WorldWideScience

Sample records for additives

  1. Potlining Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  2. Additive Similarity Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  3. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Darrell; Nettles, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection Task started the development of a real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record for the additive manufacturing process using infrared camera imaging and processing techniques. This project will benefit additive manufacturing by providing real-time inspection of internal geometry that is not currently possible and reduce the time and cost of additive manufactured parts with automated real-time dimensional inspections which deletes post-production inspections.

  4. [Food additives and healthiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  5. Additives in yoghurt production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milna Tudor

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In yoghurt production, mainly because of sensory characteristics, different types of additives are used. Each group, and also each substance from the same group has different characteristics and properties. For that reason, for improvement of yoghurt sensory characteristics apart from addition selection, the quantity of the additive is very important. The same substance added in optimal amount improves yoghurt sensory attributes, but too small or too big addition can reduce yoghurt sensory attributes. In this paper, characteristics and properties of mostly used additives in yoghurt production are described; skimmed milk powder, whey powder, concentrated whey powder, sugars and artificial sweeteners, fruits, stabilizers, casein powder, inulin and vitamins. Also the impact of each additive on sensory and physical properties of yoghurt, syneresis and viscosity, are described, depending on used amount added in yoghurt production.

  6. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  7. Binaural additivity of loudness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, W.J.M.; Riemersma, J.B.; Bunt, A.A.

    1972-01-01

    A definition of binaural additivity is given in terms of the theory of simultaneous conjoint measurement. Additivity is then tested and verified by a conjoint measurement procedure. Methods for deriving psychophysical scales from such procedures are discussed, and the experimental scales are

  8. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Additive and polynomial representations

    CERN Document Server

    Krantz, David H; Suppes, Patrick

    1971-01-01

    Additive and Polynomial Representations deals with major representation theorems in which the qualitative structure is reflected as some polynomial function of one or more numerical functions defined on the basic entities. Examples are additive expressions of a single measure (such as the probability of disjoint events being the sum of their probabilities), and additive expressions of two measures (such as the logarithm of momentum being the sum of log mass and log velocity terms). The book describes the three basic procedures of fundamental measurement as the mathematical pivot, as the utiliz

  10. Groups – Additive Notation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We translate the articles covering group theory already available in the Mizar Mathematical Library from multiplicative into additive notation. We adapt the works of Wojciech A. Trybulec [41, 42, 43] and Artur Korniłowicz [25].

  11. From additivity to synergism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritz, Christian; Streibig, Jens Carl

    2014-01-01

    Interest in synergistic or antagonistic effects through mixture experiments has grown immensely over the past two decades, not the least within in pharmacology and toxicology. Several definitions of reference models exist; one commonly used reference model is concentration or dose addition, which...... assumes compounds, when administrated simultaneously, do not interfere with each other at the site of action. We focus on statistical modelling that allows evaluation of dose addition. We will describe several statistical approaches that are suitable for analysis mixture data where synergistic...... or antagonistic effects may be present. The statistical models are defined and explained and some of the approaches exemplified. Code in open-source software is provided....

  12. Alternative additives; Alternative additiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-15

    In this project a number of industrial and agricultural waste products have been characterised and evaluated in terms of alkali-getter performance. The intended use is for biomass-fired power stations aiming at reducing corrosion or slagging related problems. The following products have been obtained, characterised and evaluated: 1) Brewery draff 2) Danish de-gassed manure 3) Paper sludge 4) Moulding sand 5) Spent bleaching earth 6) Anorthosite 7) Sand 8) Clay-sludge. Most of the above alternative additive candidates are deemed unsuitable due to insufficient chemical effect and/or expensive requirements for pre-treatment (such as drying and transportation). 3 products were selected for full-scale testing: de-gassed manure, spent bleaching earth and clay slugde. The full scale tests were undertaken at the biomass-fired power stations in Koege, Slagelse and Ensted. Spent bleaching earth (SBE) and clay sludge were the only tested additive candidates that had a proven ability to react with KCl, to thereby reduce Cl-concentrations in deposits, and reduce the deposit flux to superheater tubes. Their performance was shown to nearly as good as commercial additives. De-gassed manure, however, did not evaluate positively due to inhibiting effects of Ca in the manure. Furthermore, de-gassed manure has a high concentration of heavy metals, which imposes a financial burden with regard to proper disposal of the ash by-products. Clay-sludge is a wet clay slurring, and drying and transportation of this product entails substantial costs. Spent bleaching does not require much pre-treatment and is therefore the most promising alternative additive. On the other hand, bleaching earth contains residual plant oil which means that a range of legislation relating to waste combustion comes into play. Not least a waste combustion fee of 330 DKK/tonne. For all alternative (and commercial) additives disposal costs of the increase ash by-products represents a significant cost. This is

  13. Alcohols as gasoline additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawetz, P.

    1982-12-01

    This paper showed that, when using alcohol octane-boosting additives to gasoline, one attains several goals at the same time: (a) there is an increased saving in petroleum crude, since the alcohol is not merely a substitute for gasoline but rather a substitute for the octane-boosting additives used in the manufacture of unleaded gasoline; and (b) the production of fermentation ethanol for a fuel purpose can help revitalize the agricultural sector in different economics systems, thus becoming a road to economic development.

  14. Additives in plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  15. Functional Additive Mixed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheipl, Fabian; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Greven, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    We propose an extensive framework for additive regression models for correlated functional responses, allowing for multiple partially nested or crossed functional random effects with flexible correlation structures for, e.g., spatial, temporal, or longitudinal functional data. Additionally, our framework includes linear and nonlinear effects of functional and scalar covariates that may vary smoothly over the index of the functional response. It accommodates densely or sparsely observed functional responses and predictors which may be observed with additional error and includes both spline-based and functional principal component-based terms. Estimation and inference in this framework is based on standard additive mixed models, allowing us to take advantage of established methods and robust, flexible algorithms. We provide easy-to-use open source software in the pffr() function for the R-package refund. Simulations show that the proposed method recovers relevant effects reliably, handles small sample sizes well and also scales to larger data sets. Applications with spatially and longitudinally observed functional data demonstrate the flexibility in modeling and interpretability of results of our approach. PMID:26347592

  16. Additive manufactured serialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbitt, III, John T.

    2017-04-18

    Methods for forming an identifying mark in a structure are described. The method is used in conjunction with an additive manufacturing method and includes the alteration of a process parameter during the manufacturing process. The method can form in a unique identifying mark within or on the surface of a structure that is virtually impossible to be replicated. Methods can provide a high level of confidence that the identifying mark will remain unaltered on the formed structure.

  17. Advances in Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-14

    Manufacturing session and provide a summary of work being performed in additive manufacturing by the Army, Air Force, and academia (Penn State University...Army Research Laboratory [ARL] and Air Force Research Laboratory [AFRL]) as well as academia (Penn State University’s Applied Research Laboratory...organic to the Warfighter, unmanned systems, networks , and robotics. Many of the materials and technologies needed to accomplish these goals are still

  18. Additives in swine nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available To attain better feed utilization, longer preservation, easier manipultion and higher production and better quality of food of animal orgin as the final goal, besides raw materials, feed mixes contain numerous pronutrients (additives, added to perform different effects, in a narrower sense, the term pronutrient implies heterogenous substances, which have no diverse effects and have to be efficient in the manner of use. Basically, all pronutrients have to reach the goal of keeping optimal animal health status and to increase production of food of animal origin without adverse and negative effects. The development of biotechnology had a great part in the appearance of natural alternatives which are able to fulfil and satisfy the high demands of highly productive animals, as well as those of the consumer lobby and environmental protection movements. Growth promoters based upon physiological mechanisms and production potential of the animal have an unquestionable adventage, not only because of the lack of residues in food of animal origin; but also because of their ecological safety and decrease of envirnomental pollution by undigested materials. Demand continues to grow for "all natural", non-pharmaceutical feed additives with growth enhancing effects in food animals. Special attention is paid to minerals (anorganic and organic sources, growth stimulators (antibiotics, probiotics prebiotics, substances for better feed utilization (enzymes, acidifers adsorbents.

  19. Additive Manufactured Superconducting Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Eric; Rosen, Yaniv; Woolleet, Nathan; Materise, Nicholas; Voisin, Thomas; Wang, Morris; Mireles, Jorge; Carosi, Gianpaolo; Dubois, Jonathan

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities provide an ultra-low dissipative environment, which has enabled fundamental investigations in quantum mechanics, materials properties, and the search for new particles in and beyond the standard model. However, resonator designs are constrained by limitations in conventional machining techniques. For example, current through a seam is a limiting factor in performance for many waveguide cavities. Development of highly reproducible methods for metallic parts through additive manufacturing, referred to colloquially as 3D printing\\x9D, opens the possibility for novel cavity designs which cannot be implemented through conventional methods. We present preliminary investigations of superconducting cavities made through a selective laser melting process, which compacts a granular powder via a high-power laser according to a digitally defined geometry. Initial work suggests that assuming a loss model and numerically optimizing a geometry to minimize dissipation results in modest improvements in device performance. Furthermore, a subset of titanium alloys, particularly, a titanium, aluminum, vanadium alloy (Ti - 6Al - 4V) exhibits properties indicative of a high kinetic inductance material. This work is supported by LDRD 16-SI-004.

  20. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    234-8034714355. 8034714355. 1. EFFECTS OF SULPHUR ADDITION ON. ADDITION ON. 2. AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES O. 3. 4. C. W. Onyia. 5. 1DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS. 6. 2, 4DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL ...

  1. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  2. ADDITIVES USED TO OBTAIN FOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Dorina Ardelean; Daniela Popa

    2012-01-01

    Use of food additives in food is determined by the growth of contemporary food needs of the world population. Additives used in food, both natural and artificial ones, contribute to: improving the organoleptic characteristics and to preserve the food longer, but we must not forget that all these additives should not be found naturally in food products. Some of these additives are not harmful and human pests in small quantities, but others may have harmful effects on health.

  3. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  4. Calcium addition in straw gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risnes, H.; Fjellerup, Jan Søren; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    The present work focuses on the influence of calcium addition in gasification. The inorganic¿organic element interaction as well as the detailed inorganic¿inorganic elements interaction has been studied. The effect of calcium addition as calcium sugar/molasses solutions to straw significantly...

  5. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  6. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  7. Prevalence of Food Additive Intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    1994-01-01

    1 The existing prevalence estimates of food additive intolerance(1-4) are being reviewed. 2 In the EEC report the estimated frequency of food additive intolerance is 0.03% to 0.15% based on data from patient groups. 3 The British population study results in a prevalence estimate of 0...... The prevalence estimates vary with a factor 100. As the results vary so do the study populations. 6 If the different study populations are accounted for, a common conclusion can be drawn: Food additive intolerance is found in adults with atopic symptoms from the respiratory tract and skin. The prevalence...... estimates are questionable but may be less than 0.15%. In adults and children with reproducible, and with more subjective symptoms, such as headache and behavioural/mood change the prevalence is even lower (0.026%). Food additive intolerance is primarily found in atopic children with cutaneous symptoms...

  8. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 may cause itching and hives in some people. This color additive is widely found in beverages, desserts, processed vegetables, drugs, makeup, and other products. FDA requires all products containing ...

  9. Wide and High Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Roschli, Alex C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the enabling technologies for Wide and High Additive Manufacturing (WHAM). WHAM will open up new areas of U.S. manufacturing for very large tooling in support of the transportation and energy industries, significantly reducing cost and lead time. As with Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM), the initial focus is on the deposition of composite materials.

  10. A Review of Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufui V. Wong; Aldo Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Additive manufacturing processes take the information from a computer-aided design (CAD) file that is later converted to a stereolithography (STL) file. In this process, the drawing made in the CAD software is approximated by triangles and sliced containing the information of each layer that is going to be printed. There is a discussion of the relevant additive manufacturing processes and their applications. The aerospace industry employs them because of the possibility of manufacturing light...

  11. Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas

    2017-02-01

    Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.

  12. Additional disulfide bonds in insulin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Tine N; Pettersson, Ingrid; Huus, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    The structure of insulin, a glucose homeostasis-controlling hormone, is highly conserved in all vertebrates and stabilized by three disulfide bonds. Recently, we designed a novel insulin analogue containing a fourth disulfide bond located between positions A10-B4. The N-terminus of insulin's B......-chain is flexible and can adapt multiple conformations. We examined how well disulfide bond predictions algorithms could identify disulfide bonds in this region of insulin. In order to identify stable insulin analogues with additional disulfide bonds, which could be expressed, the Cβ cut-off distance had...... in comparison to analogues with additional disulfide bonds that were more difficult to predict. In contrast, addition of the fourth disulfide bond rendered all analogues resistant to fibrillation under stress conditions and all stable analogues bound to the insulin receptor with picomolar affinities. Thus...

  13. Search for additional Higgs bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Jochen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The Standard Model of particle physics is one of the most well-established theories in physics. However, it has some flaws which cannot be explained without physics beyond the Standard Model. Most of the theoretically explored extensions which provide potential solutions include further Higgs bosons in addition to the discovered resonance with the mass of about 125 GeV. This talk summarizes current efforts carried out by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations targeting at the discovery of further resonances. A variety of observables in multiple final states is studied and interpreted in terms of additional Higgs bosons predicted by selected models. Those additional bosons are not necessarily neutral, but could also be charged.

  14. Additive interaction in survival analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Lange, Theis; Andersen, Ingelise

    2012-01-01

    It is a widely held belief in public health and clinical decision-making that interventions or preventive strategies should be aimed at patients or population subgroups where most cases could potentially be prevented. To identify such subgroups, deviation from additivity of absolute effects...... an empirical example of interaction between education and smoking on risk of lung cancer. We argue that deviations from additivity of effects are important for public health interventions and clinical decision-making, and such estimations should be encouraged in prospective studies on health. A detailed...

  15. Additive manufacturing in maxillofacial reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dincă Luciana Laura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the benefits of using additive manufacturing technologies in maxillofacial reconstruction are highlighted. Based on a real clinical case, the paper describes the manufacture of an implant prototype replacing the right zygomatic bone and a part of maxilla using additive manufacturing technologies. The face is the most expressive part of the human body that makes us unique. It was shown that the maxillofacial prostheses help to improve the psychological state of patients affected by, because low self esteem feeling appears commonly to this patients with the facial defects. The aim of this paper is to show how using additive manufacturing technologies methods within this research, the producing a surgical model will help surgeon to improve the pre-operative planning. For this we used additive manufacturing technologies such as Stereolitography to achieve the biomodel and FDM-fused deposition modelling to obtain a prototype model because these technologies make it possible to obtain prosthesis according to the physical and mechanical requirements of the region of implantation.

  16. Additional notes on Phoma herbarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, G.H.

    1970-01-01

    The sporogenesis of Phoma herbarum Westend., and Phoma species in general, is discussed. Additional data are given on the synonymy of P. herbarum and the status of its various infraspecific taxa is revised. Most of the ‘varieties’ and ‘forms’ appear to belong to the ubiquitous species Phoma exigua.

  17. (ICSID) ADDITIONAL FACILITY IN INTERNA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    Traditionally, ICSID is. “a forum for investor-state arbitration and conciliation”2, which focuses on settlement of legal disputes arising directly out of investment between “contracting” states or state entities and nationals of other. “Contracting” states which the parties consent in writing to submit to the centre.3 Additional facility.

  18. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wauthle, Ruben; Van Der Stok, Johan; Yavari, Saber Amin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364172320; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087198622; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of

  19. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  20. Polymer additives for engine oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.K.; Saxton, R.G. [Texaco R and D, Beacon, NY (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Polymers and oligomers are an important area of research for the oil industry, and many uses for them have been discovered over the years. One important application for polymers is in crankcase lubricants, in which various specialty polymers and copolymers are used as viscosity modifiers, dispersants, and pour-point depressants. These polymers give an oil all-season properties and are the most effective additives in producing multigrade oils. Polymer structures can be modified to produce multi-functional polymer additives that improve the viscosity index and impart other properties to the oil (i.e., dispersancy, antioxidant, and antiwear properties). In this article the authors will present an overview of the role of polymers in crankcase lubricants and then describe some work Texaco has done in the field.

  1. Gasoline detergent additive; Gasoline seijozai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M. [Nippon Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-06-01

    The transfer of the automobile gasoline engine fuel injection system from the carburettor to the injector proceeded in the 1980s, making feasible the accurate control of air/fuel ratio by use of electronic control. Detergents have to be added to the fuel, however, because the collection of deposits on the engine intake valve causes irregularities in the air/fuel ratio for the exertion of adverse effects on the engine operation and exhaust. A sample of such detergents consists of lipophilic groups (polymers) that enables the detergent to melt into gasoline and polar groups (mainly amine groups) that are easily adsorbed on the deposits. The added detergent not only keeps the valve clean of deposits but also decreases the deposits already accumulated on the valve. As for the cause of deposits in the combustion chamber, the engine design, operating conditions, engine lubricating oil, and gasoline may be named as the factors responsible for their accumulation. Some detergents are also found responsible, which are among the gasoline detergent additives that are extremely difficult to pyrolyze. In this report, in addition, some methods for testing the quality of gasoline detergent additives are introduced. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  2. ADDITIONAL STREET BERBASIS APP INVENTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Adib Adhi Prabowo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Seiring dengan perkembangan sistem operasi android, telah banyak aplikasi yang memanfaatkan fasilitas GPS dan Google Map, seperti untuk mencari rute, mendapatkan peta, mencari lokasi tertentu pada sebuah tempat. Akan tetapi seringkali pengguna perangkat bergerak kesulitan ketika ingin mengetahui beberapa tempat dan lokasi tertentu karena belum ada fasilitas yang menyediakan informasi lokasi suatu tempat. Walaupun ada informasi lokasi pada peta biasanya informasi yang diberikan lokasi tempat berskala besar, misalnya lokasi tempat wisata atau stasiun kereta api. Pengembangan aplikasi untuk skala kecil ini akan memberikan informasi yang dipresentasikan pada google map. Selama ini belum ada yang memberikan sebuah informasi lokasi tempat penting yang berskala kecil. Misalnya informasi lokasi  tambal ban, lokasi warung makan, lokasi laundry, dan lokasi bengkel motor. Oleh karena itu kami mencoba untuk mengembangkan aplikasi additional street berbasis android via App Inventor dengan bantuan google maps. Aplikasi additional street ini dapat memberikan informasi letak objek pada peta serta memberikan informasi jalan menuju lokasi tersebut dan detail informasi lokasi tersebut serta lokasi dari pengguna aplikasi tersebut. Kata Kunci: additional street, android, google maps, app inventor, GPS

  3. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Porous Metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kirka, Michael M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Currently, helium is obtained through separation from natural gas. The current industrial process incurs significant costs and requires large energy resources to successfully achieve separation. Through utilizing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies it is possible to reduce both of these burdens when refining helium gas. The ability to engineer porosity levels within Inconel 718 discs for controlled separation of helium from natural gas was investigated. Arrays of samples fabricated using the electron beam melting process were analyzed for their relative porosity density. Based upon the measurements, full scale discs were fabricated, and subsequently tested to determine their effectiveness in separating helium from liquefied natural gas.

  5. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  6. Search for additional Higgs bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Jochen; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of a Higgs boson with the mass of about 125 GeV completed the particle content predicted by the Standard Model. Even though this model is well-established and consistent with many measurements, it is not capable to solely explain some observations. Many extension addressing this fact introduce additional Higgs-like bosons which can be either neutral, singly-charged or even doubly-charged. The current status of searches based on data of the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC are presented. No indications for such particles were however found.

  7. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  8. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  9. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  10. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  11. Protocol for ADDITION-PRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Nanna Borup; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Jensen, Troels M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Screening programmes for type 2 diabetes inevitably find more individuals at high risk for diabetes than people with undiagnosed prevalent disease. While well established guidelines for the treatment of diabetes exist, less is known about treatment or prevention strategies...... assessment included detailed measurement of anthropometry, body composition, biochemistry, physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors including aortic stiffness and central blood pressure. All ADDITION-PRO participants are being followed for incident cardiovascular disease and death. DISCUSSION...... and metabolic risk factors; (iii) objective measurement of physical activity behaviour; and (iv) long-term follow-up of hard clinical outcomes including mortality and cardiovascular disease. Results will inform policy recommendations concerning cardiovascular risk reduction and treatment among individuals...

  12. Business models for additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadar, Ronen; Bilberg, Arne; Bogers, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Digital fabrication — including additive manufacturing (AM), rapid prototyping and 3D printing — has the potential to revolutionize the way in which products are produced and delivered to the customer. Therefore, it challenges companies to reinvent their business model — describing the logic...... of creating and capturing value. In this paper, we explore the implications that AM technologies have for manufacturing systems in the new business models that they enable. In particular, we consider how a consumer goods manufacturer can organize the operations of a more open business model when moving from...... a manufacturer-centric to a consumer-centric value logic. A major shift includes a move from centralized to decentralized supply chains, where consumer goods manufacturers can implement a “hybrid” approach with a focus on localization and accessibility or develop a fully personalized model where the consumer...

  13. Additive manufacturing with polypropylene microfibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Jodie N; Dargaville, Tim R; Dalton, Paul D

    2017-08-01

    The additive manufacturing of small diameter polypropylene microfibers is described, achieved using a technique termed melt electrospinning writing. Sequential fiber layering, which is important for accurate three-dimensional fabrication, was achieved with the smallest fiber diameter of 16.4±0.2μm obtained. The collector speed, temperature and melt flow rate to the nozzle were optimized for quality and minimal fiber pulsing. Of particular importance to the success of this method is appropriate heating of the collector plate, so that the electrostatically drawn filament adheres during the direct-writing process. By demonstrating the direct-writing of polypropylene, new applications exploiting the favorable mechanical, stability and biocompatible properties of this polymer are envisaged. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  15. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  16. Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Anders

    -portant AM-related manufacturing constraints are presented. These constraints are di-vided into directional and non-directional constraints. Non-directional constraints include minimum/uniform length scale and a cavity constraint. It is shown that modified filter boundary conditions are required in order...... microstructure for a material with programmable, nearly constant Poisson’s ratio for large deformations may be designed and fabricated using direct ink writing. Structures are generated for the full interval [−0.8, 0.8], all with uniform feature size and a continuous print path, ensuring the potential...... for scalable manufacturing. In relation to interface problems it is shown how a flexible void area may be included into a standard minimum compliance problem by employing an additional design variable field and a sensitivity filter. Furthermore, it is shown how the design of coated structures may be modeled...

  17. Additional Equipment for Soil Biodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Terezie; Kraus, Michal; Šál, Jiří

    2017-12-01

    Intensification of industrial production, increasing citizens’ living standards, expanding the consumer assortment mean in the production - consumption cycle a constantly increasing occurrence of waste material, which by its very nature must be considered as a source of useful raw materials in all branches of human activity. In addition to strict legislative requirements, a number of circumstances characterize waste management. It is mainly extensive transport associated with the handling and storage of large volumes of substances with a large assortment of materials (substances of all possible physical and chemical properties) and high demands on reliability and time coordination of follow-up processes. Considerable differences in transport distances, a large number of sources, processors and customers, and not least seasonal fluctuations in waste and strong price pressures cannot be overlooked. This highlights the importance of logistics in waste management. Soils that are contaminated with oil and petroleum products are hazardous industrial waste. Methods of industrial waste disposal are landfilling, biological processes, thermal processes and physical and chemical methods. The paper focuses on the possibilities of degradation of oil pollution, in particular biodegradation by bacteria, which is relatively low-cost among technologies. It is necessary to win the fight with time so that no ground water is contaminated. We have developed two additional devices to help reduce oil accident of smaller ranges. In the case of such an oil accident, it is necessary to carry out the permeability test of contaminated soil in time and, on this basis, to choose the technology appropriate to the accident - either in-sit biodegradation - at the site of the accident, or on-sit - to remove the soil and biodegrade it on the designated deposits. A special injection drill was developed for in-sit biodegradation, tossing and aeration equipment of the extracted soil was developed for

  18. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  20. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  1. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Fuel Injectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadek Tadros, Dr. Alber Alphonse [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ritter, Dr. George W. [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Drews, Charles Donald [Edison Welding Institute, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States); Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2017-10-24

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D-printing, has been shifting from a novelty prototyping paradigm to a legitimate manufacturing tool capable of creating components for highly complex engineered products. An emerging AM technology for producing metal parts is the laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) process; however, industry manufacturing specifications and component design practices for L-PBF have not yet been established. Solar Turbines Incorporated (Solar), an industrial gas turbine manufacturer, has been evaluating AM technology for development and production applications with the desire to enable accelerated product development cycle times, overall turbine efficiency improvements, and supply chain flexibility relative to conventional manufacturing processes (casting, brazing, welding). Accordingly, Solar teamed with EWI on a joint two-and-a-half-year project with the goal of developing a production L-PBF AM process capable of consistently producing high-nickel alloy material suitable for high temperature gas turbine engine fuel injector components. The project plan tasks were designed to understand the interaction of the process variables and their combined impact on the resultant AM material quality. The composition of the high-nickel alloy powders selected for this program met the conventional cast Hastelloy X compositional limits and were commercially available in different particle size distributions (PSD) from two suppliers. Solar produced all the test articles and both EWI and Solar shared responsibility for analyzing them. The effects of powder metal input stock, laser parameters, heat treatments, and post-finishing methods were evaluated. This process knowledge was then used to generate tensile, fatigue, and creep material properties data curves suitable for component design activities. The key process controls for ensuring consistent material properties were documented in AM powder and process specifications. The basic components of the project

  3. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... say about the relationship between food additives and ADHD? Answers from David C. Agerter, M.D Food ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and ...

  4. From Local to Global Additive Representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakker, P.P.; Chateauneuf, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper studies continuous additive representations of transitive preferences on connected subdomains of product sets. Contrary to what has sometimes been thought, local additive representability does not imply global additive representability. It is shown that the result can nevertheless be

  5. From local to global additive representation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chateauneuf (Alain); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies continuous additive representations of transitive preferences on connected subdomains of product sets. Contrary to what has sometimes been thought, local additive representability does not imply global additive representability. It is shown that the result can

  6. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Additives in Meat and Poultry Products People have been using food additives for ... FDA defines a color additive as any dye, pigment, or substance which—when added or applied to ...

  7. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  8. A flexible additive multiplicative hazard model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2002-01-01

    Aalen's additive model; Counting process; Cox regression; Hazard model; Proportional excess harzard model; Time-varying effect......Aalen's additive model; Counting process; Cox regression; Hazard model; Proportional excess harzard model; Time-varying effect...

  9. The additivity problem and constrained quantum channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holevo, A. S.

    2005-06-01

    We give formulations of the famous additivity conjecture for several important quantities characterizing quantum channel and prove their global equivalence to the additivity of the classical capacity of a channel under input constrains (like mean energy constrain).

  10. Food additatives. Use, intake and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar; Busk, Leif

    2000-01-01

    Today we have about 300 approved food additives on the European market and all of them have been evaluated for safety by the European Commission's expert advisory body - the Scientific Committee for Food (SCF). There are fundamental requirements for approval of a food additive. The additive has to be of value for the consumer or necessary for the handling and distribution of the food. In addition, it has to be toxicologically acceptable according to European Community regulatory requirements....

  11. The Philosophical Consideration about Food Additives

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyu Ma

    2015-01-01

    This study mainly analyzes the essential features of food additives technology from the angle of philosophy, explaining the essential characteristics of food additives technology. As for the attitude towards the application of food additives, it is influenced by the public's gender, age, educational level, occupation and monthly expenditure for buying non-staple food and other variables, thus, the attitude towards food additives and green food, as well as the attitude towards using artificial...

  12. 30 CFR 762.12 - Additional criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional criteria. 762.12 Section 762.12... UNSUITABLE FOR MINING CRITERIA FOR DESIGNATING AREAS AS UNSUITABLE FOR SURFACE COAL MINING OPERATIONS § 762.12 Additional criteria. (a) A State regulatory authority may establish additional or more stringent...

  13. 28 CFR 80.16 - Additional requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requests. 80.16 Section 80.16... § 80.16 Additional requests. Additional requests for FCPA Opinions may be filed with the Attorney... conduct specified in previous requests. ...

  14. 49 CFR 1150.8 - Additional support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional support. 1150.8 Section 1150.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... Applications Under 49 U.S.C. 10901 § 1150.8 Additional support. Any additional facts or reasons to show that...

  15. Central Limit Theorems under additive deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Daniel J; McKeague, Ian W

    2016-11-01

    Additive deformations of statistical systems arise in various areas of physics. Classical central limit theory is then no longer applicable, even when standard independence assumptions are preserved. This paper investigates ways in which deformed algebraic operations lead to distinctive central limit theory. We establish some general central limit results that are applicable to a range of examples arising in nonextensive statistical mechanics, including the addition of momenta and velocities via Kaniadakis addition, and Tsallis addition. We also investigate extensions to random additive deformations, and find evidence (based on simulation studies) for a universal limit specific to each statistical system.

  16. Additional palatal implants for refractory snoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Peter; Goh, Yao Hong; Romanow, John

    2007-07-01

    To evaluate safety and efficacy of additional palatal implants for snoring treatment. A prospective case series at two clinical sites in an office setting. Patients who did not have an acceptable reduction in snoring intensity after an initial 3 implant procedure received additional implants. Bed partners rated snoring intensity on a 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS) at baseline and 90 days postprocedure. Snoring intensity VAS decreased significantly from 6.4 +/- 2.3 to 4.6 +/- 2.9 (P < 0.01) for patients who received an additional fourth implant, and to 4.1 +/- 2.8 after the 5th implant (P<0.01). Epworth sleepiness scale scores also decreased significantly for patients who received additional fourth or fifth implants. There were no adverse events. Additional palatal implants for snoring treatment were safe and effective in this case series. Additional implants may offer relief for snorers not responding to the initial 3 implant procedure.

  17. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  18. Additive operator-difference schemes splitting schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Vabishchevich, Petr N

    2013-01-01

    Applied mathematical modeling isconcerned with solving unsteady problems. This bookshows how toconstruct additive difference schemes to solve approximately unsteady multi-dimensional problems for PDEs. Two classes of schemes are highlighted: methods of splitting with respect to spatial variables (alternating direction methods) and schemes of splitting into physical processes. Also regionally additive schemes (domain decomposition methods)and unconditionally stable additive schemes of multi-component splitting are considered for evolutionary equations of first and second order as well as for sy

  19. Multiplicativity of left centralizers forcing additivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sayed Tammam El-Sayiad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multiplicative left centralizer for an associative ring R is a map satisfying T(xy = T\\(xy for all x,y in R. T is not assumed to be additive. In this paper we deal with the additivity of the multiplicative left centralizers in a ring which contains an idempotent element. Specially, we study additivity for multiplicative left centralizers in prime and semiprime rings which contain an idempotent element.

  20. ON IDENTIFICATION OF CONCRETE PLASTICIZING ADDITIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. I. Yukhnevskiy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality problem of chemical additives comes down in general to their objective and independent evaluation. As an identification is not made during product delivery for testing and while carrying out the testing there is difference in the results of investigations and finally construction products suffer from their poor quality. In this connection, it is proposed to make some alterations to revised version of the STB 1112 and GOST 30459, so that while supplying chemical additives for certification testing a certificate on additive quality should contain a standard of IR-spectra with active components. Simultaneously, the standard should be applied for additive testing results in accordance with rate efficiency criteria  for GOST 30459. Such norms are accepted for similar European standards.The paper presents a standard method for identification of organic additives according to IR-spectra, characteristic absorption bands for the Lignopan-type  additives and naphthalene formaldehyde super-plasticizer C-3. However, due to the fact that it is not possible to judge number of functional groups in the product by  absorption band size but it is possible only to assess their availability so it is recommended to use other methods. As an additional characteristics it is proposed to determine magnitude of the dipole moment in a  plasticizer-additive molecule. The authors previously developed a technique and  determined dipole moments in super-plasticizer-additives as in the form of powder so in the form of aqueous solutions, correlation relationship of water reduction additive capability with the magnitude of dipole moment. It has been proposed to manufacturers of plasticizing additives for concrete along with IR-spectra in the technical documentation to indicate a magnitude of the molecule dipole moment  as a generalized characteristics that determines its plasticizing properties.

  1. Working Memory and Children's Mental Addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, John W.; Hitch, Graham J.

    1997-01-01

    Two experiments investigated extent to which English- and German-speaking childrens' mental arithmetic was constrained by working memory. Found higher mental addition spans when numbers were visible throughout calculation than when not. Variation in addition span with age and arithmetical operation difficulty approximated to a linear function of…

  2. 7 CFR 958.90 - Additional parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional parties. 958.90 Section 958.90 Agriculture... Additional parties. After the effective date hereof, any handler may become a party to this agreement if a... contracting party at the time such counterpart is delivered to the Secretary, and the benefits, privileges...

  3. 7 CFR 955.91 - Additional parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional parties. 955.91 Section 955.91 Agriculture... Marketing Agreement § 955.91 Additional parties. After the effective date thereof, any handler may become a party to this agreement if a counterpart is executed by such handler and delivered to the Secretary...

  4. 78 FR 34351 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this certification... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  5. 78 FR 32632 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase from People Who are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action...

  6. 77 FR 15736 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action...

  7. 76 FR 14943 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Additions to the Procurement List...

  8. 75 FR 51757 - Procurement List Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this certification... Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds a service to the Procurement List...

  9. 76 FR 45542 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed addition to the procurement list...

  10. 78 FR 5423 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  11. 77 FR 17034 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action...

  12. 76 FR 80345 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this certification... List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action adds services to the Procurement List that will be...

  13. 78 FR 45183 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  14. 77 FR 32592 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  15. 77 FR 2962 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY...

  16. 76 FR 18189 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  17. 78 FR 59658 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  18. 75 FR 21246 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ... action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action...

  19. 78 FR 41916 - Procurement List Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this certification... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the procurement list. SUMMARY: This action...

  20. 77 FR 34025 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action...

  1. 78 FR 2378 - Procurement List, Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action...

  2. 77 FR 59595 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  3. 75 FR 4784 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action...

  4. 77 FR 71400 - Procurement List, Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this certification... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List, Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  5. 77 FR 27736 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  6. 78 FR 4133 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY...

  7. 77 FR 31335 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  8. 75 FR 18163 - Procurement List Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action...

  9. 76 FR 76952 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List...

  10. 76 FR 40341 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  11. 76 FR 35415 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action...

  12. 75 FR 39497 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  13. 75 FR 52723 - Procurement List Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action...

  14. 76 FR 45541 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this certification... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  15. 77 FR 44220 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ... not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List...

  16. 75 FR 28590 - Procurement List Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Additions to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This...

  17. 76 FR 23997 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action...

  18. 78 FR 9386 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action...

  19. 77 FR 47823 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List...

  20. 78 FR 40727 - Procurement List Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this certification... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Addition to the Procurement List. SUMMARY: This action...

  1. 77 FR 41377 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed Addition to the Procurement List...

  2. 12 CFR 619.9010 - Additional security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional security. 619.9010 Section 619.9010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9010 Additional security. Supplementary collateral to the primary security taken in connection with the loan. ...

  3. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional equity. 1735.18 Section 1735.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for loan...

  4. 77 FR 41899 - Indirect Food Additives: Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 177 Indirect Food Additives: Polymers AGENCY... CFR part 177 is amended as follows: PART 177--INDIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES: POLYMERS 0 1. The authority...

  5. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value or...

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Materials: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wu, Linmin; Guo, Xingye; Kane, Stephen; Deng, Yifan; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Lee, Je-Hyun; Zhang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    In this review article, the latest developments of the four most common additive manufacturing methods for metallic materials are reviewed, including powder bed fusion, direct energy deposition, binder jetting, and sheet lamination. In addition to the process principles, the microstructures and mechanical properties of AM-fabricated parts are comprehensively compared and evaluated. Finally, several future research directions are suggested.

  7. Addition and Subtraction, and Algorithms in General

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielker, David

    2007-01-01

    The juxtaposition of articles by Ian Thompson and Ian Sugarman in "MT202" on addition and subtraction respectively engendered some bemused thoughts in this author, who for some years has been sheltered from controversy by retirement. In this article, Fielker shares some thoughts on addition and subtraction raised by Thompson and Sugarman in their…

  8. Catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition with Grignard reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, Fernando; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    In this Account, recent advances in catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of Grignard reagents are discussed. Synthetic methodology to perform highly enantioselective Cu-catalyzed conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to cyclic enones with ee's up to 96% was reported in 2004 from our

  9. Additions to the Avifauna of suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mees, G.F.

    1974-01-01

    It is self-evident that as the avifauna of a country becomes better known, the number of additions to its avifauna one can expect to make in a given period, must decrease. On the other hand, it may be said that for the same reason the value of each addition increases. During a stay in Suriname of

  10. On The Generalized Additivity Of Kaniadakis Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Since entropy has several applications in the information theory, such as, for example, in bi-level or multi-level thresholding of images, it is interesting to investigate the generalized additivity of Kaniadakis entropy for more than two systems. Here we consider the additivity for three, four and five systems, because we aim applying Kaniadakis entropy to such multi-level analyses

  11. Additive Manufacturing for Low Volume Bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate, John G. [Schaeffler Group USA, Spartanburg, SC (United States); Richardson, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ORNL worked with the Schaeffler Group USA to explore additive manufacturing techniques that might be appropriate for prototyping of bearing cages. Multiple additive manufacturing techniques were investigated, including e-beam, binder jet and multiple laser based processes. The binder jet process worked best for the thin, detailed cages printed.

  12. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  13. Graphite and Hybrid Nanomaterials as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenyu J. Zhang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lubricant additives, based on inorganic nanoparticles coated with organic outer layer, can reduce wear and increase load-carrying capacity of base oil remarkably, indicating the great potential of hybrid nanoparticles as anti-wear and extreme-pressure additives with excellent levels of performance. The organic part in the hybrid materials improves their flexibility and stability, while the inorganic part is responsible for hardness. The relationship between the design parameters of the organic coatings, such as molecular architecture and the lubrication performance, however, remains to be fully elucidated. A survey of current understanding of hybrid nanoparticles as lubricant additives is presented in this review.

  14. 77 FR 699 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... January 5, 2012 Part V Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the...

  15. Characterizing Polymer Powders used in Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-16

    These are a set of slides that give the personal background of the author, information about his LANL organization, and information about his internship project at LANL about additive manufacturing and selective laser sintering (SLS).

  16. Additively Manufactured and Surface Biofunctionalized Porous Nitinol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorgin Karaji, Z; Speirs, M; Dadbakhsh, S; Kruth, J-P; Weinans, H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/087198622; Zadpoor, A A; Amin Yavari, S|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/364172320

    2017-01-01

    Enhanced bone tissue regeneration and improved osseointegration are among the most important goals in design of multifunctional orthopedic biomaterials. In this study, we used additive manufacturing (selective laser melting) to develop multifunctional porous nitinol that combines superelasticity

  17. Ingredients and additives in tobacco products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Pötschke-Langer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. Some are naturally present, but many are added during manufacturing or are formed during combustion of the product. Additives are added mainly to influence the tobacco taste or for moisturizing and burning characteristics. They include any colouring agents, adhesives, plasticizers, binders, etc. that are included in the filter, the paper and in tobacco. More than 600 different additives are known, these can account for about 10 up to 25 per cent of the total weight of a cigarette. Additives transform tobacco smoke into an even more complex chemical mixture and further increase the carcinogenic and harmful effects of smoking. The presentation will demonstrate how additives are used to facilitate smoking and contribute to increased addictiveness and how flavouring agents can increase the attractiveness of tobacco products.

  18. 75 FR 81235 - Procurement List; Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... from representatives of the Blind Entrepreneurs Alliance (BEA), Randolph Sheppard Vendors of America... factors considered for this certification were: 1. The action will not result in any additional reporting...

  19. Effects of additional data on Bayesian clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Keisuke

    2017-10-01

    Hierarchical probabilistic models, such as mixture models, are used for cluster analysis. These models have two types of variables: observable and latent. In cluster analysis, the latent variable is estimated, and it is expected that additional information will improve the accuracy of the estimation of the latent variable. Many proposed learning methods are able to use additional data; these include semi-supervised learning and transfer learning. However, from a statistical point of view, a complex probabilistic model that encompasses both the initial and additional data might be less accurate due to having a higher-dimensional parameter. The present paper presents a theoretical analysis of the accuracy of such a model and clarifies which factor has the greatest effect on its accuracy, the advantages of obtaining additional data, and the disadvantages of increasing the complexity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-additive measure and integral

    CERN Document Server

    Denneberg, Dieter

    1994-01-01

    Non-Additive Measure and Integral is the first systematic approach to the subject. Much of the additive theory (convergence theorems, Lebesgue spaces, representation theorems) is generalized, at least for submodular measures which are characterized by having a subadditive integral. The theory is of interest for applications to economic decision theory (decisions under risk and uncertainty), to statistics (including belief functions, fuzzy measures) to cooperative game theory, artificial intelligence, insurance, etc. Non-Additive Measure and Integral collects the results of scattered and often isolated approaches to non-additive measures and their integrals which originate in pure mathematics, potential theory, statistics, game theory, economic decision theory and other fields of application. It unifies, simplifies and generalizes known results and supplements the theory with new results, thus providing a sound basis for applications and further research in this growing field of increasing interest. It also co...

  1. Laser-based additive manufacturing of metals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, S

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available For making metallic products through Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes, laser-based systems play very significant roles. Laser-based processes such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM) and Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS) are dominating processes...

  2. Enantioselective Addition of Grignard Reagents to Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Nudelman

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The addition of Grignard reagents to aldehydes in the presence of chiral aminoalcohols shows a moderate enantioselectivity. The study carried out with a series of ligands allows the correlation between the structural characteristics and their reactivity.

  3. Classification of additives for organic photovoltaic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machui, Florian; Maisch, Philipp; Burgués-Ceballos, Ignasi; Langner, Stefan; Krantz, Johannes; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J

    2015-04-27

    The use of additives to improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells has been intensely researched in recent years. However, so far, no system has been reported for the classification of additives and their functions. In this report, a system for classifying additives according to the fundamental mechanism by which they influence microstructure formation for P3HT:PCBM is suggested. The major parameters used for their classification are solubility and drying kinetics. Both are discussed in detail and their consequences on processing are analyzed. Furthermore, a general mechanism to classify the impact of additives on structure formation is suggested and discussed for different materials relevant to organic photovoltaic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Large Scale Metal Additive Techniques Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nycz, Andrzej [ORNL; Adediran, Adeola I [ORNL; Noakes, Mark W [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In recent years additive manufacturing made long strides toward becoming a main stream production technology. Particularly strong progress has been made in large-scale polymer deposition. However, large scale metal additive has not yet reached parity with large scale polymer. This paper is a review study of the metal additive techniques in the context of building large structures. Current commercial devices are capable of printing metal parts on the order of several cubic feet compared to hundreds of cubic feet for the polymer side. In order to follow the polymer progress path several factors are considered: potential to scale, economy, environment friendliness, material properties, feedstock availability, robustness of the process, quality and accuracy, potential for defects, and post processing as well as potential applications. This paper focuses on current state of art of large scale metal additive technology with a focus on expanding the geometric limits.

  5. Directed nucleophilic addition of phenoxides to cyclopropenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanushkin, Pavel; Lu-Diaz, Michael; Edwards, Andrew; Aksenov, Nicolai A; Rubina, Marina; Rubin, Michael

    2017-10-04

    The alkali metal-templated addition of aryloxides across the double bond of non-conjugated cyclopropenes is described. High cis-selectivity is achieved through a directing effect of a strategically positioned carboxamide functionality.

  6. Additive Manufacturing of Ion Thruster Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Plasma Controls will manufacture and test a set of ion optics for electric propulsion ion thrusters using additive manufacturing technology, also known as 3D...

  7. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, H L; Mazumder, J; DebRoy, T

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data...

  8. Additional considerations on electrolysis in electromembrane extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Šlampová, A. (Andrea); Kubáň, P. (Pavel); Boček, P. (Petr)

    2016-01-01

    Additional considerations on quantitative aspects of electrolysis in EME have been evaluated. The most likely reasons for back-extraction of analytes during EMEs have been examined and efficient approaches for electrolysis elimination have been proposed.

  9. Multinomial probit Bayesian additive regression trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindo, Bereket P; Wang, Hao; Peña, Edsel A

    This article proposes multinomial probit Bayesian additive regression trees (MPBART) as a multinomial probit extension of BART - Bayesian additive regression trees. MPBART is flexible to allow inclusion of predictors that describe the observed units as well as the available choice alternatives. Through two simulation studies and four real data examples, we show that MPBART exhibits very good predictive performance in comparison to other discrete choice and multiclass classification methods. To implement MPBART, the R package mpbart is freely available from CRAN repositories.

  10. BFR Electrolyte Additive Safety and Flammability Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allcorn, Eric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-13

    Lithium-ion battery safety is a critical issue in the adoption of the chemistry to larger scale applications such as transportation and stationary storage. One of the critical components impacting the safety of lithium-ion batteries is their use of highly flammable organic electrolytes. In this work, brominated flame retardants (BFR’s) – an existing class of flame retardant materials – are incorporated as additives to lithium-ion battery electrolytes with the intention to reduce the electrolyte flammability and thereby improve safety. There are a few critical needs for a successful electrolyte additive: solubility in the electrolyte, electrochemical stability over the range of battery operation, and minimal detrimental effects on battery performance. Those detrimental effects can take the form of electrolyte specific impacts, such as a reduction in conductivity, or electrode impacts, such as SEI-layer modification or chemical instability to the active material. In addition to these needs, the electrolyte additive also needs to achieve its intended purpose, which in this case is to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte. For the work conducted as part of this SPP agreement three separate BFR materials were provided by Albemarle to be tested by Sandia as additives in a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte. The provided BFR materials were tribromo-neopentyl alcohol, tetrabromo bisphenol A, and tribromoethylene. These materials were incorporated as separate 4 wt.% additives into a traditional lithium-ion battery electrolyte and compared to said traditional electrolyte, designated Gen2.

  11. Additive manufacturing in production: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Bhrigu; Karg, Michael; Schmidt, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing, characterized by its inherent layer by layer fabrication methodology has been coined by many as the latest revolution in the manufacturing industry. Due to its diversification of Materials, processes, system technology and applications, Additive Manufacturing has been synonymized with terminology such as Rapid prototyping, 3D printing, free-form fabrication, Additive Layer Manufacturing, etc. A huge media and public interest in the technology has led to an innovative attempt of exploring the technology for applications beyond the scope of the traditional engineering industry. Nevertheless, it is believed that a critical factor for the long-term success of Additive Manufacturing would be its ability to fulfill the requirements defined by the traditional manufacturing industry. A parallel development in market trends and product requirements has also lead to a wider scope of opportunities for Additive Manufacturing. The presented paper discusses some of the key challenges which are critical to ensure that Additive Manufacturing is truly accepted as a mainstream production technology in the industry. These challenges would highlight on various aspects of production such as product requirements, process management, data management, intellectual property, work flow management, quality assurance, resource planning, etc. In Addition, changing market trends such as product life cycle, mass customization, sustainability, environmental impact and localized production will form the foundation for the follow up discussion on the current limitations and the corresponding research opportunities. A discussion on ongoing research to address these challenges would include topics like process monitoring, design complexity, process standardization, multi-material and hybrid fabrication, new material development, etc.

  12. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  13. Terminal addition in a cellular world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, J S; Miller, William B

    2017-12-19

    Recent advances in our understanding of evolutionary development permit a reframed appraisal of Terminal Addition as a continuous historical process of cellular-environmental complementarity. Within this frame of reference, evolutionary terminal additions can be identified as environmental induction of episodic adjustments to cell-cell signaling patterns that yield the cellular-molecular pathways that lead to differing developmental forms. Phenotypes derive, thereby, through cellular mutualistic/competitive niche constructions in reciprocating responsiveness to environmental biophysical stresses and epigenetic impacts. In such terms, Terminal Addition flows according to a logic of cellular needs confronting environmental challenges over space-time. A reconciliation of evolutionary development and Terminal Addition can be achieved through a combined focus on cell-cell signaling, molecular phylogenies and a broader understanding of epigenetic phenomena among eukaryotic organisms. When understood in this manner, Terminal Addition has an important role in evolutionary development, and chronic disease might be considered as a form of 'reverse evolution' of the self-same processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Pyrophosphorolysis of CCA addition: implication for fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Takao; Liu, Cuiping; Morinaga, Hironobu; Kim, Sangbumn; Hou, Ya-Ming

    2011-11-18

    In nucleic acid polymerization reaction, pyrophosphorolysis is the reversal of nucleotide addition, in which the terminal nucleotide is excised in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). The CCA enzymes are unusual RNA polymerases, which catalyze CCA addition to positions 74-76 at the tRNA 3' end without using a nucleic acid template. To better understand the reaction mechanism of CCA addition, we tested pyrophosphorolysis of CCA enzymes, which are divided into two structurally distinct classes. Here, we show that only class II CCA enzymes catalyze pyrophosphorolysis and that the reaction can initiate from all three CCA positions and proceed processively until the removal of nucleotide C74. Pyrophosphorolysis of class II enzymes establishes a fundamental difference from class I enzymes, and it is achieved only with the tRNA structure and with specific divalent metal ions. Importantly, pyrophosphorolysis enables class II enzymes to efficiently remove an incorrect A75 nucleotide from the 3' end, at a rate much faster than the rate of A75 incorporation, suggesting the ability to perform a previously unexpected quality control mechanism for CCA synthesis. Measurement of kinetic parameters of the class II Escherichia coli CCA enzyme reveals that the enzyme catalyzes pyrophosphorolysis slowly relative to the forward nucleotide addition and that it exhibits weak binding affinity to PPi relative to NTP, suggesting a mechanism in which PPi is rapidly released after each nucleotide addition as a driving force to promote the forward synthesis of CCA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Advanced Polymers for Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carter, William G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kutchko, Cindy [PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Fenn, David [PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Olson, Kurt [PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-09-08

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. (PPG) was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition, and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and inherently low-cost.

  16. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is developing technology to build structures on planetary surfaces using in-situ resources. The project focuses on the construction of both 2D (landing pads, roads, and structure foundations) and 3D (habitats, garages, radiation shelters, and other structures) infrastructure needs for planetary surface missions. The ACME project seeks to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of two components needed for planetary surface habitation and exploration: 3D additive construction (e.g., contour crafting), and excavation and handling technologies (to effectively and continuously produce in-situ feedstock). Additionally, the ACME project supports the research and development of new materials for planetary surface construction, with the goal of reducing the amount of material to be launched from Earth.

  17. Evaluation of advanced polymers for additive manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Orlando [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morrison, Crystal [PPG Industries, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and is inherently low-cost.

  18. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  19. Phosphate Additive Avoidance in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Jules, David E; Goldfarb, David S; Pompeii, Mary Lou; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-05-01

    IN BRIEF Dietary guidelines for patients with diabetes extend beyond glycemic management to include recommendations for mitigating chronic disease risk. This review summarizes the literature suggesting that excess dietary phosphorus intake may increase the risk of skeletal and cardiovascular disease in patients who are in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) despite having normal serum phosphorus concentrations. It explores strategies for limiting dietary phosphorus, emphasizing that food additives, as a major source of highly bioavailable dietary phosphorus, may be a suitable target. Although the evidence for restricting phosphorus-based food additives in early CKD is limited, diabetes clinicians should monitor ongoing research aimed at assessing its efficacy.

  20. Photogrammetry for Repositioning in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Janus Nørtoft; Lyngby, Rasmus Ahrenkiel; Aanæs, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    In this preliminary work, we present our current status on how to use single camera photogrammetry to determine the orientation of an additively manufactured partly finished object that has been repositioned in the printing chamber, from a single image taken with a calibrated camera, and comparing...... this to the CAD model of the object. We describe how this knowledge can be used to update the machine code of the printer such that printing of the object can be resumed in the new location. This opens possibilities for embedding and assembling foreign parts into the additive manufacturing pipeline, adding...

  1. Additive strengthening mechanisms in dispersion hardened polycrystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels; Ralph, B.

    1986-01-01

    the addition of strength components from various elements of the microstructure and substructure might explain this behaviour are investigated. It is shown that a linear combination of a matrix friction stress, an Orowan bowing stress, a matrix mean stress from the particles and a combined dislocation...... the dislocation density contributions from each of these three sources. The type of additivity suggested here not only gives very good agreement with the stress-strain data but it also uses and is in accord with the experimental measurements of dislocation densities made using transmission electron microscopy....

  2. 19 Additive and Substitutive Borrowing against Semantic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research was carried out with the help of undergraduate students of linguistics. Further linguistic materials analysed herein come from dictionaries and lexicons. Although retention of the proto-. Bantu words are apparent, findings indicate that cases of additive borrowing are obvious for new concepts associated with new.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further

  4. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further

  5. Power transformer additional load losses separation procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Miloje M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed procedure is based on the fact that total transformer losses (PLL1,n, determined by short circuit test, can be separated into two components: the eddy current losses in the windings (PEC1,n and stray flux losses (PSL1,n in iron parts of construction as well as in the transformer tank walls. The total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, are determined by short circuit test results, conducted at rated frequency (f1 and at increased harmonic frequency (fh=h*f1. Using so obtained total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, which can be expressed in the form PLLdh=PEC1,n*h2 + PSL1,n*h, the corresponding rate additional load losses values PEC1,n and PSL1,n are derived. At the end, for given load with predefined high harmonics content, (Ih/I1n, relative to rated current, the total additional load losses value ΣPLLdh > PLLd1, is found. In such a way all harmonics up to hmax are taken into account.

  6. 76 FR 22680 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Addition AGENCY: Committee... Procurement List. SUMMARY: The Committee is proposing to add a service to the Procurement List that will be...

  7. 77 FR 40343 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for this certification... commodity is not suitable for the Procurement List if there is ``severe adverse impact on the current... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From...

  8. PROFITABILITY OF VALUE ADDITION TO CASHEW FARMING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale L.) is an economic crop in Nigeria grown in small plantations in almost every State because of the ease of cultivation and need for minimum attention. Cashew apple wastes on planta- tions and this reduces cashew farming household incomes. This study examined value addition ...

  9. Enantioselective aminocatalysis: Michael addition of unactivated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although there is a report on stereoselective organocatalysis in Michael addition employing monofunctional secondary amine, the use of monofunctional primary amine forthe said reaction is not reported till date. In fact, no monofunctional aminocatalyst is reported yet for the synthesis γ-nitro carbonyl compounds. Here we ...

  10. Biofuels and the need for additional carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searchinger, Timothy D.

    2010-04-01

    Use of biofuels does not reduce emissions from energy combustion but may offset emissions by increasing plant growth or by reducing plant residue or other non-energy emissions. To do so, biofuel production must generate and use 'additional carbon', which means carbon that plants would not otherwise absorb or that would be emitted to the atmosphere anyway. When biofuels cause no direct land use change, they use crops that would grow regardless of biofuels so they do not directly absorb additional carbon. All potential greenhouse gas reductions from such biofuels, as well as many potential emission increases, result from indirect effects, including reduced crop consumption, price-induced yield gains and land conversion. If lifecycle analyses ignore indirect effects of biofuels, they therefore cannot properly find greenhouse gas reductions. Uncertainties in estimating indirect emission reductions and increases are largely symmetrical. The failure to distinguish 'additional' carbon from carbon already absorbed or withheld from the atmosphere also leads to large overestimates of global bioenergy potential. Reasonable confidence in greenhouse gas reductions requires a precautionary approach to estimating indirect effects that does not rely on any single model. Reductions can be more directly assured, and other adverse indirect effects avoided, by focusing on biofuels from directly additional carbon.

  11. Sintering of magnesia: effect of additives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Ceramic Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769008, India ... negative. The capillary pressure is p = γ (1/γ+1/x) and is negative (γ = surface energy). Summed over powder com- pact, the capillary pressure gives a modest net ... Nelson and Culter10 studied the effect of many additives in.

  12. Connected domination stable graphs upon edge addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A set S of vertices in a graph G is a connected dominating set of G if S dominates G and the subgraph induced by S is connected. We study the graphs for which adding any edge does not change the connected domination number. Keywords: Connected domination, connected domination stable, edge addition ...

  13. Clinica use of platelet additive solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rhenen, Dick J

    2007-12-01

    Randomised clinical trial (RCT) to study the clinical efficacy and safety of new platelet products using platelet additive solutions are scarce. In this paper a number of recent RCT's is discussed. It can be the start of a development where new transfusion products enter a RCT before the product is applied in clinical practice.

  14. 48 CFR 228.370 - Additional clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...., helicopters, vertical take-off or landing aircraft, lighter-than-air airships, unmanned aerial vehicles, or... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional clauses. 228.370 Section 228.370 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM...

  15. 5 CFR 831.1905 - Additional provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... necessary to properly process a request for State income tax withholding. (d) If the State is paid... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 831.1905 Section 831.1905 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS...

  16. Augmented Reality Interfaces for Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores potential use cases for using augmented reality (AR) as a tool to operate industrial machines. As a baseline we use an additive manufacturing system, more commonly known as a 3D printer. We implement novel augmented interfaces and controls using readily available open source...

  17. 42 CFR 67.22 - Additional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 67.22 Section 67.22 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING AGENCY FOR HEALTH CARE POLICY AND RESEARCH GRANTS AND CONTRACTS Research Grants for Health Services...

  18. Structural dynamic modification using additive damping

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In order to control dynamic response in structures and machines, modofications using additive viscoelastic damping materials are highlighted. The techniques described for analysis include analytical methods for structural elements, FEM and perturbation methods for reanalysis or structural dynamic modifications for ...

  19. [Information about phosphorus additives and nutritional counseling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Shinsuke; Nomura, Kengo; Sasaki, Shohei; Shiozaki, Yuji; Segawa, Hiroko; Tatsumi, Sawako

    2012-10-01

    Hyperphosphatemia is a common disorder in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) , and may result in hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. Hyperphosphatemia also may contribute to deterioration vascular calcification and increase mortality. Hence, correction and prevention of hyperphosphatemia is a main component of the management of CKD. This goal is usually approached both by administering phosphorus binders and by restricting dietary phosphorus (P) intake. Dietary intake of phosphorus (P) is derived largely from foods with high protein content or food additives and is an important determinant of P balance in patient with CKD. Food additives (PO4) can dramatically increase the amount of P consumed in the daily diet, especially because P is more readily absorbed in its inorganic form. In addition, information about the P content and type in prepared foods is often unavailable or misleading. Therefore, during dietary counseling of patients with CKD, we recommended that they consider both the absolute dietary P content and the P-to-protein ratio of foods and meals including food additives.

  20. 24 CFR 1710.216 - Additional information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the United States, the Statement of Record shall be submitted in the English language and all supporting documents, including copies of any laws which restrict the ownership of land by aliens, shall be... § 1710.216 Additional information. (a) Property Owners' Association. (1) If the association has been...

  1. 77 FR 780 - Procurement List Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ...-3259. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION OR TO SUBMIT COMMENTS CONTACT: Barry S. Lineback, Telephone: (703) 603... (41 U.S.C. Chapter 85) in connection with the product and service proposed for addition to the..., globes/lenses, trophies/display cases, drapes/curtains, venetian blinds and curtain rods; display and...

  2. 77 FR 65365 - Procurement List; Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway, Arlington, Virginia 22202-3259. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...-8506) in connection with the products proposed for addition to the Procurement List. End of...: 6650-00-NIB-0053--Flat Top 8x35, Trifocal, Polycarbonate, Clear NSN: 6650-00-NIB-0054--Lenses...

  3. 77 FR 35942 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ..., Virginia, 22202-3259. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION OR TO SUBMIT COMMENTS CONTACT: Patricia Briscoe, Telephone... (41 U.S.C. 8501-8506) in connection with the products and services proposed for addition to the...: 6650-00-NIB-0054--Lenses, Progressives (VIP, Adaptar, Freedom, Image), Polycarbonate NSN: 6650-00-NIB...

  4. Powder Characterization and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordova, Laura; Campos, Mónica; Tinga, Tiedo

    2017-01-01

    Achieving the optimal quality for Additive Manufactured (AM) parts does not only depend on setting the right process parameters. Material feedstock also plays an important role when aiming for high performance products. The metal AM processes that are most applicable to industry, Powder Bed Fusion

  5. Predicting Color Output of Additive Manufactured Parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Aanæs, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we address the colorimetric performance of a multicolor additive manufacturing process. A method on how to measure and characterize color performance of said process is presented. Furthermore, a method on predicting the color output is demonstrated, allowing for previsualization...

  6. Designing for Color in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Luongo, Andrea; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a color design pipeline for 3D printed or additively manufactured parts. We demonstrate how to characterize and calibrate a commercial printer and how to obtain its forward and backward color transformation models. We present results from our assistive color design tool...

  7. Fully additive chip packaging: science or fiction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, G.; Zon, C.M.B. van der; Maalderink, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    The current trend in IC packaging towards an ever increasing degree of integration, combined with a high level of production flexibility calls for novel approaches in manufacturing. To address these challenges in a flexible manufacturing setting, TNO investigated to what extend mask-less additive

  8. Additive Manufacturing: From Form to Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    of Commerce (DOC), and the Department of Agriculture (DOA). As of 2015, a total of eight Institutes for Manufacturing Innovation have been...fully printed UAVs and robots that perform dan- gerous tasks.44 Growth in the area of additively manufactured textiles lends itself to smart fabrics for

  9. Nonparametric and semiparametric dynamic additive regression models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas Harder; Martinussen, Torben

    Dynamic additive regression models provide a flexible class of models for analysis of longitudinal data. The approach suggested in this work is suited for measurements obtained at random time points and aims at estimating time-varying effects. Both fully nonparametric and semiparametric models can...

  10. Additive and Substitutive Borrowing against Semantic Broadening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thrust of this paper lies on semantic changes associated with additive and substitutive borrowing in Bantu-speaking communities in Tanzania. Due to contact of languages, semantic differences of the terms related to architectural structures emanate. Apart from data from a few elderly native speakers, research was ...

  11. Enantioselective aminocatalysis: Michael addition of unactivated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KHIANGTE VANLALDINPUIA

    derived from α-amino acids and carbohydrates for asymmetric Michael addition in solvent-free conditions. Given the importance of stereoselective Michael addi- tion of carbonyl compounds to nitroalkenes42 in the synthesis of synthetically useful γ-nitro carbonyl com- pounds,43–45 Ma and co-workers reported bifunctional.

  12. Application of Natural Mineral Additives in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Malgorzata; Nita, Piotr; Wolka, Paweł; Zebrowski, Wojciech

    2017-12-01

    The article concerns the idea of using selected mineral additives in the pavement quality concrete composition. The basis of the research paper was the modification of cement concrete intended for airfield pavements. The application of the additives: metakaolonite and natural zeolite was suggested. Analyses included the assessment of basic physical properties of modifiers. Screening analysis, assessment of micro structure and chemical microanalysis were conducted in case of these materials. The influence of the applied additives on the change of concrete mix parameters was also presented. The impact of zeolite and metakaolinite on the mix density, oxygen content and consistency class was analysed. The influence of modifiers on physical and mechanical changes of the hardened cement concrete was discussed (concrete density, compressive strength and bending strength during fracturing) in diversified research periods. The impact of the applied additives on the changes of internal structure of cement concrete was discussed. Observation of concrete micro structure was conducted using the scanning electron microscope. According to the obtained lab test results, parameters of the applied modifiers and their influence on changes of internal structure of cement concrete are reflected in the increase of mechanical properties of pavement quality concrete. The increase of compressive and bending strength in case of all analysed research periods was proved.

  13. Additive Manufacturing: From Rapid Prototyping to Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Tracie

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers tremendous promise for the rocket propulsion community. Foundational work must be performed to ensure the safe performance of AM parts. Government, industry, and academia must collaborate in the characterization, design, modeling, and process control to accelerate the certification of AM parts for human-rated flight.

  14. Leaching of Plastic Additives to Marine Organisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.; Besseling, E.; Foekema, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is often assumed that ingestion of microplastics by aquatic species leads to increased exposure to plastic additives. However, experimental data or model based evidence is lacking. Here we assess the potential of leaching of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in the intestinal tracts of

  15. Sintering of magnesia: effect of additives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of different additives, namely Cr2O3, Fe2O3 and TiO2, up to 2 wt% was studied on the sintering and microstructural developments of the chemically pure magnesia using the pressureless sintering technique between ... Department of Ceramic Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769008, India ...

  16. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 1290.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK... ASSASSINATION RECORDS COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.7 Additional guidance. (a) A government agency, office, or entity includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act, all current, past...

  17. Characterization and Oxidative Addition Reactions of Different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Characterization and Oxidative Addition Reactions of. Different Rhodium and Iridium Triazolato Complexes. Alfred J. Muller, Jeanet Conradie*, Walter Purcell*, Stephen S. Basson and Johan A. Venter. Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300, South Africa. Received 17 June 2009, revised 7 ...

  18. Additive Manufacturing Group at Naval Postgraduate School

    OpenAIRE

    Sadagic, Amela; Brutzman, Don

    2016-01-01

    Several departments are collaborating as the Additive Manufacturing Group; MOVES Institute, Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Energy Academic Group, Space Systems Academic Group and Center for Asymmetric Warfare. The poster has images and the names of responsible faculty and/or students in each group. The points of contact are given for the group as a whole.

  19. 78 FR 14190 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is issuing a final rule identifying additional fuel...

  20. New polymer additives for mortar cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, S.G.; Podlas, T.J.; Young, T.S.

    1999-07-01

    Mortar cement is a hydraulic cement similar to masonry cement in use and function, introduced to enhance one or more of the latter's properties, such as workability, durability, and water retention. In addition, mortar cement must have lower air content and it has minimum flexural bond strength requirements. In response to fulfilling these needs, a new family of water soluble polymers has been developed. The new polymer additives are designed to optimize air void distribution and rheology of wet mortar, allowing improved workability with low air content. Furthermore, these polymers impart high water retention to the mortar, and allow the production of mortar with enhanced board life and flexural bond strength.

  1. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  2. Additional shielding in front of M2

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, B

    2013-01-01

    This note presents studies on possibilities to improve the shielding in front of M2 in order to reduce occupancy of the hottest areas of the Muon System and to mitigate the dead-time problem. Two places for installing additional shielding have been considered: behind HCAL, in place of the PMTs and their bases for the readout, and inside ECAL, in place of the innermost modules of the calorimeter. Studies on the additional shielding inside ECAL have been done for the complementarity of the research rather than for practical purpose due negative effects on the physics. Various studies have been carried out and different configurations of shielding in terms of dimensions and materials have been tested using MC simulations. Moreover the correlation between hits was studied by analysing angles of the tracks passing through M2.

  3. Electrolyte Additives for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Hjuler, H.A.; Olsen, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Electrochemical characteristics of a series of modified phosphoric acid electrolytes containing fluorinated car on compounds and silicone fluids as additives are presented. When used in phosphoric acid fuel cells, the modified electrolytes improve the performance due to the enhanced oxygen......, as a fuel-cell performance with the modified electrolytes. Specific conductivity measurements of some of the modified phosphoric acid electrolytes are reported. At a given temperature, the conductivity of the C4F9SO3K-modified electrolyte decreases with an increasing amount of the additive; the conductivity...... of the remains at the same value as the conductivity of the pure phosphoric acid. At a given composition, the conductivity of any modified electrolyte increases with temperature. We conclude that the improved cell performance for modified electrolytes is not due to any increase in conductivity....

  4. The addition of disilanes to cumulenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yiyuan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1997-10-08

    The syntheses of silicon-containing compounds and the studies of their rearrangements have been active research areas in the Barton research group. Previously, the addition of disilanes to acetylenes was studied in the group and an intramolecular 2S + 2A mechanism has been proposed. In this thesis, the work is focused on the addition of disilanes to cumulenes. The syntheses of the precursors are discussed and the possible mechanisms for their thermal, photochemical and catalytic rearrangements are proposed. Conjugated organic polymers have been studied in the group since 1985 because of their potential for exhibiting high electroconductivity, photoconductivity, strong non-linear optical response and intense fluorescence. In the second section of this dissertation, the synthesis and property studies of poly(phenylene vinylene) analogues are discussed.

  5. Multi-canister overpack: additional NRC requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvin, L.J.

    1995-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) established in the K Basin Spent Fuel Project, Regulatory Policy, dated August 4, 1995 (hereafter referred to as the Policy), the requirement for new Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) facilities to achieve ``nuclear safety equivalency`` to comparable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed facilities. For activities other than during transport, when the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) is used and resides in the Canister Storage Building (CSB), Conditioning Facility or K Basins Path Forward Projects, additional NRC requirements will also apply to the MCO based on the safety functions it performs and its interfaces with the SNFP facilities. An evaluation was performed in consideration of the MCO safety functions to identify any additional NRC requirements, to establish nuclear safety equivalency for the MCO.

  6. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  7. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice.

  8. Laboratory tests of sludge-control additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatnall, R.E. [MIC Associates, Inc., Chadds Ford, PA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Laboratory {open_quotes}jar{close_quotes} tests compared eleven different fuel oil and diesel fuel sludge-control additives. Factors studied included (1) ability to disperse and prevent buildup of sludge deposits on surfaces, (2) ability to protect steel from corrosion, (3) ability to inhibit growth and proliferation of bacteria, and (4) ability to disperse water. Results varied greatly, and it was found that many commercial products do not do what they claim. It is concluded that fuel retailers should not believe manufacturers` claims for their additive products, but rather should test such products themselves to be sure that the benefits of treatment are real. A simplified form of the procedure used here is proposed as one way for dealers to do such testing.

  9. Additives enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Martín, Javier; Martinez-Bernal, Claudio; Pérez-Cobas, Yolanda; Reyes-Sosa, Francisco Manuel; García, Bruno Díez

    2017-11-01

    Linked to the development of cellulolytic enzyme cocktails from Myceliophthora thermophila, we studied the effect of different additives on the enzymatic hydrolysis yield. The hydrolysis of pretreated corn stover (PCS), sugar cane straw (PSCS) and microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) was performed under industrial conditions using high solid loadings, limited mixing, and low enzyme dosages. The addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG4000) allowed to increase the glucose yields by 10%, 7.5%, and 32%, respectively in the three materials. PEG4000 did not have significant effect on the stability of the main individual enzymes but increased beta-glucosidase and endoglucanase activity by 20% and 60% respectively. Moreover, the presence of PEG4000 accelerated cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis reducing up to 25% the liquefaction time. However, a preliminary economical assessment concludes that even with these improvements, a lower contribution of PEG4000 to the 2G bioethanol production costs would be needed to reach commercial feasibility. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Weldability of Additive Manufactured Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Pekkarinen, Joonas; Salminen, Antti

    Part size in additive manufacturing is limited by the size of building area of AM equipment. Occasionally, larger constructions that AM machines are able to produce, are needed, and this creates demand for welding AM parts together. However there is very little information on welding of additive manufactured stainless steels. The aim of this study was to investigate the weldability aspects of AM material. In this study, comparison of the bead on plate welds between AM parts and sheet metal parts is done. Used material was 316L stainless steel, AM and sheet metal, and parts were welded with laser welding. Weld quality was evaluated visually from macroscopic images. Results show that there are certain differences in the welds in AM parts compared to the welds in sheet metal parts. Differences were found in penetration depths and in type of welding defects. Nevertheless, this study presents that laser welding is suitable process for welding AM parts.

  11. Additive manufacturing of polymer-derived ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Zak C.; Zhou, Chaoyin; Martin, John H.; Jacobsen, Alan J.; Carter, William B.; Schaedler, Tobias A.

    2016-01-01

    The extremely high melting point of many ceramics adds challenges to additive manufacturing as compared with metals and polymers. Because ceramics cannot be cast or machined easily, three-dimensional (3D) printing enables a big leap in geometrical flexibility. We report preceramic monomers that are cured with ultraviolet light in a stereolithography 3D printer or through a patterned mask, forming 3D polymer structures that can have complex shape and cellular architecture. These polymer structures can be pyrolyzed to a ceramic with uniform shrinkage and virtually no porosity. Silicon oxycarbide microlattice and honeycomb cellular materials fabricated with this approach exhibit higher strength than ceramic foams of similar density. Additive manufacturing of such materials is of interest for propulsion components, thermal protection systems, porous burners, microelectromechanical systems, and electronic device packaging.

  12. Addition of malodorants to lighter gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neela, Vasu; von Solms, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Relevant thermodynamic and phase behavior of mixtures created by adding malodorants to lighter gas to discourage its abuse have been studied. The influence of physical factors such as temperature, pressure and concentration of the selected substances with lighter gas is studied. This work...... to lighter gas components. The aim is to find substances that not only have the correct physiological effect (discourage abuse) but also the correct physical behavior upon addition to lighter gas (solubility, phase behavior). Specifically the way the malodorant partitions between the vapor and liquid phase...... represents one component in a larger study examining the feasibility of adding malodorants to lighter gas and focuses on the physical chemistry or chemical engineering aspects of the problem. An initial set of 27 compounds was selected based on deterrent effect (odor) in order to find suitable additives...

  13. Additive manufacturing technology in reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Scott C; Moore, Michael G

    2016-10-01

    Technological advances have been part and parcel of modern reconstructive surgery, in that practitioners of this discipline are continually looking for innovative ways to perfect their craft and improve patient outcomes. We are currently in a technological climate wherein advances in computers, imaging, and science have coalesced with resulting innovative breakthroughs that are not merely limited to improved outcomes and enhanced patient care, but may provide novel approaches to training the next generation of reconstructive surgeons. New developments in software and modeling platforms, imaging modalities, tissue engineering, additive manufacturing, and customization of implants are poised to revolutionize the field of reconstructive surgery. The interface between technological advances and reconstructive surgery continues to expand. Additive manufacturing techniques continue to evolve in an effort to improve patient outcomes, decrease operative time, and serve as instructional tools for the training of reconstructive surgeons.

  14. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  15. DART: Dropouts meet Multiple Additive Regression Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi, K. V.; Gilad-Bachrach, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Multiple Additive Regression Trees (MART), an ensemble model of boosted regression trees, is known to deliver high prediction accuracy for diverse tasks, and it is widely used in practice. However, it suffers an issue which we call over-specialization, wherein trees added at later iterations tend to impact the prediction of only a few instances, and make negligible contribution towards the remaining instances. This negatively affects the performance of the model on unseen data, and also makes...

  16. Materials as additives for advanced lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Vilas G.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Mistry, Kuldeep; Erdemir, Ali

    2016-09-13

    This invention relates to carbon-based materials as anti-friction and anti-wear additives for advanced lubrication purposes. The materials comprise carbon nanotubes suspended in a liquid hydrocarbon carrier. Optionally, the compositions further comprise a surfactant (e.g., to aid in dispersion of the carbon particles). Specifically, the novel lubricants have the ability to significantly lower friction and wear, which translates into improved fuel economies and longer durability of mechanical devices and engines.

  17. Towards Security of Additive Layer Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Yampolskiy, Mark; Andel, Todd R.; McDonald, J. Todd; Glisson, William B.; Yasinsac, Alec

    2015-01-01

    Additive Layer Manufacturing (ALM), also broadly known as 3D printing, is a new technology to produce 3D objects. As an opposite approach to the conventional subtractive manufacturing process, 3D objects are created by adding thin material layers over layers. Until recently, they have been used, mainly, for plastic models. However, the technology has evolved making it possible to use high-quality printing with metal alloys. Agencies and companies like NASA, ESA, Boeing, Airbus, etc. are inves...

  18. Femtosecond laser additive manufacturing of YSZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Bai, Shuang

    2017-04-01

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) is investigated using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. High-density (>99%) YSZ part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained. Microstructure features of fabricated specimens were studied with SEM, EDX, the measured micro hardness is achieved as high as 18.84 GPa.

  19. Vector Addition System Reversible Reachability Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Jérôme

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The reachability problem for vector addition systems is a central problem of net theory. This problem is known to be decidable but the complexity is still unknown. Whereas the problem is EXPSPACE-hard, no elementary upper bounds complexity are known. In this paper we consider the reversible reachability problem. This problem consists to decide if two configurations are reachable one from each other, or equivalently if they are in the same strongly connected component o...

  20. Food additives from plant in vitro systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlov, Atanas

    2012-01-01

    Higher plants, represented by ca. 400 000 species worldwide, are valuable sources of diverse metabolites, many of which are used as food additives, flavours, colorants, agrochemicals, bio pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Moreover, in recent years, there has been a growing preference for the use of natural rather than synthetic products, expanding the market for natural plant products; this trend is expected to continue. However, the production of plant-derived substances is limited by environm...

  1. Navy additive manufacturing: adding parts, subtracting steps

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Victor; Schrader, Christopher A.; Young, James

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study examines additive manufacturing (AM) and describes its potential impact on the Navy’s Supply Chain Management processes. Included in the analysis is the implementation of 3D printing technology and how it could impact the Navy’s future procurement processes, specifically based on a conducted analysis of the automotive aerospace industry. Industry research and development has identified multiple dimensions of AM technology, i...

  2. Implementation of additive technologies in elementary education

    OpenAIRE

    Milić Melita; Maričić Sven; Radolović Donald

    2017-01-01

    The use of additive manufacturing (AM) in the wider sense at the level of elementary education is not sufficiently analysed in Republic of Croatia at the moment. Partially, CAD/CAM technologies requires far more specialized knowledge than what the Croatian curriculum provides. The application of different technological devices in the educational process, accelerates the teaching process, and makes it more interesting and more acceptable. The knowledge that pupil need to have at the end of sch...

  3. Additional chromosome abnormalities in chronic myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Hsiao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The Philadelphia (Ph chromosome and/or Breakpoint cluster region-Abelson leukemia virus oncogene transcript are unique markers for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. However, CML demonstrates heterogeneous presentations and outcomes. We analyzed the cytogenetic and molecular results of CML patients to evaluate their correlation with clinical presentations and outcome. A total of 84 newly diagnosed CML patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were treated according to disease status. Bone marrow samples were obtained to perform cytogenetic and molecular studies. Clinical presentations, treatment courses, and survival were reviewed retrospectively. Among 84 patients, 72 had chronic phase and 12 had accelerated phase CML. Cytogenetic study showed 69 (82.1% with the classic Ph chromosome, 6 (7.2% with a variant Ph chromosome, and 9 (10.7% with additional chromosome abnormalities. Fifty-four (64.3% cases harbored b3a2 transcripts, 29 (34.5% had b2a2 transcript, and 1 had e19a2 transcript. There was no difference in clinical presentations between different cytogenetic and molecular groups; however, additional chromosome abnormalities were significantly associated with the accelerated phase. Imatinib therapy was an effective treatment, as measured by cytogenetic response, when administered as first- and second-line therapy in chronic phase patients. Survival analysis showed that old age, additional chromosome abnormalities, high Sokal score, and no cytogenetic response in second-line therapy had a significant poor impact (p<0.05. In conclusion, we presented the cytogenetic and molecular pattern of CML patients and demonstrated that the additional chromosome abnormality was associated with poor outcome.

  4. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  5. Powder Characterization and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Cordova, Laura; Campos, Mónica; Tinga, Tiedo

    2017-01-01

    Achieving the optimal quality for Additive Manufactured (AM) parts does not only depend on setting the right process parameters. Material feedstock also plays an important role when aiming for high performance products. The metal AM processes that are most applicable to industry, Powder Bed Fusion and Directed Energy Deposition, use metal powder as raw material. Therefore, controlling the quality and correctly characterizing the particles used in the process is a key step to successfully appl...

  6. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  7. Additive manufacturing – a sustainable manufacturing route

    OpenAIRE

    Frăţilă Domniţa; Rotaru Horaţiu

    2017-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies allow developing and manufacturing very complex shaped parts and functional products with a high level of customization, being a great alternative to Traditional Manufacturing (TM) methods like injection molding, die-casting or machining. Due to the importance of cleaner production in the field of manufacturing processes, sustainability of AM processes needs to be assessed in order to make easier its acceptance and implementation in the industry. Furth...

  8. Femtosecond laser additive manufacturing of YSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jian; Bai, Shuang [PolarOnyx, Inc., San Jose, CA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) is investigated using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. High-density (>99%) YSZ part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained. Microstructure features of fabricated specimens were studied with SEM, EDX, the measured micro hardness is achieved as high as 18.84 GPa. (orig.)

  9. Effective Structural Health Monitoring with Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    De Baere, Dieter; Strantza, Maria; Hinderdael, Michaël; Devesse, Wim; Guillaume, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The current remaining challenges for structural health monitoring (SHM) systems prevented the introduction of SHM systems on a large scale within industrial applications. An effective SHM system is required for the reduction of the direct operation costs, improvement of the life-safety and the introduction of additive manufactured components for critical structures. In this paper, a new structural health monitoring methodology will be presented for components that can ...

  10. Augmented Reality Interfaces for Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Pedersen, David Bue; Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Skovmand, Linda; Heun, Valentin; Maes, Pattie; Aanæs, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores potential use cases for using augmented reality (AR) as a tool to operate industrial machines. As a baseline we use an additive manufacturing system, more commonly known as a 3D printer. We implement novel augmented interfaces and controls using readily available open source frameworks and low cost hardware. Our results show that the technology enables richer and more intuitive printer control and performance monitoring than currently available on the market. Therefore, th...

  11. Conferences on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This proceedings volume is based on papers presented at the Workshops on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory (CANT), which were held at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 2011 and 2012. The goal of the workshops is to survey recent progress in combinatorial number theory and related parts of mathematics. The workshop attracts researchers and students who discuss the state-of-the-art, open problems, and future challenges in number theory.

  12. On complementary channels and the additivity problem

    OpenAIRE

    Holevo, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    We explore complementarity between output and environment of a quantum channel (or, more generally, CP map), making an observation that the output purity characteristics for complementary CP maps coincide. Hence, validity of the mutiplicativity/additivity conjecture for a class of CP maps implies its validity for complementary maps. The class of CP maps complementary to entanglement-breaking ones is described and is shown to contain diagonal CP maps as a proper subclass, resulting in new clas...

  13. The value of additional videorecordings on defecography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Ki; Choi, Sang Hee; Kim, Seung Hoon; Kim, Seung Kwon; Lim, Hyo Keun; Lee, Soon Jin; Kim, Bo Hyun [Sungkyunkwan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    To determine the value of additional videorecording during defecography. Ninety-nine consecutive patients (20 males, 79 females;mean age:48 yrs) who between august 1996 and June 1997 had undergone defecography due to defecation difficulty were included in this study. In all patients, spot filming(at rest, during squeezing, during straining) and videorecording during defecography were simultaneously performed. Two radiologists retrospectively reviewed spot films and video images, analyzed discrepancies between the two methods, and reached a consensus. In 52% of patients (51/99), the results of the two examinations were discrepant. The most common finding was anterior rectocele (n=3D33), followed by spastic pelvic floor syndrome (n=3D16), rectal intussusception (n=3D5), posterior rectocele (n=3D3), mucosal prolapse (n=3D2), descending perineal syndrome (n=3D2), and rectal prolapse (n=3D1). All findings except spastic pelvic floor syndrome were additionally found on videorecording. Because videorecording during defecography showed additional findings in 52% of patients, it is a necessary procedure for the diagnosis and management of patients with defecation difficulty.=20.

  14. Culture and neuroscience: additive or synergistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapretto, Mirella; Iacoboni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The investigation of cultural phenomena using neuroscientific methods—cultural neuroscience (CN)—is receiving increasing attention. Yet it is unclear whether the integration of cultural study and neuroscience is merely additive, providing additional evidence of neural plasticity in the human brain, or truly synergistic, yielding discoveries that neither discipline could have achieved alone. We discuss how the parent fields to CN: cross-cultural psychology, psychological anthropology and cognitive neuroscience inform the investigation of the role of cultural experience in shaping the brain. Drawing on well-established methodologies from cross-cultural psychology and cognitive neuroscience, we outline a set of guidelines for CN, evaluate 17 CN studies in terms of these guidelines, and provide a summary table of our results. We conclude that the combination of culture and neuroscience is both additive and synergistic; while some CN methodologies and findings will represent the direct union of information from parent fields, CN studies employing the methodological rigor required by this logistically challenging new field have the potential to transform existing methodologies and produce unique findings. PMID:20083533

  15. Additive monitoring and interactions during copper electroprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Dale Wade

    The electrochemical deposition of copper has been a major focus of research for decades. Renewed interest in copper electroplating is not limited to the copper producers but is also a major concern of semiconductor manufacturers. The focus on copper electrochemistry by the semiconductor manufacturers has increased since IBM's announcement in 1997 that copper will be used for metallization in high speed/power semiconductors [1--3]. The desire to use copper instead of aluminum is simply a reflection on copper's superior conductivity (lower RC time constants) and resistance to electromigration (generally proportional to the melting point). This dissertation is the compilation of the research into analytical techniques for monitoring surface-active additives in common sulfuric acid/copper sulfate plating baths. Chronopotentiometric, DC and AC voltammetry were the major analytical techniques used in this research. Several interactions between the additives will also be presented along with their apparent decline in activity. The decline in activity is well known in the industry and is also detected by these methods as presented in chapters 4 and 5. Finally, a systemic approach for monitoring the additive Galactosal, which is commonly used in electrowinning, will be outlined. The monitoring system proposed herein would have to be adjusted for each electrowinning facility because each has a unique chemistry and cell configuration.

  16. Managing water addition to a degraded core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuan, P.; Hanson, D.J. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Odar, F. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    In this paper we present information that can be used in severe accident management by providing an improved understanding of the effects of water addition to a degraded core. This improved understanding is developed using a diagram showing a sequence of core damage states. Whenever possible, a temperature and a time after accident initiation are estimated for each damage state in the sequence diagram. This diagram can be used to anticipate the evolution of events during an accident. Possible responses of plant instruments are described to identify these damage states and the effects of water addition. The rate and amount of water addition needed (1) to remove energy from the core, (2) to stabilize the core or (3) to not adversely affect the damage progression, are estimated. Analysis of the capability to remove energy from large cohesive and particulate debris beds indicates that these beds may not be stabilized in the core region and they may partially relocate to the lower plenum of the reactor vessel.

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Biomaterials, Tissues, and Organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadpoor, Amir A; Malda, Jos

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of additive manufacturing (AM), often referred to as three-dimensional (3D) printing, has initiated what some believe to be a manufacturing revolution, and has expedited the development of the field of biofabrication. Moreover, recent advances in AM have facilitated further development of patient-specific healthcare solutions. Customization of many healthcare products and services, such as implants, drug delivery devices, medical instruments, prosthetics, and in vitro models, would have been extremely challenging-if not impossible-without AM technologies. The current special issue of the Annals of Biomedical Engineering presents the latest trends in application of AM techniques to healthcare-related areas of research. As a prelude to this special issue, we review here the most important areas of biomedical research and clinical practice that have benefited from recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques. This editorial, therefore, aims to sketch the research landscape within which the other contributions of the special issue can be better understood and positioned. In what follows, we briefly review the application of additive manufacturing techniques in studies addressing biomaterials, (re)generation of tissues and organs, disease models, drug delivery systems, implants, medical instruments, prosthetics, orthotics, and AM objects used for medical visualization and communication.

  18. Influence of Additives on Reinforced Concrete Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neverkovica Darja

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the research on carbonation and chloride induced corrosion mechanisms in reinforced concrete structures, based on three commercially available concrete admixtures: Xypex Admix C-1000, Penetron Admix and Elkem Microsilica. Carbonation takes place due to carbon dioxide diffusion, which in the required amount is present in the air. Chlorides penetrate concrete in case of the use of deicing salt or structure exploitation in marine atmosphere. Based on the implemented research, Elkem Microsilica is the recommended additive for the use in aggressive environmental conditions. Use of Xypex Admix C-1000 and Penetron Admix have only average resistance to the aggressive environmental impact.

  19. Mechanism and kinetics of addition polymerizations

    CERN Document Server

    Kucera, M

    1991-01-01

    This volume presents an up-to-date survey of knowledge concerning addition type polymerizations. It contains nine chapters, each of which covers a particular basic term. Whenever necessary, the phenomena are discussed from the viewpoint of both stationary and non-stationary state of radical, ionic (i.e. anionic and cationic) and coordination polymerization. Special attention has been paid to the propagation process. It provides not only a general overview but also information on important special cases (theoretical conditions of propagation, influence of external factors, controlled propagatio

  20. Additive manufacturing: From implants to organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Tania S

    2014-05-12

    Additive manufacturing (AM) constructs 3D objects layer by layer under computer control from 3D models. 3D printing is one example of this kind of technology. AM offers geometric flexibility in its products and therefore allows customisation to suit individual needs. Clinical success has been shown with models for surgical planning, implants, assistive devices and scaffold-based tissue engineering. The use of AM to print tissues and organs that mimic nature in structure and function remains an elusive goal, but has the potential to transform personalised medicine, drug development and scientific understanding of the mechanisms of disease. 

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division. Polymers and Coatings

    2016-08-30

    Additive manufacturing has become a tool of choice for the development of customizable components. Developments in this technology have led to a powerful array of printers that t serve a variety of needs. However, resin development plays a crucial role in leading the technology forward. This paper addresses the development and application of printing hierarchical porous structures. Beginning with the development of a porous scaffold, which can be functionalized with a variety of materials, and concluding with customized resins for metal, ceramic, and carbon structures.

  2. Analysis of Additive Random Number Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered; I .,.,•• n .„^iMl~^.-». H .,il~l.*...,...-•..,.,.., • 1 ——’"- •"•’ ANALYSIS OF ADDITIVE RANDOM...among my teachers two of the best: my parents, Bil and Marleen Reiser. - , i — - •- - J I " ii. .1 I l. Kl U...the period, we know that r(pa*z) * pr(pa) and k - • - ----• •--- - -— — ...., . H ..J 1-..11.111 ’ Introduction that r(pa *’) divides

  3. Power transformer additional load losses separation procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Kostić Miloje M.

    2011-01-01

    The proposed procedure is based on the fact that total transformer losses (PLL1,n), determined by short circuit test, can be separated into two components: the eddy current losses in the windings (PEC1,n) and stray flux losses (PSL1,n) in iron parts of construction as well as in the transformer tank walls. The total additional load losses, PLLd1 and PLLdh, are determined by short circuit test results, conducted at rated frequency (f1) and at increased harmonic frequency (fh=h*f1). Using so ob...

  4. Additive manufacturing – a sustainable manufacturing route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frăţilă Domniţa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM technologies allow developing and manufacturing very complex shaped parts and functional products with a high level of customization, being a great alternative to Traditional Manufacturing (TM methods like injection molding, die-casting or machining. Due to the importance of cleaner production in the field of manufacturing processes, sustainability of AM processes needs to be assessed in order to make easier its acceptance and implementation in the industry. Furthermore, the manufacturers can improve their competitiveness and profitability by considering the ecological aspects during the manufacturing step of a product. This paper gives a survey on sustainability issues related to AM.

  5. Enhanced additive manufacturing with a reciprocating platen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Randall F.; Blue, Craig A.; Love, Lonnie J.; Post, Brian K.; Lloyd, Peter D.

    2018-02-06

    An additive manufacturing extrusion head that includes a heated nozzle for accepting a feedstock and extruding the feedstock onto a substrate at a deposition plane, the nozzle having a longitudinal extrusion axis. A reciprocating platen surrounds the nozzle, the platen operable to reciprocate along the extrusion axis at or above the deposition plane as the nozzle extrudes feedstock onto the substrate; and wherein the platen flattens the extruded feedstock such that it does not protrude above the deposition plane as the extrusion head traverses over the substrate.

  6. Dust-Firing of Straw and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Glarborg, Peter; Frandsen, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, the ash chemistry and deposition behavior during straw dust-firing were studied by performing experiments in an entrained flow reactor. The effect of using spent bleaching earth (SBE) as an additive in straw combustion was also investigated by comparing with kaolinite. During...... dust-firing of straw, the large (>∼2.5 μm) fly ash particles generated were primarily molten or partially molten spherical particles rich in K, Si, and Ca, supplemented by Si-rich flake-shaped particles. The smaller fly ash particles (...

  7. Additive measures of travel time variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelson, Leonid; Fosgerau, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper derives a measure of travel time variability for travellers equipped with scheduling preferences defined in terms of time-varying utility rates, and who choose departure time optimally. The corresponding value of travel time variability is a constant that depends only on preference...... parameters. The measure is unique in being additive with respect to independent parts of a trip. It has the variance of travel time as a special case. Extension is provided to the case of travellers who use a scheduled service with fixed headway....

  8. Galvanometer scanning technology for laser additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Li, Jin; Lucas, Mark

    2017-02-01

    A galvanometer laser beam scanning system is an essential element in many laser additive manufacturing (LAM) technologies including Stereolithography (SLA), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Understanding the laser beam scanning techniques and recent innovations in this field will greatly benefit the 3D laser printing system integration and technology advance. One of the challenges to achieve high quality 3D printed parts is due to the non-uniform laser power density delivered on the materials caused by the acceleration and deceleration movements of the galvanometer at ends of the hatching and outlining patterns. One way to solve this problem is to modulate the laser power as the function of the scanning speed during the acceleration or deceleration periods. Another strategy is to maintain the constant scanning speed while accurately coordinating the laser on and off operation throughout the job. In this paper, we demonstrate the high speed, high accuracy and low drift digital scanning technology that incorporates both techniques to achieve uniform laser density with minimal additional process development. With the constant scanning speed method, the scanner not only delivers high quality and uniform results, but also a throughput increase of 23% on a typical LAM job, compared to that of the conventional control method that requires galvanometer acceleration and deceleration movements.

  9. Characterizations of additive manufactured porous titanium implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalah, Ahmad; Shanjani, Yaser; Esmaeili, Shahrzad; Toyserkani, Ehsan

    2012-10-01

    This article describes physical, chemical, and mechanical characterizations of porous titanium implants made by an additive manufacturing method to gain insight into the correlation of process parameters and final physical properties of implants used in orthopedics. For the manufacturing chain, the powder metallurgy technology was combined with the additive manufacturing to fabricate the porous structure from the pure tanium powder. A 3D printing machine was employed in this study to produce porous bar samples. A number of physical parameters such as titanium powder size, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) amount, sintering temperature and time were investigated to control the mechanical properties and porosity of the structures. The produced samples were characterized through porosity and shrinkage measurements, mechanical compression test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed a level of porosity in the samples in the range of 31-43%, which is within the range of the porosity of the cancelluous bone and approaches the range of the porosity of the cortical bone. The results of the mechanical test showed that the compressive strength is in the wide range of 56-509 MPa implying the effect of the process parameters on the mechanical strengths. This technique of manufacturing of Ti porous structures demonstrated a low level of shrinkage with the shrinkage percentage ranging from 1.5 to 5%. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Additive manufacturing of glass for optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junjie; Gilbert, Luke J.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2016-04-01

    Glasses including fused quartz have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of fused quartz. Additive manufacturing has several potential benefits including increased design freedom, faster prototyping, and lower processing costs for small production volumes. However, current research in AM of glasses is limited and has focused on non-optical applications. Fused quartz is studied here because of its desirability for high-quality optics due to its high transmissivity and thermal stability. Fused quartz also has a higher working temperature than soda lime glass which poses a challenge for AM. In this work, fused quartz filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the work piece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed fused quartz. A spectrometer is used to measure the thermal radiation incandescently emitted from the melt pool. Thin-walls are printed to study the effects of layer-to-layer height. Finally, a 3D fused quartz cube is printed using the newly acquired layer height and polished on each surface. The transmittance and index homogeneity of the polished cube are both measured. These results show that the filament fed process has the potential to print fused quartz with optical transparency and of index of refraction uniformity approaching bulk processed glass.

  11. Highly stereoselective addition of stannylcuprates to alkynones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Eiland; de Dios, M.A.C.; Tanner, David Ackland

    2002-01-01

    The addition of stannylcuprate reagents such as (Bu3Sn)(PhS)CuLi to alkynones has been found to proceed in high yield and with excellent stereoselectivity for the Z isomer of the product (>95%). The behavior of the stannylcuprates is thus very different from that of their "carbocuprate" counterpa......The addition of stannylcuprate reagents such as (Bu3Sn)(PhS)CuLi to alkynones has been found to proceed in high yield and with excellent stereoselectivity for the Z isomer of the product (>95%). The behavior of the stannylcuprates is thus very different from that of their "carbocuprate......" counterparts such as Me2CuLi or Me2Cu(CN)Li-2 which are nonstereoselective. Furthermore, in contrast to the reactions of (R3Sn)(PhS)CuLi with the corresponding alkynoates, the presence of a proton source in the reaction medium has no effect on the stereos electivity of the reaction of alkynones....

  12. Energy additivity in branched and cyclic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, H.; Bader, R.F.W. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Cortes-Guzman, F. [Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Dept. de Fisicoquimica

    2009-11-15

    This paper reported on a study of the energetic relationships between hydrocarbon molecules and the heats of formation. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) was used to investigate the degree to which branched hydrocarbons obey a group additivity scheme for energy and populations. The QTAIM defined the properties of the chemical groups. The experimental and theoretical transferability of the methyl and methylene groups of the linear hydrocarbons was also explored. The calculations were performed using a large basis set at the restricted Hartree-Fock and MP2(full) levels of theory. The study also investigated the deviations from additivity, noted for small ring hydrocarbons leading to the definition of strain energy. The QTAIM energies recovered the experimental values. The paper included details regarding the delocalization of the electron density over the surface of the cyclopropane ring, responsible for its homoaromatic properties. The calculations presented in this study satisfied the virial theorem for the atomic definition of energy. The paper discussed the problems associated with the use of the density functional theory (DFT) resulting from its failure to satisfy the virial theorem. 44 refs., 9 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Emerging technologies in arthroplasty: additive manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Samik; Kulesha, Gene; Kester, Mark; Mont, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    Additive manufacturing is an industrial technology whereby three-dimensional visual computer models are fabricated into physical components by selectively curing, depositing, or consolidating various materials in consecutive layers. Although initially developed for production of simulated models, the technology has undergone vast improvements and is currently increasingly being used for the production of end-use components in various aerospace, automotive, and biomedical specialties. The ability of this technology to be used for the manufacture of solid-mesh-foam monolithic and coated components of complex geometries previously considered unmanufacturable has attracted the attention of implant manufacturers, bioengineers, and orthopedic surgeons. Currently, there is a paucity of reports describing this fabrication method in the orthopedic literature. Therefore, we aimed to briefly describe this technology, some of the applications in other orthopedic subspecialties, its present use in hip and knee arthroplasty, and concerns with the present form of the technology. As there are few reports of clinical trials presently available, the true benefits of this technology can only be realized when studies evaluating the clinical and radiographic outcomes of cementless implants manufactured with additive manufacturing report durable fixation, less stress shielding, and better implant survivorship. Nevertheless, the authors believe that this technology holds great promise and may potentially change the conventional methods of casting, machining, and tooling for implant manufacturing in the future. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Additive and Photochemical Manufacturing of Copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Winco K. C.; Sun, Bo; Meng, Zhengong; Huang, Junfeng; Jin, Yingdi; Choy, Hang Shan; Cai, Zhixiang; Li, Guijun; Ho, Cheuk Lam; Yang, Jinlong; Wong, Wai Yeung

    2016-12-01

    In recent years, 3D printing technologies have been extensively developed, enabling rapid prototyping from a conceptual design to an actual product. However, additive manufacturing of metals in the existing technologies is still cost-intensive and time-consuming. Herein a novel platform for low-cost additive manufacturing is introduced by simultaneously combining the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT) method with photochemical reaction. Using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) polymer as the sacrificial layer, sufficient ejection momentum can be generated in the LIFT method. A low-cost continuous wave (CW) laser diode at 405 nm was utilized and proved to be able to transfer the photochemically synthesized copper onto the target substrate. The wavelength-dependent photochemical behaviour in the LIFT method was verified and characterized by both theoretical and experimental studies compared to 1064 nm fiber laser. The conductivity of the synthesized copper patterns could be enhanced using post electroless plating while retaining the designed pattern shapes. Prototypes of electronic circuits were accordingly built and demonstrated for powering up LEDs. Apart from pristine PDMS materials with low surface energies, the proposed method can simultaneously perform laser-induced forward transfer and photochemical synthesis of metals, starting from their metal oxide forms, onto various target substrates such as polyimide, glass and thermoplastics.

  15. Gas hydrate inhibition of drilling fluid additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaolan, L.; Baojiang, S.; Shaoran, R. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Dongying (China). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates that form during offshore well drilling can have adverse impacts on well operational safety. The hydrates typically form in the risers and the annulus between the casing and the drillstring, and can stop the circulation of drilling fluids. In this study, experiments were conducted to measure the effect of drilling fluid additives on hydrate inhibition. Polyalcohols, well-stability control agents, lubricating agents, and polymeric materials were investigated in a stirred tank reactor at temperatures ranging from -10 degree C to 60 degrees C. Pressure, temperature, and torque were used to detect onset points of hydrate formation and dissociation. The inhibitive effect of the additives on hydrate formation was quantified. Phase boundary shifts were measured in terms of temperature difference or sub-cooling gained when chemicals were added to pure water. Results showed that the multiple hydroxyl groups in polyalcohol chemicals significantly inhibited hydrate formation. Polymeric and polyacrylamide materials had only a small impact on hydrate formation, while sulfonated methyl tannins were found to increase hydrate formation. 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  16. Rusip with Alginate Addition as Seasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Koesoemawardani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractRusip was a fermented food of fish that have a distinctive aroma so that potential to be developed into instant seasoning. This research was aimed to optimize powder processing of rusip with the addition of alginate. The treatments were concentration of alginate (5% , 10% , 15% and 20% w/w and the heating temperature (50oC, 60oC , 70oC and 80oC. Data was analyzed using advanced test Honestly Significant Difference (HSD at 5% level. The results showed that the best rusip powder was alginate 5% with heating at 50oC and 70°C . The character were 5.98% and 7.57% water content; pH 5.69 and 5.85; 7.77% and 8.77% salt content; 28% and 27.65% protein content, respectively. This study proves that the addition of alginate 5% (w/w, heating at a temperature of 50oC and 70°C can trap volatile compounds formed during fermentation in rusip processing into powder.

  17. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... January 5, 2012 to amend the Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. Because EPA received adverse...

  18. The retro Grignard addition reaction revisited: the reversible addition of benzyl reagents to ketones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Stig Holden; Holm, Torkil; Madsen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The Grignard addition reaction is known to be a reversible process with allylic reagents, but so far the reversibility has not been demonstrated with other alkylmagnesium halides. By using crossover experiments it has been established that the benzyl addition reaction is also a reversible...

  19. Use of waste rubber as concrete additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang Hsing; Lu, Chun-Ku; Chang, Jen-Ray; Lee, Maw Tien

    2007-02-01

    For resource reutilization, scrap tyres have long been investigated as an additive to concrete to form 'Rubcrete' for various applications and have shown promising results. However, the addition of rubber particles leads to the degradation of physical properties, particularly, the compressive strength of the concrete. In this study, a theoretical model was proposed to shed light on the mechanisms of decrease in compressive strength due to the addition of rubber particles as well as improvement in compressive strength through modification of particle surfaces. The literature suggests that the compressive strength can be improved by soaking the rubber particles in alkaline solution first to increase the inter-phase bonding between the rubber particles and cement. Instead, we discovered that the loss in compressive strength was due to local imperfections in the hydration of cement, induced by the addition of heterogeneous and hydrophobic rubber particles. Microscopic studies showed that the rubber particles disturbed the water transfer to create channels, which were prone to cracking and led to a loss in the compressive strength. Unexpectedly, no cracking was found along the surfaces of the rubber particles, indicating that the bonding strength between the rubber particles and cement phases was not the critical factor in determining the compressive strength. Therefore, a theoretical model was proposed to describe the water transfer in the Rubcrete specimens to explain the experimental data. In the model, the local water available for hydration (Q) is: Q = -A(slv)/6piv, where Q, A(slv), and v are mass flow rate (kg s(-1)), Hamaker constant (J), and dynamic viscosity (m2 s(-1)), respectively. By maximizing the quantity Q and, in turn, the Hamaker constant A(slv), the compressive strength could be improved. The Hamaker constant A(slv) for water film on rubber particle surfaces was smaller than that for the hydrated cement particles; the water transfer rate was lower in

  20. Additive Feed Forward Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method to control a non-linear, multivariable, noisy process using trained neural networks. The basis for the method is a trained neural network controller acting as the inverse process model. A training method for obtaining such an inverse process model is applied....... A suitable 'shaped' (low-pass filtered) reference is used to overcome problems with excessive control action when using a controller acting as the inverse process model. The control concept is Additive Feed Forward Control, where the trained neural network controller, acting as the inverse process model......, is placed in a supplementary pure feed-forward path to an existing feedback controller. This concept benefits from the fact, that an existing, traditional designed, feedback controller can be retained without any modifications, and after training the connection of the neural network feed-forward controller...

  1. Additive manufacturing techniques and their biomedical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM, also known as three-dimensional (3D printing, is gaining increasing attention in medical fields, especially in dental and implant areas. Because AM technologies have many advantages in comparison with traditional technologies, such as the ability to manufacture patient-specific complex components, high material utilization, support of tissue growth, and a unique customized service for individual patients, AM is considered to have a large potential market in medical fields. This brief review presents the recent progress of 3D-printed biomedical materials for bone applications, mainly for metallic materials, including multifunctional alloys with high strength and low Young’s modulus, shape memory alloys, and their 3D fabrication by AM technologies. It describes the potential of 3D printing techniques in precision medicine and community health.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Wind Turbine Molds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Richardson, Bradley [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lloyd, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Nolet, Stephen [TPI Composites, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Hannan, James [TPI Composites, Scottsdale, AZ (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this project was to explore the utility of Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) for low cost manufacturing of wind turbine molds. Engineers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and TPI Composites (TPI) collaborated to design and manufacture a printed mold that can be used for resin infusion of wind turbine components. Specific focus was on required material properties (operating temperatures and pressures, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), thermal conductivity), surface finish (accuracy and coatings) and system integration (integrated vacuum ports, and heating element). The project began with a simple proof of principle components, targeting surface coatings and material properties for printing a small section (approximately 4’ x 4’ x 2’) of a mold. Next, the second phase scaled up and integrated with the objective of capturing all of the necessary components (integrated heating to accelerate cure time, and vacuum, sealing) for resin infusion on a mold of significant size (8’ x 20’ x 6’).

  3. Implementation of additive technologies in elementary education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Melita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of additive manufacturing (AM in the wider sense at the level of elementary education is not sufficiently analysed in Republic of Croatia at the moment. Partially, CAD/CAM technologies requires far more specialized knowledge than what the Croatian curriculum provides. The application of different technological devices in the educational process, accelerates the teaching process, and makes it more interesting and more acceptable. The knowledge that pupil need to have at the end of schooling is rapidly changing. It is quite possible scenario that most of the knowledge gained during the elementary and secondary education will be obsolete before future student applies to the university. In order to achieve further progress, it is necessary to systematically explain all the possibilities of using these technologies from the elementary level. By developing different strategies, the young generation can focus on the knowledge they will need in their future jobs.

  4. Combined additive manufacturing approaches in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitelli, S M; Mozetic, P; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A

    2015-09-01

    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing (AM) have significantly improved the control over the microarchitecture of scaffolds for tissue engineering. This has led to the flourishing of research works addressing the optimization of AM scaffolds microarchitecture to optimally trade-off between conflicting requirements (e.g. mechanical stiffness and porosity level). A fascinating trend concerns the integration of AM with other scaffold fabrication methods (i.e. "combined" AM), leading to hybrid architectures with complementary structural features. Although this innovative approach is still at its beginning, significant results have been achieved in terms of improved biological response to the scaffold, especially targeting the regeneration of complex tissues. This review paper reports the state of the art in the field of combined AM, posing the accent on recent trends, challenges, and future perspectives. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Additive manufacturing for steels: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadi-Maad, A.; Rohib, R.; Irawan, A.

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of steels involves the layer by layer consolidation of powder or wire feedstock using a heating beam to form near net shape products. For the past decades, the AM technique reaches the maturation of both research grade and commercial production due to significant research work from academic, government and industrial research organization worldwide. AM process has been implemented to replace the conventional process of steel fabrication due to its potentially lower cost and flexibility manufacturing. This paper provides a review of previous research related to the AM methods followed by current challenges issues. The relationship between microstructure, mechanical properties, and process parameters will be discussed. Future trends and recommendation for further works are also provided.

  6. Additional Crime Scenes for Projectile Motion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Dan; Bonner, David

    2011-12-01

    Building students' ability to transfer physics fundamentals to real-world applications establishes a deeper understanding of underlying concepts while enhancing student interest. Forensic science offers a great opportunity for students to apply physics to highly engaging, real-world contexts. Integrating these opportunities into inquiry-based problem solving in a team environment provides a terrific backdrop for fostering communication, analysis, and critical thinking skills. One such activity, inspired jointly by the museum exhibit "CSI: The Experience"2 and David Bonner's TPT article "Increasing Student Engagement and Enthusiasm: A Projectile Motion Crime Scene,"3 provides students with three different crime scenes, each requiring an analysis of projectile motion. In this lesson students socially engage in higher-order analysis of two-dimensional projectile motion problems by collecting information from 3-D scale models and collaborating with one another on its interpretation, in addition to diagramming and mathematical analysis typical to problem solving in physics.

  7. Nonparametric additive regression for repeatedly measured data

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, R. J.

    2009-05-20

    We develop an easily computed smooth backfitting algorithm for additive model fitting in repeated measures problems. Our methodology easily copes with various settings, such as when some covariates are the same over repeated response measurements. We allow for a working covariance matrix for the regression errors, showing that our method is most efficient when the correct covariance matrix is used. The component functions achieve the known asymptotic variance lower bound for the scalar argument case. Smooth backfitting also leads directly to design-independent biases in the local linear case. Simulations show our estimator has smaller variance than the usual kernel estimator. This is also illustrated by an example from nutritional epidemiology. © 2009 Biometrika Trust.

  8. Hydrogen-Abstraction/Acetylene-Addition Exposed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Troy, Tyler P; Xu, Bo; Kostko, Oleg; Ahmed, Musahid; Mebel, Alexander M; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2016-11-21

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are omnipresent in the interstellar medium (ISM) and also in carbonaceous meteorites (CM) such as Murchison. However, the basic reaction routes leading to the formation of even the simplest PAH-naphthalene (C10 H8 )-via the hydrogen-abstraction/acetylene-addition (HACA) mechanism still remain ambiguous. Here, by revealing the uncharted fundamental chemistry of the styrenyl (C8 H7 ) and the ortho-vinylphenyl radicals (C8 H7 )-key transient species of the HACA mechanism-with acetylene (C2 H2 ), we provide the first solid experimental evidence on the facile formation of naphthalene in a simulated combustion environment validating the previously postulated HACA mechanism for these two radicals. This study highlights, at the molecular level spanning combustion and astrochemistry, the importance of the HACA mechanism to the formation of the prototype PAH naphthalene. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Additive manufacturing: Overview and NDE challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, J. A.

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) processes are capable of producing highly complex and customized parts, without the need for dedicated tooling, and can produce parts directly from the part design information. These types of processes are poised to revolutionize the manufacturing industry, yet there are several challenges that are currently preventing more widespread adoption of AM technologies. Traditional Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) methods could be utilized in both in-process and post-process applications to help overcome these challenges, although currently there are very few examples of in-situ sensors for monitoring AM processes. This paper gives an overview of AM technology, and discusses the potential benefits and challenges of using NDE in AM applications.

  10. High-Efficient Circuits for Ternary Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Faghih Mirzaee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available New ternary adders, which are fundamental components of ternary addition, are presented in this paper. They are on the basis of a logic style which mostly generates binary signals. Therefore, static power dissipation reaches its minimum extent. Extensive different analyses are carried out to examine how efficient the new designs are. For instance, the ternary ripple adder constructed by the proposed ternary half and full adders consumes 2.33 μW less power than the one implemented by the previous adder cells. It is almost twice faster as well. Due to their unique superior characteristics for ternary circuitry, carbon nanotube field-effect transistors are used to form the novel circuits, which are entirely suitable for practical applications.

  11. Additive subgroups of topological vector spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Banaszczyk, Wojciech

    1991-01-01

    The Pontryagin-van Kampen duality theorem and the Bochner theorem on positive-definite functions are known to be true for certain abelian topological groups that are not locally compact. The book sets out to present in a systematic way the existing material. It is based on the original notion of a nuclear group, which includes LCA groups and nuclear locally convex spaces together with their additive subgroups, quotient groups and products. For (metrizable, complete) nuclear groups one obtains analogues of the Pontryagin duality theorem, of the Bochner theorem and of the Lévy-Steinitz theorem on rearrangement of series (an answer to an old question of S. Ulam). The book is written in the language of functional analysis. The methods used are taken mainly from geometry of numbers, geometry of Banach spaces and topological algebra. The reader is expected only to know the basics of functional analysis and abstract harmonic analysis.

  12. Additive manufacturing: technology, applications and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Nannan; Leu, Ming C.

    2013-09-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology has been researched and developed for more than 20 years. Rather than removing materials, AM processes make three-dimensional parts directly from CAD models by adding materials layer by layer, offering the beneficial ability to build parts with geometric and material complexities that could not be produced by subtractive manufacturing processes. Through intensive research over the past two decades, significant progress has been made in the development and commercialization of new and innovative AM processes, as well as numerous practical applications in aerospace, automotive, biomedical, energy and other fields. This paper reviews the main processes, materials and applications of the current AM technology and presents future research needs for this technology.

  13. Feasibility and Testing of Additive Manufactured Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehoff, Ryan R [ORNL; Hummelt, Ed [Eaton Corporation; Solovyeva, Lyudmila [Eaton Corporation

    2016-09-01

    This project focused on demonstrating the ability to fabricate two parts with different geometry: an arc flash interrupter and a hydraulic manifold. Eaton Corporation provided ORNL solid models, information related to tolerances and sensitive parameters of the parts and provided testing and evaluation. ORNL successfully manufactured both components, provided cost models of the manufacturing (materials, labor, time and post processing) and delivered test components for Eaton evaluation. The arc flash suppressor was fabricated using the Renishaw laser powder bed technology in CoCrMo while the manifold was produced from Ti-6Al-4V using the Arcam electron beam melting technology. These manufacturing techniques were selected based on the design and geometrical tolerances required. A full-scale manifold was produced on the Arcam A2 system (nearly 12 inches tall). A portion of the manifold was also produced in the Arcam Q10 system. Although a full scale manifold could not be produced in the system, a full scale manifold is expected to have similar material properties, geometric accuracy, and surface finish as could be fabricated on an Arcam Q20 system that is capable of producing four full scale manifolds in a production environment. In addition to the manifold, mechanical test specimens, geometric tolerance artifacts, and microstructure samples were produced alongside the manifold. The development and demonstration of these two key components helped Eaton understand the impact additive manufacturing can have on many of their existing products. By working within the MDF and leveraging ORNL’s manufacturing and characterization capabilities, the work will ensure the rapid insertion and commercialization of this technology.

  14. Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Thick Honeycombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Reza; Sadighi, Mojtaba; Mohammadi Aghdam, Mohammad; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Honeycombs resemble the structure of a number of natural and biological materials such as cancellous bone, wood, and cork. Thick honeycomb could be also used for energy absorption applications. Moreover, studying the mechanical behavior of honeycombs under in-plane loading could help understanding the mechanical behavior of more complex 3D tessellated structures such as porous biomaterials. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs made using additive manufacturing techniques that allow for fabrication of honeycombs with arbitrary and precisely controlled thickness. Thick honeycombs with different wall thicknesses were produced from polylactic acid (PLA) using fused deposition modelling, i.e., an additive manufacturing technique. The samples were mechanically tested in-plane under compression to determine their mechanical properties. We also obtained exact analytical solutions for the stiffness matrix of thick hexagonal honeycombs using both Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories. The stiffness matrix was then used to derive analytical relationships that describe the elastic modulus, yield stress, and Poisson’s ratio of thick honeycombs. Finite element models were also built for computational analysis of the mechanical behavior of thick honeycombs under compression. The mechanical properties obtained using our analytical relationships were compared with experimental observations and computational results as well as with analytical solutions available in the literature. It was found that the analytical solutions presented here are in good agreement with experimental and computational results even for very thick honeycombs, whereas the analytical solutions available in the literature show a large deviation from experimental observation, computational results, and our analytical solutions. PMID:28773735

  15. The stability of alloying additions in Zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumley, S. C.; Murphy, S. T.; Burr, P. A.; Grimes, R. W.; Chard-Tuckey, P. R.; Wenman, M. R.

    2013-06-01

    The interactions of Cr, Fe, Nb, Ni, Sn, V and Y with Zr are simulated using density functional theory. Thermodynamic stabilities of various different Zr based intermetallic compounds, including multiple Laves phase structures and solutions of alloying additions in both α and β-Zr were investigated. The thermodynamic driving forces in this system can be correlated with trends in atomic radii and the relative electronegativities of the different species. Formation energies of Fe, Ni and Sn based intermetallic compounds were found to be negative, and the ZrFe and ZrNi intermetallics were metastable. Most elements displayed negative energies of solution in β-Zr but positive energies in the α-phase, with the exception of Sn (which was negative for both) and Y (which was positive for both). Solutions formed from intermetallics showed a similar trend. Cr -3s23p64s13d5. Fe -4s23d6. Nb -4s24p65s14d4. Ni -4s23d8. Sn -5s25p2. V -3s23p64s23d3. Y -4s24p65s24d1. Zr -4s24p65s24d2. The pseudopotential scheme used is "on-the-fly" generation, in which an isolated all-electron calculation is carried out before the main calculation and used as a starting point to generate a pseudopotential. This was carried out for all pseudopotentials except Cr and V, as the default on-the-fly pseudopotentials for these elements required a much higher cut-off energy. Instead, standard ultrasoft pseudopotentials, as found in the CASTEP pseudopotential library, were used for Cr and V. All pseudopotentials (both on-the-fly and library) are of the ultrasoft type [15], and so are compatible with each-other. Exchange-correlation was modelled using the Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof formalisation of the Generalised Gradient Approximation [16].A series of simulations were run to establish an appropriate basis set cut-off energy, and the density of sampling in the Brillouin zone. The results were converged to within two decimal places for a cut-off energy of 450 eV and a k-point spacing of 0.003 nm-1. The k

  16. Additive Construction using Basalt Regolith Fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Lippitt, Thomas C.; Mantovani, James G.; Nugent, Matthew W.; Townsend, Ivan I.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surfaces are often covered in regolith (crushed rock), whose geologic origin is largely basalt. The lunar surface is made of small-particulate regolith and areas of boulders located in the vicinity of craters. Regolith composition also varies with location, reflecting the local bedrock geology and the nature and efficiency of the micrometeorite-impact processes. In the lowland mare areas (suitable for habitation), the regolith is composed of small granules (20 - 100 microns average size) of mare basalt and volcanic glass. Impacting micrometeorites may cause local melting, and the formation of larger glassy particles, and this regolith may contain 10-80% glass. Studies of lunar regolith are traditionally conducted with lunar regolith simulant (reconstructed soil with compositions patterned after the lunar samples returned by Apollo). The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) lab has identified a low fidelity but economical geo-technical simulant designated as Black Point-1 (BP-1). It was found at the site of the Arizona Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) analog field test site at the Black Point lava flow in adjacent basalt quarry spoil mounds. This paper summarizes activities at KSC regarding the utilization of BP-1 basalt regolith and comparative work with lunar basalt simulant JSC-1A as a building material for robotic additive construction of large structures. In an effort to reduce the import or in-situ fabrication of binder additives, we focused this work on in-situ processing of regolith for construction in a single-step process after its excavation. High-temperature melting of regolith involves techniques used in glassmaking and casting (with melts of lower density and higher viscosity than those of metals), producing basaltic glass with high durability and low abrasive wear. Most Lunar simulants melt at temperatures above 1100 C, although melt processing of terrestrial regolith at 1500 C is not

  17. Behaviors of Polymer Additives Under EHL and Influences of Interactions Between Additives on Friction Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, T.

    1984-01-01

    Polymer additives have become requisite for the formulation of multigrade engine oils. The behavior of polymethacrylate (PMA)-thickened oils as lubricants in concentrated contacts under nominal rolling and pure sliding conditions was investigated by conventional optical interferometry. The PMA thickened oils behaved differently from the base oil in the formation of elastohydrodynamic (EHL) films. The higher the elastohydrodynamic molecular weight of the PMA contained in the lubricant, the thinner was the oil film under EHL conditions. The film thickness of shear-degraded PMA-thickened oils was also investigated. The behavior of graphite particles dispersed in both the base oil and the PMA-thickened oil was studied under pure sliding by taking photomicrographs. Many kinds of additives are contained in lubricating oil and the interactions between additives are considered. The interactions of zinc-organodithiophosphates (ZDP) with other additives is discussed.

  18. Drag reduction by natural polymeric additives in PMDS microchannel: Effect of types of additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction technology was used in medical applications to enhance the blood flow in semiclogged blood streams which can be an alternative treatment for atherosclerosis. In this present study, natural polymeric drag reducing additives (DRA was introduced to replace synthetic polymer which has the possibility of bringing side effects to human health. Three different sources, namely okra, aloe vera and hibiscus were utilized to extract the natural polymeric additives which were then tested in custom made microchannel simulating human heart blood vessels. The performance of different types of additives was evaluated using pressure measurements. The maximum drag reduction up to 63.48% is achieved using 300 ppm of hibiscus mucilage at operating pressure of 50 mbar. In this present work, hibiscus showed the best drag reduction performance, giving the highest %FI in most of the cases. This experimental results proved that these natural polymeric additives could be utilized as DRA in enhancing the blood flow in semiclogged blood streams.

  19. Additive Manufacturing: Making Imagination the Major Limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Yuwei; Lados, Diana A.; LaGoy, Jane L.

    2014-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) refers to an advanced technology used for the fabrication of three-dimensional near-net-shaped functional components directly from computer models, using unit materials. The fundamentals and working principle of AM offer several advantages, including near-net-shape capabilities, superior design and geometrical flexibility, innovative multi-material fabrication, reduced tooling and fixturing, shorter cycle time for design and manufacturing, instant local production at a global scale, and material, energy, and cost efficiency. Well suiting the requests of modern manufacturing climate, AM is viewed as the new industrial revolution, making its way into a continuously increasing number of industries, such as aerospace, defense, automotive, medical, architecture, art, jewelry, and food. This overview was created to relate the historical evolution of the AM technology to its state-of-the-art developments and emerging applications. Generic thoughts on the microstructural characteristics, properties, and performance of AM-fabricated materials will also be discussed, primarily related to metallic materials. This write-up will introduce the general reader to specifics of the AM field vis-à-vis advantages and common techniques, materials and properties, current applications, and future opportunities.

  20. Additive manufacturing of borosilicate glass (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junjie; Goldstein, Jonathan T.; Urbas, Augustine M.; Bristow, Douglas A.; Landers, Robert G.; Kinzel, Edward C.

    2017-02-01

    Glasses including have significant scientific and engineering applications including optics, communications, electronics, and hermetic seals. This paper investigates a filament fed process for Additive Manufacturing (AM) of borosilicate glasses. Compared to soda-lime glasses, borosilicate glasses have improved coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) and are widely used because of thermal shock resistance. In this work, borosilicate glass filaments are fed into a CO2 laser generated melt pool, smoothly depositing material onto the workpiece. Single tracks are printed to explore the effects that different process parameters have on the morphology of printed glass as well as the residual stress trapped in the glass. The transparency of glass allows residual stress to be measured using a polariscope. The effect of the substrate as well and substrate temperature are analyzed. We show that if fracture due to thermal shock can be avoided during deposition, then the residual stress can be relieved with an annealing step, removing birefringence. When combined with progress toward avoiding bubble entrapment in printed glass, we show the AM approach has the potential to produce high quality optically transparent glass for optical applications.

  1. Biobased additive plasticizing Polylactic acid (PLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounira Maiza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polylactic acid (PLA is an attractive candidate for replacing petrochemical polymers because it is from renewable resources. In this study, a specific PLA 2002D was melt-mixed with two plasticizers: triethyl citrate (TEC and acetyl tributyl citrate (ATBC. The plasticized PLA with various concentrations were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA, melt flow index (MFI, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, X-ray diffraction (XRD, UV-Visible spectroscopy and plasticizer migration test. Differential scanning calorimetry demonstrated that the addition of TEC and ATBC resulted in a decrease in glass transition temperature (Tg, and the reduction was the largest with the plasticizer having the lowest molecular weight (TEC. Plasticizing effect was also shown by decrease in the dynamic storage modulus and viscosity of plasticized mixtures compared to the treated PLA. The TGA results indicated that ATBC and TEC promoted a decrease in thermal stability of the PLA. The X-ray diffraction showed that the PLA have not polymorphic crystalline transition. Analysis by UV-Visible spectroscopy showed that the two plasticizers: ATBC and TEC have no effect on the color change of the films. The weight loss plasticizer with heating time and at 100°C is lesser than at 135 °C. Migration of TEC and ATBC results in cracks and changed color of material. We have concluded that the higher molecular weight of citrate in the studied exhibited a greater plasticizing effect to the PLA.

  2. Additive Layer Manufacturing for Launcher's Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, J.; Romera, P.; Lasagni, F.; Zorrilla, A.; Perinan, A.

    2014-06-01

    In the next years the European space industry has the challenge of maintaining its competitiveness in launch vehicles (LV) production, due to the growth of competition worldwide. It has to assure its position developing new applied technologies. In this field the effort is focussed on the production of short series of customized products, like payloads, flight components or launcher parts. ALM (Additive Layer Manufacturing) could be a powerful tool that offers new competitiveness factors for this industry, comprising a set of emerging technologies that are becoming a competitor to forming, casting and machining as well as being utilised directly as a complementary alternative.Originally used for prototypes and models, now ALM becomes a very useful technology capable to fabricate functional parts for the space industrial sector. Its demands on rapid technologies are different to "earth" industries, and they aren't so easily satisfied because space is a field with different requirements depending on its application: launchers, reusable vehicles, satellites, probes, low gravity researches, manned spacecraft, or even moon and planetary exploration.This paper reports on the ALM potential applications, under ESA requirements, exploring the challenges and possibilities for its use in the launchers market, trying to answer two basic questions: the first one, whether ALM is a mature technology to be ready for its use as flight hardware; and the second one, if it can be used to reduce the product cycle, and consequently, the development, production and operational costs.

  3. Additive Manufacturing of Ultem Polymers and Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Euy-Sik E.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimdes Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 filled with 10 chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25-31. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties.

  4. Organic Zinc as Feed Additive for Ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprijati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc is an essential micro mineral required by ruminants and is a component of over 300 enzymes which play important role in the metabolisms of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Recently, the chemical and biotechnology processes have been developed for synthesizing organic Zn. Organic Zn is the product of a chelating process of dissolved Zn anorganic salts with amino acids or hydrolyzed protein. The utilization of organic Zn as feed additive in ruminants diets tends to increase, due to the absorption of Zn in the organic form is more effective than the inorganic form. This paper reviewes the research from comparative studies of inorganic and organic Zn on the growth, production and reproduction in ruminants. The studies found that the supplementation of organic Zn improved nutrient digestibility, growth, feed efficiency, milk production, Zn retention and absorption, production and reproductive performances of ruminants. However, a little variation response was found due to different degrees of chelating on Zn incorporation of amino acids or hydrolyzed protein.

  5. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data have been "sanitized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range that was centered about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. Tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable with SLM-produced IN718. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  6. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Stanton W [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gotham, Douglas J. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Luciani, Ralph L. [Navigant Consultant Inc., Suwanee, GA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  7. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milenski, Helen M [Univ. of Mexico, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schmalzer, Andrew Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, Daniel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  8. Oxygenated fuels mandate: marketers ponder additive strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, E.V.

    1987-08-03

    When Colorado created its mandatory oxygenated fuels program to combat cold-weather carbon monoxide pollution it did more than just take a giant step toward a cleaner environment. It created a training ground where refiners and producers of oxygenated fuel additives can sharpen their marketing skills for the time when other states and metropolitan areas also might decide to go the oxygenated fuels route. The Colorado oxygenated fuels program was a major reason why officials from more than a dozen states and cities, as well as scores of representatives from concerned companies, were attracted to last month's Conference on New Fuels for Cleaner Air, held in Arlington, VA. Although no one went away with definitive answers to all their questions it became apparent that the Colorado oxygenated fuels market will develop into a one-on-one battle between ethanol and MTBE (methyl tert-butyl ether). The oxygen level of the fuel set by Colorado's new program probably gives MTBE the edge. The advantages of using MTBE are discussed.

  9. Additional considerations on electrolysis in electromembrane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šlampová, Andrea; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2016-01-15

    Optimized acceptor solutions, which eliminate electrolytically induced variations in their pH values, have been shown to improve electromembrane extraction (EME) performance. Acceptor solutions containing 500 mM formic acid (pH 1.97) ensured stable EME process for three basic drugs extracted at 50 V across 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene and constant extraction recoveries (66-89%) were achieved for 40-80 min EMEs. Back-extraction of analytes into donor solutions has been eliminated by application of optimized acceptor solutions, moreover, saturation of acceptor solutions with analytes had no additional effect on their back-extraction; the presence of up to 300-fold excess of analytes in optimized acceptor solutions led to slightly reduced but stable enrichment of analytes over the entire extraction time. Stable EME performance has been also achieved for extractions into 100mM HCl, note however, that seriously compromised performance of subsequent capillary electrophoretic analyses has been observed due to high conductivities of resulting acceptor solutions. Electrolytically produced H(+) and OH(-) ions have mostly remained in corresponding operating solutions, have determined their final pH values and have not been subjects of EME transfers across selective phase interfaces as was experimentally verified by pH measurements of anolytes and catholytes at various EME times. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  11. Additionality of global benefits and financial additionality in the context of the AIJ negotiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhl, I.

    1996-12-31

    The Conference of the Party at their first meeting (COP1) took a decision regarding criteria for joint implementation as indicated in Art. 4.2 (a) of the FCCC which established a pilot phase for activities implemented jointly (AIJ) under the pilot phase. Besides some more technical issues this decision specified that such measures should bring about real, measurable and long-term environmental benefits related to the mitigation of climate change that would not have occurred in the absence of such activities. It also established that the financing of AIJ shall be additional to the financial obligations of developed country parties. These two requirements are called the additionality criteria for AIJ. The first refers to the realness of GHG emission abatement (which means reduction compared to a baseline) whereas the second describes that funds earmarked for AIJ have no other objective (i.e. profit making, export promotion) but to reduce GHG emissions to avoid the free-riding of investors and subsequently developed country parties. The reporting framework as well as the reporting requirements under national programs do not specify further the two types of additionality and even though research focuses on issues like baseline determination there has been no attempt so far to identify approaches which contribute towards defining strict and practicable methods and guidelines to frame additionality criteria. The first FCCC assessment of pilot project reporting revealed that in the reporting of activities, emissions additionality often remained unclear, especially in cases where AIJ was only a portion of an existing or already planned project, and that there is a point about how to account for financial additionality. It subsequently proposed to develop a uniform approach to baseline determination and the assessment of emission (reduction) additionality and financial additionality.

  12. Optimization of heating fuel furnaces by additives; Optimierung von Heizoelfeuerungsanlagen durch Additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, H.; Hornig, M.; Lohmann, G.

    1997-10-01

    Additives for light heating oil are reliable and economical solutions for the user improving the fuel characteristics. The following effects can be managed by the use of additives: - Improvement of cold flow properties - improvement of stability against ageing/metal ions and microorganism - improvement of combustion. Especially multipurpose additives with a combination of the mentioned additive effects are chosen. Ageing of middle distillates (light heating oil) is based on a summary of different effects. Responsible for ageing are the crude oil quality, the refinery process and storage conditions. For this reason no single ingredient (mono compound additives) is able to give a sufficient control of ageing for all commercial available middle distillates. Multipurpose additives (e.g. antioxidant agents and metal deactivators and combustion improver) with a broad working spectra are the better alternative. The Rancimat-method is an easy quick test which has a very slight standard deviation and gives good and reproducible results. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] Heizoel EL-Additive sind fuer den Verbraucher zuverlaessige und wirtschaftliche Problemloeser, die den Brennstoff anforderungsgerecht optimieren. Mit Additiven lassen sich folgende Eigenschaften des Heizoels erreichen: - Fliessverbesserung - Stabilitaetsverbesserung gegenueber Alterungs/Metallionen und Mikroorganismen - Verbrennungsverbesserung. Insbesondere Multipurpose-Additive, Kombinationen der o.g. Additiveffekte, erfreuen sich zunehmender Beliebtheit. die Stabilitaet von Mitteldestillaten (Heizoel EL) ist nicht nur von den Lagerbedingungen, sondern auch von der Herkunft des Rohoels und den beim Blendung verwendeten Raffinerieschritten, d.h. den verschiedenen Verarbeitungsverfahren abhaengig. Daraus folgt, dass einzelne Wirksubstanzen allein nicht zur Beherrschung der Stabiliaet ausreichend sind, d.h. das `Additiv` fuer alle handelsueblichen Mitteldestillate gibt es nicht. Kombinationsadditive (z

  13. CREATION OF THE MODEL ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houck, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Wulf, N.

    2010-05-25

    In 1991, the international nuclear nonproliferation community was dismayed to discover that the implementation of safeguards by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its NPT INFCIRC/153 safeguards agreement with Iraq had failed to detect Iraq's nuclear weapon program. It was now clear that ensuring that states were fulfilling their obligations under the NPT would require not just detecting diversion but also the ability to detect undeclared materials and activities. To achieve this, the IAEA initiated what would turn out to be a five-year effort to reappraise the NPT safeguards system. The effort engaged the IAEA and its Member States and led to agreement in 1997 on a new safeguards agreement, the Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards. The Model Protocol makes explicit that one IAEA goal is to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. The Model Protocol requires an expanded declaration that identifies a State's nuclear potential, empowers the IAEA to raise questions about the correctness and completeness of the State's declaration, and, if needed, allows IAEA access to locations. The information required and the locations available for access are much broader than those provided for under INFCIRC/153. The negotiation was completed in quite a short time because it started with a relatively complete draft of an agreement prepared by the IAEA Secretariat. This paper describes how the Model Protocol was constructed and reviews key decisions that were made both during the five-year period and in the actual negotiation.

  14. Transparent Conductive Ink for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patlan, X. J.; Rolin, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA analyzes, tests, packages, and fabricates electrical, electronic, and electromechanical (EEE) parts. Nanotechnology is listed in NASA's Technology Roadmap as a key area to invest for further development.1 This research project focused on using nanotechnology to improve electroluminescent lighting in terms of additive manufacturing and to increase energy efficiency. Specifically, this project's goal was to produce a conductive but transparent printable ink that can be sprayed on any surface for use as one of the electrodes in electroluminescent device design. This innovative work is known as thick film dielectric electroluminescent (TDEL) technology. TDEL devices are used for "backlighting, illumination, and identification due to their tunable color output, scalability, and efficiency" (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). These devices use a 'front-to-back' printing method, where the substrate is the transparent layer, and the dielectric and phosphor are layered on top. This project is a first step in the process of creating a 3D printable 'back-to-front' electroluminescent device. Back-to-front 3D-printed devices are beneficial because they can be printed onto different substrates and embedded in different surfaces, and the substrate is not required to be transparent, all because the light is emitted from the top surface through the transparent conductor. Advances in this area will help further development of printing TDEL devices on an array of different surfaces. Figure 1 demonstrates the layering of the two electrodes that are aligned in a parallel plate capacitor structure (I.K. Small, T.D. Rolin, and A.D. Shields, "3D Printed Electroluminescent Light Panels," NASA Fiscal Year 2017 Center Innovation Fund Proposal, unpublished data, 2017). Voltage is applied across the device, and the subsequent electron excitation results in

  15. Additive manufacturing technologies of porous metal implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Quanzhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical metal materials with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are widely used in orthopedic surgery and dental implant materials, but they can easily cause stress shielding due to the significant difference in elastic modulus between the implant and human bones. The elastic modulus of porous metals is lower than that of dense metals. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the pore parameters to make the elastic modulus of porous metals match or be comparable with that of the bone tissue. At the same time, the open porous metals with pores connected to each other could provide the structural condition for bone ingrowth, which is helpful in strengthening the biological combination of bone tissue with the implants. Therefore, the preparation technologies of porous metal implants and related research have been drawing more and more attention due to the excellent features of porous metals. Selective laser melting (SLM and electron beam melting technology (EBM are important research fields of additive manufacturing. They have the advantages of directly forming arbitrarily complex shaped metal parts which are suitable for the preparation of porous metal implants with complex shape and fine structure. As new manufacturing technologies, the applications of SLM and EBM for porous metal implants have just begun. This paper aims to understand the technology status of SLM and EBM, the research progress of porous metal implants preparation by using SLM and EBM, and the biological compatibility of the materials, individual design and manufacturing requirements. The existing problems and future research directions for porous metal implants prepared by SLM and EBM methods are discussed in the last paragraph.

  16. Fatigue crack growth in additive manufactured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riemer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM is a new innovative technique that allows the direct fabrication of complex, individual, delicate and high-strength products, based on their 3D data. Selective Laser Melting (SLM is one of the AM processes that generates metallic components layer by layer using powder-bed technique. The irradiation and consequent melting of metallic powder is realised by the laser source. Employing SLM, especially complex and individual products, such as implants or aerospace parts, are well suited for economic production in small batches. The first important issue in this work was to analyse the fatigue crack growth (FCG in titanium alloy Ti-6-4 and stainless steel 316L processed by SLM. As a first step, stress intensity range decreasing tests were performed on SLM samples in their “as-built” condition. The next step was to adopt measures for optimisation of fatigue crack growth performance of SLM parts. For this purpose various heat treatments such as stress relief annealing and hot isostatic pressing (HIP were applied to the CT specimens. Finally, the strong impact of heat treatment on the residual lifetime was demonstrated by numerical fatigue crack growth simulations. For this purpose, the hip joint implant consisting of Ti-6-4 and processed by SLM was taken into account. It was found that residual stresses have a strong influence on the crack growth in Ti-6-4, while the influence of the micro-pores on the threshold values remains low. In contrast the results for 316L show that its fracturemechanical behaviour is not affected by residual stresses, whereas the microstructural features lead to modification in the da/dN-K-data. The second fundamental aim of this work was to demonstrate the possibilities of the SLM process. For that reason, the individually tailored bicycle crank was optimised regarding its weight and local stresses and finally manufactured using the SLM system. The iterative optimisation procedure was based on

  17. Value addition of traditional wheat flour vermicelli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogra, Renu; Midha, Seema

    2013-08-01

    Vermicelli is a product prepared by using whole or refined wheat flour. Hard dough is prepared, extruded and dried in the sun. Since wheat flour is deficient in lysine, one of the essential amino acids, the protein quality remains poor. Refining of wheat further reduces nutritional quality. Therefore value addition of vermicelli is of prime importance to improve nutrient content and to save its delicacy. Secondly, use of value added convenient/processed foods can be a solution to the problem of supplementary feeding and under nutrition Gernah et al. (Am J Food Technol 6:404-412, 2011). Three variations of vermicelli were prepared using whole wheat flour (WWF); malted wheat flour (MWF); malted wheat flour, green gram, spinach and sago (MGSS). A spice mix containing powders of tomato, coriander, chillies, turmeric, salt, raw mango powder, black pepper, cloves and asafetida was also prepared. Results revealed that the overall acceptability scores for WWF, MWF and MGSS were 7.3 ± 6.13, 6.5 ± 0.06 and 8.1 ± 0.01 on 9 point hedonic scale. MGSS vermicelli was most acceptable by the panel members than the other counterparts. WWF, MWF and MGSS contained moisture 6.9 to 7.7%, protein 9.3 to 13.5%, fat 1.2-2.7%, ash 2.9 to 5.8%, crude fibre 2.2 to 2.4%, carbohydrates 69.8 to 75.2% and energy 344 to 362 kcal/100 g respectively. MGSS vermicelli was highest in protein content (13.5%) while energy content was high in WWF. MWF vermicelli had highest amount of total (8.91%), reducing (2.41%) and non-reducing sugars (6.57%). Quality of protein was improved by mutual supplementation of amino acid. Regarding minerals, higher contents of sodium (100 mg), calcium (30 mg), iron (5.9 mg), zinc (1.4 mg) were found in MGSS. Vermicelli could be safely stored for 2 months period at room temperature (25-30 °C).

  18. Co-occurring nonnative woody shrubs have additive and non-additive soil legacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuebbing, Sara E.; Patterson, Courtney M.; Classen, Aimee Taylor

    2016-01-01

    . Whether co-occurring nonnative plants alter soil properties additively or non-additively relative to their effects on soils when they grow in monoculture is rarely addressed. We use a greenhouse plant-soil feedback experiment to test for non-additive soil impacts of two common invasive nonnative woody...... will not necessarily lead to a predictable reduction in the impact or growth of the other nonnative plant. Nonnative plants are frequently associated with changes in soil biotic and abiotic characteristics, which lead to plant-soil interactions that influence the performance of other species grown in those soils...... shrubs, Lonicera maackii and Ligustrum sinense, in deciduous forests of the southeastern United States. We measured the performance of each nonnative shrub, a native herbaceous community, and a nonnative woody vine in soils conditioned by each shrub singly or together in polyculture. Soils conditioned...

  19. Additive Dose Response Models: Explicit Formulation and the Loewe Additivity Consistency Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Lederer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput techniques allow for massive screening of drug combinations. To find combinations that exhibit an interaction effect, one filters for promising compound combinations by comparing to a response without interaction. A common principle for no interaction is Loewe Additivity which is based on the assumption that no compound interacts with itself and that two doses from different compounds having the same effect are equivalent. It then should not matter whether a component is replaced by the other or vice versa. We call this assumption the Loewe Additivity Consistency Condition (LACC. We derive explicit and implicit null reference models from the Loewe Additivity principle that are equivalent when the LACC holds. Of these two formulations, the implicit formulation is the known General Isobole Equation (Loewe, 1928, whereas the explicit one is the novel contribution. The LACC is violated in a significant number of cases. In this scenario the models make different predictions. We analyze two data sets of drug screening that are non-interactive (Cokol et al., 2011; Yadav et al., 2015 and show that the LACC is mostly violated and Loewe Additivity not defined. Further, we compare the measurements of the non-interactive cases of both data sets to the theoretical null reference models in terms of bias and mean squared error. We demonstrate that the explicit formulation of the null reference model leads to smaller mean squared errors than the implicit one and is much faster to compute.

  20. Study of The Properties of Clay Brick Made with The Addition of Certain Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basim Thabit Al-Khafaji

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigated is conducted to study the effect of adding of marble dust and polymer (Styrene Butadiene Rubber on the properties of clay brick. Specimens manufactured from soil brought from ( al-Huda plant of brick located in Hilla . The proportions of the components of this soil were (% 49,% 18,% 33 (Clay, Sand, Silt, respectively, marble dust and (SBR were added with percentages (12, 24,36 for marble dust and (5, 10, 15 for( SBR by weight of dry soil. The properties of brick product were studied in two case ,in the first percentage of addition ( water /soil was (15 and the second was (27 , also studied the case of adding (SBR without adding water with addition a constant percentage of (marble dust for all proportions of (SBR . All Specimens were burnt in the same ( al_Huda plant at a temperature of (1000 ° C after being dried natural for a period of (7 day, through practical results for all test observed that the marble dust and (SBR when the (water / soil = 27% have the negative effect for compressive strength but marble dust has the acceptable effect on properties (water absorption and efflorescence . However when the ( w/s=15% , the marble dust and ( SBR have an obvious positive effect for all properties of clay brick especially at addition of marble dust in ( 36 percentage and (15 percentage for polymer (SBR.

  1. Additive Biotech-Chances, challenges, and recent applications of additive manufacturing technologies in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krujatz, Felix; Lode, Anja; Seidel, Julia; Bley, Thomas; Gelinsky, Michael; Steingroewer, Juliane

    2017-10-25

    The diversity and complexity of biotechnological applications are constantly increasing, with ever expanding ranges of production hosts, cultivation conditions and measurement tasks. Consequently, many analytical and cultivation systems for biotechnology and bioprocess engineering, such as microfluidic devices or bioreactors, are tailor-made to precisely satisfy the requirements of specific measurements or cultivation tasks. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies offer the possibility of fabricating tailor-made 3D laboratory equipment directly from CAD designs with previously inaccessible levels of freedom in terms of structural complexity. This review discusses the historical background of these technologies, their most promising current implementations and the associated workflows, fabrication processes and material specifications, together with some of the major challenges associated with using AM in biotechnology/bioprocess engineering. To illustrate the great potential of AM, selected examples in microfluidic devices, 3D-bioprinting/biofabrication and bioprocess engineering are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A generalized additive regression model for survival times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.

    2001-01-01

    Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models......Additive Aalen model; counting process; disability model; illness-death model; generalized additive models; multiple time-scales; non-parametric estimation; survival data; varying-coefficient models...

  3. Prevalence of phosphorus containing food additives in grocery stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeen B. Leon

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, phosphorus additives are commonly present in groceries and contribute significantly to the phosphorus content of foods. Moreover, phosphorus additive foods are less costly than additive-free foods. As a result, phosphorus additives may be an important contributor to hyperphosphatemia among persons with chronic kidney disease

  4. Applications of Fiber-Reinforced Polymers in Additive Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Tosello, Guido

    2017-01-01

    understanding of fiber-reinforcement in additive manufacturing in terms of production and application. Vat polymerization and material extrusion techniques for composite additive manufacturing were investigated with respect of increasing adhesion between the matrix material and the fibers. Process optimization...

  5. An Additive-Multiplicative Cox-Aalen Regression Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas H.; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2002-01-01

    Aalen model; additive risk model; counting processes; Cox regression; survival analysis; time-varying effects......Aalen model; additive risk model; counting processes; Cox regression; survival analysis; time-varying effects...

  6. 77 FR 2935 - Mars, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 73 Mars, Inc.; Filing of Color Additive Petition... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Mars, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the color additive... additive petition (CAP 2C0293) has been filed by Mars, Inc., c/o Keller and Heckman LLP, 1001 G St. NW...

  7. 7 CFR 1980.473 - Additional loans or advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional loans or advances. 1980.473 Section 1980... Additional loans or advances. (Refer to paragraph XIII of Form FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law... authority additional nonguaranteed loans or advances prior to or subsequent to the issuance of the Loan Note...

  8. 42 CFR 410.64 - Additional preventive services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional preventive services. 410.64 Section 410... Additional preventive services. (a) Medicare Part B pays for additional preventive services not otherwise... Preventive Services Task Force. (3) Appropriate for individuals entitled to benefits under part A or enrolled...

  9. 14 CFR 399.33 - Additional fare flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional fare flexibility. 399.33 Section... Additional fare flexibility. For scheduled service in the areas set forth in § 399.32(a), certificated air carriers have the following fare flexibility in addition to that set forth in § 399.32: (a) First class...

  10. 40 CFR 80.162 - Additive compositional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additive compositional data. 80.162... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.162 Additive compositional data... gasoline detergency requirements of this subpart, the compositional data to be supplied to EPA by the...

  11. Process chain modeling and selection in an additive manufacturing context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Stolfi, Alessandro; Mischkot, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a new two-dimensional approach to modeling manufacturing process chains. This approach is used to consider the role of additive manufacturing technologies in process chains for a part with micro scale features and no internal geometry. It is shown that additive manufacturing...... evolving fields like additive manufacturing....

  12. 40 CFR 51.117 - Additional provisions for lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional provisions for lead. 51.117... Additional provisions for lead. In addition to other requirements in §§ 51.100 through 51.116 the following requirements apply to lead. To the extent they conflict, there requirements are controlling over those of the...

  13. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore prescribed...

  14. Continuous subjective expected utility with non-additive probabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    1989-01-01

    textabstractA well-known theorem of Debreu about additive representations of preferences is applied in a non-additive context, to characterize continuous subjective expected utility maximization for the case where the probability measures may be non-additive. The approach of this paper does not need

  15. An evaluation of estimation methods for determining addition in presbyopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Catunda Bittencourt

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The optical correction of presbyopia must be handled individually. Our aim was to compare the methods used in addition to the refractive near vision, with the final addition used in presbyopic patients. METHODS: Eighty healthy subjects with a mean age of 49.7 years (range 40 to 60 years were studied. Tentative near additions were determined using four different techniques: one-half amplitude accommodation with minus lenses (AAL; one-third accommodative demand with positive lens (ADL; balanced range of accommodation with minus and positive lenses (BRA and crossed cylinder test with initial myopisation (CCT. The power of the addition was then refined to arrive at the final addition. RESULTS: The mean tentative near additions were lower than the final addition for ADL and BRA addition methods. The mean differences between tentative and final additions were low for all the tests examined (less than 0.25 D. The intervals between the 95% limits of agreement differed substantially and were always higher than ±0.50 D. CONCLUSION: All the methods used displayed similar behavior and provided a tentative addition close to the final addition. The coefficient of agreements (COA detected suggests that every tentative addition should be adjusted according to the particular needs of the patient.

  16. 27 CFR 24.233 - Addition of spirits to wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wine. 24.233 Section 24.233 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Spirits § 24.233 Addition of spirits to wine. (a) Prior to the addition of spirits. Wine will be placed in tanks approved for the addition of spirits. The...

  17. The behaviour of molybdenum dialkyldithiocarbamate friction modifier additives

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, J C H

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing concern to produce energy-efficient lubricated components and modem engine oil specifications require lubricants to demonstrate fuel efficiency in standardised engine tests. One important method of producing low friction and thus fuel-efficient lubricants is to use oil-soluble, molybdenum-containing, friction modifier additives. In optimal conditions these additives are able to produce very low friction coefficients, in the range 0.045 to 0.075 in boundary lubrication conditions. Very little is known about the chemical and physical mechanisms by which oil soluble molybdenum additives form low friction films in tribological contacts. Information about their activity could lead to optimal use of these additives in lubricants and, therefore, more efficient engine running. The work outlined in this thesis investigated the behaviour of oil-soluble molybdenum additives and showed that these additives were able to effectively reduce friction in the absence of other additives su...

  18. Advanced Material Strategies for Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jinke; He, Jiankang; Mao, Mao; Zhou, Wenxing; Lei, Qi; Li, Xiao; Li, Dichen; Chua, Chee-Kai; Zhao, Xin

    2018-01-22

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has drawn tremendous attention in various fields. In recent years, great efforts have been made to develop novel additive manufacturing processes such as micro-/nano-scale 3D printing, bioprinting, and 4D printing for the fabrication of complex 3D structures with high resolution, living components, and multimaterials. The development of advanced functional materials is important for the implementation of these novel additive manufacturing processes. Here, a state-of-the-art review on advanced material strategies for novel additive manufacturing processes is provided, mainly including conductive materials, biomaterials, and smart materials. The advantages, limitations, and future perspectives of these materials for additive manufacturing are discussed. It is believed that the innovations of material strategies in parallel with the evolution of additive manufacturing processes will provide numerous possibilities for the fabrication of complex smart constructs with multiple functions, which will significantly widen the application fields of next-generation additive manufacturing.

  19. Advanced Material Strategies for Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinke Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing (AM has drawn tremendous attention in various fields. In recent years, great efforts have been made to develop novel additive manufacturing processes such as micro-/nano-scale 3D printing, bioprinting, and 4D printing for the fabrication of complex 3D structures with high resolution, living components, and multimaterials. The development of advanced functional materials is important for the implementation of these novel additive manufacturing processes. Here, a state-of-the-art review on advanced material strategies for novel additive manufacturing processes is provided, mainly including conductive materials, biomaterials, and smart materials. The advantages, limitations, and future perspectives of these materials for additive manufacturing are discussed. It is believed that the innovations of material strategies in parallel with the evolution of additive manufacturing processes will provide numerous possibilities for the fabrication of complex smart constructs with multiple functions, which will significantly widen the application fields of next-generation additive manufacturing.

  20. An implementation framework for additive manufacturing in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Handal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing has become one of the most important technologies in the manufacturing field. Full implementation of additive manufacturing will change many well-known management practices in the production sector. However, theoretical development in the field of additive manufacturing with regard to its impact on supply chain management is rare. While additive manufacturing is believed to revolutionize and enhance traditional manufacturing, there is no comprehensive toolset developed in the manufacturing field to assess the impact of additive manufacturing and determine the best production method that suits the applied supply chain strategy. A significant portion of the existing supply chain methods and frameworks were adopted in this study to examine the implementation of additive manufacturing in supply chain management. The aim of this study is to develop a framework to explain when additive manufacturing impacts supply chain management efficiently.

  1. Non-additive and Additive Genetic Effects on Extraversion in 3314 Dutch Adolescent Twins and Their Parents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rettew, D.C.; Rebollo Mesa, I.; Hudziak, J.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of non-additive genetic influences on personality traits has been increasingly reported in adult populations. Less is known, however, with respect to younger samples. In this study, we examine additive and non-additive genetic contributions to the personality trait of extraversion in

  2. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL ADDITIVES ON PROTEIN COMPLEX OF BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Urminská

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on researching the influence of natural additives on certain technological characteristics of mixtures used for bread production, more particularly the influence of N substances in used raw material on selected qualitative parameters of bread. The blends for bread production to be analysed were prepared by mixing wheat flour with an addition of oat, buckwheat, lentil and chickpea wholegrain flour in different portions (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The experiment showed that the addition of natural additives worsened the protein complex of the blends used in bread production (worsening also qualitative parameters known as product volume. The loaves prepared with an addition of buckwheat, oat, lentil and chickpea were evaluated to be of a lesser quality from a technological viewpoint when compared with pure wheat loaves. The lower content of gluten forming proteins and the generally changed protein composition of blends due to additives caused a lower percentage of wet gluten content, its lower extensibility and swelling capacity. The sedimentation value (Zeleny index decreased proportionally with the increase of addition until the level was unsatisfactory for raw material intended for bakery purposes. The N content in experimental loaves was higher than in the reference loaves and it increased according to the selected additive and its portion in the blend (more with the addition of lentil and chickpea, less in case of buckwheat and oat which is considered as positive from a nutritional point of view. But from the technological point of view the additives did not show any positive influence and caused a lower loaf bread volume. The most significant decrease of the loaf bread volume was found with the addition of 50 % of buckwheat (- 45.6 %. Better results were obtained with a lower portion of the additive: loaf with an addition of 30 % of chickpea (volume decreased by 12.8 % > loaf with an addition of 30 % of lentil (volume

  3. Versatility of cooperative transcriptional activation: a thermodynamical modeling analysis for greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till D Frank

    Full Text Available We derive a statistical model of transcriptional activation using equilibrium thermodynamics of chemical reactions. We examine to what extent this statistical model predicts synergy effects of cooperative activation of gene expression. We determine parameter domains in which greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects are predicted for cooperative regulation by two activators. We show that the statistical approach can be used to identify different causes of synergistic greater-than-additive effects: nonlinearities of the thermostatistical transcriptional machinery and three-body interactions between RNA polymerase and two activators. In particular, our model-based analysis suggests that at low transcription factor concentrations cooperative activation cannot yield synergistic greater-than-additive effects, i.e., DNA transcription can only exhibit less-than-additive effects. Accordingly, transcriptional activity turns from synergistic greater-than-additive responses at relatively high transcription factor concentrations into less-than-additive responses at relatively low concentrations. In addition, two types of re-entrant phenomena are predicted. First, our analysis predicts that under particular circumstances transcriptional activity will feature a sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and eventually less-than-additive effects when for fixed activator concentrations the regulatory impact of activators on the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter increases from weak, to moderate, to strong. Second, for appropriate promoter conditions when activator concentrations are increased then the aforementioned re-entrant sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and less-than-additive effects is predicted as well. Finally, our model-based analysis suggests that even for weak activators that individually induce only negligible increases in promoter activity, promoter activity can exhibit greater-than-additive

  4. Criteria for deviation from predictions by the concentration addition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Jun-Ichi; Seki, Masanori; Kamo, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Loewe's additivity (concentration addition) is a well-known model for predicting the toxic effects of chemical mixtures under the additivity assumption of toxicity. However, from the perspective of chemical risk assessment and/or management, it is important to identify chemicals whose toxicities are additive when present concurrently, that is, it should be established whether there are chemical mixtures to which the concentration addition predictive model can be applied. The objective of the present study was to develop criteria for judging test results that deviated from the predictions by the concentration addition chemical mixture model. These criteria were based on the confidence interval of the concentration addition model's prediction and on estimation of errors of the predicted concentration-effect curves by toxicity tests after exposure to single chemicals. A log-logit model with 2 parameters was assumed for the concentration-effect curve of each individual chemical. These parameters were determined by the maximum-likelihood method, and the criteria were defined using the variances and the covariance of the parameters. In addition, the criteria were applied to a toxicity test of a binary mixture of p-n-nonylphenol and p-n-octylphenol using the Japanese killifish, medaka (Oryzias latipes). Consequently, the concentration addition model using confidence interval was capable of predicting the test results at any level, and no reason for rejecting the concentration addition was found. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1806-1814. © 2015 SETAC. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. RAPID TEST METHOD FOR EVALUATION OF ANTIFREEZE ADDITIVE EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gushchin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Usage of chemical additives while executing concrete works at negative temperatures is considered as a convenient and economical method. Range of the used antifreeze additives is rather wide. A great number of new additives are advertised but their characteristics have not been practically studied. Evaluation of the antifreeze additive efficiency is unfortunately rather long process and it does not provide comprehensive data on concrete structure formation processes. Due to this development of rapid and comprehensive methodology for construction companies is urgently required.Freezing processes of antifreeze additive aqueous solutions and hardening of cement paste with them have been investigated in the paper. The paper proposes a methodology for determination of freezing point for aqueous solutions of chemical additives of various applications. Identity of  freezing point for a chemical additive aqueous solution and cement paste with an equal concentration of the additive in the paste pore fluid has been determined while taking  calcium nitrate and sodium formate additives as an example. The paper demonstrates the possibility to evaluate efficiency of antifreeze additive action on the basis of kinetics in temperature changes of the cement paste with additives by its consecutive freezing and defrosting.  A methodology for operational evaluation in the field of chemical additive application for concreting items at negative temperatures has been offered in the paper.  The methodology does not require  deficient and expensive test-equipment. It can be applied at ordinary construction companies and it is comprehensible for personnel of low-qualification.  The paper shows the possibility to develop an original methodology for designing concrete structure which is based on operating efficiency determinations  for single and integrated antifreeze additives.

  6. INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF ADDITIONAL PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION AT THE HIGHER SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Гузель Ильмировна Алмаева

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose consists in identification of conditions, factors and tendencies of process of an institutionalization of additional professional education at the higher school.Methodology: a theoretical analysis of an institutionalization of additional professional education at the higher school; questioning being trained according to various programs of additional professional educationResults: It is established that now additional professional education on the basis of the higher education is at a transitional stage from industrial type to post-industrial type.  Process of an institutionalization of additional professional education in higher education institution of post-industrial type at the initial stage.Practical implications: system of additional education in higher education institution structure.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-11-5

  7. Additive manufacturing: state-of-the-art and application framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Vinicius Picanco; de Senzi Zancul, Eduardo; Gonçalves Mançanares, Cauê

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing encompasses a class of production processes with increasing applications indifferent areas and supply chains. Due to its flexibility for production in small batches and the versatilityof materials and geometries, this technology is recognized as being capable...... of revolutionizing theproduction processes as well as changing production strategies that are currently employed. However,there are different technologies under the generic label of additive manufacturing, materials and applicationareas with different requirements. Given the growing importance of additive...

  8. Danish teachers' expectations of year one pupils' additive competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtker Sunde, Pernille; Sayers, Judy

    2017-01-01

    , mathematical content, and differentiation. The teachers’expectationsrangedfrom one teacher stating that most studentsshould be able to do single-digit addition, but more importantly know the everyday language of addition, to a teacher requiring all students to be proficient in two-digit addition without...... bridging ten, and 20%of their pupils should be able to manipulatetwo-digit addition bridging tenoperations. The results are discussed in relation to thecommon objectives of the Danish curriculum andthe general findings ofrelationships between early proficiency and later achievements....

  9. Toxicity assessment and hazard communication for automotive lubricant additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Petroleum additives used in automotive lubricants and fuels generally do not present substantial health or physical hazards. Animal toxicity testing, confirmed by industry manufacturing experience, indicates that these additive packages usually exhibit a low degree of toxicity, although some may be irritating to the skin and eyes. However, automotive lubricants formulated with these additives have been demonstrated to be essentially non-irritating. Any potential hazards of lubricant additives can be effectively controlled by relatively simple procedures. Customers and users should refer to the suppliers' Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS's) and product labels for hazard and handling information, and should contact the supplier regarding specific questions.

  10. Effects of Grain Refining Additions to Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennone, R. J.; Coyle, F. T.; Farrior, G. M.

    An efficient method of controlling the grain-size of commercial aluminum alloys is by continuous additions of grain-refining agents in the form of master-alloy rod which is fed automatically into the launder during casting. The simultaneous addition of titanium and boron in a single rod is more efficient and more economical than separate additions. Response of various alloys to grain refining may be determined using the laboratory test described. Effects of these additions on 6063 alloy are presented; preliminary results on other commercial alloys are included.

  11. Legal assumptions for private company claim for additional (supplementary payment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šogorov Stevan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject matter of analyze in this article are legal assumptions which must be met in order to enable private company to call for additional payment. After introductory remarks discussion is focused on existence of provisions regarding additional payment in formation contract, or in shareholders meeting general resolution, as starting point for company's claim. Second assumption is concrete resolution of shareholders meeting which creates individual obligations for additional payments. Third assumption is defined as distinctness regarding sum of payment and due date. Sending of claim by relevant company body is set as fourth legal assumption for realization of company's right to claim additional payments from member of private company.

  12. Development of multifunctional additives for new generation bio-fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A.; Krar, M.; Poelczmann, G.; Hancsok, J. (Univ. of Pannonia, Veszprem (HU)), Email: beckadam@almos.uni.pannon.hu

    2009-07-01

    Modern fuels consist of environmental friendly blending components and high performance additives. Among the applied additives the detergent-depoestron (DD) additives have very important role. Their function is to clean and keep clean the fuel supply system and the combustion chamber, thus the removal of deposits and the prevention of their formation. Nowadays, fuel blending components of renewable origin (biodiesel, mixture of iso- and normal paraffins produced from triglycerides, synthetic gasoline and gas oil based on synthesis gas etc.) will be an important part of the transportation fuels reserves, and their importance will increase in the future. Additives have to be applied to enhance the properties and quality of the above mentioned fuels. During our research activity the aim of our work was to develop such multifunctional additives that are partly produced from renewable feedstock. It is commonly known that conventional succinic-type additives have high detergent-dispersant efficiency, thus we chose to modify the structure of this additive in order to assure further advantageous effects. The modification of the additive structure was carried out by the incorporation of a fatty acid methyl ester and/or styrene comonomer by applying radically initiated synthesis. Efficiency of the synthesized novel additives was investigated in biodiesel containing diesel fuel, bio gas oil (mixture of iso and normal paraffins produced from triglycerides) containing diesel fuel and synthetic gas oil (produced from biomass based synthesis gas) containing diesel fuel. Analytical and performance tests showed that the novel additives have similar or better detergent-dispersant efficiency compared to that of the high performance reference additive, furthermore, the new structure assures lubricity improving and corrosion inhibiting effects. (orig.)

  13. Attitude Towards Physics and Additional Mathematics Achievement Towards Physics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veloo, Arsaythamby; Nor, Rahimah; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify the difference in students' attitude towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement based on gender and relationship between attitudinal variables towards Physics and Additional Mathematics achievement with achievement in Physics. This research focused on six variables, which is attitude towards…

  14. New Tendencies in Development of Carbonaceous Additives for Welding Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, N. A.; Kryukov, R. E.; Kozyreva, O. A.

    2015-09-01

    The paper provides results of comparative analysis of the effect of carbonaceous components introduced into welding fluxes on molten metal - slag interaction. Thermodynamical calculations of dehydrogenization are presented for submerged arc welding. A positive influence of carbonaceous additives on gas content and mechanical properties of welds is demonstrated. Carbon and fluorine containing additives are emphasized to be promising for automatic submerged arc welding.

  15. Estimating Additive and Dominance Variance for Litter Traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Reproductive and growth records of 82 purebred California white kits were used to estimate additive and dominance genetic variances using BULPF90PC-PACK. ... The first model included fixed effects and random effects identifying inbreeding depression, additive gene effect and permanent environmental effects.

  16. Estimating Additive and Dominance Variance for Liner Traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    additive and dominance genetic variances using. BULPF90PC-PACK.estimates ... inbreeding depression, additive gene e"ect and pennanent ... litter bearing species with a large expression ofdominance relationships and possibly useful magnitude of dominance effects in reproductive traits, genetic evaluation in rabbits ...

  17. IMPROVEMENT OF CONCRETE PROPERTIES ON BASIS OF NEW ADDITIVE AGENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Grechukhin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents investigation results pertaining to influence of such additive agent as used clay of oil production on concrete properties. Some examples are given to demonstrate usage of such concrete while manufacturing step plates. The paper shows that introduction of the given additive increases their waterproofing qualities and reduces water absorption. 

  18. Effect of bauxite addition on densification and mullitization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. The effect of bauxite addition on the densification and mullitization of reaction sintered bauxite– clay mixture had been studied in the temperature range 1400–1500°C. The maximum bulk density (2⋅89 g/cc) and minimum apparent porosity (0⋅58%) was achieved by addition of 50 wt% bauxite. The impurities ...

  19. Effect of micronized zeolite addition to lamb concentrate feeds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OEM

    2016-09-21

    %, 1%, 2% or 3% additional. MZ. At the end of the study, bodyweight gain and feed consumption were not affected by the treatments. Similarly, the addition of up to 2% MZ to the diet did not affect slaughter weight, hot carcass ...

  20. Utilization of the additives in farm animal nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    ADAMOVÁ, Jana

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with the use of additives in livestock nutrition, the distribution of these substances as well as their characteristics. The work is focuses on characteristics of a selected group of zootechnical additives. In this group of substances each specific substance added to feed are presented and it also describes their impact and importance in livestock nutrition.

  1. Ecotoxicological effects of activated carbon addition to sediments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/175518793; Suijkerbuijk, M.P.; Schmitt, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831042; Sinnige, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) addition is a recently developed technique for the remediation of sediments and soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic chemicals. Laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that the addition of 3-4% of AC can reduce aqueous concentrations and the bioaccumulation

  2. Anomalous origin of left testicular artery from an additional renal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gonadal arteries arising from additional renal arteries present an important variation that should be noted in order to avoid inadvertent injury to these vessels in renal hilar dissection and retroperitoneal surgery. During routine dissection, we observed the unusual origin of the left testicular artery from an additional renal ...

  3. Individuals charts and additional tests for changes in spread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, Albert; Wieringa, Jaap E.

    2003-01-01

    Some authors recommend the use of an additional test for detecting increases in the spread, when using a control chart for individual observations. We examine this recommendation both in a practical situation and theoretically. Both studies show that the additional test gives somewhat more power for

  4. 48 CFR 22.406-3 - Additional classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Involving Construction 22.406-3 Additional classifications. (a) If any laborer or mechanic is to be employed... utilized in the area by the construction industry. (3) The proposed wage rate, including any fringe... mechanics to be employed in the additional classification (if known) or their representatives agree to the...

  5. 38 CFR 3.650 - Rate for additional dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... retroactively awarded to an additional child of the veteran based on school attendance, the full rate payable to... otherwise in order, commencing the day following the effective date of reduction. (b) New awards. If the additional dependent is found to be entitled, the full rate payable will be authorized effective the date of...

  6. Characterization of the Tribological Behavior of Graphene-Based Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erck, Robert

    2014-09-01

    XG-supplied nanocrystalline additives were extensively tested for friction and wear behavior. A technique for investigating the stability of additives was developed, and a report covered filtration and centrifugation methods for settling and filterable content. Friction and wear trends in partially and fully formulated oils were reported. Particle size analysis was performed and reported.

  7. Coordinate descent methods for the penalized semiparametric additive hazards model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Scheike, Thomas

    . The semiparametric additive hazards model is a flexible alternative which is a natural survival analogue of the standard linear regression model. Building on this analogy, we develop a cyclic coordinate descent algorithm for fitting the lasso and elastic net penalized additive hazards model. The algorithm requires...

  8. 7 CFR 1779.84 - Additional loans or advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional loans or advances. 1779.84 Section 1779.84 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... advances. The lender will not make additional expenditures or new loans to the borrower without first...

  9. 46 CFR 11.502 - Additional requirements for engineer endorsements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements for engineer endorsements. 11... SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Engineer Officer § 11.502 Additional requirements for engineer endorsements. (a) For all original and raise of grade of engineer...

  10. Value addition and processed products of three indigenous fruits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Value addition and processed products of three indigenous fruits in Namibia. ... In addition, they provide enormous health benefits such as antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. They are also known to create ... Different types of food products were made from the fruits namely; juice, jam, jelly and muffins (cakes). A pilot study ...

  11. Traffic generated by a semi-Markov additive process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, J.; Mandjes, M.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a semi-Markov additive process A(.)-that is, a Markov additive process for which the sojourn times in the various states have general (rather than exponential) distributions. Letting the Levy processes X-i(.), which describe the evolution of A(.) while the background process is in state

  12. Traffic generated by a semi-Markov additive process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Blom (Joke); M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a semi-Markov additive process $A(\\cdot)$, i.e., a Markov additive process for which the sojourn times in the various states have general (rather than exponential) distributions. Letting the L\\'evy processes $X_i(\\cdot)$, which describe the evolution of $A(\\cdot)$ while

  13. Traffic generated by a semi-Markov additive process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Blom (Joke); M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a semi-Markov additive process $A(\\cdot)$, i.e., a Markov additive process for which the sojourn times in the various states have general (rather than exponential) distributions. Letting the L\\'evy processes $X_i(\\cdot)$, which describe the evolution of $A(\\cdot)$ while

  14. 14 CFR 135.421 - Additional maintenance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.421 Additional maintenance requirements. (a) Each... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional maintenance requirements. 135... any pilot seat, of nine seats or less, must comply with the manufacturer's recommended maintenance...

  15. An Analysis Of Additive Manufacturing Production Problems And Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    2, 2016). All of the skills he learned came from reading manuals and watching YouTube videos (Jonathan Lukesh, personal communication, August 2...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT AN ANALYSIS OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PRODUCTION...December 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE AN ANALYSIS OF ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING PRODUCTION PROBLEMS

  16. 38 CFR 17.805 - Additional terms of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional terms of loans... Transitional Housing Loan Program § 17.805 Additional terms of loans. In the operation of each residence established with the assistance of the loan, the recipient must agree to the following: (a) The use of alcohol...

  17. Significance of Glucose Addition on Chitosan-Glycerophosphate Hydrogel Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Susanthy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan-glycerophosphate hydrogel can be used as dental scaffold due to its thermosensitivity, gelation performance at body temperature, suitable acidity for body condition, biocompatibility, and ability to provide good environment for cell proliferation and differentiation. Previous study showed that glucose addition to the chitosan solution before steam sterilization improved its hydrogel mechanical strength. However, the effectiveness of glucose addition was still doubted because glucose might undergo Maillard reaction in that particular condition. The aims of this study are to confirm whether the glucose addition can increase the hydrogel mechanical strength and gelation rate effectively and also to compare their performance to be dental scaffold. This research was performed through several steps, namely preparation of chitosan-glycerophosphate solution, addition of glucose, gelation time test, gel mechanical strength measurement, functional group analysis, and physical properties measurements (pH, viscosity, and pore size. The result showed that glucose addition did not improve the hydrogel mechanical strength and gelation rate, neither when it was added before nor after steam sterilization. Glucose addition before steam sterilization seemed to trigger Maillard reaction or browning effect, while glucose addition after steam sterilization increased the amount of free water molecules in the hydrogel. Chitosan and glycerophosphate interact physically, but interaction between chitosan and glucose seems to occur chemically and followed by the formation of free water molecules. Glucose addition decreases the solution viscosity and hydrogel pore size so the hydrogel performance as dental scaffold is lowered.

  18. 38 CFR 59.60 - Additional application requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional application requirements. 59.60 Section 59.60 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) GRANTS TO STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.60 Additional application...

  19. Influence of additive from sugar beet on white bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Nada K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The additive of acceptable sensory, physical and chemical and microbiological characteristics was made from cossettes. Great water binding capacity related to microcrystals of cellulose qualifies this additive as a desired one in bread making process. Bread was baked in the laboratory and patent flour was used. The additive with particles smaller than 95 (m was supplemented in the quantities of 2, 5 and 10%. The data related to the influence of the quantity of additive on white bread quality point that parallel to increasing the amount of the additive in the dough, yield of dough and bread were also increased. Negative effects are detected as volume depression and inferior bread crumb quality and altered crumb color. The decrease in bread quality is small if 2% of additive was applied, but significant with 5 and 10%. The bread freshness was highly graded 48 hours after baking due to the ability of the additive to retain water. On the whole, bread of superior quality supplemented by 5 and 10% of the additive from sugar beet fiber can be easily made by fortifying flour with gluten and by adding appropriate dough conditioner.

  20. 77 FR 5201 - Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 173 Ecolab, Inc.; Filing of Food Additive... Administration (FDA) is announcing that Ecolab, Inc., has filed a petition proposing that the food additive... Ecolab, Inc., 370 North Wabasha St., St. Paul, MN 55102-1390. The petition proposes to amend the food...

  1. determinants of sweet potato value addition among smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Heckman two-step procedure was used to analyse the determinants of sweet potato value addition and level of value addition. As stated in the methodology, the two equations were estimated simultaneously. Post estimation of selection equation results was done to determine marginal effects of changes in explanatory ...

  2. Design for additive manufacturing: Automated build orientation selection and optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwier, Marijn Pieter; Wits, Wessel Willems

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, is an emerging type of production technology that is seen as the core technology for future high-value engineered products. Due to the additive nature of stacking and unifying individual layers, the part and process design is substantially different from

  3. 20 CFR 655.154 - Additional positive recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional positive recruitment. 655.154... recruitment. (a) Where to conduct additional positive recruitment. The employer must conduct positive recruitment within a multistate region of traditional or expected labor supply where the CO finds that there...

  4. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas; Nichols, Charles

    2016-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  5. 26 CFR 1.1250-2 - Additional depreciation defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional depreciation defined. 1.1250-2... Additional depreciation defined. (a) In general—(1) Definition for purposes of section 1250(b)(1). Except as... depreciation means: (i) In the case of property which at the time of disposition has a holding period under...

  6. Utilization of Additive Manufacturing for Aerospace Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    viability of additive manufacturing for producin9 aerospace heat exchangers for naval air platforms . This report considers various heat exc...demonstration , aerospace heat exchangers 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED... Aerospace Heat Exchangers Research Conducted for the Office of Naval Research Under the Enabling Additive Manufacturing Technologies for Industry

  7. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional group members. 300.308 Section 300.308 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... § 300.308 Additional group members. The determination of whether a child suspected of having a specific...

  8. Coordinate descent methods for the penalized semiprarametric additive hazard model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Scheike, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    . The semiparametric additive hazards model is a flexible alternative which is a natural survival analogue of the standard linear regression model. Building on this analogy, we develop a cyclic coordinate descent algorithm for fitting the lasso and elastic net penalized additive hazards model. The algorithm requires...

  9. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, Carlos A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  10. Infrared spectroscopic monitoring of urea addition to oriented strandboard resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Leung So; Thomas L. Eberhardt; Ernest Hsu; Brian K. Via; Chung Y. Hse

    2007-01-01

    One of the variables in phenol formaldehyde adhesive resin formulation is the addition of urea, which allows the resin manufacturer to manipulate both product functionality and cost. Nitrogen content can be used as a measure of the level of urea addition because most of the nitrogen present is derived from urea added at the end of the preparation process. Nitrogen...

  11. 38 CFR 17.40 - Additional services for indigents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has authorized care at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center, any such patient determined by the U.S... MEDICAL Enrollment Provisions and Medical Benefits Package § 17.40 Additional services for indigents. In addition to the usual medical services agreed upon between the governments of the United States and the...

  12. 47 CFR 22.817 - Additional channel policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional channel policies. 22.817 Section 22... Additional channel policies. The rules in this section govern the processing of applications for authority to operate a ground station transmitter on any ground station communication channel listed in § 22.805 when...

  13. Evaluating three different methods of determining addition in presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negareh Yazdani

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results were approximately the same for 3 methods and provided comparable final addition; however, mean near additions were higher with increasing plus lens compared with the other two methods. In presbyopic individuals, increasing plus lens is recommended as the least time-consuming method with the range of ±0.50 diopter at the 40 cm working distance.

  14. 5 CFR 179.218 - Additional administrative collection action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional administrative collection action. 179.218 Section 179.218 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Salary Offset § 179.218 Additional administrative collection action...

  15. 5 CFR 179.309 - Additional administrative procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional administrative procedures. 179.309 Section 179.309 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS Administrative Offset § 179.309 Additional administrative procedures. Nothing...

  16. 14 CFR 13.107 - Designation of additional parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURAL RULES INVESTIGATIVE AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Formal Fact-Finding Investigation Under an Order of Investigation § 13.107 Designation of additional parties. (a) The Presiding Officer may designate additional persons as parties to the investigation, if in the discretion of the Presiding Officer, it will aid in the...

  17. A review of selected chemical additives in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2014-01-01

    The addition of chemical additives to consumer cosmetic products is a common practice to increase cosmetic effectiveness, maintain cosmetic efficacy, and produce a longer-lasting, more viable product. Recently, manufacturers have come under attack for the addition of chemicals including dioxane, formaldehyde, lead/lead acetate, parabens, and phthalate, as these additives may prove harmful to consumer health. Although reports show that these products may indeed adversely affect human health, these studies are conducted using levels of the aforementioned chemicals at much higher levels of exposure than those found in cosmetic products. When cosmeceuticals are used as per manufacturer's instructions, it is estimated that the levels of harmful additives found in these products are considerably lower than reported toxic concentrations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-11-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of additives on the ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow them to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. 49 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-04-09

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  20. Effect of Additives on Some Physical Parameters of Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Eddy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of additives (carrot, lime, paw paw and red dye on the density, viscosity, moisture content and melting point of palm oil (PO was investigated by dissolving 1g of each additive to 10 mL of pre-analysed oil in a beaker. The mixture was heated and their their moisture content, melting point, viscosity and density were determined. The result of the analysis shows that all the additives significantly increased the density, moisture content and viscosity (except lime of the oil. Addition of paw paw and red dye also increased the melting point of the oil while the addition of carrot and lime juice decreased the melting point of the oil.

  1. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Halken, S.

    1994-01-01

    dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic......, rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated ''lemonade'' containing the dissolved additives was used...... and 335 were subjected to open challenge. A total of 23 children developed positive reactions after the open challenge. Sixteen of these patients accepted the double-blind challenge, and six showed a positive reaction to preservatives (atopic dermatitis, asthma, rhinitis), coloring agents (atopic...

  2. Adverse reactions to food additives in children with atopic symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G; Madsen, G; Halken, S

    1994-01-01

    dermatitis, asthma, urticaria, gastrointestinal symptoms), and citric acid (atopic dermatitis, gastrointestinal symptoms). The incidence of intolerance of food additives was 2% (6/335), as based on the double-blind challenge, and 7% (23/335), as based on the open challenge with lemonade. Children with atopic......, rhinitis, or urticaria. After a 2-week period on an additive-free diet, the children were challenged with the eliminated additives. The food additives investigated were coloring agents, preservatives, citric acid, and flavoring agents. Carbonated "lemonade" containing the dissolved additives was used...... and 335 were subjected to open challenge. A total of 23 children developed positive reactions after the open challenge. Sixteen of these patients accepted the double-blind challenge, and six showed a positive reaction to preservatives (atopic dermatitis, asthma, rhinitis), coloring agents (atopic...

  3. Carbon nanomaterials used as conductive additives in lithium ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingtang; Yu, Zuolong; Du, Ping; Su, Ce

    2010-06-01

    As the vital part of lithium ion batteries, conductive additives play important roles in the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries. They construct a conductive percolation network to increase and keep the electronic conductivity of electrode, enabling it charge and discharge faster. In addition, conductive additives absorb and retain electrolyte, allowing an intimate contact between the lithium ions and active materials. Carbon nanomaterials are carbon black, Super P, acetylene black, carbon nanofibers, and carbon nanotubes, which all have superior properties such as low weight, high chemical inertia and high specific surface area. They are the ideal conductive additives for lithium ion batteries. This review will discuss some registered patents and relevant papers about the carbon nanomaterials that are used as conductive additives in cathode or anode to improve the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries.

  4. Influence of Additives on Cigarette Related Health Risks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus H

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco additives play an important role in the manufacturing and for the quality of tobacco products, particularly cigarettes and roll-your-own tobaccos. Attention is increasingly given to the potential effects of additives on consumer behavior and health. This review is intended to compile, collate and - to some degree - evaluate the wealth of pertinent scientific information available from the published literature and other special sources. At first, the reasons are set forth for the use of additives in cigarette manufacturing. In response to the growing controversy over the attractiveness and addictiveness of smoking, the clarification of terms and concepts is followed by a detailed discussion of two kinds of substances with particular relevance: Additives like ammonium compounds that are claimed to increase nicotine availability, and additives that are claimed to increase nicotine addictiveness.

  5. Effects of some polymeric additives on the cocrystallization of caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jihae; Kim, Il Won

    2011-11-01

    Effects of polymeric additives on the model cocrystallization were examined. The model cocrystal was made from caffeine and oxalic acid, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly( L-lactide) (PLLA), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were the additives. The cocrystals were formed as millimeter-sized crystals without additives, and they became microcrystals with PLLA and PCL, and nanocrystals with PAA. XRD and IR revealed that the cocrystal structure was unchanged despite the strong effects of the additives on the crystal morphology, although some decrease in crystallinity was observed with PAA as confirmed by DSC. The DSC study also showed that the cocrystal melted and recrystallized to form α-caffeine upon heating. The present study verified that the polymeric additives can be utilized to modulate the size and morphology of the cocrystals without interfering the intermolecular interactions essential to the integrity of the cocrystal structures.

  6. Energy-effective Grinding of Inorganic Solids Using Organic Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratan K; Weibel, Martin; Müller, Thomas; Heinz, Hendrik; Flatt, Robert J

    2017-08-09

    We present our research findings related to new formulations of the organic additives (grinding aids) needed for the efficient grinding of inorganic solids. Even though the size reduction phenomena of the inorganic solid particles in a ball mill is purely a physical process, the addition of grinding aids in milling media introduces a complex physicochemical process. In addition to further gain in productivity, the organic additive helps to reduce the energy needed for grinding, which in the case of cement clinker has major environmental implications worldwide. This is primarily due to the tremendous amounts of cement produced and almost 30% of the associated electrical energy is consumed for grinding. In this paper, we examine the question of how to optimize these grinding aids linking molecular insight into their working mechanisms, and also how to design chemical additives of improved performance for industrial comminution.

  7. Calculation of Additional Lost Green Time at Closely Spaced Intersections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At closely spaced signalized intersections or interchanges, additional lost green time can occur at upstream intersections when there is a queue spillback. For an accurate estimation of capacities and delays at closely spaced intersections, it is necessary to account such additional lost time. The Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010 provides a model for the estimation of the additional lost time due to the presence of a downstream queue. However, case studies indicate that the HCM model does not provide a very accurate estimation when the distance to the downstream queue is short. In this paper, a new model is developed for the estimation of additional lost time considering queue discharge patterns and traffic flow patterns. Simulation results show that the proposed model provides a more accurate estimation of additional lost time compared with the HCM model when the distance to the downstream queue is limited.

  8. Hybrid Additive Manufacturing Technologies - An Analysis Regarding Potentials and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merklein, Marion; Junker, Daniel; Schaub, Adam; Neubauer, Franziska

    Imposing the trend of mass customization of lightweight construction in industry, conventional manufacturing processes like forming technology and chipping production are pushed to their limits for economical manufacturing. More flexible processes are needed which were developed by the additive manufacturing technology. This toolless production principle offers a high geometrical freedom and an optimized utilization of the used material. Thus load adjusted lightweight components can be produced in small lot sizes in an economical way. To compensate disadvantages like inadequate accuracy and surface roughness hybrid machines combining additive and subtractive manufacturing are developed. Within this paper the principles of mainly used additive manufacturing processes of metals and their possibility to be integrated into a hybrid production machine are summarized. It is pointed out that in particular the integration of deposition processes into a CNC milling center supposes high potential for manufacturing larger parts with high accuracy. Furthermore the combination of additive and subtractive manufacturing allows the production of ready to use products within one single machine. Additionally actual research for the integration of additive manufacturing processes into the production chain will be analyzed. For the long manufacturing time of additive production processes the combination with conventional manufacturing processes like sheet or bulk metal forming seems an effective solution. Especially large volumes can be produced by conventional processes. In an additional production step active elements can be applied by additive manufacturing. This principle is also investigated for tool production to reduce chipping of the high strength material used for forming tools. The aim is the addition of active elements onto a geometrical simple basis by using Laser Metal Deposition. That process allows the utilization of several powder materials during one process what

  9. Characterization of Starch Edible Films with Different Essential Oils Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuput Danijela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated properties of starch-based edible films with oregano and black cumin essential oil addition. Essential oils addition positively affected film swelling (decreased due to essential oil addition, mechanical properties (tensile strength decreased while elongation at break increased, and water vapor barrier properties (decreased along with essential oils addition. Control film did not have any biological activity, which proves the need for essential oils addition in order to obtain active packaging. Oregano oil was more effective in terms of biological activity. Endothermal peak, above 200°C, represents total thermal degradation of edible films. Diffraction pattern of control film showed significant destruction of A-type crystal structure. Addition of essential oils resulted in peak shape change: diffraction peaks became narrower. Principal Component Analysis has been used to assess the effect of essential oils addition on final starch-based edible films characteristics with the aim to reveal directions for the film characteristics improvement, since the next phase will be optimal film application for food packaging.

  10. Implications of Identifying Additional Cerebral Metastases during Gamma Knife Radiosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toral R. Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GK-SRS is commonly used to treat cerebral metastases. Although additional intracranial metastases are often found on the day of GK-SRS, the significance of finding them is unknown. Methods. A retrospective review of 133 patients undergoing GK-SRS for cerebral metastases was performed. The change in number of metastases detected between initial referral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and subsequent treatment MRI was quantified. Multivariate and Kaplan-Meier analyses were employed to examine the significance of identifying additional lesions. Results. Additional lesions were identified in 41% of patients. An increasing number of metastases on referral MRI (=0.001 and the presence of progressive systemic disease (=0.003 were predictive of identifying additional metastases. Median survival was 6.9 months for patients with additional metastases, compared to 12.1 months for patients without additional metastases (hazard ratio 1.56, =0.021. Conclusions. Identifying additional metastases on the day of GK-SRS may add important prognostic information.

  11. Additive manufactured x-ray optics for astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Carolyn; Feldman, Charlotte; Brooks, David; Watson, Stephen; Cochrane, William; Roulet, Melanie; Doel, Peter; Willingale, Richard; Hugot, Emmanuel

    2017-08-01

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3D printing, has become a commercially established technology for rapid prototyping and the fabrication of bespoke intricate parts. Optical components, such as mirrors and lenses, are now being fabricated via additive manufacturing, where the printed substrate is polished in a post-processing step. One application of additively manufactured optics could be within the astronomical X-ray community, where there is a growing need to demonstrate thin, lightweight, high precision optics for a beyond Chandra style mission. This paper will follow a proof-of-concept investigation, sponsored by the UK Space Agency's National Space Technology Programme, into the feasibility of applying additive manufacturing in the production of thin, lightweight, precision X-ray optics for astronomy. One of the benefits of additive manufacturing is the ability to construct intricate lightweighting, which can be optimised to minimise weight while ensuring rigidity. This concept of optimised lightweighting will be applied to a series of polished additively manufactured test samples and experimental data from these samples, including an assessment of the optical quality and the magnitude of any print-through, will be presented. In addition, the finite element analysis optimisations of the lightweighting development will be discussed.

  12. Production of fresh probiotic cheese with addition of transglutaminase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinka Radošević

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the influence of probiotic culture Lactobacillus acidophilus and enzyme transglutaminase (TG on quality and sensory properties of autochthonous fresh cheese from Zagreb region. Fresh, unpasteurized, skimmed milk was inoculated with TG at different temperatures and activation time (8 h at 11 ºC and 4 h at 25 ºC. Inactivation of the enzyme was carried out during the process of pasteurization (65ºC/30 min. The milk for fresh cheese production was further inoculated with mesophilic culture of lactic acid bacteria MM101 and probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus LAC-1. Besides the trial samples with addition of TG and probiotic bacteria, control samples without addition of TG and probiotic were produced, as well as the samples without addition of TG but with probiotic bacteria addition. Samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG, especially in which TG was active at 11 ºC, had greater weight then samples produced without the enzyme addition. Therefore, their yield was also greater then yield of cheese produced without the addition of the enzyme. Furthermore, the samples of fresh cheese produced with addition of TG have shown lesser syneresis than other samples during 10 days of storage at 10 ºC. The same samples also had the best sensory properties. Metabolic activity of mesophilic culture MM101 and probiotic culture L. acidophilus LAC-1 has resulted in better taste and odour of fresh cheese. The viable cell number of probiotic strain L. acidophilus LAC-1 in prepared samples was around 5 x 106 cells/g after 10 days of storage at 10 ºC, which is higher than the minimal dose required for 27 probiotic products. Addition of transgultaminase contributed to better consistency and general appearance of produced fresh cheese.

  13. Vacuum pyrolysis of waste tires with basic additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Chang, Jie

    2008-11-01

    Granules of waste tires were pyrolyzed under vacuum (3.5-10 kPa) conditions, and the effects of temperature and basic additives (Na2CO3, NaOH) on the properties of pyrolysis were thoroughly investigated. It was obvious that with or without basic additives, pyrolysis oil yield increased gradually to a maximum and subsequently decreased with a temperature increase from 450 degrees C to 600 degrees C, irrespective of the addition of basic additives to the reactor. The addition of NaOH facilitated pyrolysis dramatically, as a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 48 wt% was achieved at 550 degrees C without the addition of basic additives, while a maximal pyrolysis oil yield of about 50 wt% was achieved at 480 degrees C by adding 3 wt% (w/w, powder/waste tire granules) of NaOH powder. The composition analysis of pyrolytic naphtha (i.b.p. (initial boiling point) approximately 205 degrees C) distilled from pyrolysis oil showed that more dl-limonene was obtained with basic additives and the maximal content of dl-limonene in pyrolysis oil was 12.39 wt%, which is a valuable and widely-used fine chemical. However, no improvement in pyrolysis was observed with Na2CO3 addition. Pyrolysis gas was mainly composed of H2, CO, CH4, CO2, C2H4 and C2H6. Pyrolytic char had a surface area comparable to commercial carbon black, but its proportion of ash (above 11.5 wt%) was much higher.

  14. Promotional effects of new types of additives on fat crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shinichi; Kida, Haruyasu; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2014-01-01

    We examined the promotional effects of additives on fat crystallization, such as inorganic (talc, carbon nanotube (CNT), and graphite) and organic (theobromine, ellagic acid dihydrate (EAD), and terephthalic acid) materials. The triacylglycerols (TAGs) of trilauroylglycerol (LLL), trimyristoylglycerol (MMM), and tripalmitoylglycerol (PPP) were employed as the fats. The additives (1 wt%) were added to the molten TAGs, and then the mixtures were cooled at a rate of 1°C/min followed by heating at a rate of 5°C/min. The crystallization and melting properties were observed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and polarized optical microscope (POM). Consequently, we found that the above six additives remarkably increased the initial temperatures of crystallization (Ti) on cooling without changing the melting temperatures. For example, in the case of LLL, the increases in Ti were 2.6°C (talc), 3.9°C (CNT), 8.1°C (graphite), 1.1°C (theobromine), 2.0°C (EAD), and 6.8°C (terephthalic acid). Very similar effects were observed for the crystallization of MMM and PPP with the six additives. Furthermore, the polymorphs of the first occurring crystals were changed from metastable to more stable forms by many of these additives. The POM observation revealed that the crystallization was initiated at the surfaces of additive particles. This study has shown for the first time that the heterogeneous nucleation of fat crystals can be greatly promoted by new types of additives. Such additives have great potential to promote fat crystallization by not only hydrophobic but also hydrophilic molecular interactions between the fats and additives.

  15. An overview of zinc addition for BWR dose rate control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marble, W.J. [GE Nuclear Energy, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the BWRs employing feedwater zinc addition to reduce primary system dose rates. It identifies which BWRs are using zinc addition and reviews the mechanical injection and passive addition hardware currently being employed. The impact that zinc has on plant chemistry, including the factor of two to four reduction in reactor water Co-60 concentrations, is discussed. Dose rate results, showing the benefits of implementing zinc on either fresh piping surfaces or on pipes with existing films are reviewed. The advantages of using zinc that is isotopically enhanced by the depletion of the Zn-64 precursor to Zn-65 are identified.

  16. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  17. Development Tread and NDT Progress of Metal Additive Manufacture Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Ping-hua

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The application and new development trend of metal additive manufacture technique were introduced, as well as the characteristic and NDT difficulty of metal additive manufacture products. The research progress of NDT was analyzed in emphasis, including the classification of metal additive manufacture technique, the characteristics of defect and microstructure, the influence of defects on mechanical properties, the latest development of NDT methods and standards. Based on that, the key issues that will be focused were summarized at last, that is the application of new NDT methods, on-line monitoring technology, numerical simulation, measurement and characterization of stress, as well as the establishment and development of NDT standards.

  18. Characterization of plastic packaging additives: Food contact, stability and toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meriem Cherif Lahimer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plastic additives are analyzed by spectrometric (FTIR, ICP-AES and chromatographic (GC/MS, HPLC methods in order to define their stability, purity and toxicity. All findings relate to the compounds identified in our packaging and their effect on human health. We wanted to show that some additives contain heavy metals (lead, cobalt, nickel, copper, etc., highly toxic phtalates (Dibutyl phtalate or DBP and contaminants (Non-intentionally added substances: NIAS, degradation products. Some additives used are even carcinogenic or tumorigenic.

  19. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  20. Additive versus multiplicative trade costs and the gains from trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Allan

    This paper addresses welfare effects from trade liberalization in a heterogeneous-fi…rms trade model including the empirically important per-unit (i.e. additive) trade costs in addition to the conventional iceberg (i.e. multiplicative) and fi…xed trade costs. The novel contribution of the paper...... is the result that the welfare gain for a given increase in trade openness is higher for reductions in per-unit (additive) trade costs than for reductions in iceberg (multiplicative) trade costs. The ranking derives from differences in intra-industry reallocations and in particular from dissimilar impacts...

  1. Utilization of Bamboo Charcoal as Additives in Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald O. Ocampo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal has been used for healing various diseases, as antidote to poisoning and as purifying agent to filtered water. This study is conducted to utilize charcoal as additives in making cakes. Specifically, it is intended to determine the acceptable level of charcoal when used as additives in the production of brownies, dark brown chocolate, and chiffon cakes. It can be concluded that an addition of 1 tablespoon of bamboo charcoal gave the highest sensory evaluation to brownies and 3 tablespoon to dark brown chocolate .The control ( no charcoal added is still the best treatment for chiffon cake.

  2. Mechanical Properties of Austenitic Stainless Steel Made by Additive Manufacturing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luecke, William E; Slotwinski, John A

    2014-01-01

    Using uniaxial tensile and hardness testing, we evaluated the variability and anisotropy of the mechanical properties of an austenitic stainless steel, UNS S17400, manufactured by an additive process...

  3. Tribological performance of nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulzar, M., E-mail: mubashir-nustian@hotmail.com; Masjuki, H. H., E-mail: masjuki@um.edu.my; Kalam, M. A.; Varman, M.; Zulkifli, N. W. M. [University of Malaya, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Centre for Energy Sciences (Malaysia); Mufti, R. A. [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST) (Pakistan); Zahid, Rehan [University of Malaya, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Centre for Energy Sciences (Malaysia)

    2016-08-15

    The prospect of modern tribology has been expanded with the advent of nanomaterial-based lubrication systems, whose development was facilitated by the nanotechnology in recent years. In literature, a variety of nanoparticles have been used as lubricant additives with potentially interesting friction and wear properties. To date, although there has been a great deal of experimental research on nanoparticles as lubricating oil additives, many aspects of their tribological behavior are yet to be fully understood. With growing number of possibilities, the key question is: what types of nanoparticles act as a better lubricating oil additive and why? To answer this question, this paper reviews main types of nanoparticles that have been used as lubricants additives and outlines the mechanisms by which they are currently believed to function. Significant aspects of their tribological behavior such as dispersion stability and morphology are also highlighted.

  4. In-Process Monitoring of Additive Manufacturing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key innovation in this project is the implementation of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) for in situ metal additive manufacturing process...

  5. Structured functional additive regression in reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongxiao; Yao, Fang; Zhang, Hao Helen

    2014-06-01

    Functional additive models (FAMs) provide a flexible yet simple framework for regressions involving functional predictors. The utilization of data-driven basis in an additive rather than linear structure naturally extends the classical functional linear model. However, the critical issue of selecting nonlinear additive components has been less studied. In this work, we propose a new regularization framework for the structure estimation in the context of Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Spaces. The proposed approach takes advantage of the functional principal components which greatly facilitates the implementation and the theoretical analysis. The selection and estimation are achieved by penalized least squares using a penalty which encourages the sparse structure of the additive components. Theoretical properties such as the rate of convergence are investigated. The empirical performance is demonstrated through simulation studies and a real data application.

  6. 75 FR 15772 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act. The list of additional designees is as follows: Individuals: 1. SAUCEDA... esquina de Calle Ruiz Cortines, Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas, Mexico; DOB 11 Sep 1973; Alt. DOB 1974; POB...

  7. Laser additive manufacturing of high-performance materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Dongdong

    2015-01-01

    This book entitled “Laser Additive Manufacturing of High-Performance Materials” covers the specific aspects of laser additive manufacturing of high-performance new materials components based on an unconventional materials incremental manufacturing philosophy, in terms of materials design and preparation, process control and optimization, and theories of physical and chemical metallurgy. This book describes the capabilities and characteristics of the development of new metallic materials components by laser additive manufacturing process, including nanostructured materials, in situ composite materials, particle reinforced metal matrix composites, etc. The topics presented in this book, similar as laser additive manufacturing technology itself, show a significant interdisciplinary feature, integrating laser technology, materials science, metallurgical engineering, and mechanical engineering. This is a book for researchers, students, practicing engineers, and manufacturing industry professionals interested i...

  8. Embracing additive manufacture: implications for foot and ankle orthosis design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Telfer, Scott; Pallari, Jari; Munguia, Javier; Dalgarno, Kenny; McGeough, Martin; Woodburn, Jim

    2012-01-01

    .... Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, where objects are constructed via a series of sub-millimetre layers of a substrate material, may present the opportunity to overcome these limitations and allow novel devices...

  9. Effect of micronized zeolite addition to lamb concentrate feeds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OEM

    2016-09-21

    %, 1%, 2% or 3% additional. MZ. ... yield of the animals, but affects serum total protein, calcium and phosphorus concentrations. ... that carry no risk of leaving harmful residues in the course of vegetable and animal production.

  10. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Final Rule Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on March 26, 2010 and is effective on July 1, 2010. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  11. Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS1): Final Rule Additional Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on May 1, 2007 and is effective on September 1, 2007. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  12. Advances in 3D printing & additive manufacturing technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Pulak; Kumar, L

    2017-01-01

    This edited volume comprises select chapters on advanced technologies for 3D printing and additive manufacturing and how these technologies have changed the face of direct, digital technologies for rapid production of models, prototypes and patterns. Because of its wide applications, 3D printing and additive manufacturing technology has become a powerful new industrial revolution in the field of manufacturing. The evolution of 3D printing and additive manufacturing technologies has changed design, engineering and manufacturing processes across industries such as consumer products, aerospace, medical devices and automotives. The objective of this book is to help designers, R&D personnel, and practicing engineers understand the state-of-the-art developments in the field of 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing. .

  13. Additive manufacturing for freeform mechatronics design: from concepts to applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, G. van; Smeltink, J.; Werff, J. van der; Limpens, M.; Barink, M.; Berg, D. van den; Vreugd, J. de; Witvoet, G.; Galaktionov, O.S.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents developments of freeform mechatronics concepts, enabled by industrial Additive Manufacturing (AM), aiming at breakthroughs for precision engineering challenges such as lightweight, advanced thermal control, and integrated design. To assess potential impact in future

  14. The additional work of breathing imposed by Mapleson A systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, R; Pattison, J; Soni, N

    1993-07-01

    The additional work attributable to breathing through five Mapleson A anaesthetic breathing systems (Magill, Lack, Parallel Lack, Humphrey ADE and Enclosed Magill) was studied using a lung model. With all five systems, the additional work was found to be a function of fresh gas flow, respiratory flow as well as system geometry. Within the range of fresh gas flow and respiratory flow studied, the additional work ranged between 80 mJ.l-1 and 182 mJ.l-1. Expiratory work was always greater than the inspiratory workload. Increasing fresh gas inflow into the system increases expiratory work, both resistive and elastic components. The Magill system posed the least work expenditure. The values for the additional work obtained with the lung model were of the same order of magnitude when measurements were taken in volunteers.

  15. Metal additive-manufacturing process and residual stress modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Megahed, Mustafa; Mindt, Hans-Wilfried; N’Dri, Narcisse; Duan, Hongzhi; Desmaison, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), widely known as 3D printing, is a direct digital manufacturing process, where a component can be produced layer by layer from 3D digital data with no or minimal use of machining, molding, or casting...

  16. Three additional lizard (Squamata: Sauria records for Mizoram, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.T. Lalremsanga

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We collected three additional species - Calotes maria, Calotes mystaceus and Ophisaurus gracilis which were not recorded previously from Mizoram. Ophisaurus gracilis (Family Anguidae represents a new family for the state.

  17. A Summing Up. Allen Memorial Art Museum Addition, Oberlin, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progressive Architecture, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Venturi and Rauch's addition to the Allen Art Museum at Oberlin College is in two separate parts: a loft that houses new facilities for the art department and a gallery for contemporary art. (Author/MLF)

  18. Forensic detection of noise addition in digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Zhao, Yao; Ni, Rongrong; Ou, Bo; Wang, Yongbin

    2014-03-01

    We proposed a technique to detect the global addition of noise to a digital image. As an anti-forensics tool, noise addition is typically used to disguise the visual traces of image tampering or to remove the statistical artifacts left behind by other operations. As such, the blind detection of noise addition has become imperative as well as beneficial to authenticate the image content and recover the image processing history, which is the goal of general forensics techniques. Specifically, the special image blocks, including constant and strip ones, are used to construct the features for identifying noise addition manipulation. The influence of noising on blockwise pixel value distribution is formulated and analyzed formally. The methodology of detectability recognition followed by binary decision is proposed to ensure the applicability and reliability of noising detection. Extensive experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed noising detector.

  19. Topology optimization for additive manufacturing with controllable support structure costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langelaar, M.; Papadrakakis, M.; Papadopoulos, V.; Stefanou, G.; Plevris, V.

    2016-01-01

    Advances in additive manufacturing (AM) allow economical production of components with unprecedented geometric complexity. This offers exciting opportunities for innovative designs, and particularly topology optimization has been identified as a key technique to fully exploit the capabilities of AM.

  20. Use of Vitelline Protein B as a Microencapsulating Additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficht, Allison R. (Inventor); Carson, Ken (Inventor); Sheffield, Cynthia (Inventor); Waite, John Herbert (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention includes compositions and methods for the use of an encapsulation additive having between about 0.1 to about 30 percent isolated and purified vitelline protein B to provide for mixed and extended release formulations.

  1. Assessment of Gasoline Additive Containing Ditert-butoxypropanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Brian H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lewis, Samuel Arthur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center completed analysis and testing of the CPS Powershot gasoline additive under the auspices of the Department of Energy’s Technical Assistance for US Small Businesses in Vehicle Technologies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify the makeup of the additive, finding a predominance of 2,3-Ditert-Butoxypropanol, also known as Glyceryl Di-Tert-Butyl Ether (GTBE). Blends of the additive at 2 and 4 volume percent were subjected to a number of standard ASTM tests, including Research Octane Number, Motor Octane Number, distillation, and vapor pressure. Results show a high boiling range and low vapor pressure for the additive, and a very modest octane boosting effect in gasoline with and without ethanol.

  2. Addition of Cryoprotectant Significantly Alters the Epididymal Sperm Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Jae; Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Park, Yoo-Jin; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2016-01-01

    Although cryopreservation has been developed and optimized over the past decades, it causes various stresses, including cold shock, osmotic stress, and ice crystal formation, thereby reducing fertility. During cryopreservation, addition of cryoprotective agent (CPA) is crucial for protecting spermatozoa from freezing damage. However, the intrinsic toxicity and osmotic stress induced by CPA cause damage to spermatozoa. To identify the effects of CPA addition during cryopreservation, we assessed the motility (%), motion kinematics, capacitation status, and viability of epididymal spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis and Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence staining. Moreover, the effects of CPA addition were also demonstrated at the proteome level using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Our results demonstrated that CPA addition significantly reduced sperm motility (%), curvilinear velocity, viability (%), and non-capacitated spermatozoa, whereas straightness and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa increased significantly (p 3 fold, p sperm cryopreservation.

  3. Porosity of additive manufacturing parts for process monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, J. A.; Garboczi, E. J.

    2014-02-01

    Some metal additive manufacturing processes can produce parts with internal porosity, either intentionally (with careful selection of the process parameters) or unintentionally (if the process is not well-controlled.) Material porosity is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants, since surface-breaking pores allow for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the process. We are developing an ultrasonic sensor for detecting changes in porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system, for use as a process monitor. This paper will describe our work to develop an ultrasonic-based sensor for monitoring part porosity during an additive build, including background theory, the development and detailed characterization of reference additive porosity samples, and a potential design for in-situ implementation.

  4. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic method in addition to mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, H.; Roer, E.

    1988-05-01

    By using ultrasonography in addition to mammography, experienced diagnosticians essentially enhance the safety of their diagnosis of mammary gland diseases. The same applies to gynecomastia, the condition after plastic surgery, and mastitis.

  5. Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing for Lightweight Metallic Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this program is to demonstrate the use of UAM to additively build reinforcement structures to reinforce cut outs in larger aluminum structural...

  6. Estimating Additive and Dominance Variance for Liner Traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pennanent environmental effects. The second ... Mackay, (1996). The prediction of additive and dominance genetic effects concurrently should ... morning and forage (Pal1iculn nlaxinluln ... mating pair or parental dominance class. LSB. LSIV ...

  7. POTENTIAL HAZARDS DUE TO FOOD ADDITIVES IN ORAL HYGIENE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damla TUNCER-BUDANUR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Food additives used to preserve flavor or to enhance the taste and appearance of foods are also available in oral hygiene products. The aim of this review is to provide information concerning food additives in oral hygiene products and their adverse effects. A great many of food additives in oral hygiene products are potential allergens and they may lead to allergic reactions such as urticaria, contact dermatitis, rhinitis, and angioedema. Dental practitioners, as well as health care providers, must be aware of the possibility of allergic reactions due to food additives in oral hygiene products. Proper dosage levels, delivery vehicles, frequency, potential benefits, and adverse effects of oral health products should be explained completely to the patients. There is a necessity to raise the awareness among dental professionals on this subject and to develop a data gathering system for possible adverse reactions.

  8. Additions and deletions to the known cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    An additional 137 species and two tribes are added to the known cerambycid fauna of Bolivia while 12 species are deleted. Comments and statistics regarding the growth of knowledge on the Bolivian Cerambycid fauna and species endemicity are included....

  9. Efficient Improvement of Silage Additives by Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Zoe S.; Gilbert, Richard J.; Merry, Roger J.; Kell, Douglas B.; Theodorou, Michael K.; Griffith, Gareth W.

    2000-01-01

    The enormous variety of substances which may be added to forage in order to manipulate and improve the ensilage process presents an empirical, combinatorial optimization problem of great complexity. To investigate the utility of genetic algorithms for designing effective silage additive combinations, a series of small-scale proof of principle silage experiments were performed with fresh ryegrass. Having established that significant biochemical changes occur over an ensilage period as short as 2 days, we performed a series of experiments in which we used 50 silage additive combinations (prepared by using eight bacterial and other additives, each of which was added at six different levels, including zero [i.e., no additive]). The decrease in pH, the increase in lactate concentration, and the free amino acid concentration were measured after 2 days and used to calculate a “fitness” value that indicated the quality of the silage (compared to a control silage made without additives). This analysis also included a “cost” element to account for different total additive levels. In the initial experiment additive levels were selected randomly, but subsequently a genetic algorithm program was used to suggest new additive combinations based on the fitness values determined in the preceding experiments. The result was very efficient selection for silages in which large decreases in pH and high levels of lactate occurred along with low levels of free amino acids. During the series of five experiments, each of which comprised 50 treatments, there was a steady increase in the amount of lactate that accumulated; the best treatment combination was that used in the last experiment, which produced 4.6 times more lactate than the untreated silage. The additive combinations that were found to yield the highest fitness values in the final (fifth) experiment were assessed to determine a range of biochemical and microbiological quality parameters during full-term silage

  10. Chemical stabilization of polymers: Implications for dermal exposure to additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, N; Girard, M; Schneider, L; Weijgert, V Van De; Wilde, A; Kappenstein, O; Vieth, B; Hutzler, C; Luch, A

    2018-01-15

    Technical benefits of additives in polymers stand in marked contrast to their associated health risks. Here, a multi-analyte method based on gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was developed to quantify polymer additives in complex matrices such as low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and isolated human skin layers after dermal exposure ex vivo. That way both technical aspects and dermal exposure were investigated. The effects of polymer additivation on the material were studied using the example of LDPE. To this end, a tailor-made polymer was applied in aging studies that had been furnished with two different mixtures of phenol- and diarylamine-based antioxidants, plasticizers and processing aids. Upon accelerated thermo-oxidative aging of the material, the formation of LDPE degradation products was monitored with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Compared to pure LDPE, a protective effect of added antioxidants could be observed on the integrity of the polymer. Further, thermo-oxidative degradation of the additives and its kinetics were investigated using LDPE or squalane as matrix. The half-lives of additives in both matrices revealed significant differences between the tested additives as well as between LDPE and squalane. For instance, 2-tert-butyl-6-[(3-tert-butyl-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)methyl]-4-methylphenol (Antioxidant 2246) showed a half-life 12 times lower when incorporated in LDPE as compared to squalane. As a model for dermal exposure of consumers, human skin was brought into contact with the tailor-made LDPE containing additives ex vivo in static Franz diffusion cells. The skin was then analyzed for additives and decomposition products. This study proved 10 polymer additives of diverse pysicochemical properties and functionalities to migrate out of the polymer and eventually overcome the intact human skin barrier during contact. Moreover, their individual distribution within

  11. Additive Layer Manufacturing of Biologically Inspired Short Fibre Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Biologically Inspired Short Fibre Reinforced Composites Prepared by Dr R.S. Trask R.S.Trask@Bristol.ac.uk 30/03/2014 32 the   first   concrete ...AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2014-0024 Additive Layer Manufacturing of Biologically Inspired Short Fibre Reinforced Composites Dr...1 January 2013 – 31 March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Additive Layer Manufacturing of Biologically Inspired Short Fibre Reinforced Composites 5a

  12. Livestock poisoning from oil field drilling fluids, muds and additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, W C; Gregory, D G

    1991-10-01

    The use and potential toxicity of various components of oil well drilling fluids, muds and additives are presented. Many components are extremely caustic resulting in rumenitis. Solvent and petroleum hydrocarbon components may cause aspiration pneumonia and rumen dysfunction. Some additives cause methemoglobinemia. The most frequently encountered heavy metals are lead, chromium, arsenic, lithium and copper. Considerations for investigating livestock poisoning cases and several typical cases are reviewed.

  13. MAROON BELLS-SNOWMASS WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Val L.; Weisner, Robert C.

    1984-01-01

    The Maroon Bells-Snowmass Wilderness and Additions, located in western Colorado, was examined for mineral potential. Evidence of mineralization is widespread and numerous areas have either probable or substantiated mineral-resource potential for one or more of the following metals: gold, silver, lead, zinc, copper, and molybdenum. In addition, part of the wilderness has substantiated coal resource potential. There is little promise for the occurrence of oil and gas or geothermal resources.

  14. Sintering nanodisperse zirconium powders with various stabilizing additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antsiferov V.N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of various stabilizing additives on sintering kinetics of nanodisperse powders was studied by thermomechanical analysis. Temperature ranges of the most intense shrinking, characteristic points of shrinking rate changes were established. Peaks characterizing the most intense shrinking of nanodisperse zirconium powder samples were shown to allow to arrange the stabilizing additives as follows: Y2O3→CeO2→TiO2.

  15. Additives for high temperature liquid lubricants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavrouian, A.H.; Repar, J.; Moran, C.M.; Lawton, E.A.; Anderson, M.S.

    1994-01-15

    The purpose of this task was to perform research for the Department of Energy (DOE) on the synthesis and characterization of additives for liquid lubricants which could lead to significant improvements in the major tribological task area of friction and wear reduction at high temperature. To this end JPL surveyed candidate precursor compounds which are soluble in liquid lubricants, synthesized the most promising of these materials, characterized them and submitted these additives to National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for evaluation.

  16. Prevalence of intolerance to food additives among Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg...... clinics, the prevalence of intolerance to food additives in school children is estimated to be 1-2%....

  17. Further Results on Dynamic Additive Hazard Rate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengcheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the proportional and additive hazard rate models have been investigated in the works. Nanda and Das (2011 introduced and studied the dynamic proportional (reversed hazard rate model. In this paper we study the dynamic additive hazard rate model, and investigate its aging properties for different aging classes. The closure of the model under some stochastic orders has also been investigated. Some examples are also given to illustrate different aging properties and stochastic comparisons of the model.

  18. Review of Shape Deviation Modeling for Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zuowei; Keimasi, Safa; Anwer, Nabil; Mathieu, Luc; Qiao, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Additive Manufacturing (AM) is becoming a promising technology capable of building complex customized parts with internal geometries and graded material by stacking up thin individual layers. However, a comprehensive geometric model for Additive Manufacturing is not mature yet. Dimensional and form accuracy and surface finish are still a bottleneck for AM regarding quality control. In this paper, an up-to-date review is drawn on methods and approaches that have been de...

  19. Replacing and Additive Horizontal Gene Transfer in Streptococcus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang Chul; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Gronau, Ilan; Stanhope, Michael J.; Siepel, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The prominent role of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) in the evolution of bacteria is now well documented, but few studies have differentiated between evolutionary events that predominantly cause genes in one lineage to be replaced by homologs from another lineage (“replacing HGT”) and events that result in the addition of substantial new genomic material (“additive HGT”). Here in, we make use of the distinct phylogenetic signatures of replacing and additive HGTs in a genome-wide study of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (SPY) and its close relatives S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDE) and S. dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDD). Using recently developed statistical models and computational methods, we find evidence for abundant gene flow of both kinds within each of the SPY and SDE clades and of reduced levels of exchange between SPY and SDD. In addition, our analysis strongly supports a pronounced asymmetry in SPY–SDE gene flow, favoring the SPY-to-SDE direction. This finding is of particular interest in light of the recent increase in virulence of pathogenic SDE. We find much stronger evidence for SPY–SDE gene flow among replacing than among additive transfers, suggesting a primary influence from homologous recombination between co-occurring SPY and SDE cells in human hosts. Putative virulence genes are correlated with transfer events, but this correlation is found to be driven by additive, not replacing, HGTs. The genes affected by additive HGTs are enriched for functions having to do with transposition, recombination, and DNA integration, consistent with previous findings, whereas replacing HGTs seen to influence a more diverse set of genes. Additive transfers are also found to be associated with evidence of positive selection. These findings shed new light on the manner in which HGT has shaped pathogenic bacterial genomes. PMID:22617954

  20. Advances in High Temperature Materials for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Nurul Amira Binti; Johar, Muhammad Akmal Bin; Ibrahim, Mohd Halim Irwan Bin; Marwah, Omar Mohd Faizan bin

    2017-08-01

    In today’s technology, additive manufacturing has evolved over the year that commonly known as 3D printing. Currently, additive manufacturing have been applied for many industries such as for automotive, aerospace, medical and other commercial product. The technologies are supported by materials for the manufacturing process to produce high quality product. Plus, additive manufacturing technologies has been growth from the lowest to moderate and high technology to fulfil manufacturing industries obligation. Initially from simple 3D printing such as fused deposition modelling (FDM), poly-jet, inkjet printing, to selective laser sintering (SLS), and electron beam melting (EBM). However, the high technology of additive manufacturing nowadays really needs high investment to carry out the process for fine products. There are three foremost type of material which is polymer, metal and ceramic used for additive manufacturing application, and mostly they were in the form of wire feedstock or powder. In circumstance, it is crucial to recognize the characteristics of each type of materials used in order to understand the behaviours of the materials on high temperature application via additive manufacturing. Therefore, this review aims to provide excessive inquiry and gather the necessary information for further research on additive material materials for high temperature application. This paper also proposed a new material based on powder glass, which comes from recycled tempered glass from automotive industry, having a huge potential to be applied for high temperature application. The technique proposed for additive manufacturing will minimize some cost of modelling with same quality of products compare to the others advanced technology used for high temperature application.

  1. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, J. [ORNL; Viola, M. B. [General Motors Company

    2013-10-31

    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  2. Redesign Optimization for Manufacturing Using Additive Layer Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Salonitis, Konstantinos; Zarban, Saeed Al

    2015-01-01

    Improvements in additive manufacturing technologies have the potential to greatly provide value to designers that could also contribute towards improving the sustainability levels of products as well as the production of lightweight products. With these improvements, it is possible to eliminate the design restrictions previously faced by manufacturers. This study examines the principles of additive manufacturing, design guidelines, capabilities of the manufacturing processes and structural op...

  3. Self-supporting Topology Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Dengyang; Li, Ming; Liu, Yusheng

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a topology optimization approach that designs an optimal structure, called a self-supporting structure, which is ready to be fabricated via additive manufacturing without the usage of additional support structures. Such supports in general have to be created during the fabricating process so that the primary object can be manufactured layer by layer without collapse, which is very time-consuming and waste of material. The proposed approach resolves this problem by formulati...

  4. Material Quality and Process Monitoring in Metal Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Clemon, Lee

    2017-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is rapidly becoming available to designers, hobbyists, and industrial manufacturers. Unfortunately, process control and predictability remain beyond the grasp of most users and even machine tool builders. This manuscript employs design and material quality monitoring to explore solutions to these challenges. Metallurgical study and design limitations were explored through intentional design. Design for additive manufacturing was shown to provide insight into both proces...

  5. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about…

  6. Internet as Additional Distribution Channel - Synergy or Cannibalism

    OpenAIRE

    Chodak, Grzegorz

    2010-01-01

    In this article main advantages and disadvantages of internet distribution as additional channel were analysed. The profs were divided into real, illusory and ambiguous factors. Then threats and disadvantages were shown. The important issues concerning additional internet channel were also described . The last part of the article contains presentation of the survey conducted in 616 Polish internet shops. The investigation concerns multi-channel distribution.

  7. Effects of additional nanosilica of compressive strength on mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retno Setiati, N.

    2017-07-01

    The use of nanosilica as one of the innovations in concrete technology has developed very rapidly. Some research mentioned that nanosilica obtained from the synthesis process silica sand is a type of material that is as pozolan when added to the concrete mix, so as to accelerate the hydration process in concrete. With the addition of nanosilica into the concrete mix, the compressive strength of the concrete can be increased and it has a high durability. This study aims to determine the effect from the addition of nanosilica on mechanical properties of concrete. Laboratory testing is conducted by making the mortar test specimen size of 50 mm x 50 mm x 50 mm. The material used is composed of silica sand, nanosilica, gravel, superplasticizer, cement, and water. Nanosilica percentage amount is added as much as 5, 10, and 15% by weight of cement. Testing of mechanical properties such as compressive strength mortar done at age 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. Based on the analysis and discussion obtained that at 28 days, mortar with the addition of 5% and 15% nanosilica has the compressive strength of 23 MPa. Addition nanosilika into the mortar to improve the mechanical properties by increasing the compressive strength of mortar. The compressive strength of mortar with the addition of 10% nanosilica is 19 MPa. The increase in compressive strength of mortar with the addition of 5% and 15% nano silica is 21% larger than the mortar with the addition of 10% nanosilica and without nanosilica. Nanosilica addition of more than 10% can cause agglomeration when mixed into the mortar so that the impact on the compressive strength of mortar.

  8. Application of Zeolitic Additives in the Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nemati Kharat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Current article describes application of zeolites in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC. The use of several zeolitic additives for the production light olefins and reduction of pollutants is described. Application of zeolites as fluid catalytic cracking (FCC catalysts and additives due to the presence of active acid sites in the zeolite framework  increase the formation of desired cracking products (i.e., olefin and branched products  in the FCC unit.

  9. Motions of alloying additions in the CAS steelmaking operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, D.; Guthrie, R. I. L.

    1993-08-01

    Water model studies in a pilot scale ladle ( D = 1.12 m and L = 0.93 m) were carried out to investigate the subsurface motion of both buoyant and sinking additions during the CAS (com-position adjustment by sealed argon bubbling systems) alloy addition procedure in steelmaking. This technique involves placing a refractory baffle around a rising gas/liquid plume within a stirred ladle of steel. Alloy additions are then made by projecting them into the slag-free region of steel within the baffled region. It was found that such particles while moving through the upwelling two-phase plume region can experience a significant reduction in drag forces, causing buoyant particles to penetrate more deeply than anticipated for a homogeneous fluid. Therefore, considering reduced drag on particles penetrating the upwelling gas liquid plume region, predictions were made for the trajectories of spherical-shaped particles using Newton’s law of motion. Predictions were in very reasonable agreement with those measured. Incorporating the velocity fields in industrial size vessels already reported by the present authors, trajectories of spherical-shaped additions (diameter ˜ 80 mm) in a 150-ton ladle during CAS operations were then predicted. The industrial implications of such trajectories, together with the alloy’s dissolution and dispersion behavior, were also analyzed. Finally, advantages of the CAS alloy addition procedure over conventional methods, in terms of the recovery rates of buoyant additions, are discussed.

  10. Evaluation of relative biological efficiency of additives in sugarcane ensiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Oliveira Borgatti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding alkalis on the fermentative pattern, aerobic stability and nutritive value of the sugarcane silage. A completely randomized design with 6 additives in two concentrations (1 or 2%, plus a control group, totalizing 13 treatments [(6×2+1] with four replications, was used. The additives were sodium hydroxide (NaOH, limestone (CaCO3, urea (CO(NH22, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, quicklime (CaO and hydrated lime (Ca(OH2. The material was ensiled in 52 laboratory silos using plastic buckets with 12 L of capacity. Silos were opened 60 days after ensiling, when organic acids concentration, aerobic stability and chemical composition were determined. The Relative Biological Efficiency (RBE was calculated by the slope ratio method, using the data obtained from ratio between desirable and undesirable silage products, according to the equation: D/U ratio = [lactic/(ethanol + acetic + butyric]. All additives affected dry matter, crude protein, acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber contents and buffering capacity. Except for urea and quicklime, all additives increased the in vitro dry matter digestibility. In general, these additives altered the fermentative pattern of sugarcane silage, inhibiting alcoholic fermentation and improving lactic acid production. The additive that showed the best RBE in relation to sodium hydroxide (100% was limestone (89.4%. The RBE values of urea, sodium bicarbonate and hydrated lime were 49.2%, 47.7% and 34.3%, respectively.

  11. Children's patterns of reasoning about reading and addition concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Canobi, Katherine H; Wood, Clare; Faulkner, Dorothy

    2010-06-01

    Children's reasoning was examined within two educational contexts (word reading and addition) so as to understand the factors that contribute to relational reasoning in the two domains. Sixty-seven 5- to 7-year-olds were given a series of related words to read or single-digit addition items to solve (interspersed with unrelated items). The frequency, accuracy, and response times of children's self-reports on the conceptually related items provided a measure of relational reasoning, while performance on the unrelated addition and reading items provided a measure of procedural skill. The results indicated that the children's ability to use conceptual relations to solve both reading and addition problems enhanced speed and accuracy levels, increased with age, and was related to procedural skill. However, regression analyses revealed that domain-specific competencies can best explain the use of conceptual relations in both reading and addition. Moreover, a cluster analysis revealed that children differ according to the academic domain in which they first apply conceptual relations and these differences are related to individual variation in their procedural skills within these particular domains. These results highlight the developmental significance of relational reasoning in the context of reading and addition and underscore the importance of concept-procedure links in explaining children's literacy and arithmetical development.

  12. Cryosurgery as Additional Treatment in Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. G. M. Verspoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tenosynovial giant cell tumors (TGCT emerge from the synovium and can behave aggressively. Surgical resection is the standard treatment. However, up to half of the patients with diffuse type show recurrences. Several additional treatments have been applied to reduce recurrences; none of these treatments was proven to be superior to surgical resection solely. This article describes the results of additional cryosurgery to surgical resection. Materials and Methods. We retrospectively evaluated 141 TGCT patients, between 1999 and 2007. Twelve patients had additional cryosurgery. The knee (n=8, hip (n=2, ankle (n=1, and elbow (n=1 were affected. Primary outcome variables were treatment indications, recurrences, and complications. Results. Indications for additional cryosurgery were extended disease, bone involvement, and locations that are difficult to surgically get disease-free such as cruciate ligaments. Five patients had recurrent disease, all of which had prior treatments. None of the primary treated patients had recurrent disease. One patient had a deep infection. Discussion. Cryosurgery may serve as an additional treatment for diffuse TCGT in selected cases. However, because of the small number of patients and the heterogeneous group we could not prove an advantage of additional cryosurgery over surgical resection only. Cryosurgery should be considered for further evaluation in a prospective study. If there is any effect it would be helpful, especially in patients with multiple TGCT recurrences.

  13. Influence of additives on flexural strength of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolmachov Sergii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In earlier studies, the effect of chemical and mineral additives on the compressive strength of concretes was considered, but little attention was paid to the flexural strength of concrete. However, monolithic concretes of transport purpose, including road concretes, operate under conditions of tensile loads, which lead to their destruction. Therefore, it is actual to analyze the effect of superplasticizers, especially carboxylate type, as well as mineral additives and their complexes on the flexural strength of concrete. The article shows the results of studies for determining the influence of a superplasticizer of a carboxylate type, microfiller and fiber on the flexural strength of concrete. The influence of the time for maintaining a concrete mixture on the physical and mechanical properties of concrete is shown. The article shown that the addition of the mineral additive into the concrete mixture leads to an increase of flexural strength to 13 %. The use of an organomineral complex leads to an increase the early flexural strength of concrete to 37 %, and at the age of 28 days - to 20 %. The use of the complex of additives and polypropylene fibers results in an insignificant increase of the flexural strength in comparison with concretes containing only a complex of additives.

  14. Risks associated with endotoxins in feed additives produced by fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R John; Gropp, Jürgen; Dierick, Noël; Costa, Lucio G; Martelli, Giovanna; Brantom, Paul G; Bampidis, Vasileios; Renshaw, Derek W; Leng, Lubomir

    2016-01-15

    Increasingly, feed additives for livestock, such as amino acids and vitamins, are being produced by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli. The potential therefore exists for animals, consumers and workers to be exposed to possibly harmful amounts of endotoxin from these products. The aim of this review was to assess the extent of the risk from endotoxins in feed additives and to calculate how such risk can be assessed from the properties of the additive. Livestock are frequently exposed to a relatively high content of endotoxin in the diet: no additional hazard to livestock would be anticipated if the endotoxin concentration of the feed additive falls in the same range as feedstuffs. Consumer exposure will be unaffected by the consumption of food derived from animals receiving endotoxin-containing feed, because the small concentrations of endotoxin absorbed do not accumulate in edible tissues. In contrast, workers processing a dusty additive may be exposed to hazardous amounts of endotoxin even if the endotoxin concentration of the product is low. A calculation method is proposed to compare the potential risk to the worker, based on the dusting potential, the endotoxin concentration and technical guidance of the European Food Safety Authority, with national exposure limits.

  15. Effect of Zr addition on precipitates in K4169 superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of Zr addition on the precipitations of K4169 superalloy, a manual electric arc furnace was used to prepare the superalloy with different Zr addition from 0.03wt.% to 0.07wt%. After standard heat treatment and long-time aging, the microstructures of the alloys were observed using XRD, SEM and TEM. The results show that Zr not only inhibits the precipitation of Laves phase at the grain boundary, but also significantly promotes the precipitation of earlobe-like γ′and γ″ phases. After long time aging at 680 ℃ for 500 h, the γ″phase grows up obviously and forms a γ′/γ′′clad microstructure when the Zr addition is 0.03 wt.%. A large number of fine orbed γ′particles precipitate in the grains and some γ″phase transforms to disk-like δ phase when the Zr addition increases to 0.05wt.%. The nano-polycrystalline γ′phase precipitates in the grains and there is a little δ phase when the Zr addition is 0.07wt.%. As the Zr addition increases, the amount of Laves phase at the grain boundary decreases at first, and then increases and forms flaky morphology.

  16. Additive manufacturing: state-of-the-art and application framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Picanço Rodrigues

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing encompasses a class of production processes with increasing applications in different areas and supply chains. Due to its flexibility for production in small batches and the versatility of materials and geometries, this technology is recognized as being capable of revolutionizing the production processes as well as changing production strategies that are currently employed. However, there are different technologies under the generic label of additive manufacturing, materials and application areas with different requirements. Given the growing importance of additive manufacturing as a production process, and also considering the need to have a better insight into the potential applications for driving research and development efforts, this article presents a proposal of organization for additive manufacturing applications in seven areas. Additionally, the article provides a panorama of the current development stage of this technology, with a review of its major technological variants. The results presented aim to serve as a basis to support driving initiatives in additive manufacturing in companies, development agencies and research institutions.

  17. Additive Manufacturing: Unlocking the Evolution of Energy Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakeyev, Adilet; Wang, Panfeng; Zhang, Li; Shu, Wenmiao; Wang, Huizhi; Xuan, Jin

    2017-10-01

    The global energy infrastructure is undergoing a drastic transformation towards renewable energy, posing huge challenges on the energy materials research, development and manufacturing. Additive manufacturing has shown its promise to change the way how future energy system can be designed and delivered. It offers capability in manufacturing complex 3D structures, with near-complete design freedom and high sustainability due to minimal use of materials and toxic chemicals. Recent literatures have reported that additive manufacturing could unlock the evolution of energy materials and chemistries with unprecedented performance in the way that could never be achieved by conventional manufacturing techniques. This comprehensive review will fill the gap in communicating on recent breakthroughs in additive manufacturing for energy material and device applications. It will underpin the discoveries on what 3D functional energy structures can be created without design constraints, which bespoke energy materials could be additively manufactured with customised solutions, and how the additively manufactured devices could be integrated into energy systems. This review will also highlight emerging and important applications in energy additive manufacturing, including fuel cells, batteries, hydrogen, solar cell as well as carbon capture and storage.

  18. Additives for cement compositions based on modified peat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopanitsa, Natalya, E-mail: kopanitsa@mail.ru; Sarkisov, Yurij, E-mail: sarkisov@tsuab.ru; Gorshkova, Aleksandra, E-mail: kasatkina.alexandra@gmail.com; Demyanenko, Olga, E-mail: angel-n@sibmail.com [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya sq., Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    High quality competitive dry building mixes require modifying additives for various purposes to be included in their composition. There is insufficient amount of quality additives having stable properties for controlling the properties of cement compositions produced in Russia. Using of foreign modifying additives leads to significant increasing of the final cost of the product. The cost of imported modifiers in the composition of the dry building mixes can be up to 90% of the material cost, depending on the composition complexity. Thus, the problem of import substitution becomes relevant, especially in recent years, due to difficult economic situation. The article discusses the possibility of using local raw materials as a basis for obtaining dry building mixtures components. The properties of organo-mineral additives for cement compositions based on thermally modified peat raw materials are studied. Studies of the structure and composition of the additives are carried out by physicochemical research methods: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Results of experimental research showed that the peat additives contribute to improving of cement-sand mortar strength and hydrophysical properties.

  19. Interactive effects of nutrient additions and predation on infaunal communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, M.H.; Alphin, T.D.; Cahoon, L.; Lindquist, D.; Becker, M.E.

    1999-01-01

    Nutrient additions represent an important anthropogenic stress on coastal ecosystems. At moderate levels, increased nutrients may lead to increased primary production and, possibly, to increased biomass of consumers although complex trophic interactions may modify or mask these effects. We examined the influence of nutrient additions and interactive effects of trophic interactions (predation) on benthic infaunal composition and abundances through small-scale field experiments in 2 estuaries that differed in ambient nutrient conditions. A blocked experimental design was used that allowed an assessment of direct nutrient effects in the presence and absence of predation by epibenthic predators as well as an assessment of the independent effects of predation. Benthic microalgal production increased with experimental nutrient additions and was greater when infaunal abundances were lower, but there were no significant interactions between these factors. Increased abundances of one infaunal taxa, Laeonereis culveri, as well as the grazer feeding guild were observed with nutrient additions and a number of taxa exhibited higher abundances with predator exclusion. In contrast to results from freshwater systems there were no significant interactive effects between nutrient additions and predator exclusion as was predicted. The infaunal responses observed here emphasize the importance of both bottom-up (nutrient addition and primary producer driven) and top-down (predation) controls in structuring benthic communities. These processes may work at different spatial and temporal scales, and affect different taxa, making observation of potential interactive effects difficult.

  20. Additive Manufacturing: Unlocking the Evolution of Energy Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhakeyev, Adilet; Wang, Panfeng; Shu, Wenmiao; Wang, Huizhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The global energy infrastructure is undergoing a drastic transformation towards renewable energy, posing huge challenges on the energy materials research, development and manufacturing. Additive manufacturing has shown its promise to change the way how future energy system can be designed and delivered. It offers capability in manufacturing complex 3D structures, with near‐complete design freedom and high sustainability due to minimal use of materials and toxic chemicals. Recent literatures have reported that additive manufacturing could unlock the evolution of energy materials and chemistries with unprecedented performance in the way that could never be achieved by conventional manufacturing techniques. This comprehensive review will fill the gap in communicating on recent breakthroughs in additive manufacturing for energy material and device applications. It will underpin the discoveries on what 3D functional energy structures can be created without design constraints, which bespoke energy materials could be additively manufactured with customised solutions, and how the additively manufactured devices could be integrated into energy systems. This review will also highlight emerging and important applications in energy additive manufacturing, including fuel cells, batteries, hydrogen, solar cell as well as carbon capture and storage. PMID:29051861

  1. Dry building mixture with complex dispersed mineral additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ina, Liliia; Mukhina, Irina; Teplov, Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of the complex dispersed mineral additive consisting of diopside and limestone was provided by the following factors. Diopside, due to the high hardness, reinforces formed hardened cement paste and prevents the spread of micro-cracks in it under the action of loads. Furthermore, diopside due to the greater elastic modulus than cement paste causes redistribution of stress between the additive particles and the cement. Limestone, since it has chemical affinity with the clinker minerals and products of their hydration hardening, effects on the hydration process and the formation of the contact area between the additive particles and the cement. The optimum quantity of complex dispersed mineral additive is 7%. At the same time the strength of the solution, made of dry building mixture "rough leveler for floor", increased by 22.1%, and the strength of the solution, made of dry mortar "masonry mixture" increased by 32.7%. With the mineral additive introduction the offset of the endoeffect temperatures to higher temperatures on derivatograms is fixed. If there is a mineral additive in the hardened cement paste, which may act as substrate for the tumors crystallization, the hardened cement paste structure strengthening while the complex thermal analysis is seen.

  2. The Quality of Chicken Nuggets With Addition Gouda Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Sri Widyastuti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to acquired the best percentage of using cheese in the chicken nuggets  processing. Materials used for this research were nuggets made from chicken meat, Gouda cheese and spices. Experiment done with Random Block Analysis as experiment design by addition Gouda Cheese ( 0% (F0, 5% (F1, 10% (F2, 15% (F3, 20% (F4 . The results showed that chicken nuggets with  Gouda cheese addition gave  a highly significant effect (P0.05 on pH and Organoleptic. The best result was nuggets which made with addition of 15 percent of Gouda cheese.The conclusion of this research was the addition of Gouda Cheese to Chiken Nuggets increased fat content, protein content, ash content, WHC and tend to decreased mouistured content, textured.  Result of panelist not trained using cheese in manner chicken nuggets are like made with addition of 15 percent of Gouda cheese. The best result was nuggets which made with addition of 15 percent of Gouda chees   Keywords : Chicken nuggets, Chicken meat, Gouda cheese

  3. Friction Stir Additive Manufacturing: Route to High Structural Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanivel, S.; Sidhar, H.; Mishra, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    Aerospace and automotive industries provide the next big opportunities for additive manufacturing. Currently, the additive industry is confronted with four major challenges that have been identified in this article. These challenges need to be addressed for the additive technologies to march into new frontiers and create additional markets. Specific potential success in the transportation sectors is dependent on the ability to manufacture complicated structures with high performance. Most of the techniques used for metal-based additive manufacturing are fusion based because of their ability to fulfill the computer-aided design to component vision. Although these techniques aid in fabrication of complex shapes, achieving high structural performance is a key problem due to the liquid-solid phase transformation. In this article, friction stir additive manufacturing (FSAM) is shown as a potential solid-state process for attaining high-performance lightweight alloys for simpler geometrical applications. To illustrate FSAM as a high-performance route, manufactured builds of Mg-4Y-3Nd and AA5083 are shown as examples. In the Mg-based alloy, an average hardness of 120 HV was achieved in the built structure and was significantly higher than that of the base material (97 HV). Similarly for the Al-based alloy, compared with the base hardness of 88 HV, the average built hardness was 104 HV. A potential application of FSAM is illustrated by taking an example of a simple stiffener assembly.

  4. Additivity vs Synergism: Investigation of the Additive Interaction of Cinnamon Bark Oil and Meropenem in Combinatory Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shun-Kai; Yusoff, Khatijah; Mai, Chun-Wai; Lim, Wei-Meng; Yap, Wai-Sum; Lim, Swee-Hua Erin; Lai, Kok-Song

    2017-11-04

    Combinatory therapies have been commonly applied in the clinical setting to tackle multi-drug resistant bacterial infections and these have frequently proven to be effective. Specifically, combinatory therapies resulting in synergistic interactions between antibiotics and adjuvant have been the main focus due to their effectiveness, sidelining the effects of additivity, which also lowers the minimal effective dosage of either antimicrobial agent. Thus, this study was undertaken to look at the effects of additivity between essential oils and antibiotic, via the use of cinnamon bark essential oil (CBO) and meropenem as a model for additivity. Comparisons between synergistic and additive interaction of CBO were performed in terms of the ability of CBO to disrupt bacterial membrane, via zeta potential measurement, outer membrane permeability assay and scanning electron microscopy. It has been found that the additivity interaction between CBO and meropenem showed similar membrane disruption ability when compared to those synergistic combinations which was previously reported. Hence, results based on our studies strongly suggest that additive interaction acts on a par with synergistic interaction. Therefore, further investigation in additive interaction between antibiotics and adjuvant should be performed for a more in depth understanding of the mechanism and the impacts of such interaction.

  5. Implementing the South African additive manufacturing technology roadmap - the role of an additive manufacturing centre of competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Preez, Willie Bouwer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Rapid Product Development Association of South Africa (RAPDASA expressed the need for a national Additive Manufacturing Roadmap. Consequentially, the South African Department of Science and Technology commissioned the development of a South African Additive Manufacturing Technology Roadmap. This was intended to guide role-players in identifying business opportunities, addressing technology gaps, focusing development programmes, and informing investment decisions that would enable local companies and industry sectors to become global leaders in selected areas of additive manufacturing. The challenge remains now for South Africa to decide on an implementation approach that will maximize the impact in the shortest possible time. This article introduces the concept of a national Additive Manufacturing Centre of Competence (AMCoC as a primary implementation vehicle for the roadmap. The support of the current leading players in additive manufacturing in South Africa for such a centre of competence is shared and their key roles are indicated. A summary of the investments that the leading players have already made in the focus areas of the AMCoC over the past two decades is given as confirmation of their commitment towards the advancement of the additive manufacturing technology. An exposition is given of how the AMCoC could indeed become the primary initiative for achieving the agreed national goals on additive manufacturing. The conclusion is that investment by public and private institutions in an AMCoC would be the next step towards ensuring South Africa’s continued progress in the field.

  6. Additive direct-write microfabrication for MEMS: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Kwok Siong

    2017-12-01

    Direct-write additive manufacturing refers to a rich and growing repertoire of well-established fabrication techniques that builds solid objects directly from computer- generated solid models without elaborate intermediate fabrication steps. At the macroscale, direct-write techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modeling ink-jet printing, and laminated object manufacturing have significantly reduced concept-to-product lead time, enabled complex geometries, and importantly, has led to the renaissance in fabrication known as the maker movement. The technological premises of all direct-write additive manufacturing are identical—converting computer generated three-dimensional models into layers of two-dimensional planes or slices, which are then reconstructed sequentially into threedimensional solid objects in a layer-by-layer format. The key differences between the various additive manufacturing techniques are the means of creating the finished layers and the ancillary processes that accompany them. While still at its infancy, direct-write additive manufacturing techniques at the microscale have the potential to significantly lower the barrier-of-entry—in terms of cost, time and training—for the prototyping and fabrication of MEMS parts that have larger dimensions, high aspect ratios, and complex shapes. In recent years, significant advancements in materials chemistry, laser technology, heat and fluid modeling, and control systems have enabled additive manufacturing to achieve higher resolutions at the micrometer and nanometer length scales to be a viable technology for MEMS fabrication. Compared to traditional MEMS processes that rely heavily on expensive equipment and time-consuming steps, direct-write additive manufacturing techniques allow for rapid design-to-prototype realization by limiting or circumventing the need for cleanrooms, photolithography and extensive training. With current direct-write additive

  7. Additive direct-write microfabrication for MEMS: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Kwok Siong

    2017-10-01

    Direct-write additive manufacturing refers to a rich and growing repertoire of well-established fabrication techniques that builds solid objects directly from computer- generated solid models without elaborate intermediate fabrication steps. At the macroscale, direct-write techniques such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modeling ink-jet printing, and laminated object manufacturing have significantly reduced conceptto- product lead time, enabled complex geometries, and importantly, has led to the renaissance in fabrication known as the maker movement. The technological premises of all direct-write additive manufacturing are identical—converting computer generated three-dimensional models into layers of two-dimensional planes or slices, which are then reconstructed sequentially into threedimensional solid objects in a layer-by-layer format. The key differences between the various additive manufacturing techniques are the means of creating the finished layers and the ancillary processes that accompany them. While still at its infancy, direct-write additive manufacturing techniques at the microscale have the potential to significantly lower the barrier-of-entry—in terms of cost, time and training—for the prototyping and fabrication of MEMS parts that have larger dimensions, high aspect ratios, and complex shapes. In recent years, significant advancements in materials chemistry, laser technology, heat and fluid modeling, and control systems have enabled additive manufacturing to achieve higher resolutions at the micrometer and nanometer length scales to be a viable technology for MEMS fabrication. Compared to traditional MEMS processes that rely heavily on expensive equipment and time-consuming steps, direct-write additive manufacturing techniques allow for rapid design-toprototype realization by limiting or circumventing the need for cleanrooms, photolithography and extensive training. With current direct-write additive

  8. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, JA; Garboczi, EJ; Stutzman, PE; Ferraris, CF; Watson, SS; Peltz, MA

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques1 can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process. PMID:26601040

  9. Ticagrelor and Rosuvastatin Have Additive Cardioprotective Effects via Adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Yochai; Birnbaum, Gilad D; Birnbaum, Itamar; Nylander, Sven; Ye, Yumei

    2016-12-01

    Ticagrelor inhibits the equilibrative-nucleoside-transporter-1 and thereby, adenosine cell re-uptake. Ticagrelor limits infarct size (IS) in non-diabetic rats and the effect is adenosine-dependent. Statins, via ecto-5'-nucleotidase activation, also increase adenosine levels and limit IS. Ticagrelor and rosuvastatin have additive effects on myocardial adenosine levels, and therefore, on IS and post-reperfusion activation of the NLRP3-inflammasome. Diabetic ZDF rats received via oral gavage; water (control), ticagrelor (150 mg/kg/d), prasugrel (7.5 mg/kg/d), rosuvastatin (5 mg/kg/d), ticagrelor + rosuvastatin and prasugrel + rosuvastatin for 3d. On day 4, rats underwent 30 min coronary artery occlusion and 24 h of reperfusion. Two additional groups received, ticagrelor + rosuvastatin or water in combination with CGS15943 (CGS, an adenosine receptor antagonist, 10 mg/kg i.p. 1 h before ischemia). Both ticagrelor and rosuvastatin increased myocardial adenosine levels with an additive effect of the combination whereas prasugrel had no effect. Similarly, both ticagrelor and rosuvastatin significantly reduced IS with an additive effect of the combination whereas prasugrel had no effect. The effect on IS was adenosine dependent as CGS15943 reversed the effect of ticagrelor + rosuvastatin. The ischemia-reperfusion injury increased myocardial mRNA levels of NLRP3, ASC, IL-1β and IL-6. Ticagrelor and rosuvastatin, but not prasugrel, significantly decreased these pro-inflammatory mediators with a trend to an additive effect of the combination. The combination also increased the levels of anti-inflammatory 15-epilipoxin A4. Ticagrelor and rosuvastatin when given in combination have an additive effect on local myocardial adenosine levels in the setting of ischemia reperfusion. This translates into an additive cardioprotective effect mediated by adenosine-induced effects including downregulation of pro- but upregulation of anti-inflammatory mediators.

  10. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotwinski, J A; Garboczi, E J; Stutzman, P E; Ferraris, C F; Watson, S S; Peltz, M A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  11. Concentration Addition, Independent Action and Generalized Concentration Addition Models for Mixture Effect Prediction of Sex Hormone Synthesis In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Hadrup; Camilla Taxvig; Mikael Pedersen; Christine Nellemann; Ulla Hass; Anne Marie Vinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Humans are concomitantly exposed to numerous chemicals. An infinite number of combinations and doses thereof can be imagined. For toxicological risk assessment the mathematical prediction of mixture effects, using knowledge on single chemicals, is therefore desirable. We investigated pros and cons of the concentration addition (CA), independent action (IA) and generalized concentration addition (GCA) models. First we measured effects of single chemicals and mixtures thereof on steroid synthes...

  12. Changes of Properties of Bitumen Binders by Additives Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remišová, Eva; Holý, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Requirements for properties of bituminous binders are determined in the European standards. The physico-chemical behaviour of bitumen depends on its colloidal structure (asphaltenes dispersed into an oily matrix constituted by saturates, aromatics and resins) that depends primarily on its crude source and processing. Bitumen properties are evaluated by group composition, elementary analysis, but more often conventional or functional tests. Bitumen for road uses is assessed according to the physical characteristics. For the purpose of improving the qualitative properties of bitumen and asphalts the additives are applied e.g. to increase elasticity, improving the heat stability, improving adhesion to aggregate, to decrease viscosity, increasing the resistance to aging, to prevent binder drainage from the aggregate surface, etc. The objective of presented paper is to assess and compare effect of additives on properties of bitumen binders. In paper, the results of bitumen properties, penetration, softening point, and dynamic viscosity of two paving grade bitumen 35/50, 50/70 and polymer modified bitumen PmB 45/80-75 are analyzed and also the changes of these properties by the application of selected additives (Sasobit, Licomont BS100, Wetfix BE and CWM) to improve adhesion to aggregate and improve workability. Measurements of properties have been performed according to the relevant European standards. The laboratory tests showed significantly increasing the softening point of paving grade bitumen 50/70 and 35/50 by 13 to 45°C. The effect of various additives on bitumen softening point is different. Penetration varies according to type of bitumen and type of used additive. The penetration values of modified bitumen PmB 45/80-75 with additives Sasobit and Licomont BS100 show increase of bitumen stiffness of 16 0.1mm and a shift in the gradation. The changes in penetration and in softening point significantly shown when calculating on Penetration index as a parameter of

  13. Ecotoxicological effects of activated carbon addition to sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Michiel T O; Suijkerbuijk, Martin P W; Schmitt, Heike; Sinnige, Theo L

    2009-08-01

    Activated carbon (AC) addition is a recently developed technique for the remediation of sediments and soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic chemicals. Laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that the addition of 3-4% of AC can reduce aqueous concentrations and the bioaccumulation potential of contaminants. However, one aspect of the technique that has hardly received any attention is the possible occurrence of secondary, eco(toxico)logical effects, i.e., effects of AC addition on the health, behavior, and habitat quality of local organisms. In the present study, several ecotoxicological effects were investigated in AC-water and AC-enriched (0-25%) sediment systems. It was demonstrated that (i) powdered activated carbons can be toxic to aquatic invertebrates (Lumbriculus variegatus, Daphnia magna, and Corophium volutator) based on different mechanisms and preferably should be washed prior to application; (ii) Asellus aquaticus and Corophium volutator may physically avoid AC-enriched sediments; (iii) exposure of Lumbriculus variegatus to AC-enriched sediments lead to a time and dose-dependent reduction in the worms' lipid content, which was most probably caused by the observation that (iv) worm egestion rates decreased drastically upon AC addition, indicating that the presence of AC disturbed feeding behavior; and (v) there were no obvious effects on the microbiological community structure. All in all, these results suggest potential ecotoxicological effects of powdered AC addition and stress the need for a detailed further investigation of secondary effects of the technique, prior to any large-scale field application.

  14. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-02-04

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of studies including temperature programmed desorption, infrared study of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation over Rh catalysts. Ethylene hydroformylation has often served as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of Rh catalysts. The mechanism of CO insertion in ethylene hydroformylation over Rh/SiO{sub 2} was investigated.

  15. Antifreeze polymeric additives for fuels; Aditivos polimericos anticongelantes para combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muniz, Aline S.; Carvalho, Agne Roani de; Sakae, George Hideki; Oliveira, Angelo R.S.; Cesar-Oliveira, Maria Aparecida F. [Universidade Federal do Parana - UFPR - Departamento de Quimica - LABPOL-Laboratorio de Polimeros Sinteticos, Centro Politecnico, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mails: mafco@ufpr.br, alinemuniz@ufpr.br

    2011-07-01

    Owing to the current interest in the reduction of environmental pollution, several researchers are seeking renewable sources of energy which can at least partially replace combustibles derived from petroleum. Diesel oil is the combustible that most seriously pollutes the environment and is thus the biodiesel that is being considered as a fuel which can be replaced by a renewable combustible; this can possibly be used in diesel engines without any modifications. However, certain problems have to be overcome with regard to the temperature at which the biodiesel should be stored and used, since there is a tendency for biodiesel to solidify at low temperatures. This suggests that there is a need for the use of anti-freeze additives. This work behind the main focus additives with only 25 ppm, were able to reduce the pour point of fuel, achieving significant results, for example, the additive M14A18 lowered the pour point (PP) of B20 to -20 degree C, showing that the use of increasing amounts of biodiesel to diesel can aggregate. The main focus of work behind the development of additives that with only 25 ppm, were able to reduce the pour point of fuel, producing significant results such as those obtained with the use of additive M14A18 which lowered the pour point of the B20 to -20 degree C, showing the possibility of using increasing amounts of biodiesel added to diesel. (author)

  16. Splash-like marine biodiversity additions after the cambrian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruban Dmitry A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some Phanerozoic biotic radiations in the marine realm led to marine biodiversity additions, i.e., increases in the global number of genera to unprecedented levels. Each of the two alternative biodiversity curves implies five post-Cambrian events of this kind, which coincided with parts of the biotic radiations. However, differences between these curves do not allow to find coherent marine biodiversity additions with the only exception of those occurred at the interval of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification. The attempted interpretations indicate that the marine biodiversity additions increased the number of marine genera by 10-30 % (from the previous unprecedented level to that new. All additions were relatively brief and occurred as splashes throughout the Phanerozoic. Peculiar intrinsic and extrinsic factors, as well as the speed of diversification should be considered when triggers of these events are looked for. Undoubtedly, splash-like marine biodiversity additions played an important role in the evolution of life in the sea, but a lot of research is required in order to understand their true nature.

  17. Additive Manufacturing Design Considerations for Liquid Engine Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Dave; Hissam, Andy; Baker, Kevin; Rice, Darron

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department has gained significant experience in the last year designing, building, and testing liquid engine components using additive manufacturing. The department has developed valve, duct, turbo-machinery, and combustion device components using this technology. Many valuable lessons were learned during this process. These lessons will be the focus of this presentation. We will present criteria for selecting part candidates for additive manufacturing. Some part characteristics are 'tailor made' for this process. Selecting the right parts for the process is the first step to maximizing productivity gains. We will also present specific lessons we learned about feature geometry that can and cannot be produced using additive manufacturing machines. Most liquid engine components were made using a two-step process. The base part was made using additive manufacturing and then traditional machining processes were used to produce the final part. The presentation will describe design accommodations needed to make the base part and lessons we learned about which features could be built directly and which require the final machine process. Tolerance capabilities, surface finish, and material thickness allowances will also be covered. Additive Manufacturing can produce internal passages that cannot be made using traditional approaches. It can also eliminate a significant amount of manpower by reducing part count and leveraging model-based design and analysis techniques. Information will be shared about performance enhancements and design efficiencies we experienced for certain categories of engine parts.

  18. Colour change of bakery products influenced by used additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Čáslavková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the effects of selected additions of vegetable origin on the colour of whole grain breads. The colour was assessed using model samples which were made of mixtures containing various wholemeal flour types (wheat, spelt, and rye flour and increasing amounts of additions in the form of buckwheat, oat, and barley flour. The additions were 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 per cent. Colour measurement was performed instrumentally, using an image analysis method which was modified for the purposes of this study. It was found out that, regardless of the flour/addition ratio, both factors in the form of wheat, spelt, and rye wholemeal flour, and barley, oat and buckwheat flour additions and their interactions exhibited a significant influence on the colour of the bakery products (P P < 0.05 were found for the following combinations: mixture of wheat flour with buckwheat, barley, and oat; mixture of spelt flour with buckwheat and oat; and mixture of rye flour with buckwheat and barley. The proposed general regression model which was created using the data obtained in the experiment, showed colour variability of more than 95 per cent.

  19. Effect of Ferrous Additives on Magnesia Stone Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimich, V.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the modification of the magnesia binder with additives containing two- and three-valent iron cations which could be embedded in the chloromagnesium stone structure and also increase the strength from 60 MPa in a non-additive stone to 80MPa, water resistance from 0.58 for clear stone to 0.8 and reduce the hygroscopicity from 8% in the non-additive stone to 2% in the modified chloromagnesium stone. It is proposed to use the iron hydroxide sol as an additive in the quantities of up to 1% of the weight of the binder. The studies were carried out using the modern analysis methods: the differentialthermal and X-ray phase analysis. The structure was studied with an electron microscope with an X-ray microanalyzer. A two-factor plan-experiment was designed which allowed constructing mathematical models characterizing the influence of variable factors, such as the density of the zatcher and the amount of sol in the binder, on the basic properties of the magnesian stone. The result of the research was the magnesia stone with the claimed properties and formed from minerals characteristic for magnesian materials as well as additionally formed from amachenite and goethite. It has been established that a highly active iron hydroxide sol the ion sizes of which are commensurate with magnesium ions is actively incorporated into the structure of pentahydroxychloride and magnesium hydroxide changing the habit of crystals compacting the structure of the stone and changing its hygroscopicity.

  20. Vitrification of in vitro produced bovine embryos at different ages using one- and three-step addition of cryoprotective additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, S; Suzuki, T

    1997-01-01

    The effect of embryo age on development and ratio of live: dead cells after vitrification and warming was examined. One-step and three-step addition of cryoprotectants in vitrification solution (40% ethylene glycol, 0.3 M trehalose and 12% polyvinylpyrrolidone) were compared using in vitro produced (IVP) bovine blastocysts and expanded blastocysts. Rates of development and hatching were 74.2% and 41.9% for Day 7, 57.8% and 23.8% for Day 8, 33.7% and 6.1% for Day 9 embryos with one-step addition. In three-step addition, those rates were 86.2% and 77.3% for Day 7, 72.3% and 39.0% for Day 8, 47.3% and 10.5% for Day 9 embryos. Day 7 embryos showed highest (P embryos with three-step addition was higher (P embryos (P bovine embryos against vitrification and the potential for three-step addition of cryoprotectants to yield a higher survival rate after warming than with one-step addition.

  1. The Additional Professional Training in the Late Russian Empire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timur A. Magsumov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the experience of intensive organization and functioning of the system of additional professional training in the late imperial period of the Russian history, generated by the need of unfolded modernization in the country. The article is written on the basis of mass sources, including the regional archives of record keeping documentation and working in the mainstream of the study of basic organizational forms of additional training - agricultural courses, shopping classes and courses of technical drawing, also the author produces a macro shot of trends and directions, successes and challenges in its development. The additional professional training as a specific element of the education system of 20th century focusing on the real sector of economy has implemented the free practice-training based on the principles of interdisciplinarity, variability and the high role of self-education.

  2. Probiotics And Prebiotics As Feed Additive For Nonruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuti Haryati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The ban against using antibiotics has led to increase the use of alternative additive substances as antibiotic. The alternative additives that can be used as antibiotic are probiotic and prebiotic. Both components can be used separately or together as synbiotic. Probiotic and prebiotic can modulate the ecosytem of intestinal microflora that is potential to affect the health and performance of host. Probiotic and prebiotic have been widely used abroad because of their positive effects, but the research and the use of these components in Indonesia are limited, eventhough abundance of raw material that can be used are available. The research dealing with probiotic and prebiotic as additive is necessary to be improved to obtain the efficient and practical production method, which can be implemented to give an economic impact on livestock industry.

  3. Enhanced DLC wear performance by the presence of lubricant additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Paula de Castro Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lubricant additives play significant role for reducing friction and wear of mechanical elements. The additives presented in 5W30 oil were developed for metal surfaces. However, they have been used in engine pieces covered with DLC coatings because they also offer the potential to reduce friction losses and wear in automotive applications. The friction and wear tests were carried out by using a UMT-CETR ball-on-disk tribometer in rotational mode under 5W30 synthetic oil at 100 °C. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS showed the presence of Mo and S in the wear tracks. These elements are from decomposition of ZDDP and MoDTC additives producing MoS2 in DLC surface, which offers enhanced durability by low wear rate.

  4. Organogermanium Chemistry: Germacyclobutanes and digermane Additions to Acetylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, Andrew Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation comprises two main research projects. The first project, presented in Chapter 1, involves the synthesis and thermochemistry of germacyclobutanes (germetanes). Four new germetanes (spirodigermetane, diallylgermetane, dichlorogermetane, and germacyclobutane) have been synthesized using a modified di-Grignard synthesis. Diallylgermetane is shown to be a useful starting material for obtaining other germetanes, particularly the parent germetane, germacyclobutane. The gas-phase thermochemistries of spirodigermetane, diallylgermetane and germacyclobutane have been explored via pulsed stirred-flow reactor (SFR) studies, showing remarkable differences in decomposition, depending on the substitution at the germanium atom. The second project investigates the thermochemical, photochemical, and catalytic additions of several digermanes to acetylenes. The first examples of thermo- and photochemical additions of Ge-Ge bonds to C{triple_bond}C are demonstrated. Mechanistic investigations are described and comparisons are made to analogous disilane addition reactions, previously studied in their group.

  5. Damage evolution and failure mechanisms in additively manufactured stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, Holly D., E-mail: carlton4@llnl.gov [Materials Engineering Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Haboub, Abdel [Lincoln University, Life and Physical Sciences Department, 820 Chestnut St, Jefferson City, MO 65101 (United States); Gallegos, Gilbert F. [Materials Engineering Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Parkinson, Dilworth Y.; MacDowell, Alastair A. [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-01-10

    In situ tensile tests were performed on additively manufactured austenitic stainless steel to track damage evolution within the material. For these experiments Synchrotron Radiation micro-Tomography was used to measure three-dimensional pore volume, distribution, and morphology in stainless steel at the micrometer length-scale while tensile loading was applied. The results showed that porosity distribution played a larger role in affecting the fracture mechanisms than measured bulk density. Specifically, additively manufactured stainless steel specimens with large inhomogeneous void distributions displayed a flaw-dominated failure where cracks were shown to initiate at pre-existing voids, while annealed additively manufactured stainless steel specimens, which contained low porosity and randomly distributed pores, displayed fracture mechanisms that closely resembled wrought metal.

  6. Rheological properties of the wheat flour supplemented with different additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGETA STOENESCU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available One characteristic of the Romanian wheat flour in the recent years consists of high values of the falling number. The aim of the present study was to explore the Mixolab device to characterize the thermo-mechanical behaviour of flour supplemented with different additives that contain α-amylase. Mixolab parameters C4 and C5 were found to be lower in samples with high doses of additives containing α-amylases. The increase of the α-amylase dose reduces the dough stability. The samples that contain higher doses of additives presented low values of the β slope, which gives indications about starch gelatinization. The samples with reduced α-amylases activity showed high values of the γ slope.

  7. Additively manufactured hierarchical stainless steels with high strength and ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Morris; Voisin, Thomas; McKeown, Joseph T.; Ye, Jianchao; Calta, Nicholas P.; Li, Zan; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Wen; Roehling, Tien Tran; Ott, Ryan T.; Santala, Melissa K.; Depond, Philip J.; Matthews, Manyalibo J.; Hamza, Alex V.; Zhu, Ting

    2018-01-01

    Many traditional approaches for strengthening steels typically come at the expense of useful ductility, a dilemma known as strength-ductility trade-off. New metallurgical processing might offer the possibility of overcoming this. Here we report that austenitic 316L stainless steels additively manufactured via a laser powder-bed-fusion technique exhibit a combination of yield strength and tensile ductility that surpasses that of conventional 316L steels. High strength is attributed to solidification-enabled cellular structures, low-angle grain boundaries, and dislocations formed during manufacturing, while high uniform elongation correlates to a steady and progressive work-hardening mechanism regulated by a hierarchically heterogeneous microstructure, with length scales spanning nearly six orders of magnitude. In addition, solute segregation along cellular walls and low-angle grain boundaries can enhance dislocation pinning and promote twinning. This work demonstrates the potential of additive manufacturing to create alloys with unique microstructures and high performance for structural applications.

  8. A case study on topology optimized design for additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebisa, A. W.; Lemu, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    Topology optimization is an optimization method that employs mathematical tools to optimize material distribution in a part to be designed. Earlier developments of topology optimization considered conventional manufacturing techniques that have limitations in producing complex geometries. This has hindered the topology optimization efforts not to fully be realized. With the emergence of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, the technology that builds a part layer upon a layer directly from three dimensional (3D) model data of the part, however, producing complex shape geometry is no longer an issue. Realization of topology optimization through AM provides full design freedom for the design engineers. The article focuses on topologically optimized design approach for additive manufacturing with a case study on lightweight design of jet engine bracket. The study result shows that topology optimization is a powerful design technique to reduce the weight of a product while maintaining the design requirements if additive manufacturing is considered.

  9. PicPrint: Embedding pictures in additive manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Eiríksson, Eyþór Rúnar; Lyngby, Rasmus Ahrenkiel

    2017-01-01

    Here  we  present  PicPrint,  a  method  and  tool  for  producing  an  additively  manufactured  lithophane,  enabling  transferring  and embedding  2D  information  into  additively  manufactured  3D  objects.  The  method  takes  an  input  image  and  converts  it  to  a......, after which  the mesh is  ready  for either  direct  print  on an additive manufacturing system, or transfer to other geometries via Boolean mesh operations. ...

  10. Learning the Critical Points for Addition in Matematika GASING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Hamonangan Siregar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose learning Matematika GASING to help students better understand the addition material. Matematika GASING is a way of learning mathematics in an easy, fun and enjoyable fashion. GASING is short for GAmpang, aSyIk, and menyenaNGkan (Bahasa Indonesia for easy, fun and enjoyable. It was originally developed by Prof. Yohanes Surya at the Surya Institute in Indonesia to improve the mathematics education in Indonesia. In Matematika GASING, there is a step called “the critical point” that needs to be mastered for each topic. The focus of our research is the critical point for addition, that is addition of two numbers between 1 − 10 with a sum less than 20. The subject is a matriculation class at STKIP Surya and the research method used is Classroom Action Research. The statistics obtained is described using Qualitative Descriptive Statistics.

  11. Mechanism of prion propagation: amyloid growth occurs by monomer addition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean R Collins

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abundant nonfibrillar oligomeric intermediates are a common feature of amyloid formation, and these oligomers, rather than the final fibers, have been suggested to be the toxic species in some amyloid diseases. Whether such oligomers are critical intermediates for fiber assembly or form in an alternate, potentially separable pathway, however, remains unclear. Here we study the polymerization of the amyloidogenic yeast prion protein Sup35. Rapid polymerization occurs in the absence of observable intermediates, and both targeted kinetic and direct single-molecule fluorescence measurements indicate that fibers grow by monomer addition. A three-step model (nucleation, monomer addition, and fiber fragmentation accurately accounts for the distinctive kinetic features of amyloid formation, including weak concentration dependence, acceleration by agitation, and sigmoidal shape of the polymerization time course. Thus, amyloid growth can occur by monomer addition in a reaction distinct from and competitive with formation of potentially toxic oligomeric intermediates.

  12. Covariate selection for the semiparametric additive risk model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers covariate selection for the additive hazards model. This model is particularly simple to study theoretically and its practical implementation has several major advantages to the similar methodology for the proportional hazards model. One complication compared with the proport......This paper considers covariate selection for the additive hazards model. This model is particularly simple to study theoretically and its practical implementation has several major advantages to the similar methodology for the proportional hazards model. One complication compared...... of observations. We do this by studying the properties of the so-called Dantzig selector in the setting of the additive risk model. Specifically, we establish a bound on how close the solution is to a true sparse signal in the case where the number of covariates is large. In a simulation study, we also compare...

  13. Life cycle assessment and additives: state of knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Concerns about possible toxic effects from additives/impurities accumulated in globally recycled waste/resources like paper and plastics was one of the main reasons for starting up the EU FP7 Coordination Action project RiskCycle (www.wadef.com/projects/riskcycle). A key aim of the project...... is to identify research needs within this area focusing on both risk assessment (RA) and life cycle assessment (LCA). Besides the sectors on paper and plastics also lubricants, textiles, electronics and leather are included in RiskCycle. On plastics a literature review regarding the state of knowledge...... on additives/impurities in LCA has been performed within RiskCycle. Several inventory databases (LCI data) have been investigated and the result shows that most LCI databases use PlasticsEurope data for plastics production. Most of these data are aggregated and do not include additives. Regarding...

  14. Additive Classical Capacity of Quantum Channels Assisted by Noisy Entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Quntao; Zhu, Elton Yechao; Shor, Peter W.

    2017-05-01

    We give a capacity formula for the classical information transmission over a noisy quantum channel, with separable encoding by the sender and limited resources provided by the receiver's preshared ancilla. Instead of a pure state, we consider the signal-ancilla pair in a mixed state, purified by a "witness." Thus, the signal-witness correlation limits the resource available from the signal-ancilla correlation. Our formula characterizes the utility of different forms of resources, including noisy or limited entanglement assistance, for classical communication. With separable encoding, the sender's signals across multiple channel uses are still allowed to be entangled, yet our capacity formula is additive. In particular, for generalized covariant channels, our capacity formula has a simple closed form. Moreover, our additive capacity formula upper bounds the general coherent attack's information gain in various two-way quantum key distribution protocols. For Gaussian protocols, the additivity of the formula indicates that the collective Gaussian attack is the most powerful.

  15. Thermal behaviour of a spherical addition to molten metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehmen, E.

    1995-05-01

    This thesis presents a numerical model for describing the thermal behaviour of a spherical alloy addition when added to a melt. It is assumed that: no significant heat of solution between the alloy addition and the melt is involved, the dissolution rate is dominated by heat transfer from the melt, the heat flow into the addition is spherically symmetric, the additions have a well defined melting point, there are no solid phase transformations, heat conduction can be represented by Fourier`s law, and the heat transfer from the melt can be described by an average heat transfer coefficient. The model is validated by comparison with experimental data obtained from immersion experiments on: (1) a 4.88 cm diameter Al sphere chilled in liquid nitrogen to -196 {sup o}C and then immersed in water of 3.8 {sup o}C and 18.1 {sup o}C, (2) 4.90 cm diameter Al spheres at room temperatures immersed in molten Al of 720 {sup o}C, and (3) 3.72 cm diameter 75 wt% FeSi spheres at 150 {sup o}C immersed in molten steel of 1600 {sup o}C. The shell thickness and temperatures at the sphere centre and surface were recorded as functions of time. For model and experiment to agree, it was found that the density, specific heat and thermal conductivity of the alloy addition must depend on temperature, and an inner heat transfer resistance across the sphere-shell interphase must be included. The sensible heat of the melt that solidifies should be included in the heat balance only when the shell is expanding. The inner heat transfer resistance is shown to be very important in determining the melting/dissolution time for alloy additions that react strongly with the melt. 70 refs., 60 figs., 36 tabs.

  16. Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters and Metal Thiophosphates as Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Johnson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters and metal thiophosphates have been used as lubricant additives for over 50 years. While their use has been extensive, a detailed knowledge of how they work has been a much more recent development. In this paper, the use of phosphate esters and thiophosphate esters as anti-wear or extreme pressure additives is reviewed with an emphasis on their mechanism of action. The review includes the use of alkyl phosphates, triaryl phosphates and metal containing thiophosphate esters. The mechanisms of these materials interacting with a range of iron and steel based bearing material are examined.

  17. Entrained Flow Reactor Study of KCl Capture by Solid Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guoliang; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    been proved to be very promising additives and havereceived extensive studies during the past decades. However, mostprevious studies were carried out in fixed-bed reactors where the reaction conditions are obviously different from that in suspension fired boilers.Detailed knowledge on the reaction...... between K-species and solid additivesunder suspension-fired conditions is still limited. In this study, a water slurrycontaining K-salt and solid additives was introduced into an entrained flowreactor (EFR) to study K-capture at suspension-fired conditions. A model willbe developed based on experimental...

  18. Improving Performance of Software Implemented Floating Point Addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindborg, Andreas Erik; Karlsson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    We outline and evaluate hardware extensions to an integer processor pipeline which allow IEEE 754 oating point, FP, addition to be eciently implemented in software. With a very moderate increase in hardware resources, our perfor- mance evaluation shows that, for a benchmark that executes 12.5% FP...... addition instructions, our approach exhibits a rel- ative slowdown of 3.38 to 15.15 as compared to dedicated hardware. This is a signicant improvement of pure software emulation which leads to relative slowdowns up to 45.33....

  19. Reconsidering Money: Monetary Exchange with Additive Transaction Costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp

    2001-01-01

    Under the assumption of purely additive transaction costs in exchange, the literature on money has a standard example of direct exchange dominating indirect (monetary) exchange. From here it is frequently concluded that subadditive costs (e.g. search costs) must be examined in order to explain...... money. In contrast, this paper presents an additive transaction costs model in which the mere absence of double coincidences of wants suffices to motivate monetary exchange. Furthermore it is found that not all commodity moneys, that are collectively desirable, qualify for the core, but that all fiat...... moneys, that are collectively desirable, will be elements of the core. (JEL: D70, E40)...

  20. An Additive-Multiplicative Restricted Mean Residual Life Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansourvar, Zahra; Martinussen, Torben; Scheike, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    The mean residual life measures the expected remaining life of a subject who has survived up to a particular time. When survival time distribution is highly skewed or heavy tailed, the restricted mean residual life must be considered. In this paper, we propose an additive-multiplicative restricted...... mean residual life model to study the association between the restricted mean residual life function and potential regression covariates in the presence of right censoring. This model extends the proportional mean residual life model using an additive model as its covariate dependent baseline...