation. (orig.)

  10. Can butterflies evade fire? Pupa location and heat tolerance in fire prone habitats of Florida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Thom

    Full Text Available Butterflies such as the atala hairstreak, Eumaeus atala Poey, and the frosted elfin, Callophrys irus Godart, are restricted to frequently disturbed habitats where their larval host plants occur. Pupae of these butterflies are noted to reside at the base of host plants or in the leaf litter and soil, which may allow them to escape direct mortality by fire, a prominent disturbance in many areas they inhabit. The capacity of these species to cope with fire is a critical consideration for land management and conservation strategies in the locations where they are found. Survival of E. atala pupae in relation to temperature and duration of heat pulse was tested using controlled water bath experiments and a series of prescribed fire field experiments. Survival of E. atala pupae was correlated to peak temperature and heat exposure in both laboratory and field trials. In addition, E. atala survival following field trials was correlated to depth of burial; complete mortality was observed for pupae at the soil surface. Fifty percent of E. atala survived the heat generated by prescribed fire when experimentally placed at depths ≥ 1.75 cm, suggesting that pupation of butterflies in the soil at depth can protect from fatal temperatures caused by fire. For a species such as E. atala that pupates above ground, a population reduction from a burn event is a significant loss, and so decreasing the impact of prescribed fire on populations is critical.

  11. Stress tolerance and stress-induced injury in crop plants measured by chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo: chilling, freezing, ice cover, heat, and high light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smillie, R M; Hetherington, S E

    1983-08-01

    The proposition is examined that measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo can be used to monitor cellular injury caused by environmental stresses rapidly and nondestructively and to determine the relative stress tolerances of different species. Stress responses of leaf tissue were measured by F(R), the maximal rate of the induced rise in chlorophyll fluorescence. The time taken for F(R) to decrease by 50% in leaves at 0 degrees C was used as a measure of chilling tolerance. This value was 4.3 hours for chilling-sensitive cucumber. In contrast, F(R) decreased very slowly in cucumber leaves at 10 degrees C or in chilling-tolerant cabbage leaves at 0 degrees C. Long-term changes in F(R) of barley, wheat, and rye leaves kept at 0 degrees C were different in frost-hardened and unhardened material and in the latter appeared to be correlated to plant frost tolerance. To simulate damage caused by a thick ice cover, wheat leaves were placed at 0 degrees C under N(2). Kharkov wheat, a variety tolerant of ice encapsulation, showed a slower decrease in F(R) than Gatcher, a spring wheat. Relative heat tolerance was also indicated by the decrease in F(R) in heated leaves while changes in vivo resulting from photoinhibition, ultraviolet radiation, and photobleaching can also be measured. PMID:16663118

  12. Comparative analysis of the heat stable proteome of radicles of Medicago truncatula seeds during germination identifies late embryogenesis abundant proteins associated with desiccation tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boudet, J.; Buitink, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Rogniaux, H.; Larré, C.; Satour, P.; Leprince, O.

    2006-01-01

    A proteomic analysis was performed on the heat stable protein fraction of imbibed radicles of Medicago truncatula seeds to investigate whether proteins can be identified that are specifically linked to desiccation tolerance (DT). Radicles were compared before and after emergence (2.8 mm long) in ass

  13. Steam-treatment-based soil remediation promotes heat-tolerant, potentially pathogenic microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Bender, Mikkel; Ekelund, Flemming; Elmholt, Susanne; Jacobsen, Carsten Suhr

    2014-01-01

    We investigated microbiota in surface and subsurface soil from a site, above steam-treated deep sub-soil originally contaminated with chlorinated solvents. During the steam treatment, the surface soil reached temperatures c. 30 degrees C higher than the temperature in untreated soil; whereas the subsurface soil, at a depth of about 40 cm, reached a temperature c. 45 degrees C higher than untreated soil. The soil was examined prior to, during, and 6, 12, 14, 20 and 31 months after treatment. Numbers of bacteria cultivable at 42 degrees C increased significantly in subsurface soil. Similarly, substrate utilization in ECOLOG plates, incubated at 42 degrees C, increased from less than 10% of available carbon sources in the untreated soil to more than 60% of the available carbon sources in the steam-treated soil. Aspergillus fumigatus was quantified as an example ofheat-tolerant fungi normally found in compost. These organisms are rarely detected in Danish soils but high numbers (c. 10(5) hyphal forming units g(-1)) occurred in the treated soil up to 31 months after the steam-treatment. We conclude that steam-treatment leads to changes of the microbial communities. Some changes are temporary while others can last for years after termination of the steam-treatment; reflecting different strategies that soil microorganisms follow.

  14. Thermal limit for metazoan life in question: in vivo heat tolerance of the Pompeii worm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Ravaux

    Full Text Available The thermal limit for metazoan life, expected to be around 50°C, has been debated since the discovery of the Pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana, which colonizes black smoker chimney walls at deep-sea vents. While indirect evidence predicts body temperatures lower than 50°C, repeated in situ temperature measurements depict an animal thriving at temperatures of 60°C and more. This controversy was to remain as long as this species escaped in vivo investigations, due to irremediable mortalities upon non-isobaric sampling. Here we report from the first heat-exposure experiments with live A. pompejana, following isobaric sampling and subsequent transfer in a laboratory pressurized aquarium. A prolonged (2 hours exposure in the 50-55°C range was lethal, inducing severe tissue damages, cell mortalities and triggering a heat stress response, therefore showing that Alvinella's upper thermal limit clearly is below 55°C. A comparison with hsp70 stress gene expressions of individuals analysed directly after sampling in situ confirms that Alvinella pompejana does not experience long-term exposures to temperature above 50°C in its natural environment. The thermal optimum is nevertheless beyond 42°C, which confirms that the Pompeii worm ranks among the most thermotolerant metazoans.

  15. ClpB/Hsp100 proteins and heat stress tolerance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratnesh Chandra; Grover, Anil

    2016-10-01

    High-temperature stress can disrupt cellular proteostasis, resulting in the accumulation of insoluble protein aggregates. For survival under stressful conditions, it is important for cells to maintain a pool of native soluble proteins by preventing and/or dissociating these aggregates. Chaperones such as GroEL/GroES (Hsp60/Hsp10) and DnaK/DnaJ/GrpE (Hsp70/Hsp40/nucleotide exchange factor) help cells minimize protein aggregation. Protein disaggregation is accomplished by chaperones belonging to the Caseinolytic Protease (Clp) family of proteins. ClpB/Hsp100 proteins are strikingly ubiquitous and are found in bacteria, yeast and multi-cellular plants. The expression of these proteins is regulated by heat stress (HS) and developmental cues. Bacteria and yeast contain one and two forms of ClpB proteins, respectively. Plants possess multiple forms of these proteins that are localized to different cellular compartments (i.e. cytoplasm/nucleus, chloroplast or mitochondria). Overwhelming evidence suggests that ClpB/Hsp100 proteins play decisive roles in cell adaptation to HS. Mutant bacteria and yeast cells lacking active ClpB/Hsp100 proteins are critically sensitive to high-temperature stress. Likewise, Arabidopsis, maize and rice mutants lacking cytoplasmic ClpB proteins are very sensitive to heat. In this study, we present the structural and functional attributes of plant ClpB forms. PMID:26121931

  16. Heat sensitive persons with multiple sclerosis are more tolerant to resistance exercise than to endurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerbæk, Anders G; Møller, Andreas Buch; Jensen, Ellen;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heat sensitivity (HS) is reported by 58% of all persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), causing symptom exacerbation possibly limiting exercise participation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypotheses that (a) a relationship between exercise-induced changes in core...... Functional Composite (MSFC) and Body Sway. Composite scores describing average subjective symptom intensity (SI) and total number of symptoms (SN) were calculated from VAS scores. RESULTS: C(temp) (0.9±0.4°C vs 0.3±0.1°C, p...... randomly completed a session of RE and EE, or EE and RE, respectively. Testing was conducted pre, post and one hour after exercise and consisted of Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) scoring (fatigue, spasticity, pain, strength, walking and balance), the 5-time sit-to-stand (5STS), the Multiple Sclerosis...

  17. Detrimental effect of selection for milk yield on genetic tolerance to heat stress in purebred Zebu cattle: Genetic parameters and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, M L; Pereira, R J; Bignardi, A B; Filho, A E Vercesi; Menéndez-Buxadera, A; El Faro, L

    2015-12-01

    In an attempt to determine the possible detrimental effects of continuous selection for milk yield on the genetic tolerance of Zebu cattle to heat stress, genetic parameters and trends of the response to heat stress for 86,950 test-day (TD) milk yield records from 14,670 first lactations of purebred dairy Gir cows were estimated. A random regression model with regression on days in milk (DIM) and temperature-humidity index (THI) values was applied to the data. The most detrimental effect of THI on milk yield was observed in the stage of lactation with higher milk production, DIM 61 to 120 (-0.099kg/d per THI). Although modest variations were observed for the THI scale, a reduction in additive genetic variance as well as in permanent environmental and residual variance was observed with increasing THI values. The heritability estimates showed a slight increase with increasing THI values for any DIM. The correlations between additive genetic effects across the THI scale showed that, for most of the THI values, genotype by environment interactions due to heat stress were less important for the ranking of bulls. However, for extreme THI values, this type of genotype by environment interaction may lead to an important error in selection. As a result of the selection for milk yield practiced in the dairy Gir population for 3 decades, the genetic trend of cumulative milk yield was significantly positive for production in both high (51.81kg/yr) and low THI values (78.48kg/yr). However, the difference between the breeding values of animals at high and low THI may be considered alarming (355kg in 2011). The genetic trends observed for the regression coefficients related to general production level (intercept of the reaction norm) and specific ability to respond to heat stress (slope of the reaction norm) indicate that the dairy Gir population is heading toward a higher production level at the expense of lower tolerance to heat stress. These trends reflect the genetic

  18. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata” and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Ara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line “Maxchata” genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C and severe (42 °C heat shocks. “C. moschata” exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, superoxide (O2− and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by “Maxchata”. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among “C. maxima” and “Maxchata”, most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in “Maxchata”, which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration.

  19. Antioxidant Enzymatic Activities and Gene Expression Associated with Heat Tolerance in the Stems and Roots of Two Cucurbit Species (“Cucurbita maxima” and “Cucurbita moschata”) and Their Interspecific Inbred Line “Maxchata”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Neelam; Nakkanong, Korakot; Lv, Wenhui; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-01-01

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant “C. moschata”, thermolabile “C. maxima” and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line “Maxchata” genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C) and severe (42 °C) heat shocks. “C. moschata” exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2−) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by “Maxchata”. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among “C. maxima” and “Maxchata”, most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in “Maxchata”, which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration. PMID:24336062

  20. Antioxidant enzymatic activities and gene expression associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of two cucurbit species ("Cucurbita maxima" and "Cucurbita moschata") and their interspecific inbred line "Maxchata".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ara, Neelam; Nakkanong, Korakot; Lv, Wenhui; Yang, Jinghua; Hu, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-12-10

    The elucidation of heat tolerance mechanisms is required to combat the challenges of global warming. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant enzyme responses to heat stress, at the enzymatic activity and gene expression levels, and to investigate the antioxidative alterations associated with heat tolerance in the stems and roots of squashes using three genotypes differing in heat tolerance. Plants of heat-tolerant "C. moschata", thermolabile "C. maxima" and moderately heat-tolerant interspecific inbred line "Maxchata" genotypes were exposed to moderate (37 °C) and severe (42 °C) heat shocks. "C. moschata" exhibited comparatively little oxidative damage, with the lowest hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2(-)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents in the roots compared to stems, followed by "Maxchata". The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were found to be increased with heat stress in tolerant genotypes. The significant inductions of FeSOD, MnSOD, APX2, CAT1 and CAT3 isoforms in tolerant genotypes suggested their participation in heat tolerance. The differential isoform patterns of SOD, APX and CAT between stems and roots also indicated their tissue specificity. Furthermore, despite the sequence similarity of the studied antioxidant genes among "C. maxima" and "Maxchata", most of these genes were highly induced under heat stress in "Maxchata", which contributed to its heat tolerance. This phenomenon also indicated the involvement of other unknown genetic and/or epigenetic factors in controlling the expression of these antioxidant genes in squashes, which demands further exploration.

  1. Genetic dissection of drought and heat tolerance in chickpea through genome-wide and candidate gene-based association mapping approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Rathore, Abhishek; Gaur, Pooran Mal; Krishnamurthy, Lakshmanan; Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N; Chaturvedi, Sushil Kumar; Basu, Partha Sarathi; Gangarao, N V P R; Fikre, Asnake; Kimurto, Paul; Sharma, Prakash C; Sheshashayee, M S; Tobita, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Junichi; Ito, Osamu; Killian, Andrzej; Varshney, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-01

    To understand the genetic basis of tolerance to drought and heat stresses in chickpea, a comprehensive association mapping approach has been undertaken. Phenotypic data were generated on the reference set (300 accessions, including 211 mini-core collection accessions) for drought tolerance related root traits, heat tolerance, yield and yield component traits from 1-7 seasons and 1-3 locations in India (Patancheru, Kanpur, Bangalore) and three locations in Africa (Nairobi, Egerton in Kenya and Debre Zeit in Ethiopia). Diversity Array Technology (DArT) markers equally distributed across chickpea genome were used to determine population structure and three sub-populations were identified using admixture model in STRUCTURE. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD) estimated using the squared-allele frequency correlations (r2; when r2<0.20) was found to decay rapidly with the genetic distance of 5 cM. For establishing marker-trait associations (MTAs), both genome-wide and candidate gene-sequencing based association mapping approaches were conducted using 1,872 markers (1,072 DArTs, 651 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], 113 gene-based SNPs and 36 simple sequence repeats [SSRs]) and phenotyping data mentioned above employing mixed linear model (MLM) analysis with optimum compression with P3D method and kinship matrix. As a result, 312 significant MTAs were identified and a maximum number of MTAs (70) was identified for 100-seed weight. A total of 18 SNPs from 5 genes (ERECTA, 11 SNPs; ASR, 4 SNPs; DREB, 1 SNP; CAP2 promoter, 1 SNP and AMDH, 1SNP) were significantly associated with different traits. This study provides significant MTAs for drought and heat tolerance in chickpea that can be used, after validation, in molecular breeding for developing superior varieties with enhanced drought and heat tolerance. PMID:24801366

  2. Genetic dissection of drought and heat tolerance in chickpea through genome-wide and candidate gene-based association mapping approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendar Thudi

    Full Text Available To understand the genetic basis of tolerance to drought and heat stresses in chickpea, a comprehensive association mapping approach has been undertaken. Phenotypic data were generated on the reference set (300 accessions, including 211 mini-core collection accessions for drought tolerance related root traits, heat tolerance, yield and yield component traits from 1-7 seasons and 1-3 locations in India (Patancheru, Kanpur, Bangalore and three locations in Africa (Nairobi, Egerton in Kenya and Debre Zeit in Ethiopia. Diversity Array Technology (DArT markers equally distributed across chickpea genome were used to determine population structure and three sub-populations were identified using admixture model in STRUCTURE. The pairwise linkage disequilibrium (LD estimated using the squared-allele frequency correlations (r2; when r2<0.20 was found to decay rapidly with the genetic distance of 5 cM. For establishing marker-trait associations (MTAs, both genome-wide and candidate gene-sequencing based association mapping approaches were conducted using 1,872 markers (1,072 DArTs, 651 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs], 113 gene-based SNPs and 36 simple sequence repeats [SSRs] and phenotyping data mentioned above employing mixed linear model (MLM analysis with optimum compression with P3D method and kinship matrix. As a result, 312 significant MTAs were identified and a maximum number of MTAs (70 was identified for 100-seed weight. A total of 18 SNPs from 5 genes (ERECTA, 11 SNPs; ASR, 4 SNPs; DREB, 1 SNP; CAP2 promoter, 1 SNP and AMDH, 1SNP were significantly associated with different traits. This study provides significant MTAs for drought and heat tolerance in chickpea that can be used, after validation, in molecular breeding for developing superior varieties with enhanced drought and heat tolerance.

  3. Possible Involvement of Anti-Oxidant Enzymes in the Cross-Tolerance of the Germination/Growth of Wheat Seeds to Salinity and Heat Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Bao LEI; Song-Quan SONG; Jia-Rui FU

    2005-01-01

    The germination/growth of wheat (Triticun aestivum L. cv. Zimai 1) seeds and changes in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and catalase (CAT), as well as in the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), in response to salt and heat stress, as well as cross-stress, were investigated in the present study. With increasing temperature and decreasing water potential caused by NaC1 solution, the germination percentage of seeds and the fresh weight of seedlings decreased markedly, SOD activity increased, activities of APX and CAT decreased distinctly, and the TBARS content increased gradually. Seeds pretreated at 33 ℃ for different times displayed increased tolerance to subsequent salt stress, enhanced SOD, APX, and CAT activities, and decreased TBARS content. Seeds pretreated at -0.8 MPa NaC1 for different times displayed increased tolerance to subsequent heat stress and marked increases in SOD, APX, and CAT activities, which were associated with decreased TBARS content. It is considered that the common component in the cross-tolerance of the germination and growth of wheat seeds to salinity and heat stress is the anti-oxidant enzyme system.

  4. Optimization of a heat-tolerant β-glucosidase production by Bacillus sp. ZJ1308 and its purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenni; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Ping

    2016-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to optimize the medium composition to improve the production of the heat-tolerant β-glucosidase from Bacillus sp. ZJ1308. Three significant factors were found to be corn cob, beef extract, and MnSO4 ·H2 O. The final medium compositions optimized were corn cob (51.8 g/L), beef extract (23.8 g/L), salicin (0.5 g/L), MnSO4 ·H2 O (0.363 g/L), MgSO4 ·7H2 O (0.4 g/L), and NaCl (5 g/L). Under the optimal conditions, the activity of β-glucosidase was up to 4.71 U/mL. β-Glucosidase was purified to homogeneity with a recovery rate of 5% and a specific activity of 110.47 U/mg. The optimal pH and temperature were 7.0 and 60 °C, respectively. β-Glucosidase was stable within a pH range of 6.0-8.0 and showed an extremely high thermostability at 80 and 90 °C, retaining 56% and 38% of its maximal activity, respectively. Ni(2+) and Ba(2+) heavily inhibited the β-glucosidase activity. The purified β-glucosidase showed a high substrate specificity. The kinetic parameters revealed that it had a high catalytic efficiency toward the substrate p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (Kcat /Km = 700). It also showed a high catalytic activity toward the natural substrate salicin. This study provides a new insight into the future development and use of β-glucosidase from Bacillus sp. ZJ1308. PMID:26077129

  5. Heat treatment of samples improve the performance of the Nijmegen-Bethesda assay in hemophilia A patients undergoing immune tolerance induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Montalvão, Silmara Aparecida; Tucunduva, Alini Camargo; de Almeida Sambo, Andrea Luísa; De Paula, Erich Vinicius; de Souza Medina, Samuel; Ozelo, Margareth Castro

    2015-12-01

    Nijmegen-Bethesda assay is the gold standard to assess inhibitory antibodies against factor (F) VIII. This method has some limitations, including high coefficient of variation and possible interference of residual endogenous or exogenous factor VIII. Heat-treatment of samples at 56 °C for 30 min could be a strategy to improve the sensitivity of this test. The aim of this study was to compare inhibitor quantification in hemophilia patients with and without inhibitor performed in previously heated and non-heated samples. A total of 109 analyses from 46 patients with severe hemophilia A were performed. Patients were divided into three groups: 20 patients with no history of inhibitor, recently and not recently exposed to FVIII (group I), 21 patients with history of inhibitor not exposed to FVIII (group II), and 5 patients (68 samples) undergoing an immune tolerance induction (ITI) protocol (group III). For patients with no history of inhibitor, heat-treatment did not modify the results (p=0.24). However, differences in inhibitor levels between heated and non-heated samples were observed in patients with history of inhibitor (group II, pITI (group III, pITI patient showed similar trend line for the results of heated and non-heated samples. In this study, we demonstrated that heating samples increase sensitivity of Nijmegen-Bethesda assay, with no shift from negative to positive results in patients with no history of inhibitor. Furthermore, this procedure has an important role to patients undergoing an ITI protocol. PMID:26344704

  6. Universal Stress Protein exhibits a redox-dependent chaperone function in Arabidopsis and enhances plant tolerance to heat shock and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung eYoung Jun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although a wide range of physiological information on Universal Stress Proteins (USPs is available from many organisms, their biochemical and molecular functions remain unidentified. The biochemical function of AtUSP (At3g53990 from Arabidopsis thaliana was therefore investigated. Plants over-expressing AtUSP showed a strong resistance to heat shock and oxidative stress, compared with wild-type and Atusp knock-out plants, confirming the crucial role of AtUSP in stress tolerance. AtUSP was present in a variety of structures including monomers, dimers, trimers, and oligomeric complexes, and switched in response to external stresses from low molecular weight (LMW species to high molecular weight (HMW complexes. AtUSP exhibited a strong chaperone function under stress conditions in particular, and this activity was significantly increased by heat treatment. Chaperone activity of AtUSP was critically regulated by the redox status of cells and accompanied by structural changes to the protein. Over-expression of AtUSP conferred a strong tolerance to heat shock and oxidative stress upon Arabidopsis, primarily via its chaperone function.

  7. Survey of Thermal-Fluids Evaluation and Confirmatory Experimental Validation Requirements of Accident Tolerant Cladding Concepts with Focus on Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ali, Amir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Maolong [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blandford, Edward [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is working closely with the nuclear industry to develop fuel and cladding candidates with potentially enhanced accident tolerance, also known as accident tolerant fuel (ATF). Thermal-fluids characteristics are a vital element of a holistic engineering evaluation of ATF concepts. One vital characteristic related to boiling heat transfer is the critical heat flux (CHF). CHF plays a vital role in determining safety margins during normal operation and also in the progression of potential transient or accident scenarios. This deliverable is a scoping survey of thermal-fluids evaluation and confirmatory experimental validation requirements of accident tolerant cladding concepts with a focus on boiling heat transfer characteristics. The key takeaway messages of this report are: 1. CHF prediction accuracy is important and the correlations may have significant uncertainty. 2. Surface conditions are important factors for CHF, primarily the wettability that is characterized by contact angle. Smaller contact angle indicates greater wettability, which increases the CHF. Surface roughness also impacts wettability. Results in the literature for pool boiling experiments indicate changes in CHF by up to 60% for several ATF cladding candidates. 3. The measured wettability of FeCrAl (i.e., contact angle and roughness) indicates that CHF should be investigated further through pool boiling and flow boiling experiments. 4. Initial measurements of static advancing contact angle and surface roughness indicate that FeCrAl is expected to have a higher CHF than Zircaloy. The measured contact angle of different FeCrAl alloy samples depends on oxide layer thickness and composition. The static advancing contact angle tends to decrease as the oxide layer thickness increases.

  8. Regulation of auxin, abscisic acid and salicylic acid levels by ascorbate application under heat stress in sensitive and tolerant maize leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Demir, Emel; Kompe, Yasemin Ozdener

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the effect of ascorbic acid (5 mM) on some physiological parameters and three hormones (auxin, abscisic acid, salicylic acid) was determined under heat stress (40 °C) in maize tolerant cv. (MAY 69) and sensitive cv. SHEMAL (SH) at 0 h, 4 h and 8 h. Heat stress reduced total chlorophyll content (CHL), relative water content (RWC) and stomatal conductance (gs) in SH but did not lead to changes in MAY 69 at 4 h and 8 h. However, pretreatment with ascorbic acid increased (CHL), (RWC) and (gs) in SH under heat stress while it reduced MDA content significantly in both cv. We also observed that heat stress led to a reduction in SA level but increased ABA and IAA levels in SH, whereas it increased SA and IAA levels but did not change ABA level in MAY 69 at 4 h. Furthermore, in SH, ASC application under heat stress increased SA level and decreased IAA and ABA levels at 4 h, but it had no effect on SA and ABA at 8 h. PMID:25475985

  9. IP Addressing

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    tut quiz anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: The concept of halving a binary number space., Using the halving concept to explain how the Internet IP space is segmented into the A, B, and C address classifications., How the first octet ranges for the A, B, and C IP space are produced.In this tutorial, explanations are illustrated by simple animations. Students are asked to observe number patterns, and check their observations against automated 'answers.' There is a qu...

  10. Inaugural Address

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Yousaf Raza Gilani

    2008-01-01

    Sardar Aseff Ahmad Ali, Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission, Dr Rashid Amjad, President, Pakistan Society of Development Economists, Honourable Ministers, Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen! It is indeed a privilege and honour to address this distinguished gathering of economists. I am very happy that this meeting is being attended by internationally acclaimed economists and academics from both within and outside the country. I am especially heartened to see that students of economics from a...

  11. A calcium-binding protein, rice annexin OsANN1, enhances heat stress tolerance by modulating the production of H2O2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Bei; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Dongliang; Wang, Haiqi; Yin, Jingya; Wang, Rui; He, Mengli; Cui, Meng; Shang, Zhonglin; Wang, Dekai; Zhu, Zhengge

    2015-09-01

    OsANN1 is a member of the annexin protein family in rice. The function of this protein and the mechanisms of its involvement in stress responses and stress tolerance are largely unknown. Here it is reported that OsANN1 confers abiotic stress tolerance by modulating antioxidant accumulation under abiotic stress. OsANN1-knockdown [RNA interference (RNAi)] plants were more sensitive to heat and drought stresses, whereas OsANN1-overexpression (OE) lines showed improved growth with higher expression of OsANN1 under abiotic stress. Overexpression of OsANN1 promoted SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) activities, which regulate H2O2 content and redox homeostasis, suggesting the existence of a feedback mechanism between OsANN1 and H2O2 production under abiotic stress. Higher expression of OsANN1 can provide overall cellular protection against abiotic stress-induced damage, and a significant accumulation of OsANN1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) signals was found in the cytosol after heat shock treatment. OsANN1 also has calcium-binding and ATPase activities in vitro, indicating that OsANN1 has multiple functions in rice growth. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays demonstrated that OsANN1 interacts with OsCDPK24. This cross-talk may provide additional layers of regulation in the abiotic stress response. PMID:26085678

  12. The combined effects of magnetic asymmetry, assembly and manufacturing tolerances on the plasma heat load to the ITER first wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The base plasma heat load on the ITER first wall results from the projection of the plasma scrape off layer power profile onto the shaped surface of the first wall panels. The actual heat load on the first wall is larger than the base heat load, due to enhancement factors such as design approximations, manufacturing and assembly errors, and deviations to the ideally toroidal magnetic field configurations. The heat load increase is accounted for through penalty coefficients, ranging individually from a few percent to 50%. The probabilistic combination of individual penalty coefficients to give a global penalty coefficient is presented in the paper. The global penalty coefficient ranges from 1.37 to 2.44, depending of the first wall row and plasma phase

  13. Welcome Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@  On behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute, I welcome you to Beijing and to the Third Asian Conference on Food Safety and Nutrition. Many of you will remember the first Asian conference on Food Safety held in Kuala Lumpur in 1990 and the second held in Bangkok in 1994. These meetings have been so successful that ILSI made the commitment to host such a conference periodically in order to provide a forum to share the latest information and to set new goals and priorities.   This year, we have broadened the scope of the agenda to include issues on nutrition. I want to thank all of our co-sponsors and members of the Planning Committee for preparing such a comprehensive and timely program. Some of the issues and challenges facing Asia that will be addressed at this meeting are:

  14. Ribosomal P3 protein AtP3B of Arabidopsis acts as both protein and RNA chaperone to increase tolerance of heat and cold stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Ho; Lee, Young Mee; Park, Joung Hun; Nawkar, Ganesh M; Oh, Hun Taek; Kim, Min Gab; Lee, Soo In; Kim, Woe Yeon; Yun, Dae-Jin; Lee, Sang Yeol

    2016-07-01

    The P3 proteins are plant-specific ribosomal P-proteins; however, their molecular functions have not been characterized. In a screen for components of heat-stable high-molecular weight (HMW) complexes, we isolated the P3 protein AtP3B from heat-treated Arabidopsis suspension cultures. By size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), SDS-PAGE and native PAGE followed by immunoblotting with anti-AtP3B antibody, we showed that AtP3B was stably retained in HMW complexes following heat shock. The level of AtP3B mRNA increased in response to both high- and low-temperature stresses. Bacterially expressed recombinant AtP3B protein exhibited both protein and RNA chaperone activities. Knockdown of AtP3B by RNAi made plants sensitive to both high- and low-temperature stresses, whereas overexpression of AtP3B increased tolerance of both conditions. Together, our results suggest that AtP3B protects cells against both high- and low-temperature stresses. These findings provide novel insight into the molecular functions and in vivo roles of acidic ribosomal P-proteins, thereby expanding our knowledge of the protein production machinery. PMID:27004478

  15. Overexpression of small heat shock protein LimHSP16.45 in Arabidopsis enhances tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Mu

    Full Text Available Small heat shock proteins (smHSPs play important and extensive roles in plant defenses against abiotic stresses. We cloned a gene for a smHSP from the David Lily (Lilium davidii (E. H. Wilson Raffill var. Willmottiae, which we named LimHSP16.45 based on its protein molecular weight. Its expression was induced by many kinds of abiotic stresses in both the lily and transgenic plants of Arabidopsis. Heterologous expression enhanced cell viability of the latter under high temperatures, high salt, and oxidative stress, and heat shock granules (HSGs formed under heat or salinity treatment. Assays of enzymes showed that LimHSP16.45 overexpression was related to greater activity by superoxide dismutase and catalase in transgenic lines. Therefore, we conclude that heterologous expression can protect plants against abiotic stresses by preventing irreversible protein aggregation, and by scavenging cellular reactive oxygen species.

  16. Keynote address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE biomass R ampersand D programs have the potential to provide America with both plentiful, clean-burning domestic transportation fuels and cost-competitive industrial and utility fuels, benefiting energy security in the United States. Biofuels developed under our programs will also help improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, reduce the large daily quantities of waste we produce, and revitalize rural America. These research motivations have been documented in the National Energy Strategy. DOE looks forward to expanding its biofuels research program and to forging a partnership with private sector for cost-shared commercialization of new fuels and vehicle technologies. Many alternative fuels (e.g., ethanol, methanol, compressed natural gas, propane, or electricity) are candidates for gaining market share. Indeed, there may be significant regional variation in the future fuel mix. Alcohol fuels from biomass, particularly ethanol, have the potential to make a major contribution. Currently, ethanol in the United States is almost entirely made from corn; and the limitations of that process are well known (e.g., costly feedstock, end product requiring subsidy to be competitive, use of fossil fuels in renewable feedstock production and processing, and potential adverse impact of corn ethanol production on the price of food). To address these concerns, the DOE biofuels program is pursuing an ambitious research program to develop the technologies needed to convert these crops into alternative transportation fuels, primarily cellulose-based ethanol and methanol. Program R ampersand D has reduced the estimated cost per gallon of cellulose-based ethanol from $3.60 in 1980 to the current $1.35, with a program goal of $0.60 by the year 2000. DOE is also investigating the thermochemical conversion of biomass to methanol. The program goal is to achieve commercial production of methanol (like ethanol) at the gasoline equivalent of $0.90 per gallon by the year 2000. 4 figs

  17. Presidential address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, U

    1993-07-01

    The Secretary of India's Ministry of Health and Family Welfare serves as Chair of the Executive Council of the International Institute for Population Sciences in Bombay. She addressed its 35th convocation in 1993. Global population stands at 5.43 billion and increases by about 90 million people each year. 84 million of these new people are born in developing countries. India contributes 17 million new people annually. The annual population growth rate in India is about 2%. Its population size will probably surpass 1 billion by the 2000. High population growth rates are a leading obstacle to socioeconomic development in developing countries. Governments of many developing countries recognize this problem and have expanded their family planning programs to stabilize population growth. Asian countries that have done so and have completed the fertility transition include China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand. Burma, Malaysia, North Korea, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam have not yet completed the transition. Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal, and Pakistan are half-way through the transition. High population growth rates put pressure on land by fragmenting finite land resources, increasing the number of landless laborers and unemployment, and by causing considerable rural-urban migration. All these factors bring about social stress and burden civic services. India has reduced its total fertility rate from 5.2 to 3.9 between 1971 and 1991. Some Indian states have already achieved replacement fertility. Considerable disparity in socioeconomic development exists among states and districts. For example, the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh have female literacy rates lower than 27%, while that for Kerala is 87%. Overall, infant mortality has fallen from 110 to 80 between 1981 and 1990. In Uttar Pradesh, it has fallen from 150 to 98, while it is at 17 in Kerala. India needs innovative approaches to increase contraceptive prevalence rates

  18. Multiple heat priming enhances thermo-tolerance to a later high temperature stress via improving subcellular antioxidant activities in wheat seedlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Cai, Jian; Liu, Fulai;

    2014-01-01

    an improvement of light use efficiency due to the priming pre-treatment. Under the later high temperature stress, PH could be maintained a better redox homeostasis than NH, as exemplified by the higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in chloroplasts and glutathione reductase (GR), and of peroxidase (POD......) in mitochondria, which contributed to the lower superoxide radical production rate and malondialdehyde concentration in both chloroplasts and mitochondria. The improved antioxidant capacity in chloroplasts and mitochondria was related to the up-regulated expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and GR in PH. Collectively......, heat priming effectively improved thermo-tolerance of wheat seedlings subjected to a later high temperature stress, which could be largely ascribed to the enhanced anti-oxidation at the subcellular level....

  19. ACQUISITION OF THERMOTOLERANCE INDUCED BY HEAT AND ARSENITE IN HELA S3-CELLS - MULTIPLE PATHWAYS TO INDUCE TOLERANCE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KAMPINGA, HH; BRUNSTING, JF; KONINGS, AWT

    1992-01-01

    Recent data indicate that cells may acquire thermotolerance via more than one route. In this study, we observed differences in thermotolerance development in HeLa S3 cells induced by prior heating (15 minutes at 44-degrees-C) or pretreatment with sodium-arsenite (1 hour at 37-degrees-C, 100-mu-M). I

  20. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opening address by the host country started by thanking to the International Atomic Energy Agency for holding this important scientific event in in Morocco. The themes to be considered by this conference are among the priorities of the Scientific Research Department in its endeavour to promote scientific research in the field of nuclear science and technology for peaceful uses in Morocco. By so doing, this Department is following and supporting the efforts being made by our country to provide training, and elaborate rules and regulations, and to create infrastructure, acquire material and, equipment and encourage qualified and active researchers. Hence, the convening of this conference responds to a strategic interest of our country, which, similar to other countries, is committed to the achievement of comprehensive and sustainable development for the protection of human kind and the environment. This is considered nowadays as a strategic and vital objective as it entails the protection of people from radiation and against all kinds of professional risks and health hazards. Morocco attaches great importance to radiation safety issues. Our country adhered to all international conventions related to nuclear safety. It is in the process of adapting its internal regulations to international norms and standards, and it is making progress towards the establishment of a national safety body which meets those norms and standards, with the assistance of the IAEA. For this purpose, a standing committee for the follow-up of nuclear affairs has been created on the basis of Royal Instructions, and placed under the authority of the Prime Minister. Its task is to serve as a think-tank on nuclear safety issues and to make proposals on ways and means of reinforcing radiation safety measures. It goes without saying that the peaceful uses of nuclear energy must meet the safety standards elaborated by the IAEA. However, we are convinced that the elaboration of safety standards

  1. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and become more technical. Involving experts from all fields is then crucial for success. This perception is reflected in the goals of this meeting. It is designed as an extensive information exchange forum between decision makers, regulators, radiation and waste safety specialists, and the nuclear industry. It is this mix which promises high efficiency with respect to solving the problems that you are addressing. I am sure that the safe termination of practices involving radioactive materials during the decommissioning of nuclear installations is one of the major challenges that industrialized nations will have to face during the next decades

  2. Welcome Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiku, H.

    2014-12-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen, It is an honor for me to present my welcome address in the 3rd International Workshop on "State of the Art in Nuclear Cluster Physics"(SOTANCP3), as the president of Kanto Gakuin University. Particularly to those from abroad more than 17 countries, I am very grateful for your participation after long long trips from your home to Yokohama. On the behalf of the Kanto Gakuin University, we certainly welcome your visit to our university and stay in Yokohama. First I would like to introduce Kanto Gakuin University briefly. Kanto Gakuin University, which is called KGU, traces its roots back to the Yokohama Baptist Seminary founded in 1884 in Yamate, Yokohama. The seminary's founder was Albert Arnold Bennett, alumnus of Brown University, who came to Japan from the United States to establish a theological seminary for cultivating and training Japanese missionaries. Now KGU is a major member of the Kanto Gakuin School Corporation, which is composed of two kindergartens, two primary schools, two junior high schools, two senior high schools as well as KGU. In this university, we have eight faculties with graduate school including Humanities, Economics, Law, Sciences and Engineering, Architecture and Environmental Design, Human and Environmental Studies, Nursing, and Law School. Over eleven thousands students are currently learning in our university. By the way, my major is the geotechnical engineering, and I belong to the faculty of Sciences and Engineering in my university. Prof. T. Yamada, here, is my colleague in the same faculty. I know that the nuclear physics is one of the most active academic fields in the world. In fact, about half of the participants, namely, more than 50 scientists, come from abroad in this conference. Moreover, I know that the nuclear physics is related to not only the other fundamental physics such as the elementary particle physics and astrophysics but also chemistry, medical sciences, medical cares, and radiation metrology

  3. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear terrorism has been recognized as a potential threat to human security and economic prosperity since at least the 1970s. Evidence of Al Qaeda's interest in acquiring nuclear material came to light during the 1990s. However, it is since the attacks of 11 September 2001 that the risk of nuclear terrorist acts has come to be a widespread public and governmental concern, for understandable reasons, and that efforts to combat illicit trafficking, which could lead to nuclear or other radioactive materials falling into the hands of terrorists, have intensified. Six years on, it makes sense to take stock of what has been achieved in the combat to stem illicit trafficking and of where further actions - actions of individual States and cooperative international actions - might usefully be initiated. The IAEA has maintained an Illicit Trafficking Database since 1995. Information reported to this database confirms that concerns about illicit trafficking in nuclear material are justified. Database information points to persistent theft and loss of radioactive sources. States' international obligations relevant to international nuclear trafficking are based on the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (CPPNM), the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540, which deals with weapons of mass destruction, including nuclear weapons and non-State actors, and the United Nations Security Council Resolution 1375, which requires all States to take the necessary steps to prevent the commission of terrorist acts, including early warning to other States. In addition to these legally binding instruments, there is the non-binding Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources, which Member States of the IAEA agreed in 2003. The Code addresses the establishment of an adequate system of regulatory control, from the production of radioactive sources to their final

  4. Opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Being fully aware of the IAEA's central and important roles in the field of nuclear security, Japan has cooperated closely with the IAEA in the field of nuclear security. One of Japan's efforts was holding a seminar on strengthening nuclear security in Asian countries in November 2006, making use of Japan's contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. The seminar was organized for the first time in Asia to address nuclear security matters, in which more than 100 experts from 19 countries participated. Japan also hosted a seminar, aimed at promoting the accession to the international counterterrorism conventions and protocols, inviting government officials and experts from Asia Pacific countries. At the seminar, Japan presented its experience and lessons learned with regard to its ratification of relevant international conventions such as the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism and the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material. Japan has also provided assistance for capacity building in the field of physical protection measures, and is preparing three projects for Asian countries through the IAEA Nuclear Security Fund. In Thailand, Japan has a project aimed at improving physical protection of nuclear research facilities. In Vietnam, Japan plans to host a workshop on radiation detection equipment for border officials and is also preparing for a seminar aimed at capacity building of control on nuclear material in Vietnam. Japan is committed to continue its efforts to make the IAEA Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement together with an Additional Protocol the universally accepted verification standard for the peaceful use undertakings of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Japan's basic policy on bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements is as follows. Considering the dual nature of nuclear material and technology, Japan is of the view that three Ss, that is, S for 'safeguards' (non-proliferation), S for 'safety

  5. Proline induces heat tolerance in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants by protecting vital enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushal, Neeru; Gupta, Kriti; Bhandhari, Kalpna; Kumar, Sanjeev; Thakur, Prince; Nayyar, Harsh

    2011-01-01

    Chickpea is a heat sensitive crop hence its potential yield is considerably reduced under high temperatures exceeding 35 °C. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of proline in countering the damage caused by heat stress to growth and to enzymes of carbon and antioxidative metabolism in chickpea. The chickpea seeds were raised without (control) and with proline (10 μM) at temperatures of 30/25 °C, 35/30 °C, 40/35 °C and 45/40 °C as day/ night (12 h/12 h) in a growth chamber. The sho...

  6. Tradeoffs to Thermal Acclimation: Energetics and Reproduction of a Reef Coral with Heat Tolerant Symbiodinium Type-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photo-physiological characteristics of thermo-tolerant Symbiodinium types have been postulated to have negative effects on the energetics of the reef corals by reducing fitness. To investigate this, two key and inextricably coupled indicators of fitness, lipids and reproduction, were monitored in colonies of the broadcast-spawning coral Acropora millepora over a two-year period that included a natural bleaching event. In the absence of bleaching ITS1-type clade D predominant colonies had 26% lower stored lipids compared to C2 colonies. At spawning time, this correlated with 28% smaller eggs in type-D colonies. This energetic disparity is expected to have reduced larval duration and settlement-competency periods in type-D compared to type-C2 colonies. More importantly, irrespective of the effect of genotype, the fitness of all corals was adversely affected by the stress of the bleaching event which reduced prespawning lipids by 60% and halved the number of eggs compared to the previous year. Our results extend work that has shown that direct temperature stress and symbiont change are likely to work in concert on corals by demonstrating that the lipids and reproduction of the reef building corals on tropical reefs are likely to be impaired by these processes as our climate warms.

  7. Heat tolerance in two tropically adapted Bos taurus breeds, Senepol and Romosinuano, compared with Brahman, Angus, and Hereford cattle in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, A C; Olson, T A; Chase, C C; Bowers, E J; Randel, R D; Murphy, C N; Vogt, D W; Tewolde, A

    1996-02-01

    Two trials were conducted with heifers to determine heat tolerance among temperate Bos taurus (Angus, Hereford), Bos indicus (Brahman), tropical Bos taurus (Senepol, Romosinuano), and the reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol. Differences among breeds in temperament score, circulating concentrations of cortisol, and blood packed cell volume were also investigated. Trial 1 used 43 Angus, 28 Brahman, 12 Hereford, 23 Romosinuano, 16 Senepol, 5 Hereford x Senepol (H x S), and 5 Senepol x Hereford (S x H) heifers. Trial 2 used 36 Angus, 31 Brahman, 9 Hereford, 14 Senepol, 19 H x S, and 10 S x H heifers. On the hottest summer date in Trial 1, rectal temperature of Angus was greater (P Brahman, Senepol, or Romosinuano. Rectal temperature and plasma cortisol were significantly less in Senepol than in Brahman, suggesting that the differences in rectal temperature between these breeds may be due to differences in stress response possibly related to differences in temperament. Reciprocal crosses of Hereford and Senepol had rectal temperatures nearly as low as that of Senepol and displayed substantial heterosis (-9.4%, P Brahman, Romosinuano, or Senepol heifers, and Brahman had significantly slower respiration rates than Romosinuano or Senepol. On the hottest summer date in Trial 2, rectal temperature in Angus heifers was greater (P Brahman or Senepol had rectal temperatures similar to that of Senepol, or heterosis for log10 rectal temperature was similar to that in Trial 1 (-9.8%, P Brahman always had the slowest respiration rate and greatest packed cell volume. Brahman had significantly greater temperament scores and plasma cortisol concentrations than Angus or Senepol, except that plasma cortisol was not different between Brahman and Senepol on the hottest summer date. On this date, rectal temperature did not differ between Brahman and Senepol, which supports the hypothesis that there is a relationship between response to stress and rectal temperature that helps

  8. Phosphorylated heat shock protein 27 is involved in enhanced heart tolerance to ischemia in short-term type 1 diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong CHEN; King-jun WU; Xi-yuan LU; Liang ZHU; Li-ping WANG; Huang-tian YANG; Hong-zhuan CHEN; Wen-jun YUAN

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To examine the tolerance of type 1 diabetic hearts to ischemia and reperfusion injury.Myocardial contents of 27-kDa and 70-kDa heat shock proteins (hsp) as well as phosphorylated hsp27 were also determined.Methods: Hearts from hyperglycemic rats 3 weeks after streptozocin injection and age-matched normal rats were subjected to ischemia and reperfusion in vitro.Cardiac function and electrocardiogram were recorded throughout experiments.Myocardial heat shock proteins were detected with Western blot.Results: Despite depressed systolic function at the baseline, diabetic hearts exhibited considerable enhancement in postischemic heart function, manifested by an increase in the maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise and fall (post-ischemic dp/dtmax and dp/dtmin were 560± 117and -313±68 mmHg/s in control, n=7, 1249±57 and -1204±36 mmHg/s in diabetes,n=10, P<0.01).Reperfusion ventricular fibrillation in the diabetic group were attenuated compared with controls (1.5±0.3 vs 7.2±2.1 min in control, P<0.01).The increased heart resistance to ischemia in diabetes was associated with hyperglycemia and accompanied by enhanced expression of myocardial phosphorylated hsp27 with normal aortic vessel relaxation.Cardioprotection was abrogated by metabolic correction with insulin and accompanied by phospho-hsp27 reduction.Conclusion: Heart resistance to ischemia is increased in type 1 diabetes, and hyperglycemia may present a mild yet stressful stimulus leading to upregulation of endogenous stress protein, which may play a potential role in cardioprotection and compensate for detrimental effects of hyperglycemia in diabetes.

  9. Production of long chain omega-3 fatty acids and carotenoids in tropical areas by a new heat-tolerant microalga Tetraselmis sp. DS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsin-Pei; Chuang, Lu-Te; Chen, Ching-Nen Nathan

    2016-02-01

    Demand for long chain ω-3 fatty acids from non-fish source for vegetarians has increased recently. Marine microalgae are the primary producers of EPA/DHA and promising alternatives for fish oil. Tropical areas have abundant sunlight throughout the year for microalgal cultivation but this practice can be hindered by high temperature. Discovery of heat-tolerant marine microalgae that can synthesize EPA/DHA will solve these problems. A new species of microalga was isolated from a high temperature lagoon and identified as Tetraselmis sp. DS3. These cells could grow at 40 °C, the highest temperature for marine microalgal growth ever reported. Its ω-3 fatty acids and EPA accounted for 33 and 10% of total lipids, respectively, grown in nitrogen-depleted conditions. These cells also accumulated more than 5% β-carotene and 0.48% lutein in biomass. This new microalga can be cultivated for long chain ω-3 fatty acids and lutein production in the tropical areas.

  10. Address Points - Volusia County Addresses (Point)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Situs Addresses for Volusia County. Maintained by Growth and Resource Management. Addresses are determined by the cities for their jurisdiction and by the County...

  11. Comprehensive evaluation on heat tolerance of various lettuce seedlings%不同生菜品种苗期耐热性的综合评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋云鹏; 刘凯歌; 龚繁荣

    2015-01-01

    To detect the adaptability difference under high temperature of different lettuce cultivars, leaf segments of seven lettuce cultivars ( A-G) were used to study the heat tolerance by electrical conductivity method and antioxidant enzyme indexes.The results showed that with the rise of treated temperature, cells injured rate of leaf segments from A to G were increased with trends of slow-fast-slow, showed typical S-type curve, the significance test of which was fit Logistic equation.The heat resistance of the seven lettuce cultivars followed the order: C>D>F>B>G>E>A, respectively.Meanwhile, treating with high temperature for 6 d increased the superoxidase ( SOD) , peroxidase ( POD) , catalase ( CAT) activities and the malondisldehyde ( MDA) contents of various lettuce cultivars.The rela-tionship between semi-lethal high temperature and antioxidant enzyme indexes was significant.The above results showed that semi-lethal high temperature could be considered as the index of lettuce heat resistance.%为探明生菜不同品种对高温的适应性差异,以生菜叶片为试验材料,以半致死温度及抗氧化酶活性为参照指标,对7个生菜品种,A(战神)、B(玉湖)、C(剑客)、D(小叶苦苣)、E(申选5号)、F(玛丽娜)、G(橡叶绿)的耐热性进行研究。结果表明,随着处理温度的升高,7个生菜品种叶片的细胞伤害率增长速度均呈现“慢—快—慢”的趋势,呈典型的“S”型曲线,显著性检验均符合Logistic方程。7个生菜品种耐高温能力由强到弱依次为C(49.67℃)>D(49.60℃)>F(49.36℃)>B(49.13℃)>G(48.81℃)>E(48.74℃)>A (47.86℃)。同时,高温处理6 d后,各品种的超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)、过氧化物酶( POD)、过氧化氢酶( CAT)活性和丙二醛( MDA)含量均比对照有不同程度的上升;半致死温度与MDA含量及SOD、POD、CAT等抗氧化酶活性呈显著

  12. The Relationship between Protein Change and Heat Tolerance of Forages and Feed Crops%牧草和饲料作物蛋白质变化与耐热性的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵雁; 毕玉芬; 邵辰光; 王荟

    2012-01-01

    高温胁迫影响牧草和饲料作物的生长和生理生化代谢,原有蛋白质的降解、正常细胞蛋白的合成受阻以及诱导合成新的蛋白质等过程均能显著改变蛋白质的组成和含量,进而影响植物的耐热性.本文从热激蛋白(HSPs)等高温诱导蛋白以及高温胁迫对可溶性蛋白、磷脂酶D (PLD)、蔗糖合酶(SS)和蔗糖磷酸合酶(SPS)活性影响等方面,综述了牧草和饲料作物蛋白质变化与耐热性关系的研究现状.提出应进一步对高温胁迫导致蛋白质变化的机理以及蛋白质在植物体内的功能等方面开展研究,为进一步阐明牧草和饲料作物耐热的分子机制和提高牧草的耐热性提供了新的思路.%Supraoptiraal temperature limits growth and metabolic activities of forages and feed crops,by causing protein denaturalion,inhibition of normal celullar proteins synthesis,and induction of some heat stock proteins (HSPs).Such protein changes could result in variation in protein composition and content,which in turn,affect plant tolerance ability to heat.In this article,the relationship between protein change and heat tolerance of forages and feed crops,focusing on heat induced proteins,such as HSPs,and effects of heat stress on soluble proteins,phospholipase D ( PLD),the sucrose synthase (SS) and the sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) were reviewed.The proteins change with regard to thermotolerance in forages and feed crops are relatively well understood,however,further studies on the mechanisms and functions of changed proteins under heat stress are still highly demanded,which could provide basic information for further research on understanding molecular mechanism of heat tolerance and improve thermotolerance of forages and feed crops.

  13. Alterações fenotípicas em cultivares de alface selecionadas para calor Phenotypical alterations in lettuce genotypes selected for heat tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Conti

    2000-11-01

    unselected ones of the same groups were analyzed for morphological variations, to quantify possible adaptative modifications for the cultivation conditions in heat seasons. Cultivars of the groups "butterhead" (Regina, Glória, IAC 303, IAC 202, Sem Rival and Luciana, "leaf-lettuce" (Grand Rapids and Brisa, and "crisphead" (Great Lakes and Mesa 659 were compared in two summer seasons, in Piracicaba, Brazil, in randomized blocks design. In the first (November/1990 were analyzed the characteristics of stomata number, leaf thickness and amount of chlorophyl of the whole plants. In the second (September/1991, were analyzed the characteristics of number of leaves, and dry and fresh weight of the whole plants. Cultivars selected for heat tolerance in the "butterhead" group (Gloria and Regina, presented larger stomata number (respectively 9,487/cm² and 7,973/cm² and thicker leaves (respectively 556 mm e 439 mm and, also, they accumulated larger amount of dry matter (respectively 24.55 g and 25.50 g, Cultivars selected for heat of the group "leaf-lettuce" (Brisa, accumulated larger amount of green matter (446.77g and dry ones (22.40 g, in the same way that presented larger stomata number (7,279/cm². For the cultivars of the group "crisphead", significant difference was just observed for leaf thickness; cv. Mesa 659 presented thicker leaves (589 mm. Significant increases of vegetal biomass were verified in cultivars selected for heat in relation to the unselected ones. Cultivars that reached larger dry matter yield were Mesa 659 (28.74 g, Great Lakes (27.17 g and Regina. The results checked that the slow bolting selection indirectly produced adaptative variations in the lettuce plants.

  14. Allegheny County Address Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  15. Reach Address Database (RAD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reach Address Database (RAD) stores the reach address of each Water Program feature that has been linked to the underlying surface water features (streams,...

  16. The trade-off between heat tolerance and metabolic cost drives the bimodal life strategy at the air-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusi, Marco; Cannicci, Stefano; Daffonchio, Daniele; Mostert, Bruce; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Giomi, Folco

    2016-01-01

    The principle of oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance in ectotherms suggests that the long-term upper limits of an organism's thermal niche are equivalent to the upper limits of the organism's functional capacity for oxygen provision to tissues. Air-breathing ectotherms show wider thermal tolerances, since they can take advantage of the higher availability of oxygen in air than in water. Bimodal species move from aquatic to aerial media and switch between habitats in response to environmental variations such as cyclical or anomalous temperature fluctuations. Here we tested the prediction that bimodal species cope better with thermal stress than truly aquatic species using the crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus as a model species. When in water, oxygen consumption rates of P. marmoratus acutely rise during warming. Beyond a temperature threshold of 23 °C the crab's aerobic metabolism in air remains lower than in water. In parallel, the haemolymph oxygen partial pressure of submerged animals progressive decreases during warming, while it remains low but constant during emersion. Our results demonstrate the ability of a bimodal breathing ectotherm to extend its thermal tolerance during air-breathing, suggesting that there are temperature-related physiological benefits during the evolution of the bimodal life style. PMID:26758742

  17. mRNA expression profiles of heat shock proteins of wild and salinity-tolerant swimming crabs, Portunus trituberculatus, subjected to low salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X N; Mu, C K; Zhang, C; Wang, Y F; Song, W W; Li, R H; Wang, C L

    2014-08-29

    Challenged by the low salinity, 4 parts per thousand (4 ppt), for 72h, the survivals of swimming crabs (Portunus trituberculatus) were collected as the screened group (SG, tolerant to low salinity). Aiming at identifying the mechanism of low salinity tolerance, quantitative real-time PCR was employed to investigate the expression profiles of 4 HSP genes (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90-1, HSP90-2) in the hepatopancreas of wild (WG) and screened (SG) groups of P. trituberculatus exposed to low salinity (4 ppt). The results showed that 3 of the candidate genes (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90-1) exhibited similarly downregulated expression profiles in the first 3 h (P crabs. The results indicate that HSP genes are involved in the adaptation of crabs to low salinity exposure, and that different HSPs have diverse functions in response to low salinity stress in P. trituberculatus. In addition, HSP expression in SG indicates that this group is more tolerant to low salinity conditions compared to WG.

  18. The trade-off between heat tolerance and metabolic cost drives the bimodal life strategy at the air-water interface

    KAUST Repository

    Fusi, Marco

    2016-01-13

    The principle of oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance in ectotherms suggests that the long-term upper limits of an organism\\'s thermal niche are equivalent to the upper limits of the organism\\'s functional capacity for oxygen provision to tissues. Air-breathing ectotherms show wider thermal tolerances, since they can take advantage of the higher availability of oxygen in air than in water. Bimodal species move from aquatic to aerial media and switch between habitats in response to environmental variations such as cyclical or anomalous temperature fluctuations. Here we tested the prediction that bimodal species cope better with thermal stress than truly aquatic species using the crab Pachygrapsus marmoratus as a model species. When in water, oxygen consumption rates of P. marmoratus acutely rise during warming. Beyond a temperature threshold of 23 °C the crab\\'s aerobic metabolism in air remains lower than in water. In parallel, the haemolymph oxygen partial pressure of submerged animals progressive decreases during warming, while it remains low but constant during emersion. Our results demonstrate the ability of a bimodal breathing ectotherm to extend its thermal tolerance during air-breathing, suggesting that there are temperature-related physiological benefits during the evolution of the bimodal life style.

  19. Cryogenic heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Randall F

    2016-01-01

    Cryogenic Heat Transfer, Second Edition continues to address specific heat transfer problems that occur in the cryogenic temperature range where there are distinct differences from conventional heat transfer problems. This updated version examines the use of computer-aided design in cryogenic engineering and emphasizes commonly used computer programs to address modern cryogenic heat transfer problems. It introduces additional topics in cryogenic heat transfer that include latent heat expressions; lumped-capacity transient heat transfer; thermal stresses; Laplace transform solutions; oscillating flow heat transfer, and computer-aided heat exchanger design. It also includes new examples and homework problems throughout the book, and provides ample references for further study.

  20. Plasticity in thermal tolerance has limited potential to buffer ectotherms from global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Alex R; Stillman, Jonathon H

    2015-06-01

    Global warming is increasing the overheating risk for many organisms, though the potential for plasticity in thermal tolerance to mitigate this risk is largely unknown. In part, this shortcoming stems from a lack of knowledge about global and taxonomic patterns of variation in tolerance plasticity. To address this critical issue, we test leading hypotheses for broad-scale variation in ectotherm tolerance plasticity using a dataset that includes vertebrate and invertebrate taxa from terrestrial, freshwater and marine habitats. Contrary to expectation, plasticity in heat tolerance was unrelated to latitude or thermal seasonality. However, plasticity in cold tolerance is associated with thermal seasonality in some habitat types. In addition, aquatic taxa have approximately twice the plasticity of terrestrial taxa. Based on the observed patterns of variation in tolerance plasticity, we propose that limited potential for behavioural plasticity (i.e. behavioural thermoregulation) favours the evolution of greater plasticity in physiological traits, consistent with the 'Bogert effect'. Finally, we find that all ectotherms have relatively low acclimation in thermal tolerance and demonstrate that overheating risk will be minimally reduced by acclimation in even the most plastic groups. Our analysis indicates that behavioural and evolutionary mechanisms will be critical in allowing ectotherms to buffer themselves from extreme temperatures.

  1. Comparative proteomic analysis of the hepatic response to heat stress in Muscovy and Pekin ducks: insight into thermal tolerance related to energy metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zeng

    Full Text Available The Pekin duck, bred from the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos in china, is one of the most famous meat duck species in the world. However, it is more sensitive to heat stress than Muscovy duck, which is believed to have originated in South America. With temperature raising, mortality, laying performance, and meat quality of the Pekin duck are severely affected. This study aims to uncover the temperature-dependent proteins of two duck species using comparative proteomic approach. Duck was cultured under 39°C ± 0.5°C for 1 h, and then immediately returned to 20°C for a 3 h recovery period, the liver proteins were extracted and electrophoresed in two-dimensional mode. After analysis of gel images, 61 differentially expressed proteins were detected, 54 were clearly identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Of the 54 differentially expressed protein spots identified, 7 were found in both species, whereas 47 were species specific (25 in Muscovy duck and 22 in Pekin duck. As is well known, chaperone proteins, such as heat shock protein (HSP 70 and HSP10, were abundantly up-regulated in both species in response to heat stress. However, we also found that several proteins, such as α-enolase, and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, showed different expression patterns in the 2 duck species. The enriched biological processes were grouped into 3 main categories according to gene ontology analysis: cell death and apoptosis (20.93%, amino acid metabolism (13.95% and oxidation reduction (20.93%. The mRNA levels of several differentially expressed protein were investigated by real-time RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide insights into the differential expression of proteins following heat stress in ducks and enables better understanding of possible heat stress response mechanisms in animals.

  2. Towards Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisette Kuyper; Jurjen Iedema; Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2013-01-01

    Across Europe, public attitudes towards lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) individuals range from broad tolerance to widespread rejection. Attitudes towards homosexuality are more than mere individual opinions, but form part of the social and political structures which foster or hinder the equality and

  3. Fault Tolerant Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, S.A.

    requirements for a dedicated software environment for fault tolerant control systems design. The second detailed study addressed the detection of a fault event and determination of the failed component. A variety of algorithms were compared, based on two fault scenarios in the speed governor actuator setup......This thesis considered the development of fault tolerant control systems. The focus was on the category of automated processes that do not necessarily comprise a high number of identical sensors and actuators to maintain safe operation, but still have a potential for improving immunity to component...... failures. It is often feasible to increase availability for these control loops by designing the control system to perform on-line detection and reconfiguration in case of faults before the safety system makes a close-down of the process. A general development methodology is given in the thesis...

  4. 高热湿工业建筑中人体热耐受的性别差异%Gender difference of body heat tolerance in high thermal and humid industrial building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕石磊; 高萍; 朱能; 王志伟

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the differences of such physiological indexes as body heat endurance duration and heat endurance limit between male and female in high thermal and humid industrial building environment,a high temperature and hygrothermal environmental chamber was used to stimulate the high thermal and humid industrial building environment.The physiological indexes of test population with different gender were measured,and thus,the limit values of key physiological indexes such as heat endurance duration,nonnasality temperature,heart rate and dehydration rate of body samples with different gender were obtained.In addition,the differences between wet-bulb globe temperature(WBGT) values were also determined.The results indicate that the female exhibits stronger heat and humid endurance abilities than the male in high thermal and humid industrial building environment.When the body reaches the heat tolerance limit,the heat stress response of female body is stronger than that of male body.Within shorter time,the female shows better thermal adjustment ability than the male.In high thermal and humid industrial building environment,the dehydration rate of the female is obviously lower than that of the male.Moreover,the WBGT values subjected by female are higher than those subjected by male.With reaching the heat tolerance limit,the WBGT values subjected by experimental body samples exceed the WBGT limit values in ISO7243 health standard by 6 ℃ to 8 ℃.%为了研究在高热湿工业建筑环境下男性与女性的人体耐热时长和人体耐热极限各生理指标值的差异性,采用高温高湿热环境舱模拟高热湿工业建筑环境,对不同性别受试群体进行生理指标实测,得出不同性别人体样本的耐热时长、口腔温度、心率和失水率等关键生理指标限值以及湿球黑球温度(WBGT,wet-bulb globe temperature)值之间的差异.实验结果表明:女性在高热湿工业建筑环境中的耐热、耐湿能力

  5. 叶用莴苣种质资源的主要农艺性状鉴定与耐热性评价%Evaluation of Major Agronomic Traits and Heat Tolerance of Lettuce Germplasm Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈青君; 韩莹琰; 谷建田; 范双喜

    2011-01-01

    In 2 environment conditions of open field and greenhouse, in spring and summer 2 cultivation seasons, the agronomic traits of 110 accessions of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. ) germplasm were investigated. At the same time, the heat tolerance was evaluated by the center column length, number of bolting days and the index of heat injury. The results showed that the leaves traits of no-heading lettuce tip, leaf shape, leaf color, plant height, petiole length, stem thickness, plant weight and fresh-cut vegetables weight all varied greatly, showing that the no-heading lettuce bears great potential in germplasm variation and innovation ability. Heading lettuce varieties have a higher similarity. Only in the petiole thick, rosette leaves, fresh-cut vegetables weight ( head weight), there is a big variation. In early summer, the no-heading lettuce bolts 12-36 days earlier than the spring, and the heading lettuce bolts18-38 days earlier. In greenhouse under strong high temperature stress, the no-heading lettuce bolts further ahead of schedule, and 82% of them holt within 10 days, showing sensitivity to high temperature. Some heading lettuce varieties die of heat injury. The heat injury index can accurately reflect the heat tolerance between varieties of heading lettuce. The number of bolting days, center column length and single plant weight, head weight, leaf /shape ratio, etc. Show remarkable correlation. They are also important indicators to evaluate the heat tolerance of lettuce. In spring greenhouse cultivation, the heat tolerance of lettuce germplasm resources are preferably evaluated by heat injury index and the number of bolting days.%在露地和大棚两种环境、春季和初夏两种栽培季节下,对110份叶用莴苣种质资源的农艺性状进行了调查,同时以中心柱长、抽薹天数和热害指数3个指标综合评价叶用莴苣种质资源的田间耐热性.结果表明:散叶莴苣叶尖形状、叶形、叶色、株高、叶柄长、叶柄厚

  6. Identification and functional characterization of Siberian wild rye (Elymus sibiricus L.) small heat shock protein 16.9 gene (EsHsp16.9) conferring diverse stress tolerance in prokaryotic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Hoon; Lee, Ki-Won; Lee, Dong-Gi; Son, Daeyoung; Park, Su Jung; Kim, Ki-Yong; Park, Hyung Soo; Cha, Joon-Yung

    2015-04-01

    Small heat shock proteins (Hsps) protect against stress-inducible denaturation of substrates. Our objectives were to clone and examine the mRNA expression of the Hsp16.9 gene from Siberian wild rye grown under diverse stress treatments. We characterized EsHsp16.9 from Elymus sibiricus L. EsHsp16.9 has a 456-bp open reading frame that encodes a 151-amino acid protein with a conserved α-crystallin domain. Northern blot analysis showed that EsHsp16.9 transcripts were enhanced by heat, drought, arsenate, methyl viologen, and H2O2 treatment. In addition, recombinant EsHsp16.9 protein acts as a molecular chaperone to prevent the denaturation of malate dehydrogenase. Growth of cells overexpressing EsHsp16.9 was up to 200% more rapid in the presence of NaCl, arsenate, and polyethylene glycol than that of cells harboring an empty vector. These data suggest that EsHsp16.9 acts as a molecular chaperone that enhances stress tolerance in living organisms.

  7. Parâmetros fisiológicos e índice de tolerância ao calor de bovinos da raça sindi no semi-árido paraibano Physiological parameters and heat tolerance index of sindi breed bovine in the semi-arid of Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonifácio Benício de Souza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no Centro de Saúde e Tecnologia Rural da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG, Paraíba. Foram utilizadas 12 fêmeas da raça Sindi, com idade média de 18 meses, com o objetivo de determinar os parâmetros fisiológicos e o índice de tolerância ao calor (ITC. Os parâmetros fisiológicos foram observados pela manhã e à tarde, semanalmente, durante 3 meses em cada estação (chuvosa e seca. Durante o período experimental as temperaturas máximas foram de 32,2 ºC e 38,2 ºC e mínimas de 24 ºC e 26º C, e o índice de temperatura do globo e umidade (ITGU na sombra à tarde foi de 88,8 e 88,7, nas estações chuvosa e seca, respectivamente. Observou-se efeito (PThis experiment was carried out in the Health and Technology Center (CSTR of the Federal University of Campina Grande (UFCG in Paraiba. Twelve female of the Sindi breed with 18 months of age were utilized, with the objective to determine the physiological parameters and Heat Tolerance Index (HTI. The physiological parameters were observed weekly, in the morning and in the afternoon, during 3 months in each season (rainy and dry season. In the experimental period, the maximum temperatures were 32,2 ºC and 38,2 ºC, the minimum temperatures were 24 ºC and 26 ºC and the Black Globe-Humidity Index (BGHI in the shade was 88,8 and 88,7, for the rainy and dry season, respectively. There was significant effect of the season on the physiological parameters (Rectal temperature, Respiratory Frequency and Cardiac Frequency and on the hematological parameters. However, these parameters are considered normal to this specie. About the heat tolerance, the animals presented a index of 9,83, which is considered high. It was concluded that this breed is well adapted to the conditions of the Semi-arid region in Brazil.

  8. Salt Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Liming; Zhu, Jian-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Studying salt stress is an important means to the understanding of plant ion homeostasis and osmo-balance. Salt stress research also benefits agriculture because soil salinity significantly limits plant productivity on agricultural lands. Decades of physiological and molecular studies have generated a large body of literature regarding potential salt tolerance determinants. Recent advances in applying molecular genetic analysis and genomics tools in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana are sh...

  9. Zero Tolerance Policies. ERIC Digest Number 146.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Tobin

    State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. They have arisen in part as a response to the threat of the withdrawal of federal funds under the 1994 Gun-Free Schools Act, and…

  10. Antibiotic tolerance and microbial biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Anders

    Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We study the dynamics of antibiotic action within hydrodynamic flow chamber biofilms of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using isogenic mutants and fluorescent gene...... expression reporters and we address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. The dynamics of microbial killing is monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Our work shows that the apparent increased antibiotic tolerance is due to the formation...... of antibiotic tolerant subpopulations within the biofilm. The formation of these subpopulations is highly variable and dependent on the antibiotic used, the biofilm structural organization and the induction of specific tolerance mechanisms....

  11. Controle genético e tolerância ao estresse de calor em populações híbridas e em cultivares de trigo Genetic control and tolerance to the heat stress in wheat hybrid population and cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacil Alves de Souza

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi obter informações sobre o controle genético da produtividade de grãos de trigo sob condições de estresse de calor, o grau de tolerância ao estresse de calor de algumas cultivares e linhagens e a identificação de populações segregantes promissoras para a obtenção de linhagens adaptadas às condições da região central do Brasil. Foram avaliados 13 parentais e 40 populações provenientes de um dialelo parcial, nas gerações F1 e F2 em condições de campo, em Lavras e Patos de Minas, MG, com as semeaduras feitas no verão (fevereiro e no inverno (maio. Houve diferença de tolerância ao calor entre os parentais e entre as populações híbridas quanto ao caráter produção de grãos, e ambos os efeitos aditivos e não-aditivos foram importantes no controle genético deste caráter na presença ou ausência de calor. Apesar da ocorrência de interações populações x épocas de semeadura, a alta repetibilidade dos efeitos da capacidade geral de combinação permite inferir a possibilidade de acelerar os programas de melhoramento na região, efetuando-se a seleção tanto na época de verão quanto no inverno.The objective of this work was to get information about the genetic control of the grain yield under heat stress conditions, the tolerance of cultivar and the identification of promising segregation populations for selections of lines adapted to the conditions of the central region of Brazil. Thirteen parents and 40 populations in F1 and F2 generations derived by partial diallel crosses were evaluated. The experiments were conducted under field conditions in Lavras and Patos de Minas, MG, Brazil, sowing the seeds in the summertime (February and in the winter (May. There was difference of heat tolerance among parents and hybrid populations for grain yield character, and both additive and non-additive effects were important in the genetic control of grain yield character in the presence or absence

  12. The new candidate IPV6 address size prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Batiha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available IPv4 protocol is now no more sufficient due to its limited address space where this protocol uses only 32-bit for addressing. IPv6 protocol is the next protocol which was introduced as a new protocol that provide a huge address space .In This paper we discussed the significant overhead in the IPv6 standard packet due to its 128 bits address size, so we develop three different studies in order to generate a prediction of exhibition date for several address sizes so we can suggest another size for address size in IPv6 to improve the overall performance of the internet and tolerate the overhead by reducing the address size. In the same time this size should accommodate the accelerated growth in needs for unassigned blocks of addresses for very long time.   Keywords: Ipv4 Protocol, Ipv6 Protocol, Addressing Types, Ipv6 Header, Exhibition Date, Address Pool.

  13. Addressing Sexual Harassment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

  14. Addressing Social Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoebel, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that advertising can help people become more aware of social responsibilities. Describes a successful nationwide newspaper advertising competition for college students in which ads address social issues such as literacy, drugs, teen suicide, and teen pregnancy. Notes how the ads have helped grassroots programs throughout the United…

  15. Breeding of New Kiwifruit Cuitivars ‘Fengshuo' and ‘Yuanhong' with High Fruit Quality and Heat-tolerance%优质耐热猕猴桃新品种"丰硕"及"源红"的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中炎; 蔡金术; 彭俊彩; 沈英; 何科佳; 钟彩虹

    2011-01-01

    夏季高温问题普遍存在于我国广大猕猴桃产区,导致猕猴桃严重落叶落果、品质变差,贮藏性变劣,如红心类型猕猴桃品种红色性状不能稳定表达,从而严重制约了猕猴桃产业的发展.以国内外现有优质猕猴桃品种为亲本,在夏季炎热的长沙地区,采用实生育种的方法对优质耐热猕猴桃新品种的选育进行了系统研究."丰硕"、"源红"是新近选育的两个优质耐热中华猕猴桃品种.两品种耐热性强,在夏季高温地区长势强健,无落果现象.其中,"丰硕"果肉黄绿色,果实卵圆形,整齐度高,平均单果重110 g,可溶性固形物含量18.0%,丰产性好,成熟期9月中下旬."源红"为红心类型,果实卵圆形,自然情况下平均单果重约60 g,可溶性固形物17.6%,果实极早熟,8月上旬达到采收成熟度,贮藏性优异,红心性状稳定.%High temperature in summer is a common problem in most kiwifruit production regions in China, which causing severe defoliation, fruit drop and decreasing fruit quality and storability, and affecting red coloration for redfleshed cultivars. It is a key factor that hampers the development of kiwifruit industry in China. From 2001, Hunan Horticultural Research Institute and Changsha Truwind Fruit Co., Ltd. have carried out systematic breeding for new kiwifruit cultivars with good heat-tolerance and high fruit quality by using existed quality kiwifruit varieties in China and abroad and using seedling breeding method to conduct experiments in Changsha District where has hot summer.‘Fengshuo' and ‘Yuanhong' are the latest two new Chinese gooseberry cultivars with high fruit quality and heat-tolerance which released in 2010 from this breeding program. Both cultivars have strong heat-tolerance, which have strong growth in high-temperature area in summer and no fruit dropping. In which,‘Fengshuo' has yellow green flesh with 18.0% of SSC, ovate fruit with high regularity and with 110 g of average

  16. Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Izosimov, Viacheslav; Pop, Paul;

    2008-01-01

    This work addresses the issue of design optimization for fault- tolerant hard real-time systems. In particular, our focus is on the handling of transient faults using both checkpointing with rollback recovery and active replication. Fault tolerant schedules are generated based on a conditional...... process graph representation. The formulated system synthesis approaches decide the assignment of fault-tolerance policies to processes, the optimal placement of checkpoints and the mapping of processes to processors, such that multiple transient faults are tolerated, transparency requirements...

  17. Productivity of determinate growth tomato lines tolerant to heat under the organic system Produtividade de linhagens de tomate rasteiro tolerantes ao calor sob o sistema orgânico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândido A da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the productive response of heat tolerant lines of determinate growth tomato under the organic production system. The experiment was carried out in the Instituto de Ciências Agrárias of UFMG, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with eight treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of eight heat tolerant processing type tomato lines obtained from the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC, China: CLN1621L, CLN1621F, CLN1621E, CLN1466P, CLN2026E, CLN2026D, CLN2026C and CLN2001C. There was an inverse relationship between the average weight of the fruits and the number of fruits per plant. The highest average fruit weight of some lines was compensated by the lowest quantity of fruits, in such a way that there were no significant differences among the lines. Symptoms of nutritional deficiency and incidences of pests and diseases were not verified in any of the studied lines. All lines presented potential for genetic improvement research and cultivation using organic production systems under higher temperature conditions.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de linhagens de tomate rasteiro tolerantes ao calor sob o sistema orgânico de produção. O experimento foi realizado no Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias da UFMG, Montes Claros-MG. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de oito linhagens de tomate do tipo rasteiro tolerantes ao calor obtidos na Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC, China: CLN1621L, CLN1621F, CLN1621E, CLN1466P, CLN2026E, CLN2026D, CLN2026C e CLN2001C. Houve uma relação inversa entre o peso médio dos frutos e o número de frutos produzidos por planta. O maior peso médio de frutos de algumas linhagens foi compensado pelo menor número de frutos, de tal

  18. Bioreactors Addressing Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Minteer, Danielle M.; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor develop...

  19. Building Intrusion Tolerant Software System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Wen-ling; WANG Li-na; ZHANG Huan-guo; CHEN Wei

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe and analyze the hypothesis about intrusion tolerance software system, so that it can provide an intended server capability and deal with the impacts caused by the intruder exploiting the inherent security vulnerabilities. We present some intrusion tolerance technology by exploiting N-version module threshold method in constructing multilevel secure software architecture, by detecting with hash value, by placing an "antigen" word next to the return address on the stack that is similar to human immune system, and by adding "Honey code" nonfunctional code to disturb intruder, so that the security and the availability of the software system are ensured.

  20. Bioreactors addressing diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle M; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2014-11-01

    The concept of bioreactors in biochemical engineering is a well-established process; however, the idea of applying bioreactor technology to biomedical and tissue engineering issues is relatively novel and has been rapidly accepted as a culture model. Tissue engineers have developed and adapted various types of bioreactors in which to culture many different cell types and therapies addressing several diseases, including diabetes mellitus types 1 and 2. With a rising world of bioreactor development and an ever increasing diagnosis rate of diabetes, this review aims to highlight bioreactor history and emerging bioreactor technologies used for diabetes-related cell culture and therapies.

  1. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), “Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities—Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015”, we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  2. Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health inequalities refer to health hazards disproportionately or unfairly distributed among the most vulnerable social groups, which are generally the most discriminated, poor populations and minorities affected by environmental risks. Although it has been known for a long time that health and disease are socially determined, only recently has this idea been incorporated into the conceptual and practical framework for the formulation of policies and strategies regarding health. In this Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH), "Addressing Environmental Health Inequalities-Proceedings from the ISEE Conference 2015", we incorporate nine papers that were presented at the 27th Conference of the International Society for Environmental Epidemiology (ISEE), held in Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 2015. This small collection of articles provides a brief overview of the different aspects of this topic. Addressing environmental health inequalities is important for the transformation of our reality and for changing the actual development model towards more just, democratic, and sustainable societies driven by another form of relationship between nature, economy, science, and politics. PMID:27618906

  3. Freeze-Tolerant Condensers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Elkouhk, Nabil

    2004-01-01

    Two condensers designed for use in dissipating heat carried by working fluids feature two-phase, self-adjusting configurations such that their working lengths automatically vary to suit their input power levels and/or heat-sink temperatures. A key advantage of these condensers is that they can function even if the temperatures of their heat sinks fall below the freezing temperatures of their working fluids and the fluids freeze. The condensers can even be restarted from the frozen condition. The top part of the figure depicts the layout of the first condenser. A two-phase (liquid and vapor) condenser/vapor tube is thermally connected to a heat sink typically, a radiatively or convectively cooled metal panel. A single-phase (liquid) condensate-return tube (return artery) is also thermally connected to the heat sink. At intervals along their lengths, the condenser/vapor tube and the return artery are interconnected through porous plugs. This condenser configuration affords tolerance of freezing, variable effective thermal conductance (such that the return temperature remains nearly constant, independently of the ultimate sink temperature), and overall pressure drop smaller than it would be without the porous interconnections. An additional benefit of this configuration is that the condenser can be made to recover from the completely frozen condition either without using heaters, or else with the help of heaters much smaller than would otherwise be needed. The second condenser affords the same advantages and is based on a similar principle, but it has a different configuration that affords improved flow of working fluid, simplified construction, reduced weight, and faster recovery from a frozen condition.

  4. 丛枝菌根真菌对生菜耐热性的效应%Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Heat-Tolerance of Lactuca satica L

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马通; 刘润进; 李敏

    2015-01-01

    There are problems of high temperature inhibiting growth of lettuce (Lactuca satica L.) in produc-tion, while arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the function of increasing plant tolerance to high tempera-ture, drought, and salt stress etc. The purpose of the present experiment was to evaluate effects of AM fungi (Glomus mosseae, Glomus intraradices and Glomus versiforme) on heat tolerance of lettuce plants grown in pots under different temperature (25℃, 30℃and 35℃), and greenhouse conditions. The results showed that the three tested AM fungi could colonize lettuce roots and form mycorrhizas. The colonization percentage of G. mosseae was the highest (70.4%), while G. intraradices the lest (44.6%). Under the same temperature, the ac-tivity of SOD, POD and CAT in leaves of lettuce inoculated with AM fungi were higher than those of the con-trol, and the inoculation treatment with G. mosseae showed the highest under 35 degrees, which were 68.4%, 128.6%and 88.9%higher than those of the control respectively. The content of MDA and membrane permea-bility in leaves of lettuce inoculated with AM fungi was signiifcantly lower than that of the control, while the contents of soluble sugar, proline content and root activities were signiifcantly higher than those of the control. The contents of soluble sugar, proline and soluble protein in lettuce inoculated G. mosseae were signiifcantly higher than those of the control, and the root activity and chlorophyll content also signiifcantly increased to 255.5%and 27.2%respectively, especially under the high temperature of 35 degrees. It was concluded that in-oculation with AM fungi could improve lettuce heat tolerance, of which G. mosseae was superior and should be a possible effective strains of increasing heat tolerance of lettuce in the production.%生菜即叶用莴苣栽培过程中,常常会遇到高温抑制生长等问题,而丛枝菌根(AM)真菌具有增强植物耐高温、干旱和盐害等抗逆性的功能

  5. 早熟耐热抗病大白菜新品种‘金早58’%A New Early Maturing Chinese Cabbage Cultivar 'Jinzao 58' with Diseases Resistance and Heat Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利民; 柯桂兰

    2012-01-01

    'Jinzao 58' is a new early maturing hybrid Chinese cabbage cultivar with diseases resistance and heat tolerance, it was crossed with new cytoplasm male sterile line 07RC4 as female parent and self-incompatibility line 07S132 as male plant. The plant is semi-erect. The leaf head is short and leaves congruence. The whole growing stage is about 58 days, average single head is 1.6 kg, and yield is 40 - 45 t·hm2. This cultivar is easy heading and leaf head is tight. It has good quality, high resistance to mildews, viruses, black rot and extensive adaptability. It is suitable to be cultivated in summer and early autumn.%‘金早58’系以新型胞质雄性不育系07RC4作母本,白交不亲和系07S132作父本配制的早熟、耐热、抗病大白菜一代杂种。植株半直立,叶球矮桩叠抱。生长期58d,单球质量1.6kg,产量40~45t·hm-2。成球性好,叶球紧实,品质优良,抗霜霉病,高抗病毒病和黑腐病,适应性广。适宜夏季和秋季早熟栽培。

  6. RAP2.4a Is Transported through the Phloem to Regulate Cold and Heat Tolerance in Papaya Tree (Carica papaya cv. Maradol): Implications for Protection Against Abiotic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Herrera, Ana; Rodriguez-Corona, Ulises; Sanchez-Teyer, Felipe; Espadas-Alcocer, Jorge; Espadas-Gil, Francisco; Barredo-Pool, Felipe; Castaño, Enrique; Rodriguez-Zapata, Luis Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to stress through metabolic and morphological changes that increase their ability to survive and grow. To this end, several transcription factor families are responsible for transmitting the signals that are required for these changes. Here, we studied the transcription factor superfamily AP2/ERF, particularly, RAP2.4 from Carica papaya cv. Maradol. We isolated four genes (CpRap2.4a, CpRAap2.4b, CpRap2.1 and CpRap2.10), and an in silico analysis showed that the four genes encode proteins that contain a conserved APETALA2 (AP2) domain located within group I and II transcription factors of the AP2/ERF superfamily. Semiquantitative PCR experiments indicated that each CpRap2 gene is differentially expressed under stress conditions, such as extreme temperatures. Moreover, genetic transformants of tobacco plants overexpressing CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b genes show a high level of tolerance to cold and heat stress compared to non-transformed plants. Confocal microscopy analysis of tobacco transgenic plants showed that CpRAP2.4a and CpRAP2.4b proteins were mainly localized to the nuclei of cells from the leaves and roots and also in the sieve elements. Moreover, the movement of CpRap2.4a RNA in tobacco grafting was analyzed. Our results indicate that CpRap2.4a and CpRap2.4b RNA in the papaya tree have a functional role in the response to stress conditions such as exposure to extreme temperatures via direct translation outside the parental RNA cell. PMID:27764197

  7. 甜瓜抗蔓枯病基因Gsb-4的分子标记%The Effects of 5-azacytidine on DNA Methylation and Heat Tolerance of Seedlings of Non-heading Chinese Cabbage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红英; 钱春桃; 娄丽娜; 娄群峰; 张永兵; 伊鸿平; 吴明珠; 陈劲枫

    2012-01-01

    The effects of 5-azacytidine(5-azaC)on DNA methylation levels and heat tolerance of two commercial cultivars of non-heading Chinese cabbage [Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis(L.) Makino],e.i‘.Xiadi’and‘Dongshangwei’,were studied. The results showed that DNA methylation levels of seedlings of the two cultivars were significantly decreased,no abnormal growth or development was observed. Pre-treatment of seeds of non-heading Chinese cabbage with 0.1–0.2 mol · L-1 of 5-azaC would slow down the decreasing of growth,POD activity,and soluble protein content of seedlings under heat stress,and decrease MDA content and cell membrane permeability as well.%以甜瓜(Cucumis melo L.)抗蔓枯病自交系PI482398(含抗蔓枯病基因Gsb-4)和感病自交系‘白皮脆’以及它们的F1、BC1P1、BC1P2、F2群体为材料,苗期进行蔓枯病菌(Didymella bryoniae)接种鉴定,结果表明甜瓜抗蔓枯病基因Gsb-4为单显性遗传。利用集团分离分析法(bulked segregant analysis,BSA)对89对SSR引物进行筛选,引物CMTA170a在抗性材料中可扩增出约为120bp的条带,并与抗性基因Gsb-4表现出连锁关系。统计了CMTA170a在118个F2单株上的多态性,并利用MAPMAKER/Exp version3.0b软件进行了计算,其与Gsb-4的遗传连锁距离为5.14cM。

  8. Light addressable gold electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalid, Waqas

    2011-07-01

    The main objective carried out in this dissertation was to fabricate Light Amplified Potentiometric sensors (LAPS) based upon the semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) instead of its bulk form. Quantum dots (QDs) were opted for this device fabrication because of their superior fluorescent, electric and catalytic properties. Also in comparison to their bulk counterparts they will make device small, light weighted and power consumption is much lower. QDs were immobilized on a Au substrate via 1,4 benzene dithiol (BDT) molecule. Initially a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of BDT was established on Au substrate. Because of SAM, the conductivity of Au substrate decreased dramatically. Furthermore QDs were anchored with the help of BDT molecule on Au substrate. When QDs immobilized on Au substrate (QD/Au) via BDT molecule were irradiated with UV-visible light, electron-hole pairs were generated in QDs. The surface defect states in QDs trapped the excited electrons and long lived electron-hole pairs were formed. By the application of an appropriate bias potential on Au substrate the electrons could be supplied or extracted from the QDs via tunneling through BDT. Thus a cathodic or anodic current could be observed depending upon bias potential under illumination. However without light illumination the QD/Au electrode remained an insulator. To improve the device different modifications were made, including different substrates (Au evaporated on glass, Au evaporated on mica sheets and Au sputtered on SiO{sub 2}/Si) and different dithiol molecules (capped and uncapped biphenyl 4,4' dithiol and capped and uncapped 4,4' dimercaptostilbenes) were tried. Also different QD immobilization techniques (normal incubation, spin coating, layer by layer assembly (LbL) of polyelectrolytes and heat immobilization) were employed. This device was able to detect electrochemically different analytes depending upon the QDs incorporated. For example CdS QDs were able to detect 4

  9. Addressing psychiatric comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, G E; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C P; Luborsky, L

    1991-01-01

    Research studies indicate that addressing psychiatric comorbidity can improve treatment for selected groups of substance-abusing patients. However, the chances for implementing the necessary techniques on a large scale are compromised by the absence of professional input and guidance within programs. This is especially true in public programs, which treat some of the most disadvantaged, disturbed, and socially destructive individuals in the entire mental health system. One starting point for upgrading the level of knowledge and training of staff members who work in this large treatment system could be to develop a better and more authoritative information dissemination network. Such a system exists in medicine; physicians are expected to read appropriate journals and to guide their treatment decisions using the data contained in the journals. Standards of practice and methods for modifying current practice are within the tradition of reading new facts, studying old ones, and comparing treatment outcome under different conditions with what is actually being done. No such general system of information-gathering or -sharing exists, particularly in public treatment programs. One of the most flagrant examples of this "educational shortfall" can be found among those methadone programs that adamantly insist on prescribing no more than 30 to 35 mg/day for all patients, in spite of the overwhelming evidence that these dose levels generally are inadequate. In some cases, program directors are unaware of studies that have shown the relationship between dose and outcome. In other cases, they are aware of the studies but do not modify their practices accordingly. This example of inadequate dosing is offered as an example of one situation that could be improved by adherence to a system of authoritative and systematic information dissemination. Many issues in substance abuse treatment do not lend themselves to information dissemination as readily as that of methadone dosing

  10. Address Points, Addressing, Published in 2008, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Addressing'. Data by this publisher are often...

  11. Observations of IPv6 Addresses

    OpenAIRE

    Malone, David

    2008-01-01

    IPv6 addresses are longer than IPv4 addresses, and are so capable of greater expression. Given an IPv6 address, conventions and standards allow us to draw conclusions about how IPv6 is being used on the node with that address. We show a technique for analysing IPv6 addresses and apply it to a number of datasets. The datasets include addresses seen at a busy mirror server, at an IPv6-enabled TLD DNS server and when running traceroute across the production IPv6 network. The technique quantif...

  12. Identification of the Differentially Expressed Proteins Between Heat-Tolerant and Heat-Sensitive Rice Responding to High-Temperature Stress at the Early Milky Stage%耐热和热敏感水稻应答灌浆初期高温胁迫过程中的差异表达蛋白质鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖江林; 宋宇; 钟平安; 周会汶; 张宏玉; 黄英金

    2014-01-01

    耐热和热敏感水稻)不同、高温胁迫程度(高温处理天数)不同而存在差异。%[Objective]The objective of this study is to identify the differentially expressed proteins and their biological functions involving in rice grain responding to high temperature stress at the early milky stage.[Method]The heat-tolerant rice line XN0437T and the heat-sensitive rice line XN0437S were used as plant materials. The tub-planting method and conventional cultivation way were used to culture the rice. To ensure that only uniformly developed samples were used for analysis, rice ears were labeled on the same heading date and the panicles on the labeled ears were further labeled on the same flowering date. On the 10th day after heading, plants with the same label were transferred to chambers and maintained at a temperature of 38.0/25.0 ± 0.5℃ (treatment / control) for 1 day, 3days and 5days. After the initiation of high temperature stress at the early milky stage of rice, rice grains from the same region (middle to bottom part) of labeled ears were harvested at three different time points. The total proteins from harvested sample were extracted by the trichloroacetate (TCA) - acetone precipitation method and the protein profiles of rice grain were set up by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). The proteins in rice responding to high temperature stress (PRHT) were firstly identified by comparing the 2-DE protein profiles between treatment and its parallel control for heat-tolerant and -sensitive lines, respectively. The differentially expressed proteins were then confirmed by comparing the volume of PRHT from heat-tolerant and -sensitive lines. The functions of these differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS) analysis and protein database searching.[Result]Twenty-seven differentially expressed protein spots were found and showed more

  13. Software fault tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Kazinov, Tofik Hasanaga; Mostafa, Jalilian Shahrukh

    2009-01-01

    Because of our present inability to produce errorfree software, software fault tolerance is and will contiune to be an important consideration in software system. The root cause of software design errors in the complexity of the systems. This paper surveys various software fault tolerance techniquest and methodologies. They are two gpoups: Single version and Multi version software fault tolerance techniques. It is expected that software fault tolerance research will benefit from this research...

  14. Port virtual addressing for PC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instruments for nuclear signal measurements based on add-on card for a personal computer (PC) are designed often. Then one faces the problem of the addressing of data input/output devices which show an integration level or intelligence that makes the use of several port address indispensable, and these are limited in the PC. The virtual addressing offers the advantage of the occupation of few addresses to accede to many of these devices. The principles of this technique and the appliances of a solution in radiometric in a radiometric card based on programmed logic are discussed in this paper

  15. 2015 ASHG Awards and Addresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Each year at the annual meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics (ASHG), addresses are given in honor of The Society and a number of award winners. A summary of each of these is given below. On the following pages, we have printed the presidential address and the addresses for the William Allan Award, the Curt Stern Award, and the Victor A. McKusick Leadership Award. Webcasts of these addresses, as well as those of many other presentations, can be found at http://www.ashg.org.

  16. Reclaiming unused IPv4 addresses

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    As many people might know, the number of IPv4 addresses is limited and almost all have been allocated (see here and here for more information).   Although CERN has been allocated some 340,000 addresses, the way these are allocated across the site is not as efficient as we would like. As we face an increasing demand for IPv4 addresses with the growth in virtual machines, the IT Department’s Communication Systems Group will be reorganising address allocation during 2016 to make more efficient use of the IPv4 address ranges that have been allocated to CERN. We aim, wherever possible, to avoid giving out fixed IP addresses, and have all devices connected to the campus network obtain an address dynamically each time they connect. As a first stage, starting in February, IP addresses that have not been used for more than 9 months will be reclaimed. No information about the devices concerned will be deleted from LANDB, but a new IP address will have to be requested if they are ever reconnected to t...

  17. Politicas de tolerancia cero (Zero Tolerance Policies). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Tobin

    State legislatures and school boards are adopting a growing number of zero-tolerance polices toward weapons, guns, and violence. Zero-tolerance polices are rules intended to address specific school-safety issues. They have arisen in part as a response to the threat of the withdrawal of federal funds under the 1994 Gun-Free Schools Act, and…

  18. Recognition and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2010-01-01

    Recognition and toleration are ways of relating to the diversity characteristic of multicultural societies. The article concerns the possible meanings of toleration and recognition, and the conflict that is often claimed to exist between these two approaches to diversity. Different forms...... or interpretations of recognition and toleration are considered, confusing and problematic uses of the terms are noted, and the compatibility of toleration and recognition is discussed. The article argues that there is a range of legitimate and importantly different conceptions of both toleration and recognition...

  19. Fault Tolerant Feedback Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.

    2001-01-01

    An architecture for fault tolerant feedback controllers based on the Youla parameterization is suggested. It is shown that the Youla parameterization will give a residual vector directly in connection with the fault diagnosis part of the fault tolerant feedback controller. It turns out...... that there is a separation be-tween the feedback controller and the fault tolerant part. The closed loop feedback properties are handled by the nominal feedback controller and the fault tolerant part is handled by the design of the Youla parameter. The design of the fault tolerant part will not affect the design...... of the nominal feedback con-troller....

  20. "Infectious" Transplantation Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shixin; Cobbold, Stephen P.; Pope, Heather; Elliott, James; Kioussis, Dimitris; Davies, Joanna; Waldmann, Herman

    1993-02-01

    The maintenance of transplantation tolerance induced in adult mice after short-term treatment with nonlytic monoclonal antibodies to CD4 and CD8 was investigated. CD4^+ T cells from tolerant mice disabled naive lymphocytes so that they too could not reject the graft. The naive lymphocytes that had been so disabled also became tolerant and, in turn, developed the capacity to specifically disable other naive lymphocytes. This process of "infectious" tolerance explains why no further immunosuppression was needed to maintain long-term transplantation tolerance.

  1. Mechanical tolerance stackup and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Bryan R

    2004-01-01

    BackgroundDimensioning and TolerancingTolerance Format and Decimal PlacesConverting Plus/Minus Dimensions and Tolerances into Equal Bilaterally Toleranced DimensionsVariation and Sources of VariationTolerance AnalysisWorst-case Tolerance StackupsStatistical Tolerance StackupsGeometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing (GD&T)Converting Plus/Minus Tolerancing to Positional Tolerancing and Projected Tolerance ZonesDiametral and Radial Tolerance StackupsSpecifying Material Condition Modifiers and Their Effect on Tolerance Stackups The Tolerance Stackup SketchThe Tolerance Stackup Report FormTolerance S

  2. Regulatory focus affects physician risk tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veazie, Peter J; McIntosh, Scott; Chapman, Benjamin P; Dolan, James G

    2014-01-01

    Risk tolerance is a source of variation in physician decision-making. This variation, if independent of clinical concerns, can result in mistaken utilization of health services. To address such problems, it will be helpful to identify nonclinical factors of risk tolerance, particularly those amendable to intervention-regulatory focus theory suggests such a factor. This study tested whether regulatory focus affects risk tolerance among primary care physicians. Twenty-seven primary care physicians were assigned to promotion-focused or prevention-focused manipulations and compared on the Risk Taking Attitudes in Medical Decision Making scale using a randomization test. Results provide evidence that physicians assigned to the promotion-focus manipulation adopted an attitude of greater risk tolerance than the physicians assigned to the prevention-focused manipulation (p = 0.01). The Cohen's d statistic was conventionally large at 0.92. Results imply that situational regulatory focus in primary care physicians affects risk tolerance and may thereby be a nonclinical source of practice variation. Results also provide marginal evidence that chronic regulatory focus is associated with risk tolerance (p = 0.05), but the mechanism remains unclear. Research and intervention targeting physician risk tolerance may benefit by considering situational regulatory focus as an explanatory factor.

  3. Heat shock protection against cold stress of Drosophila melanogaster.

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, V; Mitchell, H K; Young, P.; Petersen, N S

    1988-01-01

    Heat shock protein synthesis can be induced during recovery from cold treatment of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. Survival of larvae after a cold treatment is dramatically improved by a mild heat shock just before the cold shock. The conditions which induce tolerance to cold are similar to those which confer tolerance to heat.

  4. Identification of MicroRNA SNPs of HSF1 Gene and Their Association with Heat Tolerance in Chinese Holstein%中国荷斯坦牛HSF1基因microRNA SNPs与耐热性能的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋玲; 鞠志花; 贾祥捷; 黄金明; 李建斌; 李荣岭; 李芳; 王长法; 仲跻峰

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] Heat shock transcription factorl (HSF1) is the key protein in regulating heat stress response. [Method] The polymorphisms of HSF1 gene and their association with heat tolerance in 638 Chinese Holstein cattle were investigated for the purpose of providing molecular marker information to facilitate the breeding efficiency ofthermo tolerant cows.Primers were designed to amplify HSF1 gene fragment. DNA sequencing, PCR-SSCP and PCR-RFLP methods were used to analyze the polymorphisms. MicroRNA SNPs of HSF1 gene were localized by blasting to miRBASE database. Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype were analyzed using SHEsis software. The association of these polymorphisms with heat tolerance index including potassium content in erythrocytes (PCE), decrease rate of milk production (R), rectal temperature (RT) and heat-tolerance coefficient (HTC) was analyzed by SAS software. The transcriptional level of HSF1 mRNA under heat stress conditions was studied by fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR technology. [Result] Two novel microRNA SNPs, T909C and G4693T, were found. The cows with CC and CT genotype showed higher heat tolerance than those with TT genotype at T909C locus (P< 0.05). The cows with TT genotype showed higher heat tolerance than those with GG genotype at G4693T locus (P<0.05). Four haplotype and 10 haplotype combinations were found. The cows with H2H4 haplotype combination had lower PCE, RT and higher HCT than those with H1H3 haplotype combination (P<0.05). The cows with H2H4 haplotype combination had lower R than those with H1H1 haplotype combination (P<0.05). H2H4 was the heat tolerant haplotype combination. The transcriptional level of HSF1 mRNA under heat stress conditions was different in different tissues. The highest is that in heart, which is 11.24-fold enrichment than that in muscle (P<0.05). [Conclusion] microRNA SNPs of HSF1 gene could be chosen as the molecular markers for choosing thermo tolerant dairy cattle in breeding program

  5. Effect of Different Light and Hormone Treatments on Isolated Microspore Cultures of Heat-Tolerance Chinese Cabbage%光照和激素对耐热型大白菜游离小孢子培养的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛鹏; 张秀荣; 岳艳玲; 李晶晶; 邓静

    2011-01-01

    0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L NAA and 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5, 1.0 mg/L 6-BA were added to NLN media, and A-3 000 1x light, B-10 d dark then 3 000 1x light, C-15 d dark then 3 000 lx light and D-dark were applied to culturing isolated microspore of heat-tolerance Chinese cabbage-Xiajiangjiu in order to study the effect of light and hormone on the growth and induction of microspore-derived embryos. The results showed: 0.1 mg/L 6-BA could improve induction of mi crospore-derived embryos. The highest yield, 206 embryos, was obtained. At the same time adding 0.2 mg/L NAA could not only induce higher embryos, 205 embryos, but also promote growth of em bryos . Cotylednary and Germinated embryo increased to 33.7 % and abnormal embryo decreased to 14.1% . Dark culture could improve induction of microspore-derived embryos and D treat obtained 149embryos. Light culture, however, decreased embryo yield but improved the growth of embryos and regen erated plantlet. Better B treat induced 108 embryos and rate of regenerated plantlet increased to 145 % .%将分离纯化的小孢子悬浮培养在添加0,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.5,1.0 mg/L的NAA和0,0.05,0.1,0.2,0.3,0.5,1.0 mg/L 6-BA的NLN培养基中,在A(3000 lx光培养)、B(10 d暗培养再3000k光培养)、C(15 d暗培养再3000k光培养)、D(ck,暗培养)条件下进行培养,研究光照和激素对耐热型大白菜“夏将军”游离小孢子成胚及胚状体发育的影响.结果表明:0.1 mg/L 6-BA能显著促进胚状体的发生,使胚产量达到最高,为206个.同时附加0.2 mg/L NAA不但保证有较高的胚产量(205个),还可促进胚状体发育,子叶胚及萌发胚可达33.7%,畸形胚比例下降到14.1%;暗培养能促进成胚,D处理成胚量高,达149个,光培养则明显抑制成胚,但可促进胚状体发育,提高成苗率,其中以B处理成胚成苗效果较好,成胚108个,成苗率145%.

  6. Seleção de linhagens com tolerância ao calor em germoplasma de tomateiro coletado na região Norte do Brasil Selection of heat tolerant tomato inbred lines from landraces adapted for cultivation in the North Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de B. Giordano

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available As altas temperaturas nas regiões tropicais e equatoriais induzem uma série de distúrbios morfológicos e/ou fisiológicos em estruturas florais do tomateiro, resultando em menor produtividade devido a maiores taxas de abortamento e má formação de frutos. Neste trabalho foram avaliadas linhagens de tomateiro oriundas de duas populações que vêm sendo cultivadas em Roraima, região Norte do Brasil. Doze linhagens foram obtidas após um ciclo prévio de seleção (em Brasília-DF em condições de temperatura elevada. A avaliação destas doze linhagens e duas cultivares testemunhas ('Viradoro' e 'Santa Clara' foi conduzida em casa de vegetação com temperaturas média das mínimas de 15ºC e média das máximas de 46,2ºC. Foram observadas diferenças significativas para número de frutos abortados, número de frutos maduros, peso de frutos maduros, teores de sólidos solúveis, firmeza e coloração de frutos. As linhagens (como um grupo apresentaram melhor desempenho do que as testemunhas 'Viradoro' e 'Santa Clara' para os parâmetros número de frutos abortados, peso, número e coloração de frutos maduros. A metodologia adotada no presente trabalho, permite a identificação de genótipos superiores adaptados ao cultivo em regiões tropicais e equatoriais com elevadas temperaturas.Heat tolerance is a major trait for tomato breeding programs targeted for lowland wet climates in equatorial and tropical areas of the world. High temperatures might cause several disturbances to morphological and physiological characteristics of the tomato flowers leading to yield constraints due to reduction in fruit setting. In the present work, an experiment was conducted to evaluate tomato breeding lines, derived from two tomato landrace populations cultivated by farmers in Roraima State (North Region of Brazil. Twelve inbred lines were obtained from these populations after one cycle of selection in a plastic house with high temperatures. These 12

  7. Toleration and its enemies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvad, Ib Martin

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the development of freedom of expression in Danish constitutional law, to freedom of the press in European human rights law - the Jersild case- to a right to mock and ridicule other faiths in recent Danish practice, the essay of Locke on toleration is examined, its...... background in arminist protestant theology of toleration considered, its conclusion that only faiths that demand allegiance and obedience to foreign powers can be excluded from toleration is highlighted....

  8. MERICAN CULTURAL TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG RUIXIAO

    2014-01-01

    As an emigrant country, the essential characteristic of America culture is its tolerance. It contributes to the formation the diversity of American culture. By tracing back to American history, this essay shows what caused American cultural tolerance. Through describing briefly the manifestation of American cultural tolerance from certain aspects and analyzing the major factors, it will give us a clue about the reason why America can be always prosperous. At last, the paper shows the limitation as well as advantages about the tolerance from the point of current status.

  9. Convective heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Kakac, Sadik; Pramuanjaroenkij, Anchasa

    2014-01-01

    Intended for readers who have taken a basic heat transfer course and have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, and differential equations, Convective Heat Transfer, Third Edition provides an overview of phenomenological convective heat transfer. This book combines applications of engineering with the basic concepts of convection. It offers a clear and balanced presentation of essential topics using both traditional and numerical methods. The text addresses emerging science and technology matters, and highlights biomedical applications and energy technologies. What’s New in the Third Edition: Includes updated chapters and two new chapters on heat transfer in microchannels and heat transfer with nanofluids Expands problem sets and introduces new correlations and solved examples Provides more coverage of numerical/computer methods The third edition details the new research areas of heat transfer in microchannels and the enhancement of convective heat transfer with nanofluids....

  10. Loss Tolerant Optical Qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Ralph, T C; Gilchrist, A; Gilchrist, Alexei

    2005-01-01

    We present a linear optics quantum computation scheme that employs a new encoding approach that incrementally adds qubits and is tolerant to photon loss errors. The scheme employs a circuit model but uses techniques from cluster state computation and achieves comparable resource usage. To illustrate our techniques we describe a quantum memory which is fault tolerant to photon loss.

  11. Remember Tolerance Differently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønder, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This essay questions the linear conception of history which often accompanies the way contemporary democratic theory tends to disavow tolerance's discontinuities and remainders. In the spirit of Foucault's genealogy of descent, the idea is to develop a new sense of tolerance's history, not by inv...

  12. A System Gone Berserk: How Are Zero-Tolerance Policies Really Affecting Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    School administrators continue to use zero-tolerance policies as a one-size-fits-all, quick-fix solution to curbing discipline problems with students. Originally intended to address serious offenses such as possession of firearms, zero-tolerance policies are also now meant to address fighting and disrespect. Despite the seeming popularity of…

  13. Design study of Software-Implemented Fault-Tolerance (SIFT) computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensley, J. H.; Goldberg, J.; Green, M. W.; Kutz, W. H.; Levitt, K. N.; Mills, M. E.; Shostak, R. E.; Whiting-Okeefe, P. M.; Zeidler, H. M.

    1982-01-01

    Software-implemented fault tolerant (SIFT) computer design for commercial aviation is reported. A SIFT design concept is addressed. Alternate strategies for physical implementation are considered. Hardware and software design correctness is addressed. System modeling and effectiveness evaluation are considered from a fault-tolerant point of view.

  14. Addressing problems of employee performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Employee performance problems are essentially of 2 kinds: those that are motivational in origin and those resulting from skill deficiencies. Both kinds of problems are the province of the department manager. Performance problems differ from problems of conduct in that traditional disciplinary processes ordinarily do not apply. Rather, performance problems are addressed through educational and remedial processes. The manager has a basic responsibility in ensuring that everything reasonable is done to help each employee succeed. There are a number of steps the manager can take to address employee performance problems.

  15. Toleration, Groups, and Multiculturalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    to the political and social relationship between the subject and the objects of toleration. Finally, toleration is often argued to be a normative requirement on the basis of the way it affects the object or receiver of toleration, e.g. on the basis of the good of or right to freedom from non-interference which....... The chapter relates the different possible meanings of groups toleration to widespread criticisms of multiculturalism for being excessively 'groupist' (e.g. to essentialise or reify groups), to promote group rights over individual rights, or to deny or ignore the internal heterogeneity of groups...... or the multiple identity affiliations of individuals. The chapter suggests that some of these standard criticisms of multiculturalism for being overly tolerant of minority groups, or being so in a way elevating groups over individuals, are less pressing on some understandings of the meaning of 'group...

  16. Compromise and Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostbøll, Christian F.

    respecting the plurality of conceptions of the good in society, whereas political compromise embodies the disagreements in coercive laws. This difference between toleration and compromise has two important consequences. First, political compromise is justified in a different manner than is toleration...... in compromise are more stringent than those for being tolerated. Still, the limits of compromise cannot be drawn to narrowly if it is to remain its value as a form of agreement that respects and embodies the differences of opinion in society.......Political compromise is akin to toleration, since both consist of an "agreement to disagree." Compromise and toleration also share a predicament of being regarded as ambiguous virtues that require of us to accept something we actually regard as wrong. However, we misunderstand the nature...

  17. Laser addressed holographic memory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gange, R. A.; Wagle, E. M.; Steinmetz, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    Holographic recall and storage system uses red-lipid microcrystalline wax as storage medium. When laser beam strikes wax, its energy heats point of incidence enough to pass wax through transition temperature. Holograph image can then be written or erased in softened wax.

  18. Keynote Address: Rev. Mark Massa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. Mark S. Massa, S.J., is the dean and professor of Church history at the School of Theology and Ministry at Boston College. He was invited to give a keynote to begin the third Catholic Higher Education Collaborative Conference (CHEC), cosponsored by Boston College and Fordham University. Fr. Massa's address posed critical questions about…

  19. Introduction to IP address management

    CERN Document Server

    Rooney, Tim

    2010-01-01

    "The book begins with a basic overview of IP networking, followed by chapters describing each of the three core IPAM technologies: IPv4 and IPv6 addressing, DHCP, and DNS. The next three chapters describe IPAM management techniques and practice, followed by chapters on IPv4-IPv6 co-existence, security and the IPAM business case"--

  20. Communities Address Barriers to Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Anne

    1996-01-01

    Rural areas lag behind urban areas in access to information technologies. Public institutions play a critical role in extending the benefits of information technologies to those who would not otherwise have access. The most successful rural telecommunications plans address barriers to use, such as unawareness of the benefits, technophobia, the…

  1. State Toleration, Religious Recognition and Equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    . I first note that this purely conceptual argument for going ‘beyond toleration’ is inconclusive, since it is far from clear whether, and, if so, how, the classic notion of toleration applies to institutions like the state. States are non-personal institutions regulating society, so...... it is not immediately clear in what, if any, sense they can be the subjects of the attitudes of disapproval required for toleration, and it is also not obvious that non-interference has the same meaning in relation to a political authority regulating society through general rules as in relation to individual conduct. I......In debates about multiculturalism, it is widely claimed that ‘toleration is not enough’ and that we need to go ‘beyond toleration’ to some form of politics of recognition in order to satisfactorily address contemporary forms of cultural diversity (e.g. the presence in Europe of Muslim minorities...

  2. [INABILITY TO TOLERATE COSMETICS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, G E; Piérard-Franchimont, C

    2016-05-01

    Inability to tolerate cosmetics can result from distinct mechanisms which appear as the so-called sensitive skin corresponding to one aspect of invisible dermatosis, or which corresponds to manifestations of a contact allergic or irritation dermatitis.

  3. Tolerance Induction in Liver

    OpenAIRE

    M.H Karimi; Geramizadeh, B; Malek-Hosseini, S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Liver is an exclusive anatomical and immunological organ that displays a considerable tolerance effect. Liver allograft acceptance is shown to occur spontaneously within different species. Although in human transplant patients tolerance is rarely seen, the severity level and cellular mechanisms of transplant rejection vary. Non-paranchymal liver cells, including Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, and resident dendritic cells may participate in liver tol...

  4. Tolerance to high temperature extremes in an invasive lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae, in subtropical China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Ting Ju

    Full Text Available Biological invasions are predicted to be more frequent as climate change is increasing its positive impact on the prevalence of invasive exotic species. Success of insect invaders in different temperature zones is closely related to their tolerance to temperature extremes. In this study, we used an exotic lace bug (Corythucha ciliata as the study organism to address the hypotheses that an insect species invading a subtropical zone from temperate regions has a high capacity to survive and adapt to high temperatures, and that its thermal tolerance plays an important role in determining its seasonal abundance and geographic distribution. To test these hypotheses, the effects of heat shock on the survival and reproduction of C. ciliata adults were assessed in the laboratory. Adults were exposed to 26 (control, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, and 45°C for 2 h, and then were transferred to 26°C. Heat-shock temperatures ranging from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect survival pattern, longevity, and fecundity of adults, but heat shock at 43 and 45°C significantly reduced these traits. Exposing parent females to heat-shock treatments from 35 to 41°C did not significantly affect the hatching rate of their eggs, survival of the nymphs, and the proportion of female F(1 progeny, while no progeny were produced with treatments of 43 and 45°C. The results indicate that C. ciliata can tolerate high temperatures less than 41°C, which may contribute to its expansion into the lower latitudes in China where its hosts (Platanus trees are widely planted. Our findings have important implications for predicting seasonal abundance and understanding invasion mechanisms of this important urban invader under climate change.

  5. Addressing passive smoking in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha G Hutchinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A significant number of parents are unaware or unconvinced of the health consequences of passive smoking (PS in children. Physicians could increase parental awareness by giving personal advice. AIM: To evaluate the current practices of three Dutch health professions (paediatricians, youth health care physicians, and family physicians regarding parental counselling for passive smoking (PS in children. METHODS: All physicians (n = 720 representing the three health professions in Limburg, The Netherlands, received an invitation to complete a self-administered electronic questionnaire including questions on their: sex, work experience, personal smoking habits, counselling practices and education regarding PS in children. RESULTS: The response rate was 34%. One tenth (11% of the responding physicians always addressed PS in children, 32% often, 54% occasionally and 4% reported to never attend to it. The three health professions appeared comparable regarding their frequency of parental counselling for PS in children. Addressing PS was more likely when children had respiratory problems. Lack of time was the most frequently mentioned barrier, being very and somewhat applicable for respectively 14% and 43% of the physicians. One fourth of the responders had received postgraduate education about PS. Additionally, 49% of the responders who did not have any education about PS were interested in receiving it. CONCLUSIONS: Physicians working in the paediatric field in Limburg, The Netherlands, could more frequently address PS in children with parents. Lack of time appeared to be the most mentioned barrier and physicians were more likely to counsel parents for PS in children with respiratory complaints/diseases. Finally, a need for more education on parental counselling for PS was expressed.

  6. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need. (authors)

  7. Addressing the workforce pipeline challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Bond; Kevin Kostelnik; Richard Holman

    2006-11-01

    A secure and affordable energy supply is essential for achieving U.S. national security, in continuing U.S. prosperity and in laying the foundations to enable future economic growth. To meet this goal the next generation energy workforce in the U.S., in particular those needed to support instrumentation, controls and advanced operations and maintenance, is a critical element. The workforce is aging and a new workforce pipeline, to support both current generation and new build has yet to be established. The paper reviews the challenges and some actions being taken to address this need.

  8. Addressing inequities in healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friel, Sharon; Hattersley, Libby; Ford, Laura; O'Rourke, Kerryn

    2015-09-01

    What, when, where and how much people eat is influenced by a complex mix of factors at societal, community and individual levels. These influences operate both directly through the food system and indirectly through political, economic, social and cultural pathways that cause social stratification and influence the quality of conditions in which people live their lives. These factors are the social determinants of inequities in healthy eating. This paper provides an overview of the current evidence base for addressing these determinants and for the promotion of equity in healthy eating. PMID:26420812

  9. Nanoscale content-addressable memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Bryan (Inventor); Principe, Jose C. (Inventor); Fortes, Jose (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A combined content addressable memory device and memory interface is provided. The combined device and interface includes one or more one molecular wire crossbar memories having spaced-apart key nanowires, spaced-apart value nanowires adjacent to the key nanowires, and configurable switches between the key nanowires and the value nanowires. The combination further includes a key microwire-nanowire grid (key MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart key nanowires, and a value microwire-nanowire grid (value MNG) electrically connected to the spaced-apart value nanowires. A key or value MNGs selects multiple nanowires for a given key or value.

  10. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and spasms due ... that the body is having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - ...

  11. Thermal Performance of High Temperature Titanium-Water Heat Pipes by Multiple Heat Pipe Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzi, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Titanium-water heat pipes are being investigated for use in heat rejection systems for lunar and Mars fission surface power systems. Heat pipes provide an efficient and reliable means to transfer heat to a radiator heat rejection system. NASA Glenn Research Center requisitioned nine titanium water heat pipes from three vendors. Each vendor supplied three heat pipes 1.25 cm diameter by 1.1 meter long with each vendor selecting a different wick design. Each of the three heat pipes is slightly different in construction. Additional specifications for the heat pipes included 500 K nominal operating temperature, light weight, and freeze tolerance. The heat pipes were performance tested gravity-aided, in the horizontal position and at elevations against gravity at 450 and 500 K. Performance of the three heat pipes is compared. The heat pipe data will be used to verify models of heat pipe radiators that will be used in future space exploration missions.

  12. Genes related to high temperature tolerance during maize seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, S M F; Von Pinho, E V R; Santos, H O; Lima, A C; Von Pinho, R G; Carvalho, M L M

    2015-01-01

    The identification of genes related to heat tolerance is fundamental for the development of high-quality seeds that are tolerant to heat stress condition. The objective of this study was to evaluate maize lineages and the gene expression involved in high temperature tolerance during germination using physiological tests, proteomics, and transcriptome analysis. Seeds from six maize lineages (30, 44, 54, 63, 64, and 91) with different levels of tolerance to high temperatures were used. Lineages 54 and 91 were observed to be more tolerant to high temperature conditions. The highest expression of α-amylase was observed in maize seeds from lineages 30 and 91 that were subjected to controlled deterioration. The highest expression of α-amylase was observed in maize seeds from lineages 30 and 91 that were subjected to controlled deterioration; with the controlled deterioration, the highest level of gene expression did not occur in the most tolerant materials; the association of lower expression of genes involved in heat-resistant protein systems was observed in seeds from lineage 44, which were more susceptible to high temperatures, and the highest gene expression of LEA D-34, ZmAN13, and AOX-1 was observed in seeds from lineage 64 when submitted to controlled deterioration. PMID:26782452

  13. Interference checking approach with tolerance based on assembly dimension chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Li Yingguang; Wang Wei; and Liao Wenhe

    2012-01-01

    CAD model with nominal dimension is implemented in interference checking of assembly simulation of aircraft complex parts at present, which causes inadequate availability. In order to address this challenging issue, interference checking method with tolerance based on assembly dimension chain was proposed. Worst case and maximum error probability of tolerance of composing loop were used, and CAD models were respectively re-constructed and inserted into simulation system. Before dynamic interference checking, engineering semantic interference condition was set to assembly requirements. Finally, the interface checking result was a basis for reasonability of assembly process and tolerance. A prototype system was developed based on the above research.

  14. Addressing viral resistance through vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Catherine; Schleif, Amanda; Heilman, Carole A

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation. This article suggests that a new model of vaccination may need to be considered: rather than focusing on public health, this model would primarily target sectors of the population who are at high risk for complications from certain infections. PMID:26604979

  15. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  16. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snir, Marc [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wisniewski, Robert [Intel Corporation; Abraham, Jacob [unknown; Adve, Sarita [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Bagchi, Saurabh [Purdue University; Balaji, Pavan [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Belak, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Bose, Pradip [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; Cappello, Franck [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Carlson, Bill [unknown; Chien, Andrew [University of Chicago; Coteus, Paul [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center; DeBardeleben, Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Diniz, Pedro [University of Southern California; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Erez, Mattan [University of Texas at Austin; Fazzari, Saverio [Booz Allen Hamilton; Geist, Al [ORNL; Gupta, Rinku [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Johnson, Fred [Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Oak Ridge, TN; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Leyffer, Sven [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Liberty, Dean [AMD; Mitra, Subhasish [Stanford University; Munson, Todd [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Schreiber, Rob [HP Labs; Stearley, Jon [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Van Hensbergen, Eric [ARM

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  17. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  18. Genetic Approaches to Develop Salt Tolerant Germplasm

    KAUST Repository

    Tester, Mark A.

    2015-08-19

    Forty percent of the world\\'s food is produced under irrigation, and this is directly threatened by over-exploitation and changes in the global environment. One way to address this threat is to develop systems for increasing our ability to use lower quality water, in particular saline water. Low cost partial desalination of brackish water, use of saline water for cooling and increases in the salinity tolerance of crops can all contribute to the development of this new agricultural system. In this talk, the focus will be on the use of forward genetic approaches for discovery of genes related to salinity tolerance in barley and tomatoes. Rather than studying salinity tolerance as a trait in itself, we dissect salinity tolerance into a series of components that are hypothesised to contribute to overall salinity tolerance (following the paradigm of Munns & Tester, 2008). For example, one significant component of tolerance of most crop plants to moderate soil salinity is due to the ability to maintain low concentrations of Na+ in the leaves, and much analysis of this aspect has been done (e.g. Roy et al., 2013, 2014). A major site for the control of shoot Na+ accumulation is at the plasma membrane of the mature stele of the root. Alleles of HKT, a major gene underlying this transport process have been characterized and, in work led by Dr Rana Munns (CSIRO), have now been introgressed into commercial durum wheat and led to significantly increased yields in saline field conditions (Munns et al., 2012). The genotyping of mapping populations is now highly efficient. However, the ability to quantitatively phenotype these populations is now commonly limiting forward progress in plant science. The increasing power of digital imaging and computational technologies offers the opportunity to relieve this phenotyping bottleneck. The Plant Accelerator is a 4500m2 growth facility that provides non-destructive phenotyping of large populations of plants (http

  19. A virus in a fungus in a plant: Three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, L.M.; Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Roossinck, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. The virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the underlying mechanism involves pathways conserved between these two groups of plants.

  20. China : Development of National Heat Pricing and Billing Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Anke Sofia; Kalkum, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Market-based reforms in China's urban centralized heating sector are essential to addressing the perpetual inefficiency of a sector built on welfare based principles. The reform of heat pricing and billing is a crucial part of overall heat reform, since it will commodity heat and thus create economic incentives to provide and use heat much more efficiently. Heat pricing and billing reform ...

  1. Tolerance and recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Marius Hansteen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though “toleration” and “recognition” designate opposing attitudes (to tolerate something, implies a negative stance towards it, whereas recognition seems to imply a positive one, the concepts do not constitute mutually exclusive alternatives. However, “toleration” is often associated with liberal universalism, focusing on individual rights, whereas “recognition” often connotes communitarian perspectives, focusing on relations and identity. This paper argues that toleration may be founded on recognition, and that recognition may imply toleration. In outlining a differentiated understanding of the relationship between toleration and recognition, it seems apt to avoid an all-to-general dichotomy between universalism and particularism or, in other words, to reach beyond the debate between liberalism and communitarianism in political philosophy.The paper takes as its starting point the view that the discussion on toleration and diversity in intercultural communication is one of the contexts where it seems important to get beyond the liberal/communitarian dichotomy. Some basic features of Rainer Forst’s theory of toleration and Axel Honneth’s theory of the struggle for recognition are presented, in order to develop a more substantial understanding of the relationship between the concepts of toleration and recognition. One lesson from Forst is that toleration is a normatively dependent concept, i.e., that it is impossible to deduce principles for toleration and its limits from a theory of toleration as such. A central lesson from Honneth is that recognition – understood as a basic human need – is always conflictual and therefore dynamic.Accordingly, a main point in the paper is that the theory of struggles for and about recognition (where struggles for designates struggles within an established order of recognition, and struggles about designates struggles that challenge established orders of recognition may clarify what

  2. Building Footprints - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The Montana Structures/Addresses Framework is a statewide spatial database of structure and address points in the State of Montana. The Montana Structures/Addresses...

  3. Is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants endangered by heat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladinig, Ursula; Pramsohler, Manuel; Bauer, Ines; Zimmermann, Sonja; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Strong solar irradiation in combination with still air and dry soil can cause prostrate high-mountain plants to heat up considerably and ultimately suffer heat damage. Such heat damage has been repeatedly shown for vegetative structures, but not for reproductive structures, which we expected to be particularly vulnerable to heat. Heat effects on cold-adapted plants may increase with rising global temperatures and the predicted increase in heat waves. We have tested the heat tolerance of reproductive versus vegetative shoots at different reproductive stages, comparing ten common plant species from different elevation belts in the European Alps. Plant samples were exposed to temperatures in 2-K steps of 30 min each between 42 and 56 °C. Heat damage was assessed by visual rating and vital staining. Reproductive shoots were on average 2.5 K less heat tolerant (LT50, i.e. the mean temperature causing 50 % heat damage, 47.2 °C) than vegetative shoots (mean LT50 49.7 °C). Initial heat injuries (mean LT10) were observed at 43-45 °C in heat-susceptible species and at 45-47 °C in more heat-tolerant species, in at least one reproductive stage. Generally, heat tolerance was significantly higher during fruiting than during the bud stages and anthesis. Prostrate species with acaulescent buds and flowers tolerated heat better than those with caulescent buds and flowers. Petals were the most heat-susceptible plant structure and mature pollen the most heat tolerant. Based on these data, heat tolerance of reproductive structures appears to be adapted to the prevailing maximum temperatures which the plants experience during different reproductive stages in their environment. During hot spells, however, heat tolerance thresholds may be exceeded. More frequent heat waves would decrease the reproductive output and, consequently, the competitiveness of heat-susceptible species.

  4. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  5. Inequality, Tolerance, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance of individuals' tolerance of inequality for economic growth. By using the political ideology of governments as a measure of revealed tolerance of inequality, the paper shows that controlling for ideology improves the accuracy with which the effects of inequality...... are measured. Results show that inequality reduces growth but more so in societies where people perceive it as being relatively unfair. Further results indicate that legal quality and social trust are likely transmission channels for the effects of inequality....

  6. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2014-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... prescription, which Forst presents as a requirement of justice. At both levels, it is argued that Forst’s respect conception is problematic since it presupposes that answers to very substantial normative questions, which are precisely what people tend to disagree on under conditions of pluralism, are already...

  7. Toleration out of respect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Under conditions of pluralism different cultures, interests or values can come into conflict, which raises the problem of how to secure peaceful co-existence. The idea of toleration historically emerged as an answer to this problem. Recently Rainer Forst has argued that toleration should not just...... prescription, which Forst presents as a requirement of justice. At both levels, it is argued that Forst’s respect conception is problematic since it presupposes that answers to very substantial normative questions, which are precisely what people tend to disagree on under conditions of pluralism, are already...

  8. Addressing neurological disorders with neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluigbo, Chima O; Rezai, Ali R

    2011-07-01

    Neurological disorders are becoming increasingly common in developed countries as a result of the aging population. In spite of medications, these disorders can result in progressive loss of function as well as chronic physical, cognitive, and emotional disability that ultimately places enormous emotional and economic on the patient, caretakers, and the society in general. Neuromodulation is emerging as a therapeutic option in these patients. Neuromodulation is a field, which involves implantable devices that allow for the reversible adjustable application of electrical, chemical, or biological agents to the central or peripheral nervous system with the objective of altering its functioning with the objective of achieving a therapeutic or clinically beneficial effect. It is a rapidly evolving field that brings together many different specialties in the fields of medicine, materials science, computer science and technology, biomedical, and neural engineering as well as the surgical or interventional specialties. It has multiple current and emerging indications, and an enormous potential for growth. The main challenges before it are in the need for effective collaboration between engineers, basic scientists, and clinicians to develop innovations that address specific problems resulting in new devices and clinical applications.

  9. Reliability and radiation tolerance of robots for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reliability of a robot for nuclear applications will be affected by environmental factors such as dust, water, vibrations, heat, and, in particular, ionising radiation. The present report describes the work carried out in a project addressing the reliability and radiation tolerance of such robots. A widely representative range of components and materials has been radiation tested and the test results have been collated in a database along with data provided by the participants from earlier work and data acquired from other sources. A radiation effects guide has been written for the use by designers of electronic equipment for robots. A generic reliability model has been set up together with generic failure strategies, forming the basis for specific reliability modelling carried out in other projects. Modelling tools have been examined and developed for the prediction of the performance of electronic circuits subjected to radiation. Reports have been produced dealing with the prediction and detection of upcoming failures in electronic systems. Operational experience from the use of robots in radiation work in various contexts has been compiled in a report, and another report has been written on cost/benefit considerations about the use of robots. Also the possible impact of robots on the safety of the surrounding plant has been considered and reported. (au) 16 ills., 236 refs

  10. Reliability and radiation tolerance of robots for nuclear applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauridsen, K. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Decreton, M. [SCK.CEN (Belgium); Seifert, C.C. [Siemens AG (Germany); Sharp, R. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom)

    1996-10-01

    The reliability of a robot for nuclear applications will be affected by environmental factors such as dust, water, vibrations, heat, and, in particular, ionising radiation. The present report describes the work carried out in a project addressing the reliability and radiation tolerance of such robots. A widely representative range of components and materials has been radiation tested and the test results have been collated in a database along with data provided by the participants from earlier work and data acquired from other sources. A radiation effects guide has been written for the use by designers of electronic equipment for robots. A generic reliability model has been set up together with generic failure strategies, forming the basis for specific reliability modelling carried out in other projects. Modelling tools have been examined and developed for the prediction of the performance of electronic circuits subjected to radiation. Reports have been produced dealing with the prediction and detection of upcoming failures in electronic systems. Operational experience from the use of robots in radiation work in various contexts has been compiled in a report, and another report has been written on cost/benefit considerations about the use of robots. Also the possible impact of robots on the safety of the surrounding plant has been considered and reported. (au) 16 ills., 236 refs.

  11. 5种杜鹃幼苗对高温胁迫的生理生化响应及耐热性综合评价%Physiological-biochemical response of five species in Rhododendron L.to high temperature stress and comprehensive evaluation of their heat tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯红; 刘向平; 张乐华; 凌家慧; 李立

    2011-01-01

    Using four-year-old seedlings of five species belonging to five subgenera in Rhododendron L. as experimental materials, contents of malondialdeyde (MDA) , hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and proline (Pro) and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) were determined and analyzed under condition of artificial simulated high temperature ( 30 t and 38 T ) , and correlation and principal component analyses of above indexes were also conducted. On this basis, comprehensive evaluation of heat tolerance of the five species was performed by subordinate function method, and comprehensive evaluation results were tested by means of the established optimum regression equation. The determination results show that compared to the control (22 t ) , contents of MDA, H2O2, Pro and activities of CAT, APX of the five species seedlings all increase with rising of stress temperature, and SOD activity appears the trend of less increasing under 30 CC condition while decreasing under 38 t condition. CAT activity has extremely significant positive correlation with contents of H2O2 and Pro and APX activity (P<0. 01 ) , and APX activity has significant positive or negative correlations respectively with Pro content and SOD activity (P<0.05 ). Six single indexes tested of allspecies are converted into three independent comprehensive indexes with an accumulative contribution rate of 87.52% by principal component analysis. According to the comprehensive evaluation value (D), heat tolerance of the five species can be divided into four classes; heat tolerance of R. mucronatum (Blume) G. Don is the strongest, that of R. moulmainense Hook. f. and R. molle (Blume) G. Don is stronger, that of R. chihsinianum Chun et Fang is weaker, and that of R. rubiginosum Franch. is the weakest. The heat tolerance of the five species can be predicted using the optimum regression equation established and the prediction value order is completely in accordance with D value

  12. Physiological changes and heat tolerance comparison of five Rhododendron species under high-temperature stress%高温胁迫下五种杜鹃花属植物的生理变化及其耐热性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐华; 孙宝腾; 周广; 王书胜; 李晓花; 单文

    2011-01-01

    高温是制约分布于较高海拔地区杜鹃花迁地保育与园林应用的重要因子.为探讨杜鹃花属植物的 高温致伤机理,该实验以隶属不同亚属的白花杜鹃、羊踯躅、毛棉杜鹃、红滩杜鹃及红棕杜鹃4年生实生苗为 材料,通过人工气候箱的盆栽实验,研究了30℃、38℃高温胁迫下其叶片生理生化指标的变化,并利用隶属 函数法及系统聚类分析法对其种间耐热性进行了综合评价.结果表明:高温胁迫下,5种杜鹃叶片的过氧化 氢酶(CAT)、抗坏血酸过氧化物酶(APX)活性及脯氨酸(Pro)、过氧化氢(H2O2)、丙二醛(MDA)含量均随着 胁迫温度的升高而增大;超氧化物歧化酶( SOD)活性在30℃轻度胁迫时均小幅度上升,而38℃重度胁迫时 下降.2个高温条件下,SOD、CAT的变化幅度与杜鹃种间耐热性总体呈正相关,而H2 O2、MDA增幅与种间 耐热性呈负相关;Pro增幅在30℃轻度胁迫时与种间耐热性呈负相关,而38℃重度胁迫时与耐热性呈正相 关;APX增幅与种间耐热性的相关性较弱.隶属函数与聚类分析综合评判得出5种杜鹃耐热性强弱顺序为:白花杜鹃>羊踯躅、毛棉杜鹃>红滩杜鹃>红棕杜鹃,与其田间耐热性表现一致.%High temperature is the important constraining factor of Rhododendron in ex situ conservation and landscape application. In order to reveal the injury of mechanism of five Rhododendron species under high-temperature stress,R. Mucronatum,R. Molle,R. Moulmainense,R. Chihsinianum and R. Rubiginosum which belong to different subg. Rhododendron were used in the experiment Four years-old seedlings of these five species were planted in artificial climate chambers and their changes of physiological and biochemical index were determined under high-temperature of 30 ℃ and 38 ℃ stress,and the heat tolerance was comprehensively evaluated with fuzzy subordinate function and system cluster analysis. The results showed that

  13. Biofilm induced tolerance towards antimicrobial peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Folkesson

    Full Text Available Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. We established Escherichia coli biofilms with differential structural organization due to the presence of IncF plasmids expressing altered forms of the transfer pili in two different biofilm model systems. The mature biofilms were subsequently treated with two antibiotics with different molecular targets, the peptide antibiotic colistin and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. The dynamics of microbial killing were monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Strains forming structurally organized biofilms show an increased bacterial survival when challenged with colistin, compared to strains forming unstructured biofilms. The increased survival is due to genetically regulated tolerant subpopulation formation and not caused by a general biofilm property. No significant difference in survival was detected when the strains were challenged with ciprofloxacin. Our data show that biofilm formation confers increased colistin tolerance to cells within the biofilm structure, but the protection is conditional being dependent on the structural organization of the biofilm, and the induction of specific tolerance mechanisms.

  14. Addressing verification challenges [International safeguards symposium on addressing verification challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In his welcome address the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Mr. M. ElBaradei, stated that safeguards activities are probably the most difficult task entrusted to an international organization and to determine all the details of a country's nuclear programme is a daunting challenge that raises a number of questions. There is an increase in nuclear power around the globe as a result of shortages of energy and concerns about energy independence and climate change. On the one hand, this is good, because without energy there is no hope for development on the other hand, however, it means that nuclear know-how and nuclear technology will continue to spread to more and more countries. There is also an increase in the number of countries interested in developing nuclear fuel cycle capabilities: sensitive fuel cycle activities, reprocessing and above all uranium enrichment. It even seems that some countries might be hedging their bets in order to have the know-how should they need to develop their own deterrence. Verifying enrichment or reprocessing facilities is quite difficult, and the so-called conversion time is extremely short. Thus, the IAEA is dealing with what is called 'virtual nuclear weapon States'. The IAEA has been talking for a number of years about the need to develop a new international or multinational approach to the fuel cycle in order to avoid a situation with nine nuclear weapon States and another 20 or 30 States having the capacity to develop nuclear weapons in a very short period of time. There is a need to remember that there is a linkage between nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation. Furthermore safeguards activities, though fundamentally technical in nature, are carried out in a political charged environment. The security dimension - that is, nuclear terrorism - also presents a new challenge, because State systems of accounting for and control of nuclear material are no longer simply tools for safeguards, but

  15. Hybrid vigor studies for different yield contributing traits in wheat under normal and heat stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jehanzeb Farooq; Ihsan Khaliq; Muhammad Akbar; Muhammad Kashif; Shahzadi Mahpara

    2013-01-01

    Terminal heat stress is among one of the major constraints in wheat productivity in many countriesof the world including Pakistan. To combat this natural calamity,one hundred spring wheatgenotypes were assessed for heat stress tolerance under plastic sheet tunnel resulting in sevenparents with varied heat stress tolerance. The seven parents including tolerant, moderately tolerantand susceptible but high yielders were later hybridized in a 7×7 diallel fashion. Analysis of variancerevealed sign...

  16. An address geocoding solution for Chinese cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuehu; Ma, Haoming; Li, Qi

    2006-10-01

    We introduce the challenges of address geocoding for Chinese cities and present a potential solution along with a prototype system that deal with these challenges by combining and extending current geocoding solutions developed for United States and Japan. The proposed solution starts by separating city addresses into "standard" addresses which meet a predefined address model and non-standard ones. The standard addresses are stored in a structured relational database in their normalized forms, while a selected portion of the non-standard addresses are stored as aliases to the standard addresses. An in-memory address index is then constructed from the address database and serves as the basis for real-time address matching. Test results were obtained from two trials conducted in the city Beijing. On average 80% matching rate were achieved. Possible improvements to the current design are also discussed.

  17. Heat Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH HEAT STRESS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NEW Criteria ... hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme heat can result in occupational ...

  18. The negative effect of starvation and the positive effect of mild thermal stress on thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Wexler, Yonatan; MacMillan, Heath Andrew; Presman, Shira; Simson, Eddie; Rosenstein, Shai

    2016-04-01

    The thermal tolerance of a terrestrial insect species can vary as a result of differences in population origin, developmental stage, age, and sex, as well as via phenotypic plasticity induced in response to changes in the abiotic environment. Here, we studied the effects of both starvation and mild cold and heat shocks on the thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Starvation led to impaired cold tolerance, measured as chill coma recovery time, and this effect, which was stronger in males than females, persisted for longer than 2 days but less than 7 days. Heat tolerance, measured as heat knockdown time, was not affected by starvation. Our results highlight the difficulty faced by insects when encountering multiple stressors simultaneously and indicate physiological trade-offs. Both mild cold and heat shocks led to improved heat tolerance in both sexes. It could be that both mild shocks lead to the expression of heat shock proteins, enhancing heat tolerance in the short run. Cold tolerance was not affected by previous mild cold shock, suggesting that such a cold shock, as a single event, causes little stress and hence elicits only weak physiological reaction. However, previous mild heat stress led to improved cold tolerance but only in males. Our results point to both hardening and cross-tolerance between cold and heat shocks.

  19. The negative effect of starvation and the positive effect of mild thermal stress on thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Inon; Wexler, Yonatan; MacMillan, Heath Andrew; Presman, Shira; Simson, Eddie; Rosenstein, Shai

    2016-04-01

    The thermal tolerance of a terrestrial insect species can vary as a result of differences in population origin, developmental stage, age, and sex, as well as via phenotypic plasticity induced in response to changes in the abiotic environment. Here, we studied the effects of both starvation and mild cold and heat shocks on the thermal tolerance of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Starvation led to impaired cold tolerance, measured as chill coma recovery time, and this effect, which was stronger in males than females, persisted for longer than 2 days but less than 7 days. Heat tolerance, measured as heat knockdown time, was not affected by starvation. Our results highlight the difficulty faced by insects when encountering multiple stressors simultaneously and indicate physiological trade-offs. Both mild cold and heat shocks led to improved heat tolerance in both sexes. It could be that both mild shocks lead to the expression of heat shock proteins, enhancing heat tolerance in the short run. Cold tolerance was not affected by previous mild cold shock, suggesting that such a cold shock, as a single event, causes little stress and hence elicits only weak physiological reaction. However, previous mild heat stress led to improved cold tolerance but only in males. Our results point to both hardening and cross-tolerance between cold and heat shocks.

  20. SURVNET: A Fault Tolerant Local Area Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, J. L.; Metcalf, B. D.

    1987-01-01

    In response to the Department of Defense's need to enhance the survivability of command and control systems, The MITRE Corporation developed SURVNET, a survivable fiber optic local area network. The network supports data communications with a fault-tolerant, distributed architecture capable of continued communication despite media failure and node outages. SURVNET is configured as a modified fiber-optic broadcast bus. The physical and data link layers are implemented with a combination of IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) and an augmented version of IEEE 802.4 token passing bus protocols. Special nodes in the network, incorporating fault-tolerant software, are doubly connected to the fiber bus. Periodically, these nodes broadcast a self-addressed test message to determine if continuity exists on the network segment between the node's two physically separate connections. If a discontinuity is detected, the node utilizes its two connections to bridge between the isolated bus segments.

  1. Energy Address Delivery Technologies and Thermal Transformations in Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdo O.G.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, energetic and technical paradoxes in food nanotechnologies and traditional approaches to evaluation of energy recourses using are considered. Hypotheses of improvement of food production energy technologies are formulated. Classification of principles of address delivery of energy to food raw materials elements is given. We had substantiated the perspective objectives for heat-pumps installations and biphasic heat-transfer systems. The energy efficiency of new technolo-gies is compared on base of the number of energy impact. Principles of mass transfer modeling in ex-traction, dehydration and pasteurization combined processes are considered by food production exam-ple. The objectives of mathematical modeling of combined hydrodynamic and heat and mass transfer processes in modern energy technologies are set. The fuel energy conversion diagrams for drying, in-novative installations on the base of thermal siphons, heat pumps and electromagnetic energy genera-tors are represented. In this article, we illustrate how electromagnetic field, biphasic heat-transfer sys-tems and heat pumps can be effective tools for energy efficiency technologies.

  2. Ventilation with heat recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the experiences from the use of ventilation with heat recovery in several experimental single-family houses developed and built within the last four years to meet the new Danish energy requirements of 2005. Included are descriptions of the ventilation system components...... and the main functional demands as well as measurements of the thermal efficiency, electricity consumptions and building air tightness. The paper addresses the aspects of minimizing the heat loss from the duct system and the heat recovery unit (when placed in an unheated attic space) in order to obtain...... an acceptable efficiency. Furthermore, solutions to secure the air tightness of the building envelope are suggested. The paper does not address problems with condensate of water in the exchanger that may freeze in cold climate conditions. This complex of problem is dealt with in a separate paper....

  3. Optimization of Heat Transfer Systems and Use of the Environmental Exergy Potential - Application to Compact Heat Exchangers and Heat Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Canhoto, Paulo

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, the optimization of forced convection heat sinks and groundwater-source heat pumps is addressed with the purpose of improving energy efficiency. Parallel ducts heat sinks are considered under constrained (fixed) pressure drop, pumping power and heat transfer rate. The intersection-of-asymptotes method is employed together with numerical simulations and relationships for determining optimum hydraulic diameter are put forward. An optimal design emerges under fixed heat transfer ...

  4. Engineering microbes for tolerance to next-generation biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunlop Mary J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A major challenge when using microorganisms to produce bulk chemicals such as biofuels is that the production targets are often toxic to cells. Many biofuels are known to reduce cell viability through damage to the cell membrane and interference with essential physiological processes. Therefore, cells must trade off biofuel production and survival, reducing potential yields. Recently, there have been several efforts towards engineering strains for biofuel tolerance. Promising methods include engineering biofuel export systems, heat shock proteins, membrane modifications, more general stress responses, and approaches that integrate multiple tolerance strategies. In addition, in situ recovery methods and media supplements can help to ease the burden of end-product toxicity and may be used in combination with genetic approaches. Recent advances in systems and synthetic biology provide a framework for tolerance engineering. This review highlights recent targeted approaches towards improving microbial tolerance to next-generation biofuels with a particular emphasis on strategies that will improve production.

  5. Advances in heat transfer enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar; Sundén, Bengt; Wu, Zan

    2016-01-01

    This Brief addresses the phenomena of heat transfer enhancement. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to three other monographs including “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  6. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orendorff, Christopher J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenton, Kyle R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  7. Full Tolerant Archiving System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapic, C.; Molinaro, M.; Smareglia, R.

    2013-10-01

    The archiving system at the Italian center for Astronomical Archives (IA2) manages data from external sources like telescopes, observatories, or surveys and handles them in order to guarantee preservation, dissemination, and reliability, in most cases in a Virtual Observatory (VO) compliant manner. A metadata model dynamic constructor and a data archive manager are new concepts aimed at automatizing the management of different astronomical data sources in a fault tolerant environment. The goal is a full tolerant archiving system, nevertheless complicated by the presence of various and time changing data models, file formats (FITS, HDF5, ROOT, PDS, etc.) and metadata content, even inside the same project. To avoid this unpleasant scenario a novel approach is proposed in order to guarantee data ingestion, backward compatibility, and information preservation.

  8. Oral tolerance induction with altered forms of ovalbumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stransky B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available As a T cell-dependent phenomenon, oral tolerance is not expected to depend necessarily on native configuration of antigens. We investigated the induction of oral tolerance with modified ovalbumin (Ova. Oral administration of heat-denatured (HD-Ova and cyanogen bromide-degraded ovalbumin was less effective than native Ova in inducing oral tolerance in B6D2F1 mice. HD-Ova was effective in suppressing delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reactions but did not suppress specific antibody formation. Injection of Ova directly into the stomach, but not into the ileum or cecum, suppressed subsequent immunization to DTH reactions. Gavage with protease inhibitors (aprotinin or ovomucoid before gavage with Ova was ineffective in blocking tolerance induction. Treatment with hydroxyurea to destroy cycling cells 24 h before gavage with Ova blocked oral tolerance induction and also the possibility to passively transfer tolerance to naive recipients with the serum of mice gavaged with Ova 1 h before. The implications of these findings about oral tolerance induction are discussed

  9. Glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral glucose tolerance test - non-pregnant; OGTT - non-pregnant; Diabetes - glucose tolerance test ... The most common glucose tolerance test is the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Before the test begins, a sample of blood will be ...

  10. E6 Addressing Scheme and Network Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitry Anatolyevich Zaitsev; Sergey Ivanovich Bolshakov

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes new E6 addressing scheme for the creation of world-wide networks totally constructed on the base of Ethernet technology. Hierarchic E6 addresses with the length of 6 octets are used instead of both Ethernet MAC-addresses and IP-addresses that allows the routing within world-wide networks and cuts overhead of TCP, IP headers; the address space is extended in 16K times regarding IP addresses. Standard Ethernet LLC2 facilities are employed for guaranteed delivery of informati...

  11. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  12. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    J. Atsu Amegashie

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination of various forms. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race or gender is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is driven by either racial (gender) discrimination or generational discrimination (i.e., young versus old). I show that there exist parameters of the model where racial (gender) di...

  13. Socially-Tolerable Discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple model of conflict which is drive...

  14. Socially-tolerable discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Amegashie, J. Atsu

    2008-01-01

    History is replete with overt discrimination on the basis of race, gender, age, citizenship, ethnicity, marital status, academic performance, health status, volume of market transactions, religion, sexual orientation, etc. However, these forms of discrimination are not equally tolerable. For example, discrimination based on immutable or prohibitively unalterable characteristics such as race, gender, or ethnicity is much less acceptable. Why? I develop a simple rent-seeking model of conflict w...

  15. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Nezhadahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops’ production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants’ vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea, responsive to abscisic acid (Rab, rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress.

  16. A Multirelational Account of Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferretti, Maria Paola; Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    Toleration classically denotes a relation between two agents that is characterised by three components: objection, power, and acceptance overriding the objection. Against recent claims that classical toleration is not applicable in liberal democracies and that toleration must therefore either be...... as wholes, rather than as sets of isolated relations. We explain this by showing how certain cases of toleration are multi-dimensional and how the descriptive concept of toleration might be understood intersectionally. We exemplify this by drawing on case studies of mosque controversies in Germany...

  17. A Multirelational Account of Toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferretti, Maria Paola; Lægaard, Sune

    2013-01-01

    be understood purely attitudinally or purely politically, we argue that the components of classical toleration are crucial elements of contemporary cases of minority accommodation. The concept of toleration is applicable to, and is an important element of descriptions of such cases, provided that one views them...... and Denmark. Finally, we propose that intersectionality is not only relevant to the descriptive concept of toleration but also captures an important aspect of normative theories of toleration. We illustrate this by discussing ideals of respect-based toleration, which we also apply to the case studies....

  18. Biological effects of intracorporeal radioisotope heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A surface heat flux of 0.04 watts/cm2 from a retroperitoneal implant with healthy surface ingrowth of tissue prior to generation of heat is intolerable, producing gross tissue necrosis. Percutaneous cooling of hot implants during the post-operative healing period is a feasible technique, but our current plutonium heat source implant design has been proven of inadequate size and a new design is described. Rough calculations based on tissue conductivity and conductance values suggest that even with this larger device, added heat to proximate tissues may produce long-term changes even though the heat burden may be tolerable over relatively short periods

  19. Tolerance of Intolerance: Values and Virtues at Stake in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlenius, Kennert

    2008-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of the tolerance of intolerance in an educational context. It concerns a real case in a Swedish upper secondary school some years ago, when a student was suspended from school owing to his sympathies with Nazi ideas. One hundred and twenty student teachers' responses to this decision were analysed in respect of the…

  20. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Macmichael, DBA

    1988-01-01

    A fully revised and extended account of the design, manufacture and use of heat pumps in both industrial and domestic applications. Topics covered include a detailed description of the various heat pump cycles, the components of a heat pump system - drive, compressor, heat exchangers etc., and the more practical considerations to be taken into account in their selection.

  1. Impact of anthropogenic ocean acidification on thermal tolerance of the spider crab Hyas araneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Pörtner

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Future scenarios project combined developments of elevated CO2 concentrations and global warming and their impact on marine ecosystems. The synergistic impact of both factors was addressed by studying the effect of CO2 accumulation on thermal tolerance of the cold-eurythermal spider crab Hyas araneus. Animals were exposed to present day normocapnia (380 ppm CO2, CO2 levels expected towards 2100 (710 ppm and beyond (3000 ppm. Heart rate and haemolymph PO2 (PeO2 were measured during progressive short term cooling from 10 to 0°C and during warming from 10 to 25°C. An increase of PeO2 occurred during cooling with highest values reached at 0°C under all three CO2 levels. Heart rate increased during warming until a critical temperature (Tc was reached. The putative Tc under normocapnia was presumably >25°C, from where it fell to 23.5°C under 710 ppm and then 21.1°C under 3000 ppm. At the same time, thermal sensitivity, as seen in the Q10 values of heart rate, rose with increasing CO2 concentration in the warmth. Our results suggest a narrowing of the thermal window of Hyas araneus under moderate increases in CO2 levels by exacerbation of the heat or cold induced oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance.

  2. Impact of anthropogenic ocean acidification on thermal tolerance of the spider crab Hyas araneus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, K.; Sartoris, F. J.; Bock, C.; Pörtner, H. O.

    2009-10-01

    Future scenarios for the oceans project combined developments of CO2 accumulation and global warming and their impact on marine ecosystems. The synergistic impact of both factors was addressed by studying the effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on thermal tolerance of the cold-eurythermal spider crab Hyas araneus from the population around Helgoland. Here ambient temperatures characterize the southernmost distribution limit of this species. Animals were exposed to present day normocapnia (380 ppm CO2), CO2 levels expected towards 2100 (710 ppm) and beyond (3000 ppm). Heart rate and haemolymph PO2 (PeO2) were measured during progressive short term cooling from 10 to 0°C and during warming from 10 to 25°C. An increase of PeO2 occurred during cooling, the highest values being reached at 0°C under all three CO2 levels. Heart rate increased during warming until a critical temperature (Tc) was reached. The putative Tc under normocapnia was presumably >25°C, from where it fell to 23.5°C under 710 ppm and then 21.1°C under 3000 ppm. At the same time, thermal sensitivity, as seen in the Q10 values of heart rate, rose with increasing CO2 concentration in the warmth. Our results suggest a narrowing of the thermal window of Hyas araneus under moderate increases in CO2 levels by exacerbation of the heat or cold induced oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance.

  3. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de-allocate Transport Network Assigned (TN A) address using Link Management Protocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) for Automatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  4. SAVI: The IETF Standard in Address Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Bagnulo, Marcelo; García-Martínez, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe Source Address Validation Implementation (SAVI), a security architecture being standardized by the IETF to prevent source address spoofing within a link. SAVI devices, usually layer 2 switches, create bindings between the IP address of a node and a property of the host¿s network attachment, such as the port through which the packet is received. Bindings are created by monitoring the packet exchange associated with IP address configuration mechanisms such as DHCP, S...

  5. Address allocation to mobile ad hoc networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sakander, Zeeshan

    2006-01-01

    Addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, as a mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a unique IP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. Unlike infrastructure based networks, MANETs support autonomous and spontaneous networking and therefore, should be capable of self-organization and self-configuration. ...

  6. Temperature-stress resistance and tolerance along a latitudinal cline in North American Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Wos

    Full Text Available The study of latitudinal gradients can yield important insights into adaptation to temperature stress. Two strategies are available: resistance by limiting damage, or tolerance by reducing the fitness consequences of damage. Here we studied latitudinal variation in resistance and tolerance to frost and heat and tested the prediction of a trade-off between the two strategies and their costliness. We raised plants of replicate maternal seed families from eight populations of North American Arabidopsis lyrata collected along a latitudinal gradient in climate chambers and exposed them repeatedly to either frost or heat stress, while a set of control plants grew under standard conditions. When control plants reached maximum rosette size, leaf samples were exposed to frost and heat stress, and electrolyte leakage (PEL was measured and treated as an estimate of resistance. Difference in maximum rosette size between stressed and control plants was used as an estimate of tolerance. Northern populations were more frost resistant, and less heat resistant and less heat tolerant, but-unexpectedly-they were also less frost tolerant. Negative genetic correlations between resistance and tolerance to the same and different thermal stress were generally not significant, indicating only weak trade-offs. However, tolerance to frost was consistently accompanied by small size under control conditions, which may explain the non-adaptive latitudinal pattern for frost tolerance. Our results suggest that adaptation to frost and heat is not constrained by trade-offs between them. But the cost of frost tolerance in terms of plant size reduction may be important for the limits of species distributions and climate niches.

  7. 32 CFR 516.7 - Mailing addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Mailing addresses. 516.7 Section 516.7 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.7 Mailing addresses. Mailing addresses for organizations referenced...

  8. District heating versus local heating - Social supportability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    District heating, DH, is an energy source which can provide a cost-effective, environmentally friendly source of heat and power for cities, but only in the case of well running systems, with reasonable technological losses. The benefits of DH system are well known: environmental friendly, energy security, economic and social advantages. DH already covers 60% of heating and hot water needs in transition economies. Today, 70 % of Russian, Latvian and Belarus homes use DH, and heating accounts for one-third of total Russian energy consumption. Yet a large number of DH systems in the region face serious financial, marketing or technical problems because of the policy framework. How can DH issues be best addressed in national and local policy? What can governments do to create the right conditions for the sustainable development of DH while improving service quality? What policies can help capture the economic, environmental and energy security benefits of co-generation and DH? To address these questions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) hosted in 2002 and 2004 conference focusing on the crucial importance of well-designed DH policies, for exchanging information on policy approaches. The conclusions of the conference have shown that 'DH systems can do much to save energy and boost energy security, but stronger policy measures are needed to encourage wise management and investment. With a stronger policy framework, DH systems in formerly socialist countries could save the equivalent of 80 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year through supply side efficiency improvements. This is greater than total annual natural gas consumption in Italy'. More efficient systems will also decrease costs, reducing household bills and making DH competitive on long-term. This paper presents the issues: -Theoretical benefits of the district heating and cooling systems; - Municipal heating in Romania; - Technical and economic problems of DH systems and social supportability; - How

  9. Improving IPV6 Addressing Types and Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaldoun Batiha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available IPv6 protocol is the next candidate protocol after IPv4 protocolthatused foralong time. For this protocoltheaddressing types and address sizeare discussedto list some modifications that could improve itsperformancethrough the internet. Atthe same time, we prove that multicast addressing type is the mostimportant addressing type since it can mimic any other addressing type. Finally,a short studyis developedin order to reduce the current IPv6 address size to haveless overhead in the basic header packet, thisreductionomitsabout 40% of the over all basic IPv6 basic packet overhead.

  10. Quality assurances and tolerances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirschling, G.

    1991-12-31

    This book presents a comprehensive statistical solution to tolerance problems to be used as an alternative to the conventional arithmetic approach that is used for tolerancing. The book is a translation from an original text in German. The classificatio nof the book would be as a reference text for engineers who are working in the production and quality control fields, particularly in process control. Academics who are teaching such subjects as statistical process control of geometric dimensioning and tolerancing will also find the book useful.

  11. State, religion and toleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    to underline not only the broadmindedness and liberty of individuals or of groups, but also the relevant distinctions and arguments in political philosophy, epistemology, philosophy of religion and philosophical anthropology and their connection with educational issues. Through a discussion of these relations......Contribution to Religion and State - From separation to cooperation? Legal-philosophical reflections for a de-secularized world. (IVR Cracow Special Workshop). Eds. Bart. C. Labuschagne & Ari M. Solon. Abstract: Toleration is indeed a complex phenomenon. A discussion of the concept will have...

  12. Heat pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Brodowicz, Kazimierz; Wyszynski, M L; Wyszynski

    2013-01-01

    Heat pumps and related technology are in widespread use in industrial processes and installations. This book presents a unified, comprehensive and systematic treatment of the design and operation of both compression and sorption heat pumps. Heat pump thermodynamics, the choice of working fluid and the characteristics of low temperature heat sources and their application to heat pumps are covered in detail.Economic aspects are discussed and the extensive use of the exergy concept in evaluating performance of heat pumps is a unique feature of the book. The thermodynamic and chemical properties o

  13. Ethnopoly promotes tolerance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On Friday 23 April, 225 primary school children from the eight schools in Meyrin-Cointrin and their accompanying adults took part in a big game of Ethnopoly. Private individuals, associations, administrations, shopkeepers and CERN all opened their doors to them to talk about their countries, their customs and what they are doing to promote tolerance and integration.   The CERN stand set up at ForumMeyrin for the Ethnopoly game. Scurrying from one place to another, the 10 and 11 year olds were made aware of the rich cultural diversity of their commune, which is home to 130 different nationalities. Physicists and engineers from CERN took up residence in the Forum Meyrin for the day in order to talk to the children about the advantages of international collaboration, a subject dear to the Organization's heart. They welcomed around fifty children in the course of the day, conveying to them a message of tolerance: despite their differences, the 10,000 scientists and other members of the CERN...

  14. A heat transfer textbook

    CERN Document Server

    Lienhard, John H

    2011-01-01

    This introduction to heat transfer offers advanced undergraduate and graduate engineering students a solid foundation in the subjects of conduction, convection, radiation, and phase-change, in addition to the related topic of mass transfer. A staple of engineering courses around the world for more than three decades, it has been revised and updated regularly by the authors, a pair of recognized experts in the field. The text addresses the implications, limitations, and meanings of many aspects of heat transfer, connecting the subject to its real-world applications and developing students' ins

  15. Variation tolerant SoC design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhikkottu, Vivek J.

    The scaling of integrated circuits into the nanometer regime has led to variations emerging as a primary concern for designers of integrated circuits. Variations are an inevitable consequence of the semiconductor manufacturing process, and also arise due to the side-effects of operation of integrated circuits (voltage, temperature, and aging). Conventional design approaches, which are based on design corners or worst-case scenarios, leave designers with an undesirable choice between the considerable overheads associated with over-design and significantly reduced manufacturing yield. Techniques for variation-tolerant design at the logic, circuit and layout levels of the design process have been developed and are in commercial use. However, with the incessant increase in variations due to technology scaling and design trends such as near-threshold computing, these techniques are no longer sufficient to contain the effects of variations, and there is a need to address variations at all stages of design. This thesis addresses the problem of variation-tolerant design at the earliest stages of the design process, where the system-level design decisions that are made can have a very significant impact. There are two key aspects to making system-level design variation-aware. First, analysis techniques must be developed to project the impact of variations on system-level metrics such as application performance and energy. Second, variation-tolerant design techniques need to be developed to absorb the residual impact of variations (that cannot be contained through lower-level techniques). In this thesis, we address both these facets by developing robust and scalable variation-aware analysis and variation mitigation techniques at the system level. The first contribution of this thesis is a variation-aware system-level performance analysis framework. We address the key challenge of translating the per-component clock frequency distributions into a system-level application

  16. Contrast medium tolerance in case of multiple injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschakert, H.

    1986-09-01

    In a randomised, intra-individual double-blind comparison the contrast medium tolerance of ionic and nonionic media used for CT scanning, applied by two injections, has been tested. As expected, the direct comparison reveals better tolerance of nonionic media, both upon first and second injection. Further, a significantly higher rate of side effects is observed after the second contrast medium bolus injection, both for ionic and nonionic media. The second injection induces stronger heat effects and a higher rate of anaphylactoid reactions. The higher rate of side effects after second bolus injections is mainly attributed to the structure-chemical properties of the contrast media.

  17. Temperature tolerance and stress proteins as mechanisms of invasive species success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn A Zerebecki

    Full Text Available Invasive species are predicted to be more successful than natives as temperatures increase with climate change. However, few studies have examined the physiological mechanisms that theoretically underlie this differential success. Because correlative evidence suggests that invasiveness is related to the width of a species' latitudinal range, it has been assumed--but largely untested--that range width predicts breadth of habitat temperatures and physiological thermotolerances. In this study, we use empirical data from a marine community as a case study to address the hypotheses that (1 geographic temperature range attributes are related to temperature tolerance, leading to greater eurythermality in invasive species, and (2 stress protein expression is a subcellular mechanism that could contribute to differences in thermotolerance. We examined three native and six invasive species common in the subtidal epibenthic communities of California, USA. We assessed thermotolerance by exposing individuals to temperatures between 14°C and 31°C and determining the temperature lethal to 50% of individuals (LT(50 after a 24 hour exposure. We found a strong positive relationship between the LT(50 and both maximum habitat temperatures and the breadth of temperatures experience across the species' ranges. In addition, of the species in our study, invasives tended to inhabit broader habitat temperature ranges and higher maximum temperatures. Stress protein expression may contribute to these differences: the more thermotolerant, invasive species Diplosoma listerianum expressed higher levels of a 70-kDa heat-shock protein than the less thermotolerant, native Distaplia occidentalis for which levels declined sharply above the LT(50. Our data highlight differences between native and invasive species with respect to organismal and cellular temperature tolerances. Future studies should address, across a broader phylogenetic and ecosystem scope, whether this

  18. HEAT RECUPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat recovery is an effective method of shortening specific energy consumption. new constructions of recuperators for heating and cupola furnaces have been designed and successfully introduced. two-stage recuperator with computer control providing blast heating up to 600 °C and reducing fuel consumption by 30% is of special interest.

  19. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution.

  20. Novel Duplicate Address Detection with Hash Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, GuangJia; Ji, ZhenZhou

    2016-01-01

    Duplicate address detection (DAD) is an important component of the address resolution protocol (ARP) and the neighbor discovery protocol (NDP). DAD determines whether an IP address is in conflict with other nodes. In traditional DAD, the target address to be detected is broadcast through the network, which provides convenience for malicious nodes to attack. A malicious node can send a spoofing reply to prevent the address configuration of a normal node, and thus, a denial-of-service attack is launched. This study proposes a hash method to hide the target address in DAD, which prevents an attack node from launching destination attacks. If the address of a normal node is identical to the detection address, then its hash value should be the same as the "Hash_64" field in the neighboring solicitation message. Consequently, DAD can be successfully completed. This process is called DAD-h. Simulation results indicate that address configuration using DAD-h has a considerably higher success rate when under attack compared with traditional DAD. Comparative analysis shows that DAD-h does not require third-party devices and considerable computing resources; it also provides a lightweight security resolution. PMID:26991901

  1. Relationships of self-identified cold tolerance and cold-induced vasodilatation in the finger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joonhee; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate relationships of self-identified cold tolerance and cold-induced vasodilatation (CIVD) in the finger. Nine males and 34 females participated in the following 2 tests: a CIVD test and a self-reported survey. The CIVD test was conducted 30-min cold-water immersion (3.8 ± 0.3 °C) of the middle finger at an air temperature of 27.9 ± 0.1 °C. The self-reported questionnaire consisted of 28 questions about whole and local body cold and heat tolerances. By a cluster analysis on the survey results, the participants were divided into two groups: high self-identified cold tolerance (HSCT, n = 25) and low self-identified cold tolerance (LSCT, n = 18). LSCT had lower self-identified cold tolerance ( P predict physiological cold tolerance.

  2. Recent Advances in Durability and Damage Tolerance Methodology at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, J. B.; Glaessgen, E. H.; Raju, I. S.; Harris, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    Durability and damage tolerance (D&DT) issues are critical to the development of lighter, safer and more efficient aerospace vehicles. Durability is largely an economic life-cycle design consideration whereas damage tolerance directly addresses the structural airworthiness (safety) of the vehicle. Both D&DT methodologies must address the deleterious effects of changes in material properties and the initiation and growth of damage that may occur during the vehicle s service lifetime. The result of unanticipated D&DT response is often manifested in the form of catastrophic and potentially fatal accidents. As such, durability and damage tolerance requirements must be rigorously addressed for commercial transport aircraft and NASA spacecraft systems. This paper presents an overview of the recent and planned future research in durability and damage tolerance analytical and experimental methods for both metallic and composite aerospace structures at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC).

  3. Hidden benefits of electric vehicles for addressing climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Canbing; Cao, Yijia; Zhang, Mi; Wang, Jianhui; Liu, Jianguo; Shi, Haiqing; Geng, Yinghui

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasingly hot debate on whether the replacement of conventional vehicles (CVs) by electric vehicles (EVs) should be delayed or accelerated since EVs require higher cost and cause more pollution than CVs in the manufacturing process. Here we reveal two hidden benefits of EVs for addressing climate change to support the imperative acceleration of replacing CVs with EVs. As EVs emit much less heat than CVs within the same mileage, the replacement can mitigate urban heat island effect (UHIE) to reduce the energy consumption of air conditioners, benefitting local and global climates. To demonstrate these effects brought by the replacement of CVs by EVs, we take Beijing, China, as an example. EVs emit only 19.8% of the total heat emitted by CVs per mile. The replacement of CVs by EVs in 2012 could have mitigated the summer heat island intensity (HII) by about 0.94°C, reduced the amount of electricity consumed daily by air conditioners in buildings by 14.44 million kilowatt-hours (kWh), and reduced daily CO2 emissions by 10,686 tonnes. PMID:25790439

  4. A novel electron gun with an independently addressable cathode array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pena, Gary Edward; Schneider, Larry X.

    2006-08-01

    The design of a novel electron gun with an array of independently addressable cathode elements is presented. Issues relating to operation in a 6.5 Tesla axial magnetic field are discussed. Simulations with the TriComp electromagnetic field code that were used to determine the space charge limited tube characteristic and to model focusing of the electron beam in the magnetic field are reviewed. Foil heating and stress calculations are discussed. The results of CYLTRAN simulations yielding the energy spectrum of the electron beam and the current transmitted through the foil window are presented.

  5. Salt Tolerance in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsui-Hung Phang; Guihua Shao; Hon-Ming Lam

    2008-01-01

    Soybean is an Important cash crop and its productivity is significantly hampered by salt stress. High salt Imposes negative impacts on growth, nodulation, agronomy traits, seed quality and quantity, and thus reduces the yield of soybean. To cope with salt stress, soybean has developed several tolerance mechanisms, including: (I) maintenance of ion homeostasis; (ii) adjustment in response to osmotic stress; (iii) restoration of osmotic balance; and (iv) other metabolic and structural adaptations. The regulatory network for abiotic stress responses in higher plants has been studied extensively in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Some homologous components involved in salt stress responses have been identified in soybean. In this review, we tried to integrate the relevant works on soybean and proposes a working model to descdbe Its salt stress responses at the molecular level.

  6. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization....

  7. Heat exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, L.B.; Farma, A.J.

    1987-01-06

    This invention concerns a heat exchanger as used in a space heater, of the type in which hot exhaust gases transfer heat to water or the like flowing through a helical heat exchange coil. A significant improvement to the efficiency of the heat exchange occurring between the air and water is achieved by using a conduit for the water having external helical fluting such that the hot gases circulate along two paths, rather than only one. A preferred embodiment of such a heat exchanger includes a porous combustion element for producing radiant heat from a combustible gas, surrounded by a helical coil for effectively transferring the heat in the exhaust gas, flowing radially from the combustion element, to the water flowing through the coil. 4 figs.

  8. Mechanisms of orthostatic intolerance during heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlader, Zachary J; Wilson, Thad E; Crandall, Craig G

    2016-04-01

    Heat stress profoundly and unanimously reduces orthostatic tolerance. This review aims to provide an overview of the numerous and multifactorial mechanisms by which this occurs in humans. Potential causal factors include changes in arterial and venous vascular resistance and blood distribution, and the modulation of cardiac output, all of which contribute to the inability to maintain cerebral perfusion during heat and orthostatic stress. A number of countermeasures have been established to improve orthostatic tolerance during heat stress, which alleviate heat stress induced central hypovolemia (e.g., volume expansion) and/or increase peripheral vascular resistance (e.g., skin cooling). Unfortunately, these countermeasures can often be cumbersome to use with populations prone to syncopal episodes. Identifying the mechanisms of inter-individual differences in orthostatic intolerance during heat stress has proven elusive, but could provide greater insights into the development of novel and personalized countermeasures for maintaining or improving orthostatic tolerance during heat stress. This development will be especially impactful in occuational settings and clinical situations that present with orthostatic intolerance and/or central hypovolemia. Such investigations should be considered of vital importance given the impending increased incidence of heat events, and associated cardiovascular challenges that are predicted to occur with the ensuing changes in climate. PMID:26723547

  9. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. P. Sumathi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6 is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communication. In this paper aims to describe experimental about IPv6 address assignment for global unicast address and evaluation of a host using various parameters such as Default router IP address, Throughput, Average End to End Delay and Domain Name Server (DNS IP address. The study was carried out using an open source Network Simulator (NS-3 to study and analyses the behavior of IPv6 address assignment.

  10. 7 CFR 1730.3 - RUS addresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RUS addresses. 1730.3 Section 1730.3 Agriculture... ELECTRIC SYSTEM OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE General § 1730.3 RUS addresses. (a) Persons wishing to obtain...) Documents required to be submitted to RUS under this part are to be sent to the office of the...

  11. Public Address Systems. Specifications - Installation - Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Fred M.

    Provisions for public address in new construction of campus buildings (specifications, installations, and operation of public address systems), are discussed in non-technical terms. Consideration is given to microphones, amplifiers, loudspeakers and the placement and operation of various different combinations. (FS)

  12. A Novel Approach for TNA Address Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Wang; Yaohui Jin; Weishen Hu; Shenli Zhu

    2003-01-01

    We present a new scheme to allocate/de- allocate Transport Network Assigned (TNA) address using Link ManagementProtocol (LMP) and to register/resolution these addresses using Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) forAutomatically Switched Optical Network (ASON).

  13. Approaches for Resolving Dynamic IP Addressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Schubert; Hui, Siu Cheung; Yip, See Wai; He, Yulan

    1997-01-01

    A problem with dynamic Internet protocol (IP) addressing arises when the Internet connection is through an Internet provider since the IP address is allocated only at connection time. This article examines a number of online and offline methods for resolving the problem. Suggests dynamic domain name system (DNS) and directory service look-up are…

  14. Image compression using address-vector quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrabadi, Nasser M.; Feng, Yushu

    1990-12-01

    A novel vector quantization scheme, the address-vector quantizer (A-VQ), is proposed which exploits the interblock correlation by encoding a group of blocks together using an address-codebook (AC). The AC is a set of address-codevectors (ACVs), each representing a combination of addresses or indices. Each element of the ACV is an address of an entry in the LBG-codebook, representing a vector-quantized block. The AC consists of an active (addressable) region and an inactive (nonaddressable) region. During encoding the ACVs in the AC are reordered adaptively to bring the most probable ACVs into the active region. When encoding an ACV, the active region is checked, and if such an address combination exists, its index is transmitted to the receiver. Otherwise, the address of each block is transmitted individually. The SNR of the images encoded by the A-VQ method is the same as that of a memoryless vector quantizer, but the bit rate is by a factor of approximately two.

  15. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  16. Legal Quality, Inequality, and Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Previous findings suggest that income inequality leads to lower legal quality. This paper argues that voters' tolerance of inequality exerts an additional influence. Empirical findings suggest that inequality leads to lower legal quality due to its effect on trust while the tolerance of inequality...

  17. An Experimental of IPv6 Address Assignment for Global Unicast Address Using NS-3

    OpenAIRE

    DR.P.SUMATHI; Dr. Saroj Patel; Prabhakaran,, Dorairaj

    2015-01-01

    Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) is the next generation protocol and in the near future, routers are going to become more faster and new technologies are going to reduce the Internet delay. IPv6 global unicast address is similar to IPv4 public address and globally routable. This Global unicast address assignment process provides new function called Stateless Address Auto Configuration (SLAAC) is a significant feature for host itself generating and configuring own addresses to enable communi...

  18. Data structure, method and system for address lookup

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanakis, G.; Sourdis, I.; Nedeltchev, G.G.; De Smet, R.

    2010-01-01

    Method and computer system for constructing a decision tree for use in address lookup of a requested address in an address space. The address space is arranged as a set of basic address ranges. Each basic address range is defined by a lower and an upper bound address, and an address in the address space is represented by a predetermined number of bits.

  19. Thermal radiation heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, John R; Mengüç, M Pinar

    2011-01-01

    Providing a comprehensive overview of the radiative behavior and properties of materials, the fifth edition of this classic textbook describes the physics of radiative heat transfer, development of relevant analysis methods, and associated mathematical and numerical techniques. Retaining the salient features and fundamental coverage that have made it popular, Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer, Fifth Edition has been carefully streamlined to omit superfluous material, yet enhanced to update information with extensive references. Includes four new chapters on Inverse Methods, Electromagnetic Theory, Scattering and Absorption by Particles, and Near-Field Radiative Transfer Keeping pace with significant developments, this book begins by addressing the radiative properties of blackbody and opaque materials, and how they are predicted using electromagnetic theory and obtained through measurements. It discusses radiative exchange in enclosures without any radiating medium between the surfaces-and where heat conduction...

  20. Sound frequencies induce drought tolerance in rice plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the sound's effect on plant and its contribution in drought tolerance, plants were subjected to various sound frequencies for an hour. After 24 h sound treatment, plants were exposed to drought for next five days. During the experiment it was observed that sound initiated physiological changes showing tolerance in plant. Sound frequency with = 0.8 kHz enhanced relative water content, stomatal conductance and quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm ratio) in drought stress environment. Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) production in sound treated plant was declined compared to control. ThermaCAM (Infra-red camera) a software which was used to analyze the plant images temperature showed that sound treated plant and leaf had less temperature (heat) compared to control. The physiological mechanism of sound frequencies induce tolerance in rice plants are discussed. (author)

  1. Blood Doping Improves Endurance and Heat Tolerance, Studies Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Marty

    1987-01-01

    Recent research on blood doping is reviewed, focusing on how the practice may help to determine what factors limit human performance, particularly regarding its potential benefit as an aid in thermal regulation. (CB)

  2. General tolerances -- Part 2: Geometrical tolerances for features without individual tolerance indications

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1989-01-01

    This part is intended to simplify drawing indications and specifies general tolerances in three tolerance classes. It mainly applies to features which are produced by removal of material. It contains tour tables and an informative annex A with regard to concepts behind general tolerancing of dimensions, as well as an informative annex B with further information.

  3. Address forms in Chinese audit opinions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ziye; Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Although forms of address are widely used in textual and other types of disclosure,empirical evidence of their effects is rare.China provides a unique setting in which to test the economic consequences of the forms of address used in audit reports.From 2003 to 2011,about 60%of auditors surveyed addressed their clients by their real names in audit opinions,while the others used honorifics.Based on a sample of Chinese audit opinions,I report the following findings.First,the announcement of an audit opinion that uses the client’s real name elicits a greater market response than the announcement of an opinion featuring an honorific form of address.Second,the effects of real-name forms of address are stronger in firms with weak board governance.Third,the association between audit fees and audit risk factors,such as loss-making,is stronger in firms that are addressed by their real names in audit reports.I conclude from these findings that the forms of address used in audit opinions may reveal private information on audit quality.The results of this study are consistent with the power-solidarity effect described by sociolinguists.

  4. A CAD MODEL FOR FUZZY CONCURRENT TOLERANCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Research situation of concurrent tolerance design has been analyzed. As fuzzy factors are objective and unavoidable in concurrent tolerance design, fuzzy optimization theory is applied in the design. A new mathematical model of concurrent tolerance design is constructed.

  5. Autonomous Congestion Control in Delay-Tolerant Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott; Jennings, Esther; Schoolcraft, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    This presentation highlights communication congestion control in delay-tolerant networks (DTNs). Large-scale future space exploration will offer complex communication challenges that may be best addressed by establishing a network infrastructure. However, current internet techniques for congestion control are not well suited for operation of a network over interplanetary distances. An alternative, delay-tolerant technique for congestion control in a delay-tolerant network is presented. A simple DTN was constructed and an experimental congestion control mechanism was applied. The mechanism appeared to be effective and each router was able to make its bundle acceptance decisions autonomously. Future research will examine more complex topologies and alternative bundle acceptance rules that might enhance performance.

  6. Local address and emergency contact details

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The HR Department would like to remind members of the personnel that they are responsible for ensuring that their personal data concerning local address and preferred emergency contact details remains valid and up-to-date.   Both are easily accessible via the links below: Local address: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/LocalAddressChange   Emergency contacts: https://edh.cern.ch/Document/Personnel/EC   Please take a few minutes to check your details and modify if necessary. Thank you in advance. HR Department Head Office

  7. Analytical study of the heat loss attenuation by clothing on thermal manikins under radiative heat loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, E.A. den; Havenith, G.

    2010-01-01

    For wearers of protective clothing in radiation environments there are no quantitative guidelines available for the effect of a radiative heat load on heat exchange. Under the European Union funded project ThermProtect an analytical effort was defined to address the issue of radiative heat load whil

  8. Heat Recovery Ventilation for Housing: Air-to-Air Heat Exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Robert J.; Miller, Barbara

    The air-to-air heat exchanger (a fan powered ventilation device that recovers heat from stale outgoing air) is explained in this six-part publication. Topic areas addressed are: (1) the nature of air-to-air heat exchangers and how they work; (2) choosing and sizing the system; (3) installation, control, and maintenance of the system; (4) heat…

  9. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ole Sigmund

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded)or too thick (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show that the method provides manufacturing tolerant designs with little decrease in performance. As a positive side effect the robust design formulation also eliminates the longstanding problem of one-node connected hinges in compliant mechanism design using topology optimization.

  10. Commitment and tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasma, D C

    1988-11-01

    The article attempts to approach the abortion issue in a rather unconventional manner. Instead of picking a side and then trying to support it, the author demonstrates first how most people in the US are fence sitters on the issue of abortion. They support neither side with very much intensity, although most of them are currently facing the pro-abortion side. From there the author argues that the activists on both side are so extreme in their views that they both lose their legitimacy. The anti-abortionists do not seem interested in improving the quality of life for anyone other than unborn fetuses and as such they do not really seem to be "pro-life". On the other hand, pro-abortionists focus too much on the autonomy of women and seem to ignore the fact that an abortion is the ending of a potential human life. They do not put the value of the fetus into their "pro-choice" views, it is only a choice for a woman to make about her body, not a choice of one person's right over the rights of a potential person. It is this fundamental extremism that the author cites as the source of the furor over abortion. If both sides were more tolerant of each and chose sides. It is this fundamental extremism that must be replaced with persuasion if either side is to truly achieve a victory. The author's personal belief is that abortion on demand must be ended in this country.

  11. Addressing Transition Issues in Languages Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigler-Peters, Susi; Moran, Wendy; Piccioli, Maria Teresa; Chesterton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on what has been learned from the implementation and evaluation of the Australian Language and Continuity Initiative (LCI) in relation to addressing transition issues in language education. (Author/VWL)

  12. Radiation and occupational health: opening address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The part of address discusses the following issue: benefits of radiological protection in Malaysia, traceability and accountability as assurance of the validity of radiation measurement, Laboratory Accreditation Scheme, Atomic Energy Licensing Act

  13. Address Points, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent of these...

  14. An Efficient Reconfigurable Content Addressable Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswathy Sekharan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an efficient reconfigurable Content Addressable memory (CAMs which is a hardware search engine that are much faster than other algorithmic approaches for search intensive applications. Content Addressable Memories are composed of conventional semiconductor memory (usually SRAM with added comparison circuitry that enables a search operation to complete in a single clock cycle. To understand more about Content Addressable Memory, it helps to contrast it with RAM. A RAM is an integrated circuit that stores data temporarily. In CAM, the user supplies the data and gets back the address.In this paper we introduce a temporary memory called Cache. The cache-CAM (C-CAM saves 80% power over a conventional CAM. Compared with existing software search engines proposed hardware search engine can do multiple searches at a time with more flexibility.

  15. Addressing Your Child's Weight at the Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Beverage Toolkit Addressing your Child's Weight at the Doctor Updated:Aug 4,2014 The discussion of weight ... tips on how to make talking with your doctor about weight and childhood obesity less daunting: Come ...

  16. Census Bureau Planned Acquisition: Address Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The Census Bureau updates and maintains address data to support the correct allocation of population and housing for censuses and surveys. Boundaries, streets,...

  17. Measuring the Density Matrix by Local Addressing

    CERN Document Server

    Kis, Z

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a procedure to measure the density matrix of a material system. The density matrix is addressed locally in this scheme by applying a sequence of delayed light pulses. The procedure is based on the stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) technique. It is shown that a series of population measurements on the target state of the population transfer process yields unambiguous information about the populations and coherences of the addressed states, which therefore can be determined.

  18. Mechanical tolerance stackup and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Bryan R

    2011-01-01

    Use Tolerance Analysis Techniques to Avoid Design, Quality, and Manufacturing Problems Before They Happen Often overlooked and misunderstood, tolerance analysis is a critical part of improving products and their design processes. Because all manufactured products are subject to variation, it is crucial that designers predict and understand how these changes can affect form, fit, and function of parts and assemblies--and then communicate their findings effectively. Written by one of the developers of ASME Y14.5 and other geometric dimension and tolerancing (GD&T) standards, Mechanical Tolerance

  19. An Algebra of Fault Tolerance

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Shrisha

    2009-01-01

    Every system of any significant size is created by composition from smaller sub-systems or components. It is thus fruitful to analyze the fault-tolerance of a system as a function of its composition. In this paper, two basic types of system composition are described, and an algebra to describe fault tolerance of composed systems is derived. The set of systems forms monoids under the two composition operators, and a semiring when both are concerned. A partial ordering relation between systems is used to compare their fault-tolerance behaviors.

  20. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  1. Address Points, address, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Address Points dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'address'....

  2. Parcels and Land Ownership, rural addressing does collect address points, Published in unknown, Gibson County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Parcels and Land Ownership dataset as of unknown. It is described as 'rural addressing does collect address points'. The extent of these data is generally Gila...

  3. Physiological and proteome studies of responses to heat stress during grain filling in contrasting wheat cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiao; Dinler, Burcu Seckin; Vignjevic, Marija;

    2015-01-01

    Experiments to explore physiological and biochemical differences of the effects of heat stress in ten wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars have been performed. Based on the response of photosynthesis rates, cell membrane lipid peroxide concentrations and grain yield to heat, six cultivars were...... clustered as heat-tolerant (cv. '579', cv. '810', cv. '1110', cv. Terice, cv. Taifun and cv. Vinjett) and four as heat-sensitive (cv. '490', cv. '633', cv. '1039' and cv. '1159'). Higher rates of photosynthetic carbon- and light-use were accompanied by lower damage to cell membranes in leaves of tolerant...... compared to sensitive cultivars under heat stress. The tolerant cv. '810' and the sensitive cv. '1039' were selected for further proteome analysis of leaves. Proteins related to photosynthesis, glycolysis, stress defence, heat shock and ATP production were differently expressed in leaves of the tolerant...

  4. 46 CFR 67.113 - Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Managing owner designation; address; requirement to... Required for Vessel Documentation § 67.113 Managing owner designation; address; requirement to report change of address. The owner of each vessel must designate a managing owner on the Application...

  5. Sensitive Data Protection Based on Intrusion Tolerance in Cloud Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingyu Wang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Service integration and supply on-demand coming from cloud computing can significantly improve the utilization of computing resources and reduce power consumption of per service, and effectively avoid the error of computing resources. However, cloud computing is still facing the problem of intrusion tolerance of the cloud computing platform and sensitive data of new enterprise data center. In order to address the problem of intrusion tolerance of cloud computing platform and sensitive data in new enterprise data center, this paper constructs a virtualization intrusion tolerance system based on cloud computing by researching on the existing virtualization technology, and then presents a method of intrusion tolerance to protect sensitive data in cloud data center based on virtual adversary structure by utilizing secret sharing. This system adopts the method of hybrid fault model, active and passive replicas, state update and transfer, proactive recovery and diversity, and initially implements to tolerate F faulty replicas in N=2F+1 replicas and ensure that only F+1 active replicas to execute during the intrusion-free stage. The remaining replicas are all put into passive mode, which significantly reduces the resource consuming in cloud platform. At last we prove the reconstruction and confidentiality property of sensitive data by utilizing secret sharing.

  6. Calcium dependence of Eugenol tolerance and toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Stephen K.; Martin McAinsh; Hanna Cantopher; Sean Sandison

    2014-01-01

    Eugenol is a plant-derived phenolic compound which has recognised therapeutical potential as an antifungal agent. However little is known of either its fungicidal activity or the mechanisms employed by fungi to tolerate eugenol toxicity. A better exploitation of eugenol as a therapeutic agent will therefore depend on addressing this knowledge gap. Eugenol initiates increases in cytosolic Ca2+ in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which is partly dependent on the plasma membrane calcium channel, Cch1p. ...

  7. Performance-Oriented Fault Tolerance in Computing Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Borodin, D

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation we address the overhead reduction of fault tolerance (FT) techniques. Due to technology trends such as decreasing feature sizes and lowering voltage levels, FT is becoming increasingly important in modern computing systems. FT techniques are based on some form of redundancy. It can be space redundancy (additional hardware), time redundancy (multiple executions), and/or information redundancy (additional verification information). This redundancy significantly increases th...

  8. Accident tolerant fuel analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis [Idaho National Laboratory; Chichester, Heather [Idaho National Laboratory; Johns, Jesse [Texas A& M University; Teague, Melissa [Idaho National Laboratory; Tonks, Michael Idaho National Laboratory; Youngblood, Robert [Idaho National Laboratory

    2014-09-01

    Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Consequently, the ability to better characterize and quantify safety margin holds the key to improved decision making about light water reactor design, operation, and plant life extension. A systematic approach to characterization of safety margins and the subsequent margins management options represents a vital input to the licensee and regulatory analysis and decision making that will be involved. The purpose of the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway research and development (R&D) is to support plant decisions for risk-informed margins management by improving economics and reliability, and sustaining safety, of current NPPs. Goals of the RISMC Pathway are twofold: (1) Develop and demonstrate a risk-assessment method coupled to safety margin quantification that can be used by NPP decision makers as part of their margin recovery strategies. (2) Create an advanced ''RISMC toolkit'' that enables more accurate representation of NPP safety margin. In order to carry out the R&D needed for the Pathway, the Idaho National Laboratory is performing a series of case studies that will explore methods- and tools-development issues, in addition to being of current interest in their own right. One such study is a comparative analysis of safety margins of plants using different fuel cladding types: specifically, a comparison between current-technology Zircaloy cladding and a notional ''accident-tolerant'' (e.g., SiC-based) cladding. The present report begins the process of applying capabilities that are still under development to the problem of assessing new fuel designs. The approach and lessons learned from this case study will be included in future Technical Basis Guides produced by the RISMC Pathway. These guides will be the mechanism for developing the specifications for RISMC tools and for defining how plant

  9. Biofilm Induced Tolerance Towards Antimicrobial Peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Anders; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Zampaloni, Claudia;

    2008-01-01

    Increased tolerance to antimicrobial agents is thought to be an important feature of microbes growing in biofilms. We address the question of how biofilm organization affects antibiotic susceptibility. We established Escherichia coli biofilms with differential structural organization due...... to the presence of IncF plasmids expressing altered forms of the transfer pili in two different biofilm model systems. The mature biofilms were subsequently treated with two antibiotics with different molecular targets, the peptide antibiotic colistin and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. The dynamics...... of microbial killing were monitored by viable count determination, and confocal laser microscopy. Strains forming structurally organized biofilms show an increased bacterial survival when challenged with colistin, compared to strains forming unstructured biofilms. The increased survival is due to genetically...

  10. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2016-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  11. Vegetable oil sources in diets for freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, Cichlidae): growth and thermal tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Ikeda; Zuanon, J.A.S.; A.L. Salaro; M.B.D. Freitas; M.D. Pontes; Souza, L S; M.V. Santos

    2011-01-01

    The influence of fatty acid composition of the diets on the productive performance and on cold and heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), in three different phases, was studied. Phase I studied the productive performance of freshwater angelfish in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils and four replicates during 50 days using 192 fish in 16 aquaria. Phase II studied the cold tolerance of juveni...

  12. The application of the haploid cell culture system to obtain the variants with tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different genotypes of rape haploid cells /tissue tolerated to the oxalic acid were correlated with the tolerance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the plant level through the researches. And this phenomenon also occurred in the tolerance to NaCl between the different genotypes of rape haploid cells and the diploid cells, but the diploid cells were generally more tolerant to the haploid ones. In addition, there were similar situations in barely on NaCl tolerance, aluminum tolerance and resistance to scab. So the above results indicated that the haploid cells/tissue tolerant to the stresses could reflect the situations in the plant level in the certain degree. The technology of inducing and screening the variants of the tolerance to rape Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by in vitro culture of haploid tissue was established. This technical system includes the in vitro microspore culture, the regeneration from the haploid cells to plants and the expanding propagation of the haploids populations. A set of oxalic acid tolerance variants was screened through the treatments of pingyangmycin and oxalic acid in stem apexes culture of haploid plants. After the field identification, 3 individuals with the improved tolerance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was obtained. The technology of inducing and screening the variants with heat tolerance by in vitro culture of haploid tissue was established in broccoli. A set of variants with the improved heat tolerance was obtained through the treatment of pingyangmycin and the 45 deg C heat treatment and 9 variants with higher stability of cell membrane to heat stress than the original varieties was selected. In addition, the technical systems for inducing and screening barley variants tolerant to aluminum and scab stresses according to the above rules were established. And the relevant resistance variants were obtained. Then 1 aluminum tolerance material and 3 scab resistance materials under the field experiments in the plant level were selected

  13. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  14. Developing herbicide-tolerant crops from mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbicide-tolerant crops in combination with their corresponding herbicides are able to control many weeds that cannot be or are less effectively controlled with other means. Commercial herbicide-tolerant crops developed from herbicide-tolerant mutants include imidazolinone-tolerant maize, rice, wheat, oilseed rape, sunflower, and lentil; sulfonylurea-tolerant soybean and sunflower; cyclohexanedione-tolerant maize; and triazine-tolerant oilseed rape. Most of the herbicide-tolerant mutants were developed through chemical mutagenesis followed by herbicide selection. Several herbicide-tolerant mutants were also discovered through direct herbicide selection of spontaneous mutations. All mutations used in commercial herbicide-tolerant crops are derived from a single nucleotide substitution of genes that encode enzymes or proteins targeted by herbicides. Imidazolinone-tolerant maize, rice, wheat, and oilseed rape have a gene variant encoding an altered acetohydoxyacid synthase (AHAS) with the S653N amino acid substitution. Additionally, imidazolinone-tolerant maize and oilseed rape have an AHAS with the W574L amino acid substitution. Imidazolinone-tolerant sunflower has been developed from the A205V AHAS gene mutation. In contrast, sulfonylurea-tolerant sunflower selected from a farm field has an AHAS enzyme variant with the P197L amino acid substitution. Similarly, sulfonylurea-tolerant soybean has a P197S AHAS gene mutation. Sulfonylurea-tolerant sunflower from seed mutagenesis and imidazolinone-tolerant lentil are also derived from AHAS gene mutations. Cyclohexanedione-tolerant maize has an altered acetyl-CoA carboxylase with the I1781L amino acid substitution. Triazine-tolerant oil seed rape possesses a psbA gene variant that encodes the D1 protein of photosynthesis with the S264G amino acid substitution. The alleles of all commercial herbicide-tolerant mutations are incompletely-dominant and not pleiotropic except for the triazine-tolerant mutation which is

  15. Strategies for Addressing Spreadsheet Compliance Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, Brandon

    2006-01-01

    Most organizations today use spreadsheets in some form or another to support critical business processes. However the financial resources, and developmental rigor dedicated to them are often minor in comparison to other enterprise technology. The increasing focus on achieving regulatory and other forms of compliance over key technology assets has made it clear that organizations must regard spreadsheets as an enterprise resource and account for them when developing an overall compliance strategy. This paper provides the reader with a set of practical strategies for addressing spreadsheet compliance from an organizational perspective. It then presents capabilities offered in the 2007 Microsoft Office System which can be used to help customers address compliance challenges.

  16. Addressing techniques of liquid crystal displays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruckmongathan, Temkar N

    2014-01-01

    Unique reference source that can be used from the beginning to end of a design project to aid choosing an appropriate LCD addressing technique for a given application This book will be aimed at design engineers who are likely to embed LCD drivers and controllers in many systems including systems on chip. Such designers face the challenge of making the right choice of an addressing technique that will serve them with best performance at minimal cost and complexity. Readers will be able to learn about various methods available for driving matrix LCDs and the comparisons at the end of each chap

  17. Welfare work addressing immigrants and refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øland, Trine

    In this presentation I will discuss the ways in which welfare workers addressing immigrants and refugees (re)produce integrationist visions, symbolizing society as an integrated whole and immigrants/refugees as a distraction to that whole. Paradoxically, welfare workers also oppose...... these integrationist visions in their quest to protect immigrants’ and refugees’ fundamental wellbeing and status as human beings with equal rights, group life and history. These opposing elements generate ambiguity and contradiction within integrationist welfare work. The ambition of the presentation is to enquire......, nurses and more) addressing immigrants and refugees and their families and descendants in the Danish welfare nation-state....

  18. Air Pollution Exposure and Abnormal Glucose Tolerance during Pregnancy: The Project Viva Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Fleisch, Abby F.; Gold, Diane R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent A.; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gillman, Matthew W.; Oken, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) has been linked to type 2 diabetes mellitus, but associations with hyperglycemia in pregnancy have not been well studied. Methods: We studied Boston, Massachusetts–area pregnant women without known diabetes. We identified impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) during pregnancy from clinical glucose tolerance tests at median 28.1 weeks gestation. We used residential addresses to...

  19. The genetic relationships between ethanol preference, acute ethanol sensitivity and ethanol tolerance in Drosophila melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Devineni, Anita V; McClure, Kimberly D.; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Corl, Ammon B; Wolf, Fred W.; Eddison, Mark; Heberlein, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between alcohol consumption, sensitivity and tolerance is an important question that has been addressed in humans and rodent models. Studies have shown that alcohol consumption and risk of abuse may correlate with (1) increased sensitivity to the stimulant effects of alcohol, (2) decreased sensitivity to the depressant effects of alcohol and (3) increased alcohol tolerance. However, many conflicting results have been observed. To complement these studies, we utilized a differ...

  20. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Odukomaiya, Adewale [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  1. Mathematical model of cylindrical form tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡敏; 杨将新; 吴昭同

    2004-01-01

    Tolerance is essential for integration of CAD and CAM. Unfortunately, the meaning of tolerances in the national standard is expressed in graphical and language forms and is not adaptable for expression, processing and data transferring with computers. How to interpret its semantics is becoming a focus of relevant studies. This work based on the mathematical definition of form tolerance in ANSI Y 14.5.1 M-1994, established the mathematical model of form tolerance for cylindrical feature. First, each tolerance in the national standard was established by vector equation. Then on the foundation of toler-ance's mathematical definition theory, each tolerance zone's mathematical model was established by inequality based on degrees of feature. At last the variance area of each tolerance zone is derived. This model can interpret the semantics of form tolerance exactly and completely.

  2. Magnetar heating

    CERN Document Server

    Beloborodov, Andrei M

    2016-01-01

    We examine four candidate mechanisms that could explain the high surface temperatures of magnetars. (1) Heat flux from the liquid core heated by ambipolar diffusion. It could sustain the observed surface luminosity $L_s\\approx 10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$ if core heating offsets neutrino cooling at a temperature $T_{\\rm core}>6\\times 10^8$ K. This scenario is viable if the core magnetic field exceeds $10^{16}$ G, the magnetar has mass $M10^{16}$ G varying on a 100 meter scale could provide $L_s\\approx 10^{35}$ erg s$^{-1}$. (4) Bombardment of the stellar surface by particles accelerated in the magnetosphere. This mechanism produces hot spots on magnetars. Observations of transient magnetars show evidence for external heating.

  3. Opening Address: Meeting Tomorrow's Energy Needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I want to thank the IAEA, as well as the international and local organizing committees, for assembling this impressive group of conference attendees to share information and exchange ideas this week. I am honoured to be a part of this distinguished panel. I also want to thank our Japanese colleagues for their wonderful hospitality and for selecting the beautiful city of Kyoto as the venue. This is an historic time of challenge and opportunity. President Obama is seeking to accelerate our nation's transformation to a low carbon economy. He has set a goal of reducing carbon emissions by 80 per cent by 2050. As we meet here in Kyoto, the site of another historic climate change discussion, President Obama is preparing to attend the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, continuing his Administration's commitment to tackling climate change and building a clean energy economy. Four months ago, Dr. Warren 'Pete' Miller was confirmed by the United States Senate to serve as Assistant Secretary for the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy. Soon afterwards, I joined Pete as his Principal Deputy. In that short time, Pete and I have come to appreciate fully the enormous task we have before us. Transforming our economy from one reliant on fossil fuels to a low carbon future will take investments in energy efficiency and all forms of low carbon energy technologies, including nuclear energy. Our job is to assure that nuclear technologies can contribute to meeting this aggressive goal for reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Nuclear energy can contribute to the future energy supply in two basic areas: (i) in its traditional role of generating electricity and (ii) as a source of process heat for industrial, petrochemical and desalination purposes. Within the Office of Nuclear Energy, we are now developing a roadmap that will help us in 'meeting tomorrow's energy needs' by addressing these two vital areas. We have established five strategic goals as the

  4. The Metabolic Basis of Pollen Thermo-Tolerance: Perspectives for Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine J. Paupière

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Crop production is highly sensitive to elevated temperatures. A rise of a few degrees above the optimum growing temperature can lead to a dramatic yield loss. A predicted increase of 1–3 degrees in the twenty first century urges breeders to develop thermo-tolerant crops which are tolerant to high temperatures. Breeding for thermo-tolerance is a challenge due to the low heritability of this trait. A better understanding of heat stress tolerance and the development of reliable methods to phenotype thermo-tolerance are key factors for a successful breeding approach. Plant reproduction is the most temperature-sensitive process in the plant life cycle. More precisely, pollen quality is strongly affected by heat stress conditions. High temperature leads to a decrease of pollen viability which is directly correlated with a loss of fruit production. The reduction in pollen viability is associated with changes in the level and composition of several (groups of metabolites, which play an important role in pollen development, for example by contributing to pollen nutrition or by providing protection to environmental stresses. This review aims to underline the importance of maintaining metabolite homeostasis during pollen development, in order to produce mature and fertile pollen under high temperature. The review will give an overview of the current state of the art on the role of various pollen metabolites in pollen homeostasis and thermo-tolerance. Their possible use as metabolic markers to assist breeding programs for plant thermo-tolerance will be discussed.

  5. Impact of anthropogenic ocean acidification on thermal tolerance of the spider crab Hyas araneus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. O. Pörtner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Future scenarios for the oceans project combined developments of CO2 accumulation and global warming and their impact on marine ecosystems. The synergistic impact of both factors was addressed by studying the effect of elevated CO2 concentrations on thermal tolerance of the cold-eurythermal spider crab Hyas araneus from the population around Helgoland. Here ambient temperatures characterize the southernmost distribution limit of this species. Animals were exposed to present day normocapnia (380 ppm CO2, CO2 levels expected towards 2100 (710 ppm and beyond (3000 ppm. Heart rate and haemolymph PO2 (PeO2 were measured during progressive short term cooling from 10 to 0°C and during warming from 10 to 25°C. An increase of PeO2 occurred during cooling, the highest values being reached at 0°C under all three CO2 levels. Heart rate increased during warming until a critical temperature (Tc was reached. The putative Tc under normocapnia was presumably >25°C, from where it fell to 23.5°C under 710 ppm and then 21.1°C under 3000 ppm. At the same time, thermal sensitivity, as seen in the Q10 values of heart rate, rose with increasing CO2 concentration in the warmth. Our results suggest a narrowing of the thermal window of Hyas araneus under moderate increases in CO2 levels by exacerbation of the heat or cold induced oxygen and capacity limitation of thermal tolerance.

  6. Native Women at Risk: Addressing Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Kay M. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses outcomes of a conference that brought together representatives from Indian tribes, state health departments, the Indian Health Service, the Mayo Clinic, and the American Cancer Society, to address the high rate of cervical cancer among American Indian women. Describes barriers to health care and plans to promote cancer screening among…

  7. Road Map to Address Cognitive Health

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-09

    In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Lynda Anderson highlights the important roles that states and communities can play in addressing cognitive health as part of overall health.  Created: 6/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/9/2014.

  8. China-ROK Forum Addresses Monetary Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟

    2008-01-01

    On June 12th,2008,the China-Korea Forum was held in Shanghai to address hot issues in China’s nancial sector such as banking reform,securities market and RMB appreciation,Vice Mayor of Shanghai,o cials from Shanghai Securities Exchange Research Center and the Korea Financial Service Commission were invited to share their wisdom on these issues.

  9. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops...

  10. Addressing Student Debt in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David; Johnston, Tim; Lytle, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Student debt is a national concern. The authors address debt in the classroom to enhance students' understanding of the consequences of debt and the need for caution when financing their education. However, student feedback indicates this understanding has a delayed effect on borrowing behavior and underscores the importance of making difficult…

  11. Registering Names and Addresses for Information Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Arthur A.

    The identification of administrative authorities and the development of associated procedures for registering and accessing names and addresses of communications data systems are considered in this paper. It is noted that, for data communications systems using standards based on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model specified by…

  12. Rational Rhymes for Addressing Common Childhood Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    Music-based interventions are valuable tools counselors can use when working with children. Specific types of music-based interventions, such as songs or rhymes, can be especially pertinent in addressing the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of children. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) provides a therapeutic framework that encourages…

  13. Problem Solvers: Solutions--The Inaugural Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dause, Emily

    2014-01-01

    Fourth graders in Miss Dause's and Mrs. Hicks's mathematics classes at South Mountain Elementary School in Dillsburg, Pennsylvania, worked with the data from the Inauagural Address problem that was previously published published in the February 2013 issue of "Teaching Children Mathematics". This activity allowed students to…

  14. IP Address Use in Internetworking Routing

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    tut quiz present anim This interactive tutorial covers the following: How routers use the elements of the IP address to forward packets of information., How information travels through the Internet.The interactions consists of pop-up definitions of terms, animations and self-check questions. EC3760 Introduction to Information Operations Engineering

  15. How Sociology Texts Address Gun Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonso, William R.

    2004-01-01

    William R. Tonso has chosen an issue that he knows something about to examine how sociology textbooks address controversy. Appealing for gun control is fashionable, but it is at odds with a fondness that ordinary Americans have for their firearms--one that is supported by a growing body of research on deterrence to crime. There are two sides to…

  16. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  17. Boolean Logic with Fault Tolerant Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Alagoz, B. Baykant

    2009-01-01

    Error detectable and error correctable coding in Hamming space was researched to discover possible fault tolerant coding constellations, which can implement Boolean logic with fault tolerant property. Basic logic operators of the Boolean algebra were developed to apply fault tolerant coding in the logic circuits. It was shown that application of three-bit fault tolerant codes have provided the digital system skill of auto-recovery without need for designing additional-fault tolerance mechanisms.

  18. Developing Herbicide-Tolerant Crops from Mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several herbicide-tolerant crops have been developed and commercialized from herbicide-tolerant mutants obtained through chemical mutagenesis followed by herbicide selection or direct herbicide selection of spontaneous mutations. All mutations used in commercial herbicide-tolerant crops are derived from a single nucleotide substitution of genes that encode enzymes or proteins targeted by herbicides. The alleles of all commercial herbicide-tolerant mutations are incompletely-dominant except for the triazine-tolerant mutation. (author)

  19. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-28

    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances.

  20. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances. PMID:27465120

  1. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances.

  2. Control challenges in domestic heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Honglian; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Weitzmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze domestic heating applications and identify unfavorable building constructions and control challenges to be addressed by high performance heating control systems. Heating of domestic houses use a large amount of the total energy consumption in Scandinavia....... Hence the potential of reducing energy consumption by applying high performance control is vast. Indoor climate issues are becoming more in focus, which also leads to a demand for high performance heating systems. The paper presents an analysis of how the building elements of today's domestic houses...... with water based floor heating affect the control challenge. The analysis is documented with simulation results....

  3. Development and implementation of setpoint tolerances for special safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The establishment of tolerances and impairment limits for special safety system setpoints is part of the process whereby the plant operator demonstrates to the regulatory authority that the plant operates safely and within the defined plant licensing envelope. The licensing envelope represents the set of limits and plant operating state and for which acceptably safe plant operation has been demonstrated by the safety analysis. By definition, operation beyond this envelope contributes to overall safety system unavailability. Definition of the licensing envelope is provided in a wide range of documents including the plant operating licence, the safety report, and the plant operating policies and principles documents. As part of the safety analysis, limits are derived for each special safety system initiating parameter such that the relevant safety design objectives are achieved for all design basis events. If initiation on a given parameter occurs at a level beyond its limit, there is a potential reduction in safety system effectiveness relative to the performance credited in the plant safety analysis. These safety system parameter limits, when corrected for random and systematic instrument errors and other errors inherent in the process of periodic testing or calibration, are then used to derive parameter impairment levels and setpoint tolerances. This paper describes the methodology that has evolved at Ontario Hydro for developing and implementing tolerances for special safety system parameters (i.e., the shutdown systems, emergency coolant injection system and containment system). Tolerances for special safety system initiation setpoints are addressed specifically, although many of the considerations discussed here will apply to performance limits for other safety system components. The first part of the paper deals with the approach that has been adopted for defining and establishing setpoint limits and tolerances. The remainder of the paper addresses operational

  4. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-02-01

    may result in a considerable increase in the inlet water temperature for the DHW preheating gas cooler. This will in turn reduce the COP of the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. The thermodynamic losses are highest at large initial temperature differences for the DHW and the city water, small charging volumes and low gas cooler heating capacities. Inevitable mixing of hot and cold water in the tank will lead to further increase in the thermodynamic losses for the CO{sub 2} heat pump system. (10) One possible way to reduce internal conductive heat transfer and avoid the mixing in cylindrical single-shell DHW storage tanks, is to separate the DHW and the city water by means of a movable plate with low thermal conductivity. The concept proved to give satisfactory thermal performance and functionality at atmospheric operating conditions. However, definite conclusions regarding the functionality, thermal performance and optimum design can only be drawn after full-scale testing has been carried out in a pressurised tank. First-costs as well as the long-term reliability of the insulating plate are also important issues that need to be further addressed.

  5. Tolerance and acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Småland Goth

    2014-03-01

    study shows a varied pattern of use of GP services among the diverse groups of foreign-born residents. Results suggest that immigrants are more likely to use emergency-room services during the first few years after arrival. Results also indicate that information about the patient-list system does not always reach newly arrived immigrants. Contrary to general understanding, non-visible immigrants (when considering factors such as skin color and clothing diverge the most from the pattern of the majority. Immigrants originating from European countries, such as Sweden and Poland, use the emergency room most frequently. From the qualitative aspects of the study, we have also found that primary health care services are not perceived as equitable.Conclusion: Recently arrived immigrants’ utilization of primary health care services shows an unfavorable pattern. The choice of primary health care service providers is dependent on the individual’s preferences, expectations, experiences and/or actual obstacles. The observed utilization of services provided at emergency rooms is one more reason for monitoring and increasing tolerance and cultural sensitivity in primary health care.

  6. Multiperspective analysis of erosion tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparovek Gerd

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Erosion tolerance is the most multidisciplinary field of soil erosion research. Scientists have shown lack in ability to adequately analyze the huge list of variables that influence soil loss tolerance definitions. For these the perspectives of erosion made by farmers, environmentalists, society and politicians have to be considered simultaneously. Partial and biased definitions of erosion tolerance may explain not only the polemic nature of the currently suggested values but also, in part, the nonadoption of the desired levels of erosion control. To move towards a solution, considerable changes would have to occur on how this topic is investigated, especially among scientists, who would have to change methods and strategies and extend the perspective of research out of the boundaries of the physical processes and the frontiers of the academy. A more effective integration and communication with the society and farmers, to learn about their perspective of erosion and a multidisciplinary approach, integrating soil, social, economic and environmental sciences are essential for improved erosion tolerance definitions. In the opinion of the authors, soil erosion research is not moving in this direction and a better understanding of erosion tolerance is not to be expected in the near future.

  7. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT WASTE HEAT HORTICULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study of the feasibility of using low grade (70 degrees F) waste heat from the condenser cooling water of the Vermont Yaknee nuclear plant for commercial food enhancement. The study addressed the possible impact of laws on the use of waste heat from ...

  8. Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Heat Rash or Prickly Heat (Miliaria Rubra) Information for adults A A A ... bumps can suddenly occur, as seen here. Overview Heat rash (miliaria rubra), also known as prickly heat, ...

  9. Immune tolerance in radiation chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of immune tolerance in radiation chimeras and the mechanism of maintaining it were discussed from certain points. Semiallogeneic radiation chimeras are mostly of long-living, and the hematopoietic organ of this individual consists mainly of the cells derived from the marrow donor, i. e., F1-type cells. F1-type lymphocytes can distinguish parental strain cells from themselves. In these chimeras, a F1-skin graft maintains to be fresh as long as the host is alive, showing immune tolerance effective through its life. In establishment and maintenance of this immune tolerance, the suppressing mechanism of host-type or F1-type seems to be involved. The allogeneic radiation chimera has very poor long-survival rate compared with that of the semiallogeneic radiation chimera. To raise this survival rate, efforts are now being made from the immunological point of view. (Ueda, J.)

  10. Neuropilin-1 in Transplantation Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio eCampos-Mora

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the immune system, Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1 is a molecule that plays an important role in establishing the immunological synapse between dendritic cells (DCs and T cells. Recently, Nrp1 has been identified as a marker that seems to distinguish natural T regulatory (nTreg cells, generated in the thymus, from inducible T regulatory (iTreg cells raised in the periphery. Given the crucial role of both nTreg and iTreg cells in the generation and maintenance of immune tolerance, the ability to phenotypically identify each of these cell populations in vivo is needed to elucidate their biological properties. In turn, these properties have the potential to be developed for therapeutic use to promote immune tolerance. Here we describe the nature and functions of Nrp1, including its potential use as a therapeutic target in transplantation tolerance.

  11. Simulation of abuse tolerance of lithium-ion battery packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spotnitz, Robert M.; Weaver, James; Yeduvaka, Gowri; Doughty, D. H.; Roth, E. P.

    A simple approach for using accelerating rate calorimetry data to simulate the thermal abuse resistance of battery packs is described. The thermal abuse tolerance of battery packs is estimated based on the exothermic behavior of a single cell and an energy balance than accounts for radiative, conductive, and convective heat transfer modes of the pack. For the specific example of a notebook computer pack containing eight 18650-size cells, the effects of cell position, heat of reaction, and heat-transfer coefficient are explored. Thermal runaway of the pack is more likely to be induced by thermal runaway of a single cell when that cell is in good contact with other cells and is close to the pack wall.

  12. Improving student learning by addressing misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Carol A.; Huntoon, Jacqueline E.

    2011-12-01

    Students—and often those who teach them—come to class with preconceptions and misconceptions that hinder their learning. For instance, many K-12 students and teachers believe groundwater exists in the ground in actual rivers or lakes, but in fact, groundwater is found in permeable rock layers called aquifers. Such misconceptions need to be addressed before students can learn scientific concepts correctly. While other science disciplines have been addressing preconceptions and misconceptions for many years, the geoscience community has only recently begun to concentrate on the impact these have on students' learning. Valuable research is being done that illuminates how geologic thinking evolves from the "novice" to "expert" level. The expert is defined as an individual with deep understanding of Earth science concepts. As research progresses, geoscientists are realizing that correcting preconceptions and misconceptions can move teachers and students closer to the "expert" level [Libarkin, 2005].

  13. CANE: The Content Addressed Network Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner-Stephen, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The fragmented nature and asymmetry of local and remote file access and network access, combined with the current lack of robust authenticity and privacy, hamstrings the current internet. The collection of disjoint and often ad-hoc technologies currently in use are at least partially responsible for the magnitude and potency of the plagues besetting the information economy, of which spam and email borne virii are canonical examples. The proposed replacement for the internet, Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), does little to tackle these underlying issues, instead concentrating on addressing the technical issues of a decade ago. This paper introduces CANE, a Content Addressed Network Environment, and compares it against current internet and related technologies. Specifically, CANE presents a simple computing environment in which location is abstracted away in favour of identity, and trust is explicitly defined. Identity is cryptographically verified and yet remains pervasively open in nature. It is argued tha...

  14. Process heat from modularized HTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimert, Rainer, E-mail: Rainer.Reimert@kit.edu [Engler-Bunte-Institut, KIT, Engler-Bunte-Ring 1, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schad, Manfred [Schmitten/Ts. (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    In a comprehensive study Lurgi GmbH and Interatom GmbH, both of Germany, analyzed to which extent and for which industries process heat supply by modularized HTR might be realized, and which adaptation work, both on the reactor and on the process side would be necessary. Refining operations and alumina calcination appeared as the most promising candidates for the use of HTR process heat. In refineries the temperature level is mostly well below 600 Degree-Sign C, and the heat flow amounts to some 100 MW. Adaptation work would only be necessary for heat exchangers and for the safety concept. In the case of alumina calcination the heat flow is in the same order of magnitude but the peak temperature of 950-1000 Degree-Sign C is a little bit above the range in which the HTR can supply heat. Adaptation work would be needed for new heat exchangers and for process modifications with the aim of either lowering the process' peak temperature or providing the heat at peak temperature via a clean chemical fuel. Consequently, in the second part of the study these adaptation works were addressed, and technically and economic feasible solutions were found.

  15. Politeness Strategies in American Presidential Inaugural Addresses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李立文; 朱琳靓

    2008-01-01

    American presidential inaugural address(PIA)a very important variety with worldwide influence and long-lasting significance.Its main task and purpose is to outline the main policies of the new government and win people's support.However.the prerequisite of winning people's sympathy and support lies in people's good relationship with and trust in the government.Therefore almost all the speakers resort to"approached-based" positive politeness strategy quite often which performs this function very well.

  16. Partnerships as panacea for addressing global problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Kolk, Ans

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis chapter examines partnerships and their peculiarities, based on recent research from various disciplines, in the context of the large problems faced by (global) society. These problems are very complex, often cross national boundaries, and cannot easily be 'solved' by one single actor. Previous 'unilateral' attempts to address them have not been particularly successful, and there are limits to what a single actor can do. Cooperation also enables different actors to leverage t...

  17. Forest Policies Addressing Climate Change in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As a developing country with a large population and a fragile ecological environment, China is particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change. Beginning with the Rio Conference of 1992 China has played a progressively enhanced role in combating climate change. A series of policies and measures to address climate change have been taken in the overall context of national sustainable development strategy, making positive contributions to the mitigation and adaptation to climate change, among ...

  18. Addressing spiritual leadership: an organizational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Lisa; Solari-Twadell, P Ann; Haas, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    The Joint Commission requires health systems to address spiritual care. Research indicates that spirituality is associated with better physical, psychological, and social health and that culturally diverse populations and individuals at end-of-life often request spiritual care. The authors report the results of a consensus conference of 21 executives representing 10 large faith-based health systems who discussed the input, process, and outcomes of a corporate model for spiritual leadership. Specific initiatives are highlighted.

  19. Mathematical model of cylindrical form tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡敏; 杨将新; 吴昭同

    2004-01-01

    Tolerance is essential for integration of CAD and CAM.Unfortunately,the meaning of tolerances in the national standard is expressed in graphical and language forms and is not adaptable for expression,processing and data transferring with computers.How to interpret its semantics is becoming a focus of relevant studies.This work based on the mathematical definition of form tolerance in ANSI Y 14.5.1 M-1994,established the mathematical model of form tolerance for cylindrical feature.First,each tolerance in the national standard was established by vector equation.Then on the foundation of tolerance's mathematical definition theory,each tolerance zone's mathematical model was established by inequality based on degrees of feature.At last the variance area of each tolerance zone is derived.This model can interpret the semantics of form tolerance exactly and completely.

  20. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    In spite of a growing recognition of the importance of doctor-patient communication, the issue of language barriers to healthcare has received very little attention in India. The Indian population speaks over 22 major languages with English used as the lingua franca for biomedicine. Large-scale internal migration has meant that health workers are encountering increasing instances of language discordance within clinical settings. Research done predominantly in the West has shown language discordance to significantly affect access to care, cause problems of comprehension and adherence, and decrease the satisfaction and quality of care. Addressing language barriers to healthcare in India requires a stronger political commitment to providing non-discriminatory health services, especially to vulnerable groups such as illiterate migrant workers. Research will have to address three broad areas: the ways in which language barriers affect health and healthcare, the efficacy of interventions to overcome language barriers, and the costs of language barriers and efforts to overcome them. There is a need to address such barriers in health worker education and clinical practice. Proven strategies such as hiring multilingual healthcare workers, providing language training to health providers, employing in situ translators or using telephone interpretation services will have to be evaluated for their appropriateness to the Indian context. Internet-based initiatives, the proliferation of mobile phones and recent advances in machine translation promise to contribute to the solution. PMID:24758452

  1. Matching Alternative Addresses: a Semantic Web Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariannamazi, S.; Karimipour, F.; Hakimpour, F.

    2015-12-01

    Rapid development of crowd-sourcing or volunteered geographic information (VGI) provides opportunities for authoritatives that deal with geospatial information. Heterogeneity of multiple data sources and inconsistency of data types is a key characteristics of VGI datasets. The expansion of cities resulted in the growing number of POIs in the OpenStreetMap, a well-known VGI source, which causes the datasets to outdate in short periods of time. These changes made to spatial and aspatial attributes of features such as names and addresses might cause confusion or ambiguity in the processes that require feature's literal information like addressing and geocoding. VGI sources neither will conform specific vocabularies nor will remain in a specific schema for a long period of time. As a result, the integration of VGI sources is crucial and inevitable in order to avoid duplication and the waste of resources. Information integration can be used to match features and qualify different annotation alternatives for disambiguation. This study enhances the search capabilities of geospatial tools with applications able to understand user terminology to pursuit an efficient way for finding desired results. Semantic web is a capable tool for developing technologies that deal with lexical and numerical calculations and estimations. There are a vast amount of literal-spatial data representing the capability of linguistic information in knowledge modeling, but these resources need to be harmonized based on Semantic Web standards. The process of making addresses homogenous generates a helpful tool based on spatial data integration and lexical annotation matching and disambiguating.

  2. Innovative Legal Approaches to Address Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Teret, Stephen P; Sugarman, Stephen D; Rutkow, Lainie; Brownell, Kelly D

    2009-01-01

    Context: The law is a powerful public health tool with considerable potential to address the obesity issue. Scientific advances, gaps in the current regulatory environment, and new ways of conceptualizing rights and responsibilities offer a foundation for legal innovation. Methods: This article connects developments in public health and nutrition with legal advances to define promising avenues for preventing obesity through the application of the law. Findings: Two sets of approaches are defined: (1) direct application of the law to factors known to contribute to obesity and (2) original and innovative legal solutions that address the weak regulatory stance of government and the ineffectiveness of existing policies used to control obesity. Specific legal strategies are discussed for limiting children's food marketing, confronting the potential addictive properties of food, compelling industry speech, increasing government speech, regulating conduct, using tort litigation, applying nuisance law as a litigation strategy, and considering performance-based regulation as an alternative to typical regulatory actions. Finally, preemption is an overriding issue and can play both a facilitative and a hindering role in obesity policy. Conclusions: Legal solutions are immediately available to the government to address obesity and should be considered at the federal, state, and local levels. New and innovative legal solutions represent opportunities to take the law in creative directions and to link legal, nutrition, and public health communities in constructive ways. PMID:19298420

  3. Tolerating extremism : to what extent should intolerance be tolerated?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guiora, Amos Neuser

    2013-01-01

    In discussing extremism, the key questions are: to whom is a duty owed and what are the limits of intolerance that are to be tolerated? Answering these questions requires examining limits and rights; analyzing them in the context of extremism is the ‘core’ of this book. While freedom of speech and f

  4. Experimental Study of the Performance of Air Source Heat Pump Systems Assisted by Low-Temperature Solar-Heated Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jinshun Wu; Chao Chen; Song Pan; Jun Wei; Tianquan Pan; Yixuan Wei; Yunmo Wang; Xinru Wang; Jiale Su

    2013-01-01

    Due to the low temperatures, the heating efficiency of air source heat pump systems during the winter is very low. To address this problem, a low-temperature solar hot water system was added to a basic air source heat pump system. Several parameters were tested and analyzed. The heat collection efficiency of the solar collector was analyzed under low-temperature conditions. The factors that affect the performance of the heat pumps, such as the fluid temperature, pressure, and energy savings, ...

  5. Genetic improvement of drought tolerance in semi-dwarf wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water stress is one of the main environmental constraints for the wheat crop. Drought stress from anthesis to maturity, especially if accompanied by heat stress, affects every morphological and physiological aspect of wheat plant and significantly reduces final yield. Genetic improvement for drought tolerance in wheat could be possible through conventional and mutation breeding tools. There is a dire need to identify stress tolerant genotypes which can grow and flourish well under harsh environments (low water requirements). Twelve newly evolved bread wheat genotypes alongwith 3 drought-tolerant commercial check varieties, viz., Sarsabz, Khirman and Chakwal-86 were screened under three water stresses (zero, single and two irrigations). Different yield associated traits were studied. At severe water stress (zero irrigation), six genotypes (BWM-3, NIA-8/7, NIA-9/5, NIA-28/4, NIA-25/5, MSH-36) produced significantly higher grain yield (ranged from 1522 to 2022 kg/ha) than check varieties. These genotypes had higher seed index and less spike sterility at severe stress, which indicated that these genotypes were less responsive to water stress and possessed more tolerance to drought stress. (author)

  6. Damage Tolerance Assessment of Friction Pull Plug Welds in an Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Preston; Burkholder, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process used in the fabrication of cryogenic propellant tanks. Self-reacting friction stir welding is one variation of the friction stir weld process being developed for manufacturing tanks. Friction pull plug welding is used to seal the exit hole that remains in a circumferential self-reacting friction stir weld. A friction plug weld placed in a self-reacting friction stir weld results in a non-homogenous weld joint where the initial weld, plug weld, their respective heat affected zones and the base metal all interact. The welded joint is a composite plastically deformed material system with a complex residual stress field. In order to address damage tolerance concerns associated with friction plug welds in safety critical structures, such as propellant tanks, nondestructive inspection and proof testing may be required to screen hardware for mission critical defects. The efficacy of the nondestructive evaluation or the proof test is based on an assessment of the critical flaw size. Test data relating residual strength capability to flaw size in an aluminum alloy friction plug weld will be presented.

  7. Exploitation of Diversity within Crops-the Key to Disease Tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Adrian C

    2016-01-01

    Tolerance, defined as the ability of a crop to maintain yield in the presence of disease, is a difficult characteristic to measure, and its component traits are generally undefined. It has been studied as a characteristic of plant genotypes grown singly or in monoculture crop stands. However, it is similarly valid as a characteristic of ecosystems, or mixtures / inter-cropping in crops and this paper seeks to evaluate theoretical and practical aspects of tolerance in this context. Focusing on cereals and fungal pathogens, consideration is given to the process of yield formation, the impact of disease on yield, and how tolerance might be assessed in monocultures. Variation in tolerance traits in monocultures and how such plants might interact in mixtures is considered; specifically the expression of tolerance in mixtures and how plants with contrasting tolerance traits in monocultures combine. Having focused on disease, further consideration is given to the impact of and on other microbial species in the crop environment. Finally the practical approaches that could be adopted to identify and assess the main traits responsible for expressing tolerance are addressed. These focus on the dynamic nature of plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions particularly in response to both biotic and abiotic stress out with the range of optimal or normal crop evaluation environments. It is proposed that by using more extreme factor parameter values in mixed crop evaluation environments the key traits affecting tolerance will be identified. PMID:27242866

  8. Exploitation of Diversity within Crops-the Key to Disease Tolerance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Adrian C

    2016-01-01

    Tolerance, defined as the ability of a crop to maintain yield in the presence of disease, is a difficult characteristic to measure, and its component traits are generally undefined. It has been studied as a characteristic of plant genotypes grown singly or in monoculture crop stands. However, it is similarly valid as a characteristic of ecosystems, or mixtures / inter-cropping in crops and this paper seeks to evaluate theoretical and practical aspects of tolerance in this context. Focusing on cereals and fungal pathogens, consideration is given to the process of yield formation, the impact of disease on yield, and how tolerance might be assessed in monocultures. Variation in tolerance traits in monocultures and how such plants might interact in mixtures is considered; specifically the expression of tolerance in mixtures and how plants with contrasting tolerance traits in monocultures combine. Having focused on disease, further consideration is given to the impact of and on other microbial species in the crop environment. Finally the practical approaches that could be adopted to identify and assess the main traits responsible for expressing tolerance are addressed. These focus on the dynamic nature of plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions particularly in response to both biotic and abiotic stress out with the range of optimal or normal crop evaluation environments. It is proposed that by using more extreme factor parameter values in mixed crop evaluation environments the key traits affecting tolerance will be identified.

  9. Software engineering for fault-tolerant systems. Final technical report, Jan 89-Aug 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, A.L.; Mansour, N.

    1991-03-01

    The objectives of this study are to (1) assess the current state of the art of fault tolerant software schemes, (2) evaluate the status of various software engineering issues in this context, (3) identify critical gaps in the currently available technology and, (4) provide recommendations for research and development efforts to enhance the technological base of fault tolerant software engineering. Towards these objectives, the authors have discussed several software fault tolerance schemes, studied the available experimental and analytical evidence about their usefulness and assessed the current status of fault tolerant software engineering for sequential and parallel computers. Based on the studies reported here, they feel that the current state-of-the-art of fault tolerant software is mature enough to tolerate design faults in specific circumstances with appropriate provisions of redundancy and allied supporting mechanisms. However, no known fault tolerance technique can guarantee failure-free system operation. Further, it is questionable whether the current approaches are cost-effective in achieving the desired gain in operational software reliability. They feel that what is needed is a systematic, cost effective approach to software development which explicitly addresses the fault tolerance issues throughout the development life-cycle.

  10. Heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heat exchanger having primary and secondary conduits in heat-exchanging relationship is described comprising: at least one serpentine tube having parallel sections connected by reverse bends, the serpentine tube constituting one of the conduits; a group of open-ended tubes disposed adjacent to the parallel sections, the open-ended tubes constituting the other of the conduits, and forming a continuous mass of contacting tubes extending between and surrounding the serpentine tube sections; and means securing the mass of tubes together to form a predetermined cross-section of the entirety of the mass of open-ended tubes and tube sections

  11. Heat transfer

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, J P

    2010-01-01

    As one of the most popular heat transfer texts, Jack Holman's "Heat Transfer" is noted for its clarity, accessible approach, and inclusion of many examples and problem sets. The new tenth edition retains the straight-forward, to-the-point writing style while covering both analytical and empirical approaches to the subject. Throughout the book, emphasis is placed on physical understanding while, at the same time, relying on meaningful experimental data in those situations that do not permit a simple analytical solution. New examples and templates provide students with updated resources for computer-numerical solutions.

  12. Variation in tolerance to common marine pollutants among different populations in two species of the marine copepod Tigriopus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Patrick Y; Foley, Helen B; Bao, Vivien W W; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Edmands, Suzanne

    2015-10-01

    Geographical variation in chemical tolerance within a species can significantly influence results of whole animal bioassays, yet a literature survey showed that the majority of articles using bioassays did not provide detail on the original field collection site of their test specimens confounding the ability for accurate replication and comparison of results. Biological variation as a result of population-specific tolerance, if not addressed, can be misinterpreted as experimental error. Our studies of two marine copepod species, Tigriopus japonicus and Tigriopus californicus, found significant intra- and inter-specific variation in tolerance to copper and tributyltin. Because both species tolerate copper concentrations orders of magnitude higher than those found in coastal waters, difference in copper tolerance may be a by-product of adaptation to other stressors such as high temperature. Controlling for inter-population tolerance variation will greatly strengthen the application of bioassays in chemical toxicity tests. PMID:26070741

  13. Workshop Oriented Tolerance Synthesis for Spatial PKM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguang Li; Jian Ding; Yingxue Yao; Zhaohong Yi; Huaijing Jing; Honggen Fang

    2015-01-01

    To promote the pose accuracy performance of a spatial parallel kinematic Mechanism ( PKM) in service, a workshop oriented tolerance synthesis method based on design of experiment ( DOE) is proposed, which involves two consecutive stages. In the first stage of DOE, the tolerance factor sensitivities are obtained according to initial tolerance settings with the consideration of the current manufacturing capacity, and the second stage of DOE makes use of them to produce multiple tolerance allocations which can adapt to current manufacturing capacity. A tolerance synthesis procedure is developed and integrated in tolerance design system for PKM. Comparing the results with peer method, the validity and practicability of this method is verified.

  14. Adding Fault Tolerance to NPB Benchmarks Using ULFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parchman, Zachary W [Tennessee Technological University (TTU); Vallee, Geoffroy R [ORNL; Naughton III, Thomas J [ORNL; Engelmann, Christian [ORNL; Bernholdt, David E [ORNL; Scott, Stephen L [Tennessee Technological University (TTU)

    2016-01-01

    In the world of high-performance computing, fault tolerance and application resilience are becoming some of the primary concerns because of increasing hardware failures and memory corruptions. While the research community has been investigating various options, from system-level solutions to application-level solutions, standards such as the Message Passing Interface (MPI) are also starting to include such capabilities. The current proposal for MPI fault tolerant is centered around the User-Level Failure Mitigation (ULFM) concept, which provides means for fault detection and recovery of the MPI layer. This approach does not address application-level recovery, which is currently left to application developers. In this work, we present a mod- ification of some of the benchmarks of the NAS parallel benchmark (NPB) to include support of the ULFM capabilities as well as application-level strategies and mechanisms for application-level failure recovery. As such, we present: (i) an application-level library to checkpoint and restore data, (ii) extensions of NPB benchmarks for fault tolerance based on different strategies, (iii) a fault injection tool, and (iv) some preliminary results that show the impact of such fault tolerant strategies on the application execution.

  15. Algorithm-dependent fault tolerance for distributed computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. D. Hough; M. e. Goldsby; E. J. Walsh

    2000-02-01

    Large-scale distributed systems assembled from commodity parts, like CPlant, have become common tools in the distributed computing world. Because of their size and diversity of parts, these systems are prone to failures. Applications that are being run on these systems have not been equipped to efficiently deal with failures, nor is there vendor support for fault tolerance. Thus, when a failure occurs, the application crashes. While most programmers make use of checkpoints to allow for restarting of their applications, this is cumbersome and incurs substantial overhead. In many cases, there are more efficient and more elegant ways in which to address failures. The goal of this project is to develop a software architecture for the detection of and recovery from faults in a cluster computing environment. The detection phase relies on the latest techniques developed in the fault tolerance community. Recovery is being addressed in an application-dependent manner, thus allowing the programmer to take advantage of algorithmic characteristics to reduce the overhead of fault tolerance. This architecture will allow large-scale applications to be more robust in high-performance computing environments that are comprised of clusters of commodity computers such as CPlant and SMP clusters.

  16. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2014-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The start-up transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe start-up behaviors. Topics include the four start-up scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the start-up scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power start-up, and methods to enhance the start-up success. Also addressed are the thermodynamic constraint between the evaporator and reservoir in the loop heat pipe operation, the superheat requirement for nucleate boiling, pressure spike and pressure surge during the start-up transient, and repeated cycles of loop start-up andshutdown under certain conditions.

  17. Geothermal heat can cool, too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at how geothermal energy can not only be used to supply heating energy, but also be used to provide cooling too. The article reports on a conference on heating and cooling with geothermal energy that was held in Duebendorf, Switzerland, in March 2008. The influence of climate change on needs for heating and cooling and the need for additional knowledge and data on deeper rock layers is noted. The seasonal use of geothermal systems to provide heating in winter and cooling in summer is discussed. The planning of geothermal probe fields and their simulation is addressed. As an example, the geothermal installations under the recently renewed and extended 'Dolder Grand' luxury hotel in Zurich are quoted. The new SIA 384/6 norm on geothermal probes issued by the Swiss Association of Architects SIA is briefly reviewed.

  18. Dicamba Tolerant Soybean MON 87708

    OpenAIRE

    Directorate, Issued by Health Canada's Food

    2014-01-01

    Health Canada has notified Monsanto Canada Inc. that it has no objection to the sale of food derived from Dicamba Tolerant Soybean MON 87708. The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of this soybean event according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. These Guidelines are based upon internationally accepted principles for establishing the safety of foods with novel traits.

  19. Desiccation tolerance of somatic embryoids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetteroo, F.A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis describes the research performed on the subject "Desiccation tolerance in somatic embryoids". Somatic embryoids are bipolar structures formed in tissue culture, with both a shoot and a root apex, which resemble very much zygotic embryos found in seeds. Through simultaneous development of

  20. Biocatalysts with enhanced inhibitor tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shihui; Linger, Jeffrey; Franden, Mary Ann; Pienkos, Philip T.; Zhang, Min

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed herein are biocatalysts for the production of biofuels, including microorganisms that contain genetic modifications conferring tolerance to growth and fermentation inhibitors found in many cellulosic feedstocks. Methods of converting cellulose-containing materials to fuels and chemicals, as well as methods of fermenting sugars to fuels and chemicals, using these biocatalysts are also disclosed.

  1. Heat-Related Illnesses

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of heat stroke or exhaustion. Heat Stroke and Exhaustion Symptoms of early heat exhaustion symptoms ... heavy sweating; nausea; and giddiness. Symptoms of heat stroke (late stage of heat illness) include flushed, hot, ...

  2. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem.

  3. Panels and Lectures Address China Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Video Resources

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Editors note: Over the past several months, colleagues have brought to our attention three public panel discussions and lectures that address contemporary controversies in Chinese studies. These discussions have been video-recorded and are available to view on the internet. These presentations may be useful either for scholarly pursuits or may be excerpted for classroom viewing. We wish to thank those who contacted us about these resources, and we encourage readers who know of other such video resources to let us know about them so that we can inform our ASIANetwork colleagues of their existence and availability.

  4. A Task Force to Address Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Ronald; Budin, Wendy C; Allie, Tammy

    2016-02-01

    Bullying in the workplace can create a dysfunctional environment that is associated with serious physical and psychological harm to the person being bullied. Nurses' experience with bullying has gained considerable attention in recent years, and warrants further discussion. Nurse leaders need to develop and implement effective bullying prevention initiatives that will foster the functioning of a professional and productive staff in a healthy work environment. The aim of this article is to review workplace bullying as experienced by nurses, and describe how nurses at a Magnet-designated academic medical center developed and implemented a bullying task force to address the problem. PMID:26817556

  5. Grid Added Value to Address Malaria

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, V; Hofmann, M

    2008-01-01

    Through this paper, we call for a distributed, internet-based collaboration to address one of the worst plagues of our present world, malaria. The spirit is a non-proprietary peer-production of information-embedding goods. And we propose to use the grid technology to enable such a world wide "open source" like collaboration. The first step towards this vision has been achieved during the summer on the EGEE grid infrastructure where 46 million ligands were docked for a total amount of 80 CPU years in 6 weeks in the quest for new drugs.

  6. HEP technologies to address medical imaging challenges

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Developments in detector technologies aimed at solving challenges in present and future CERN experiments, particularly at the LHC, have triggered exceptional advances in the performance of medical imaging devices, allowing for a spectacular progress in in-vivo molecular imaging procedures, which are opening the way for tailored therapies of major diseases. This talk will briefly review the recent history of this prime example of technology transfer from HEP experiments to society, will describe the technical challenges being addressed by some ongoing projects, and will present a few new ideas for further developments and their foreseeable impact.

  7. Temperature Tolerance of Large Yellow Croaker, Pseudosciaena Crocea ( Richardson ) Associated with Summer Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Quanzhen; ZENG Jiangning; LIAO Yibo; GAO Aigen; YANG Hefu

    2005-01-01

    Lethal temperature tolerance was determined for about 8 cm, age 0 Pseudosciaena crocea using both slow heating and rapid transfer protocol. The acclimatization temperature was 28 ℃ with summer season, lethal temperature ( LT50 value ) of slow heating protocol ( CTMax ) was 35.0 ℃, and the upper and lower incipient lethal temperatures of rapid transfer protocol were 34.2 ℃ and 17.5 ℃ respectively.

  8. Results Analysis of IP Address Auto- Configuration in Wireless Manets

    OpenAIRE

    S.Zahoor Ul Huq; S. Shabana Begum; Dr. K.E.Sreenivasa Murthy; Prof. B. Satyanaryana

    2011-01-01

    The main task of an address allocation protocol is to manage the address allocation to the nodes in the ad hoc MANETs. All routing protocols assume nodes to be configured a priori with a uniqueIP address. Allocating addresses to mobile nodes is a fundamental and difficult problem. A mobile device cannot participate in unicast communications until it is assigned a conflict-free IP address. So addressing in MANETs is of significant importance, and the address configuration process should be fas...

  9. Integrated optical addressing of an ion qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Karan K; McConnell, Robert; Ram, Rajeev J; Sage, Jeremy M; Chiaverini, John

    2015-01-01

    Scalable implementation of the optics required to control trapped atomic ions' quantum states will be required to construct large-scale ion trap quantum information processors. All experiments in ion traps so far have employed approaches cumbersome to scale to even a few tens of qubits, with the majority relying on manipulation of free space beams with bulk optics. Here we demonstrate lithographically defined nanophotonic dielectric waveguides integrated within a linear surface-electrode ion trap chip, and qubit addressing at multiple locations via focusing grating couplers that emit through openings in the trap electrodes to an ion trapped 50 $\\mu$m above the chip. We perform quantum coherent operations using visible light routed in and emitted from silicon nitride waveguides and couplers, on the optical qubit transition in individual $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions. The addressing beam is focused near the ion position with a 2 $\\mu$m 1/$e^2$-radius along the trap axis, and we measure crosstalk errors between $10^{-2}$ a...

  10. A Developmental View of Children's Behavioral Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of scores of 469 third to sixth graders on the Children's Tolerance Scale yielded significant grade level differences with older children generally the most tolerant. The more outer-directed behaviors were rated as most disturbing. (CL)

  11. Notation for national and international telephone numbers, e-mail addresses and Web addresses

    CERN Document Server

    International Telecommunication Union. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Recommendation E.123 defines a standard way to write telephone numbers, e-mail addresses, and web addresses. It recommends the following formats (when dialing the area code is optional for local calling): Telephone number: National notation (042) 123 4567 International notation +31 (0)42 123 4567 E-mail address: name@provider.com Internet address / URL: www.company.com It also recommends that a hypen (-), space ( ), or period (.) can be used to visually separate groups of numbers. The parentheses are used to indicate digits that are sometimes not dialed. a slash (/) is used to indicate alternate numbers. This information is important if you want to make sure people know how to dail a phone number in a specific country.

  12. Fault Tolerance in ZigBee Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alena, Richard; Gilstrap, Ray; Baldwin, Jarren; Stone, Thom; Wilson, Pete

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network standard are finding increasing use in the home automation and emerging smart energy markets. The network and application layers, based on the ZigBee 2007 PRO Standard, provide a convenient framework for component-based software that supports customer solutions from multiple vendors. This technology is supported by System-on-a-Chip solutions, resulting in extremely small and low-power nodes. The Wireless Connections in Space Project addresses the aerospace flight domain for both flight-critical and non-critical avionics. WSNs provide the inherent fault tolerance required for aerospace applications utilizing such technology. The team from Ames Research Center has developed techniques for assessing the fault tolerance of ZigBee WSNs challenged by radio frequency (RF) interference or WSN node failure.

  13. Assessing and improving an approach to delay-tolerant networking

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Lloyd

    2012-01-01

    Delay-tolerant networking (DTN) is a term invented to describe and encompass all types of long-delay, disconnected, disrupted or intermittently-connected networks, where mobility and outages or scheduled contacts may be experienced. 'DTN' is also used to refer to the Bundle Protocol, which has been proposed as the one unifying solution for disparate DTN networking scenarios, after originally being designed solely for use in deep space for the 'Interplanetary Internet.' We evaluated the Bundle Protocol by testing it in space and on the ground. We have found architectural weaknesses in the Bundle Protocol that may prevent engineering deployment of this protocol in realistic delay-tolerant networking scenarios, and have proposed approaches to address these weaknesses.

  14. Fault Tolerant Characteristics of Artificial Neural Network Electronic Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The fault tolerant characteristics of analog-VLSI artificial neural network (with 32 neurons and 532 synapses) chips are studied by exposing them to high energy electrons, high energy protons, and gamma ionizing radiations under biased and unbiased conditions. The biased chips became nonfunctional after receiving a cumulative dose of less than 20 krads, while the unbiased chips only started to show degradation with a cumulative dose of over 100 krads. As the total radiation dose increased, all the components demonstrated graceful degradation. The analog sigmoidal function of the neuron became steeper (increase in gain), current leakage from the synapses progressively shifted the sigmoidal curve, and the digital memory of the synapses and the memory addressing circuits began to gradually fail. From these radiation experiments, we can learn how to modify certain designs of the neural network electronic hardware without using radiation-hardening techniques to increase its reliability and fault tolerance.

  15. Adaptation to heat and exercise performance under cooler conditions: a new hot topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Jo; Neal, Rebecca A; Lunt, Heather C; Tipton, Michael J

    2014-10-01

    Chronic exposure to a stressor elicits adaptations enhancing the tolerance to that stressor. These adaptive responses might also improve tolerance under less stressful conditions. For example, historically there has been much interest in the adaptive responses to high-altitude, or hypoxia, and their ergogenic potential under sea-level, or normoxic, conditions. In contrast, the influence of the adaptive responses to heat on exercise under cooler conditions has received relatively little interest. Heat acclimation/acclimatization (HA) is known to increase work capacity in hot environments. Yet, aerobic exercise performance can progressively deteriorate as ambient temperature increases beyond ~10 °C, indicating a thermal limitation even under relatively cool conditions. The improved thermoregulatory capability induced by HA might attenuate this thermal decrement in a manner similar to that seen when exposed to hotter temperatures. Moreover, the suite of adaptations elicited by HA has the potential to increase maximal oxygen uptake, lactate threshold and economy, and thus may be ergogenic even under conditions where performance is not thermally limited. Indeed, evidence is now emerging to support an ergogenic effect of HA but the number of studies is limited and in some instances lack appropriate control, are confounded by methodological limitations, or do not address the mechanisms of action. Nevertheless, these tantalising insights into the ergogenic potential of heat will likely generate considerable interest in this new 'hot topic'. Future research will need to employ well-designed studies to clarify the exercise conditions under which ergogenic effects of HA are apparent, to elucidate the precise mechanisms, and to optimise HA strategies for performance. PMID:24943043

  16. Impurity-seeded ELMy H-modes in JET, with high density and sustainable heat load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The paper reviews the experimental and modelling work that has been done at JET during the past two years to develop an H-mode scenario with tolerable ELMs and tolerable steady state power load in the divertor using impurity radiation at the plasma edge. With nitrogen seeding, the heat flux density is reduced to about 2-5 MW/m2 in a Type III ELMy H-mode regime with partially detached divertor conditions and reduced confinement. The feasibility of an integrated scenario with Type-III ELMs, and q95=2.6 to compensate for the low H factor, has been demonstrated on JET. This scenario can be proposed for ITER Q=10 operation at Ip=17MA. In argon seeding experiments, the argon level is carefully adjusted to maintain a Type I ELMy H-mode with high confinement (H98 ∼ 1). A high density (ne/nGW=1.1) and a radiation fraction up to ∼65% are obtained in quasi steady-state. Infrared thermography and thermocouple measurements indicate a reduced heat load to the inner target plate. The global power balance of these discharges is analysed in detail in the paper. The issue of possible radiative dissipation (radiation buffering) of Type I ELMs with DWdia up to 500kJ is also addressed. It is found experimentally that only a small fraction of the ELM energy (∼20% at most) is radiated before reaching the target plates. Finally, EDGE2D/NIMBUS and the time dependent SOLPS5.0 modelling are presented. These modelling aim at assessing the potential of different impurity species for mitigation of ELM heat fluxes through radiation, and for maximizing edge radiation while maintaining low core contamination. The results for ELM buffering are consistent with what is found experimentally, suggesting that large ELM buffering by radiation is not to be expected in ITER except for very small ELMs. (author)

  17. Physiological effects after exposure to heat : A brief literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogerd, C.P.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Many employees are exposed to heat stress during their work. Although the direct effects of heat are well reported, the long term physiological effects occurring after heat exposure are hardly described. The present manuscript addresses these issues in the form of a brief literature review. Repeated

  18. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  19. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  20. Increasing ideological tolerance in social psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Yoel; Lammers, Joris

    2015-01-01

    We argue that recognizing current ideological diversity in social psychology and promoting tolerance of minority views is just as important as increasing the number of non-liberal researchers. Increasing tolerance will allow individuals in the minority to express dissenting views, which will improve psychological science by reducing bias. We present four recommendations for increasing tolerance.

  1. 15 CFR 750.11 - Shipping tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shipping tolerances. 750.11 Section... PROCESSING, ISSUANCE, AND DENIAL § 750.11 Shipping tolerances. (a) Applicability and use of shipping... a shipping tolerance. This section tells you, as the licensee, when you may take advantage of...

  2. 7 CFR 51.886 - Tolerances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tolerances. 51.886 Section 51.886 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Tolerances § 51.886 Tolerances. (a) No... other than the allowances specified in § 51.888 or in the sampling and testing procedures of...

  3. Physiological and molecular mechanisms associated with cross tolerance between hypoxia and low temperature in Thaumatotibia leucotreta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boardman, Leigh; Sørensen, Jesper Givskov; Terblanche, John S

    2015-01-01

    correlated with increased membrane fluidity (increased UFA:SFA) and/or alterations in heat shock protein 70 (HSP70); while general mechanical stress (shaking) and heat (2 h at 35 C) do not elicit cross tolerance (no change in survival or molecular responses). We therefore found support for some limited cold......Biochemical adaptations allow insects to withstand exposures to hypoxia and/or hypothermia. Exposure to hypoxia may interact either synergistically or antagonistically with standard low temperature stress responses yet this has not been systematically researched and no clear mechanism has been...... hardening and cross tolerance responses. Given that combined exposure to hypoxia and low temperature is used to sterilize commodities in post-harvest pest management programs, researchers can now exploit these mechanisms involved in cross tolerance to develop more targeted control methods....

  4. Address Forms in Chinese and English-Speaking Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓茹

    2015-01-01

    Address forms is one of markers of politeness and is an indispensable part of communication. An appropriate address form promotes interpersonal communication smoothly. An address form is polite in one culture, but might be inappropriate in an⁃other culture. The paper contrasts address forms in English and Chinese culture and explores the reasons for their different choice of address terms.

  5. Discrepancy between stimulus response and tolerance of pain in Alzheimer disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Dahm, Christina; Werner, Mads U; Jensen, Troels Staehelin;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Affective-motivational and sensory-discriminative aspects of pain were investigated in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy elderly controls using the cold pressor test tolerance and repetitive stimuli of warmth and heat stimuli, evaluating the stimulus...

  6. Addressing consumerization of IT risks with nudging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Yevseyeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we address the main issues of Information Technology (IT consumerization that are related to security risks, and vulnerabilities of devices used within Bring Your Own Device (BYOD strategy in particular. We propose a ‘soft’ mitigation strategy for user actions based on nudging, widely applied to health and social behavior influence. In particular, we propose a complementary, less strict, more flexible Information Security policies, based on risk assessment of device vulnerabilities and threats to corporate data and devices, combined with a strategy of influencing security behavior by nudging. We argue that nudging, by taking into account the context of the decision-making environment, and the fact that the employee may be in better position to make a more appropriate decision, may be more suitable than strict policies in situations of uncertainty of security-related decisions. Several examples of nudging are considered for different tested and potential scenarios in security context.

  7. Programming chemistry in DNA-addressable bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, H.; Cardelli, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present a formal calculus, termed the chemtainer calculus, able to capture the complexity of compartmentalized reaction systems such as populations of possibly nested vesicular compartments. Compartments contain molecular cargo as well as surface markers in the form of DNA single strands....... These markers serve as compartment addresses and allow for their targeted transport and fusion, thereby enabling reactions of previously separated chemicals. The overall system organization allows for the set-up of programmable chemistry in microfluidic or other automated environments. We introduce a simple...... sequential programming language whose instructions are motivated by state of-the-art microfluidic technology. Our approach integrates electronic control, chemical computing and material production in a unified formal framework that is able to mimic the integrated computational and constructive capabilities...

  8. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally...... is best for other reasons, i.e. financial. Due to the increasing complex procedures - endovascular evolution and what is then "left" for open surgery - specialisation into "mainly open vascular surgeon" and "mainly endovascular surgeon" preceded by a common basic training into both, seems unavoidable...... important to train in clinical investigative methods, non-surgical treatment, decision making as is training in technical aspects of interventions. Similarly, it is vital, that the vascular specialist always recommends the treatment which is best to the individual patient, not only what he can do or what...

  9. Library outreach: addressing Utah's "Digital Divide".

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, K M

    2000-10-01

    A "Digital Divide" in information and technological literacy exists in Utah between small hospitals and clinics in rural areas and the larger health care institutions in the major urban area of the state. The goals of the outreach program of the Spencer S. Eccles Health Sciences Library at the University of Utah address solutions to this disparity in partnership with the National Network of Libraries of Medicine-- Midcontinental Region, the Utah Department of Health, and the Utah Area Health Education Centers. In a circuit-rider approach, an outreach librarian offers classes and demonstrations throughout the state that teach information-access skills to health professionals. Provision of traditional library services to unaffiliated health professionals is integrated into the library's daily workload as a component of the outreach program. The paper describes the history, methodology, administration, funding, impact, and results of the program.

  10. Professional Culture and Climate: Addressing Unconscious Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knezek, Patricia

    2016-10-01

    Unconscious bias reflects expectations or stereotypes that influence our judgments of others (regardless of our own group). Everyone has unconscious biases. The end result of unconscious bias can be an accumulation of advantage or disadvantage that impacts the long term career success of individuals, depending on which biases they are subject to. In order to foster a professional culture and climate, being aware of these unconscious biases and mitigating against them is a first step. This is particularly important when judgements are needed, such as in cases for recruitment, choice of speakers for conferences, and even reviewing papers submitted for publication. This presentation will cover how unconscious bias manifests itself, what evidence exists to demonstrate it exists, and ways it can be addressed.

  11. Addressing food waste reduction in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Clement, Jesper; Kornum, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    . In order to better understand food waste and loss more research must be conducted on the total amount of food waste at every level of the food supply chain. Solutions can be found through improved communication, more efficient food packaging, and better in interpretation of food labels by consumers......Global food demand is driven by population and economic growth, and urbanization. One important instrument to meet this increasing demand and to decrease the pressure on food production is to minimize food losses and food waste. Food waste and loss is a major societal, economic, nutritional...... and environmental challenge. Using the case of Denmark, this paper analyses causes of food waste, and discusses how different stakeholders address the prevention and reuse of the €1.18. billion of annual edible food waste. Currently, the majority of food waste is still incinerated with energy recovery. However...

  12. Tolerance to hyperthermia produced by morphine in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, R F; Kalant, H; Kim, C

    1987-01-01

    The present study addressed the prevailing notion that the rat develops tolerance only to the hypothermic effect of morphine and not to its hyperthermic effect. Rectal temperatures were measured at different intervals after various test doses of morphine in rats that had been rendered tolerant to morphine antinociception, by daily intraperitoneal injections of 0, 20, or 200 mg/kg morphine, and dependent, as seen by naloxone-produced loss of body weight. The well-known tolerance to the hypothermic effect was confirmed by changes in the dose-response curves for latency to peak hyperthermic response. In the falling arm of the test dose time/effect curve, consistent, clear decreases in morphine hyperthermia were seen. These decreases were proportional to the chronic treatment dose, and occurred in a normal test environment, where acute hypothermic effects were produced by morphine at short test intervals, and in a warm test environment, where no hypothermia was seen. Similar effects were noted when the data were analyzed in terms of area under the time/effect curve for hyperthermia. In the morphine-treated animals, decreased hyperthermia was seen despite serum morphine levels at the time of testing being up to twice as high as those in control rats. It was concluded that substantial tolerance develops to hyperthermia produced by opiates in rats. The previous difficulty in seeing this effect is discussed in regard to the probability that, in naive rats, the effect of morphine shortly after administration of a test dose reflects a summation of two opposing, acute thermic effects. The findings challenge the view that tolerance develops only to the depressant, and not to the excitatory, effects of opiates. PMID:3114798

  13. Effects of Drought and Heat on Peanut (Arachis hypogaea, L.) Production

    OpenAIRE

    Balota, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Discusses effects of drought and heat on peanut plants and crop yield, and offers advice on if and when to irrigate fields, and for drought-tolerant varieties of peanuts to use in fields with a history of drought.

  14. Transcriptome analysis of stress tolerance in entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaari, Mor; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Koltai, Hinanit; Salame, Liora; Glazer, Itamar

    2016-02-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes of the genus Steinernema are effective biological control agents. The infective stage of these parasites can withstand environmental stresses such as desiccation and heat, but the molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in this tolerance are poorly understood. We used 454 pyrosequencing to analyse transcriptome expression in Steinernema spp. that differ in their tolerance to stress. We compared these species, following heat and desiccation treatments, with their non-stressed counterparts. More than 98% of the transcripts found matched homologous sequences in the UniRef90 database, mostly nematode genes (85%). Among those, 60.8% aligned to the vertebrate parasites including Ascaris suum, Loa loa, and Brugia malayi, 23.3% aligned to bacteriovores, mostly from the genus Caenorhabditis, and 1% aligned to EPNs. Analysing gene expression patterns of the stress response showed a large fraction of down-regulated genes in the desiccation-tolerant nematode Steinernema riobrave, whereas a larger fraction of the genes in the susceptible Steinernema feltiae Carmiel and Gvulot strains were up-regulated. We further compared metabolic pathways and the expression of specific stress-related genes. In the more tolerant nematode, more genes were down-regulated whereas in the less tolerant strains, more genes were up-regulated. This phenomenon warrants further exploration of the mechanism governing induction of the down-regulation process. The present study revealed many genes and metabolic cycles that are differentially expressed in the stressed nematodes. Some of those are well known in other nematodes or anhydrobiotic organisms, but several are new and should be further investigated for their involvement in desiccation and heat tolerance. Our data establish a foundation for further exploration of stress tolerance in entomopathogenic nematodes and, in the long term, for improving their ability to withstand suboptimal environmental conditions. PMID

  15. Heat Flow Pattern and Thermal Resistance Modeling of Anisotropic Heat Spreaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falakzaadeh, F.; Mehryar, R.

    2016-08-01

    To ensure safe operating temperatures of the ever smaller heat generating electronic devices, drastic measures should be taken. Heat spreaders are used to increase surface area, by spreading the heat without necessarily transferring it to the ambient in the first place. The heat flow pattern is investigated in heat spreaders and the fundamental differences regarding how heat conducts in different materials is addressed. Isotropic materials are compared with anisotropic ones having a specifically higher in-plane thermal conductivity than through plane direction. Thermal resistance models are proposed for anisotropic and isotropic heat spreaders in compliance with the order of magnitude of dimensions used in electronics packaging. After establishing thermal resistance models for both the isotropic and anisotropic cases, numerical results are used to find a correlation for predicting thermal resistance in anisotropic heat spreaders with high anisotropy ratios.

  16. Copper tolerance of Trichoderma species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovičić-Petrović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Trichoderma strains can persist in ecosystems with high concentrations of heavy metals. The aim of this research was to examine the variability of Trichoderma strains isolated from different ecosystems, based on their morphological properties and restriction analysis of ITS fragments. The fungal growth was tested on potato dextrose agar, amended with Cu(II concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 10 mmol/l, in order to identify copper-resistant strains. The results indicate that some isolated strains of Trichoderma sp. show tolerance to higher copper concentrations. Further research to examine the ability of copper bioaccumulation by tolerant Trichoderma strains is needed. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31080 i br. III 43010

  17. Fault Tolerant External Memory Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Mølhave, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Algorithms dealing with massive data sets are usually designed for I/O-efficiency, often captured by the I/O model by Aggarwal and Vitter. Another aspect of dealing with massive data is how to deal with memory faults, e.g. captured by the adversary based faulty memory RAM by Finocchi and Italiano....... However, current fault tolerant algorithms do not scale beyond the internal memory. In this paper we investigate for the first time the connection between I/O-efficiency in the I/O model and fault tolerance in the faulty memory RAM, and we assume that both memory and disk are unreliable. We show a lower...... bound on the number of I/Os required for any deterministic dictionary that is resilient to memory faults. We design a static and a dynamic deterministic dictionary with optimal query performance as well as an optimal sorting algorithm and an optimal priority queue. Finally, we consider scenarios where...

  18. Fault Tolerant Wind Farm Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    with best at a wind turbine control level. However, some faults are better dealt with at the wind farm control level, if the wind turbine is located in a wind farm. In this paper a benchmark model for fault detection and isolation, and fault tolerant control of wind turbines implemented at the wind farm...... scenarios. This benchmark model is used in an international competition dealing with Wind Farm fault detection and isolation and fault tolerant control....... control level is presented. The benchmark model includes a small wind farm of nine wind turbines, based on simple models of the wind turbines as well as the wind and interactions between wind turbines in the wind farm. The model includes wind and power references scenarios as well as three relevant fault...

  19. Determining the potential impact of a micro heat pump for domestic water heating / Pieter Willem Jordaan

    OpenAIRE

    Jordaan, Pieter Willem

    2002-01-01

    Hot water used in the South African domestic sector is mostly heated by in-tank electrical resistance heaters. These so-called "geysers" are the major contributors to the undesirable high morning and afternoon peaks imposed on the national electricity supply grid. These peak demands continue to be of concern to Eskom. The "reduced capacity in-line water heating system design methodology" was developed to address this problem. A parallel inline heat pump water heater further red...

  20. Butter Tolerance in Children Allergic to Cow's Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Noriyuki; Minoura, Takanori; Kitaoka, Setsuko

    2015-03-01

    We performed an oral food challenge (OFC) with 10 g of butter (equivalent of 2.9 mL cow's milk) and 25-mL heated cow's milk for 68 children with cow's milk-allergy. Thirty-eight children reacted only to heated cow's milk. Twenty-four children reacted to neither heated milk nor butter. Thirty-eight (86.4%) of 44 patients with positive results to the OFC for heated milk could safely tolerate butter. It is highly likely that even children with cow's milk-allergy who show positive results to an OFC for heated milk can consume butter. The milk-specific IgE value indicative of a negative predictive value of over 95% was 17.8 kUA/L, and patients with low milk-specific IgE values may be able to safely consume butter. Including butter in the diets of patients with milk-allergy after a butter challenge may improve quality of life.