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Sample records for additive relaxant effect

  1. The Effects of Suggestibility on Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, Henry C.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Selected undergraduates (N=32) on the basis of Creative Imagination Scale scores and randomly assigned high and low suggestibility subjects to progressive relaxation (PR) and suggestions of relaxation (SR) training modes. Results revealed a significant pre-post relaxation effect, and main efffects for both suggestibility and training mode. (NRB)

  2. Relaxation effects in ferrous complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolini, C.; Mathieu, J.P.; Chappert, J.

    1976-01-01

    The slow relaxation mechanism of the Fe 2+ ion in the tri-fluorinated TF(acac) and hexafluorinated HF(acac) complexes of Fe(II) acetylacetonate was investigated. The 300K and 77K Moessbauer spectra for TF(acac) consist in a slightly asymmetric quadrupole doublet. On the contrary, at 4.2K the higher energy line is strongly widened; that is typical of a slowing down in the electron relaxation frequency [fr

  3. Paramagnetic relaxation effects in perturbed angular correlations for arbitrary electronic relaxation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopin, C.; Spanjaard, D.; Hartmann-Boutron, F.

    1975-01-01

    Previous perturbation treatments of paramagnetic relaxation effects in γγ PAC were limited to the case of very short electronic relaxation times. This limitation is circumvented by invoking a new perturbation theory recently elaborated by Hirst and others for handling relaxation effects in Moessbauer spectra. Under the assumption of spherical electronic relaxation the perturbation factors are computed as functions of certain relaxation parameters which are directly related to the microscopic relaxation Hamiltonian. The results are compared to those of the stochastic theory of Scherer and Blume [fr

  4. Relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Wai Sum Li

    Full Text Available The use of abacavir has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, the mechanism involved remains unclear. We hypothesize that abacavir may impair endothelial function. In addition, based on the structural similarity between abacavir and adenosine, we propose that abacavir may affect vascular contractility through endogenous adenosine release or adenosine receptors in blood vessels.The relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries was studied using the myograph technique. Cyclic GMP and AMP levels were measured by immunoassay. The effects of abacavir on nucleoside transporters were studied using radiolabeled nucleoside uptake experiments. Ecto-5' nucleotidase activity was determined by measuring the generation of inorganic phosphate using adenosine monophosphate as the substrate.Abacavir induced the relaxation of rat basilar arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This relaxation was abolished when endothelium was removed. In addition, the relaxation was diminished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, and the protein kinase G inhibitor, KT5820. Abacavir also increased the cGMP level in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir-induced relaxation was also abolished by adenosine A2 receptor blockers. However, abacavir had no effect on ecto-5' nucleotidase and nucleoside transporters. Short-term and long-term treatment of abacavir did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation in rat basilar arteries.Abacavir induces acute endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat basilar arteries, probably through the activation of adenosine A2 receptors in endothelial cells, which subsequently leads to the release of nitric oxide, resulting in activation of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase G-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is speculated that abacavir-induced cardiovascular risk may not be related to

  5. The Effects of Progressive Relaxation and Music on Attention, Relaxation, and Stress Responses: An Investigation of the Cognitive-Behavioral Model of Relaxation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scheufele, Peter

    1999-01-01

    ...) suggested that stress management techniques have specific effects A compromise position suggests that the specific effects of relaxation techniques are superimposed upon a general relaxation response...

  6. The effects of progressive muscle relaxation and autogenic relaxation on young soccer players' mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players' mood states.

  7. The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Autogenic Relaxation on Young Soccer Players’ Mood States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Hairul Anuar; Hanafi@Ahmad Yusof, Hazwani

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to compare the effects of two different relaxation techniques, namely progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) and autogenic relaxation (AGR) on moods of young soccer players. Methods Sixteen adolescent athletes (mean age: 14.1 ± 1.3) received either PMR or AGR training. Using Profile of Mood States- Adolescents, their mood states were measured one week before relaxation training, before the first relaxation session, and after the twelfth relaxation session. Results Mixed ANOVA revealed no significant interaction effects and no significant main effects in any of the subscales. However, significant main effects for testing sessions were found for confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscales. Post hoc tests revealed post-intervention reductions in the confusion, depression, fatigue, and tension subscale scores. Conclusion These two relaxation techniques induce equivalent mood responses and may be used to regulate young soccer players’ mood states. PMID:22375225

  8. Effective temperature in relaxation of Coulomb glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoza, A M; Ortuño, M; Caravaca, M; Pollak, M

    2008-08-01

    We study relaxation in two-dimensional Coulomb glasses up to macroscopic times. We use a kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm especially designed to escape efficiently from deep valleys around metastable states. We find that, during the relaxation process, the site occupancy follows a Fermi-Dirac distribution with an effective temperature much higher than the real temperature T. Long electron-hole excitations are characterized by T(eff), while short ones are thermalized at T. We argue that the density of states at the Fermi level is proportional to T(eff) and is a good thermometer to measure it. T(eff) decreases extremely slowly, roughly as the inverse of the logarithm of time, and it should affect hopping conductance in many experimental circumstances.

  9. Effectiveness of relaxation techniques before diagnostic screening of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Aiger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Psychophysiological arousal was observed in cancer patients during the application of relaxation techniques prior to a diagnostic scan (PET-CT. The aim of the study is twofold: firstly, it is sought to establish whether such techniques can minimize patient arousal before diagnostic screening begins, and secondly to measure which of them are most effective. The dependent variable is electrodermal activity, recording the attentional level and emotional response, and the independent variable comprises the relaxation techniques used, namely Jacobson, breathing and visualization. The 39 patients were split into experimental groups to whom the relaxation techniques (Jacobson, breathing exercises, and visualization were applied before they went for the PET-CT. An activity-module procedure was applied to track electrodermal activity during the relaxation sessions, consisting of instructions, timeout; wait, task; relaxation and end of the recording session. The control group received no relaxation techniques before the PET-CT. Session-end results show that patients who perform relaxation techniques achieve greater attentional focus using Jacobson's technique (M = .212 and enhanced emotional containment using visualization (M = .206. It is concluded that relaxation techniques minimize the state of activation during the waiting period before a diagnostic scan.

  10. Theoretical model of intravascular paramagnetic tracers effect on tissue relaxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølby, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of MRI tracers cannot be measured directly by MRI and is commonly evaluated indirectly using their relaxation effect. This study develops a comprehensive theoretical model to describe the transverse relaxation in perfused tissue caused by intravascular tracers. The model takes...... into account a number of individual compartments. The signal dephasing is simulated in a semianalytical way by embedding Monte Carlo simulations in the framework of analytical theory. This approach yields a tool for fast, realistic simulation of the change in the transverse relaxation. The results indicate...... with bulk blood. The enhancement of relaxation in tissue is due to the contrast in magnetic susceptibility between blood vessels and parenchyma induced by the presence of paramagnetic tracer. Beyond the perfusion measurements, the results can be applied to quantitation of functional MRI and to vessel size...

  11. Effect of Temper Condition on Stress Relaxation Behavior of an Aluminum Copper Lithium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Sumeet; Beura, Vikrant Kumar; Singh, Amit; Yadava, Manasij; Nayan, Niraj

    2018-04-01

    Deformation behavior of an Al-Cu-Li alloy in different temper conditions (solutionized and T8) is investigated using stress relaxation tests. Fundamental parameters such as the apparent and physical activation volume, strain rate sensitivity, effective stress, and exhaustion rate of mobile dislocation density are determined from single and multiple relaxation tests. It was found that dislocation-dislocation interaction controls the kinetics of plastic deformation in the solutionized sample, whereas dislocation-precipitate interaction is the overriding factor in the presence of T1 precipitates. The apparent activation volume was found to be significantly lower in the presence of T1 precipitates compared with solutionized samples. Strain rate sensitivity and effective stress were found to be higher in the presence of T1 precipitates. In addition, multiple relaxation tests showed that irrespective of microstructural features (solutes, semi-coherent precipitates), the mobile dislocation density reduces during the relaxation period. Further evidence regarding reduction in mobile dislocation density is obtained from uniaxial tensile tests carried out after stress relaxation tests, where both solutionized and T8 samples show an increase in strength. Additional discussion on relaxation strain is included to provide a complete overview regarding the time-dependent deformation behavior of the Al-Cu-Li alloy in different temper conditions.

  12. Grid Cell Relaxation Effects on the High Frequency Vibration Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Joo-Young; Eom, Kyong-Bo; Jeon, Sang-Youn; Kim, Jae-Ik

    2015-01-01

    The plate structure of the grid of fuel assembly is always exposed to serious vortex induced vibration. Also, High Frequency flow induced Vibration (HFV) is primarily generated by vortex-shedding effect. When it comes to grid design as a fuel assembly component, HFV should be considered in advance since it is one of the critical factors. Excessive HFV has a possibility of making degradation of the fuel reliability that is directly related to the fuel robustness and operating performance. KEPCO NF (KNF) has performed HFV tests with various grid designs. While studying the HFV characteristics through the HFV tests, it has been observed that HFV amplitudes show different levels according to grid cell relaxation. It means that the testing could give different interpretations due to the condition of grid cell. Since the amount of relaxation is different under operating conditions and environments in a reactor, test specimens should be modified as much as possible to the real state of the fuel. Therefore, in order to consider the grid cell relaxation effects on the HFV tests, it is important to use cell sized or non-cell sized grids. The main focus of this study is to find out how the HFV characteristics such as amplitude and frequency are affected by grid cell relaxation. Three cases of the grid cell sized specimen which is nickel alloy were prepared and tested. Through the comparison of the test results, it could be concluded that HFV amplitudes show decreasing trend according to the grid cell relaxation in the case of nickel alloy grid. It is also possible to expect the tendency of grid cell relaxation of a zirconium alloy grid based on test results

  13. Hydrogen bond network relaxation in aqueous polyelectrolyte solutions: the effect of temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarti, S; Bordi, F; Truzzolillo, D

    2012-01-01

    Dielectric spectroscopy data over the range 100 MHz-40 GHz allow for a reliable analysis of two of the major relaxation phenomena for polyelectrolytes (PE) in water. Within this range, the dielectric relaxation of pure water is dominated by a near-Debye process at ν = 18.5 GHz corresponding to a relaxation time of τ = 8.4 ps at 25 °C. This mode is commonly attributed to the cooperative relaxation specific to liquids forming a hydrogen bond network (HBN) and arising from long range H-bond-mediated dipole-dipole interactions. The presence of charged polymers in water partially modifies the dielectric characteristics of the orientational water molecule relaxation due to a change of the dielectric constant of water surrounding the charges on the polyion chain. We report experimental results on the effect of the presence of a standard flexible polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylate) on the HBN relaxation in water for different temperatures, showing that the HBN relaxation time does not change by increasing the polyelectrolyte density in water, even if relatively high concentrations are reached (0.02 monomol l -1 ≤ C ≤ 0.4 monomol l -1 ). We also find that the effect of PE addition on the HBN relaxation is not even a broadening of its distribution, rather a decrease of the spectral weight that goes beyond the pure volume fraction effect. This extra decrease is larger at low T and less evident at high T, supporting the idea that the correlation length of the water is less affected by the presence of charged flexible chains at high temperatures. (paper)

  14. Addition of rectus sheath relaxation incisions to emergency midline laparotomy for peritonitis to prevent fascial dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwah, Sanjay; Marwah, Nisha; Singh, Mandeep; Kapoor, Ajay; Karwasra, Rajender Kumar

    2005-02-01

    The incidence of fascial dehiscence and incisional hernia after two methods for abdominal wound closure (rectus sheath relaxation incisions and conventional mass closure) was studied in a randomized prospective clinical trial in a consecutive series of 100 patients undergoing midline laparotomy for peritonitis. The two groups were well matched for etiologies of peritonitis, the surgical procedures performed, and the presence of known risk factors for fascial dehiscence. Fifty patients each were randomized either to the conventional continuous mass closure procedure or the rectus sheath relaxation incision technique (designed to increase wound elasticity and decrease tension in the suture line) using identical polypropylene sutures. The incidence of postoperative complications such as duration of ileus, chest infection, and wound infection were not statistically different between the two groups. The intensity of postoperative pain in the rectus sheath relaxation incision group was significantly less. The incidence of wound hematoma was significantly increased in the rectus sheath relaxation incision group. The incidences of fascial dehiscence (16% vs,28%; p cases of peritonitis using the rectus sheath relaxation technique is safe and less painful, provides increased wound elasticity and decreased tension on the suture line, and significantly decreases the incidence of wound dehiscence.

  15. The Effect of Phonon Relaxation Process on Absorption Spectra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we study the effect of phonon relaxation process on the absorption spectra using the Green's function technique. The Green's function technique which is widely used in many particle problems is used to solve the Kubo formula which describes the optical absorption process. Finally the configurational diagram is ...

  16. Memory effects in the relaxation of the Gaussian trap model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diezemann, Gregor; Heuer, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    We investigate the memory effect in a simple model for glassy relaxation, a trap model with a Gaussian density of states. In this model, thermal equilibrium is reached at all finite temperatures and we therefore can consider jumps from low to high temperatures in addition to the quenches usually considered in aging studies. We show that the evolution of the energy following the Kovacs protocol can approximately be expressed as a difference of two monotonously decaying functions and thus show the existence of a so-called Kovacs hump whenever these functions are not single exponentials. It is well established that the Kovacs effect also occurs in the linear response regime, and we show that most of the gross features do not change dramatically when large temperature jumps are considered. However, there is one distinguishing feature that only exists beyond the linear regime, which we discuss in detail. For the memory experiment with inverted temperatures, i.e., jumping up and then down again, we find a very similar behavior apart from an opposite sign of the hump.

  17. Nernst effect beyond the relaxation-time approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Pikulin, D. I.; Hou, Chang-Yu; Beenakker, C. W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent interest in the Nernst effect in cuprate superconductors, we calculate this magneto-thermo-electric effect for an arbitrary (anisotropic) quasiparticle dispersion relation and elastic scattering rate. The exact solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation is compared with the commonly used relaxation-time approximation. We find qualitative deficiencies of this approximation, to the extent that it can get the sign wrong of the Nernst coefficient. Ziman's improvement of the...

  18. Memory effects in the relaxation of a confined granular gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, J. Javier; de Soria, M. I. García; Maynar, P.; Buzón, V.

    2014-09-01

    The accuracy of a model to describe the horizontal dynamics of a confined quasi-two-dimensional system of inelastic hard spheres is discussed by comparing its predictions for the relaxation of the temperature in a homogenous system with molecular dynamics simulation results for the original system. A reasonably good agreement is found. Next the model is used to investigate the peculiarities of the nonlinear evolution of the temperature when the parameter controlling the energy injection is instantaneously changed while the system was relaxing. This can be considered as a nonequilibrium generalization of the Kovacs effect. It is shown that, in the low-density limit, the effect can be accurately described by using a simple kinetic theory based on the first Sonine approximation for the one-particle distribution function. Some possible experimental implications are indicated.

  19. The Effect Of Motivational And Relaxation Music On Aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of motivational and relaxation music on aerobic performance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and salivary cortisol (SC) concentration in trained men. Thirty male physical education college students (ages: 25.66±3.89 yr, height: 176.65±7.66 cm, weight: 78.45±16.20 kg, ...

  20. The effect of the Magnus force on skyrmion relaxation dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Barton L.; Täuber, Uwe C.; Pleimling, Michel

    2018-01-01

    We perform systematic Langevin molecular dynamics simulations of interacting skyrmions in thin films. The interplay between Magnus force, repulsive skyrmion-skyrmion interaction and thermal noise yields different regimes during non-equilibrium relaxation. In the noise-dominated regime the Magnus force enhances the disordering effects of the thermal noise. In the Magnus-force-dominated regime, the Magnus force cooperates with the skyrmion-skyrmion interaction to yield a dynamic regime with slo...

  1. Muscle relaxation for individuals having tattoos removed through laser treatment: possible effects regarding anxiety and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Faye; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Tien-Hsing; Chen, Ching; Hsieh, Yu-Lian; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Hung, Chi-Fa; Lin, Shu-Ching; Tsai, Hsiu-Huang; Wang, Liang-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Effectively managing pain is vital for the well-being and satisfaction of patients undergoing dermatologic treatments involving lasers. This study investigates the potential outcome of using muscle relaxation techniques to reduce pain among people having their tattoos removed with laser treatment. This study consists of 56 participants (mean age 18.1 ± 2.1 years) that had tattoos removed using the principle of selective photothermolysis. These participants underwent muscle relaxation before receiving the laser treatment. Their peripheral skin temperatures (PST) were measured both at the beginning and the end of the muscle relaxation period. Then, the Beck Anxiety Inventory was applied to evaluate anxiety levels. Once the laser treatment was completed, pain levels were measured using a visual analogue scale. A total of 125 person-sessions of laser treatment and psychometric assessments were performed in this study. The muscle relaxation method significantly increased the PST of the participants while reducing the levels of anxiety and pain throughout the course of the laser treatment procedure. The PST, anxiety scores, and pain scores all showed significant correlations with one another. According to the results obtained, this study proposes that muscle relaxation techniques be considered possibly auxiliary treatment options for individuals having tattoos removed through laser treatment. Additional studies with a comparison group and a larger sample size are required in the future to confirm the effectiveness of such intervention.

  2. Multiplied effect of heat and radiation in chemical stress relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masayuki

    1981-01-01

    About the deterioration of rubber due to radiation, useful knowledge can be obtained by the measurement of chemical stress relaxation. As an example, the rubber coating of cables in a reactor containment vessel is estimated to be irradiated by weak radiation at the temperature between 60 and 90 deg C for about 40 years. In such case, it is desirable to establish the method of accelerated test of the deterioration. The author showed previously that the law of time-dose rate conversion holds in the case of radiation. In this study, the chemical stress relaxation to rubber was measured by the simultaneous application of heat and radiation, and it was found that there was the multiplied effect of heat and radiation in the stress relaxation speed. Therefore the factor of multiplication of heat and radiation was proposed to describe quantitatively the degree of the multiplied effect. The chloroprene rubber used was offered by Hitachi Cable Co., Ltd. The experimental method and the results are reported. The multiplication of heat and radiation is not caused by the direct cut of molecular chains by radiation, instead, it is based on the temperature dependence of various reaction rates at which the activated species reached the cut of molecular chains through complex reaction mechanism and the temperature dependence of the diffusion rate of oxygen in rubber. (Kako, I.)

  3. The effects of some parameters on the calculated 1H NMR relaxation times of cell water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koivula, A.; Suominen, K.; Kiviniitty, K.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of some parameters on the longitudinal and transverse relaxation times is calculated and a comparison between the calculated relaxation times with the results of different measurements is made. (M.S.)

  4. Effect of the Magnus force on skyrmion relaxation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barton L.; Täuber, Uwe C.; Pleimling, Michel

    2018-01-01

    We perform systematic Langevin molecular dynamics simulations of interacting skyrmions in thin films. The interplay between the Magnus force, the repulsive skyrmion-skyrmion interaction, and the thermal noise yields different regimes during nonequilibrium relaxation. In the noise-dominated regime, the Magnus force enhances the disordering effects of the thermal noise. In the Magnus-force-dominated regime, the Magnus force cooperates with the skyrmion-skyrmion interaction to yield a dynamic regime with slow decaying correlations. These two regimes are characterized by different values of the aging exponent. In general, the Magnus force accelerates the approach to the steady state.

  5. Is it more effective group relaxation than individual to reduce anxiety in specific phobias?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Carretero Román

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation is a standard technique used by nurses to reduce the level of anxiety. It seems that their implementation on a group can bring certain benefits compared with individual relaxation. This outline is intended to raise this hypothesis in caring for individuals diagnosed with specific phobia, by approaching the problem from the cognitive behavioural therapy perspective. In addition, it seeks to evaluate the usefulness of the nurse intervention relaxation to reduce the level of anxiety, in turn comparing the results obtained using an indicator of the scale of results NOC and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. The phobia is a specific entity underdiagnosed, whose prevalence is about 10%. Those affected can live a really limited and debilitating, deteriorating quality of life. The community mental health nurses are in a unique position to participate in the cognitive behavioural therapy through relaxation, which will allow them to reduce the level of anxiety when people establish contact with the phobic stimulus. Methodology: quasi-experimental study in specific phobia diagnosed, 20 to 40 years old adults attending for the first time to the mental health facility derived from primary care. Both the control group as the pilot will be treated by conducted cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy individualized according to the therapeutic protocol MSC, except in terms of relaxation, which in the experimental group will be conducted at the group level. The effectiveness of treatment will be assessed with the Hamilton anxiety scale and the likert type scale of outcome indicators NOC "stress level" with 3 measurements, before starting, immediately after completing the sessions of relaxation and three months later, checking the decline in the average level of anxiety.

  6. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Fatigue and Quality of Life Among Iranian Aging Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hassanpour-Dehkordi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the elderly population is increasing rapidly in developing countries which may decrease the physical activity and exercise and in turn could affect the elderly’s quality of life, this study aimed to investigate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on the elderly’s quality of life in Iran. In a randomized clinical trial, participants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. For the intervention group, muscular progressive relaxation was run three days per week for three months (totally 36 sessions. In relaxation, a patient contract a group of his/her muscles in each step and relaxes them after five seconds and finally loosens all muscles and takes five deep breaths. Each session lasts for 45 minutes. The instrument of data gathering consisted of questionnaires on individual’s demographic data and quality of life SF-36. After intervention, quality of life increased significantly in the patients undergoing muscular progressive relaxation and fatigue severity decreased significantly in the intervention group compared to prior to intervention. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in mean score of physical performance, restricted activity after physical problem, energy, socially function, physical pain, overall hygiene, and quality of life between intervention and control groups. By implementing regular and continuous progressive muscle relaxation, quality of life could be increased in different dimensions in the elderly and the context could be provided to age healthily and enjoy higher health and autonomy. Therefore, all of the therapeutic staffs are recommended to implement this plan to promote the elderly’s quality of life.

  7. [Neurogenic communication disorders: how effective are relaxation therapy and acupuncture?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptok, M

    2008-12-01

    Not only neurologists but also ENT-physicians and phoniatricians have to prescribe speech and language therapy for patients with communication disorders. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has gained increasing popularity among patients. Many studies have investigated these procedures and positive effects on certain physical e. g., chronic pain and anxiety disorders could be validated. Unfortunately only few empirical investigations have targeted the use of CAM to treat neurogenic disorders of communication or cognition. In this review we provide an overview over general therapeutical principals of two widely used approaches, relaxation therapy and acupuncture. Then we survey the literature and summarize existent research literature regarding the effects of the treatment of neurogenic disorders including dementia.

  8. Structural relaxation dynamics and annealing effects of sodium silicate glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Mohamed; Piazza, Francesco; Guimbretière, Guillaume; Canizarès, Aurélien; Vaills, Yann

    2013-05-09

    Here we report high-precision measurements of structural relaxation dynamics in the glass transition range at the intermediate and short length scale for a strong sodium silicate glass during long annealing times. We evidence for the first time the heterogeneous dynamics at the intermediate range order by probing the acoustic longitudinal frequency in the GHz region by Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. Or, from in-situ Raman measurements, we show that relaxation is indeed homogeneous at the interatomic length scale. Our results show that the dynamics at the intermediate range order contains two distinct relaxation time scales, a fast and a slow component, differing by about a 10-fold factor below Tg and approaching to one another past the glass transition. The slow relaxation time agrees with the shear relaxation time, proving that Si-O bond breaking constitutes the primary control of structural relaxation at the intermediate range order.

  9. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    234-8034714355. 8034714355. 1. EFFECTS OF SULPHUR ADDITION ON. ADDITION ON. 2. AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES O. 3. 4. C. W. Onyia. 5. 1DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS. 6. 2, 4DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL ...

  10. Cooling-history effects on magnetic relaxation through quantum tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julio; Alonso, Juan

    2003-03-01

    Magnetic clusters, such as Fe8 and Mn_12, that make up the core of large organometallic molecules, behave at low temperatures as large single spins S. In crystals, magnetic anisotropy energies U inhibit magnetic relaxation of these spins, which can then proceed at very small temperatures (at k_BT tunneling (MQT). Magnetic dipolar interactions then play an essential role. We study how an Ising system of spins that interact through magnetic dipolar fields relaxes. A spin is allowed to flip, at rate Γ, only if the magnetic field h acting on it is within some tunnel window -hw < h< h_w. We let (1) this system be initially held for some time at some temperature Ta that is above both the long-range ordering temperature and T ˜ U/S, and (2) apply a magnetic field at t=0, inmediately after the system is quenched to T < 0.1U/S. This is somewhat as in the experiments of Wernsdorfer et al on Fe_8. The time evolution of the magnetiztion m and field distributions after the field is applied at t=0 is studied. For small applied fields H, m ˜= hw HF(Γ t). In addition, F(Γ t)˜= cΓ t for Γ t < 1 and F(Γ t)˜= cΓ t for 1 <Γ t < (h_d/h_w)^2, where hd is a nearest neighbor dipolar field. We will show how c depends on the cooling protocol. Finally, m saturates at m_s˜= 0.13\\varepsilon_aH.

  11. Relaxant effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of Ruta graveolens on isolated rat tracheal rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Águila

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ruta graveolens L. (R. graveolens is a medicinal plant employed in non-traditional medicines that has various therapeutic properties, including anthelmintic, and vasodilatory actions, among others. We evaluated the trachea-relaxant effects of hydroalcoholic extract of R. graveolens against potassium chloride (KCl- and carbachol-induced contraction of rat tracheal rings in an isolated organ bath. RESULTS: The results showed that the airway smooth muscle contraction induced by the depolarizing agent (KCl and cholinergic agonist (carbachol was markedly reduced by R. graveolens in a concentration-dependent manner, with maximum values of 109 ± 7.9 % and 118 ± 2.6 %, respectively (changes in tension expressed as positive percentages of change in proportion to maximum contraction, at the concentration of 45 μg/mL (half-maximal inhibitory concentration IC50: 35.5 μg/mL and 27.8 μg/mL for KCl- and carbachol-induced contraction, respectively. Additionally, the presence of R. graveolens produced rightward parallel displacement of carbachol dose-response curves and reduced over 35 % of the maximum smooth muscle contraction. CONCLUSIONS: The hydroalcoholic extract of R. graveolens exhibited relaxant activity on rat tracheal rings. The results suggest that the trachea-relaxant effect is mediated by a non-competitive antagonistic mechanism. More detailed studies are needed to identify the target of the inhibition, and to determine more precisely the pharmacological mechanisms involved in the observed biological effects.

  12. Effect of the initial stage of annealing on modeling of enthalpy relaxation in a hyperquenched glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yanfei; Guo, Xiaoju; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges in glass relaxation study is to establish a universal model describing the enthalpy relaxation in both the hyperquenched glass (HQG) (i.e., far from equilibrium) and the partially annealed hyperquenched glass(AHQG). In particular, the detailed features of the enthalpy ...... proposed composite relaxation function [L. Hornboell, et al., Chem. Phys. Lett. 1-3 (2010) 37] is a reasonable approach for describing those features. In addition, our modeling results imply that the structural heterogeneity plays a crucial role in relaxation of HQG....

  13. Effect of reorientation of anisotropic point defects on relaxation of crystal elastic coefficients of high order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topchyan, I.I.; Dokhner, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of reorientation of anisotropic point defects in uniform fields of elastic stresses on the relaxation of the elastic coefficients of a crystal was investigated in the nonlinear elasticity theory approximation. In calculating the interaction of point defects with elastic-stress fields was taken into consideration. The expression for the relaxations of the elasticity coefficients are obtained in an analytical form. The relaxation of the second-order elasticity coefficients is due to the dimentional interaction of a point defect with an applied-stress field, whereas the relaxation of the higher-order elasticity coefficients is determined both by dimentional and module effects

  14. Effects of thermal relaxation on an amorphous superconducting Zr--Rh alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drehman, A.J.; Johnson, W.L.

    1978-05-01

    The electronic and superconducting properties of an amorphous transition metal alloy are used to evaluate the effects of low temperature annealing. It is observed that the superconducting transition temperature and the electrical resistivity relax exponentially in time from their initial value to a final relaxed value. From this an activation energy for the relaxation process is derived and an explanation is suggested which involves internal stress

  15. Effects of relaxation on psychobiological wellbeing during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urech, Corinne; Fink, Nadine S; Hoesli, Irène; Wilhelm, Frank H; Bitzer, Johannes; Alder, Judith

    2010-10-01

    Prenatal maternal stress is associated with adverse birth outcomes and may be reduced by relaxation exercises. The aim of the present study was to compare the immediate effects of two active and one passive 10-min relaxation technique on perceived and physiological indicators of relaxation. 39 healthy pregnant women recruited at the outpatient department of the University Women's Hospital Basel participated in a randomized controlled trial with an experimental repeated measure design. Participants were assigned to one of two active relaxation techniques, progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) or guided imagery (GI), or a passive relaxation control condition. Self-reported relaxation on a visual analogue scale (VAS) and state anxiety (STAI-S), endocrine parameters indicating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis (cortisol and ACTH) and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) system activity (norepinephrine and epinephrine), as well as cardiovascular responses (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) were measured at four time points before and after the relaxation exercise. Between group differences showed, that compared to the PMR and control conditions, GI was significantly more effective in enhancing levels of relaxation and together with PMR, GI was associated with a significant decrease in heart rate. Within the groups, passive as well as active relaxation procedures were associated with a decline in endocrine measures except epinephrine. Taken together, these data indicate that different types of relaxation had differential effects on various psychological and biological stress systems. GI was especially effective in inducing self-reported relaxation in pregnant women while at the same time reducing cardiovascular activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparing the effects of relaxation technique and inhalation aromatherapy on fatigue in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Mohammadali; Kiani, Fatemeh; Bouya, Salehoddin; Zarei, Mohammad

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of relaxation techniques on fatigue in hemodialysis patients. This clinical trial study was conducted on 105 hemodialysis patients. The subjects were categorized into three groups as: relaxation, aromatherapy and control. In the relaxation group, Benson muscle relaxation techniques were employed; in the aromatherapy group, the inhalation of two drops of 5% lavender essential oil used and the control group only received regular healthcare actions. Data collected by using brief fatigue inventory, before and after the intervention. Results of the current study indicated significant differences in the mean of changes in fatigue scores before and after the intervention between the relaxation and aromatherapy groups, but the difference was insignificant in the control group. Aromatherapy with lavender essential oil can decrease the level of fatigue in the patients undergoing hemodialysis compared to Benson relaxation techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Load and speed effects on the cervical flexion relaxation phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Descarreaux Martin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flexion relaxation phenomenon (FRP represents a well-studied neuromuscular response that occurs in the lumbar and cervical spine. However, the cervical spine FRP has not been investigated extensively, and the speed of movement and loading effects remains to be characterized. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the influence of load and speed on cervical FRP electromyographic (EMG and kinematic parameters and to assess the measurement of cervical FRP kinematic and EMG parameter repeatability. Methods Eighteen healthy adults (6 women and 12 men, aged 20 to 39 years, participated in this study. They undertook 2 sessions in which they had to perform a standardized cervical flexion/extension movement in 3 phases: complete cervical flexion; the static period in complete cervical flexion; and extension with return to the initial position. Two different rhythm conditions and 3 different loading conditions were applied to assess load and speed effects. Kinematic and EMG data were collected, and dependent variables included angles corresponding to the onset and cessation of myoelectric silence as well as the root mean square (RMS values of EMG signals. Repeatability was examined in the first session and between the 2 sessions. Results Statistical analyses revealed a significant load effect (P Conclusions The load increase evoked augmented FRP onset and cessation angles as well as heightened muscle activation. Such increments may reflect the need to enhance spinal stability under loading conditions. The kinematic and EMG parameters showed promising repeatability. Further studies are needed to assess kinematic and EMG differences between healthy subjects and patients with neck pain.

  18. Effect of iodine impurity on relaxation of photoexcited silver chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vostrikova, Yu. V.; Klyuev, V. G.

    2008-01-01

    The time and temperature dependences of relaxation of excited AgCl and AgCl:I crystals is studied by the method of photostimulated flash of luminescence. The presence of iodine impurity in silver chloride gives rise to hole recombination (luminescence) centers and hole traps in the band gap. It is shown that the main contribution to the decrease in the concentration of electrons localized at deep traps is made by the recombination of electrons with holes released thermally from shallow localization levels (iodine-related centers). Estimation of activation energy for the relaxation process showed that these energies for the AgCl and AgCl:I samples under study are the same within the experimental error and are equal to E rel1 = 0.01 ± 0.0005 eV for the initial stage of relaxation and E rel2 = 0.09 ± 0.005 eV for the final state. This fact indicates that the majority of hole traps involved in the relaxation process in AgCl are related to iodine impurity. In the course of thermal relaxation in AgCl, relocalization of nonequilibrium charge carriers from shallow levels to deep levels is observed. The depth of the corresponding trap is E arl = 0.174 ± 0.03 eV.

  19. “Remain calm. Be kind”: Effects of relaxing video games on aggressive and prosocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whitaker, J.L.; Bushman, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Research shows that violent video games increase aggressive behavior and decrease prosocial behavior, but could relaxing video games have the opposite effects? In two experiments, participants were randomly assigned to play a relaxing, neutral, or prosocial video game for 20 min. In Experiment 1,

  20. Effects of a pain programme on nurses' psychosocial, physical and relaxation interventions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, A.L.; Luiken, J.B.; Garssen, B.; Huijer-Abu Saad, H.; Grypdonck, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effectiveness of a continuing education programme on pain assessment and management was investigated in 106 surgical cancer nurses. It was found that the programme led to a more positive attitude towards physical and relaxation interventions (such as the use of relaxation, distraction and

  1. Preparing Patients for Cancer Chemotherapy: Effect of Coping Preparation and Relaxation Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burish, Thomas G.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Sixty cancer chemotherapy patients were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: relaxation training with guided relaxation imagery (RT), general coping preparation (PREP), both RT and PREP, or routine clinic treatment only. Found that PREP intervention increased patients' knowledge of disease and treatment, reduced anticipatory side effects,…

  2. Effects of Color Light and Relaxation Exercise Therapy on Adults with Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustigan, Carol J.

    In a study at California State University, Sacramento, the effects of color light and relaxation exercise therapy were investigated with 16 students (ages 23 to 48) with learning disabilities. Therapy consisted of either 20 sessions viewing color light through a Lumatron instrument or 20 sessions listening to relaxation exercise tapes. Diagnostic…

  3. Tuning the probe location on zwitterionic micellar system with variation of pH and addition of surfactants with different alkyl chains: solvent and rotational relaxation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Chiranjib; Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Rao, Vishal Govind; Sarkar, Nilmoni

    2012-09-13

    In this manuscript, we have modulated the location of an anionic probe, Coumarin-343 (C-343) in a zwitterionic (N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethylammonio-1-propanesulfonate (SB-16)) micellar system by three different approaches. The effect of addition of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium octylsulfate (EmimOs) and N,N-dimethylethanol hexanoate (DAH), to the micellar solution has been studied. The effect of pH variation has been studied as well using solvent and rotational measurements. Migration of the anionic probe, C-343, from the palisade layer of SB-16 micelle to the bulk water has been observed to varying extents with the addition of SDS and EmimOs. The effect is much more pronounced in the presence of SDS and can be ascribed to the presence of the long alkyl (dodecyl) chain on SDS which can easily orient itself and fuse inside the SB-16 micelle and facilitate the observed migration of the probe molecule. This phenomenon is confirmed by faster solvation and rotational relaxation of the investigated probe molecule. The analogous fusion process is difficult in case of EmimOs and DAH because of their comparatively smaller alkyl (octyl and hexanoate) chain. However, the direction of C-343 migration is reversed with the decrease of pH of the SB-16 micellar medium. An increase in the average solvation and rotational relaxation time of the probe in acidic medium has been observed. Since experimental conditions are maintained such that the probe molecules and the zwitterionic SB-16 micelles remain oppositely charged, the observed results can be attributed to the increased electrostatic interaction (attractive) between them. Temperature dependent study also supports this finding.

  4. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of PCOS patients and their influence on the cardiovascular risk factors. ... and relaxation therapies may be recommended as an adjuvant therapy, to tilt the autonomic balance to .... The fall in systolic pressure was taken as the result of orthostatic tolerance test (OTT). ... period. Group B (control group) received treatment only.

  5. Hastelloy X fuel element creep relaxation and residual effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, R.A.

    1971-01-01

    A worst case, seven element, asymmetric fuel, thermal environment was assumed and a creep relaxation analysis generated. The fuel element clad is .020 inch Hastelloy X. The contact load decreased from 11.6 pounds to 5.87 pounds in 100,000 hours. The residual stresses were then computed for various shutdown times. (U.S.)

  6. Arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus by affecting transmembrane flow of calcium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhenying; Yin, Yongqiang; Wang, Zengyong; Fang, Runping; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Min; Bai, Gang; Luo, Guo'an

    2013-12-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan extract from Arctium lappa (L.), exhibits anti-inflammation, antioxidation, vasodilator effects, etc. However, the effects of arctigenin on bronchus relaxation are not well investigated. This study aimed to investigate how arctigenin regulates bronchus tone and calcium ion (Ca(2+)) flow. Trachea strips of guinea pigs were prepared for testing the relaxation effect of arctigenin to acetylcholine, histamine, KCl, and CaCl2, respectively. Furthermore, L-type calcium channel currents were detected by patch-clamp, and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration was detected by confocal microscopy. The results showed that arctigenin exhibited relaxation effect on tracheae to different constrictors, and this was related to decreasing cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration by inhibiting Ca(2+) influx partly through L-type calcium channel as well as promoting Ca(2+) efflux. In summary, this study provides new insight into the mechanisms by which arctigenin exhibits relaxation effect on bronchus and suggests its potential use for airway disease therapy.

  7. Relaxant effects of Ocimum basilicum on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic effects of Ocimum basilicum on respiratory diseases especially dyspnea have been reported in Iranian ancient medical books. In the present study, the relaxant effects of macerated and soxhlet extracts of this plant on tracheal chains of guinea pigs were evaluated. The relaxant effects of 4 cumulative concentrations of macerated and soxhlet extracts (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 W/V in comparison with saline as negative control and 4 cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mM as positive control were examined on precontracted tracheal chains of two groups of 6 guinea pig by 60 mM KCl (group 1 and 10 µM methacholine (group 2. Decrease in contractile tone of tracheal chains was considered as relaxant effect. In group 1 experiments only the last two higher concentrations of theophylline showed significant relaxant effect compared to that of saline (p<0.001 for both concentrations, which were significantly greater than those of macerated and soxhlet extracts (p<0.001 for all cases and in group 2 experiments both macerated and soxhlet extracts showed concentrationdependent relaxant effects compared to that of saline (p<0.05 to p<0.001 for both extracts. There were significant differences between the relaxant effects of both extracts with those of theophylline in group 2 experiments (p<0.01 to p<0.001. The relaxant effects of macerated and soxhlet extracts in group 1 were significantly lower than those of groups 2. These results showed a potent relaxant effect of Ocimum basilicum on tracheal chains of guinea pigs which were lower than theophylline at concentrations used.

  8. The Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery on gestational hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjkesh F

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertension is a common disorder in pregnancy. Although this disorder is accompanied by many difficulties in pregnancy, no effective therapy has still been found to treat it. One of the main methods in the treatment of hypertension is stress reducing programs such as relaxation and Guided Imagery. This study is aimed to evaluate the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on the gestational hypertension. Methods: The present study is a randomized clinical...

  9. Gas Adsorption in Novel Environments, Including Effects of Pore Relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, Milton W; Gatica, Silvina M; Kim, Hye-Young; Lueking, Angela D; Sircar, Sarmishtha

    2012-01-01

    Adsorption experiments have been interpreted frequently with simplified model geometries, such as ideally flat surfaces and slit or cylindrical pores. Recent explorations of unusual environments, such as fullerenes and metal-organic-framework materials, have led to a broadened scope of experimental, theoretical and simulation investigations. This paper reviews a number of such studies undertaken by our group. Among the topics receiving emphasis are these: universality of gas uptake in pores, relaxation of a porous absorbent due to gas uptake and the novel phases of gases on a single nanotube, all of which studies have been motivated by recent experiments.

  10. Effect of organo-clay on the dielectric relaxation response of silicone rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharavi, N; Razzaghi-Kashani, M; Golshan-Ebrahimi, N

    2010-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers are light weight, low-cost, highly deformable and fast response smart materials capable of converting electrical energy into mechanical work or vice versa. Silicone rubber is a well-known dielectric elastomer which is used as actuator, and in order to enhance the efficiency of this smart material, compounding of silicone rubber with various fillers can be carried out. The effect of organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT) nano-clay on improvement of dielectric properties, actuation stress and its relaxation response was considered in this study. OMMT was dispersed in room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber, and a composite film was cast. Using an in-house actuation set-up, it was shown that the actuation stress for a given electric field intensity is higher for composites than that for pristine silicone rubber. Also, the time-dependent actuation response of the samples was evaluated, and it was shown that the characteristic relaxation time of the actuation stress for composites is less than for the pristine rubber as a result of OMMT addition

  11. The effects of music relaxation and muscle relaxation techniques on sleep quality and emotional measures among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Haimov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, an anxiety disorder with lifetime prevalence of 7.8%, is characterized by symptoms that develop following exposure to traumatic life events and that cause an immediate experience of intense fear, helplessness or horror. PTSD is marked by recurrent nightmares typified by the recall of intrusive experiences and by extended disturbance throughout sleep. Individuals with PTSD respond poorly to drug treatments for insomnia. The disadvantages of drug treatment for insomnia underline the importance of non-pharmacological alternatives. Thus, the present study had three aims: first, to compare the efficiency of two relaxation techniques (muscular relaxation and progressive music relaxation in alleviating insomnia among individuals with PTSD using both objective and subjective measures of sleep quality; second, to examine whether these two techniques have different effects on psychological indicators of PTSD, such as depression and anxiety; and finally, to examine how initial PTSD symptom severity and baseline emotional measures are related to the efficiency of these two relaxation methods. Thirteen PTSD patients with no other major psychiatric or neurological disorders participated in the study. The study comprised one seven-day running-in, no-treatment period, followed by two seven-day experimental periods. The treatments constituted either music relaxation or muscle relaxation techniques at desired bedtime. These treatments were randomly assigned. During each of these three experimental periods, subjects’ sleep was continuously monitored with a wrist actigraph (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc., and subjects were asked to fill out several questionnaires concerned with a wide spectrum of issues, such as sleep, depression, and anxiety. Analyses revealed a significant increase in objective and subjective sleep efficiency and a significant reduction in depression level following music relaxation. Moreover, following music

  12. Effect of carrier relaxation lifetime on the performance of InAs/InP quantum-dash lasers

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2011-12-01

    The effect of carrier relaxation process into the quantum dash (Qdash) ground state (GS) is examined theoretically by carrier-photon rate equation model incorporating the inhomogeneous broadening. Increase in the relaxation time and the inhomogeneous broadening degrades the threshold current density. Moreover, our results show that a relaxation time of less than 2 ps gives optimum laser performance. © 2011 IEEE.

  13. Hypotensive effect and vascular relaxation in different arteries induced by the nitric oxide donor RuBPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Amanda de Carvalho; Araújo, Alice Valença; Paulo, Michele; Andrade, Fernanda Aparecida de; Silva, Bruno Rodrigues; Vercesi, Juliana Aparecida; da Silva, Roberto Santana; Bendhack, Lusiane Maria

    2017-01-30

    NO donors are compounds that release NO that can be used when the endogenous NO bioavailability is impaired. The compound cis-[Ru(bpy) 2 (py)(NO 2 )](PF 6 ) (RuBPY) is a nitrite-ruthenium, since it has a NO 2 in its molecule. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of RuBPY on arterial pressure, as well as on the vascular relaxation of different vascular arteries in renal hypertensive (2K-1C) and normotensive (2K) rats. We have evaluated the arterial pressure and heart rate changes as well as the RuBPY and SNP-induced relaxation (thoracic aorta, mesenteric resistance, coronary and basilar arteries). The administration of RuBPY in awake rats evoked a smaller but long lasting hypotensive effect when compared to SNP, with no increase in heart rate. The relaxation induced by RuBPY was similar between 2K-1C and 2K rats in thoracic aorta, mesenteric resistance and coronary arteries. However, the relaxation induced by RuBPY was smaller in basilar arteries from 2K-1C than in 2K. Taken together, our results show that RuBPY presents several advantages over SNP, since it does not induce hypotensive effect in normotensive animals, the hypotensive effect is slower, with no reflex tachycardia, and it is long lasting. In addition, RuBPY induces coronary artery relaxation (useful for angina) and presented only a small effect on basilar artery (may not induce headache). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The Effect of Relaxation and Positive Self-Talk on Symptoms of Premenstrual Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimiyaee Asadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Premenstrual syndrome (PMS is characterized by recurrent, moderate-to-severe affective, physical, and behavioral symptoms that develop during the luteal menstrual cycle and disappear within a few days of menstruation. Objectives This article aims to identify the effects of relaxation, positive self-talk, and a combination of relaxation and positive self-talk on premenstrual syndrome. Methods In this quasi-experimental study, 80 women with PMS disorder were selected using a simple random sampling method, in Hamadan, west of Iran. They were randomly divided into four groups. The first and second groups underwent positive self-talk and relaxation, respectively. The third group experienced positive self-talk and relaxation at the same time. The fourth group did not receive any treatment. The duration of treatment was 8 one-hour sessions. Data were collected using a PMS symptom severity questionnaire. All groups were followed up for six months after the intervention. Finally, data analysis was performed using SPSS version 18 for ANCOVA and Bonferroni tests. Results The results showed that compared to the control group, relaxation (23.2 and positive self-talk (21.25 treatment methods alone can reduce PMS (P < 0.001. On the other hand, a combined (relaxation + positive self-talk treatment method (13.75 was more effective in reducing PMS compared to relaxation or positive self-talk alone. Conclusions It seems that psychological therapy based on relaxation and positive self-talk can be significantly effective in reducing PMS.

  15. Effects of irradiation temperature on polarisation and relaxation characteristics of polymeric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornstein, Marcel; Dutz, Hartmut; Goertz, Stefan; Reeve, Scott; Runkel, Stefan [Physikalisches Institut, Bonn Univ. (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    To achieve significant enhancement of polarisation of solid target materials one must use the principles of dynamic nuclear polarisation and utilise the coupling of the nuclear and electron spins. The unpaired electrons needed can be created as paramagnetic structural defects by irradiation of the material. Polyethylene and polypropylene materials were irradiated at various temperatures and subsequently polarised with microwaves of approximately 70 GHz at temperatures around 1 K. Additionally the samples were investigated with respect to the nature of the created paramagnetic defects using a X-band EPR spectrometer. It was found that the irradiation temperature has a significant effect on the polarisation values achieved and also on the relaxation times of the materials in the 2.5 T magnetic field. The EPR line shape is clearly dominated by the well known alkyl radical structure.

  16. Isotope effect on hydrated electron relaxation dynamics studied with time-resolved liquid jet photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2016-05-01

    The excited state relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron in H2O and D2O are investigated using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy in a liquid microjet. The data show that the initial excited state decays on a time scale of 75 ± 12 fs in H2O and 102 ± 8 fs in D2O, followed by slower relaxation on time scales of 400 ± 70 fs and 390 ± 70 fs that are isotopically invariant within the precision of our measurements. Based on the time evolution of the transient signals, the faster and slower time constants are assigned to p → s internal conversion (IC) of the hydrated electron and relaxation on the ground electronic state, respectively. This assignment is consistent with the non-adiabatic mechanism for relaxation of the hydrated electron and yields an isotope effect of 1.4 ± 0.2 for IC of the hydrated electron.

  17. The Effect of Relaxation Interventions on Cortisol Levels in HIV-Sero-Positive Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah; Owens, Mary; Kumar, Mahendra; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, assessed in terms of cortisol levels, may enhance the ability of HIV to infect lymphocytes and downregulate the immune system, accelerating disease progression. This study sought to determine the effects of relaxation techniques on cortisol levels in HIV-sero-positive women. Methods Women (n = 150) were randomized to a group cognitive–behavioral stress management (CBSM) condition or an individual information condition and underwent 3 types of relaxation training (progressive muscle relaxation, imagery, and autogenic training). Cortisol levels were obtained pre- and postrelaxation. Results Guided imagery was effective in reducing cortisol in the group condition (t = 3.90, P < .001), and muscle relaxation reduced cortisol in the individual condition (t = 3.11, P = .012). Among participants in the group condition attending all sessions, the magnitude of pre- to postsession reduction became greater over time. Conclusions Results suggest that specific relaxation techniques may be partially responsible for cortisol decreases associated with relaxation and CBSM. PMID:23715264

  18. Memory effects in the relaxation of nonideal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonitz, M.; Kremp, D.; Scott, D.C.; Binder, R.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, nonequilibrium properties of many-particle systems have been quite successfully described on the basis of Markovian kinetic equations, such as the Landau, Boltzmann or Lenard-Balescu equation. However, these equations have to well-known principal defects: (1) they are applicable only to time-scales bigger than the correlation time τ cor and (2) they conserve only the kinetic energy but not the total energy of the system. The latter problem is important for strongly coupled systems, where the potential energy becomes comparable to the kinetic energy. Then, e.g. the equilibrium properties will be essentially determined by interaction effects. All thermodynamic quantities and transport coefficients will contain additional correlation contributions. These requirements make it necessary to consider generalized kinetic equations which conserve total energy like have been derived by Prigogine et al., Zubarev, Klimontovich and others. In this contribution we consider the proper non-Markovian generalization of the Boltzmann equation (binary collision approximation) and of the Landau equation (Born approximation). Many-particle effects, such as Pauli blocking, initial correlations, retardation (memory), energy broadening and self energy are included. The resulting generalized kinetic equations are discussed in detail. Important limiting cases, such as following from retardation or gradient expansions, are investigated

  19. Chemical exchange effects during refocusing pulses in constant-time CPMG relaxation dispersion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myint, Wazo; Ishima, Rieko

    2009-01-01

    In the analysis of the constant-time Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CT-CPMG) relaxation dispersion experiment, chemical exchange parameters, such as rate of exchange and population of the exchanging species, are typically optimized using equations that predict experimental relaxation rates recorded as a function of effective field strength. In this process, the effect of chemical exchange during the CPMG pulses is typically assumed to be the same as during the free-precession. This approximation may introduce systematic errors into the analysis of data because the number of CPMG pulses is incremented during the constant-time relaxation period, and the total pulse duration therefore varies as a function of the effective field strength. In order to estimate the size of such errors, we simulate the time-dependence of magnetization during the entire constant time period, explicitly taking into account the effect of the CPMG pulses on the spin relaxation rate. We show that in general the difference in the relaxation dispersion profile calculated using a practical pulse width from that calculated using an extremely short pulse width is small, but under certain circumstances can exceed 1 s -1 . The difference increases significantly when CPMG pulses are miscalibrated

  20. Effect of dislocations of forest on relaxation of mechanical stresses in irradiated zinc crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troitskij, O.A.; Kalymbetov, P.U.; Kusainov, S.G.; Shambulov, N.B.

    1988-01-01

    Effect of forest dislocations on the value of electron-plastic effect (EPE) in zinc crystals during their irradiation by accelerated electron packets is investigated. The following mechanical parameters are determined experimentally: total relaxation of voltages Δσ for 180s; change in reforming voltage Δσpl in single pulses of irradiation on the slope and bottom of relaxation curves. The results obtained testify to the effectiveness of forest dislocations as surmountable obstacles for the dislocations shiding in the basis plane

  1. Effects of distribution function nonequilibrium tails on relaxation and transfer processes in rarefied gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryev, Yu.N.; Mikhalitsyn, A.N.; Yanenko, N.N.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative characteristics of the nonmonotone relaxation process are studied in a gas of pseudo-Maxwell molecules. Basic results are obtained by a direct numerical integration of the nonlinear Boltzmann equation. The evolution of initial distributions being finite or having exponential asymptotics of tails was researched. In particular, initial data obtained by selective excitation (absorption) against the Maxwell background encountered in laser physics problems have been considered. It is shown that under conditions of a developed effect of nonmonotone relaxation the overpopulation in the velocity range 4 <= upsilon <= 10 exceeds on the average 2-3 times the equilibrium value. For the given particles energy the excitation is preserved during t = 5/6 and the total relaxation time of the overpopulation wave reaches t asymptotically equals 20. The amplitudes and the relaxation time of overpopulation in the ''cupola'' region of distribution are substantially lower than in the case of a developed effect in the tail. The influence of the effect on the kinetics of threshold chemical reaction is studied. From the results it follows that in the process of nonmonotone relaxation the mean rates of binary threshold reactions can exceed more than twice the equilibrium values. This estimate is valid for all power like intermolecular repulsive potentials from the pseudo-Maxwell model up to rigid spheres. Time intervals over which the mean reaction rate exceeds considerably the equilibrium one make from 5 to 15 mean free path times increasing with the decrease in the potential ''rigidity''. (author)

  2. Effect of guided relaxation and imagery on falls self-efficacy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bang Hyun; Newton, Roberta A; Sachs, Michael L; Glutting, Joseph J; Glanz, Karen

    2012-06-01

    To examine the effects of guided relaxation and imagery (GRI) on improvement in falls self-efficacy in older adults who report having a fear of falling. Randomized, controlled trial with allocation to GRI or guided relaxation with music of choice. General community. Ninety-one men and women aged 60 to 92. Participants were randomized to listen to a GRI audio compact disk (intervention group) or a guided relaxation audio compact disk and music of choice (control group) twice a week for 6 weeks for 10 minutes per session. Primary outcome measure was the Short Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). Secondary outcome measures were the Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) mobility test. GRI participants reported greater improvements on the Short FES-I (P = .002) and LTEQ (P = .001) scores and shorter time on the TUG (P = .002) than the guided relaxation and music-of-choice group. GRI was more effective at increasing falls self-efficacy and self-reported leisure time exercise and reducing times on a simple mobility test than was guided relaxation with music of choice. GRI is an effective, simple, low-cost tool for older adults to improve falls self-efficacy and leisure time exercise behaviors. © 2012, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2012, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. PPARα-Independent Arterial Smooth Muscle Relaxant Effects of PPARα Agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerupma Silswal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine direct vascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα agonists using isolated mouse aortas and middle cerebral arteries (MCAs. The PPARα agonists GW7647, WY14643, and gemfibrozil acutely relaxed aortas held under isometric tension and dilated pressurized MCAs with the following order of potency: GW7647≫WY14643>gemfibrozil. Responses were endothelium-independent, and the use of PPARα deficient mice demonstrated that responses were also PPARα-independent. Pretreating arteries with high extracellular K+ attenuated PPARα agonist-mediated relaxations in the aorta, but not in the MCA. In the aorta, the ATP sensitive potassium (KATP channel blocker glibenclamide also impaired relaxations whereas the other K+ channel inhibitors, 4-aminopyridine and Iberiotoxin, had no effect. In aortas, GW7647 and WY14643 elevated cGMP levels by stimulating soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC, and inhibition of sGC with ODQ blunted relaxations to PPARα agonists. In the MCA, dilations were inhibited by the protein kinase C (PKC activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, and also by ODQ. Our results demonstrated acute, nonreceptor-mediated relaxant effects of PPARα agonists on smooth muscle of mouse arteries. Responses to PPARα agonists in the aorta involved KATP channels and sGC, whereas in the MCA the PKC and sGC pathways also appeared to contribute to the response.

  4. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    on the microstructure and mechanical properties of sand cast been investigated ... owed that the addition of sulphur to Al-12wt%Si alloy. 12wt%Si alloy .... 28 materials. 29. Element. Aluminum. Silicon. Al. Si. Ca. Fe. Cu. Zn. Mn. Mg. Cr. B. 99.71.

  5. Non-linear effects in the Snoek relaxation of Nb-O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermida, E.B.; Povolo, F.

    1996-01-01

    Internal friction peaks measured as a function of temperature or frequency have been associated to non-linear processes only after studying how the amplitude of the applied stress affects the relaxation process. Here it is demonstrated that the partial derivative of the internal friction with respect to the frequency at constant temperature is a useful tool to determine that non-linear effects are involved. This analysis applied to actual data of the Snoek relaxation in Nb-O, reveals that at high interstitial contents non-linear effects appear. (orig.)

  6. Load dependence of left ventricular contraction and relaxation. Effects of caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite-Moreira, A F; Correia-Pinto, J; Gillebert, T C

    1999-08-01

    Load dependence of left ventricular (LV) contraction and relaxation was investigated at baseline and after alteration of intracellular calcium handling by caffeine. Afterload was increased by aortic clamp occlusions (n = 281) in anesthetized open-chest dogs (n = 7). Control and first heartbeat after the intervention were considered for analysis. Caffeine (50 mg/kg, iv) had no inotropic effect. The systolic LV pressure (LVP), developed in response to aortic occlusion, decreased as ejection proceeded and this pressure generating capacity was not affected by caffeine. Late-systolic aortic occlusions induced premature onset and accelerated rate of initial LVP fall at baseline and similarly after caffeine. Graded diastolic aortic occlusions induced systolic LVP elevations of various magnitudes. Smaller LVP elevations prolonged ejection and accelerated LVP fall, while larger elevations had opposite effects. The transition from acceleration to deceleration was observed at 83.1 +/- 1.1% of peak isovolumetric LVP at baseline and at lower loads, at 77.6 +/- 1.2%, after caffeine (p caffeine (p dependence of relaxation, was also modified by caffeine. Caffeine affected LV relaxation without altering contractility. As a consequence contraction-relaxation coupling was modified by caffeine. These results might help to understand load dependence of relaxation in conditions where intracellular calcium handling is altered.

  7. Effect of holographic grating period on its relaxation in a molecular glassy film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozols, A; Augustovs, P; Kokars, V; Traskovskis, K; Saharov, D

    2013-01-01

    Holographic grating (HG) relaxation has been experimentally studied in 5,5,5-triphenylpentyl 4-((4-(bis(5,5,5-triphenylpentyl)amino) phenyl) diazenyl) benzoate molecular glassy film for HG periods (Λ) of 0.50, 2.0 and 8.6 μm. A strong effect of HG period on its relaxation is found manifesting itself differently in the volume and on the surface. The volume part of HG is fairly stable during 40 days if Λ > 0.50μm whereas the surface part of HG (most probably, surface relief grating) exhibits relaxational self-enhancement which is maximal at Λ = 8.6μm. It is proposed that thermostimulated directional mass transfer in the process of relaxation can be responsible for this relaxational self-enhancement. Weak HG recording and relatively fast HG decay takes place at Λ=0.50 μm. Therefore, effective chromophore photoorientation domain of about 0.2 μm is supposed

  8. The structural relaxation effect on the nanomechanical properties of a Ti-based bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yongjiang, E-mail: yjhuang@hit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Systems and Micro-Structures Manufacturing, Harbin Institute of Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhou, Binjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chiu, YuLung, E-mail: y.chiu@bham.ac.uk [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Fan, Hongbo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Dongjun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Key Laboratory of Micro-Systems and Micro-Structures Manufacturing, Harbin Institute of Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin 150001 (China); Sun, Jianfei; Shen, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • The effect of structural relaxation on the nano-mechanical behaviors of BMGs is studied. • The indent load at first pop-in event, the hardness and Young’s modulus are enhanced after annealing. • The differences in nanomechanical properties can be attributed to their different atomic structure. - Abstract: Indentation experiments were performed on the as-cast and the annealed Ti-based bulk metallic glass samples to investigate the effect of structural relaxation on the nanomechanical behaviors of the material. The onset of pop-in event, Young’s modulus, and hardness were found to be sensitive to the structural relaxation of the testing material. The difference in nanomechanical properties between the as-cast and annealed BMG samples is interpreted in terms of free volume theory.

  9. The structural relaxation effect on the nanomechanical properties of a Ti-based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yongjiang; Zhou, Binjun; Chiu, YuLung; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Dongjun; Sun, Jianfei; Shen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of structural relaxation on the nano-mechanical behaviors of BMGs is studied. • The indent load at first pop-in event, the hardness and Young’s modulus are enhanced after annealing. • The differences in nanomechanical properties can be attributed to their different atomic structure. - Abstract: Indentation experiments were performed on the as-cast and the annealed Ti-based bulk metallic glass samples to investigate the effect of structural relaxation on the nanomechanical behaviors of the material. The onset of pop-in event, Young’s modulus, and hardness were found to be sensitive to the structural relaxation of the testing material. The difference in nanomechanical properties between the as-cast and annealed BMG samples is interpreted in terms of free volume theory

  10. The effects of bone on proton NMR relaxation times of surrounding liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C. A.; Genant, H. K.; Dunham, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary attempts by our group at UCSF to assess fat content of vertebral marrow in the lumbar spine using relaxation time information demonstrated that the presence of trabecular bone affects relaxation times. The objective of this work was a thorough study of the effects of bone on NMR relaxation characteristics of surrounding liquids. Trabecular bone from autopsy specimens was ground up and sifted into a series of powders with graded densities ranging from 0.3 gm/cc to 0.8 gm/cc. Each powder was placed first in n-saline and then in cottonseed oil. With spectroscopy, spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) and effective spin-spin relaxation times (T2*) were measured for each liquid in each bone powder. As bone density and surface to volume ratio increased, T1 decreased faster for saline than for oil. T2* decreased significantly for both water and oil as the surface to volume ratio increased. It was concluded that effects of water on T1 could be explained by a surface interaction at the bone/liquid interface, which restricted rotational and translational motion of nearby molecules. The T1s of oil were not affected since oil molecules are nonpolar, do not participate in significant intermolecular hydrogen bonding, and therefore would not be expected to interact strongly with the bone surface. Effects on T2* could be explained by local magnetic field inhomogeneities created by discontinuous magnetic susceptibility near the bone surface. These preliminary results suggest that water in contact with trabecular bone in vivo will exhibit shortened relaxation times.

  11. Effect of a muscle relaxant, chlorphenesin carbamate, on the spinal neurons of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurachi, M; Aihara, H

    1984-09-01

    The effects of chlorphenesin carbamate (CPC) and mephenesin on spinal neurons were investigated in spinal rats. CPC (50 mg/kg i.v.) inhibited the mono-(MSR) and poly-synaptic reflex (PSR), the latter being more susceptible than the former to CPC depression. Mephenesin also inhibited MSR and PSR, though the effects were short in duration. CPC had no effect on the dorsal root potential evoked by the stimulation of the dorsal root, while mephenesin reduced the dorsal root-dorsal root reflex. The excitability of motoneuron was reduced by the administration of CPC or mephenesin. The excitability of primary afferent terminal was unchanged by CPC, while it was inhibited by mephenesin. Neither CPC nor mephenesin influenced the field potential evoked by the dorsal root stimulation. Both CPC and mephenesin had no effect on the synaptic recovery. These results suggest that both CPC and mephenesin inhibit the firing of motoneurons by stabilizing the neuronal membrane, while mephenesin additionally suppresses the dorsal root reflex and the excitability of the primary afferent terminal. These inhibitory actions of CPC on spinal activities may contribute, at least partly, to its muscle relaxing action.

  12. Airway Relaxation Effects of Water-Soluble Sclerotial Extract From Lignosus rhinocerotis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Kee Lee

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Lignosus rhinocerotis has a long history of use by the indigenous community within East Asia to treat a range of health conditions including asthma and chronic cough. To date, there is limited scientific evidence to support its therapeutic effects in relieving these airways conditions. In this study, we examined the effects of the different molecular weight fractions [high-molecular-weight (HMW, medium-molecular-weight (MMW, and low-molecular-weight (LMW] obtained from the cold water sclerotial extract (CWE of L. rhinocerotis on airways patency using airway segments isolated from Sprague Dawley rat in an organ bath set-up. It is demonstrated that the HMW and MMW fractions exhibited higher efficacy in relaxing the pre-contracted airways when compared to the CWE and LMW fraction. In addition, the HMW fraction markedly supressed carbachol-, 5-hydroxytrptamine-, and calcium-induced airway contractions. CWE demonstrated a lower efficacy than the HMW fraction but it also significantly attenuated carbachol- and calcium-induced airway contractions. Results showed that the bronchorelaxation effect of CWE and fractions is mediated via blockade of extracellular Ca2+ influx. The composition analysis revealed the following parts of carbohydrate and proteins, respectively: HMW fraction: 71 and 4%; MMW fraction: 35 and 1%; and LMW fraction: 22 and 0.3%. Our results strongly suggest that the polysaccharide–protein complex or proteins found in the HMW and MMW fractions is likely to contribute to the bronchorelaxation effect of CWE.

  13. Effect of relaxation on working memory and the Bispectral Index of the EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudetz, Judith A; Hudetz, Anthony G; Reddy, Diane M

    2004-08-01

    Beneficial effects of relaxation on cardiovascular and immune functions and on memory has been implied but an empirical relationship between task performance and anxiety reduction has not been reported. In this study, we investigated whether guided imagery of relatively short duration would decrease S-Anxiety and electroencephalogram Bispectral Index and improve working memory. 42 participants (age: M=39, SD=11, 14 men, 28 women, university students and VA Medical Center employees, recruited by their professor or by fellow employees) underwent relaxation by 16-min. guided imagery or no treatment (control). Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the WAIS-III Letter-Number Sequencing Test were administered before and after relaxation. S-Anxiety and BIS Index decreased and the Letter-Number test score increased by 30% after relaxation but not in the control group. This score was higher for participants with low anxiety and BIS Index. There was no significant difference between the groups before treatment. The results suggest that guided imagery of short duration produces relaxation as measured by psychological and neurophysiological indices and improves working memory performance.

  14. An investigation into the effects of pore connectivity on T2 NMR relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghomeshi, Shahin; Kryuchkov, Sergey; Kantzas, Apostolos

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful technique used to characterize fluids and flow in porous media. The NMR relaxation curves are closely related to pore geometry, and the inversion of the NMR relaxometry data is known to give useful information with regards to pore size distribution (PSD) through the relative amplitudes of the fluids stored in the small and large pores. While this information is crucial, the main challenge for the successful use of the NMR measurements is the proper interpretation of the measured signals. Natural porous media patterns consist of complex pore structures with many interconnected or "coupled" regions, as well as isolated pores. This connectivity along the throats changes the relaxation distribution and in order to properly interpret this data, a thorough understanding of the effects of pore connectivity on the NMR relaxation distribution is warranted. In this paper we address two main points. The first pertains to the fact that there is a discrepancy between the relaxation distribution obtained from experiments, and the ones obtained from solving the mathematical models of diffusion process in the digitized images of the pore space. There are several reasons that may attribute to this such as the lack of a proper incorporation of surface roughness into the model. However, here we are more interested in the effects of pore connectivity and to understand why the typical NMR relaxation distribution obtained from experiments are wider, while the numerical simulations predict that a wider NMR relaxation distribution may indicate poor connectivity. Secondly, by not taking into account the pore coupling effects, from our experience in interpreting the data, we tend to underestimate the pore volume of small pores and overestimate the amplitudes in the large pores. The role of pore coupling becomes even more prominent in rocks with small pore sizes such as for example in shales, clay in sandstones, and in the microstructures of

  15. [Effect of biochar addition on soil evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Niu, Wen Quan; Zhang, Ming Zhi; Li, Yuan; Lyu, Wang; Li, Kang-Yong; Zou, Xiao-Yang; Liang, Bo-Hui

    2016-11-18

    In order to determine the rational amount of biochar application and its effect on soil hydrological processes in arid area, soil column experiments were conducted in the laboratory using three biochar additions (5%, 10% and 15%) and four different biochar types (devaporation. The results showed that the addition of biochar could change the phreatic water recharge, soil water-holding capacity, capillary water upward movement and soil evaporation obviously. But the effects were different depending on the type of biochar raw material and the size of particle. The phreatic water recharge increased with the increasing amount of biochar addition. The addition of biochar could obviously enlarge the soil water-holding capacity and promote the capillary water upward movement rate. This effect was greater when using the material of bamboo charcoal compared with using wood charcoal, while biochar with small particle size had greater impact than that with big particle size. The biochar could effectively restrain the soil evaporation at a low addition amount (5%). But it definitely promoted the soil evaporation if the addition amount was very high. In arid area, biochar addition in appropriate amount could improve soil water retention capacity.

  16. Effect of substrate rotation on domain structure and magnetic relaxation in magnetic antidot lattice arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, Sougata; Mallik, Srijani; Bedanta, Subhankar

    2015-01-01

    Microdimensional triangular magnetic antidot lattice arrays were prepared by varying the speed of substrate rotation. The pre-deposition patterning has been performed using photolithography technique followed by a post-deposition lift-off. Surface morphology taken by atomic force microscopy depicted that the growth mechanism of the grains changes from chain like formation to island structures due to the substrate rotation. Study of magnetization reversal via magneto optic Kerr effect based microscopy revealed reduction of uniaxial anisotropy and increase in domain size with substrate rotation. The relaxation measured under constant magnetic field becomes faster with rotation of the substrate during deposition. The nature of relaxation for the non-rotating sample can be described by a double exponential decay. However, the relaxation for the sample with substrate rotation is well described either by a double exponential or a Fatuzzo-Labrune like single exponential decay, which increases in applied field

  17. Effects of zoxazolamine and related centrally acting muscle relaxants on nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, R T; McMillen, B A; Speciale, S G; Jarrah, H; Shore, P A; Sanghera, M K; Shepard, P D; German, D C

    1984-05-01

    The effects of zoxazolamine (ZOX) and related centrally acting muscle relaxants on striatal dopamine (DA) metabolism and turnover, and substantia nigra zona compacta DA neuronal impulse flow were studied in rats. ZOX, chlorzoxazone and mephenesin, but not meprobamate, chloral hydrate, diazepam, pentobarbital, ethanol or dantrolene, decreased striatal DA metabolism without affecting striatal DA concentrations. More specifically, ZOX, as a representative muscle relaxant, was shown to decrease striatal DA turnover without directly affecting DA synthesis, catabolism, reuptake, or release. ZOX decreased nigral DA neuronal firing rates and dramatically decreased firing rate variability (normally many of the cells fire with bursting firing patterns but after ZOX the cells often fired with a very regular pacemaker-like firing pattern). ZOX and related centrally acting muscle relaxants appear to decrease striatal DA turnover by decreasing both neuronal firing rate and firing rate variability. The possible relationships between DA neuronal activity and muscle tone are discussed.

  18. Stimulating and relaxing effect of apperception music in the context of martial arts

    OpenAIRE

    ŠPIČKA, Roman

    2013-01-01

    The work deals with the influence of music on mental and physical manifestations of a personality in the practice of the Taekwon-Do. The theoretical part describes the history and the present of the Taekwon-Do, the basic structure of the music therapy and various effects of music, Taekwon-Do exercises and a relaxation. The practical part compares four groups of probands who practiced or relaxed listening to a music or without any music. My research was focused on the emotional level and the h...

  19. Hysteresis in magnetic materials: the role of structural disorder, thermal relaxation, and dynamic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertotti, G.; Basso, V.; Beatrice, C.; LoBue, M.; Magni, A.; Tiberto, P.

    2001-01-01

    An overview is given of the present understanding of hysteresis phenomena in magnetic materials. The problem is addressed from three approximate viewpoints: the connection between rate-independent hysteresis and micromagnetics; the modifications brought into this picture by thermal relaxation effects; the role of rate-dependent magnetization mechanisms, like eddy-current-damped domain wall motion

  20. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on Social Performance and Quality of Life in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hassanpour Dehkordi

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed that the progressive muscle relaxation technique can effectively reduce the duration of rehabilitation, days of hospitalization and healthcare costs, as well as improve the quality of life, mood, and mental health in the elderly people.

  1. Criteria for accurate determination of the magnon relaxation length from the nonlocal spin Seebeck effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shan, Juan; Cornelissen, Ludo Johannes; Liu, Jing; Ben Youssef, J.; Liang, Lei; van Wees, Bart

    2017-01-01

    The nonlocal transport of thermally generated magnons not only unveils the underlying mechanism of the spin Seebeck effect, but also allows for the extraction of the magnon relaxation length (λm) in a magnetic material, the average distance over which thermal magnons can propagate. In this study, we

  2. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation techniques on anxiety in Patients with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Jariani

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: progressive muscle relaxation can reduce the amount of anxiety, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the patients with myocardial infarction hospitalized in CCU ward, therefore it can play an effective role as a supplement non-medicinal, simple and cheap treatment for these patients

  3. The Relaxant Effect of Seed's Essential Oil and Oleo‑gum‑resin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kenchu‑to on spontaneous activity in the mouse small intestine. J Smooth Muscle Res. 2006;42:189‑201. 17. Gholamnezhad Z, Byrami G, Boskabady MH, Iranshahi M. Possible mechanism (s) of the relaxant effect of asafoetida. (Ferula assa‑foetida) ...

  4. Effect of the growth conditions on the anisotropy, domain structures and the relaxation in Co thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallik, Srijani; Mallick, Sougata; Bedanta, Subhankar, E-mail: sbedanta@niser.ac.in

    2017-04-15

    We report a systematic study on the anisotropy symmetry, magnetic domains and magnetic relaxation behavior in Co thin films deposited on MgO (001) substrate by varying (i) the pre-annealing condition and (ii) the speed of substrate rotation during deposition. Substrate annealing prior to deposition leads to the formation of textured thin films. On contrary Co films prepared without substrate pre-annealing exhibit polycrystalline nature. Surface topography imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) depicts a profound effect of growth condition on grain size and its distribution. Magnetic hysteresis measurement along with simultaneous domain imaging has been performed by magneto optic Kerr effect (MOKE) based microscope by varying the angle (ϕ) between the easy axis and the direction of applied magnetic field. We observed the existence of cubic and uniaxial anisotropy due to the presence of substrate annealing and oblique angular deposition, respectively. Along the easy axis, magnetization reversal is governed by 180° domain wall motion via branched domains. However, for easy axis<ϕaddition to branched domains during the reversal process. We observed that the magnetic relaxation behavior under constant magnetic field strongly depends on the size and distribution of the grains. - Highlights: • This article provides a systematic study of textured growth of Co on MgO(001) substrate. • The structure has clear implication on the magnetic properties. • The magnetic relaxation has been studied for both textured and polycrystalline films.

  5. Relaxant effect of Lagenaria breviflora Roberty fruit pulp and seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lagenaria breviflora roberty is used in West Africa as traditional remedy for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, particularly diarrhoea. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of the pulp and seed extract of L. breviflora on the contractile activity of isolated rabbit ileum. Rabbits of both sexes were used for the study ...

  6. Effect of estradiol and oxytocin on ovine cervical relaxation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-07

    Feb 7, 2012 ... The aim of this study was to examine the effect of estradiol (E2) and oxytocin ... Artificial insemination (AI) is a good way for the use of superior rams in reproduction but the conception rates in ... successful in sheep industry because it is costly, time .... during luteolysis and its abrogation in early pregnancy.

  7. Relaxant effect of Enantia clorantha on the gastrointestinal smooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aqueous boiled and evaporated extract of Enantia chlorantha (0.8 and 1.5g kg-1) were studied on certain functions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) vis-a-vis, gastrointestinal fluid accumulation and motility as well as castor oil induced diarrhoea, using adult rats and mice that have been starved 14-20h prior to ...

  8. The Effect of Relaxation Training on Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression in Patients with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Demiralp

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation training on anxiety and depression in Turkish women with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. METHOD: Data were collected between March 2005–2006. The sample of the study consisted of 27 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients who had planned to be cured with adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients who met these study criteria were accepted to the research programme and assigned to one of two groups, either progressive muscle relaxation (PMR group (n = 14 or control (n = 13 group sequentially. The effect of the progressive muscle relaxation training was measured at different stages of the treatment. A data collection form and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to collect the data. In our research, for statistical analysis of data, parametric and nonparametric tests were used according to data range. Values of p0.05. CONCLUSION: Consequently, it was determined that relaxation exercises have no any significant effect on the symptoms of anxiety and depression alone. Based upon these results it was suggested that anxiety and depression symptoms must be assessed again by using different intervention modalities with different research designs and instruments. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 165-174

  9. Disentangling distribution effects and nature of the dynamics in relaxation measurements: the RMR method

    CERN Document Server

    Sappey, R; Ocio, M; Hammann, J

    2000-01-01

    We discuss here the nature of the low-temperature magnetic relaxation in samples of magnetic nanoparticles. In addition to usual magnetic viscosity measurement, we have used the residual memory ratio (RMR) method. This procedure enables us to overcome the uncertainties usually associated with the energy barrier distribution, thus giving a more detailed insight on the nature of the observed dynamics. A custom-made apparatus coupling dilution refrigeration and SQUID magnetometry allowed measurements of very diluted samples at temperatures ranging between 60 mK and 7 K. Two types of particles have been studied: gamma-Fe sub 2 O sub 3 of moderate anisotropy, and CoFe sub 2 O sub 4 of higher anisotropy where quantum effects are more likely to occur. In both cases, the data cannot simply be interpreted in terms of mere thermally activated dynamics of independent particles. The deviation from thermal activation seems to go opposite of what is expected from the possible effect of particle interactions. We therefore b...

  10. Additive effects in radiation grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viengkhou, V.; Ng, L.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Detailed studies on the accelerative effect of novel additives in radiation grafting and curing using acrylated monomer/oligomer systems have been performed in the presence of ionising radiation and UV as sources. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is used as typical monomer for these grafting studies in the presence of the additives with model backbone polymers, cellulose and propropylene. Additives which have been found to accelerate these grafting processes are: mineral acid, occlusion compounds like urea, thermal initiators and photoinitiators as well as multifunctional monomers such as multifunctional acrylates. The results from irradiation with gamma rays have also been compared with irradiation from a 90W UV lamp. The role of the above additives in accelerating the analogous process of radiation curing has been investigated. Acrylated urethanes, epoxies and polyesters are used as oligomers together with acrylated monomers in this work with uv lamps of 300 watts/inch as radiation source. In the UV curing process bonding between film and substrate is usually due to physical forces. In the present work the presence of additives are shown to influence the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure thus affecting the nature of the bonding of the cured film. The conditions under which concurrent grafting with UV can occur will be examined. A mechanism for accelerative effect of these additives in both grafting and curing processes has been proposed involving radiation effects and partitioning phenomena

  11. Relaxation and cross section effects in valence band photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFeely, F.R.

    1976-09-01

    Various problems relating to the interpretation of valence band x-ray photoemission (XPS) spectra of solids are discussed. The experiments and calculations reported herein deal with the following questions: (1) To what extent do many-body effects manifest themselves in an XPS valence band spectrum, and thus invalidate a direct comparison between the photoemission energy distribution, I(E), and the density of states, N(E), calculated on the basis of ground-state one-electron theory. (2) The effect of the binding-energy-dependent photoemission cross section on I(E) at XPS energies. (3) In favorable cases indicated by (1) and (2) we examine the effect of the interaction of the crystal field with the apparent spin-orbit splittings of core levels observed in XPS spectra. (4) The use of tight binding band structure calculations to parameterize the electronic band structure from XPS and other data is described. (5) The use of high energy angle-resolved photoemission on oriented single crystals to gain orbital symmetry information is discussed. (6) The evolution of the shape of the photoemission energy distribution (of polycrystalline Cu) as a function of photon energy from 50 less than or equal h ω less than or equal 175 is discussed

  12. Non-additive Effects in Genomic Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Varona

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, genomic selection has become a standard in the genetic evaluation of livestock populations. However, most procedures for the implementation of genomic selection only consider the additive effects associated with SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers used to calculate the prediction of the breeding values of candidates for selection. Nevertheless, the availability of estimates of non-additive effects is of interest because: (i they contribute to an increase in the accuracy of the prediction of breeding values and the genetic response; (ii they allow the definition of mate allocation procedures between candidates for selection; and (iii they can be used to enhance non-additive genetic variation through the definition of appropriate crossbreeding or purebred breeding schemes. This study presents a review of methods for the incorporation of non-additive genetic effects into genomic selection procedures and their potential applications in the prediction of future performance, mate allocation, crossbreeding, and purebred selection. The work concludes with a brief outline of some ideas for future lines of that may help the standard inclusion of non-additive effects in genomic selection.

  13. Relaxation of photodielectric effect in Pb3O4 layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avanesyan, V. T.; Baranova, E. P.

    2007-01-01

    Experimental data on the kinetics of the photodielectric effect in layers of red lead (Pb 3 O 4 ) are reported. The photocapacitive properties and dielectric loss under photoexcitation have been studied with the spectral composition of light varied at low frequencies of the measuring field. The dielectric parameters attain steady values long after light is switched on (off). The relationship of the photodielectric phenomena with structural features of the semiconductor and, in particular, with the presence of lone pair electrons of Pb 2+ cations is discussed

  14. Ex vivo relaxation effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on rabbit corpus cavernosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kai; Zhao, Chen; Chen, Xiang-Feng; Kim, Hye-Kyung; Choi, Bo-Ram; Huang, Yi-Ran; Park, Jong-Kwan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cuscuta chinensis extract on the rabbit penile corpus cavernosum (PCC) was evaluated in the present study. Penises obtained from healthy male New Zealand white rabbits (2.5-3.0 kg) were precontracted with phenylephrine (Phe, 10 µmol l(-1)) and then treated with various concentrations of Cuscuta chinensis extract (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg ml(-1)). The change in penile tension was recorded, and cyclic nucleotides in the PCC were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The interaction between Cuscuta chinensis and sildenafil was also evaluated. The result indicated that the PCC relaxation induced by Cuscuta chinensis extract was concentration-dependent. Pre-treatment with an nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor (Nω nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester, L-NAME), a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor (1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one, ODQ), or a protein kinase A inhibitor (KT 5720) did not completely inhibit the relaxation. Incubation of penile cavernous tissue with the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the PCC. Moreover, the Cuscuta chinensis extract significantly enhanced sildenafil-induced PCC relaxation. In conclusion, the Cuscuta chinensis extract exerts a relaxing effect on penile cavernous tissue in part by activating the NO-cGMP pathway, and it may improve erectile dysfunction (ED), which does not completely respond to sildenafil citrate.

  15. Is cognitive behavioral therapy more effective than relaxation therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders? A meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montero Marin, J.; Garcia-Campayo, J.; López-Montoyo, A.; Zabaleta-del-Olmo, E.; Cuijpers, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background It is not clear whether relaxation therapies are more or less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of anxiety. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of relaxation techniques compared to cognitive and behavioural therapies in reducing

  16. Quantum effects on the temperature relaxation in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Kazuo; Aono, Osamu.

    1979-03-01

    This work was carried out under the collaborating Research Program at Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University. Further communication about this report is to be sent to the Research Information Center, Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464, Japan. The rate of equilibration of difference between the ion and electron temperatures is obtained on the basis of the unified theory, in which the collective and binary interactions are both treated properly. The electrons obey the Fermi distribution of arbitrary degeneracy. The rate decreases owing to the degeneracy. Even in the nondegenerated case, the quantum effect appeares in the argument of the Coulomb logarithm. When the de Broglie wave length of the electron is much longer than the radius of close collision, the results agree with those obtained on the Born approximation. In the opposite limit, the classical theory applies. For other cases, graphical examples are given. (author)

  17. Substituent effects on the relaxation dynamics of furan, furfural and β-furfural: a combined theoretical and experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterling, Sven; Schalk, Oliver; Geng, Ting; Thomas, Richard D; Hansson, Tony; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2017-01-18

    For the series furan, furfural and β-furfural we investigated the effect of substituents and their positioning on the photoinduced relaxation dynamics in a combined theoretical and experimental approach. Using time resolved photoelectron spectroscopy with a high intensity probe pulse, we can, for the first time, follow the whole deactivation process of furan through a two photon probe signal. Using the extended 2-electron 2-orbital model [Nenov et al., J. Chem. Phys., 2011, 135, 034304] we explain the formation of one central conical intersection and predict the influence of the aldehyde group of the derivatives on its geometry. This, as well as the relaxation mechanisms from photoexcitation to the final outcome was investigated using a variety of theoretical methods. Complete active space self consistent field was used for on-the-fly calculations while complete active space perturbation theory and coupled cluster theory were used to accurately describe critical configurations. Experiment and theory show the relaxation dynamics of furfural and β-furfural to be slowed down, and together they disclose an additional deactivation pathway, which is attributed to the n O lonepair state introduced with the aldehyde group.

  18. Isotopic and chemical dilution effects on the vibrational relaxation rate of some totally symmetric motions of liquid acetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marri, E.; Morresi, A.; Paliani, G.; Cataliotti, R.S.; Giorgini, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The vibrational dephasing of the ν 1 (C-H, C-D stretching) and ν 3 (C-H, C-D bending) symmetric motions of liquid acetonitrile in its light and fully deuterated forms has been studied in the frame of the vibrational time correlation functions obtained as Fourier transforms of the isotropic Raman spectral distributions and interpreted within the Kubo theory. In addition, the experimental isotropic profiles have been analysed within the bandshape approach formulated by analytical Fourier transformation of the Kubo vibrational time correlation functions in order to derive the relaxation parameters in the frequency domain. The effects of the isotopic (CH 3 CN/CD 3 CN and vice versa) and chemical (CCl 4 ) dilution on the bandshapes and on the vibrational relaxation parameters have been studied. It was observed that the decay rate of ν 1 mode is insensitive to the isotopic dilution but varies appreciably with chemical (CCl 4 ) dilution. The vibrational dephasing of ν 3 mode is qualitatively, but not quantitatively, affected in the same way by chemical dilution and shows a slower modulation regime than that exhibited by the stretching mode. Unlikely from the latter, the ν 3 mode results are slightly affected by the isotopic dilution. Phase relaxation mechanisms of these two motions of acetonitrile in the liquid state are proposed on the basis of these data, and a comparison is made with the results earlier published. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  19. Relaxation effect of marmin on guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle via NO-independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang Irfan Husori

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the relaxation mechanims of marmin on epithelium of guinea pig isolated trachea smooth muscle (TSM. Methods: The study was conducted using in vitro isolated-trachea experimental. The guinea pig isolated trachea were incubated in Krebs solution-containing organ bath and supplied with a mixed gas of O2:CO2 (95%:5%. Result: Removal of tracheal epithelium was associated with significant increases in the potencies of histamine and methacholine to contract guinea pig TSM. The pD2 value of histamine increased from 6.04依0.08 on epithelial-intact to 6.32依0.06 on epithelial-denuded (P<0.05. The pD2 value of methacholine also increased from 5.85依0.09 on epithelial-intact to 6.15依0.07 on epithelial-denuded (P<0.05. Marmin exhibited relaxation effects on TSM induced by methacholine (3伊10-5 mol/L and histamine (3伊10-5 mol/L. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 through incubation with indomethacin could reduce the relaxation effect of marmin (P<0.05 on methacholine- and histamine-induced contractions. However, no significant differenceswere shown in methylene blue, Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA and propranolol-incubated TSM. Conclusions: The results suggest that marmin has relaxation effect on TSM which is epithelial-dependent through the release of PGE2. However, nitric oxide, cGMP and 毬 2-adrenergic-mediated relaxation were not involved.

  20. Effects from additives on deacetylation of chitin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana Filho, Sergio P.; Signini, Roberta

    2001-01-01

    Deacetylation reactions of commercial chitin were carried out in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at 115 deg C for 6 hours. The effect from additives (sodium borohydride or anthraquinone) and of bubbling inert gas (nitrogen or argon) on the characteristics of deacetylated samples were evaluated. Average degrees of acetylation and intrinsic viscosity were determined by 1 H NMR spectroscopy and capillary viscometry, respectively. X-ray diffraction was employed to evaluate changes in crystallinity and infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor structural changes due to deacetylation. The bubbling of inert gas during the deacetylation reaction resulted in more crystalline samples of chitosan. Deacetylation carried out without any additive produced slightly more deacetylated chitosan but they were severely depolymerized. The depolymerization process was much less important when sodium borohydride was added to the reaction medium but the addition of anthraquinone and the bubbling of nitrogen, or argon, did not have any effect, this suggests that oxygen is not required for depolymerization. (author)

  1. Sintering of magnesia: effect of additives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of different additives, namely Cr2O3, Fe2O3 and TiO2, up to 2 wt% was studied on the sinter- ing and .... mental distribution of the components is shown in figure 7. It shows ... Chiang Y M, Birniand D and Kingery W 1996 Physical ceram-.

  2. Relaxation effects in ionic mobility and cluster formation: negative ions in SF6 at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juarez, A M; De Urquijo, J; Hinojosa, G; Hernandez-Avila, J L; Basurto, E

    2010-01-01

    The relaxation effects of the ionic mobility and the formation of negative-ion clusters in SF 6 are studied in this work. For this purpose, we have measured the mobility of negative ions in SF 6 over the pressure range 100-800 Torr at a fixed value of density-normalized electric field, E/N, of 20 Td (1 Townsend = 10 -17 V cm 2 ). The data obtained show a clear dependence of the negative-ion drift velocity on drift distance. It is observed that the drift velocity (mobility) reaches a steady-state value only for drift distances above 2 cm, over the studied pressure range. In addition to this, we have observed that the ionic mobility depends strongly on the gas pressure. An explanation of this dependence of the ionic mobility on gas pressure is given in terms of a negative-ion clustering formation process. It was found that the assumption of a linear dependence of the cluster ion mass on pressure provides a satisfactory explanation for the observed mobilities.

  3. Large lateral photovoltaic effect with ultrafast relaxation time in SnSe/Si junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianjie; Zhao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Chang; Zhang, Yang; Song, Bingqian; Zhang, Lingli; Liu, Weilong; Lv, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Sui, Yu, E-mail: suiyu@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Tang, Jinke [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071 (United States); Song, Bo, E-mail: songbo@hit.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-07-11

    In this paper, we report a large lateral photovoltaic effect (LPE) with ultrafast relaxation time in SnSe/p-Si junctions. The LPE shows a linear dependence on the position of the laser spot, and the position sensitivity is as high as 250 mV mm{sup −1}. The optical response time and the relaxation time of the LPE are about 100 ns and 2 μs, respectively. The current-voltage curve on the surface of the SnSe film indicates the formation of an inversion layer at the SnSe/p-Si interface. Our results clearly suggest that most of the excited-electrons diffuse laterally in the inversion layer at the SnSe/p-Si interface, which results in a large LPE with ultrafast relaxation time. The high positional sensitivity and ultrafast relaxation time of the LPE make the SnSe/p-Si junction a promising candidate for a wide range of optoelectronic applications.

  4. Temperature effects on loss of prestress due to relaxation of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appa Rao, G.; Yamini Sreevalli, I.; Meher Prasad, A.; Reddy, G.R.; Prabhakar, G.

    2007-01-01

    Prestressed concrete is used in general civil engineering applications and in nuclear power plants for a number of structures such as containments, reactor pressure vessels, missile shield members, reactor cavity walls etc. Loss of prestress in containment structures is a serious concern for the longevity rather than serviceability. Loss of prestress higher than the initially designed values has been reported by various agencies at a number of nuclear power plants with prestressed concrete containment structures. At present the codes specify the prestress losses in Nuclear Power Plant Containment (NPPC) structures for 50 years. However there is a continuous effort to improve the life of NPPC particularly for a design life of 100 years. The long-term losses are mainly due to relaxation of prestressing cables, creep and shrinkage of concrete. The loss of prestress due to relaxation of prestressing cables is considered to be severe due to temperature effects. In this paper an effort has been made to understand the loss of prestress due to relaxation of steel at different temperatures namely 20 degC, 25 degC, 30 degC, 35 degC, 40 degC and 45 degC and the results up to 1000 hrs to estimate the losses over longer life of structures. The initial prestress was maintained at 0.70 times guaranteed ultimate tensile strength (GUTS) of cables. The prestressing loss due to relaxation of prestressing cables increases as the temperature increases. (author)

  5. The effect of polymer coatings on proton transverse relaxivities of aqueous suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, Matthew R J; House, Michael J; Woodward, Robert C; St Pierre, Timothy G; Huffstetler, Phillip P; Miles, William C; Goff, Jonathon D; Davis, Richey M; Riffle, Judy S

    2011-01-01

    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are good candidates for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to their high magnetic susceptibilities. Here we investigate 19 polyether-coated magnetite nanoparticle systems comprising three series. All systems were synthesized from the same batch of magnetite nanoparticles. A different polyether was used for each series. Each series comprised systems with systematically varied polyether loadings per particle. A highly significant (p < 0.0001) linear correlation (r = 0.956) was found between the proton relaxivity and the intensity-weighted average diameter measured by dynamic light scattering in the 19 particle systems studied. The intensity-weighted average diameter measured by dynamic light scattering is sensitive to small number fractions of larger particles/aggregates. We conclude that the primary effect leading to differences in proton relaxivity between systems arises from the small degree of aggregation within the samples, which appears to be determined by the nature of the polymer and, for one system, the degree of polymer loading of the particles. For the polyether coatings used in this study, any changes in relaxivity from differences in water exclusion or diffusion rates caused by the polymer are minor in comparison with the changes in relaxivity resulting from variations in the degree of aggregation.

  6. Isotope effect on hydrated electron relaxation dynamics studied with time-resolved liquid jet photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkins, Madeline H.; Williams, Holly L. [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Neumark, Daniel M., E-mail: dneumark@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-14

    The excited state relaxation dynamics of the solvated electron in H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O are investigated using time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy in a liquid microjet. The data show that the initial excited state decays on a time scale of 75 ± 12 fs in H{sub 2}O and 102 ± 8 fs in D{sub 2}O, followed by slower relaxation on time scales of 400 ± 70 fs and 390 ± 70 fs that are isotopically invariant within the precision of our measurements. Based on the time evolution of the transient signals, the faster and slower time constants are assigned to p → s internal conversion (IC) of the hydrated electron and relaxation on the ground electronic state, respectively. This assignment is consistent with the non-adiabatic mechanism for relaxation of the hydrated electron and yields an isotope effect of 1.4 ± 0.2 for IC of the hydrated electron.

  7. The effect of polymer coatings on proton transverse relaxivities of aqueous suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Matthew R J; House, Michael J; Woodward, Robert C; St Pierre, Timothy G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Huffstetler, Phillip P; Miles, William C; Goff, Jonathon D; Davis, Richey M; Riffle, Judy S, E-mail: stpierre@physics.uwa.edu.au [Macromolecules and Interfaces Institute, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)

    2011-08-12

    Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles are good candidates for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents due to their high magnetic susceptibilities. Here we investigate 19 polyether-coated magnetite nanoparticle systems comprising three series. All systems were synthesized from the same batch of magnetite nanoparticles. A different polyether was used for each series. Each series comprised systems with systematically varied polyether loadings per particle. A highly significant (p < 0.0001) linear correlation (r = 0.956) was found between the proton relaxivity and the intensity-weighted average diameter measured by dynamic light scattering in the 19 particle systems studied. The intensity-weighted average diameter measured by dynamic light scattering is sensitive to small number fractions of larger particles/aggregates. We conclude that the primary effect leading to differences in proton relaxivity between systems arises from the small degree of aggregation within the samples, which appears to be determined by the nature of the polymer and, for one system, the degree of polymer loading of the particles. For the polyether coatings used in this study, any changes in relaxivity from differences in water exclusion or diffusion rates caused by the polymer are minor in comparison with the changes in relaxivity resulting from variations in the degree of aggregation.

  8. STUDY TO COMPARE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF STATIC STRETCH AND HOLD RELAX TECHNIQUE OVER HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Numerous studies have documented on flexibility of muscles. Flexibility is defined as the ability of the muscles to lengthen allowing one joint or more than one joint in a series to move through a range of motion .Flexibility allows tissue to accommodate more easily to stress thus minimizing or preventing muscle injury. But this study sought to identify the study to compare the effectiveness of Static stretch and Hold relax technique over the hamstring flexibility. Methods: 30 healthy male adults with Hamstring tightness aged 21 to 35 years selected from general population through simple randomized technique. Samples are divided into two groups, static stretch Group-I(no.15 and Group-II Hold relax (no.=15.The outcome was measured with help of sit & reach test to see the Hamstring flexibility. Results: Comparison of the post test values of the group I and group II shows a significant difference between the outcomes of two groups with a “t” calculated value of 0.738 (unpaired “t” test. Conclusion: Both static stretch and hold relax Technique can cause very highly significant result in Hamstring Flexibility, further comparison shows very high significant difference between two groups and concludes that hold relax is better than static stretch in Hamstring Flexibility.

  9. Comparing the effects of reflexology and relaxation on fatigue in women with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Fatemeh; Shahreza, Mozhgan Soheili; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Valiani, Mahboubeh

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue is the most common and highly disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS) that has negative effects on employment, the process of socialization, compliance with the disease, and other factors effective on activities of daily living. The usage of complementary and alternative medicine methods in MS patients is higher than in the general population. However, there is no scientific evidence to support their effectiveness. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of reflexology and relaxation on fatigue in women with MS. This study is a single-blinded randomized clinical trial that was done on 75 patients with MS who referred to the MS Clinic of Ayatollah Kashani Hospital (Isfahan, Iran). After simple non-random sampling, participants were randomly assigned by minimization method to three groups: Reflexology, relaxation, and control groups (25 patients in each group). In the experimental groups, the interventions foot reflexology and relaxation (Jacobson and Benson) were performed for 4 weeks, twice a week for 40 min in each session, and the control group received care and routine medical treatment as directed by a physician. Data were collected through a questionnaire and the fatigue severity scale before, immediately after, and 2 months after interventions from all three groups. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 18 using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Findings obtained from analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was no significant difference in the mean fatigue severity scores in the pre-interventions between the three groups (P > 0.05), but there was significant difference immediately after and 2 months after interventions between the three groups (P 0.05). Furthermore, least significant difference post-hoc test revealed that the mean scores of fatigue severity immediately after intervention was lower in the reflexology group than in the other two groups and were lower in the relaxation group than in the control

  10. The entire mean stress relaxation effects of 0Cr18Ni10Ti piping steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bing; Zhao Yongxiang

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study is performed on the mean stress relaxation effects of the Chinese new piping material, 0Cr18Ni10Ti steel. Six sets of specimens are respectively fatigued under a strain-controlled mode with the six straining ratios (R ε ) of -1, -0.52, -0.22, 0.029, 0.18, and 0.48 by an improved test method implied with an maximum likelihood statistical principle. The test results reveal that the material exhibits a Masing behaviour and, surprisingly, involves an entire mean stress relaxation. A challenge is then emerging to the traditional same treat of straining ratio and stressing ratio (R σ ) in fatigue analysis and assessment. There is still no effective method to describe this kind of relaxation. However the R ε effects can represent the relaxation effects appropriately by investigation on the material random cyclic stress-strain (σ-ε) relations and strain-life (ε-N) relations with different R ε . The intrinsic randomness of the responses is taken into account on a probabilistic sense. Significant differences are observed of the material cyclic responses under different R ε . For σ-ε relations, the R ε effects act as a decreasing trend to the stress amplitudes with the increasing survival probability and confidence. The strongest effect appears at R ε of 0.029, and a weaker one acts as R ε is far away from zero. For ε-N relations, R ε greater than zero exhibits a positive effect on the fatigue lives of about 1.3 to 1.6 times under a survival probability of 0.999 and a confidence of 95%, while a negative effect is exhibited in case of R ε less than zero. Present work indicates that systematic researches should be made to give a reasonable fatigue prediction in service on a basis of cyclic strain inspection of structures. (authors)

  11. Mechanisms behind the relaxing effect of furosemide on the isolated rabbit ear artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, R.; Aalkjaer, C.; Andreasen, F. (Institute of Pharmacology, University of Aarhus, Aarhus (Denmark))

    1991-01-01

    The effect of furosemide on isometric contration and {sup 86}Rb uptake were studied in the isolated rabbit central ear artery (CEA). A concentration-dependent relaxing effect of furosemide (0.06 mM-1.0 mM) was found in vessel segments with intact endothelium. The maximal relaxation was 28.6+-3.9% (10). The effect was not diminished in segments deprived of endothelium, and removal of endothelium itself caused no change of the force development to electrical field stimualtion. The relaxing effect was time-dependent and stimulation-dependent and was not significantly affected by membrane depolarization induced by increasing external (K{sup +}) from 10 to 120 mM. The {sup 86}Rb uptake was inhibited by both furosemide and ouabain (8.0+-0.5(8) and 5.3+-0.5(8) versus 12.8+-0.9(16) nmol (K{sup +})x mm{sup -1}x(10 min.){sup -1} in the furosemide (1.0 mM), ouabain (1.0 mM) and control groups, respectively) without interaction between the two drugs. The {sup 86}Rb uptake was not further inhibited by increasing the furosemide concentration from 0.12 mM to 1.0 mM. Our results suggest: firstly, the direct relaxing effect of furosemide on isolated vessel segments in endothelium-independent and secondly, the inhibition of the Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-Cl{sup -} cotransport and a possible consequent hyperpolarization of the membrane is unlikely to be the sole mechanism responsible for the vasorelaxant effect of furosemide. The demonstrated direct effect on vascular tone may be of clinical importance in situations with very high plasma concentrations of the drug or very low concentrations of serum albumin. (aluthor).

  12. Experiments in paramagnetic relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lijphart, E.E.

    1976-01-01

    This thesis presents two attempts to improve the resolving power of the relaxation measurement technique. The first attempt reconsiders the old technique of steady state saturation. When used in conjunction with the pulse technique, it offers the possibility of obtaining additional information about the system in which all-time derivatives are zero; in addition, non-linear effects may be distinguished from each other. The second attempt involved a systematic study of only one system: Cu in the Tutton salts (K and Rb). The systematic approach, the high accuracy of the measurement and the sheer amount of experimental data for varying temperature, magnetic field and concentration made it possible in this case to separate the prevailing relaxation mechanisms reliably

  13. Pharmacological characterization of the relaxant effect induced by adrenomedullin in rat cavernosal smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, L.N.; Gonzaga, N.A.; Tirapelli, D.P.C.; Tirapelli, L.F.; Tirapelli, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the relaxant effect of adrenomedullin (AM) in rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) and the expression of AM system components in this tissue. Functional assays using standard muscle bath procedures were performed in CSM isolated from male Wistar rats. Protein and mRNA levels of pre-pro-AM, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), and Subtypes 1, 2 and 3 of the receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) family were assessed by Western immunoblotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Nitrate and 6-keto-prostaglandin F 1α (6-keto-PGF 1α ; a stable product of prostacyclin) levels were determined using commercially available kits. Protein and mRNA of AM, CRLR, and RAMP 1, -2, and -3 were detected in rat CSM. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that AM and CRLR were expressed in rat CSM. AM relaxed CSM strips in a concentration-dependent manner. AM 22-52 , a selective antagonist for AM receptors, reduced the relaxation induced by AM. Conversely, CGRP 8-37 , a selective antagonist for calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors, did not affect AM-induced relaxation. Preincubation of CSM strips with N G -nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, quanylyl cyclase inhibitor), Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor), SC560 [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-trifluoromethyl pyrazole, selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor], and 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K + channel blocker) reduced AM-induced relaxation. On the other hand, 7-nitroindazole (selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor), H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), SQ22536 [9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine, adenylate cyclase inhibitor], glibenclamide (selective blocker of ATP-sensitive K + channels), and apamin (Ca 2+ -activated

  14. Pharmacological characterization of the relaxant effect induced by adrenomedullin in rat cavernosal smooth muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, L.N. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Laboratório de Farmacologia, Departamento de Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Ciências Humanas, Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Gonzaga, N.A. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Farmacologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Tirapelli, D.P.C.; Tirapelli, L.F. [Departamento de Cirurgia e Anatomia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Tirapelli, C.R. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Departamento de Enfermagem Psiquiátrica e Ciências Humanas, Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the mechanisms underlying the relaxant effect of adrenomedullin (AM) in rat cavernosal smooth muscle (CSM) and the expression of AM system components in this tissue. Functional assays using standard muscle bath procedures were performed in CSM isolated from male Wistar rats. Protein and mRNA levels of pre-pro-AM, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR), and Subtypes 1, 2 and 3 of the receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) family were assessed by Western immunoblotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Nitrate and 6-keto-prostaglandin F{sub 1α} (6-keto-PGF{sub 1α}; a stable product of prostacyclin) levels were determined using commercially available kits. Protein and mRNA of AM, CRLR, and RAMP 1, -2, and -3 were detected in rat CSM. Immunohistochemical assays demonstrated that AM and CRLR were expressed in rat CSM. AM relaxed CSM strips in a concentration-dependent manner. AM{sub 22-52}, a selective antagonist for AM receptors, reduced the relaxation induced by AM. Conversely, CGRP{sub 8-37}, a selective antagonist for calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors, did not affect AM-induced relaxation. Preincubation of CSM strips with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine-methyl-ester (L-NAME, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, quanylyl cyclase inhibitor), Rp-8-Br-PET-cGMPS (cGMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor), SC560 [5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-trifluoromethyl pyrazole, selective cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitor], and 4-aminopyridine (voltage-dependent K{sup +} channel blocker) reduced AM-induced relaxation. On the other hand, 7-nitroindazole (selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), wortmannin (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor), H89 (protein kinase A inhibitor), SQ22536 [9-(tetrahydro-2-furanyl)-9H-purin-6-amine, adenylate cyclase inhibitor], glibenclamide (selective blocker of ATP-sensitive K{sup +} channels), and

  15. Effects of Ginger and Its Constituents on Airway Smooth Muscle Relaxation and Calcium Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviski, Matthew E.; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Carrie; Hoonjan, Bhupinder; Emala, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has increased in recent years, and is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Many patients report using alternative therapies to self-treat asthma symptoms as adjuncts to short-acting and long-acting β-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). As many as 40% of patients with asthma use herbal therapies to manage asthma symptoms, often without proven efficacy or known mechanisms of action. Therefore, investigations of both the therapeutic and possible detrimental effects of isolated components of herbal treatments on the airway are important. We hypothesized that ginger and its active components induce bronchodilation by modulating intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) in airway smooth muscle (ASM). In isolated human ASM, ginger caused significant and rapid relaxation. Four purified constituents of ginger were subsequently tested for ASM relaxant properties in both guinea pig and human tracheas: [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol induced rapid relaxation of precontracted ASM (100–300 μM), whereas [10]-gingerol failed to induce relaxation. In human ASM cells, exposure to [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, but not [10]-gingerol (100 μM), blunted subsequent Ca2+ responses to bradykinin (10 μM) and S-(−)-Bay K 8644 (10 μM). In A/J mice, the nebulization of [8]-gingerol (100 μM), 15 minutes before methacholine challenge, significantly attenuated airway resistance, compared with vehicle. Taken together, these novel data show that ginger and its isolated active components, [6]-gingerol, [8]-gingerol, and [6]-shogaol, relax ASM, and [8]-gingerol attenuates airway hyperresponsiveness, in part by altering [Ca2+]i regulation. These purified compounds may provide a therapeutic option alone or in combination with accepted therapeutics, including β2-agonists, in airway diseases such as asthma. PMID:23065130

  16. Excessive Additive Effect On Engine Oil Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is excessive additive (for oil filling effect on engine oil dynamic viscosity. Research is focused to commercially distribute automotive engine oil with viscosity class 15W–40 designed for vans. There were prepared blends of new and used engine oil without and with oil additive in specific ratio according manufacturer’s recommendations. Dynamic viscosity of blends with additive was compared with pure new and pure used engine oil. The temperature dependence dynamic viscosity of samples was evaluated by using rotary viscometer with standard spindle. Concern was that the oil additive can moves engine oil of several viscosity grades up. It is able to lead to failure in the engine. Mathematical models were used for fitting experimental values of dynamic viscosity. Exponential fit function was selected, which was very accurate because the coefficient of determination R2 achieved high values (0.98–0.99. These models are able to predict viscosity behaviour blends of engine oil and additive.

  17. A comparison of the effects of reflexology and relaxation on pain in women with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Fatemeh; Soheili, Mozhgan; Hosseini, SayedMohsen; Shaygannejad, Vahid

    2016-03-01

    Pain is a common and significant symptom in many individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). The presence and severity of pain in individuals with MS has also been shown to be associated with higher levels of depression, functional impairment, and fatigue. It is common for MS patients and their caregivers to worry about narcotic addiction in the management of chronic pain. Therefore, this study aimed to determine and compare the effects of reflexology and relaxation on pain in women suffering from MS. This study was a single-blind randomized clinical trial performed on 75 patients with MS referred to the MS Clinic of Ayatollah Kashani Hospital (Isfahan, Iran). After simple non-random sampling, using the minimization method, participants were randomly assigned to the three groups of reflexology, relaxation, and control. In the experimental groups, foot reflexology and relaxation interventions (Jacobson and Benson) were performed within 4 weeks, twice a week for 40 min. The control group received routine care and medical treatment as directed by a doctor. Data were collected using the Numerical Rating Scale before, immediately after, and 2 months after interventions in all three groups. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 18 and descriptive and inferential statistical tests. Findings obtained from analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no significant differences between mean pain intensity scores in the three groups preintervention and 2 months after interventions (p > 0.05). However, this difference was statistically significant immediately after the study (p reflexology and relaxation (p  0.05). Furthermore, Fisher's least significant difference (LSD) revealed a significantly higher reduction in pain intensity scores in the reflexology group after the intervention, compared with the two other groups, but showed no significant differences between relaxation and control groups. There were no significant differences between the three groups 2 months

  18. Hot-electron effect in spin relaxation of electrically injected electrons in intrinsic Germanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, T; Wu, M W

    2015-07-01

    The hot-electron effect in the spin relaxation of electrically injected electrons in intrinsic germanium is investigated by the kinetic spin Bloch equations both analytically and numerically. It is shown that in the weak-electric-field regime with E ≲ 0.5 kV cm(-1), our calculations have reasonable agreement with the recent transport experiment in the hot-electron spin-injection configuration (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 257204). We reveal that the spin relaxation is significantly enhanced at low temperature in the presence of weak electric field E ≲ 50 V cm(-1), which originates from the obvious center-of-mass drift effect due to the weak electron-phonon interaction, whereas the hot-electron effect is demonstrated to be less important. This can explain the discrepancy between the experimental observation and the previous theoretical calculation (2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 085202), which deviates from the experimental results by about two orders of magnitude at low temperature. It is further shown that in the strong-electric-field regime with 0.5 ≲ E ≲ 2 kV cm(-1), the spin relaxation is enhanced due to the hot-electron effect, whereas the drift effect is demonstrated to be marginal. Finally, we find that when 1.4 ≲ E ≲ 2 kV cm(-1) which lies in the strong-electric-field regime, a small fraction of electrons (≲5%) can be driven from the L to Γ valley, and the spin relaxation rates are the same for the Γ and L valleys in the intrinsic sample without impurity. With the negligible influence of the spin dynamics in the Γ valley to the whole system, the spin dynamics in the L valley can be measured from the Γ valley by the standard direct optical transition method.

  19. Effects of relaxation of gluten network on rehydration kinetics of pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takenobu; Hasegawa, Ayako; Adachi, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the relaxation of the gluten network on pasta rehydration kinetics. The moisture content of pasta, under conditions where the effects of the diffusion of water on the moisture content were negligible, was estimated by extrapolating the average moisture content of pasta of various diameters to 0 mm. The moisture content of imaginary, infinitely thin pasta did not reach equilibrium even after 1 h of rehydration. The rehydration of pasta made of only gluten was also measured. The rate constants estimated by the Long and Richman equation for both the pasta indicated that the rehydration kinetics of infinitely thin pasta were similar to those of gluten pasta. These results suggest that the swelling of starch by fast gelatinization was restricted by the honeycomb structural network of gluten and the relaxation of the gluten network controlled pasta rehydration kinetics.

  20. Effect of pressure on the α relaxation in glycerol and xylitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, M.; Casalini, R.; Hensel-Bielowka, S.; Roland, C. M.

    2002-06-01

    The effect of pressure on the dielectric relaxation of two polyhydroxy alcohols is examined by analysis of existing data on glycerol, together with new measurements on xylitol. The fragility, or Tg-normalized temperature dependence, changes with pressure for low pressures, but becomes invariant above 1 GPa. When compared at temperatures for which the α-relaxation times are equal, there is no effect of pressure (xylitol show an excess intensity at higher frequencies. For xylitol, unlike for glycerol, at lower temperatures this wing disjoins to form a separate peak. For both glass formers, elevated pressure causes the excess wing to become more separated from the peak maximum; that is, the properties of the primary and excess intensities are not correlated. This implies that the excess wing in glycerol is also a distinct secondary process, although it cannot be resolved from the primary peak.

  1. Fatigue life estimation of welded components considering welding residual stress relaxation and its mean stress effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Ho; Han, Jeong Woo; Shin, Byung Chun; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2003-01-01

    The fatigue life of welded joints is sensitive to welding residual stress and complexity of their geometric shapes. To predict the fatigue life more reasonably, the effects of welding residual stress and its relaxation on their fatigue strengths should be considered quantitatively, which are often regarded to be equivalent to the effects of mean stresses by external loads. The hot-spot stress concept should be also adopted which can reduce the dependence of fatigue strengths for various welding details. Considering the factors mentioned above, a fatigue life prediction model using the modified Goodman's diagram was proposed. In this model, an equivalent stress was introduced which is composed of the mean stress based on the hot-spot stress concept and the relaxed welding residual stress. From the verification of the proposed model to real welding details, it is proved that this model can be applied to predict reasonably their fatigue lives

  2. [Effects of Monochord Music on Heart Rate Variability and Self-Reports of Relaxation in Healthy Adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gäbel, Christine; Garrido, Natalia; Koenig, Julian; Hillecke, Thomas Karl; Warth, Marco

    Music-based interventions are considered an effective and low-cost treatment option for stress-related symptoms. The present study aimed to examine the trajectories of the psychophysiological response in apparently healthy participants during a music-based relaxation intervention compared to a verbal relaxation exercise. 70 participants were assigned to either receptive live music (experimental group) or a prerecorded verbal relaxation exercise (control group). Self-ratings of relaxation were assessed before and after each intervention on visual analogue scales and the Relaxation Inventory (RI). The heart rate variability (HRV) was continuously recorded throughout the sessions. Statistical analysis focused on HRV parameters indicative of parasympathetic cardiovascular outflow. We found significant quadratic main effects for time on the mean R-R interval (heart rate), the high-frequency power of HRV (indicative of parasympathetic activity), and the self-ratings of relaxation in both groups. A significant group × time interaction was observed for the cognitive tension subscale of the RI. Participants in both groups showed psychophysiological changes indicative of greater relaxation over the course of the interventions. However, differences between groups were only marginal. Music might be effective in relieving stress and promoting relaxation by altering the autonomic nervous system function. Future studies need to explore the long-term outcomes of such interventions. © 2017 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  3. Serelaxin in addition to standard therapy in acute heart failure : Rationale and design of the RELAX-AHF-2 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerlink, John R.; Voors, Adriaan A.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Pang, Peter S.; Greenberg, Barry H.; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Felker, G. Michael; Davison, Beth A.; Cotter, Gad; Gimpelewicz, Claudio; Boer-Martins, Leandro; Wernsing, Margaret; Hua, Tsushung A.; Severin, Thomas; Metra, Marco

    Patients admitted for acute heart failure (AHF) experience high rates of in-hospital and post-discharge morbidity and mortality despite current therapies. Serelaxin is recombinant human relaxin-2, a hormone with vasodilatory and end-organ protective effects believed to play a central role in the

  4. Relaxant effect of the ethanol extract of Helichrysum plicatum (Asteraceae) on isolated rat ileum contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigovic, Dubravka; Brankovic, Suzana; Kitic, Dusanka; Radenkovic, Mirjana; Jankovic, Teodora; Savikin, Katarina; Zivanovic, Slavoljub

    2010-05-10

    Helichrysum plicatum (Turkish Helichrysum) has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastric and hepatic disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine the relaxant activity of an extract of H. plicatum flowers on isolated rat ileum. Segments of ileum of rats were suspended in an organ bath. Cumulative concentrations of H. plicatum ethanol extract induced a relaxant effect on spontaneous rat ileum contractions. H. plicatum extract caused a mean contractile response of 81.68 +/- 6.17% (at a dose of 0.01 mg/mL) and 30.08 +/- 9.07% (at a dose of 1 mg/mL). A similar effect was observed with papaverine (0.01-3 microg/mL). H. plicatum extract (0.01-1 mg/mL) relaxed high K+ (80 mM) precontractions, an effect similar to that caused by papaverine (0.01-3 microg/mL). The plant extract (0.03-0.3 mg/mL) also induced a significant depression of the cumulative concentration response curve for acetylcholine (5-1500 nM) (p Helichrysum plicatum flowers on the isolated rat intestine Extract of H. plicatum can inhibit the spontaneous ileum contractions and contractions induced by acetylcholine, histamine, barium and potassium ions.

  5. Effects of additives on PVG dosifilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenxiu, Chen; Liu, Aiguo [Beijing Normal Univ., BJ (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-03-01

    Dosifilm PVG is a new radiochromic film dosimeter composed of matrix material polyvinyl butyral (PVB), leuco malachite green (LMG) and additive halogenated organic compound (RX), etc. The control of the dose range on PVG dosifilm was examined. The addition of halogenated compounds played an important role in the radiation reaction of LMG beyond the concentration of LMG. Bromide is more effective than chloride in this system, the oxidative species are X {center_dot} and X{sub 2} {center_dot} {sup -}. PVB with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) can induce the oxidation of LMG before irradiation. The reaction mechanism of PVG was discussed. Different linear ranges of radiation response on PVG dosifilm could be controlled by alternating the relative concentrations of halogenated compounds and LMG. (author).

  6. Effects of additives on PVG dosifilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenxiu; Liu, Aiguo

    1995-01-01

    Dosifilm PVG is a new radiochromic film dosimeter composed of matrix material polyvinyl butyral (PVB), leuco malachite green (LMG) and additive halogenated organic compound (RX), etc. The control of the dose range on PVG dosifilm was examined. The addition of halogenated compounds played an important role in the radiation reaction of LMG beyond the concentration of LMG. Bromide is more effective than chloride in this system, the oxidative species are X · and X 2 · - . PVB with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) can induce the oxidation of LMG before irradiation. The reaction mechanism of PVG was discussed. Different linear ranges of radiation response on PVG dosifilm could be controlled by alternating the relative concentrations of halogenated compounds and LMG. (author)

  7. Evidence of direct smooth muscle relaxant effects of the fibrate gemfibrozil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Laura E; Peuler, Jacob D

    2010-01-01

    Fibrates are commonly employed to treat abnormal lipid metabolism via their unique ability to stimulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Interestingly, they also decrease systemic arterial pressure, despite recent evidence that PPAR alpha may contribute to expression of renin and related hypertension. Yet, mechanisms responsible for their potential antihypertensive activity remain unresolved. Rapid decreases in arterial pressure following bolus intravenous injections of bezafibrate strongly suggest they may relax arterial smooth muscle directly. But since bezafibrate is highly susceptible to photodegradation in aqueous media, it has never been critically tested for this possibility in vitro with isolated arterial smooth muscle preparations. Accordingly, we tested gemfibrozil which is resistant to photodegradation. We examined it over a therapeutically-relevant range (50-400 microM) for both acute and delayed relaxant effects on contractions of the isolated rat tail artery; contractions induced by either depolarizing its smooth muscle cell membranes with high potassium or stimulating its membrane-bound receptors with norepinephrine and arginine-vasopressin. We also examined these same gemfibrozil levels for effects on spontaneously-occurring phasic rhythmic contractile activity, typically not seen in arteries under in vitro conditions but commonly exhibited by smooth muscle of uterus, duodenum and bladder. We found that gemfibrozil significantly relaxed all induced forms of contraction in the rat tail artery, acutely at the higher test levels and after a delay of a few hours at the lower test levels. The highest test level of gemfibrozil (400 microM) also completely abolished spontaneously-occurring contractile activity of the isolated uterus and duodenum and markedly suppressed it in the bladder. This is the first evidence that a fibrate drug can directly relax smooth muscle contractions, either induced by various contractile agents or

  8. Effect of interaction range on phonon relaxation in Fermi-Pasta-Ulam beta chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, G; Kumar, Deepak

    2007-08-01

    We study the effect of increasing the range of interactions on phonon relaxation in a chain of atoms with quartic anharmonicity. The study is motivated by recent numerical studies, showing that the value of the exponent alpha characterizing the divergence of conductivity with system size apparently depends on the presence of second neighbor couplings. We perform a quantum calculation of the wave-vector (q) dependent relaxation rate gamma(q) in the second order perturbation theory. The nonanalytic dependence of gamma(q) arises due to small-q singularity of the collision integral. We find that gamma(q) proportional to Aq(5/3) + Bq2. This gives rise to an asymptotic value alpha = 0.4, but the q2 terms lead to a higher apparent value of alpha at small sizes of the chain.

  9. The relaxant effect induced by Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract on rat isolated trachea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehri, Badreddine; Ahmed, Mueen K.K.; Aiache, Jean-Marc

    2011-01-01

    Background: Garlic plays an important role in complementary and alternative medicine. Most people believe in and use herbal products even when they have not been as thoroughly researched as garlic. Garlic is also known for its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. Materials and Methods: The relaxant effect of Allium sativum L. bulb aqueous extract (ASBAE) containing 0.06%-0.10% of allicin was studied on isolated smooth muscle of trachea of rats precontracted using acetylcholine (10−5 M). Results: It was found that ASBAE induced a dose-dependent relaxation with recorded EC 50 values of 71.87 ± 5.90 µg/mL (n = 7). Pretreatments with mepyramine (10−7 M), methysergide (10−7 M), caffeine (10−6 M), theophylline (10−6 M), nifedipine (10−6 M), and dipyridamole (10−6 M) did not alter ASBAE concentration-response curves. In turn, concentration-response curves to ASBAE were significantly shifted toward right in the presence of aspirin (3.10−3 M), indomethacin (10−6 M), prazosin (10−6 M), and propranolol (10−7 M). Conclusion: It is suggested that the recorded relaxation results are due to the release of prostaglandins E 1 and E 2 consecutively to α- and β-adrenoreceptor stimulation. PMID:21472073

  10. Transport relaxation measurements and glassy state effects in superconducting MgB{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olutas, M. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)], E-mail: olutas_m@ibu.edu.tr; Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K. [Abant Izzet Baysal University, Department of Physics, Turgut Gulez Research Laboratory, 14280 Bolu (Turkey)

    2008-09-15

    Time dependent effects in superconducting MgB{sub 2} have been studied systematically for the first time by transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) as a function of transport current (I), temperature (T) and external magnetic field (H). At very low dissipation levels (below {approx}1 {mu}V), it was observed that the sample voltage grows up smoothly in time by exhibiting the details of initial stage of relaxation process. At high dissipation levels, steady state corresponding to constant flow rate is maintained within a very short time and monitoring of details of flux dynamic evolving along sample becomes difficult on long time scales. Another interesting behavior is the appearance of voltage peak when the transport current was reduced to a finite value. After peak, it was observed that the sample voltage relaxes smoothly by leveling off within a very short time. The evolution of V-t curves suggests that formation of resistive flow channels along sample develops easily, which is quite similar to that of obtained for the superconducting ceramic samples whose grain boundaries are improved. Time dependent effects were also observed in magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) as the field sweep rate (dH/dt) varies. The observations were interpreted mainly in terms of flux trapping in grains.

  11. Transport relaxation measurements and glassy state effects in superconducting MgB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olutas, M.; Yetis, H.; Altinkok, A.; Kilic, A.; Kilic, K.

    2008-01-01

    Time dependent effects in superconducting MgB 2 have been studied systematically for the first time by transport relaxation measurements (V-t curves) as a function of transport current (I), temperature (T) and external magnetic field (H). At very low dissipation levels (below ∼1 μV), it was observed that the sample voltage grows up smoothly in time by exhibiting the details of initial stage of relaxation process. At high dissipation levels, steady state corresponding to constant flow rate is maintained within a very short time and monitoring of details of flux dynamic evolving along sample becomes difficult on long time scales. Another interesting behavior is the appearance of voltage peak when the transport current was reduced to a finite value. After peak, it was observed that the sample voltage relaxes smoothly by leveling off within a very short time. The evolution of V-t curves suggests that formation of resistive flow channels along sample develops easily, which is quite similar to that of obtained for the superconducting ceramic samples whose grain boundaries are improved. Time dependent effects were also observed in magnetovoltage measurements (V-H curves) as the field sweep rate (dH/dt) varies. The observations were interpreted mainly in terms of flux trapping in grains

  12. Effects of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on the longitudinal and transverse relaxation of hyperpolarized xenon gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burant, Alex; Antonacci, Michael; McCallister, Drew; Zhang, Le; Branca, Rosa Tamara

    2018-06-01

    SuperParamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) are often used in magnetic resonance imaging experiments to enhance Magnetic Resonance (MR) sensitivity and specificity. While the effect of SPIONs on the longitudinal and transverse relaxation time of 1H spins has been well characterized, their effect on highly diffusive spins, like those of hyperpolarized gases, has not. For spins diffusing in linear magnetic field gradients, the behavior of the magnetization is characterized by the relative size of three length scales: the diffusion length, the structural length, and the dephasing length. However, for spins diffusing in non-linear gradients, such as those generated by iron oxide nanoparticles, that is no longer the case, particularly if the diffusing spins experience the non-linearity of the gradient. To this end, 3D Monte Carlo simulations are used to simulate the signal decay and the resulting image contrast of hyperpolarized xenon gas near SPIONs. These simulations reveal that signal loss near SPIONs is dominated by transverse relaxation, with little contribution from T1 relaxation, while simulated image contrast and experiments show that diffusion provides no appreciable sensitivity enhancement to SPIONs.

  13. Effect of Traffic Noise and Relaxations Sounds on Pedestrian Walking Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Franěk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to noise in everyday urban life is considered to be an environmental stressor. A specific outcome of reactions to environmental stress is a fast pace of life that also includes a faster pedestrian walking speed. The present study examined the effect of listening to annoying acoustical stimuli (traffic noise compared with relaxation sounds (forest birdsong on walking speed in a real outdoor urban environment. The participants (N = 83 walked along an urban route of 1.8 km. They listened to either traffic noise or forest birdsong, or they walked without listening to any acoustical stimuli in the control condition. The results showed that participants listening to traffic noise walked significantly faster on the route than both the participants listening to forest birdsong sounds and the participants in the control condition. Participants who listened to forest birdsong walked slightly slower than those under control conditions; however, this difference was not significant. Analysis of the walk experience showed that participants who listened to forest birdsong during the walk liked the route more than those who listened to traffic sounds. The study demonstrated that exposure to traffic noise led to an immediate increase in walking speed. It was also shown that exposure to noise may influence participants’ perception of an environment. The same environment may be more liked in the absence of noise or in the presence of relaxation sounds. The study also documented the positive effect of listening to various kinds of relaxation sounds while walking in an outdoor environment with traffic noise.

  14. Stochastic model prediction of the Kovacs' ``expansion gap'' effect for volume relaxation in glassy polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Grigori; Caruthers, James

    2015-03-01

    The classic series of experiments by A. Kovacs on volume relaxation following temperature jumps for poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, in the Tg region revealed the richness and complexity of the viscoelastic behavior of glassy materials. Over the years no theoretical model has been able to predict all the features of the Kovacs data, where the so-called ``expansion gap'' effect proved to be particularly challenging. Specifically, for a series of up-jump experiments with different initial temperatures, Ti, but with the same final temperature, as the relaxation approaches equilibrium it would be expected that the effective relaxation time would be the same regardless of Ti; however, Kovacs observed that the dependence on Ti persisted seemingly all the way to equilibrium. In this communication we will show that a recently developed Stochastic Constitutive Model (SCM) that explicitly acknowledges the nano-scale dynamic heterogeneity of glasses can capture the ``expansion gap'' as well as the rest of the Kovacs data set for PVAc. It will be shown that the success of the SCM is due to its inherent thermo-rheological complexity.

  15. Effects of pair correlation functions on intermolecular nuclear relaxation by translational and rotational diffusion in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, P.

    1978-01-01

    In order to study the intermolecular relaxation due to magnetic dipolar interactions, we calculate the spectral densities resulting from random translational and rotational motions of spherical molecules carrying off-centre spins. The relative translational motion is treated in the frame-work of a general diffusion equation (the Smoluchowski equation) which takes into account the existence of effective forces between the molecules. This model implies a pair correlation function. i.e. a non unifom relative distribution of the molecules. The analytical calculations are carried out by taking correctly into account the hard sphere boundary conditions for the molecules. Explicit numerical calculations of the spectral densities are performed using finite difference methods and the pair correlation function of Verlet and Weiss obtained by computer experiments. The resulting calculations allow one to interpret the relaxation exhibited by benzene and some of its monohalogen derivatives which has been measured by Jonas et al. at various pressures. The effects of pair correlation and eccentricity contribute to a noticeable enhancement of the spectral densities, especially as the frequency increases. The translational correlation times calculated from the Stokes formula and those deduced from intermolecular relaxation studies are compared. It is shown that in order to distinguish which of the dynamical models is appropriate, measurements must be made as a function of frequency [fr

  16. Thermal effect of Zn quantum dots grown on Si(111): competition between relaxation and reconstraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Li-Chi; Huang, Bo-Jia; Zheng, Yu-En; Tu, Kai-Teng; Chiu, Shang-Jui; Ku, Ching-Shun; Lo, Kuang Yao

    2018-01-01

    Zn dots are potential solutions for metal contacts in future nanodevices. The metastable states that exist at the interface between Zn quantum dots and oxide-free Si(111) surfaces can suppress the development of the complete relaxation and increase the size of Zn dots. In this work, the actual heat consumption of the structural evolution of Zn dots resulting from extrinsic thermal effect was analyzed. Zn dots were coherently grown on oxide-free Si(111) through magnetron RF sputtering. A compensative optical method combined with reflective second harmonic generation and synchrotron x-ray diffraction (XRD) was developed to statistically analyze the thermal effect on the Zn dot system. Pattern matching (3 m) between the Zn and oxide-free Si(111) surface enabled Si(111) to constrain Zn dots from a liquid to solid phase. Annealing under vacuum induced smaller, loose Zn dots to be reconstrained by Si(111). When the size of the Zn dots was in the margin of complete relaxation, the Zn dot was partially constrained by potential barriers (metastable states) between Zn(111) and one of the six in-planes of Si〈110〉. The thermal disturbance exerted by annealing would enable partially constrained ZnO/Zn dots to overcome the potential barrier and be completely relaxed, which is obvious on the transition between Zn(111) and Zn(002) peak in synchrotron XRD. Considering the actual irradiated surface area of dots array in a wide-size distribution, the competition between reconstrained and relaxed Zn dots on Si(111) during annealing was statistically analyzed.

  17. The Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on The Occupational Stress of Nurses in Critical Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pegah Matourypour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: In the nursing profession, there are numerous factors which altogether cause occupational stress and as a result occupational exhaustion in nurses and decrease the quality of patient care. Regarding the importance of this issue which influences the health indices of the society, this study investigates the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on the occupational stress of nurses.Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental and before-after study was conducted using progressive muscle relaxation intervention on 33 nurses in special treatment (ICU and CCU and emergency units through simple sampling in Yazd in 2012. To assess occupational stress,Toft-Anderson questionnaire was used. The procedure of applying relaxation in a practical way was given to nurses in pamphlets and questionnaires were filled before and two weeks after the intervention. Analysis was done using SPSS.16 software and T-test.Results: The average total score of stress in nurses before and after the intervention was determined as – 28.12±43.74 and 52.12±04.72 respectively and this difference was not statistically significant (39.0>p. However, in the dimensions of nurses’ workload (/0>p 03 and t=2.27 and patients’ suffering and death, these scores were significantly different (0001.0>p and t=3.94.Conclusion: This study showed that applying progressive muscle relaxation technique as a method of emotion-focused coping cannot be effective in the reduction of occupational stress in nurses.

  18. Effects of different "relaxing" music styles on the autonomic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Diez, Joaquín; Domé, María Natalia; Delvenne, Andrea Alvarez; Braidot, Nestor; Cardinali, Daniel P; Vigo, Daniel Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects on heart rate variability (HRV) of exposure to different styles of "relaxing" music. Autonomic responses to musical stimuli were correlated with subjective preferences regarding the relaxing properties of each music style. Linear and nonlinear HRV analysis was conducted in 25 healthy subjects exposed to silence or to classical, new age or romantic melodies in a random fashion. At the end of the study, subjects were asked to choose the melody that they would use to relax. The low-to-high-frequency ratio was significantly higher when subjects were exposed to "new age" music when compared with silence (3.4 ± 0.3 vs. 2.6 ± 0.3, respectively, P classical" or "romantic" melodies (2.1 ± 0.4 and 2.2 ± 0.3). These results were related to a reduction in the high frequency component with "new age" compared to silence (17.4 ± 1.9 vs. 23.1 ± 1.1, respectively P music induced a shift in HRV from higher to lower frequencies, independently on the music preference of the listener.

  19. Stress Relaxation Effects in TiNi SMA During Superelastic Deformation: Experiment and Constitutive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieczyska, Elżbieta A.; Kowalewski, Zbigniew L.; Dunić, Vladimir Lj.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents an investigation of thermomechanical effects related to the phenomena of stress relaxation occurring in TiNi SMA subjected to modified program of displacement-controlled tension. The deformation data were taken from testing machine, whereas the temperature changes accompanying the exothermic/endothermic martensite forward/reverse transformation were measured by infrared camera. At the advanced stages of the transformations, the strain was kept constant for a few minutes and the SMA load and temperature were recorded continuously. As a consequence, the stress and temperature changed significantly during the loading stops. A large stress drop, caused by the transformation, was observed during the relaxation stage in both courses of the SMA loading and unloading. Moreover, the non-uniform temperature distribution, reflecting macroscopically inhomogeneous transformation, lapsed while the strain was kept constant, yet restarted at the end of the relaxation stop and developed at the reloading stage. Along with the experimental results, the mechanical and thermal responses induced by the transformation were obtained by 3D coupled thermomechanical numerical analysis, realized in partitioned approach. Latent heat production was correlated with an amount of the martensitic volume fraction. The stress and temperature drops recorded during the experiment were satisfactorily reproduced by the model proposed for the SMA thermomechanical coupling.

  20. A randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of music and relaxation interventions on perceived anxiety in hospitalized patients receiving orthopaedic or cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhouse, Diane R; Hurd, Mary; Cotter-Schaufele, Susan; Sulo, Suela; Sokolowski, Malgorzata; Barbour, Laurel

    2014-01-01

    Nonpharmacological interventions, including combinations of music, education, coping skills, and relaxation techniques, have been found to have a positive effect on patients' perceived anxiety in many settings. However, few research studies have assessed and compared the effectiveness of music and relaxation interventions in reducing the anxiety levels of orthopaedic and oncology patients. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to examine the effectiveness of music and relaxation interventions on perceived anxiety during initial hospitalization for patients receiving orthopaedic or cancer care treatment at a Midwestern teaching hospital. This was a pre-test/post-test study design utilizing the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. One hundred twelve patients were randomized into 3 study groups. Thirty-eight subjects (34%) were randomized in the music-focused relaxation group, 35 subjects (31%) in the music and video group, and 39 (35%) subjects in the control group. Fifty-seven (51%) were orthopaedic patients and 55 (49%) were oncology patients. Comparison of the 3 study groups showed no statistically significant differences with regard to patients' demographics. Although reduced anxiety levels were reported for all 3 groups postintervention, the differences were not statistically significant (p > .05). Also, there was no significant difference found between the perceived anxiety levels of patients admitted to the orthopaedic and oncology care units (p > .05). Finally, the results of the intragroup comparisons (regardless of the group assignment) showed a significant decrease in anxiety levels reported by all patients postintervention (p Music and relaxation interventions could be an additional tool in assisting patients to become less anxious during their hospital stay. Music focused relaxation and music and video are both valuable and cost-effective strategies that can assist the orthopaedic and oncology patient population. Identifying opportunities to

  1. Stochastic and Chaotic Relaxation Oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.

    1988-01-01

    For relaxation oscillators stochastic and chaotic dynamics are investigated. The effect of random perturbations upon the period is computed. For an extended system with additional state variables chaotic behavior can be expected. As an example, the Van der Pol oscillator is changed into a

  2. The Effects of Positive or Neutral Communication during Acupuncture for Relaxing Effects: A Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Rosén

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The link between patient-clinician communication and its effect on clinical outcomes is an important clinical issue that is yet to be elucidated. Objective. Investigating if communication type (positive or neutral about the expected treatment outcome affected (i participants’ expectations and (ii short-term relaxation effects in response to genuine or sham acupuncture and investigating if expectations were related to outcome. Methods. Healthy volunteers (n=243, mean age of 42 were randomized to one treatment with genuine or sham acupuncture. Within groups, participants were randomized to positive or neutral communication, regarding expected treatment effects. Visual Analogue Scales (0–100 millimeters were used to measure treatment expectations and relaxation, directly before and after treatment. Results. Participants in the positive communication group reported higher treatment expectancy, compared to the neutral communication group (md 12 versus 6 mm, p=0.002. There was no difference in relaxation effects between acupuncture groups or between communication groups. Participants with high baseline expectancy perceived greater improvement in relaxation, compared to participants with low baseline levels (md 27 versus 15 mm, p=0.022. Conclusion. Our data highlights the importance of expectations for treatment outcome and demonstrates that expectations can be effectively manipulated using a standardized protocol that in future research may be implemented in clinical trials.

  3. Local lattice relaxations in random metallic alloys: Effective tetrahedron model and supercell approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei; Simak, S.I.; Shallcross, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple effective tetrahedron model for local lattice relaxation effects in random metallic alloys on simple primitive lattices. A comparison with direct ab initio calculations for supercells representing random Ni0.50Pt0.50 and Cu0.25Au0.75 alloys as well as the dilute limit of Au-ri......-rich CuAu alloys shows that the model yields a quantitatively accurate description of the relaxtion energies in these systems. Finally, we discuss the bond length distribution in random alloys....

  4. Near-threshold photoionization of the Xe 3d spin-orbit doublet: Relativistic, relaxation, and intershell interaction effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radojevic, V.; Davidovic, D.M.; Amusia, M.Ya.

    2003-01-01

    Results of calculations of the near-threshold photoionization of the xenon 3d spin-orbit doublet are reported. Our theoretical analysis is undertaken in order to interpret and enlighten the very detailed measurements of this process [A. Kivimaeki et al., Phys. Rev. A 63, 012716 (2001)], which revealed a previously unobserved interesting feature--an additional broad maximum--in the partial xenon 3d 5/2 cross section. This double maximum was not produced by earlier calculations, except in the recent study by Amusia et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 093002 (2002)], which, in contrast to the present one, is not ab initio and relativistic in character. The partial photoionization cross sections of 3d 5/2 and 3d 3/2 subshells, photoelectron anisotropy parameters, and spin-polarization parameters that were so far not studied either experimentally or theoretically are calculated. Many-electron correlations, relativistic effects, and relaxation effects of the ionic core in the ionization process are taken into account by using the relativistic random-phase approximation, modified to include the relaxation of the considered subshell

  5. Effect of lithium on endothelium-dependent and neurogenic relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum: role of nitric oxide pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghipour, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Ebrahimi, Farzad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2007-02-01

    Some studies have reported erectile dysfunction in patients receiving lithium through a mechanism that has not yet been defined. The aim of the present study was to verify the effect of acute lithium administration on the nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC)- and endothelium-mediated relaxation of rat isolated corpus cavernosum. The isolated rat corporeal strips were precontracted with phenylephrine hydrochloride (7.5 microM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS) was applied at different frequencies (2, 5, 10, and 15 Hz) to obtain NANC-mediated relaxation or relaxed by adding cumulative doses of acetylcholine (10nM-1mM) to obtain endothelium-dependent relaxation in the presence or absence of lithium (0.3, 0.5, 1, and 5mM). Also, effects of combining lithium (0.3mM) with 30 nM and 0.1 nM L-NAME (an NO synthase inhibitor) on NANC- and acetylcholine-mediated relaxation was investigated, respectively. Moreover, effects of combining lithium (1mM) with 0.1mM and 10 microM L-arginine (a precursor of NO) on NANC- and endothelium-mediated relaxation was assessed, respectively. Also, the effect of lithium (1mM) on relaxation to sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 1nM-1mM), an NO donor, was investigated. The NANC-mediated relaxation was significantly (Pacetylcholine in a concentration-dependent manner. Combination of lithium (0.3mM) with 30 and 0.1 nM L-NAME, which separately had a minimum effect on NANC- and endothelium-mediated relaxation, significantly (Pacetylcholine and EFS, it improved the inhibition by lithium (1mM) of relaxant responses to acetylcholine and EFS, respectively. Also, SNP produced similar concentration-dependent relaxations from both groups. Our experiments indicated that lithium likely by interfering with NO pathway in both endothelium and nitrergic nerve can result in impairment of both the endothelium- and NANC-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum.

  6. The effects of progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control technique on blood pressure during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Aalami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are the main cause of maternal and fetal mortality; however, they have no definite effective treatment. The researchers aimed to study the effects of progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control technique on blood pressure (BP during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: This three-group clinical trial was conducted in Mashhad health centers and governmental hospitals. Sixty pregnant (after 20 weeks of gestational age women with systolic BP ≥ 135 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥ 85 mmHg were assigned to three groups. Progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control exercises were administered to the two experimental groups once a week in person and in the rest of the days by instructions given on a CD for 4 weeks. BP was checked before and after the interventions. BP was measured before and after 15 min subjects' waiting without any especial intervention in the control group. Results: After 4 weeks of intervention, the systolic (by a mean of 131.3 to 117.2, P = 0.001 and by a mean of 131.05 to 120.5, P = 0.004, respectively and diastolic (by a mean of 79.2 to 72.3, P = 0.001 and by a mean of 80.1 to 76.5, P = 0.047, respectively BPs were significantly decreased in progressive muscular relaxation and breathing control groups, but they were not statistically significant in the control group. Conclusions: The interventions were effective on decreasing systolic and diastolic BP to normal range after 4 weeks in both the groups. The effects of both the interventions were more obvious on systolic BP compared to diastolic BP.

  7. Relaxation dynamics in quantum dissipative systems: The microscopic effect of intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uranga-Piña, L. [Facultad de Física, Universidad de la Habana, San Lázaro y L, Vedado, 10400 Havana (Cuba); Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany); Tremblay, J. C., E-mail: jean.c.tremblay@gmail.com [Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Freie Universität Berlin, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-21

    We investigate the effect of inter-mode coupling on the vibrational relaxation dynamics of molecules in weak dissipative environments. The simulations are performed within the reduced density matrix formalism in the Markovian regime, assuming a Lindblad form for the system-bath interaction. The prototypical two-dimensional model system representing two CO molecules approaching a Cu(100) surface is adapted from an ab initio potential, while the diatom-diatom vibrational coupling strength is systematically varied. In the weak system-bath coupling limit and at low temperatures, only first order non-adiabatic uni-modal coupling terms contribute to surface-mediated vibrational relaxation. Since dissipative dynamics is non-unitary, the choice of representation will affect the evolution of the reduced density matrix. Two alternative representations for computing the relaxation rates and the associated operators are thus compared: the fully coupled spectral basis, and a factorizable ansatz. The former is well-established and serves as a benchmark for the solution of Liouville-von Neumann equation. In the latter, a contracted grid basis of potential-optimized discrete variable representation is tailored to incorporate most of the inter-mode coupling, while the Lindblad operators are represented as tensor products of one-dimensional operators, for consistency. This procedure results in a marked reduction of the grid size and in a much more advantageous scaling of the computational cost with respect to the increase of the dimensionality of the system. The factorizable method is found to provide an accurate description of the dissipative quantum dynamics of the model system, specifically of the time evolution of the state populations and of the probability density distribution of the molecular wave packet. The influence of intra-molecular vibrational energy redistribution appears to be properly taken into account by the new model on the whole range of coupling strengths. It

  8. Proton T2 relaxation effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide. Comparison between fast spin echo and conventional spin echo sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Akihiro; Satoh, Yoshinori; Higuchi, Nobuya; Izutsu, Mutsumu; Yuasa, Yuji; Hiramatsu, Kyoichi

    1995-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles have been known to show a great T 2 relaxation effect in the liver, which contributes to significant liver signal decrease and detection of hepatic neoplasms. Recently, fast spin echo (FSE) sequence with less scanning time than conventional spin echo (SE) sequence has been rapidly introduced in clinical MR imaging. To investigate whether SPIO would show decreased T 2 relaxation effect on FSE, we obtained T 2 relaxivity (R2) of SPIO in vitro and liver signal decrease caused by SPIO in vivo. SPIO showed 20% less R2 on Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence than on SE. Relative liver signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) decrease caused by SPIO was significantly smaller (p 2 relaxation effect on FSE than on SE. However, further studies will be required to assess the diagnostic capability of SPIO on FSE, in the detection of hepatic neoplasms. (author)

  9. Relaxant effect of ghrelin on guinea pig isolated tracheal smooth muscle: role of epithelial NO and PGE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ayed, Mohammed Saeed Zayed

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed at investigating the potential ghrelin relaxing effect on guinea pig isolated tracheal smooth muscle (TSM). Using an in vitro experimental approach, the physiological role of the airway epithelium on smooth muscle relaxation has been investigated by analyzing the dose-response curves for carbachol- or histamine-induced contractions on epithelium intact versus denuded tracheal tissue. The relaxant effect of ghrelin (5-200 μmol/L) then investigated on carbachol-contracted, non-sensitized, and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized guinea pig TSM with an intact or denuded epithelium. The isolated TSMs from identical guinea pigs were incubated in Krebs solution aerated with 95% O 2 and 5% CO 2 through an automated tissue organ bath system (n = 6 for each group). The ghrelin relaxation mechanism was assessed by adding L-NAME, indomethacin, and YIL-781 for GHS-R1 into the tissue chamber. The spasmogens carbachol and histamine have shown a significantly higher contracting effect on epithelium-denuded than in epithelium-intact TSM confirmed by the significantly higher mean pEC50 of both agonists on the epithelium-denuded trachea (p < 0.05). Ghrelin has shown a concentration-dependent relaxing effect on carbachol-contracted TSM (r = 0.96, p = 0.00). The effect was more evident in the intact non-sensitized than in epithelium-denuded or OVA-sensitized groups (p < 0.05). Preincubation with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) inhibitors has significantly reduced the ghrelin-induced relaxation on epithelium-intact TSM suggesting an epithelium-dependant mechanism. However, GHS-R1a antagonist has also succeeded to reduce ghrelin relaxant effect, which needs further clarification. Ghrelin proved to have a potential TSM relaxant effect possibly through epithelium-dependant mechanisms involving NO and PGE 2 .

  10. Effectiveness of autogenic relaxation training on children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, Lutz; Schmid, Katharina

    2003-09-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of autogenic relaxation training in a mildly disturbed outpatient population of children and adolescents with mostly internalizing symptoms, and/or some aggressive, impulsive, or attention deficit symptoms. Fifty children and adolescents from southern Germany (mean age 10.2 years; range 6-15 years; mostly intact middle class family background) participated in a group intervention program. Fifteen patients were randomly assigned to a waiting-list control group. Behavior symptoms (Child Behavior Checklist), psychosomatic complaints (Giessen Complaint List), and level of stress were assessed before and after the intervention or after the waiting phase. Individual goal attainment was evaluated at the end of the intervention and in a 3-month follow-up. The parent report on CBCL reflected reduced symptoms compared with control. The child report indicated reduced stress and psychosomatic complaints both in the intervention and control group, and no significant group x time interaction effects occurred on these scales. Effect sizes of 0.49 in the CBCL and 0.36 in the complaint list indicated clinically relevant effects of the intervention compared with the control group. At the end of the intervention, 56% of the children and 55% of the parents reported partial goal attainment, 38% of the children and 30% of the parents reported complete goal attainment; 71% of the parents confirmed partial goal attainment 3 months postintervention. Autogenic relaxation training is an effective broadband method for children and adolescents.

  11. Effects of surface relaxation and reconstruction on the vibration characteristics of nanobeams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wen-Ming; Hu, Kai-Ming; Peng, Zhi-Ke; Meng, Guang; Yang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Surface effects on the free vibration characteristics of nanobeams are investigated by a modified continuum model. In this paper, the relationship between the parameters of the modified continuum model of surface effects including surface elasticity, surface density, and residual surface stresses, and the parameters of the atomistic lattice model such as surface relaxation and reconstruction in nanobeams is characterized by an atomistic lattice model. The surface effects are incorporated into nanobeams to develop a modified continuum model depicting the free vibrational behavior of nanobeams. The model is validated with the experimental data of an effective size-dependent Young’s modulus and the previous theoretical results. The results demonstrate that both surface elasticity and surface density vary exponentially with surface layer thickness. Therefore, surface elasticity and density can be affected by surface relaxation and residual surface stresses can be induced by surface reconstruction. The natural frequencies of doubly clamped nanobeams can be affected by the dimensions of the nanobeams, surface layer thickness, and residual surface stress. This work may be helpful for understanding surface effects and their influence on the vibrational behavior of nanobeams. (paper)

  12. GRAIN ALIGNMENT INDUCED BY RADIATIVE TORQUES: EFFECTS OF INTERNAL RELAXATION OF ENERGY AND COMPLEX RADIATION FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Thiem; Lazarian, A.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies of grain alignment dealt mostly with interstellar grains that have strong internal relaxation of energy which aligns the grain axis of maximum moment of inertia (the axis of major inertia) with respect to the grain's angular momentum. In this paper, we study the alignment by radiative torques for large irregular grains, e.g., grains in accretion disks, for which internal relaxation is subdominant. We use both numerical calculations and the analytical model of a helical grain introduced by us earlier. We demonstrate that grains in such a regime exhibit more complex dynamics. In particular, if initially the grain axis of major inertia makes a small angle with angular momentum, then radiative torques can align the grain axis of major inertia with angular momentum, and both the axis of major inertia and angular momentum are aligned with the magnetic field when attractors with high angular momentum (high-J attractors) are available. For alignment without high-J attractors, beside the earlier studied attractors with low angular momentum (low-J attractors), there appear new low-J attractors. In addition, we also study the alignment of grains in the presence of strong internal relaxation, but induced not by a radiation beam as in earlier studies but instead induced by a complex radiation field that can be decomposed into dipole and quadrupole components. We found that in this situation the parameter space q max , for which high-J attractors exist in trajectory maps, is more extended, resulting in the higher degree of polarization expected. Our results are useful for modeling polarization arising from aligned dust grains in molecular clouds.

  13. Effects of BM-573 on Endothelial Dependent Relaxation and Increased Blood Pressure at Early Stages of Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Romero

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an early event in atherosclerosis and plays a pivotal role in the development, progression and clinical complications of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown the beneficial effects of combined inhibition of thromboxane synthase and antagonism of thromboxane receptors by BM-573 on atherosclerosis; however our knowledge about the beneficial effects of BM-573 on endothelial function and increased blood pressure related to early stage of atherosclerosis is limited. In the present study, we investigated the effects of short-term (3 μM, 1 hour and chronic (10 mg/L, 8 weeks treatments with BM-573 on vasodilatory function, nitric oxide (NO bioavailability, oxidative stress and systolic blood pressure in 15 weeks old apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-KO mice. ApoE-KO mice showed a reduced endothelium-derived relaxation. In addition, NO bioavailability was reduced and oxidative stress and blood pressure were increased in ApoE-KO mice versus wild-type mice. BM-573 treatments were able to improve the relaxation profile in ApoE-KO mice. Short-term effects of BM-573 were mainly mediated by an increased phosphorylation of both eNOS and Akt, whereas BM-573 in vivo treatment also reduced oxidative stress and restored NO bioavailability. In addition, chronic administration of BM-573 reduced systolic blood pressure in ApoE-KO mice. In conclusion, pharmacological modulation of TxA2 biosynthesis and biological activities by dual TP antagonism/TxAS inhibition with BM-573, already known to prevent plaque formation, has the potential to correct vasodilatory dysfunction at the early stages of atherosclerosis.

  14. [Electroencephalographic effects of chlorphenesin carbamate, a new central muscle relaxant, in rabbits (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, S; Araki, H; Kawasaki, H; Ueki, S

    1977-05-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) effects of chlorphenesin carbamate were investigated in rabbits with chronic electrode implants, and compared with those of chlormezanone and methocarbamol. Chlorphenesin carbamate (50 mg/kg i.v., 100 mg/kg i.d.) induced a drowsy pattern of spontaneous EEG consisting of high voltage slow waves in the cortex and amygdala, and desynchronization of hippocampal theta waves. Chlormezanone also elicited similar EEG changes but such were much more potent than chlorphenesin carbamate. Methocarbamol showed no effect on spontaneous EEG. Chlorphenesin carbamate caused sedation in this period and muscle relaxation was more potent than that of chlormezanone. The EEG arousal response to auditory stimulation and to electric stimulation of the posterior hypothalamus, centromedian thalamus and mesencephalic reticular formation was slightly depressed by chlorphenesin carbamate. Chlorphenesin carbamate, as with chlormezanone, markedly depressed the limbic afterdischarges elicited by hippocampal stimulation. These EEG effects of chlorphenesin carbamate were qualitatively similar to but much weaker than those of chlormezanone, whereas the muscle relaxant effect of chlorphenesin carbamate was more potent than that of chlormezanone.

  15. The Effect of Benson Relaxation on Quality of Life of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common functional disorders of the lower gastrointestinal tract that is characterized by abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits. This disorder changes the quality of life of patients. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of Benson relaxation on quality of life of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Methods This was a clinical trial study with 46 patients, who were randomly divided to two groups including Benson relaxation and control group. The experimental group exercised 20 minutes daily for three two months, while no intervention program was held for the control group. The data collection tools were a demographic form and SF-34 Questionnaire that were used to gather data one week before and two months after the intervention. Then data were analyzed using the SPSS version 19 software. Results The results indicated the mean total quality of life score in test group after intervention was changed from 93.13 to 57.61 while the control group was changed from 105.65 to 96.43 (P ≤ 0.001. There was a significant difference in six dimensions of quality of life including dysphoria (P ≤ 0.001, social reaction (P ≤ 0.001, health worry (P ≤ 0.001, body image (P ≤ 0.001, interpersonal relation (P = 0.004 and activities interference (P = 0.001 between the two groups, but no significant difference was found in food abstinence (P = 0.244 and sexual worry (P = 0.830. Conclusions The findings showed that Benson relaxation training might be an effective therapy for improving quality of life in patients with IBS.

  16. Momentum constraint relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marronetti, Pedro

    2006-01-01

    Full relativistic simulations in three dimensions invariably develop runaway modes that grow exponentially and are accompanied by violations of the Hamiltonian and momentum constraints. Recently, we introduced a numerical method (Hamiltonian relaxation) that greatly reduces the Hamiltonian constraint violation and helps improve the quality of the numerical model. We present here a method that controls the violation of the momentum constraint. The method is based on the addition of a longitudinal component to the traceless extrinsic curvature A ij -tilde, generated by a vector potential w i , as outlined by York. The components of w i are relaxed to solve approximately the momentum constraint equations, slowly pushing the evolution towards the space of solutions of the constraint equations. We test this method with simulations of binary neutron stars in circular orbits and show that it effectively controls the growth of the aforementioned violations. We also show that a full numerical enforcement of the constraints, as opposed to the gentle correction of the momentum relaxation scheme, results in the development of instabilities that stop the runs shortly

  17. Mechanical relaxation in glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiki, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The basic properties of glasses and the characteristics of mechanical relaxation in glasses were briefly reviewed, and then our studies concerned were presented. Experimental methods adopted were viscosity, internal friction, ultrasonic attenuation, and Brillouin scattering measurements. The specimens used were several kinds of inorganic, organic, and metallic glasses. The measurements were mainly carried out from the room temperature up to the glass transition temperature, and the relaxation time was determined as a function of temperature. The 'double relaxation' composed of two Arrhenius-type relaxations was observed in many materials. In both relaxations, the 'compensation effect' showing a correlation of the pre-exponential factor and the activation energy was observed. These results were explained by considering the 'complex relaxation' due to cooperative motions of atoms or group of atoms. Values of activation energy near the glass transition determined by the various experimental methods were compared with each other

  18. Effect of two yoga-based relaxation techniques on memory scores and state anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telles Shirley

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A yoga practice involving cycles of yoga postures and supine rest (called cyclic meditation was previously shown to improve performance in attention tasks more than relaxation in the corpse posture (shavasana. This was ascribed to reduced anxiety, though this was not assessed. Methods In fifty-seven male volunteers (group average age ± S.D., 26.6 ± 4.5 years the immediate effect of two yoga relaxation techniques was studied on memory and state anxiety. All participants were assessed before and after (i Cyclic meditation (CM practiced for 22:30 minutes on one day and (ii an equal duration of Supine rest (SR or the corpse posture (shavasana, on another day. Sections of the Wechsler memory scale (WMS were used to assess; (i attention and concentration (digit span forward and backward, and (ii associate learning. State anxiety was assessed using Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI. Results There was a significant improvement in the scores of all sections of the WMS studied after both CM and SR, but, the magnitude of change was more after CM compared to after SR. The state anxiety scores decreased after both CM and SR, with a greater magnitude of decrease after CM. There was no correlation between percentage change in memory scores and state anxiety for either session. Conclusion A cyclical combination of yoga postures and supine rest in CM improved memory scores immediately after the practice and decreased state anxiety more than rest in a classical yoga relaxation posture (shavasana.

  19. Oral Mucosal Injection of a Local Anesthetic Solution Containing Epinephrine Enhances Muscle Relaxant Effects of Rocuronium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Asako; Terakawa, Yui; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Ichinohe, Tatsuya; Kaneko, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how submucosal injection of a clinically relevant dose of a lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing epinephrine affects the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. Sixteen patients scheduled for orthognathic surgery participated in this study. All patients were induced with fentanyl citrate, a target-controlled infusion of propofol and rocuronium bromide. Anesthesia was maintained by total intravenous anesthesia. After nasotracheal intubation, an infusion of rocuronium bromide was started at 7 µg/kg/min, and the infusion rate was then adjusted to maintain a train of four (TOF) ratio at 10 to 15%. The TOF ratio just prior to oral mucosal injection of a 1% lidocaine hydrochloride solution containing 10 µg/mL epinephrine (LE) was taken as the baseline. TOF ratio was observed for 20 minutes, with 1-minute intervals following the start of injection. Mean epinephrine dose was 85.6 ± 18.6 µg and mean infusion rate of rocuronium bromide was 6.3 ± 1.6 µg/kg/min. TOF ratio began to decrease 2 minutes after the injection of LE, reached the minimum value at 3.1 ± 3.6% 12 minutes after the injection, and then began to recover. We conclude that oral mucosal injection of LE enhances the muscle relaxant effects of rocuronium bromide. PMID:22428970

  20. Effect of deformation history on the stress relaxation behaviour of Colombian Caribbean coastal cheese from goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Diego F; Acevedo, Diofanor; Torres-Gallo, Ramiro

    2018-01-01

    Textural attributes are a manifestation of the rheological properties and physical structure of foods, cheeses among these. In order to describe these physical properties, the objective of this work was to analyse the effect of deformation history on the stress relaxation behaviour of Colombian Caribbean coastal cheese made from goat milk with 3.75% (F1), 4.00% (F2) and 4.25% (F3) fat content, through prediction made by a four-term Prony series based on Chen's model. For this, stress relaxation data and stress relaxation spectra were analysed. Moreover, textural attributes by texture profile analysis were measured. Physicochemical results were similar to those published by other authors, and all samples meet national and international standards. Results from this work showed that Chen's model could be successfully used to describe the effect of deformation history on the stress relaxation behaviour of Colombian Caribbean coastal cheese made from goat milk. F1 had the highest elastic response, with the most significant residual modules ( P 0 ) and relaxation times (τ 1 , τ 2 and τ 3 ). On the other hand, residual modules and relaxation times (τ 1 , τ 2 and τ 3 ) for cheeses F2 and F3 did not present statistically significant differences (p > 0.05). Besides, by interpretation of the stress relaxation spectra, F1 presented the firmest structure (greatest distribution function and relaxation time) which was characterised by the highest elastic behaviour. Finally, according to texture profile analysis test, F1 had the highest hardness, cohesiveness and chewiness, whereas F2 and F3 did not present statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between them.

  1. [The effect of EMG level by EMG biofeedback with progressive muscle relaxation training on tension headache].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, U J; Kim, N C; Kim, H S

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess if EMG biofeedback training with progressive muscle relaxation training is effective in reducing the EMG level in patients with tension headaches. This study which lasted from 23 October to 30 December 1989, was conducted on 10 females who were diagnosed as patients with tension headaches and selected from among volunteers at C. University in Seoul. The process of the study was as follows: First, before the treatment, the baseline was measured for two weeks and the level of EMG was measured five times in five minutes. And then EMG biofeedback training was used for six weeks, 12 sessions in all, and progressive muscle relaxation was done at home by audio tape over eight weeks. Each session was composed of a 5-minute baseline, two 5-minute EMG biofeedback training periods and a 5-minute self-control stage. Each stage was followed by a five minute rest period. So each session took a total of 40 minutes. The EMG level was measured by EMG biofeedback (Autogenic-Cyborg: M 130 EMG module). The results were as follows: 1. The average age of the subjects was 44.1 years and the average history of headache was 10.6 years (range: 6 months-20 years). 2. The level of EMG was lowest between the third and the fourth week of the training except in Cases I and IV. 3. The patients began to show a nonconciliatory attitude at the first session of the fifth week of the training.

  2. The effects of actors vocal exercises for relaxation on fluency: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteagudo, Emily; Sawyer, Jean; Sivek-Eskra, Alyssa

    2017-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of treatment based on Kristin Linklater's technique for vocal preparation for performance for use with people who stutter. A protocol for a treatment for stuttering involving breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and focus on awareness was designed by the first author from Linklater's published exercises in her book Freeing the Natural Voice (2006). Four adults who stutter participated in a 12-week, single-case reversal design study. Treatment efficacy was determined by baseline and post-treatment measures on the OASES, self-report naturalness, tension and severity scale, and percentage of stuttering-like disfluency (SLD). Qualitative measures included a daily tension and practice log, a program completion questionnaire, and accounts from the clinicians administering the treatment protocol. Three of four participants scored lower on the OASES post-treatment, suggesting that the impact of stuttering on their daily lives had decreased. All four experienced a reduction in the number of SLD counted throughout treatment sessions compared to baseline data. A treatment for stuttering based on Linklater's work including regulation of breathing, relaxation, and awareness of breath may be effective in improving fluency and decreasing the impact of stuttering and warrants further study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mass transfer effect of the stalk contraction-relaxation cycle of Vorticella convallaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiazhong; Admiraal, David; Ryu, Sangjin

    2014-11-01

    Vorticella convallaria is a genus of protozoa living in freshwater. Its stalk contracts and coil pulling the cell body towards the substrate at a remarkable speed, and then relaxes to its extended state much more slowly than the contraction. However, the reason for Vorticella's stalk contraction is still unknown. It is presumed that water flow induced by the stalk contraction-relaxation cycle may augment mass transfer near the substrate. We investigated this hypothesis using an experimental model with particle tracking velocimetry and a computational fluid dynamics model. In both approaches, Vorticella was modeled as a solid sphere translating perpendicular to a solid surface in water. After having been validated by the experimental model and verified by grid convergence index test, the computational model simulated water flow during the cycle based on the measured time course of stalk length changes of Vorticella. Based on the simulated flow field, we calculated trajectories of particles near the model Vorticella, and then evaluated the mass transfer effect of Vorticella's stalk contraction based on the particles' motion. We acknowlege support from Laymann Seed Grant of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

  4. (ajst) additive main effects and multiplicative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-08-02

    Aug 2, 2013 ... genotypes assessed by biplot analysis showed that the most stable ... biplot is a useful tool for the analysis of multi-environment trial (MET) data. ... multiplicative components, extracting first the additive ... The AMMI analysis of variance of cassava harvest index of the 8 .... wheat mega-environments in Iran.

  5. Is cognitive-behavioural therapy more effective than relaxation therapy in the treatment of anxiety disorders? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Garcia-Campayo, Javier; López-Montoyo, Alba; Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Edurne; Cuijpers, Pim

    2018-07-01

    It is not clear whether relaxation therapies are more or less effective than cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of anxiety. The aims of the present study were to examine the effects of relaxation techniques compared to cognitive and behavioural therapies in reducing anxiety symptoms, and whether they have comparable efficacy across disorders. We conducted a meta-analysis of 50 studies (2801 patients) comparing relaxation training with cognitive and behavioural treatments of anxiety. The overall effect size (ES) across all anxiety outcomes, with only one combined ES in each study, was g = -0.27 [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.41 to -0.13], favouring cognitive and behavioural therapies (number needed to treat = 6.61). However, no significant difference between relaxation and cognitive and behavioural therapies was found for generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder and specific phobias (considering social anxiety and specific phobias separately). Heterogeneity was moderate (I2 = 52; 95% CI = 33-65). The ES was significantly associated with age (p cognitive and/or behavioural therapy (p = 0.015), quality of intervention (p = 0.007), relaxation treatment format (p cognitive and behavioural therapies in the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder and it might also be less effective at 1-year follow-up for panic, but there is no evidence that it is less effective for other anxiety disorders.

  6. Effectiveness of passive stretching versus hold relax technique in flexibility of hamstring muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shankar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effectiveness of passive stretching and hold relax technique in the flexibility of hamstring muscle. Methods: A total of 80 normal healthy female subjects between age group 20-30 years referred to the department of physiotherapy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University, sampling method being convenient sampling. The subjects were randomly divided in two groups i.e. passive stretching group (n=40 and PNF group (n=40 and given passive stretching and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique respectively. Active knee extension range was measured before and after the intervention by goniometer. Results: t test showed a highly significant (p=0.000 increase in range of motion in PNF group. Conclusion: Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation technique is more effective in increasing hamstring flexibility than the passive stretching.

  7. Stretched-exponential relaxation of the nonlinear dielectric effect in a critical binary solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzoska, Sylwester J.; Górny, Michał; Zioło, Jerzy

    1991-01-01

    An experimental confirmation is given of the existence of a stretched-exponential relaxation of the form exp[-(t/τ)x] with x~=0.39 in a binary solution with an upper critical point. The nonlinear dielectric effect (NDE) method was used for this experiment. Results obtained are similar to those reported earlier by Piazza et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 1642 (1986); Phys. Rev. B 38, 7223 (1988)] based on the Kerr-effect measurements in solutions with a lower critical point. Studies could be carried out in the immediate vicinity of the critical point, because the application of the NDE is not restricted by the appearance of the critical opalescence.

  8. Effects of Stress and Relaxation on Central Pain Modulation in Chronic Whiplash and Fibromyalgia Patients Compared to Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppieters, Iris; Cagnie, Barbara; Nijs, Jo; van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Danneels, Lieven; De Pauw, Robby; Meeus, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Compelling evidence has demonstrated that impaired central pain modulation contributes to persistent pain in patients with chronic whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and fibromyalgia (FM). However, there is limited research concerning the influence of stress and relaxation on central pain modulation in patients with chronic WAD and FM. The present study aims to investigate the effects of acute cognitive stress and relaxation on central pain modulation in chronic WAD and FM patients compared to healthy individuals. A randomized crossover design was employed. The present study took place at the University of Brussels, the University Hospital Brussels, and the University of Antwerp. Fifty-nine participants (16 chronic WAD patients, 21 FM, 22 pain-free controls) were enrolled and subjected to various pain measurements. Temporal summation (TS) of pain and conditioned pain modulation (CPM) were evaluated. Subsequently, participants were randomly allocated to either a group that received progressive relaxation therapy or a group that performed a battery of cognitive tests (= cognitive stressor). Afterwards, all pain measurements were repeated. One week later participant groups were switched. A significant difference was found between the groups in the change in TS in response to relaxation (P = 0.008) and cognitive stress (P = 0.003). TS decreased in response to relaxation and cognitive stress in chronic WAD patients and controls. In contrast, TS increased after both interventions in FM patients. CPM efficacy decreased in all 3 groups in response to relaxation (P = 0.002) and cognitive stress (P = 0.001). The obtained results only apply for a single session of muscle relaxation therapy and cognitive stress, whereby no conclusions can be made for effects on pain perception and modulation of chronic cognitive stress and long-term relaxation therapies. A single relaxation session as well as cognitive stress may have negative acute effects on pain modulation in patients with

  9. Effect of water-methanol mixed solvents on the ultrasonic relaxation of cadmium acetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sree Rama Murthy, J.; Ramachandra Rao, B.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of ultrasonic absorption have been made by pulse technique in 1 M solutions of cadmium acetate with water-methanol mixed solvents. Results are analysed by assuming a single relaxation mechanism. The characteristic frequency of relaxation is found to decrease with increasing composition of methanol in the solvent. It is proposed that the mechanism of relaxation may be perturbation of chemical equilibrium between complex CdAc + ions and Cd ++ , Ac - species by soundwaves. (author)

  10. Composition effect of potassium-borate glasses on their relaxation properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomovskoj, V.A.; Bartenev, G.M.

    1995-01-01

    Relaxation processes in potassium-borate glasses have been investigated in detail for the first time. It is shown that low-temperature β-process of relaxation relating to rotational mobility of the B-O bond is the same for all potassium-borate glasses and B 2 O 3 . The process of β k -relaxation related to diffusion mobility of potassium ions depends on the composition of the glasses in the same way as α-relaxation (glass formation).12 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Effect of high pressure on the relaxation dynamics of glass-forming liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, M; Grzybowska, K; Grzybowski, A [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ulica Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2007-05-23

    A glass is usually formed by cooling a liquid at a rate sufficient to avoid crystallization. In the vicinity of the glass transition the structural relaxation time increases with lowering temperature in a non-Arrhenius fashion and the structural relaxation function reveals a non-Debye behaviour. However, liquid can be also vitrified by keeping it at a constant temperature and increasing the pressure. This pressure-induced transition to the glassy state is also accompanied by dramatic changes in the relaxation dynamics. Herein we discuss the behaviour of the structural relaxation times of glass-forming liquids and polymer melts under high pressure.

  12. Effect of high pressure on the relaxation dynamics of glass-forming liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paluch, M; Grzybowska, K; Grzybowski, A

    2007-01-01

    A glass is usually formed by cooling a liquid at a rate sufficient to avoid crystallization. In the vicinity of the glass transition the structural relaxation time increases with lowering temperature in a non-Arrhenius fashion and the structural relaxation function reveals a non-Debye behaviour. However, liquid can be also vitrified by keeping it at a constant temperature and increasing the pressure. This pressure-induced transition to the glassy state is also accompanied by dramatic changes in the relaxation dynamics. Herein we discuss the behaviour of the structural relaxation times of glass-forming liquids and polymer melts under high pressure

  13. The effect of relaxing music on heart rate and heart rate variability during ECG GATED-myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yusuf Ziya; Ozdemir, Semra; Temiz, Ahmet; Celik, Fatmanur

    2015-05-01

    The positive changes in human behavior caused by relaxing music demonstrate the psychological effect of music on human body. A meta-analytical study has shown that relaxing music affects blood pressure and heart rate in coronary heart patients and cancer patients. The aim of our study is to research whether there is a significant effect on heart rate and heart rate variability due to listening to relaxing music during ECG GATED MPS imaging under gamma camera. The music group (n = 50 patients) could choose from 15 different musical types including folk music (no lyric). The other 50 patients were placed in a "no music group" and did not get headphones or any music. There was a statistically significant reduction in the heart rate of patients in the music group compared to those in the control group. Relaxing music provides great benefits to both patient and clinician. There is close relationship between relaxing music and health procedure, can use every area of the health noninvasiv, safe, cheap and is a method don't have side effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The effects of Chinese calligraphy handwriting and relaxation training in Chinese Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Ling; Li, Huan-Huan; Hong, Ming-Huang; Kao, Henry S R

    2010-05-01

    Chinese calligraphy handwriting is the practice of traditional Chinese brush writing, researches found calligraphy had therapeutic effects on certain diseases, some authors argued that calligraphy might have relaxation effect. This study was to compare the effects of calligraphy handwriting with those of progressive muscle relaxation and imagery training in Chinese Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma patients. This study was a randomized controlled trial. Two hundred and eighty-seven Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma patients were approached, ninety (31%) patients were recruited and randomized to one of the three treatment groups: progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery training group, Calligraphy handwriting group, or a Control group. Seventy-nine (87.8%) completed all of the outcome measures. The primary treatment outcome was the changes of physiological arousal parameters measured by pre- and post-treatment differences of heart rate, blood pressure and respiration rate. The secondary outcomes included: modified Chinese version of Symptom Distress Scale, Profile of Mood State-Short Form, and Karnofsky Performance Status measured at baseline, during treatment (after the 2-week intervention), post-treatment (after the 4-week intervention) and after a 2-week follow-up. Effectiveness was tested by repeated measure ANOVA analyses. Cancer centre of a major university hospital in Guangdong, China. Results showed that both of calligraphy and relaxation training demonstrated slow-down effects on physiological arousal parameters. Moreover, calligraphy practice gradually lowered participants' systolic blood pressure (simple main effect of time at pre-treatment measure, p=.007) and respiration rate (p=.000) at pre- and post-treatment measures as the intervention proceeded, though with a smaller effect size as compared to relaxation. Both of calligraphy and relaxation training had certain symptom relief and mood improvement effects in NPC patients. Relaxation was effective in relieving

  15. Effect of prolonged incubation with copper on endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat isolated aorta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarugi, Alberto; Pitari, Giovanni Mario; Costa, Rosa; Ferrante, Margherita; Villari, Loredana; Amico-Roxas, Matilde; Godfraind, Théophile; Bianchi, Alfredo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effects of prolonged exposure to copper (Cu2+) on vascular functioning of isolated rat aorta. Aortic rings were exposed to CuSO4 (3–24 h) in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium with or without 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) and then challenged with vasoconstrictors or vasodilators in the absence of Cu2+. Exposure to 2 μM Cu2+ in the absence of FBS did not modify the response to phenylephrine (PE) or acetylcholine (ACh) in aortic rings incubated for 24 h. Identical exposure in the presence of FBS increased the contractile response to 1 μM PE by 30% (P<0.05) and impaired the relaxant response to 3 μM ACh or 1 μM A23187 (ACh, from 65.7±7.1 to 6.2±1.1%, n=8; A23187, from 74.6±8.2 to 12.0±0.8%, n=6; P<0.01 for both). Cu2+ exposure did not affect the relaxant response to NO-donors. Impairment of vasorelaxation appeared 3 h after incubation with 2 μM Cu2+ and required 12 h to attain a steady state. Vasorelaxation to ACh was partially restored by 1 mM tiron (intracellular scavenger of superoxide ions; maximum relaxation 34.2±6.4%, n=10, P<0.01 vs Cu2+ alone), whereas catalase, superoxide dismutase or cycloheximide were ineffective. Twenty-four hour-exposure to 2 μM Cu2+ did not affect endothelium integrity or eNOS expression, and increased the Cu content in arterial rings from 6.8±1.1 to 18.9±2.9 ng mg−1 wet weight, n=8; P<0.01. Our results show that, in the presence of FBS, prolonged exposure to submicromolar concentrations of Cu2+ impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in aortic rings, probably through an intracellular generation of superoxide ions. PMID:12163352

  16. Cherenkov and anomalous Doppler effects in the relaxation of an electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muschietti, L.; Appert, K.; Vaclavik, J.

    1981-01-01

    The interplay between the Cherenkov and anomalous Doppler interactions in the relaxation of a warm electron beam is investigated by numerical means. The most important feature in the interplay is found to be a nonelastic isotropization. A simple semianalytical model which allows one to estimate various quantities relevant to the relaxation process is also presented

  17. Differential Effectiveness of Electromyograph Feedback, Verbal Relaxation Instructions, and Medication Placebo with Tension Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Daniel J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Adults with chronic tension headaches were assigned to auditory electromyograph (EMG) feedback (N=9), to progressive relaxation (N=9), and to placebo treatment (N=9). Data indicated that biofeedback and verbal relaxation instructions were equally superior to the medicine placebo on all measured variables in the direction of clinical improvement,…

  18. Effect of magnetic field on charge imbalance relaxation of non-equilibrium superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Kazuki; Yagi, Ryuta

    2010-01-01

    We have studied relaxation of charge imbalance of non-equilibrium superconductivity in magnetic field. We found that excess current due to charge imbalance showed striking dependence on magnitude of magnetic field and its orientation. We discussed origin of the relaxation.

  19. Acute effects of 15min static or contract-relax stretching modalities on plantar flexors neuromuscular properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babault, Nicolas; Kouassi, Blah Y L; Desbrosses, Kevin

    2010-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the immediate effects of 15 min static or sub-maximal contract-relax stretching modalities on the neuromuscular properties of plantar flexor muscles. Ten male volunteers were tested before and immediately after 15 min static or contract-relax stretching programs of plantar flexor muscles (20 stretches). Static stretching consisted in 30s stretches to the point of discomfort. For the contract-relax stretching modality, subjects performed 6s sub-maximal isometric plantar flexion before 24s static stretches. Measurements included maximal voluntary isometric torque (MVT) and the corresponding electromyographic activity of soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles (RMS values), as well as maximal peak torque (Pt) elicited at rest by single supramaximal electrical stimulation of the tibial nerve. After 15 min stretching, significant MVT and SOL RMS decreases were obtained (-6.9+/-11.6% and -6.5+/-15.4%, respectively). No difference was obtained between stretching modalities. Pt remained unchanged after stretching. MG RMS changes were significantly different between stretching modalities (-9.4+/-18.3% and +3.5+/-11.6% after static and contract-relax stretching modalities, respectively). These findings indicated that performing 15 min static or contract-relax stretching had detrimental effects on the torque production capacity of plantar flexor muscles and should be precluded before competition. Mechanisms explaining this alteration seemed to be stretch modality dependent. Copyright 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of contract-relax vs static stretching on stretch-induced strength loss and length-tension relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, S S; Magnusson, S P; McHugh, M P

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute effects of contract-relax stretching (CRS) vs static stretching (SS) on strength loss and the length-tension relationship. We hypothesized that there would be a greater muscle length-specific effect of CRS vs SS. Isometric hamstring strength wa...

  1. Complete relaxation and conformational exchange matrix (CORCEMA) analysis of intermolecular saturation transfer effects in reversibly forming ligand-receptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayalakshmi, V; Krishna, N Rama

    2002-03-01

    A couple of recent applications of intermolecular NOE (INOE) experiments as applied to biomolecular systems involve the (i) saturation transfer difference NMR (STD-NMR) method and (ii) the intermolecular cross-saturation NMR (ICS-NMR) experiment. STD-NMR is a promising tool for rapid screening of a large library of compounds to identify bioactive ligands binding to a target protein. Additionally, it is also useful in mapping the binding epitopes presented by a bioactive ligand to its target protein. In this latter application, the STD-NMR technique is essentially similar to the ICS-NMR experiment, which is used to map protein-protein or protein-nucleic acid contact surfaces in complexes. In this work, we present a complete relaxation and conformational exchange matrix (CORCEMA) theory (H. N. B. Moseley et al., J. Magn. Reson. B 108, 243-261 (1995)) applicable for these two closely related experiments. As in our previous work, we show that when exchange is fast on the relaxation rate scale, a simplified CORCEMA theory can be formulated using a generalized average relaxation rate matrix. Its range of validity is established by comparing its predictions with those of the exact CORCEMA theory which is valid for all exchange rates. Using some ideal model systems we have analyzed the factors that influence the ligand proton intensity changes when the resonances from some protons on the receptor protein are saturated. The results show that the intensity changes in the ligand signals in an intermolecular NOE experiment are very much dependent upon: (1) the saturation time, (2) the location of the saturated receptor protons with respect to the ligand protons, (3) the conformation of the ligand-receptor interface, (4) the rotational correlation times for the molecular species, (5) the kinetics of the reversibly forming complex, and (6) the ligand/receptor ratio. As an example of a typical application of the STD-NMR experiment we have also simulated the STD effects for a

  2. Escape time, relaxation, and sticky states of a softened Henon-Heiles model: Low-frequency vibrational mode effects and glass relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2018-04-01

    Here we study the relaxation of a chain consisting of three masses joined by nonlinear springs and periodic conditions when the stiffness is weakened. This system, when expressed in their normal coordinates, yields a softened Henon-Heiles system. By reducing the stiffness of one low-frequency vibrational mode, a faster relaxation is enabled. This is due to a reduction of the energy barrier heights along the softened normal mode as well as for a widening of the opening channels of the energy landscape in configurational space. The relaxation is for the most part exponential, and can be explained by a simple flux equation. Yet, for some initial conditions the relaxation follows as a power law, and in many cases there is a regime change from exponential to power-law decay. We pinpoint the initial conditions for the power-law decay, finding two regions of sticky states. For such states, quasiperiodic orbits are found since almost for all components of the initial momentum orientation, the system is trapped inside two pockets of configurational space. The softened Henon-Heiles model presented here is intended as the simplest model in order to understand the interplay of rigidity, nonlinear interactions and relaxation for nonequilibrium systems such as glass-forming melts or soft matter. Our softened system can be applied to model β relaxation in glasses and suggest that local reorientational jumps can have an exponential and a nonexponential contribution for relaxation, the latter due to asymmetric molecules sticking in cages for certain orientations.

  3. Skeletal muscle relaxant effect of a standardized extract of Valeriana officinalis L. after acute administration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Caudal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Valeriana officinalis L. root extracts are traditionally taken for their sedative and anxiolytic properties and are also used for muscle relaxation. Relaxant effects were clearly observed on smooth muscle whereas data on effects on skeletal muscle are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess whether a standardized extract (SE of V. officinalis had myorelaxant effects by decreasing skeletal muscle strength and/or neuromuscular tone in mice. Mice received an acute dose of V. officinalis SE (2 or 5 g/kg per os or tetrazepam (10 mg/kg ip, a standard myorelaxant drug. Thirty minutes later, the maximal muscle strength was measured using a grip test, while global skeletal muscle function (endurance and neuromuscular tone was assessed in a wire hanging test. Compared to tetrazepam, both doses of V. officinalis SE induced a pronounced decrease in skeletal muscle strength without any significant effects on endurance and neuromuscular tone. This study provides clear evidence that the extract of V. officinalis tested has a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle. By decreasing skeletal muscle strength without impacting endurance and neuromuscular tone, V. officinalis SE could induce less undesirable side effects than standard myorelaxant agents, and be particularly useful for avoiding falls in the elderly. Keywords: Valeriana officinalis, Skeletal muscle relaxant, Strength, Hydroethanolic root extract, Acute treatment, Mouse

  4. Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Counseling on Anxiety among Primigravida Women Referred to Health Care Centers in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Shobeiri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Progressive muscle relaxation is a non-invasive, cost-effective and complication less method which can be performed independently by the individual. Considering the importance of psychological problems during pregnancy, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation counseling on anxiety among primigravida women referred to health care centers in Hamadan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial with two groups (experimental and control with pre-test and post-test. A total of 120 women were referred to health centers in Hamadan who were experiencing their first pregnancy and were consecutively enrolled in the study, after obtaining informed consents. They were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups (60 women in each group by allocation concealment. The control group only received routine prenatal care, but the experimental group after two counseling sessions and learning muscle relaxation techniques performed progressive muscle relaxation exercises from 21-22 weeks for 10 weeks, and completed the daily performance sheet of relaxation. The study data collection tools included a demographic questionnaire, Spielberger state-trait anxiety inventory, and the daily performance sheet for the intervention group. Data were analyzed in SPSS 20 using independent samples t-test, Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, and paired t-test. Results: Data analysis reflected the homogeneity of the state and trait anxiety levels in both groups before the intervention. The results showed that state and trait anxiety in the control group after the intervention was significantly increased (P<0.001, but the experimental group showed a significant decrease in state and trait anxiety after the intervention (P<0.001. Conclusions: Teaching progressive muscle relaxation techniques to pregnant women can have a significant impact on reducing pregnancy anxiety.

  5. Temperature effect on the rates of isometric force development and relaxation in the fresh and fatigued human adductor pollicis muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C J; Jones, D A; Sargeant, A J; de Haan, A

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of temperature on the rates of isometric force development and relaxation in electrically activated fresh and fatigued human adductor pollicis muscle. Following immersion of the lower arm for 20 min in water baths of four different

  6. Spin-Spin Relaxation and Karyagin-Gol'danskii Effect in FeCl3·6H2O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, N.; Trumpy, Georg

    1970-01-01

    . Qualitatively, the experimental results can be explained by a combination of a temperature-and magnetic-field-dependent spin-spin relaxation and the Karyagin-Gol'danskii effect. This implies that the zero-field splitting is about 20°K between the lowest-lying Kramers doublet, found to be the |±1 / 2...

  7. The effect of relaxation techniques on edema, anxiety and depression in post-mastectomy lymphedema patients undergoing comprehensive decongestive therapy: A clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Bahareh; Mirzakhany, Navid; Angooti Oshnari, Leila; Irani, Ashkan; Hosseinzadeh, Samaneh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Haghighat, Shahpar

    2018-01-01

    Lymphedema is sometimes accompanied by high degrees of anxiety and depression. This study aimed to assess the effects of relaxation techniques on the level of edema, anxiety and depression in women undergoing Comprehensive Decongestive Therapy (CDT). This clinical trial compared two treatment methods in 31 women with post-mastectomy lymphedema, including 15 cases who received CDT and 16 who received RCDT (Relaxation plus CDT). The edema volume, anxiety and depression scores were compared at the first and last sessions of the first phase of the treatment and six weeks afterwards. The edema, anxiety and depression scores were 63.6%, 54.1% and 65.5% in the RCDT group and 60.7%, 31.4% and 35.2% in the CDT group. There were significant differences between the two groups in terms of the reduction in depression (p = 0.024) and anxiety (p = 0.011) scores throughout the study. This significant relationship was due to the differences in the depression score in the 3rd and 9th weeks of the study between the two groups. Similarly, anxiety levels differed significantly between the two groups at the 9th week of the study (P = 0.013). Relaxation techniques reduced the anxiety and depression scores and the volume of edema in the patients with lymphedema. The addition of this intervention to the therapeutic package for lymphedema patients requires further studies in terms of cost-effectiveness.

  8. The effect of body-mind relaxation meditation induction on major depressive disorder: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Lv, Xueyu; Fang, Jiliang; Yu, Shan; Sui, Jing; Fan, Lingzhong; Li, Tao; Hong, Yang; Wang, XiaoLing; Wang, Weidong; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-09-01

    Meditation has been increasingly evaluated as an important complementary therapeutic tool for the treatment of depression. The present study employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to examine the effect of body-mind relaxation meditation induction (BMRMI) on the brain activity of depressed patients and to investigate possible mechanisms of action for this complex intervention. 21 major depressive disorder patients (MDDs) and 24 age and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) received rs-fMRI scans at baseline and after listening to a selection of audio designed to induce body-mind relaxation meditation. The rs-fMRI data were analyzed using Matlab toolbox to obtain the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) of the BOLD signal for the whole brain. A mixed-design repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed on the whole brain to find which brain regions were affected by the BMRMI. An additional functional connectivity analysis was used to identify any atypical connection patterns after the BMRMI. After the BMRMI experience, both the MDDs and HCs showed decreased ALFF values in the bilateral frontal pole (BA10). Additionally, increased functional connectivity from the right dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) to the left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) and the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) was identified only in the MDDs after the BMRMI. In order to exclude the impact of other events on the participants׳ brain activity, the Hamilton Rating Scales for Depression (HDRS) was not measured after the body-mind relaxation induction. Our findings support the hypothesis that body-mind relaxation meditation induction may regulate the activities of the prefrontal cortex and thus may have the potential to help patients construct reappraisal strategies that can modulate the brain activity in multiple emotion-processing systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of the role of nitric oxide in the relaxant effect of the crude extract and fractions from Eugenia uniflora in the rat thoracic aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazlawik, E; Da Silva, M A; Peters, R R; Correia, J F; Farias, M R; Calixto, J B; Ribeiro-Do-Valle, R M

    1997-04-01

    This study has evaluated the possible role played by the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in the vasorelaxant action of the hydroalcoholic extract from Eugenia uniflora, and fractions from the extract, in rings of rat thoracic aorta. The addition of an increasing cumulative concentration of hydroalcoholic extract from E. uniflora (1-300 micrograms mL-1) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation response in intact endothelium-thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted with noradrenaline (30-100 nM). The IC50 value, with its respective confidence limit, and the maximum relaxation (Rmax) were 7.02 (4.77-10.00) micrograms mL-1 and 83.94 +/- 3.04%, respectively. The removal of the endothelium completely abolished these responses. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitors N omega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 30 microM) and N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 30 microM), inhibited the relaxation (Rmax) to -10.43 +/- 7.81% and -3.69 +/- 2.62%, respectively. In addition, L-arginine (1 mM), but not D-arginine (1 mM), completely reversed inhibition by L-NOARG. Methylene blue (30 microM), a soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor, reduced the relaxation induced by the extract to 14.60 +/- 7.40%. These data indicate that in the rat thoracic aorta the hydroalcoholic extract, and its fractions, from the leaves of E. uniflora have graded and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effects.

  10. Effects of Anger Awareness and Expression Training versus Relaxation Training on Headaches: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin-Spenny, Olga; Lumley, Mark A.; Thakur, Elyse R.; Nevedal, Dana C.; Hijazi, Alaa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Stress contributes to headaches, and effective interventions for headaches routinely include relaxation training (RT) to directly reduce negative emotions and arousal. Yet, suppressing negative emotions, particularly anger, appears to augment pain, and experimental studies suggest that expressing anger may reduce pain. Therefore, we developed and tested anger awareness and expression training (AAET) on people with headaches. Methods Young adults with headaches (N = 147) were randomized to AAET, RT, or a wait-list control. We assessed affect during sessions, and process and outcome variables at baseline and 4 weeks after treatment. Results On process measures, both interventions increased self-efficacy to manage headaches, but only AAET reduced alexithymia and increased emotional processing and assertiveness. Yet, both interventions were equally effective at improving headache outcomes relative to controls. Conclusions Enhancing anger awareness and expression may improve chronic headaches, although not more than RT. Researchers should study which patients are most likely to benefit from emotional expression versus emotional reduction approaches to chronic pain. PMID:23620190

  11. A hierarchy of functionally important relaxations within myoglobin based on solvent effects, mutations and kinetic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantsker, David; Samuni, Uri; Friedman, Joel M; Agmon, Noam

    2005-06-01

    Geminate CO rebinding in myoglobin is studied for two viscous solvents, trehalose and sol-gel (bathed in 100% glycerol) at several temperatures. Mutations in key distal hemepocket residues are used to eliminate or enhance specific relaxation modes. The time-resolved data are analyzed with a modified Agmon-Hopfield model which is capable of providing excellent fits in cases where a single relaxation mode is dominant. Using this approach, we determine the relaxation rate constants of specific functionally important modes, obtaining also their Arrhenius activation energies. We find a hierarchy of distal pocket modes controlling the rebinding kinetics. The "heme access mode" (HAM) is responsible for the major slow-down in rebinding. It is a solvent-coupled cooperative mode which restricts ligand return from the xenon cavities. Bulky side-chains, like those His64 and Trp29 (in the L29W mutant), operate like overdamped pendulums which move over and block the binding site. They may be either unslaved (His64) or moderately slaved (Trp29) to the solvent. Small side-chain relaxations, most notably of leucines, are revealed in some mutants (V68L, V68A). They are conjectured to facilitate inter-cavity ligand motion. When all relaxations are arrested (H64L in trehalose), we observe pure inhomogeneous kinetics with no temperature dependence, suggesting that proximal relaxation is not a factor on the investigated timescale.

  12. The effects of massage and music on pain, anxiety and relaxation in burn patients: Randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi Ghezeljeh, T; Mohades Ardebili, F; Rafii, F

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of massage and music on pain intensity, anxiety intensity and relaxation level in burn patients. Pain and anxiety are common among burn patients, but there are many physical and psychological consequences. This randomized controlled clinical trial with factorial design 2×2 included 240 burn patients admitted at Shahid Motahari Burns Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between September 2013 and May 2015. The patients were allocated into the following groups: (i) control (n=60) receiving the conventional primary care, (ii) music group (n=60) receiving their favorite songs, (iii) massage group (n=60) receiving Swedish massage, and (iv) music-plus-massage group (n=60) receiving a combination of their favorite songs and Swedish massage, for 20min once a day for 3 consecutive days, using random permuted blocks of sizes 4 with a 1:1 ratio. To collect the data before and after the intervention, a specific Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was applied for pain intensity, anxiety intensity, and relaxation level. The data were analyzed using SPSS, version 21. Our findings showed a decrease in pain and anxiety intensity and an increase in relaxation level in all three intervention groups as compared to the control group, indicating there was no significant difference among the interventions applied. Furthermore, following application of each intervention, pain and anxiety intensity decreased and relaxation level increased in the intervention groups as compared to before intervention. Our results revealed that music, massage and a combination of both interventions were effective on reducing pain and anxiety intensity and increasing relaxation level. Due to easy, low-cost and availability of the interventions applied, these complementary therapies are suggested for the burn patients. Although application of a single complementary therapy is cost-effective, further studies are required to determine the most effective and cost-effective method to

  13. Nondepolarizing muscle relaxant improves direct laryngoscopy view with no effect on face mask ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan S. Rizk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Difficult or impossible face mask ventilation complicated with difficult tracheal intubation during anesthesia induction occurs in 0.4% of adult anesthesia cases, possibly leading to life-threatening complications. Because of such catastrophes, muscle relaxants have been recommended to be administered after confirming adequate face mask ventilation without a solid scientific validation of this principal. Methods: In this observational study, the ease of ventilation and the scores of direct laryngoscopy views before and after administration of cisatracurium were assessed in ninety young healthy adults, without anesthetic risks and without foreseen difficult intubation and who were scheduled for general elective surgeries. Results: Before muscle relaxation, 43 patients (48% were Cormack Grade I, while the remaining 47 patients (52% were either Cormack Grade II (28 patients, 31% or Cormack Grade II (19 patients, 21%. Following muscle relaxation with cisatracurium, the number of patients with Cormack Grade I significantly increased from 43 patients (48% to 65 patients (72% (p = 0.0013. Only 1 patient out of 19 patients (5% improved his Cormack grade from Grade III to Grade I while 16 out 19 patients (84% improved their Cormack grade from Grade III to Grade II after the use of cisatracurium. The quality of face mask ventilation did not differ with and without muscle relaxants in all patients. Conclusion: The use of cisatracurium in healthy young adults undergoing general elective surgeries with no anticipated difficult endotracheal intubation had no effect on the quality of face mask ventilation despite resulting in a quantifiable improvement in the laryngeal view. Resumo: Justificativa: A ventilação difícil ou impossível via máscara facial complicada pela intubação traqueal difícil durante a indução da anestesia ocorre em 0,4% dos casos de anestesia em adultos, possivelmente levando a complicações fatais. Devido a tais cat

  14. Dynamics of relaxed inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangarife, Walter; Tobioka, Kohsaku; Ubaldi, Lorenzo; Volansky, Tomer

    2018-02-01

    The cosmological relaxation of the electroweak scale has been proposed as a mechanism to address the hierarchy problem of the Standard Model. A field, the relaxion, rolls down its potential and, in doing so, scans the squared mass parameter of the Higgs, relaxing it to a parametrically small value. In this work, we promote the relaxion to an inflaton. We couple it to Abelian gauge bosons, thereby introducing the necessary dissipation mechanism which slows down the field in the last stages. We describe a novel reheating mechanism, which relies on the gauge-boson production leading to strong electro-magnetic fields, and proceeds via the vacuum production of electron-positron pairs through the Schwinger effect. We refer to this mechanism as Schwinger reheating. We discuss the cosmological dynamics of the model and the phenomenological constraints from CMB and other experiments. We find that a cutoff close to the Planck scale may be achieved. In its minimal form, the model does not generate sufficient curvature perturbations and additional ingredients, such as a curvaton field, are needed.

  15. Effect of psychological intervention in the form of relaxation and guided imagery on cellular immune function in normal healthy subjects. An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, R; Kristensen, J S; Hokland, P

    1991-01-01

    The present study measured the effects of relaxation and guided imagery on cellular immune function. During a period of 10 days 10 healthy subjects were given one 1-hour relaxation procedure and one combined relaxation and guided imagery procedure, instructing the subjects to imagine their immune...... on the immune defense and could form the basis of further studies on psychological intervention and immunological status. Udgivelsesdato: 1990-null...

  16. Relaxation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  17. A comparison the effects of reflexology and relaxation on the psychological symptoms in women with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soheili, Mozhgan; Nazari, Fatemeh; Shaygannejad, Vahid; Valiani, Mahboobeh

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) occurs with a variety of physical and psychological symptoms, yet there is not a conclusive cure for this disease. Complementary medicine is a current treatment which seems is effective in relieving symptoms of patients with MS. Therefore, this study is aimed to determine and compare the effects of reflexology and relaxation on anxiety, stress, and depression in women with MS. This study is a randomized clinical trial that is done on 75 women with MS referred to MS Clinic of Kashani Hospital. After simple non random sampling, participants were randomly assigned by minimization method to three groups: reflexology, relaxation and control (25 patients in each group). In the experimental groups were performed reflexology and relaxation interventions within 4 weeks, twice a week for 40 min and the control group were received only routine treatment as directed by a doctor. Data were collected through depression anxiety and stress scale questionnaire, before, immediately after and 2 months after interventions in all three groups. Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, repeated measures analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance and least significant difference post hoc test via SPSS version 18 were used to analyze the data ( P < 0.05) was considered as significant level. The results showed a significant reduction in the severity of anxiety, stress and depression during the different times in the reflexology and relaxation groups as compared with the control group ( P < 0.05). The results showed that reflexology and relaxation in relieving anxiety, stress and depression are effective in women with MS. Hence, these two methods, as effective techniques, can be recommended.

  18. THE EFFECT OF PROGRESSIVE MUSCULAR RELAXATION AND PSYCHOLOGICAL COUNSELING ON PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS DURING SURGICAL STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avnish

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Present study was carried out to study the effect of muscular relaxation technique and counseling on physiological parameters on subjects undergoing surgery. The study was conducted in 32 individuals between ages of 20 – 70 at Civil hospital, GMERS, Valsad and was compared with a control group (N=32 of the same age. The parameters recorded were arterial pulse, arterial blood pressure. The results show the significant differences in the recorded parameters in control ( n=34 and study group (n=33. Pulse rat e ( 75.54 to 80.17 , systolic ( 121.49 to 126.29 and diastolic blood pressure ( 80.4 to 84.23 values increased in preoperative period than on admission in the control group while study group showed decrease in the preoperative value compared to that on admi ssion Pulse rate ( 77.94 to 74.80, systolic ( 124.50 to 122.19 and diastolic blood pressure ( 82.88 to 81. The results obtained were analyzed for statistical significance. The results obtained were statistically significant

  19. The effects of mindfulness and relaxation training for insomnia (MRTI) on postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcelo C; Kozasa, Elisa H; Tufik, Sergio; Mello, Luiz Eugênio A M; Hachul, Helena

    2018-05-21

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of mindfulness and relaxation training for insomnia on insomnia and quality of life in postmenopausal women. Thirty postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years, who were not using hormone therapy, and had a diagnosis of insomnia and an apnea-hypopnea index of less than 15, were randomly assigned to two groups: a mindfulness intervention group and a control group. They were assessed before the intervention, and 8 weeks after its completion using questionnaires assessing sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index), quality of life in menopause (Menopause-Specific Quality of Life), menopausal symptoms (Kupperman Menopausal Index), and level of attention (Mindfulness Awareness Attention Scale). They were also assessed through ambulatory polysomnography. This is a pilot study and is limited by its small sample size. The results of the questionnaires showed significant differences in the group that received mindfulness training compared with the control group, namely, improvements in sleep quality, a reduction in the severity of insomnia, a better quality of life, improved attention levels, and a reduction in menopausal and vasomotor symptoms. Polysomnography results showed no differences between the groups. Eight weeks mindfulness meditation training improved sleep quality, quality of life, attention levels, and reduced vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women with insomnia.

  20. The effect of host relaxation and dynamics on guest molecule dynamics in H2/tetrahydrofuranhydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Vanessa K; Shoko, Elvis; Kearley, Gordon J

    2011-01-01

    We use ab initio molecular dynamics simulations to obtain classically the effects of H2O cage motions on the potential-energy surface (PES) of encapsulated H2 in the H2/tetrahydrofuran-hydrate system. The significant differences between the PES for the H2 in rigid and flexible cages that we find will influence calculation of the quantum dynamics of the H2. Part of these differences arises from the relaxation of the H2O cage around the classical H2, with a second part arising from the coupling of both translational and rotational motions of H2 with the H20 cage. We find that isotopic substitution of 2H for 1H of the H2O cage affects the coupling, which has implications for experiments that require the use of 2H2O, including inelastic neutron scattering that uses 2H2O cages in order to focus on the H2 guest dynamics. Overall, this work emphasizes the importance of taking into account cage dynamics in any approach used to understand the dynamics of H2 guests in porous framework materials.

  1. Understanding Effect of Constraint Release Environment on End-to-End Vector Relaxation of Linear Polymer Chains

    KAUST Repository

    Shivokhin, Maksim E.

    2017-05-30

    We propose and verify methods based on the slip-spring (SSp) model [ Macromolecules 2005, 38, 14 ] for predicting the effect of any monodisperse, binary, or ternary environment of topological constraints on the relaxation of the end-to-end vector of a linear probe chain. For this purpose we first validate the ability of the model to consistently predict both the viscoelastic and dielectric response of monodisperse and binary mixtures of type A polymers, based on published experimental data. We also report the synthesis of new binary and ternary polybutadiene systems, the measurement of their linear viscoelastic response, and the prediction of these data by the SSp model. We next clarify the relaxation mechanisms of probe chains in these constraint release (CR) environments by analyzing a set of "toy" SSp models with simplified constraint release rates, by examining fluctuations of the end-to-end vector. In our analysis, the longest relaxation time of the probe chain is determined by a competition between the longest relaxation times of the effective CR motions of the fat and thin tubes and the motion of the chain itself in the thin tube. This picture is tested by the analysis of four model systems designed to separate and estimate every single contribution involved in the relaxation of the probe\\'s end-to-end vector in polydisperse systems. We follow the CR picture of Viovy et al. [ Macromolecules 1991, 24, 3587 ] and refine the effective chain friction in the thin and fat tubes based on Read et al. [ J. Rheol. 2012, 56, 823 ]. The derived analytical equations form a basis for generalizing the proposed methodology to polydisperse mixtures of linear and branched polymers. The consistency between the SSp model and tube model predictions is a strong indicator of the compatibility between these two distinct mesoscopic frameworks.

  2. Streptozotocin diabetes attenuates the effects of nondepolarizing neuromuscular relaxants on rat muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lina; Chen, Dan; Li, Shitong

    2014-12-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that diabetes-induced desensitization of rat soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) to non-depolarizing muscle relaxants (NDMRs) depends on the stage of diabetes and on the kind of NDMRs. We tested the different magnitude of resistance to vecuronium, cisatracurium, and rocuronium at different stages of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes by the EDL sciatic nerve-muscle preparations, and the SOL sciatic nerve-muscle preparations from rats after 4 and 16 weeks of STZ treatment. The concentration-twitch tension curves were significantly shifted from those of the control group to the right in the diabetic groups. Concentration giving 50% of maximal inhibition (IC50) was larger in the diabetic groups for all the NDMRs. For rocuronium and cisatracurium in both SOL and EDL, IC50 was significantly larger in diabetic 16 weeks group than those in the diabetic 4 weeks group. For SOL/EDL, the IC50 ratios were significantly largest in the diabetic 16 weeks group, second largest in the diabetic 4 weeks group, and smallest for the control group. Diabetes-induced desensitization to NDMRs depended on the stage of diabetes and on the different kind of muscles observed while was independent on different kind of NDMRs. The resistance to NDMRs was stronger in the later stage of diabetes (16 versus 4 weeks after STZ treatment). Additionally, when monitoring in SOL, diabetes attenuated the actions of neuromuscular blockade more intensely than that in EDL. Nonetheless, the hyposensitivity to NDMRs in diabetes was not relevant for the kind of NDMRs.

  3. Effect of an Ethanol Extract of Scutellaria baicalensis on Relaxation in Corpus Cavernosum Smooth Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis (ESB relaxes penile corpus cavernosum muscle in organ bath experiments. Materials and methods. Changes in tension of cavernous smooth muscle strips were determined by penile strip chamber model and in penile perfusion model. Isolated endothelium-intact rabbit corpus cavernosum was precontracted with phenylephrine (PE and then treated with ESB. Results. ESB relaxed penile smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner, and this was inhibited by pre-treatment with NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, a nitric oxide (NO synthase inhibitor, and 1H-[1, 2, 4]-oxadiazolo-[4,3-α]-quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, a soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC inhibitor. ESB-induced relaxation was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with tetraethylammonium (TEA, a nonselective K+ channel blocker, and charybdotoxin, a selective Ca2+-dependent K+ channel inhibitor. ESB increased the cGMP levels of rabbit corpus cavernosum in a concentration-dependent manner without changes in cAMP levels. In a perfusion model of penile tissue, ESB also relaxed penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion. Taken together, these results suggest that ESB relaxed rabbit cavernous smooth muscle via the NO/cGMP system and Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels in the corpus cavernosum.

  4. Effect of extender oils on the stress relaxation behavior of thermoplastic vulcanizates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The long term mechanical behavior of oil extended thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV based on polypropylene (PP and acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR has been characterized by means of stress relaxation experiments. The morphology of TPV and the phase specific oil distribution which depend on the content and type of oil as well as on the mixing regime have been characterized by means of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA and Differential Scanning Calorimetrie (DSC. The discussion of the stress relaxation behavior was carried out using the two-component model, which allows splitting the initial stress into two components: a thermal activated stress component and an athermal one. A master curve was created by shifting the relaxation curves vertically and horizontally towards the reference curve. The vertical shift factor bT is a function of the temperature dependence of the athermal stress components. It was found that the oil distribution strongly affects the athermal stress component which is related to the contribution of the structural changes, e.g. crystallinity of the PP phase and the average molecular weight between the crosslinks of the NBR phase. From the temperature dependence of the horizontal shift factor aT the main viscoelastic relaxation process was determined as the α-relaxation process of the crystalline PP phase. It is not dependent on the polarity and content of the oil as well as the mixing regime.

  5. Effects of pulmonary inhalation on hyperpolarized krypton-83 magnetic resonance T1 relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupic, K F; Elkins, N D; Pavlovskaya, G E; Repine, J E; Meersmann, T

    2011-07-07

    The (83)Kr magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation time T(1) of krypton gas in contact with model surfaces was previously found to be highly sensitive to surface composition, surface-to-volume ratio, and surface temperature. The work presented here explored aspects of pulmonary (83)Kr T(1) relaxation measurements in excised lungs from healthy rats using hyperpolarized (hp) (83)Kr with approximately 4.4% spin polarization. MR spectroscopy without spatial resolution was applied to the ex vivo lungs that actively inhale hp (83)Kr through a custom designed ventilation system. Various inhalation schemes were devised to study the influence of anatomical dead space upon the measured (83)Kr T(1) relaxation times. The longitudinal (83)Kr relaxation times in the distal airways and the respiratory zones were independent of the lung inhalation volume, with T(1) = 1.3 s and T(1) = 1.0 s, depending only on the applied inhalation scheme. The obtained data were highly reproducible between different specimens. Further, the (83)Kr T(1) relaxation times in excised lungs were unaffected by the presence of up to 40% oxygen in the hp gas mixture. The results support the possible importance of (83)Kr as a biomarker for evaluating lung function.

  6. Effects of music listening and relaxation instructions on arousal changes and the working memory task in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Eri

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of subject-preferred music and relaxation instructions on older adults' arousal and working memory. Fifteen female older adults participated in 10 minutes of all 3 experimental conditions: (a) subject-preferred music, (b) relaxation instructions, and (c) silence control. Four subcategories of arousal level, energy, tiredness, tension, and calmness, were measured before and after experimental treatment using the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List by Thayer (1978). After each experimental condition, subjects had a working memory test by Daneman and Carpenter (1980). Results of the 2 x 3 repeated measures analysis of variances indicated that music increased subjects' energy levels, but relaxation and silence significantly decreased energy levels. Relaxation and silence increased their tiredness and calmness levels. All experimental conditions decreased subjects' tension levels. The scores in the working memory test were not significantly different among experimental conditions. Results did not indicate clear relationships between four subcategories of arousal levels and working memory scores. Results indicated that subject-preferred music has potentials to increase older adults' energetic arousal and reduce tension.

  7. Enhancement effects and relaxivities of gadolinium-DTPA at 1.5 versus 3 tesla. A phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Makoto; Shibata, Eri; Kanbara, Yoshiyuki; Ehara, Shigeru

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in enhancement effects and relaxivities of the gadolinium chelate at 1.5 and 3 Tesla (T) and to elucidate the contribution of the high magnetic field to contrast enhancement in spin-echo (SE) and gradient-echo (GRE) images. Phantoms containing water with or without gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) at different concentrations were scanned using 1.5T and 3T MRI scanners of the same manufacturer and under the same temperature conditions and scanning parameters. Relaxivities of gadolinium, R 1 and R 2 , were estimated from serial T 1 and T 2 values of the phantoms using linear regression. Contrast enhancement ratios in SE and GRE T 1 -weighted images were compared at 1.5 and 3T. The R 1 and R 2 of Gd-DTPA at 1.5 and 3T were 4.79 and 5.14, and 4.50 and 5.09, respectively. Although the relaxivities at 3T were slightly lower than those at 1.5T, the contrast enhancement ratio improved in both SE and GRE images as a result of T 1 prolongation of the water at 3T. The decrease in relaxivities of the Gd-DTPA at 3T appears to be so small that T 1 prolongation of the water improves contrast enhancement, suggesting a potential clinical advantage in administration of Gd-DTPA at high field strength. (author)

  8. Effect of addition of V and C on strain recovery characteristics in Fe-Mn-Si alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chengxin; Wang Guixin; Wu Yandong; Liu Qingsuo; Zhang Jianjun

    2006-01-01

    Shape recoverable strain, recovery stress and low-temperature stress relaxation characteristics in an Fe-17Mn-5Si-10Cr-4Ni (0.08C) alloy and an Fe-17Mn-2Cr-5Si-2Ni-1V (0.23C) alloy have been studied by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and measurement of recoverable strain and recovery stress. The amount of stress-induced ε martensite under tensile deformation at room temperature, recoverable strain and recovery stress are increased obviously with addition V and C in Fe-Mn-Si alloy, which is owing to the influence of addition V and C on strengthening austenitic matrix. Addition of V and C in Fe-Mn-Si alloy is evidently effective to reduce the degree of low-temperature stress relaxation, for the dispersed VC particles 50-180 nm in size precipitated during annealing restrain the stress induced martensitic transformation

  9. Predicting the effect of relaxation during frequency-selective adiabatic pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Annalise R.; McKee, Cailyn E.; Woelk, Klaus

    2017-11-01

    Adiabatic half and full passages are invaluable for achieving uniform, B1-insensitive excitation or inversion of macroscopic magnetization across a well-defined range of NMR frequencies. To accomplish narrow frequency ranges with adiabatic pulses (computer-calculated data with experimental results demonstrates that, in non-viscous, small-molecule fluids, it is possible to model magnetization and relaxation by considering standard T1 and T2 relaxation in the traditional rotating frame. The proposed model is aimed at performance optimizations of applications in which these pulses are employed. It differs from previous reports which focused on short high-power adiabatic pulses and relaxation that is governed by dipole-dipole interactions, cross polarization, or chemical exchange.

  10. Research on Creep Relaxation Non-uniformity and Effect on Performance of Combined Rotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingya; He, Jingfei; Zhao, Lijia

    2017-11-01

    The combined rotor of gas turbine is connected by a certain number of rod bolts. It works in the high temperature environment for a long time, and the rod bolts will creep and relax. Under the influence of elastic interaction, the loss of pretightening force of rod bolts at different positions is non-uniform, which will cause the connection of the combined rotor to be out of tune. In this paper, the creep relaxation non-uniformity model for a class F heavy duty gas turbine is established. On the basis of this, the performance degradation and structural strength change of combined rotor resulting from creep relaxation non-uniformity of rod bolts are studied. The results show that the ratio of preload mistuning increases with time and then converges, and there is a threshold inflection point in about seven thousand hours.

  11. Drag reduction by natural polymeric additives in PMDS microchannel: Effect of types of additives

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Fiona W.M.; Abdulbari Hayder A.

    2017-01-01

    Drag reduction technology was used in medical applications to enhance the blood flow in semiclogged blood streams which can be an alternative treatment for atherosclerosis. In this present study, natural polymeric drag reducing additives (DRA) was introduced to replace synthetic polymer which has the possibility of bringing side effects to human health. Three different sources, namely okra, aloe vera and hibiscus were utilized to extract the natural polymeric additives which were then tested ...

  12. Effect of alkali ion on relaxation properties of binary alkali-borate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomovskoj, V.A.; Bartenev, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    Method of relaxation spectrometry were used to analyze the data on internal friction spectra of lithium, sodium, potassium and rubidium alkali-borate glasses in wide range of temperatures and frequencies. The nature of two relaxation processes was clarified: β m -process, related with mobility of alkaline metal cations, and α-process (vitrification), conditioned by system transformation from viscous-flow to vitreous state. It is shown that atomic-molecular mechanism of vitrification process changes when passing from vitreous B 2 O 3 to alkali-borate glasses

  13. The effects of strain relaxation on the dielectric properties of epitaxial ferroelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)TiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asif Islam; Yu, Pu; Trassin, Morgan; Lee, Michelle J.; You, Long; Salahuddin, Sayeef

    2014-07-01

    We study the effects of strain relaxation on the dielectric properties of epitaxial 40 nm Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)TiO3 (PZT) films. A significant increase in the defect and dislocation density due to strain relaxation is observed in PZT films with tetragonality c/a fatigue in ferroelectric materials.

  14. Quantization by stochastic relaxation processes and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, R.

    1984-01-01

    We show the supersymmetry mechanism resposible for the quantization by stochastic relaxation processes and for the effective cancellation of the additional time dimension against the two Grassmann dimensions. We give a non-perturbative proof of the validity of this quantization procedure. (author)

  15. Effects of endurance, circuit, and relaxing training on cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Massimo; Cè, Emiliano; Limonta, Eloisa; Schena, Federico; Caimi, Barbara; Carugo, Stefano; Veicsteinas, Arsenio; Esposito, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) risk factors among older adults highlighted the importance of exercise-based interventions, including endurance training (ET). However, the evidence of efficacy of other interventions based on short-bouts of exercise (circuit training, CT), and the practice of breath-control and meditation (relaxing training, RT) is growing. The aim of this study was to elucidate if CT or RT are equally effective in CVD risk factors reduction compared to ET. To this purpose, in 40 elderly participants, with clinically diagnosed grade 1 hypertension, resting blood pressure, blood glucose, and cholesterol levels, peak oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), mechanical efficiency and quality of life were evaluated before and after 12 weeks of ET, CT, and RT treatments. Resting blood pressure reduced significantly in all groups by ∼11 %. In ET, blood cholesterol levels (-18 %), [Formula: see text] (+8 %), mechanical efficiency (+9 %), and quality of life scores (+36 %) ameliorated. In CT blood glucose levels (-11 %), [Formula: see text] (+7 %) and quality of life scores (+35 %) were bettered. Conversely, in RT, the lower blood pressure went along only with an improvement in the mental component of quality of life (+42 %). ET and CT were both appropriate interventions to reduce CVDs risk factors, because blood pressure reduction was accompanied by decreases in blood glucose and cholesterol levels, increases in [Formula: see text], mechanical efficiency, and quality of life. Although RT influenced only blood pressure and quality of life, this approach would be an attractive alternative for old individuals unable or reluctant to carry out ET or CT.

  16. Psychotherapeutic Treatment in Combination with Relaxation in a Flotation Tank: Effects on "Burn-Out Syndrome"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellgren, Anette; Buhrkall, Hanne; Norlander, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to investigate experiences gained from treatment combining relaxation in flotation tank with psychotherapy for sufferers from "burn-out syndrome". Six people participated in a ten week program. They were all interviewed; the data were analyzed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method. Five…

  17. Effect of hypothyroidism on the nitrergic relaxant responses of corpus cavernosal smooth muscle in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarac, Bulent; Yildirim, Mustafa K; Bagcivan, Ihsan; Kaya, Kemal; Kilicarslan, Hakan; Yildirim, Sahin

    2006-01-01

    The incidence of hormonal dysfunction as a cause of impotence remains controversial. However, several recent studies have reported evidence of hormonal abnormalities in 25-35% of impotent men. Hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 6% of impotent men. In the present study, we examined nitrergic responses in hypothyroidism in rabbit corpus cavernosum and compared them with controls. Carbachol-induced relaxation responses and electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced frequency-dependent relaxations decreased significantly in hypothyroid rabbits. Papaverine and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced relaxation responses did not change significantly in hypothyroid rabbits. The contraction responses of phenylephrine and EFS-induced frequency-dependent contractions were significantly decreased in the hypothyroid group. We can speculate that the reduction of relaxant responses to EFS and carbachol in hypothyroid rabbits can depend on a decreased release of nitric oxide (NO) from nitrergic nerves and endothelium or a reduction of muscarinic receptor density. Also, decreases in contraction responses may depend on diminished adrenoceptor density.

  18. The Effects of Relaxation and Cognitive Expectancy on Attraction in a Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Midge

    One approach to searching for determinants of interpersonal attraction involves the altering and studying of physiological arousal, psychological stress, and moods. On the basis of the reinforcement-affect model of attraction, it was hypothesized that the positive feelings obtained from undergoing relaxation exercises could serve to enhance…

  19. Clusters of magnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents for MRI: effect of aggregation on transverse relaxivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dědourková, T.; Kaman, Ondřej; Veverka, Pavel; Koktan, Jakub; Veverka, Miroslav; Kuličková, Jarmila; Jirák, Zdeněk; Herynek, V.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 11 (2015), s. 5300804 ISSN 0018-9464 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-10088S; GA MPO FR-TI3/521 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : contrast agents * magnetic resonance imaging * magnetic nanoparticles * manganites * transverse relaxivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.277, year: 2015

  20. Effect of cycling on oxygenation of relaxed neck/shoulder muscles in women with and without chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed

    2010-01-01

    Work-related neck/shoulder muscle pain has been associated with increased anaerobic muscle metabolism. Thus, interventions to enhance oxygenation of painful muscles seem relevant. While cycling with relaxed shoulders has been shown to result in acute neck/shoulder muscle pain reduction, the effect...... on tissue oxygenation remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate tissue oxygenation of the passive trapezius muscle during and after cycling in female workers with (MYA) and without (CON) trapezius myalgia. Eligible participants (n = 17 MYA, n = 8 CON) performed 20 min sub...... increases oxygenation of resting neck/shoulder muscles in women with and without trapezius myalgia, indicating acute positive effects of either neural or humoral factors on vascular beds of distant relaxed muscles. Although this beneficial response was observed in both groups, the post-exercise response...

  1. Vibrational relaxation in OCS mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, C.J.S.M.; Gait, P.D.; Simmie, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental measurements are reported of vibrational relaxation times which may be used to show whether there is near resonant vibration-rotation energy transfer between OCS and H 2 , D 2 or HD. Vibrational relaxation times have been measured in OCS and OCS mixtures over the temperature range 360 to 1000 K using a shock tube and a laser schlieren system. The effectiveness of the additives in reducing the relaxation time of OCS is in the order 4 He 3 He 2 2 and HD. Along this series the effect of an increase in temperature changes from the case of speeding up the rate with 4 He to retarding it with D 2 , HD and H 2 . There is no measurable difference in the effectiveness of n-D 2 and o-D 2 and little, or no, difference between n-H 2 and p-H 2 . Thus the experimental results do not give clear evidence for rotational-vibration energy transfer between hydrogen and OCS. This contrasts with the situation for CO 2 + H 2 mixtures. (author)

  2. Drag reduction by natural polymeric additives in PMDS microchannel: Effect of types of additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction technology was used in medical applications to enhance the blood flow in semiclogged blood streams which can be an alternative treatment for atherosclerosis. In this present study, natural polymeric drag reducing additives (DRA was introduced to replace synthetic polymer which has the possibility of bringing side effects to human health. Three different sources, namely okra, aloe vera and hibiscus were utilized to extract the natural polymeric additives which were then tested in custom made microchannel simulating human heart blood vessels. The performance of different types of additives was evaluated using pressure measurements. The maximum drag reduction up to 63.48% is achieved using 300 ppm of hibiscus mucilage at operating pressure of 50 mbar. In this present work, hibiscus showed the best drag reduction performance, giving the highest %FI in most of the cases. This experimental results proved that these natural polymeric additives could be utilized as DRA in enhancing the blood flow in semiclogged blood streams.

  3. Effect of heat treatment on bend stress relaxation of pure tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Kenta; Nogami, Shuhei; Fukuda, Makoto; Katakai, Yasuyuki; Hasegawa, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Bend stress relaxation test was performed on the pure tungsten after heat treatment for stress relief. • The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen was larger than that of the as-received specimen at this temperature region. • Small reduction in the BSR ratio was observed at the temperatures of 500–800 °C. • The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen decreased significantly at the temperatures of 900–1000 °C. • The BSR ratio decreased significantly in a short time below 0.1 h, and then decreased slowly. -- Abstract: Bend stress relaxation (BSR) tests at temperatures of 500, 600, 800, 900 and 1000 °C for 0.1, 0.5 and 1 h in vacuum were performed on the pure tungsten after heat treatment for stress relief at 900 °C for 1 h. The degree of stress relaxation increased with test temperature. The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen was larger than that of the as-received specimen at this temperature region. Small reduction in the BSR ratio was observed at the temperatures of 500, 600 and 800 °C. The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen decreased significantly at the temperatures of 900 and 1000 °C and it was close to that of the as-received specimen. The BSR ratio of the heat treated specimen and the as-received specimen exhibited similar trend of time-evolution. The stress was exponentially relaxed with increasing test time. The BSR ratio decreased significantly in a short time below 0.1 h, and then decreased slowly. Higher activation energy of stress relaxation evaluated by cross-cut method was obtained for the higher temperature

  4. The effect of prior lumbar surgeries on the flexion relaxation phenomenon and its responsiveness to rehabilitative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neblett, Randy; Mayer, Tom G; Brede, Emily; Gatchel, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Abnormal pretreatment flexion-relaxation in chronic disabling occupational lumbar spinal disorder patients has been shown to improve with functional restoration rehabilitation. Little is known about the effects of prior lumbar surgeries on flexion-relaxation and its responsiveness to treatment. To quantify the effect of prior lumbar surgeries on the flexion-relaxation phenomenon and its responsiveness to rehabilitative treatment. A prospective cohort study of chronic disabling occupational lumbar spinal disorder patients, including those with and without prior lumbar spinal surgeries. A sample of 126 chronic disabling occupational lumbar spinal disorder patients with prior work-related injuries entered an interdisciplinary functional restoration program and agreed to enroll in this study. Fifty-seven patients had undergone surgical decompression or discectomy (n=32) or lumbar fusion (n=25), and the rest had no history of prior injury-related spine surgery (n=69). At post-treatment, 116 patients were reevaluated, including those with prior decompressions or discectomies (n=30), lumbar fusions (n=21), and no surgery (n=65). A comparison group of 30 pain-free control subjects was tested with an identical assessment protocol, and compared with post-rehabilitation outcomes. Mean surface electromyography (SEMG) at maximum voluntary flexion; subject achievement of flexion-relaxation (SEMG≤3.5 μV); gross lumbar, true lumbar, and pelvic flexion ROM; and a pain visual analog scale self-report during forward bending task. Identical measures were obtained at pretreatment and post-treatment. Patients entered an interdisciplinary functional restoration program, including a quantitatively directed, medically supervised exercise process and a multimodal psychosocial disability management component. The functional restoration program was accompanied by a SEMG-assisted stretching training program, designed to teach relaxation of the lumbar musculature during end-range flexion

  5. The effect of relaxation therapy on autonomic functioning, symptoms and daily functioning, in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Mira; Nijs, Jo; Vanderheiden, Tanja; Baert, Isabel; Descheemaeker, Filip; Struyf, Filip

    2015-03-01

    To establish the effects of relaxation therapy on autonomic function, pain, fatigue and daily functioning in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome or fibromyalgia. A systematic literature study was performed. Using specific keywords related to fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome and relaxation therapy, the electronic databases PubMed and Web of Science were searched. Included articles were assessed for their risk of bias and relevant information regarding relaxation was extracted. The review was conducted and reported according to the PRISMA-statement. Thirteen randomized clinical trials of sufficient quality were included, resulting in a total of 650 fibromyalgia patients (11 studies) and 88 chronic fatigue syndrome patients (3 studies). None of the studies reported effects on autonomic function. Six studies reported the effect of guided imagery on pain and daily functioning in fibromyalgia. The acute effect of a single session of guided imagery was studied in two studies and seems beneficial for pain relief. For other relaxation techniques (eg. muscle relaxation, autogenic training) no conclusive evidence was found for the effect on pain and functioning in fibromyalgia patients comparison to multimodal treatment programs. For fatigue a multimodal approach seemed better than relaxation, as shown in the sole three studies on chronic fatigue syndrome patients. There is moderate evidence for the acute effect of guided imagery on pain, although the content of the visualization is a matter of debate. Other relaxation formats and the effects on functionality and autonomic function require further study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Investigation of effective impact parameters in electron-ion temperature relaxation via Particle-Particle Coulombic molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinjian

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at a high simulation accuracy, a Particle-Particle (PP) Coulombic molecular dynamics model is implemented to study the electron-ion temperature relaxation. In this model, the Coulomb's law is directly applied in a bounded system with two cutoffs at both short and long length scales. By increasing the range between the two cutoffs, it is found that the relaxation rate deviates from the BPS theory and approaches the LS theory and the GMS theory. Also, the effective minimum and maximum impact parameters (bmin* and bmax*) are obtained. For the simulated plasma condition, bmin* is about 6.352 times smaller than the Landau length (bC), and bmax* is about 2 times larger than the Debye length (λD), where bC and λD are used in the LS theory. Surprisingly, the effective relaxation time obtained from the PP model is very close to the LS theory and the GMS theory, even though the effective Coulomb logarithm is two times greater than the one used in the LS theory. Besides, this work shows that the PP model (commonly known as computationally expensive) is becoming practicable via GPU parallel computing techniques.

  7. Studying the effect of stress relaxation and creep on lattice strain evolution of stainless steel under tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, H.; Clausen, B.; Tomé, C.N.; Wu, P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Due to relatively long associated count times, in situ strain measurements using neutron diffraction requires periodic interruption of the test to collect the diffraction data by holding either the stress or the strain constant. As a consequence, stress relaxation or strain creep induced by the interrupts is inevitable, especially at loads which are close to the flow stress of the material. An in situ neutron diffraction technique, which consists in performing the diffraction measurements using continuous event-mode data collection while conducting the mechanical loading monotonically with a very slow loading rate, is proposed here to avoid the effects associated with interrupts. The lattice strains in stainless steel under uniaxial tension are measured using the three techniques, and the experimental results are compared to study the effect of stress relaxation and strain creep on the lattice strain measurements. The experimental results are simulated using both the elastic viscoplastic self-consistent (EVPSC) model and the elastic plastic self-consistent (EPSC) model. Both the EVPSC and EPSC models give reasonable predictions for all the three tests, with EVPSC having the added advantage over EPSC that it allows us to address the relaxation and creep effects in the interrupted tests

  8. Proton T2 Relaxation effect of superparamagnetic iron oxide on fast spin echo sequence. Influence of echo number (even or odd) of effective TE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Maki, Toshio; Kitagawa, Matsuo; Suzuki, Takeshi; Fujita, Isao

    1999-01-01

    The T 2 relaxation effect of the fast spin echo sequence (FSE) was investigated using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles. When even echoes were used as the effective TE of FSE, the signal intensity ratio [signal intensity of FSE/signal intensity of conventional spin echo sequence (CSE)] of FSE and CSE increased, whereas the T 2 relaxation effect of SPIO with FSE was reduced. However, when odd echoes were used, neither signal intensity changed, and weakening of the T 2 relaxation effect, considered a problem with FSE, was reduced. This phenomenon was not observed when the refocusing flip angle was changed to 30 and 60 degrees. However, it was observed when the refocusing flip angle was 120 and 150 degrees. Thus, this phenomenon can be considered to be related to oscillation in longitudinal magnetization when using the Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) technique. (author)

  9. Effect of relaxation and decay of a charge transfer shakeup satellite on Auger-electron spectroscopy spectra and Auger-photoelectron coincidence spectroscopy spectra of adsorbates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    An electron excited to an unoccupied part of adsorbate-substrate hybrid states in a chemisorbed molecule by a resonant core electron excitation or charge transfer (CT) shakeup may delocalize on time scale of core-hole decay so that the excited core-hole state relaxes partly or completely to a fully relaxed one. The Auger decay of the fully relaxed core-hole state via the relaxation of the excited one introduces an additional feature in the resonant Auger-electron spectroscopy (RAES) spectrum and the AES spectrum. However, the additional feature in the RAES spectrum is a normal AES spectrum by decay of the fully relaxed core-hole state, whereas the one in the AES spectrum is the AES spectrum by decay of the fully relaxed core-hole state broadened by the photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) CT shakeup satellite weighted by the branching ratio of the relaxation width. The discrepancies between the AES spectrum measured at high above the ionization threshold and the additional feature in the RAES spectrum consist of the symmetric-like part by the decay of the fully relaxed core-hole state via the relaxation of the CT shakeup state and the asymmetric part by the direct decay of the shakeup states. The asymmetric part increases with a decrease in the hybridization strength. This explains the variation with the hybridization strength in the discrepancies between the RAES spectra and the AES spectra of chemisorbed molecules such as CO/Ni, CO/Cu and CO/Ag. A comparison of the singles PES spectrum with the one measured in coincidence with the AES main line of a selected kinetic energy (KE) provides the delocalization rate of the excited electron in the CT shakeup state as a function of photoelectron KE. The coincidence measurement to obtain the partial singles PES spectrum is discussed

  10. Relaxation Response and Resiliency Training and Its Effect on Healthcare Resource Utilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Stahl

    Full Text Available Poor psychological and physical resilience in response to stress drives a great deal of health care utilization. Mind-body interventions can reduce stress and build resiliency. The rationale for this study is therefore to estimate the effect of mind-body interventions on healthcare utilization.Estimate the effect of mind body training, specifically, the Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (3RP on healthcare utilization.Retrospective controlled cohort observational study.Major US Academic Health Network.All patients receiving 3RP at the MGH Benson-Henry Institute from 1/12/2006 to 7/1/2014 (n = 4452, controls (n = 13149 followed for a median of 4.2 years (.85-8.4 yrs.Utilization as measured by billable encounters/year (be/yr stratified by encounter type: clinical, imaging, laboratory and procedural, by class of chief complaint: e.g., Cardiovascular, and by site of care delivery, e.g., Emergency Department. Subgroup analysis by propensity score matched pre-intervention utilization rate.At one year, total utilization for the intervention group decreased by 43% [53.5 to 30.5 be/yr] (p <0.0001. Clinical encounters decreased by 41.9% [40 to 23.2 be/yr], imaging by 50.3% [11.5 to 5.7 be/yr], lab encounters by 43.5% [9.8 to 5.6], and procedures by 21.4% [2.2 to 1.7 be/yr], all p < 0.01. The intervention group's Emergency department (ED visits decreased from 3.6 to 1.7/year (p<0.0001 and Hospital and Urgent care visits converged with the controls. Subgroup analysis (identically matched initial utilization rates-Intervention group: high utilizing controls showed the intervention group significantly reduced utilization relative to the control group by: 18.3% across all functional categories, 24.7% across all site categories and 25.3% across all clinical categories.Mind body interventions such as 3RP have the potential to substantially reduce healthcare utilization at relatively low cost and thus can serve as key components in any population health and

  11. Effect of lithographically-induced strain relaxation on the magnetic domain configuration in microfabricated epitaxially grown Fe81Ga19

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, R. P.; Parkes, D. E.; Zemen, J.; Bowe, S.; Edmonds, K. W.; Reardon, C.; Maccherozzi, F.; Isakov, I.; Warburton, P. A.; Campion, R. P.; Gallagher, B. L.; Cavill, S. A.; Rushforth, A. W.

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the role of lithographically-induced strain relaxation in a micron-scaled device fabricated from epitaxial thin films of the magnetostrictive alloy Fe81Ga19. The strain relaxation due to lithographic patterning induces a magnetic anisotropy that competes with the magnetocrystalline and shape induced anisotropies to play a crucial role in stabilising a flux-closing domain pattern. We use magnetic imaging, micromagnetic calculations and linear elastic modelling to investigate a region close to the edges of an etched structure. This highly-strained edge region has a significant influence on the magnetic domain configuration due to an induced magnetic anisotropy resulting from the inverse magnetostriction effect. We investigate the competition between the strain-induced and shape-induced anisotropy energies, and the resultant stable domain configurations, as the width of the bar is reduced to the nanoscale range. Understanding this behaviour will be important when designing hybrid magneto-electric spintronic devices based on highly magnetostrictive materials.

  12. A study of the effect of relaxing music on heart rate recovery after exercise among healthy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fuitze; Tengah, Asrin; Nee, Lo Yah; Fredericks, Salim

    2014-05-01

    Music has been employed in various clinical settings to reduce anxiety. However, meta-analysis has shown music to have little influence on haemodynamic parameters. This study aimed at investigating the effect of relaxing music on heart rate recovery after exercise. Twenty-three student volunteers underwent treadmill exercise and were assessed for heart rate recovery and saliva analysis; comparing exposure to sedative music with exposure to silence during the recovery period immediately following exercise. No differences were found between music and non-music exposure regarding: heart rate recovery, resting pulse rate, and salivary cortisol. Music was no different to silence in affecting these physiological measures, which are all associated with anxiety. Relaxing music unaccompanied by meditation techniques or other such interventions may not have a major role in reducing anxiety in certain experimental settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. METHODS: Sixteen...... healthy volunteers were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block with 20 mL 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine and placebo on the contralateral side. Measurements were performed at baseline and 90 minutes after performing the block. Cutaneous sensory block area was mapped and separated...... into a medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block...

  14. The effect of solvent relaxation time constants on free energy gap law for ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Valentina A; Malykhin, Roman E; Ivanov, Anatoly I

    2018-05-16

    To elucidate the regularities inherent in the kinetics of ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation in donor-acceptor dyads in solutions, the simulations of the kinetics have been performed within the stochastic multichannel point-transition model. Increasing the solvent relaxation time scales has been shown to strongly vary the dependence of the charge recombination rate constant on the free energy gap. In slow relaxing solvents the non-equilibrium charge recombination occurring in parallel with solvent relaxation is very effective so that the charge recombination terminates at the non-equilibrium stage. This results in a crucial difference between the free energy gap laws for the ultrafast charge recombination and the thermal charge transfer. For the thermal reactions the well-known Marcus bell-shaped dependence of the rate constant on the free energy gap is realized while for the ultrafast charge recombination only a descending branch is predicted in the whole area of the free energy gap exceeding 0.2 eV. From the available experimental data on the population kinetics of the second and first excited states for a series of Zn-porphyrin-imide dyads in toluene and tetrahydrofuran solutions, an effective rate constant of the charge recombination into the first excited state has been calculated. The obtained rate constant being very high is nearly invariable in the area of the charge recombination free energy gap from 0.2 to 0.6 eV that supports the theoretical prediction.

  15. Effects of Energy Relaxation via Quantum Coupling Among Three-Dimensional Motion on the Tunneling Current of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, Huansheng; Li, Xijun

    2015-12-01

    We report theoretical study of the effects of energy relaxation on the tunneling current through the oxide layer of a two-dimensional graphene field-effect transistor. In the channel, when three-dimensional electron thermal motion is considered in the Schrödinger equation, the gate leakage current at a given oxide field largely increases with the channel electric field, electron mobility, and energy relaxation time of electrons. Such an increase can be especially significant when the channel electric field is larger than 1 kV/cm. Numerical calculations show that the relative increment of the tunneling current through the gate oxide will decrease with increasing the thickness of oxide layer when the oxide is a few nanometers thick. This highlights that energy relaxation effect needs to be considered in modeling graphene transistors.

  16. Effect of structural relaxation of metallic glasses on positron annihilation parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Decheng; Xiong Liangyue; Tang Zhongxun; Xu Yinhua

    1987-07-01

    The results of a comparative study of positron lifetime and a Doppler broadening line-shape parameter for two metallic glasses are presented. The change of lifetime τ-bar and the S-parameter for these two metallic glasses are shown to have a common feature, i.e. at the initial stage of structural relaxation, τ-bar presents a peak-form as a function of annealing time or temperature while the S-parameter decreases monotonically. A possible mechanism is proposed for explaining the peak-form of τ-bar which has been observed in many metallic glasses; the initial rise and the following decrease of τ-bar are attributed to the homogenization of defects taking place during the structural relaxation. The monotonic behaviour of the S-parameter seems to indicate that the annihilation of positrons in free state with the high momentum core electrons is negligible. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs

  17. Effect of coating thickness of iron oxide nanoparticles on their relaxivity in the MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Hajesmaeelzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Iron oxide nanoparticles have found prevalent applications in various fields including drug delivery, cell separation and as contrast agents. Super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles allow researchers and clinicians to enhance the tissue contrast of an area of interest by increasing the relaxation rate of water. In this study, we evaluate the dependency of hydrodynamic size of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with Polyethylene  glycol (PEG on their relativities with 3 Tesla clinical MRI. Materials and Methods: We used three groups of nanoparticles with nominal sizes 20, 50 and 100 nm with a core size of 8.86 nm, 8.69 nm and 10.4 nm that they were covered with PEG 300 and 600 Da. A clinical magnetic resonance scanner determines the T1 and T2 relaxation times for various concentrations of PEG-coated nanoparticles. Results: The size measurement by photon correlation spectroscopy showed the hydrodynamic sizes of MNPs with nominal 20, 50 and 100 nm with 70, 82 and 116 nm for particles with PEG 600 coating and 74, 93 and 100 nm for  particles with PEG 300 coating, respectively. We foud that the relaxivity decreased with increasing overall particle size (via coating thickness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that by increasing the size of the nanoparticles, r2/r1 increases linearly. Conclusion: According to the data obtained from this study it can be concluded that increments in coating thickness have more influence on relaxivities compared to the changes in core size of magnetic nanoparticles.

  18. Understanding the effects of diffusion and relaxation in magnetic resonance imaging using computational modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Greg

    The work described in this dissertation was motivated by a desire to better understand the cellular pathology of ischemic stroke. Two of the three bodies of research presented herein address and issue directly related to the investigation of ischemic stroke through the use of diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI) methods. The first topic concerns the development of a computationally efficient finite difference method, designed to evaluate the impact of microscopic tissue properties on the formation of DWMRI signal. For the second body of work, the effect of changing the intrinsic diffusion coefficient of a restricted sample on clinical DWMRI experiments is explored. The final body of work, while motivated by the desire to understand stroke, addresses the issue of acquiring large amounts of MRI data well suited for quantitative analysis in reduced scan time. In theory, the method could be used to generate quantitative parametric maps, including those depicting information gleaned through the use of DWMRI methods. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to several topics. A description of the use of DWMRI methods in the study of ischemic stroke is covered. An introduction to the fundamental physical principles at work in MRI is also provided. In this section the means by which magnetization is created in MRI experiments, how MRI signal is induced, as well as the influence of spin-spin and spin-lattice relaxation are discussed. Attention is also given to describing how MRI measurements can be sensitized to diffusion through the use of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of the process. Finally, the reader is given a brief introduction to the use of numerical methods for solving partial differential equations. In Chapters 2, 3 and 4, three related bodies of research are presented in terms of research papers. In Chapter 2, a novel computational method is described. The method reduces the computation resources required to simulate DWMRI experiments. In

  19. A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON EFFECTIVENESS OF STATIC STRETCH AND HOLD RELAX TECHNIQUES OVER HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vamsidhar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility is important in prevention of injury, muscular and postural imbalance more over the Hamstring flexibility has a lion share in sports performances and preventing DOMS. Stretching procedures increases the ROM by embarking on biomechanics and Neurologic and molecular mechanics. Hamstrings, the two joint muscle plays a crucial role in two joints integrity and also spine as they are in closed kinematic chain. The hamstring muscles represent the primary flexors of Knee. Hamstrings tightness results in Limits Knee extension when hip is flexed, Posterior Pelvic tilt, and flatten the lumbar spine. Methods: The subjects selected randomly and divided into two groups (Experimental group and control group.30 samples in One group applied with Static Stretch once a day for 3 repetitions 5 days a week for six weeks and 30 samples in other group applied with Hold relax technique once a day for 4 repetitions 5 days a week for six weeks. The knee joint range of motion was measured at the end of every week with Universal goniometer. Results: By comparing the means of Group – I, given Static Stretch and Group – II, given Hold relax Technique for six weeks implied that there is improvement of flexibility in Group – II and the ‘P’ value < 0.01 shows the difference is highly significant. Conclusion: This study concludes that the hold relax Technique method has proved to be better technique then the static stretch for improving hamstring flexibility.

  20. Spin relaxation and the Kondo effect in transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostami, Habib; Moghaddam, Ali G; Asgari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the spin relaxation and Kondo resistivity caused by magnetic impurities in doped transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. We show that momentum and spin relaxation times, due to the exchange interaction by magnetic impurities, are much longer when the Fermi level is inside the spin-split region of the valence band. In contrast to the spin relaxation, we find that the dependence of Kondo temperature T K on the doping is not strongly affected by the spin–orbit induced splitting, although only one of the spin species are present at each valley. This result, which is obtained using both perturbation theory and the poor man’s scaling methods, originates from the intervalley spin-flip scattering in the spin-split region. We further demonstrate the decline in the conductivity with temperatures close to T K , which can vary with the doping. Our findings reveal the qualitative difference with the Kondo physics in conventional metallic systems and other Dirac materials. (paper)

  1. Effects of a relaxation training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Lan; Lin, Li-Chan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chang, Chuan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of an experimental study of the effects of relaxation-training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour. Hospitalized pregnant women with preterm labour experience developmental and situational stress. However, few studies have been performed on stress management in such women. An experimental pretest and repeated post-test design was used to compare the outcomes for two groups in northern Taiwan from December 2008, to May 2010. A total of 129 women were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 68) or control (n = 61) group. The experimental group participants were instructed to listen daily to a 13-minute relaxation programme. Measurements involved the stress visual analogue scale, finger temperatures, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety. Two-way analysis of variance and hierarchical linear modelling were used to analyse the group differences. Compared with those in the control group, participants in the experimental group showed immediate improvements in the stress visual analogue scale scores and finger temperatures. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State subscale score for the experimental group was significantly lower than that for the control group (P = 0·03). However, no statistically significant differences for the Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety scores were found between the experimental group and the control group. The relaxation-training programme could improve the stress responses of women with preterm labour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Cardio-respiratory response of young adult Indian male subjects to stress: Effects of progressive muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunima Chaudhuri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and anxiety have become an integral part of our lives. Of late, this has resulted in the increase in incidence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. Objectives: To assess the effect of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on young adult males and its role in the modulation of cardio-respiratory response on exposure to stress. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in a tertiary care referral hospital. Undergraduate male students under stress were chosen for the study. Fasting blood samples were drawn to analyze sugar and lipid profile, followed by anthropometric measurements and ECG. In the resting condition, blood pressure, pulse rate, and spirometric parameters; forced vital capacities (FVC, and forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV 1 % were measured. Then, they were made to exercise with bicycle ergometer and post exercise, the vital parameters were recorded. All subjects were given a training of Jacobson′s Progressive Muscular Relaxation and asked to practice this technique for 3 months. All parameters were re-evaluated. Results: Significant decreases in resting heart rate, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol levels of subjects were seen after PMR training. Exercise-induced rise in heart rate and blood pressure were also significantly less in subjects following PMR training. Conclusion: Progressive muscle relaxation helps in modulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and lipid profile in healthy normal adult male individuals.

  3. The effects of the contract-relax-antagonist-contract form of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on postural stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Edwin E; Rossi, Mark D; Lopez, Richard

    2010-07-01

    To investigate the effects of the contract-relax-antagonist-contract (CRAC) form of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching, with and without a warm-up, on postural stability. Thirty volunteers (15 men and 15 women, age: 25.17 +/- 5.4 years, height: 173.76 +/- 8.2 cm, and weight: 72.03 +/- 14.87 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: warm-up and stretch (WS), stretching only (SO), and a control condition (CON). Contract-relax-antagonist-contract PNF of the hamstrings, plantar flexors, and hip flexors was performed during WS and SO. A 6-minute treadmill warm-up was applied before CRAC in the WS condition. Measures of anterior/posterior and medial/lateral (M/L) postural stability were taken before and after treatment conditions. A 2 x 3 analysis of variance was used to assess for differences between conditions. Significance was set at p Contract-relax-antagonist-contract form of stretching is a useful protocol for improving M/L stability.

  4. Effects of electron correlation, exchange, and relaxation on x-ray, Auger, and Coster-Kronig transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, K.R.

    1983-01-01

    The first topic deals with Auger and radiative deexcitation of highly stripped phosphorus atoms. X-ray wavelengths, Auger energies, and decay rates have been calculated for various states of the P 4+ ion, with configurations (1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 )3s3p, 3s3d, 3s 2 , 3p 2 , and 3d 2 . Intermediate coupling and configuration interaction have been taken into account. The energies and decay rates are found to be strongly affected by configuration interaction. The theoretical results are compared with recent observations in ion-atom collision experiments. Good agreement with measured spectra is found, and the calculations characterize a number of lines that had not previously been identified. The second topic relates to the effects of exchange, relaxation, and electron correlation on the L 1 -L 23 M 1 Coster-Kronig spectrum of argon. The present calculation leads to good agreement with experimental transition energies and removes some of the discrepancies in transition rates. The total calculated transition rates are still about a factor of two higher than the measured rates. Relaxation tends to minimize the differences between individual L 1 -L 23 M 1 ( 1 P) and L 1 -L 23 M 1 ( 3 P) transition rates. The initial- and final-ionic-configuration interaction reduces the total decay rate by approx.35%. Inclusion of complete relaxation increases the total rate, however, by approx.1.5% rather than reducing it, with respect to calculations without relaxation. The exchange interaction also increases this rate by approx.9%

  5. Effect of Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, on the triggering of transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations in dogs and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaumont, H.; Jensen, J.; Carlsson, A.; Ruth, M.; Lehmann, A.; Boeckxstaens, G. E.

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) are the main mechanism underlying gastro-oesophageal reflux and are a potential pharmacological treatment target. We evaluated the effect of the CB(1)/CB(2) receptor agonist Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol

  6. Effect of yoga relaxation techniques on performance of digit-letter substitution task by teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradhan Balaram

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims : Memory and selective attention are important skills for academic and professional performance. Techniques to improve these skills are not taught either in education or company training courses. Any system which can systematically improve these skills will be of value in schools, universities, and workplaces. Aims:To investigate possible improvements in memory and selective attention, as measured by the Digit-Letter Substitution Task (DLST, due to practice of Cyclic Meditation (CM, a yoga relaxation technique, as compared to Supine Rest (SR. Materials and Methods : Subjects consisted of 253 school students, 156 boys, 97 girls, in the age range 13-16 years, who were attending a 10-day yoga training course during summer vacation. The selected subjects had English as their medium of instruction in school and they acted as their own controls. They were allocated to two groups, and tested on the DLST, immediately before and after 22.5 minutes practice of CM on one day, and immediately before and after an equal period of SR on the other day. The first group performed CM on day 9 and SR on day 10. For the second group, the order was reversed. Results : Within each group pre-post test differences were significant for both the relaxation techniques. The magnitude of net score improvement was greater after SR (7.85% compared to CM (3.95%. Significance levels were P < 0.4 x 10 -9 for SR and P < 0.1 x 10 -3 for CM. The number of wrong attempts also increased significantly on both interventions, even after removing two outlier data points on day 1 in the SR group. Conclusions: Both CM and SR lead to improvement in performance on the DLST. However, these relaxation techniques lead to more wrong cancellation errors.

  7. Separating the Influence of Environment from Stress Relaxation Effects on Dwell Fatigue Crack Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, Jack; Gabb, Tim; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2016-01-01

    Seven different microstructural variations of LSHR were produced by controlling the cooling rate and the subsequent aging and thermal exposure heat treatments. Through cyclic fatigue crack growth testing performed both in air and vacuum, it was established that four out of the seven LSHR heat treatments evaluated, possessed similar intrinsic environmental resistance to cyclic crack growth. For these four heat treatments, it was further shown that the large differences in dwell crack growth behavior which still persisted, were related to their measured stress relaxation behavior. The apparent differences in their dwell crack growth resistance were attributed to the inability of the standard linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) stress intensity parameter to account for visco-plastic behavior. Crack tip stress relaxation controls the magnitude of the remaining local tensile stresses which are directly related to the measured dwell crack growth rates. It was hypothesized that the environmentally weakened grain boundary crack tip regions fail during the dwells when their strength is exceeded by the remaining local crack tip tensile stresses. It was shown that the classical creep crack growth mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding did not contribute to crack growth, but the local visco-plastic behavior still plays a very significant role by determining the crack tip tensile stress field which controls the dwell crack growth behavior. To account for the influence of the visco-plastic behavior on the crack tip stress field, an empirical modification to the LEFM stress intensity parameter, Kmax, was developed by incorporating into the formulation the remaining stress level concept as measured by simple stress relaxation tests. The newly proposed parameter, Ksrf, did an excellent job in correlating the dwell crack growth rates for the four heat treatments which were shown to have similar intrinsic environmental cyclic fatigue crack growth resistance.

  8. [Effects of an exercise and relaxation aquatic program in patients with spondyloarthritis: A randomized trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández García, Rubén; Sánchez Sánchez, Laura de Carmen; López Rodríguez, María Del Mar; Sánchez Granados, Gema

    2015-11-06

    Spondyloarthritis is a general term referring to a group of chronic rheumatic illnesses that share clinical, genetic, radiological and epidemiological features. The clinical presentation of spondyloarthritis is characterized by the compromise of both the axial and peripheral articular skeleton. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an aquatic exercise plus relaxation program in patients with spondyloarthritis. This was a randomized single blind study including 30 patients with spondylitis who were randomly assigned to an experimental or control group. For 2 months, the experimental group underwent an aquatic fitness plus relaxation program (3 sessions per week). Evaluations were also performed in the control group the same days as the experimental group but they did not participate in any supervised exercise program. The following data were obtained at baseline and immediately after application of the last session: Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index, Health Questionnaire SF-12 and Sigma PC3(®) (Sigma-Elektro GmbH, Neustadt, Germany) Heart Rate Monitor. The Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant differences in the quality of life (physical function [P=.05]), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (P=.015), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (fatigue [P=.032], neck pain, back and hips [P=.045], pain or swelling in other joints [P=.032] and in waking morning stiffness [P=.019]). The results of the present study suggest that therapy with physical exercise plus relaxation provides benefits to spondyloarthritis patients and these are advised as a part of their usual treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of some polymeric additives on the cocrystallization of caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jihae; Kim, Il Won

    2011-11-01

    Effects of polymeric additives on the model cocrystallization were examined. The model cocrystal was made from caffeine and oxalic acid, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly( L-lactide) (PLLA), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were the additives. The cocrystals were formed as millimeter-sized crystals without additives, and they became microcrystals with PLLA and PCL, and nanocrystals with PAA. XRD and IR revealed that the cocrystal structure was unchanged despite the strong effects of the additives on the crystal morphology, although some decrease in crystallinity was observed with PAA as confirmed by DSC. The DSC study also showed that the cocrystal melted and recrystallized to form α-caffeine upon heating. The present study verified that the polymeric additives can be utilized to modulate the size and morphology of the cocrystals without interfering the intermolecular interactions essential to the integrity of the cocrystal structures.

  10. POEM: Identifying joint additive effects on regulatory circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya eBotzman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Motivation: Expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL mapping tackles the problem of identifying variation in DNA sequence that have an effect on the transcriptional regulatory network. Major computational efforts are aimed at characterizing the joint effects of several eQTLs acting in concert to govern the expression of the same genes. Yet, progress towards a comprehensive prediction of such joint effects is limited. For example, existing eQTL methods commonly discover interacting loci affecting the expression levels of a module of co-regulated genes. Such ‘modularization’ approaches, however, are focused on epistatic relations and thus have limited utility for the case of additive (non-epistatic effects.Results: Here we present POEM (Pairwise effect On Expression Modules, a methodology for identifying pairwise eQTL effects on gene modules. POEM is specifically designed to achieve high performance in the case of additive joint effects. We applied POEM to transcription profiles measured in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells across a population of genotyped mice. Our study reveals widespread additive, trans-acting pairwise effects on gene modules, characterizes their organizational principles, and highlights high-order interconnections between modules within the immune signaling network. These analyses elucidate the central role of additive pairwise effect in regulatory circuits, and provide computational tools for future investigations into the interplay between eQTLs.Availability: The software described in this article is available at csgi.tau.ac.il/POEM/.

  11. The relaxing effect of perivascular tissue on porcine retinal arterioles in vitro is mimicked by N-methyl-D-aspartate and is blocked by prostaglandin synthesis inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kim Holmgaard; Aalkjær, Christian; Lambert, John D. C.

    2008-01-01

    . However, previous in vitro studies of the influence of perivascular retinal tissue on retinal tone regulation have been hampered by the release of an endogenous relaxing factor that renders the arteriole insensitive to vasoconstrictors. The purpose of the present study was to test whether N-methyl-D-aspartate...... (NMDA) and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors, and a cyclooxygenase (COX) product influence this effect of perivascular retinal tissue in vitro. METHODS: Porcine retinal arterioles were mounted in a wire myograph for isometric force measurements. The contractile effect of the prostaglandin...... analogue U46619 was studied on vessels with preserved perivascular retinal tissue and after this tissue had been removed. The influence of the perivascular tissue was studied after addition of NMDA (a specific agonist for a subtype of the glutamate receptor), DL-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (DL...

  12. Detection of early gamma-postirradiation effects in murine spleen by proton NMR relaxation times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebrowska, G; Lewa, C J; Ramee, M P; Husson, F; De Certaines, J D

    2001-01-01

    It was our aim to evaluate the potential of proton relaxation times for the early detection of radiation-induced spleen changes. Female Swiss mice were irradiated with doses ranging from 0.05 Gy to 4 Gy. The body weight, the spleen weight and the spleen water content of single animals were determined. Measurements of longitudinal (T1) and transversal (T2) proton relaxation times of the spleen samples were performed in a 0.47 T spectrometer. Histological examinations of the control and irradiated organs were performed. NMR measurements during the first five days after irradiation showed that total body gamma-irradiation with doses from 1.5 Gy to 4 Gy results in decreasing T1 of the murine spleen. Significant shortening in T2 was observed for the spleen of animals irradiated with a dose of 4 Gy. Histological examinations demonstrated subnormal architecture in slices derived from animals irradiated with 2 Gy and 4 Gy. The fluctuations of the spleen T1 and T2 of irradiated mice are correlated with relative spleen weight and can be used to estimate radiation induced changes in this organ.

  13. Effectiveness of app-based relaxation for patients with chronic low back pain (Relaxback) and chronic neck pain (Relaxneck): study protocol for two randomized pragmatic trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blödt, Susanne; Pach, Daniel; Roll, Stephanie; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-12-15

    Chronic low back pain (LBP) and neck pain (NP) are highly prevalent conditions resulting in high economic costs. Treatment guidelines recommend relaxation techniques, such as progressive muscle relaxation, as adjuvant therapies. Self-care interventions could have the potential to reduce costs in the health care system, but their effectiveness, especially in a usual care setting, is unclear. The aim of these two pragmatic randomized studies is to evaluate whether an additional app-delivered relaxation is more effective in the reduction of chronic LBP or NP than usual care alone. Each pragmatic randomized two-armed study aims to include a total of 220 patients aged 18 to 65 years with chronic (>12 weeks) LBP or NP and an average pain intensity of ≥ 4 on a numeric rating scale (NRS) in the 7 days before recruitment. The participants will be randomized into an intervention and a usual care group. The intervention group will be instructed to practice one of these 3 relaxation techniques on at least 5 days/week for 15 minutes/day over a period of 6 months starting on the day of randomization: autogenic training, mindfulness meditation, or guided imagery. Instructions and exercises will be provided using a smartphone app, baseline information will be collected using paper and pencil. Follow-up information (daily, weekly, and after 3 and 6 months) will be collected using electronic diaries and questionnaires included in the app. The primary outcome measure will be the mean LBP or NP intensity during the first 3 months of intervention based on daily pain intensity measurements on a NRS (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain). The secondary outcome parameters will include the mean pain intensity during the first 6 months after randomization based on daily measurements, the mean pain intensity measured weekly as the average pain intensity of the previous 7 days over 3 and 6 months, pain acceptance, 'LBP- and NP-related' stress, sick leave days, pain medication

  14. Direct and Maternal Additive Effects on Rabbit Growth and Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and linear body measurements of rabbits which consisted of 17 ew Zealand White (ZW), 19 Chinchilla (CH), 29 ZW x CH and 33 CH x ZW kittens were compared. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the crossbreeding effects (i.e direct and maternal additive effect) for growth (individual body weight, IBW) and ...

  15. Effect of biliary cirrhosis on nonadrenergic noncholinergic-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum: Role of nitric oxide pathway and endocannabinoid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehpour A.R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Relaxation of the corpus cavernosum plays a major role in penile erection. Nitric oxide (NO is known to be the most important factor mediating relaxation of corpus cavernosum, which is mainly derived from nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC nerves. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of biliary cirrhosis on nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC-mediated relaxation of rat corpus cavernosum as well as the possible relevant roles of endocannabinoid and nitric oxide systems.Methods: Corporal strips from sham-operated and biliary cirrhotic rats were mounted under tension in a standard oxygenated organ bath with guanethidine sulfate (5 µM and atropine (1 µM to induce adrenergic and cholinergic blockade. The strips were precontracted with phenylephrine hydrochloride (7.5 µM and electrical field stimulation was applied at different frequencies (2, 5, 10, 15 Hz to obtain NANC-mediated relaxation. In separate precontracted strips of the sham and cirrhotic groups, the concentration-dependent relaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside (10 nM-1mM, as an NO donor, were assessed.  Results: The NANC-mediated relaxation was significantly enhanced in cirrhotic animals (P<0.01. Anandamide potentiated the relaxations in both groups (P<0.05. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (10 µM and the vanilloid receptor antagonist capsazepine (10 µM each significantly prevented the enhanced relaxations in cirrhotic rats (P<0.01. The CB2 receptor antagonist AM630 had no effect on relaxations in the cirrhotic group. In a concentration-dependent manner, L-NAME (30-1000 nM inhibited relaxations in both the sham and cirrhotic groups, although cirrhotic groups were more resistant to the inhibitory effects of L-NAME. The degree of relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (10 nM-1 mM was similar in the two groups.Conclusions: Biliary cirrhosis enhances the neurogenic relaxation in rat corpus cavernosum probably via the NO pathway and

  16. Effects of Relaxation Exercises and Music Therapy on the Psychological Symptoms and Depression Levels of Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavak, Funda; Ünal, Süheyla; Yılmaz, Emine

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to identify the effects of relaxation exercises and music therapy on the psychological symptoms and depression levels of patients with chronic schizophrenia. This semi-experimental study was conducted using pre- and post-tests with a control group. The study population consists of patients with schizophrenia who regularly attended community mental health centers in the Malatya and Elazığ provinces of Turkey between May 2015 and September 2015. The study's sample consists of 70 patients with schizophrenia (n=35 in the control group; n=35 in the experimental group) who were selected randomly based on power analysis. The "Patient Information Form," the "Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)" and the "Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS)" were used for data collection. Patients in the experimental group participated in relaxation exercises and music therapy 5 times a week for 4 weeks. The experimental group of 35 persons was divided into three groups of approximately 10-12 individuals in order to enable all participants to attend the program. No intervention was applied to the patients in the control group. The data were evaluated using percentage distribution, arithmetic means, standard deviations, Chi-square and independent samples t-tests. The study found that patients in the experimental group showed a decrease in total mean scores on the BPRS and CDSS; the difference between the post-test scores of the experimental group and the post-test scores of the control group was statistically significant (ptherapy was proven to be effective in reducing schizophrenic patients' psychological symptoms and levels of depression. Relaxation exercises and music therapy can be used as a complementary therapy in the medical treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation Effect of Apocynum venetum Leaf Extract via Src/PI3K/Akt Signalling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Siang Lau

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Botanical herbs are consumed globally not only as an essential diet but also as medicines or as functional/recreational food supplements. The extract of the Apocynum venetum leaves (AVLE, also known as Luobuma, exerts its antihypertensive effect via dilating the blood vessels in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner with optimal effect seen at as low as 10 µg/mL. A commercial Luoboma “antihypertensive tea” is available commercially in the western province of China. The present study seeks to investigate the underlying cellular mechanisms of the nitric oxide (NO-releasing property of AVLE in rat aortas and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Endothelium-dependent relaxation induced by AVLE was assessed in organ chambers in the presence or absence of polyethyleneglycol catalase (PP2, 20 µM; inhibitor of Src kinase, wortmannin (30 nM and LY294002 (20 µM; PI3 (phosphatidylinositol3-Kinase inhibitor, NG-nitro-l-arginine (L-NAME, 100 µM; endothelial NO synthase inhibitor (eNOS and ODQ (1 µM; soluble guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. Total nitrite and nitrate (NOx level and protein expression of p-Akt and p-eNOS were measured. AVLE-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation was reduced by PP2, wortmannin and LY294002 and abolished by L-NAME and ODQ. AVLE significantly increased total NOx level in rat aortas and in HUVECs compared to control. It also instigated phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in cultured HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner and this was markedly suppressed by PP2, wortmannin and LY294002. AVLE also inhibited superoxide generated from both NADPH oxidase and xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. Taken together, AVLE causes endothelium-dependent NO mediated relaxations of rat aortas through Src/PI3K/Akt dependent NO signalling pathway and possesses superoxide scavenging activity.

  18. Genomic Model with Correlation Between Additive and Dominance Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Tao; Christensen, Ole Fredslund; Vitezica, Zulma Gladis; Legarra, Andres

    2018-05-09

    Dominance genetic effects are rarely included in pedigree-based genetic evaluation. With the availability of single nucleotide polymorphism markers and the development of genomic evaluation, estimates of dominance genetic effects have become feasible using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP). Usually, studies involving additive and dominance genetic effects ignore possible relationships between them. It has been often suggested that the magnitude of functional additive and dominance effects at the quantitative trait loci are related, but there is no existing GBLUP-like approach accounting for such correlation. Wellmann and Bennewitz showed two ways of considering directional relationships between additive and dominance effects, which they estimated in a Bayesian framework. However, these relationships cannot be fitted at the level of individuals instead of loci in a mixed model and are not compatible with standard animal or plant breeding software. This comes from a fundamental ambiguity in assigning the reference allele at a given locus. We show that, if there has been selection, assigning the most frequent as the reference allele orients the correlation between functional additive and dominance effects. As a consequence, the most frequent reference allele is expected to have a positive value. We also demonstrate that selection creates negative covariance between genotypic additive and dominance genetic values. For parameter estimation, it is possible to use a combined additive and dominance relationship matrix computed from marker genotypes, and to use standard restricted maximum likelihood (REML) algorithms based on an equivalent model. Through a simulation study, we show that such correlations can easily be estimated by mixed model software and accuracy of prediction for genetic values is slightly improved if such correlations are used in GBLUP. However, a model assuming uncorrelated effects and fitting orthogonal breeding values and dominant

  19. Effectiveness of a Combined Dance and Relaxation Intervention on Reducing Anxiety and Depression and Improving Quality of Life among the Cognitively Impaired Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Adam; Ayiesah Ramli; Suzana Shahar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cognitive impairment is a common problem among the elderly and is believed to be a precursor to dementia. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a combined dance and relaxation intervention as compared to relaxation alone in reducing anxiety and depression levels and improving quality of life (QOL) and cognitive function among the cognitively impaired elderly. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted between May and December 2013 in Peninsular Mal...

  20. Comparing the Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery on sleep quality in primigravida women referring to Mashhad health care centers-1393

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Golmakani; Farnaz Sadat Seyed Ahmadi Nejad; Mohammad Taghi Shakeri; Negar Asghari Pour

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Decreased sleep quality is a common complaint during pregnancy. Relaxation is one of the non-pharmaceutical treatments for sleep disorders. Different techniques could have different impacts on various biological and mental stressors. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on the sleep quality of primigravida women. Methods:This three-group clinical trial was conducted on 100 primigravida women, referring to Mash...

  1. Randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of progressive resistance training compared to progressive muscle relaxation in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy: the BEST study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potthoff, Karin; Steindorf, Karen; Schmidt, Martina E; Wiskemann, Joachim; Hof, Holger; Klassen, Oliver; Habermann, Nina; Beckhove, Philipp; Debus, Juergen; Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment. During and after radiotherapy breast cancer patients often suffer from CRF which frequently impairs quality of life (QoL). Despite the high prevalence of CRF in breast cancer patients and the severe impact on the physical and emotional well-being, effective treatment methods are scarce. Physical activity for breast cancer patients has been reported to decrease fatigue, to improve emotional well-being and to increase physical strength. The pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms of CRF and the molecular-biologic changes induced by exercise, however, are poorly understood. In the BEST trial we aim to assess the effects of resistance training on fatigue, QoL and physical fitness as well as on molecular, immunological and inflammatory changes in breast cancer patients during adjuvant radiotherapy. The BEST study is a prospective randomized, controlled intervention trial investigating the effects of a 12-week supervised progressive resistance training compared to a 12-week supervised muscle relaxation training in 160 patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant radiotherapy. To determine the effect of exercise itself beyond potential psychosocial group effects, patients in the control group perform a group-based progressive muscle relaxation training. Main inclusion criterion is histologically confirmed breast cancer stage I-III after lumpectomy or mastectomy with indication for adjuvant radiotherapy. Main exclusion criteria are acute infectious diseases, severe neurological, musculosceletal or cardiorespiratory disorders. The primary endpoint is cancer-related fatigue; secondary endpoints include immunological and inflammatory parameters analyzed in peripheral blood, saliva and urine. In addition, QoL, depression, physical performance and cognitive capacity will be assessed. The BEST study is the first randomized controlled trial comparing progressive

  2. Soluble organic additive effects on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedin, Pär; Lewis, Jennifer A; Bergström, Lennart

    2005-10-01

    The effect of polymer, plasticizer, and surfactant additives on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate particulate coatings was studied using a controlled-environment apparatus that simultaneously monitors drying stress, weight loss, and relative humidity. We found that the calcium carbonate coatings display a drying stress evolution typical of granular films, which is characterized by a sharp capillary-induced stress rise followed by a rapid stress relaxation. The addition of a soluble polymer to the CaCO3 suspension resulted in a two-stage stress evolution process. The initial stress rise stems from capillary-pressure-induced stresses within the film, while the second, larger stress rise occurs due to solidification and shrinkage of the polymeric species. Measurements on the corresponding pure polymer solutions established a clear correlation between the magnitude of residual stress in both the polymer and CaCO3-polymer films to the physical properties of the polymer phase, i.e. its glass transition temperature, T(g), and Young's modulus. The addition of small organic molecules can reduce the residual stress observed in the CaCO3-polymer films; e.g., glycerol, which acts as a plasticizer, reduces the drying stress by lowering T(g), while surfactant additions reduce the surface tension of the liquid phase, and, hence, the magnitude of the capillary pressure within the film.

  3. Relaxation and Distraction in Experimental Desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, R. O.; Marshall, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    Compared experimental desensitization with a procedure that replaced relaxation with a distraction task and with an approach that combined both relaxation and distraction. Desensitization generally was more effective than the other two procedures. (Author)

  4. An additional memory effect in mass spectrometry for BF3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Kiichi; Satooka, Sakae

    1978-01-01

    It is considered that the memory effect appears in a metallic gas inlet of a mass spectrometer for measurement with samples of BF 3 is classified into two kinds, one is essential memory effect which is caused by an action between the surface of metal and BF 3 , and the other is additional memory effect which is caused by viscous liquid produced by reaction among water, BF 3 and metals. The additional memory effect is caused by stain on the inner surface of the gas inlet. Air is introduced into the sample bottle joint at each time for change of sample bottle. Moisture in the air is adsorbed on inner surfaces of the joint and piping made of metal, and combined with BF 3 which is introduced, and then viscous compound is produced by dissolution of the metal into the compound made from H 2 O and BF 3 . The vapour pressure of the viscous compound is not sufficient low, and so the compound propagates from the sample bottle joint to the whole of the gas inlet at each time of opening and closing of valves of the gas inlet. The coated film of the viscous compound with adsorption and release of Bf 3 is a cause of the additional memory effect. If the stain of the inner surface of the gas inlet grows up, the additional memory effect becomes more intense compared with the essential memory effect, and the measured values are not converged. To remove the additional memory effect, it is desirable to introduce the sample BF 3 after the moisture intruded into the piping by the exchange of sample bottles is removed sufficiently by introduction of F 2 or ClF 3 . (auth.)

  5. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  6. Effect of polymer additives on transition in pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, W; Squire, W

    1967-09-01

    Small amounts of long-chain, water-soluble polymers have a marked effect on turbulent flow resulting in appreciable reduction of turbulent friction. The maximum reduction in pipe flow resistance is obtained at such low concentrations that the density and viscosity are not altered appreciably. The minimum friction curve varies as Re-2/3 and appears to be the same for all effective additives tested. The transition process is affected by these additives. Quantitative results are presented showing a reduction in the intensity of the turbulent flashes and the fraction of the time the flow is turbulent at a given Reynolds number. (13 refs.)

  7. Second-order Monte Carlo wave-function approach to the relaxation effects on ringing revivals in a molecular system interacting with a strongly squeezed coherent field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masayoshi; Kishi, Ryohei; Nitta, Tomoshige; Yamaguchi, Kizashi

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the relaxation effects on the quantum dynamics in a two-state molecular system interacting with a single-mode strongly amplitude-squeezed coherent field using the second-order Monte Carlo wave-function method. The molecular population inversion (collapse-revival behavior of Rabi oscillations) is known to show the echoes after each revival, which are referred to as ringing revivals, in the case of strongly squeezed coherent fields with oscillatory photon-number distributions due to the phase-space interference effect. Two types of relaxation effects, i.e., cavity relaxation (the dissipation of an internal single mode to outer mode) and molecular coherent (phase) relaxation caused by nuclear vibrations on ringing revivals are investigated from the viewpoint of the quantum-phase dynamics using the quasiprobability (Q function) distribution of a single-mode field and the off-diagonal molecular density matrix ρ elec1,2 (t). It turns out that the molecular phase relaxation attenuates both the entire revival-collapse behavior and the increase in ρ elec1,2 (t) during the quiescent region, whereas a very slight cavity relaxation particularly suppresses the echoes in ringing revivals more significantly than the first revival but hardly changes a primary variation in envelope of ρ elec1,2 (t) in the nonrelaxation case

  8. Tracheal epithelium cell volume responses to hyperosmolar, isosmolar and hypoosmolar solutions: relation to epithelium-derived relaxing factor (EpDRF effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S. Fedan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In asthmatic patients, inhalation of hyperosmolar saline or D-mannitol (D-M elicits bronchoconstriction, but in healthy subjects exercise causes bronchodilation. Hyperventilation causes drying of airway surface liquid (ASL and increases its osmolarity. Hyperosmolar challenge of airway epithelium releases epithelium-derived relaxing factor (EpDRF, which relaxes the airway smooth muscle. This pathway could be involved in exercise-induced bronchodilation. Little is known of ASL hyperosmolarity effects on epithelial function. We investigated the effects of osmolar challenge maneuvers on dispersed and adherent guinea-pig tracheal epithelial cells to examine the hypothesis that EpDRF-mediated relaxation is associated with epithelial cell shrinkage. Enzymatically-dispersed cells shrank when challenged with ≥10 mOsM added D M, urea or NaCl with a concentration-dependence that mimics relaxation of the of isolated, perfused tracheas (IPT. Cells shrank when incubated in isosmolar N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG chloride, Na gluconate (Glu, NMDG-Glu, K-Glu and K2SO4, and swelled in isosmolar KBr and KCl. However, isosmolar challenge is not a strong stimulus of relaxation in IPTs. In previous studies amiloride and 4,4' diisothiocyano 2,2' stilbenedisulfonic acid (DIDS inhibited relaxation of IPT to hyperosmolar challenge, but had little effect on shrinkage of dispersed cells. Confocal microscopy in tracheal segments showed that adherent epithelium is refractory to low hyperosmolar concentrations that induce dispersed cell shrinkage and relaxation of IPT. Except for gadolinium and erythro 9 (2 hydroxy 3 nonyladenine (EHNA, actin and microtubule inhibitors and membrane permeabilizing agents did not affect on ion transport by adherent epithelium or shrinkage responses of dispersed cells. Our studies dissociate relaxation of IPT from cell shrinkage after hyperosmolar challenge of airway epithelium .

  9. Effects of additives on solidification of API separator sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faschan, A; Tittlebaum, M; Cartledge, F; Eaton, H

    1991-08-01

    API separator sludge was solidified with various combinations of binders and absorbent soil additives. The binders utilized were Type I Portland Cement, Type C Flyash, and a 1:1 combination of the two. The soil additives used were bentonite, diatomite, Fuller's earth, and two brands of chemically altered bentonites, or organoclays. The effectiveness of the solidification materials was based on their effect on the physical and leaching characteristics of the sludge.It was determined the Portland cement and combination binders provided the sludge with adequate physical and strength characteristics. It was also determined the affinity of each additive for water had an important influence on the physical characteristics of the solidified sludge. The results of the leaching procedure indicated the binders alone reduced the leachability of organic constituents from the sludge by 1/5 to 1/10. It appeared the use of the additives with the binders may have further reduced the leachability of constituents from sludge, with the incorporation of the organoclay additives further reducing leachability by up to 1/2. Also, it appeared the absorbing capacity of the additives was directly related to their ability to reduce the leachability of organic constituents from the sludge.

  10. r1 and r2 Relaxivities of Dendrons Based on a OEG-DTPA Architecture: Effect of Gd3+ Placement and Dendron Functionalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fransen, P.; Simon-Gracia, L.; Albericio, F.; Fransen, P.; Pulido, D.; Simon-Gracia, L.; Candiata, A.P.; Arus, C.; Albericio, F.; Royo, M.; Pulido, D.; Royo, M.; Candiata, A.P.; Arus, C.; Candiata, A.P.; Albericio, F.; Candiata, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging, contrast agents are employed to enhance the signal intensity. However, current commercial contrast agents are hindered by a low relaxivity constant. Dendrimers can be employed to create higher molecular weight contrast agents which have an increased relaxivity due to a lower molecular rotation. In this study, dendrimers containing DTPA derivatives as cores and/or branching units were used to chelate gadolinium ions. Locating the gadolinium ions inside the dendrimers results in higher relaxivity constants, possibly because the paramagnetic center is closer to the rotational axis of the macromolecule. The highest gain in relaxivity was produced by decorating the dendron surface with peptide sequences, which could be explained by the presence of more second-sphere water molecules attracted by the peptides. These findings could contribute to the development of more effective contrast agents, either by placing the paramagnetic gadolinium ion in a strategic position or through functionalization of the dendron surface.

  11. r1 and r2 Relaxivities of Dendrons Based on a OEG-DTPA Architecture: Effect of Gd3+ Placement and Dendron Functionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fransen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In magnetic resonance imaging, contrast agents are employed to enhance the signal intensity. However, current commercial contrast agents are hindered by a low relaxivity constant. Dendrimers can be employed to create higher molecular weight contrast agents which have an increased relaxivity due to a lower molecular rotation. In this study, dendrimers containing DTPA derivatives as cores and/or branching units were used to chelate gadolinium ions. Locating the gadolinium ions inside the dendrimers results in higher relaxivity constants, possibly because the paramagnetic center is closer to the rotational axis of the macromolecule. The highest gain in relaxivity was produced by decorating the dendron surface with peptide sequences, which could be explained by the presence of more second-sphere water molecules attracted by the peptides. These findings could contribute to the development of more effective contrast agents, either by placing the paramagnetic gadolinium ion in a strategic position or through functionalization of the dendron surface.

  12. Effects of additives on glyphosate activity in purple nutsedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rungsit Suwanketnikom

    1998-01-01

    Effects of additives on 14 C-glyphosate penetration into purple nutsedge leaves were examined in the laboratory and efficacy of glyphosate for purple nutsedge control was studied in the greenhouse and field. The addition of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at 1.0% (v/v) + diesel oil at 1,0% (v/v) + Tendal at 1.0% (v/v) increased 14 C-glyphosate penetration into nutsedge leaves more than the addition of either one alone. (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at 1.0% + diesel oil at 1.0% + Tendal at 0.12 or 0.25% increased the phytotoxicity of glyphosate at 0.5 and 0.75 kg, a.e./ha on nutsedge plants in the greenhouse but not in the field. Additives did not enhance glyphosate activity by reducing the number of nutsedae tubers. (author)

  13. The effects of music, relaxation and other suggesto- 24 pedic elements in a primary school German class. An experimental investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uschi Felix

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This nine week study set out to test whether, in addition to good communicative teaching, music, relaxation, suggestion, and the adoption by the students of German personalities, would have a positive effect on students' language self-concept, attitude and achievement. The subjects were twenty-eight fourth and fifth year students (average age nine years eight months.at a metropolitan Catholic Primary School in South Australia. Pairs of students were matched for sex, year level and language self-concept and then allocated at random to the control or the experimental group. Both groups were taught German by the same teacher for four weeks of seventy minutes daily instruction. The children had no previous experience of learning a foreign language. Video tapes were taken of both groups during teaching for comparison of teacher and student behaviour by independent raters. Tests were administered at the end of the course testing all four language skills. t-Test analyses showed that the experimental class performed significantly better on all language tasks than the control group. Repeated measures Anova showed that both self-concept and attitude improved significantly in the experimental class. Rank sum analysis of the video ratings showed that attention rate was significantly better in the experimental class. Die doel van hierdie studie van nege weke was om te toets ofmusiek, ontspanning, suggestie en die aanneem van Duitse persoonlikhede deur die skoliere, tesame met goeie kommunikatiewe onderrig 'n positiewe uitwerking op die studente se taalselfkonsep, houding en prestasie sou he. Ag-en-twintig vierde- en vyfdejaarskoliere ( gemiddeld nege jaar en agt maande oud verbonde aan 'n stedelike Katolieke laerskool in Suid-Australie is gebruik. Skoliere is in pare gekies op grond van geslag, skoolstanderd en taalselfkonsep en op 'n willekeurige basis, of in die kontrole- of in die eksperimentele groep ingedeel. Beide groepe is vier weke lank onderrig. Die

  14. Statistical study of chemical additives effects in the waste cementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, Cledola C.O. de; Diniz, Paula S.; Haucz, Maria J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the statistical study, that was carried out to analyse the chemical additives effect in the waste cementation process. Three different additives from two industries were tested: set accelerator, set retarder and super plasticizers, in cemented pates with and without bentonite. The experiments were planned in accordance with the 2 3 factorial design, so that the effect of each type of additive, its quantity and manufacturer in cemented paste and specimens could be evaluated. The results showed that the use of these can improve the cementation process and the product. The admixture quantity and the association with bentonite were the most important factors affecting the process and product characteristics. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Effect of increased manganese addition and mould type on the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Effect of increased manganese addition and mould type on the slurry erosion characteristics of .... slurry erosion data in the form of bar diagrams for 5M24 and 10M24 ... being bigger in size with higher austenite retention and the attendant ...

  16. Effect Of Formulating Additives On The Properties Of Ibuprofen Tablets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the comparative effects of different formulating additives and film coating on the properties of ibuprofen tablets was made. The tested properties were hardeness (H), friability (F), the disintegration time (D) and dissolution characteristics of ibuprofen tablets. The hardeness, friability, the hardeness friability ratio ...

  17. Effect of borax additive on the dielectric response of polypyrrole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2018-03-29

    Mar 29, 2018 ... fore, borax additive is effective on the properties of composite material. 2.5 Particle size of .... of a very mobile group of electric dipoles in PPy–50 wt% ..... [9] Cavdar A D, Mengelo˘glu F and Karakus K 2015 Measurement. 60 6.

  18. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette D Rieg

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH. However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs and humans. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL. RESULTS: In the IPL (GP, milrinone (10 µM lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP, milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120% and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823, adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536 and protein kinase A (KT 5720, but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME. In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%, however only if pre-constricted. DISCUSSION: Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  19. Milrinone relaxes pulmonary veins in guinea pigs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieg, Annette D; Suleiman, Said; Perez-Bouza, Alberto; Braunschweig, Till; Spillner, Jan W; Schröder, Thomas; Verjans, Eva; Schälte, Gereon; Rossaint, Rolf; Uhlig, Stefan; Martin, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor milrinone improves ventricular contractility, relaxes pulmonary arteries and reduces right ventricular afterload. Thus, it is used to treat heart failure and pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, its action on pulmonary veins (PVs) is not defined, although particularly PH due to left heart disease primarily affects the pulmonary venous bed. We examined milrinone-induced relaxation in PVs from guinea pigs (GPs) and humans. Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) were prepared from GPs or from patients undergoing lobectomy. Milrinone-induced relaxation was studied by videomicroscopy in naïve PVs and in PVs pre-constricted with the ETA-receptor agonist BP0104. Baseline luminal area was defined as 100%. Intracellular cAMP was measured by ELISA and milrinone-induced changes of segmental vascular resistances were studied in the GP isolated perfused lung (IPL). In the IPL (GP), milrinone (10 µM) lowered the postcapillary resistance of pre-constricted vessels. In PCLS (GP), milrinone relaxed naïve and pre-constricted PVs (120%) and this relaxation was attenuated by inhibition of protein kinase G (KT 5823), adenyl cyclase (SQ 22536) and protein kinase A (KT 5720), but not by inhibition of NO-synthesis (L-NAME). In addition, milrinone-induced relaxation was dependent on the activation of K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channels. Human PVs also relaxed to milrinone (121%), however only if pre-constricted. Milrinone relaxes PVs from GPs and humans. In GPs, milrinone-induced relaxation is based on K ATP-, BK Ca (2+)- and Kv-channel-activation and on cAMP/PKA/PKG. The relaxant properties of milrinone on PVs lead to reduced postcapillary resistance and hydrostatic pressures. Hence they alleviate pulmonary edema and suggest beneficial effects of milrinone in PH due to left heart disease.

  20. Functional behavior of the anomalous magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa_2Cu_3O_7_-_δ samples showing the paramagnetic Meissner effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, F.T.; Vieira, V.N.; Garcia, E.L.; Wolff-Fabris, F.; Kampert, E.; Gouvêa, C.P.; Schaf, J.; Obradors, X.; Puig, T.; Roa, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Paramagnetic Meissner effect observed up to 5T in FCC and FCW measurements. • Time effects evidenced by irreversibilities between FCC and FCW measurements. • Strong time effects causing an anomalous paramagnetic relaxation. • Paramagnetic relaxation governed by different flux dynamics in different intervals. • An interpretative analysis to identify the flux dynamics in the relaxation process. - Abstract: We have studied the functional behavior of the field-cooled (FC) magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa_2Cu_3O_7_-_δ (Y123) samples with 30 wt% of Y_2Ba_1Cu_1O_5 (Y211) phase, in order to investigate anomalous paramagnetic moments observed during the experiments. FC magnetic relaxation experiments were performed under controlled conditions, such as cooling rate and temperature. Magnetic fields up to 5T were applied parallel to the ab plane and along the c-axis. Our results are associated with the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME), characterized by positive moments during FC experiments, and related to the magnetic flux compression into the samples. After different attempts our experimental data could be adequately fitted by an exponential decay function with different relaxation times. We discuss our results suggesting the existence of different and preferential flux dynamics governing the anomalous FC paramagnetic relaxation in different time intervals. This work is one of the first attempts to interpret this controversial effect in a simple analysis of the pinning mechanisms and flux dynamics acting during the time evolution of the magnetic moment. However, the results may be useful to develop models to explain this interesting and still misunderstood feature of the paramagnetic Meissner effect.

  1. Capturing molecular multimode relaxation processes in excitable gases based on decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ming; Liu, Tingting; Wang, Shu; Zhang, Kesheng

    2017-08-01

    Existing two-frequency reconstructive methods can only capture primary (single) molecular relaxation processes in excitable gases. In this paper, we present a reconstructive method based on the novel decomposition of frequency-dependent acoustic relaxation spectra to capture the entire molecular multimode relaxation process. This decomposition of acoustic relaxation spectra is developed from the frequency-dependent effective specific heat, indicating that a multi-relaxation process is the sum of the interior single-relaxation processes. Based on this decomposition, we can reconstruct the entire multi-relaxation process by capturing the relaxation times and relaxation strengths of N interior single-relaxation processes, using the measurements of acoustic absorption and sound speed at 2N frequencies. Experimental data for the gas mixtures CO2-N2 and CO2-O2 validate our decomposition and reconstruction approach.

  2. Effects of Healing Touch and Relaxation Therapy on Adult Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant: A Feasibility Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Der-Fa; Hart, Laura K; Lutgendorf, Susan K; Oh, Hyunkyoung; Silverman, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell transplant (SCT), considered the current standard of care for adults with advanced cancers, can lead to substantial deconditioning and diminished well-being. Attending to life quality of SCT recipients is now viewed as essential. The objective of this study was to identify the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of healing touch (HT) and relaxation therapy (RT) with patients undergoing SCT. A randomized prospective design compared 13 SCT patients who received HT daily while hospitalized to 13 similar SCT patients who received daily RT. The clinical outcomes of the 2 groups were also compared with retrospective clinical data of 20 patients who received SCT during the same year. The mean age of participants was 57 years, with 54% receiving autologous and 46% receiving allogeneic transplants. All patients assigned to the HT group completed the protocol. Only 60% of the relaxation group completed the intervention. Both interventions produced improvement in psychosocial measures and a shorter hospital length of stay (LOS) than the historical group. Differential results for LOS were related to the type of transplant received. The LOS differences were not statistically significant but could be clinically significant. Healing touch was a better tolerated modality by this population. Future research is needed to validate the LOS advantage of the HT and RT interventions, explore the differences in effect found with different transplant types, and identify patients who can tolerate RT. The LOS reduction could result in decreased cost. Second, mood and function improvements support quality of life during SCT treatment.

  3. Effects of Liver Fibrosis Progression on Tissue Relaxation Times in Different Mouse Models Assessed by Ultrahigh Field Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Müller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, clinical studies demonstrated that magnetic resonance relaxometry with determination of relaxation times T1 and T2⁎ may aid in staging and management of liver fibrosis in patients suffering from viral hepatitis and steatohepatitis. In the present study we investigated T1 and T2⁎ in different models of liver fibrosis to compare alternate pathophysiologies in their effects on relaxation times and to further develop noninvasive quantification methods of liver fibrosis. MRI was performed with a fast spin echo sequence for measurement of T1 and a multigradient echo sequence for determination of T2⁎. Toxic liver fibrosis was induced by injections of carbon tetrachloride (1.4 mL CCl4 per kg bodyweight and week, for 3 or 6 weeks in BALB/cJ mice. Chronic sclerosing cholangitis was mimicked using the ATP-binding cassette transporter B4 knockout (Abcb4 -/- mouse model. Untreated BALB/cJ mice served as controls. To assess hepatic fibrosis, we ascertained collagen contents and fibrosis scores after Sirius red staining. T1 and T2⁎ correlate differently to disease severity and etiology of liver fibrosis. T2⁎ shows significant decrease correlating with fibrosis in CCl4 treated animals, while demonstrating significant increase with disease severity in Abcb4 -/- mice. Measurements of T1 and T2⁎ may therefore facilitate discrimination between different stages and causes of liver fibrosis.

  4. The effect of timing of intravenous muscle relaxant on the quality of double-contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, E.M.; Elson, E.M.; Campbell, D.M.; Halligan, S.; Shaikh, I.; Davitt, S.; Bartram, C.I.

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether the timing of buscopan administration during double-contrast barium enema examination (DCBE) affects diagnostic quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a prospective setting, 100 consecutive adult out-patients referred for DCBE received 20 mg buscopan (hyoscine-N-butylbromide) intravenously, either before infusion of barium suspension (Group A) or after barium infusion and gas insufflation (Group B). A subjective assessment of ease of contrast medium infusion was made at the time of examination and the films subsequently analysed by two radiologists unaware of the mode of relaxant administration, who noted the quality of mucosal coating and made subjective and objective measurements of segmental distension. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in screening times, infusion difficulty or colonic contrast medium coating between the two groups. Subjective assessment of distension of the caecum, ascending colon, transverse colon and rectum were not significantly different. Patients receiving intravenous relaxant after barium and gas infusion had less subjective descending (P = 0.05) and sigmoid (P = 0.04) colon distension, but there was no significant difference with respect to maximal bowel diameter in any of the segments measured. CONCLUSION: The timing of intravenous administration during DCBE is likely to have no significant effect on the diagnostic quality of the study. Elson, E.M. (2000)

  5. Investigations of effect of phase change mass transfer rate on cavitation process with homogeneous relaxation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhixia; Zhang, Liang; Saha, Kaushik; Som, Sibendu; Duan, Lian; Wang, Qian

    2017-12-01

    The super high fuel injection pressure and micro size of nozzle orifice has been an important development trend for the fuel injection system. Accordingly, cavitation transient process, fuel compressibility, amount of noncondensable gas in the fuel and cavitation erosion have attracted more attention. Based on the fact of cavitation in itself is a kind of thermodynamic phase change process, this paper takes the perspective of the cavitation phase change mass transfer process to analyze above mentioned phenomenon. The two-phase cavitating turbulent flow simulations with VOF approach coupled with HRM cavitation model and U-RANS of standard k-ε turbulence model were performed for investigations of cavitation phase change mass transfer process. It is concluded the mass transfer time scale coefficient in the Homogenous Relaxation Model (HRM) representing mass transfer rate should tend to be as small as possible in a condition that ensured the solver stable. At very fast mass transfer rate, the phase change occurs at very thin interface between liquid and vapor phase and condensation occurs more focused and then will contribute predictably to a more serious cavitation erosion. Both the initial non-condensable gas in fuel and the fuel compressibility can accelerate the cavitation mass transfer process.

  6. An effect of the electrode material on space charge relaxation in ferroelectric copolymers of vinylidene fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochervinskii, Valentin, E-mail: kochval@mail.ru; Pavlov, Alexey; Pakuro, Natalia; Bessonova, Natalia; Shmakova, Nina [State Research Center of the Russian Federation Karpov Institute of Physical Chemistry, Vorontsovo Pole 10, Moscow 103064 (Russian Federation); Malyshkina, Inna [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Leninskie Gory, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Bedin, Sergey [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya Str., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Chubunova, Elena; Lebedinskii, Yuri [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe Highway, 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-28

    Processes of relaxation of space charges formed by impurities carriers in isotropic films of vinylidene fluoride and tetrafluoroethylene copolymers of the composition 71/29 and 94/6 were studied. Al and Au symmetric electrodes deposited by evaporation in vacuum have been used. In the case of Al electrodes at temperatures above 100 °C, giant low frequency dielectric dispersion was observed, while it is absent in films with Au electrodes. Causes of this phenomenon were studied by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was shown that at Al deposition, new functional groups, such as Al-C, Al-F, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which are not characteristic of the copolymer film surface, formed. They were supposed to be traps for impurity carriers and because of this the electrode became partially blocked. This led to appearance of the giant electrode polarization on the metal-polymer boundary, which did not take place in the case of Au electrodes. Parameters of the Au4f line for the copolymer with different contents of fluorine atoms in the chain were analyzed. An increase in the number of these atoms was shown to result in the line shift to higher energies. This phenomenon was associated with an increase in the shift of the electron density from Au atoms to the F ones which has a high affinity to electrons.

  7. Effects of the strain relaxation of an AlGaN barrier layer induced by various cap layers on the transport properties in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zi-Yang; Zhang Jin-Cheng; Duan Huan-Tao; Xue Jun-Shuai; Lin Zhi-Yu; Ma Jun-Cai; Xue Xiao-Yong; Hao Yue

    2011-01-01

    The strain relaxation of an AlGaN barrier layer may be influenced by a thin cap layer above, and affects the transport properties of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. Compared with the slight strain relaxation found in AlGaN barrier layer without cap layer, it is found that a thin cap layer can induce considerable changes of strain state in the AlGaN barrier layer. The degree of relaxation of the AlGaN layer significantly influences the transport properties of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN heterostructures. It is observed that electron mobility decreases with the increasing degree of relaxation of the AlGaN barrier, which is believed to be the main cause of the deterioration of crystalline quality and morphology on the AlGaN/GaN interface. On the other hand, both GaN and AlN cap layers lead to a decrease in 2DEG density. The reduction of 2DEG caused by the GaN cap layer may be attributed to the additional negative polarization charges formed at the interface between GaN and AlGaN, while the reduction of the piezoelectric effect in the AlGaN layer results in the decrease of 2DEG density in the case of AlN cap layer. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. (-)-Epicatechin-induced relaxation of isolated human saphenous vein: Roles of K+ and Ca2+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinko, Marija; Jankovic, Goran; Nenezic, Dragoslav; Milojevic, Predrag; Stojanovic, Ivan; Kanjuh, Vladimir; Novakovic, Aleksandra

    2018-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate relaxant effect of flavanol (-)-epicatechin on the isolated human saphenous vein (HSV), as a part of its cardioprotective action, and to define the mechanisms underlying this vasorelaxation. (-)-Epicatechin induced a concentration-dependent relaxation of HSV pre-contracted by phenylephrine. Among K + channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine, margatoxin, and iberiotoxin significantly inhibited relaxation of HSV, while glibenclamide considerably reduced effects of the high concentrations of (-)-epicatechin. Additionally, (-)-epicatechin relaxed contraction induced by 80 mM K + , whereas in the presence of nifedipine produced partial relaxation of HSV rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine. In Ca 2+ -free solution, (-)-epicatechin relaxed contraction induced by phenylephrine, but had no effect on contraction induced by caffeine. A sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase inhibitor, thapsigargin, significantly reduced relaxation of HSV produced by (-)-epicatechin. These results demonstrate that (-)-epicatechin produces endothelium-independent relaxation of isolated HSV rings. Vasorelaxation to (-)-epicatechin probably involves activation of 4-aminopyridine- and margatoxin-sensitive K V channels, BK Ca channels, and at least partly, K ATP channels. In addition, not only the inhibition of extracellular Ca 2+ influx, but regulation of the intracellular Ca 2+ release, via inositol-trisphosphate receptors and reuptake into sarcoplasmic reticulum, via stimulation of Ca 2+ -ATPase, as well, most likely participate in (-)-epicatechin-induced relaxation of HSV. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Effect of radiation and non-Maxwellian electron distribution on relaxation processes in an atmospheric cesium seeded argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghi, C.A.; Veefkind, A.; Wetzer, J.M.

    1982-03-01

    A model, describing the time dependent behaviour of a noble gas MHD generator plasma, has been set up. With this model it is possible to calculate the relaxation for ionization or recombination as a response to a stepwise temperature development, once the initial and final conditions are given. In model radiative transitions and a deviation from Maxwellian electron distribution are included. Radiation causes an enhancement of both the ionization relaxation time and the recombination relaxation time. A non-Maxwellian electron distribution results in an increase of the relaxation time for an ionizing plasma because of an underpopulation of the high energy electrons. A decrease of the relaxation time for a recombining plasma is caused by an overpopulation of high energy electrons. The relaxation time is strongly dependent on the seed ratio and the temperature step. (Auth.)

  10. Transverse magnetic field effects on the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 measured by 55Mn-NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Kumagai, K.; Borsa, F.; Gatteschi, D.

    2003-01-01

    The longitudinal (H Z ) and transverse (H T ) magnetic field dependence of the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 in its S=10 ground state was measured by NMR. The minima in the relaxation time at the fields for level crossing are due to the quantum tunneling of the magnetization. The shortening of the relaxation time under the application of H T is shown to be due mainly to the reduction of the energy barrier

  11. Effect of trehalose addition on volatiles responsible for strawberry aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopjar, Mirela; Hribar, Janez; Simcic, Marjan; Zlatić, Emil; Pozrl, Tomaz; Pilizota, Vlasta

    2013-12-01

    Aroma is one of the most important quality properties of food products and has a great influence on quality and acceptability of foods. Since it is very difficult to control, in this study the effect of addition of trehalose (3, 5 and 10%) to freeze-dried strawberry cream fillings was investigated as a possible means for retention of some of the aroma compounds responsible for the strawberry aroma. In samples with added trehalose, higher amounts of fruity esters were determined. Increase of trehalose content did not cause a proportional increase in the amount of fruity esters. However, results of our research showed that trehalose addition did not have the same effect on both gamma-decalactone and furaneol.

  12. Effects of additional inertia force on bubble breakup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Liangming; Zhang Wenzhi; Chen Deqi; Xu Jianhui; Xu Jianjun; Huang Yanping

    2011-01-01

    Through VOF two-phase flow model, the single bubble deformation and breakup in a vertical narrow channel is numerically investigated in the study based on the force balance at the process of bubble breakup. The effect of surface tension force, the additional inertia force and bubble initial shape on bubble breakup are analyzed according to the velocity variation at the break-up point and the minimum necking size when the bubble is breaking up. It is found that the surface tension force, the additional inertia force and the bubble initial shape have significant effects on the bubble breakup through the fluid injection toward to the bubble, which finally induces the onset of bubble breakup. (authors)

  13. Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Harwell, M.A.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors summarize biological and ecosystem responses to enhanced UV-B, air pollutants, radiation, and fire. The concentrations and biological responses associated with these perturbations are based on current experience and experimentation. Additional research is needed to quantify probable post-nuclear war exposures and potential responses. A summary is provided of all the potential effects of nuclear war on the variety of the Earth's ecosystems, including perturbations from climatic alterations, radiation, pollutants, and UV-B

  14. Isotopic effects in vibrational relaxation dynamics of H on a Si(100) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouakline, F.; Lorenz, U.; Melani, G.; Paramonov, G. K.; Saalfrank, P.

    2017-10-01

    In a recent paper [U. Lorenz and P. Saalfrank, Chem. Phys. 482, 69 (2017)], we proposed a robust scheme to set up a system-bath model Hamiltonian, describing the coupling of adsorbate vibrations (system) to surface phonons (bath), from first principles. The method is based on an embedded cluster approach, using orthogonal coordinates for system and bath modes, and an anharmonic phononic expansion of the system-bath interaction up to second order. In this contribution, we use this model Hamiltonian to calculate vibrational relaxation rates of H-Si and D-Si bending modes, coupled to a fully H(D)-covered Si(100)-( 2 × 1 ) surface, at zero temperature. The D-Si bending mode has an anharmonic frequency lying inside the bath frequency spectrum, whereas the H-Si bending mode frequency is outside the bath Debye band. Therefore, in the present calculations, we only take into account one-phonon system-bath couplings for the D-Si system and both one- and two-phonon interaction terms in the case of H-Si. The computation of vibrational lifetimes is performed with two different approaches, namely, Fermi's golden rule, and a generalized Bixon-Jortner model built in a restricted vibrational space of the adsorbate-surface zeroth-order Hamiltonian. For D-Si, the Bixon-Jortner Hamiltonian can be solved by exact diagonalization, serving as a benchmark, whereas for H-Si, an iterative scheme based on the recursive residue generation method is applied, with excellent convergence properties. We found that the lifetimes obtained with perturbation theory, albeit having almost the same order of magnitude—a few hundred fs for D-Si and a couple of ps for H-Si—, are strongly dependent on the discretized numerical representation of the bath spectral density. On the other hand, the Bixon-Jortner model is free of such numerical deficiencies, therefore providing better estimates of vibrational relaxation rates, at a very low computational cost. The results obtained with this model clearly show

  15. Effect of Urea Addition on Soda Pulping of Oak Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Nam-Seok; Matsumoto, Yuji; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Oga, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to find a sulfur-free additive for alkaline pulping liquors that would have an effect similar to that of sulfide in kraft pulping. Some reagents that partially fulfill this role have been found, but they are too expensive to be used in the quantities required to make them effective. As an alternative method to solve air pollution problem and difficulty of pulp bleaching of kraft pulping process, NaOH-Urea pulping was applied. The properties of NaOH-Urea pul...

  16. Effect of static mixer on the performance of compact plate heat exchanger with zwitterionic type of drag-reducing additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, C.; Wollerstrand, J.

    1997-06-01

    The main task of the project was to investigate the influence of drag-reducing additives (DRA) dissolved in circulating hot water on heat transfer in compact plate heat exchangers (PHE). Furthermore the result of flow disturbance (static mixing) immediately before the PHE on pressure drop and heat transfer was clarified. The project used a new type of DRA (surfactants of zwitterionic type) for two different temperature ranges. A dedicated test rig, `Ansgar`, was built for the purpose. Good thermal and mechanical stability also outside the operating range was observed except some sensitivity for water hardness at high temperatures for DRA2. Similarly to known investigations, the heat transfer coefficient was significantly reduced by DRA in heat exchangers. In PHE used however, the heat transfer reduction was considerably lower in the high flow region. A static mixer placed in front of the PHE was found to significantly improve heat transfer, especially at high flow rates. On the other hand, an additional pressure drop was introduced. Therefore the optimal choice of static mixer needs further investigation. Specially designed PHE combining mixing and heat transfer functions could be beneficial to reducing the effects of additives in thermal systems. The relaxation time (RT) of drag-reducing additives in water solutions flowing through test pipes with known geometries was estimated by monitoring specific pressure drop variation along the pipe. These preliminary experiments in respect to relaxation time showed that RT depends on the flow rate and on the temperature 12 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  17. Effects of biochar addition on toxic element concentrations in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Xin; Deng, Yinger; Peng, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Consuming food contaminated by toxic elements (TEs) could pose a substantial risk to human health. Recently, biochar has been extensively studied as an effective soil ameliorant in situ because of its ability to suppress the phytoavailability of TEs. However, despite the research interest......, the effects of biochar applications to soil on different TE concentrations in different plant parts remain unclear. Here, we synthesize 1813 individual observations data collected from 97 articles to evaluate the effects of biochar addition on TE concentrations in plant parts. We found that (1) the experiment...... type, biochar feedstock and pyrolysis temperature all significantly decreased the TE concentration in plant parts; (2) the responses of Cd and Pb concentrations in edible and indirectly edible plant parts were significantly more sensitive to the effect of biochar than the Zn, Ni, Mn, Cr, Co and Cu...

  18. Effects of hydrolysis on solid-state relaxation and stickiness behavior of sodium caseinate-lactose powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounsey, J S; Hogan, S A; Murray, B A; O'Callaghan, D J

    2012-05-01

    Hydrolyzed or nonhydrolyzed sodium caseinate-lactose dispersions were spray dried, at a protein: lactose ratio of 0.5, to examine the effects of protein hydrolysis on relaxation behavior and stickiness of model powders. Sodium caseinate (NC) used included a nonhydrolyzed control (DH 0) and 2 hydrolyzed variants (DH 8.3 and DH 15), where DH = degree of hydrolysis (%). Prior to spray drying, apparent viscosities of liquid feeds (at 70°C) at a shear rate of 20/s were 37.6, 3.14, and 3.19 mPa·s, respectively, for DH 0, DH 8, and DH 15 dispersions. Powders containing hydrolyzed casein were more susceptible to sticking than those containing intact NC. The former had also lower bulk densities and powder particle sizes. Scanning electron microscopy showed that hydrolyzed powders had thinner particle walls and were more friable than powders containing intact NC. Secondary structure of caseinates, determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, was affected by the relative humidity of storage and the presence of lactose as co-solvent rather than its physical state. Glass transition temperatures and lactose crystallization temperatures, determined by differential scanning calorimetry were not affected by caseinate hydrolysis, although the effects of protein hydrolysis on glass-rubber transitions (T(gr)) could be determined by thermo-mechanical analysis. Powders containing hydrolyzed NC had lower T(gr) values (~30°C) following storage at a higher subcrystallization relative humidity (33%) compared with powder with nonhydrolyzed NC (T(gr) value of ~40°C), an effect that reflects more extensive plasticization of powder matrices by moisture. Results support that sodium caseinate-lactose interactions were weak but that relaxation behavior, as determined by the susceptibility of powder to sticking, was affected by hydrolysis of sodium caseinate. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Relaxation effects in oxygen-conducting oxides on base of lanthanum gallate (La, Sr)(Ga, Me)O3, Me = Mg, Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glavatskikh, T.Yu.; Venskovskij, N.U.; Kaleva, G.M.; Mosunov, A.V.; Politova, E.D.; Stefanovich, S.Yu.

    2003-01-01

    The dielectric and electric conducting properties of the heterosubstituted perovskite-like solid solutions (La, Sr)(Ga, Me)O 3 , Me Mg, Fe are studied. The increase in the ceramics electric conductivity, conditioned by increase in the ion constituent at strengthening the nonstoichiometry by oxygen and electron constituent by the additional introduction of iron is observed by replacing the part of the lanthanum and gallium cations by strontium, magnesium and iron in the solid solutions on the basis of the lanthanum gallate. The ceramics relaxation behavior is identified; the applicability of the model of the vacational electron transfer for the dipole relaxation is established [ru

  20. Relaxation-Induced Memory Effect of LiFePO4 Electrodes in Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jianfeng; Tan, Chuhao; Liu, Mengchuang; Li, De; Chen, Yong

    2017-07-26

    In Li-ion batteries, memory effect has been found in several commercial two-phase materials as a voltage bump and a step in the (dis)charging plateau, which delays the two-phase transition and influences the estimation of the state of charge. Although memory effect has been first discovered in olivine LiFePO 4 , the origination and dependence are still not clear and are critical for regulating the memory effect of LiFePO 4 . Herein, LiFePO 4 has been synthesized by a home-built spray drying instrument, of which the memory effect has been investigated in Li-ion batteries. For as-synthesized LiFePO 4 , the memory effect is significantly dependent on the relaxation time after phase transition. Besides, the voltage bump of memory effect is actually a delayed voltage overshooting that is overlaid at the edge of stepped (dis)charging plateau. Furthermore, we studied the kinetics of LiFePO 4 electrode with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which shows that the memory effect is related to the electrochemical kinetics. Thereby, the underlying mechanism has been revealed in memory effect, which would guide us to optimize two-phase electrode materials and improve Li-ion battery management systems.

  1. Relaxation dynamics and transformation kinetics of deeply supercooled water: Temperature, pressure, doping, and proton/deuteron isotope effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Sonja; Handle, Philip H; Plaga, Lucie J; Stern, Josef N; Seidl, Markus; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Köster, Karsten W; Gainaru, Catalin; Loerting, Thomas; Böhmer, Roland

    2017-07-21

    Above its glass transition, the equilibrated high-density amorphous ice (HDA) transforms to the low-density pendant (LDA). The temperature dependence of the transformation is monitored at ambient pressure using dielectric spectroscopy and at elevated pressures using dilatometry. It is found that near the glass transition temperature of deuterated samples, the transformation kinetics is 300 times slower than the structural relaxation, while for protonated samples, the time scale separation is at least 30 000 and insensitive to doping. The kinetics of the HDA to LDA transformation lacks a proton/deuteron isotope effect, revealing that this process is dominated by the restructuring of the oxygen network. The x-ray diffraction experiments performed on samples at intermediate transition stages reflect a linear combination of the LDA and HDA patterns implying a macroscopic phase separation, instead of a local intermixing of the two amorphous states.

  2. Relaxation dynamics and transformation kinetics of deeply supercooled water: Temperature, pressure, doping, and proton/deuteron isotope effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Sonja; Handle, Philip H.; Plaga, Lucie J.; Stern, Josef N.; Seidl, Markus; Fuentes-Landete, Violeta; Amann-Winkel, Katrin; Köster, Karsten W.; Gainaru, Catalin; Loerting, Thomas; Böhmer, Roland

    2017-07-01

    Above its glass transition, the equilibrated high-density amorphous ice (HDA) transforms to the low-density pendant (LDA). The temperature dependence of the transformation is monitored at ambient pressure using dielectric spectroscopy and at elevated pressures using dilatometry. It is found that near the glass transition temperature of deuterated samples, the transformation kinetics is 300 times slower than the structural relaxation, while for protonated samples, the time scale separation is at least 30 000 and insensitive to doping. The kinetics of the HDA to LDA transformation lacks a proton/deuteron isotope effect, revealing that this process is dominated by the restructuring of the oxygen network. The x-ray diffraction experiments performed on samples at intermediate transition stages reflect a linear combination of the LDA and HDA patterns implying a macroscopic phase separation, instead of a local intermixing of the two amorphous states.

  3. Effect of thermal exposure on the residual stress relaxation in a hardened cylindrical sample under creep conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V. P.; Saushkin, M. N.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of thermal exposure (high-temperature exposure) ( T = 675°C) on the residual creep stress relaxation in a surface hardened solid cylindrical sample made of ZhS6UVI alloy. The analysis is carried out with the use of experimental data for residual stresses after micro-shot peening and exposures to temperatures equal to T = 675°C during 50, 150, and 300 h. The paper presents the technique for solving the boundary-value creep problem for the hardened cylindrical sample with the initial stress-strain state under the condition of thermal exposure. The uniaxial experimental creep curves obtained under constant stresses of 500, 530, 570, and 600 MPa are used to construct the models describing the primary and secondary stages of creep. The calculated and experimental data for the longitudinal (axial) tensor components of residual stresses are compared, and their satisfactory agreement is determined.

  4. Relaxed states with plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Taylor, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    In the theory of relaxation, a turbulent plasma reaches a state of minimum energy subject to constant magnetic helicity. In this state the plasma velocity is zero. Attempts have been made by introducing a number of different constraints, to obtain relaxed states with plasma flow. It is shown that these alternative constraints depend on two self-helicities, one for ions, and one for electrons. However, whereas there are strong arguments for the effective invariance of the original magnetic-helicity, these arguments do not apply to the self-helicities. Consequently the existence of relaxed states with flow remains in doubt. (author)

  5. Effect of radiation resistance additives for insulation materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuaki; Yagyu, Hideki; Seguchi, Tadao.

    1988-01-01

    For the electric wires and cables used in radiation environment such as nuclear power stations and fuel reprocessing facilities, the properties of excellent radiation resistance are required. For these insulators and sheath materials, ethylene propylene rubber, polyethylene and other polymers have been used, but it cannot be said that they always have good radiation resistance. However, it has been well known that radiation resistance can be improved with small amount of additives, and heat resistance and burning retarding property as well as radiation resistance are given to the insulators of wires and cables for nuclear facilities by mixing various additives. In this research, the measuring method for quantitatively determining the effect of Anti-rad (radiation resistant additive) was examined. Through the measurement of gel fraction, radical formation and decomposed gas generation, the effect of Anti-rad protecting polymers from radiation deterioration was examined from the viewpoint of chemical reaction. The experimental method and the results are reported. The radiation energy for cutting C-H coupling is polymers is dispersed by Anti-rad, and the probability of cutting is lowered. Anti-rad catches and extinguishes radicals that start oxidation reaction. (K.I.)

  6. Effect of Silicon Addition on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Chromium and Titanium Based Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Ardila-Téllez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the microstructure, mechanical properties and residual stresses of AlTiN, AlTiSiN, AlCrN and AlCrSiN coatings, has been studied before and after annealing at 900 ºC and 1100 ºC, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, along with nano-indentation and X-ray diffraction techniques. The As-deposited coatings show a columnar structure, with a crystallite size between 18 nm and 28 nm. Despite the silicon addition, no effect on the crystallite size refinement was observed.However, the addition of silicon increases hardness, elastic modulus and compressive residual stresses. After annealing at 900 ºC, the crystallite size growth and the residual stress relaxes; therefore, the coating hardness decreases. At 1100 ºC, the oxide layers formed in AlTiN and AlTiSiN, which act as protective layers enhancing oxidation resistance; meanwhile, a complete oxidation of AlCrN and AlCrSiN coatings take place. The Titanium based coatings present some superior mechanical properties and oxidation resistance than the chromium based coatings at 900 ºC and 1100 ºC.

  7. Effectiveness of focused structural massage and relaxation massage for chronic low back pain: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyo Richard A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic back pain is a major public health problem and the primary reason patients seek massage treatment. Despite the growing use of massage for chronic low back pain, there have been few studies of its effectiveness. This trial will be the first evaluation of the effectiveness of relaxation massage for chronic back pain and the first large trial of a focused structural form of massage for this condition. Methods and Design A total of 399 participants (133 in each of three arms between the ages of 20 and 65 years of age who have low back pain lasting at least 3 months will be recruited from an integrated health care delivery system. They will be randomized to one of two types of massage ("focused structural massage" or "relaxation massage", or continued usual medical care. Ten massage treatments will be provided over 10 weeks. The primary outcomes, standard measures of dysfunction and bothersomeness of low back pain, will be assessed at baseline and after 10, 26, and 52 weeks by telephone interviewers masked to treatment assignment. General health status, satisfaction with back care, days of back-related disability, perceived stress, and use and costs of healthcare services for back pain will also be measured. Outcomes across assigned treatment groups will be compared using generalized estimating equations, accounting for participant correlation and adjusted for baseline value, age, and sex. For both primary outcome measures, this trial will have at least 85% power to detect the presence of a minimal clinically significant difference among the three treatment groups and 91% power for pairwise comparisons. Secondary analyses will compare the proportions of participants in each group that improve by a clinically meaningful amount. Conclusion Results of this trial will help clarify the value of two types of massage therapy for chronic low back pain. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT 00371384.

  8. Effects of Fentanyl-lidocaine-propofol and Dexmedetomidine-lidocaine-propofol on Tracheal Intubation Without Use of Muscle Relaxants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hancı

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of fentanyl or dexmedetomidine when used in combination with propofol and lidocaine for tracheal intubation without using muscle relaxants. Sixty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists stage I risk were randomized to receive 1 mg/kg dexmedetomidine (Group D, n = 30 or 2 mg/kg fentanyl (Group F, n = 30, both in combination with 1.5 mg/kg lidocaine and 3 mg/kg propofol. The requirement for intubation was determined based on mask ventilation capability, jaw motility, position of the vocal cords and the patient's response to intubation and inflation of the endotracheal tube cuff. Systolic arterial pressure, mean arterial pressure, heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation values were also recorded. Rate pressure products were calculated. Jaw relaxation, position of the vocal cords and patient's response to intubation and inflation of the endotracheal tube cuff were significantly better in Group D than in Group F (p < 0.05. The intubation conditions were significantly more satisfactory in Group D than in Group F (p = 0.01. Heart rate was significantly lower in Group D than in Group F after the administration of the study drugs and intubation (p < 0.05. Mean arterial pressure was significantly lower in Group F than in Group D after propofol injection and at 3 and 5 minutes after intubation (p < 0.05. After intubation, the rate pressure product values were significantly lower in Group D than in Group F (p < 0.05. We conclude that endotracheal intubation was better with the dexmedetomidine–lidocaine–propofol combination than with the fentanyl–lidocaine–propofol combination. However, side effects such as bradycardia should be considered when using dexmedetomidine.

  9. Effectiveness of focused structural massage and relaxation massage for chronic low back pain: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkin, Daniel C; Sherman, Karen J; Kahn, Janet; Erro, Janet H; Deyo, Richard A; Haneuse, Sebastien J; Cook, Andrea J

    2009-10-20

    Chronic back pain is a major public health problem and the primary reason patients seek massage treatment. Despite the growing use of massage for chronic low back pain, there have been few studies of its effectiveness. This trial will be the first evaluation of the effectiveness of relaxation massage for chronic back pain and the first large trial of a focused structural form of massage for this condition. A total of 399 participants (133 in each of three arms) between the ages of 20 and 65 years of age who have low back pain lasting at least 3 months will be recruited from an integrated health care delivery system. They will be randomized to one of two types of massage ("focused structural massage" or "relaxation massage"), or continued usual medical care. Ten massage treatments will be provided over 10 weeks. The primary outcomes, standard measures of dysfunction and bothersomeness of low back pain, will be assessed at baseline and after 10, 26, and 52 weeks by telephone interviewers masked to treatment assignment. General health status, satisfaction with back care, days of back-related disability, perceived stress, and use and costs of healthcare services for back pain will also be measured. Outcomes across assigned treatment groups will be compared using generalized estimating equations, accounting for participant correlation and adjusted for baseline value, age, and sex. For both primary outcome measures, this trial will have at least 85% power to detect the presence of a minimal clinically significant difference among the three treatment groups and 91% power for pairwise comparisons. Secondary analyses will compare the proportions of participants in each group that improve by a clinically meaningful amount. Results of this trial will help clarify the value of two types of massage therapy for chronic low back pain.

  10. Catalytic effect of halide additives ball milled with magnesium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malka, I.E.; Bystrzycki, J. [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Czujko, T. [Department of Advanced Materials and Technologies, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); CanmetENERGY, Hydrogen Fuel Cells and Transportation Energy, Natural Resources (Canada)

    2010-02-15

    The influence of various halide additives milled with magnesium hydride (MgH{sub 2}) on its decomposition temperature was studied. The optimum amount of halide additive and milling conditions were evaluated. The MgH{sub 2} decomposition temperature and energy of activation reduction were measured by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The difference in catalytic efficiency between chlorides and fluorides of the various metals studied is presented. The effects of oxidation state, valence and position in the periodic table for selected halides on MgH{sub 2} decomposition temperature were also studied. The best catalysts, from the halides studied, for magnesium hydride decomposition were ZrF{sub 4}, TaF{sub 5}, NbF{sub 5}, VCl{sub 3} and TiCl{sub 3}. (author)

  11. Augmenting Phase Space Quantization to Introduce Additional Physical Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Matthew P. G.

    Quantum mechanics can be done using classical phase space functions and a star product. The state of the system is described by a quasi-probability distribution. A classical system can be quantized in phase space in different ways with different quasi-probability distributions and star products. A transition differential operator relates different phase space quantizations. The objective of this thesis is to introduce additional physical effects into the process of quantization by using the transition operator. As prototypical examples, we first look at the coarse-graining of the Wigner function and the damped simple harmonic oscillator. By generalizing the transition operator and star product to also be functions of the position and momentum, we show that additional physical features beyond damping and coarse-graining can be introduced into a quantum system, including the generalized uncertainty principle of quantum gravity phenomenology, driving forces, and decoherence.

  12. Calorimetric and relaxation properties of xylitol-water mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamin, Khalid; Sjöström, Johan; Jansson, Helén; Swenson, Jan

    2012-03-01

    We present the first broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and differential scanning calorimetry study of supercooled xylitol-water mixtures in the whole concentration range and in wide frequency (10-2-106 Hz) and temperature (120-365 K) ranges. The calorimetric glass transition, Tg, decreases from 247 K for pure xylitol to about 181 K at a water concentration of approximately 37 wt. %. At water concentrations in the range 29-35 wt. % a plentiful calorimetric behaviour is observed. In addition to the glass transition, almost simultaneous crystallization and melting events occurring around 230-240 K. At higher water concentrations ice is formed during cooling and the glass transition temperature increases to a steady value of about 200 K for all higher water concentrations. This Tg corresponds to an unfrozen xylitol-water solution containing 20 wt. % water. In addition to the true glass transition we also observed a glass transition-like feature at 220 K for all the ice containing samples. However, this feature is more likely due to ice dissolution [A. Inaba and O. Andersson, Thermochim. Acta, 461, 44 (2007)]. In the case of the BDS measurements the presence of water clearly has an effect on both the cooperative α-relaxation and the secondary β-relaxation. The α-relaxation shows a non-Arrhenius temperature dependence and becomes faster with increasing concentration of water. The fragility of the solutions, determined by the temperature dependence of the α-relaxation close to the dynamic glass transition, decreases with increasing water content up to about 26 wt. % water, where ice starts to form. This decrease in fragility with increasing water content is most likely caused by the increasing density of hydrogen bonds, forming a network-like structure in the deeply supercooled regime. The intensity of the secondary β-relaxation of xylitol decreases noticeably already at a water content of 2 wt. %, and at a water content above 5 wt. % it has been replaced by a

  13. Versatility of cooperative transcriptional activation: a thermodynamical modeling analysis for greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till D Frank

    Full Text Available We derive a statistical model of transcriptional activation using equilibrium thermodynamics of chemical reactions. We examine to what extent this statistical model predicts synergy effects of cooperative activation of gene expression. We determine parameter domains in which greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects are predicted for cooperative regulation by two activators. We show that the statistical approach can be used to identify different causes of synergistic greater-than-additive effects: nonlinearities of the thermostatistical transcriptional machinery and three-body interactions between RNA polymerase and two activators. In particular, our model-based analysis suggests that at low transcription factor concentrations cooperative activation cannot yield synergistic greater-than-additive effects, i.e., DNA transcription can only exhibit less-than-additive effects. Accordingly, transcriptional activity turns from synergistic greater-than-additive responses at relatively high transcription factor concentrations into less-than-additive responses at relatively low concentrations. In addition, two types of re-entrant phenomena are predicted. First, our analysis predicts that under particular circumstances transcriptional activity will feature a sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and eventually less-than-additive effects when for fixed activator concentrations the regulatory impact of activators on the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter increases from weak, to moderate, to strong. Second, for appropriate promoter conditions when activator concentrations are increased then the aforementioned re-entrant sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and less-than-additive effects is predicted as well. Finally, our model-based analysis suggests that even for weak activators that individually induce only negligible increases in promoter activity, promoter activity can exhibit greater-than-additive

  14. Additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Motoyuki; Katoh, Harumi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Okado, Kohta; Kakuta, Yusuke; Hirano, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that over 0.8 kg kg −1 of starch is consisted of amylopectin (AP). In this study, production of glucose for raw material of ethanol by hydrothermal reaction of AP as one of the model compound of food is discussed. Further, additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reactions of AP are also investigated. During hydrothermal reaction of AP, production of glucose occurred above 453 K, and the glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg −1 at 473 K. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K, prolongation of the holding time was not effective for the increase of the glucose yield. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K for 0 s, the glucose yield increased significantly by addition between 0.26 mol L −1 and 0.52 mol L −1 of acetic acid. However, the glucose yield decreased and the yield of the other constituents increased with the increases of concentration of acetic acid from 0.65 mol L −1 to 3.33 mol L −1 . It was considered that hydrolysis of AP to yield glucose was enhanced due to the increase of the amount of proton derived from acetic acid during hydrothermal reaction with 0.52 mol L −1 of acetic acid. -- Highlights: ► Glucose production by hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin (AP) at 473 K. ► Glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg -1 at 473 K. ► Prolongation of holding time was not effective for glucose yield. ► Glucose yield increased significantly by acetic acid (0.26–0.52 mol L-1) addition. ► Hydrolysis of AP to glucose was enhanced due to increase of proton from acetic acid.

  15. New concept of damage evaluation method for core internal materials considering radiation induced stress relaxation (1). Experiments and modeling of radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miwa, Yukio; Kondo, Keietsu; Okubo, Nariaki; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Tsukada, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    In order to build the new concept of material damage evaluation method, synergistic effect of radiation and residual stress on material degradation was estimated experimentally, and the effect of radiation induced stress relaxation on retardation of material degradation was observed. (author)

  16. Statistical mechanics of violent relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    We reexamine the foundations of Lynden-Bell's statistical mechanical discussion of violent relaxation in collisionless stellar systems. We argue that Lynden-Bell's formulation in terms of a continuum description introduces unnecessary complications, and we consider a more conventional formulation in terms of particles. We then find the exclusion principle discovered by Lynden-Bell to be quantitatively important only at phase densities where two-body encounters are no longer negligible. Since the edynamical basis for the exclusion principle vanishes in such cases anyway, Lynden-Bell statistics always reduces in practice to Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics when applied to stellar systems. Lynden-Bell also found the equilibrium distribution function generally to be a sum of Maxwellians with velocity dispersions dependent on the phase density at star formation. We show that this difficulty vanishes in the particulate description for an encounterless stellar system as long as stars of different masses are initially well mixed in phase space. Our methods also demonstrate the equivalence between Gibbs's formalism which uses the microcanonical ensemble and Boltzmann's formalism which uses a coarse-grained continuum description. In addition, we clarify the concept of irreversible behavior on a macroscopic scale for an encounterless stellar system. Finally, we comment on the use of unusual macroscopic constraints to simulate the effects of incomplete relaxation

  17. Priming effects in Haplic Luvisol after different substrate additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolova, I.; Blagodatskaya, E.; Blagodatsky, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Although soils contain considerable amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), most of it is not easily available for microorganisms. Addition of various substrates to soil (for example, plant residues, root exudates) may affect SOC mineralization. The addition of mineral nutrients, especially N, may also affect C turnover and so change the mineralization rate of SOC. Such short-term changes in mineralization of organic substance of soil were termed as "priming-effects" (Bingemann et al., 1953). Priming effect leads to additional mineralization of SOC (van Elsas and van Overbeek, 1993). It has been shown that not only plant residues induce priming effects (Sauerbeck, 1966; Stemmer et al., 1999; Bell et al., 2003), but also easily available substrates such as sugars or amino acids, which are present in soil solutions and root exudates (Vasconcellos, 1994; Shen and Bartha, 1997; Hamer and Marschner, 2002). Since easily available substrates may not only accelerate SOC mineralization, but also may retard it, Kuzyakov et al. (2000) differentiated between positive and negative priming effects. It is not clear until now, how long priming effects persists in soil after substrate addition, and if they are induced every time when a substrate becomes available in soil. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate effects of glucose and plant residues on SOM decomposition, and influence of glucose on plant residues decomposition in soil. The experimental layout was designed as two factor experiment: 1) plant residues and 2) available substrate amendment. Maize shoot residues (50 mg added to 5 g soil) were 14C labeled (9•104 DPM per 5 g soil). Soil without of any plant residues served as a control for this treatment. Two levels of D (+) glucose as easily available substrates were added after three months of pre-incubation of soil samples with maize residues: 0.009 mg glucose C g-1 soil and 0.225 mg glucose C g-1 soil. The glucose was uniformly labelled with 14C (2.37•104 DPM per 5

  18. Effect of saline absorption on the flexural stress relaxation behavior of epoxy/cotton composite materials for orthopedics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontaxis, L. C.; Pavlou, C.; Portan, D. V.; Papanicolaou, G. C.

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, a composite material consisting of a polymeric epoxy resin matrix, reinforced with forty layers of non-woven cotton fiber fabric was manufactured. The method used to manufacture the composite was the Resin Vacuum Infusion technique. This is a technique widely used for high-performance, defect-free, composite materials. Composites and neat polymers are subjected to stresses during their function, while at the same time being influenced by environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity. The main goal of this study was the investigation of the degradation of composite's viscoelastic behavior, after saline absorption. At this point, it should be mentioned, that this material could be used in biomedical applications. Therefore, a sealed container full of saline was used for the immer s ion of the specimens manufactured, and was placed in a bath at 37°C (body temperature). The specimens remained there for five different immersion periods (24, 72, 144, 216, 336 hours). The viscoelastic behavior of the composite material was determined through stress relaxation under flexure conditions, and the effect of immersion time and amount of saline absorption was studied. It was observed that after 24 hours of immersion a 42% decrease in stress was observed, which in the sequence remained almost constant. The stress relaxation experimental results were predicted by using the Residua l Property Model (RPM), a model developed by Papanicolaou et al. The same model has been successfully applied in the past, to many different materials previously subjected to various types of damage, in order to predict their residual behavior. For its application, the RPM predictive model needs only two experimental points. It was found that in all cases, predictions were in good agreement with experimental findings. Furthermore, the comparison between experimental values and theoretical predictions formed the basis of useful observations and conclusions.

  19. Modeling back-relaxation in ionic polymer metal composites: The role of steric effects and composite layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfiri, Maurizio; Sharghi, Hesam; Zhang, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) are a new class of active materials that are gaining traction as soft actuators in medical and industrial applications. IPMCs can undergo large deformations under modest voltage inputs, in dry and wet environments. Past studies have demonstrated that physical and geometric properties of all the IPMC constituents (ionomer, electrodes, and counterions) may all influence the time scales of the transient response and severity of the back-relaxation. In this study, we present a detailed mathematical model to investigate how the finite size of the counterions and the presence of metal particles in the vicinity of the electrodes modulate IPMC actuation. We build on previous work by our group on thermodynamically consistent modeling of IPMC mechanics and electrochemistry, which attributes IPMC actuation to the interplay between Maxwell stress and osmotic forces. To gain insight into the role of physical and geometric parameters, the resulting nonlinear partial differential equations are solved semianalytically using the method of matched asymptotic expansions, for the initial transient and the steady-state. A numerical solution in COMSOL Multiphysics® is developed to verify semianalytical findings and further explore IPMC actuation. Our model can successfully predict the entire response of IPMCs, from the initial bending toward the anode to the steady-state toward the cathode. We find that the steric effect can abolish the back-relaxation of IPMCs by restraining the counterions' concentration near the electrodes. We also find that increasing the thickness of the ionomer-metal composite layers may enhance IPMC actuation through increased osmotic forces and Maxwell stress.

  20. Effectiveness of Indonesian Essential Oil Mixture of Lemongrass, Cananga, and Patchouli in Relaxation through Inhalation: A Clinical Test on Healthy Woman with High Potential for Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Siahaan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation is one of many mechanisms for coping with stress. One of the most widely used methods for relaxation is aromatherapy with the application of essential oils. Known for their therapeutic benefits, essential oils can be extracted from various Indonesian native herbs such as lemongrass (sereh wangi or Cymbopogon winterianus, cananga or ylang-ylang (kenanga or Canarium odoratum, and patchouli (nilam or Pogostemon cabin. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a mixture of Indonesian essential oil made of lemongrass, cananga, and patchouli extracts. Experiment was conducted by asking a number of subjects to inhale the oil mixture and assessing its effectiveness in terms of psychological relaxation by using Visual Analog Scale or VAS and of physical relaxation by examining the subjects’ blood pressure (MAP, pulse frequency, and breathing frequency. The result was then compared with that of lavender oil and with the control group. The study was conducted on 60 healthy women through single-blind clinical trials (before and after using the “intent to treat” approach, followed by a startle test. Participants were divided into three groups: (1 20 participants who were treated with Indonesian essential oil mixture, (2 20 participants who were treated with lavender oil, and (3 20 participants who served as the control group. Psychological relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced the same degree of effectiveness as lavender oil and the control groups did, although both treatments tended to produce better results than the control group did. However, physical relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced a higher degree of effectiveness than lavender oil and tended to produce a better result than the control group did, especially in terms of blood pressure based on MAP scores.

  1. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan

    2015-12-01

    Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC-PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density Jc can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC-PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/VCu, in which VCu is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  2. A comparative study of the effects of problem-solving skills training and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Saeideh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Morteza Modares

    2015-01-01

    Self-esteem is a determinant factor of mental health. Individuals with low self-esteem have depression, and low self-esteem is one of main symptoms of depression. Aim of this study is to compare the effects of problem-solving skills and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression. This clinical trial was performed on 80 women. Sampling was done in Mashhad healthy centers from December 2009 to June 2010. Women were randomly divided and assigned to problem-solving skills (n = 26), relaxation (n = 26), and control groups (n = 28). Interventions were implemented for 6 weeks and the subjects again completed Eysenck self-esteem scale 9 weeks after delivery. Data analysis was done by descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test by SPSS software. The findings showed that the mean of self-esteem scale scores was 117.9 ± 9.7 after intervention in the problem-solving group, 117.0 ± 11.8 in the relaxation group, and 113.5 ± 10.4 in the control group and there was significant difference between the groups of relaxation and problem solving, and also between intervention groups and control group. According to the results, problem-solving skills and relaxation can be used to prevent and recover from postpartum depression.

  3. Comparing the Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation and Guided Imagery on sleep quality in primigravida women referring to Mashhad health care centers-1393

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Golmakani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Decreased sleep quality is a common complaint during pregnancy. Relaxation is one of the non-pharmaceutical treatments for sleep disorders. Different techniques could have different impacts on various biological and mental stressors. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on the sleep quality of primigravida women. Methods:This three-group clinical trial was conducted on 100 primigravida women, referring to Mashhad health care centers in 2014. All women, who met the inclusion criteria, were randomly assigned to three groups: progressive muscle relaxation, guided imagery, and control groups. The intervention groups performed the exercises twice a day for a period of four weeks at home after two sessions of relaxation training (held during two weeks. Then, the quality of sleep was measured using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. For data analysis, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, paired t-test, and post-hoc test were performed, using SPSS version 11.5. Results: The total score of sleep quality and its components (except use of sleep medication was significantly lower after the intervention, compared to the pre-intervention period in progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery groups (P

  4. The effects of progressive muscular relaxation as a nursing procedure used for those who suffer from stress due to multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolla Gabrielle Nascimento Novais

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation as a nursing procedure on the levels of stress for sufferers of multiple sclerosis. Method: random clinical trials conducted at the Neurology outpatients unit at a University Hospital. The sample consisted of 40 patients who were being monitored as outpatients (20 in a control group and 20 in an experimental group. The Progressive Muscle Relaxation technique was used. The control variables were collected through interviews that were recorded on forms and on the Perceived Stress Scale that we used. Five meetings were held every fortnight covering a period of eight weeks. The experimental group was advised to carry out daily progressive muscle relaxation activities. After eight weeks of these activities, they were evaluated again to measure their levels of stress. In order to analyze the data used, the software package Statistics for Social Sciences version 19.0 was used. Results: the application of the t test showed a significant reduction in the Perceived Stress Scale scores in the experimental group (p<0.001, which in turn proved that there was a reduction in the levels of stress after the application of the relaxation practic-es. Conclusion: the progressive muscle relaxation activities contributed to the reduction in stress levels for multiple sclerosis suffers and thus can be used in nursing for patients. Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT 02673827.

  5. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  6. Predicting the effectiveness of virtual reality relaxation on pain and anxiety when added to PCA morphine in patients having burns dressings changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantatos, A H; Angliss, M; Costello, V; Cleland, H; Stafrace, S

    2009-06-01

    Pain arising in burns sufferers is often severe and protracted. The prospect of a dressing change can heighten existing pain by impacting both physically and psychologically. In this trial we examined whether pre-procedural virtual reality guided relaxation added to patient controlled analgesia with morphine reduced pain severity during awake dressings changes in burns patients. We conducted a prospective randomized clinical trial in all patients with burns necessitating admission to a tertiary burns referral centre. Eligible patients requiring awake dressings changes were randomly allocated to single use virtual reality relaxation plus intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia (PCA) infusion or to intravenous morphine patient controlled analgesia infusion alone. Patients rated their worst pain intensity during the dressing change using a visual analogue scale. The primary outcome measure was presence of 30% or greater difference in pain intensity ratings between the groups in estimation of worst pain during the dressing change. Of 88 eligible and consenting patients having awake dressings changes, 43 were assigned to virtual reality relaxation plus intravenous morphine PCA infusion and 43 to morphine PCA infusion alone. The group receiving virtual reality relaxation plus morphine PCA infusion reported significantly higher pain intensities during the dressing change (mean=7.3) compared with patients receiving morphine PCA alone (mean=5.3) (p=0.003) (95% CI 0.6-2.8). The addition of virtual reality guided relaxation to morphine PCA infusion in burns patients resulted in a significant increase in pain experienced during awake dressings changes. In the absence of a validated predictor for responsiveness to virtual reality relaxation such a therapy cannot be recommended for general use in burns patients having awake dressings changes.

  7. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan, E-mail: xfgou@hhu.edu.cn

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • In this article, for the eddy current damper attached to the HTSC, we • quantitatively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. • presented four different arrangements of the copper damper, and comparatively studied their damping effects and Joule heating, and finally proposed the most advisable arrangement. - Abstract: Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC–PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density J{sub c} can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC–PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/V{sub Cu}, in which V{sub Cu} is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  8. Physiological effects of some synthetic food colouring additives on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboel-Zahab, H; el-Khyat, Z; Sidhom, G; Awadallah, R; Abdel-al, W; Mahdy, K

    1997-11-01

    Three different synthetic chocolate colourant agents (A, B and C) were administered to healthy adult male albino rats for 30 and 60 day periods to evaluate their effects on body weight, blood picture, liver and kidney functions, blood glucose, serum and liver lipids, liver nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and growth hormone. In addition, histopathological examinations of liver, kidney and stomach sections were studied. These parameters were also investigated 30 days after colourant stoppage (post effect). Ingestion of colourant C (brown HT and indigocarmine) significantly decreased rat body weight, serum cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol fraction, while, T4 hormone, liver RNA content, liver enzymes (S. GOT, S. GPT and alkaline phosphatase), total protein and globulin fractions were significantly elevated. Significant increases were observed in serum total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, globulin and serum transaminases in rats whose diets were supplemented with chocolate colours A and B (sunset yellow, tartrazine, carmoisine and brilliant blue in varying concentrations). Haematological investigations demonstrated selective neutropenia and lymphocytosis with no significant alterations of total white blood cell counts in all rat groups, while haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts were significantly decreased in the rats who were administered food additives A and B. Eosinophilia was noted in rats fed on colourant A only. No changes were recorded for blood glucose, growth hormone and kidney function tests. Histopathological studies showed brown pigment deposition in the portal tracts and Van Küpffer cells of the liver as well as in the interstitial tissue and renal tubular cells of the kidney mainly induced by colourant A. Congested blood vessels and areas of haemorrhage in both liver and renal sections were revealed in those rats who were given colourants B and C. There were no-untoward-effects recorded in the

  9. Vibrational relaxation dynamics of SD molecules in As2S3: Observation of an anomalous isotope effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engholm, J.R.; Happek, U.; Rella, C.W.

    1995-01-01

    It is generally assumed that the vibrational relaxation of molecular impurities in crystals and glasses mainly depends on the order of the decay process, with lower order processes leading to more rapid relaxation (a behavior that is known under the term open-quotes gap-lawclose quotes). Here we present measurements that contradict this assumption. Using high intensity psec pulses of the Stanford FEL we measured the relaxation rate of the SD vibrational stretch mode (at a frequency of 1800 cm) by applying a pump-probe technique. We find relaxation rates on the order of 2x10 9 sec -1 , which are a factor of 2 lower than those found for the isotope molecule SH (at a frequency of about 2500 cm - 1 ) in the same host 1 . We recall that the relaxation of the SD vibrational stretch mode is controlled by a lower order process as compared to the SH molecule, which is due to the smaller number of host vibrational quanta to match the energy of the stretch mode; a fact we have confirmed experimentally by temperature dependent relaxation measurements. Thus our remits are in marked contrast to the so-called open-quotes Gap-Lawclose quotes and emphasize the importance of the molecule - host coupling in the relaxation dynamics

  10. The effect of control of diabetes mellitus on plasma T4, T3, rT3 levels and half muscle relaxation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, A.A.; Hafiez, A.A.; Sayed, S.N.; Abbas, E.Z.; Halawa, F.A.; Youssef, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    25 diabetics of the maturity onset type who showed no clinical evidence of either peripheral neruropathy or diabetic amyotrophy were selected for this study. All patients were subjected to the following investigations: estimation of half muscle relaxation period of the quadriceps muscle knee-jerk, measurement of plasma levels of thyroxine (T 4 ), triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and reverse triiodothronine (rT 3 ), determination of fasting and two hours postprandial blood sugar levels. The quadriceps muscle relaxation period in uncontrolled diabetics was significantly longer than in normals. Control of diabetes by glibenclamide or gliclazide did not cause a significant change in muscle relaxation period. There was also no significant difference between the effects of the two drugs. (author)

  11. Structure relaxation effect on superconductive properties of amorphous metallic ZrΛ9Λ0BΛ3SiΛ7 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotukhin, I.V.; Zheleznyj, V.S.; Rudyj, S.D.; Fedorov, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of structural relaxation on electronand phonon spectra and electron-phonon interaction of Zr 90 B 3 Si 7 amorphous alloy is investigated. The specific electric conductivity rho 293 , superconducting transition temperature Tsub(c), critical magnetic field Bsub(c) (near Tsub(c)) and the Young modulus E 293 were measured. The Debye temperature THETA sub(D), electron state density on the Fermi surface N(O electron-phonon interaction constant lambda) mean square of a matrix element and the Hopfeld parameter were calculated. Experimental data show that Tsub(c) decreases during the structural relaxation of amorphous alloy in spite of increasing THETA sub(D) and N(O). However, the calculations show that during the structural relaxation the matrix element of the electron-phonon inte raction decreases with a simultaneous lambda decrease and an insignificant change in the Hopfeld parameter

  12. Effects of the aging temperature and stress relaxation conditions on γ′ precipitation in Inconel X-750

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Jeong Won [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Research and Development Center, KOS Limited, Yangsan 626-230 (Korea, Republic of); Seong, Baek Seok [Neutron Science Division, HANARO Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hi Won [Advanced Metallic Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 642-831 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yoon Suk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Namhyun, E-mail: nhkang@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Stress relaxation after aging 620 °C increased carbides and maintained γ′ fraction. • Aging temperature increase to 732 °C raised the γ′ increment after stress relaxation. • Small increase of carbides induced the large increase of γ′ after stress relaxation. • Loading for stress relaxation raised γ′ increment due to dislocation multiplication. - Abstract: Inconel X-750 is a Ni-based precipitation-hardened superalloy typically used in springs designed for high-temperature applications such as the hold-down springs in nuclear power plants. γ′ is a major precipitate in X-750 alloys which affects the strength, creep resistance, and stress relaxation properties of the spring. In this study, a solution-treated X-750 wire coiled into a spring was used that was aged at various temperatures and submitted to stress relaxation tests with and without loading. Small angle neutron scattering was employed to quantify the size and volume fraction of γ′ phase in the springs as a function of the aging temperature and the application of a load during stress relaxation. The volume fraction of γ′ precipitates increased in the specimen aged at 732 °C following stress relaxation at 500 °C for 300 h. However, the mean size of the precipitates in the samples was not affected by stress relaxation. The specimen aged at the lower temperature (620 °C) contained a smaller γ′ volume fraction and gained a smaller fraction of γ′ during stress relaxation compared with the sample aged at the higher temperature (732 °C). The smaller increase in the γ′ volume fraction for the sample aged at 620 °C was associated with a larger increase in the M{sub 23}C{sub 6} secondary carbide content during relaxation. The Cr depletion zone around the secondary carbides raises the solubility of γ′ thereby decreasing the volume fraction of γ′ precipitates in Inconel X-750. In terms of stress relaxation, a larger increase in the γ′ volume fraction was

  13. Effects of Ti addition on LFZ Bi-2212 thin rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angurel, L. A.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to reproduce previous results in Bi-2212 single crystals, the effects associated with the addition of Ti to the precursors of Laser Floating Zone textured Bi-2212 thin rods have been analyzed. It has been found that Ti induces a great number of nucleation centers in the molten zone and, in consequence, it reduces the grain size one order of magnitude. In addition, using the same growth conditions, the texture of the sample is strongly degraded. These microstructural changes strongly affect the superconducting properties showing that Ti addition destroys the network of low angle grain boundaries that are responsible for the high critical currents in these materials.

    Se ha analizado el efecto de la introducción de Ti en precursores de Bi-2212 para ser texturados mediante láser a través del método de zona flotante, todo ello debido a los resultados esperanzadores obtenidos en monocristales. Se ha encontrado que el Ti introduce un gran número de centros de nucleación en la zona fundida, por lo que se reducen las dimensiones de los granos en un orden de magnitud aproximadamente. Por otra parte, y utilizando las mismas condiciones de crecimiento, se observa que la textura de la muestra se degrada severamente, Estos cambios microestructurales afectan en gran medida a las propiedades superconductoras, demostrándose que la introducción de Ti destruye la red de fronteras de grano de bajo ángulo, que son las responsables en estos materiales de las altas corrientes criticas.

  14. Mortar cohesión. The effect of additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, J. H.

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was concerned with the hydration of clinker compounds in the presence of different additives; it appeared that accelerating additives, such as calcium chloride and silicic acid, produce longer fibers of tobermorite, whereas inhibitors, such as sugar, produce shorter fibers of tobermorite. This same effect was observed in the hydration of anhydrite, in which large crystals of gypsum were produced in the presence of sodium sulphate. So the cohesion in mortars of cement and anhydrite is explained in terms of the role of fibers.Se estudia la hidratación del clínker en presencia de diferentes aditivos encontrándose que los aceleradores, como el cloruro cálcico y el ácido salicílico, producen tobermorita de fibra larga y los inhibidores, como el azúcar, tobermorita de fibra corta. Este mismo efecto se encuentra en la anhidrita, produciéndose cristales de yeso largo, en presencia del sulfato de sodio, y cristales cortos en ausencia del catalizador. La cohesión de un mortero depende luego del largo de sus fibras. Así la cohesión de los morteros de cemento y anhidrita se explican en función del rol de la fibra.

  15. Dolomite addition effects on the thermal expansion of ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Luis Fernando Bruno; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega

    1997-01-01

    The thermal expansion of ceramic tiles is of greater importance in engineering applications because the ceramics are relatively brittle and cannot tolerate large internal strain imposed by thermal expansion. When ceramic bodies are produced for glazed ties the compatibility of this property of the components should be considered to avoid damage in the final products. Carbonates are an important constituent of ceramic wall-title bodies and its presence in formulations and the reactions that occur between them and other components modify body properties. The influence in expansivity by additions of calcium magnesium carbonate in a composition of wall tile bodies has been investigated. The relative content of mineralogical components was determined by X-ray diffraction and thermal expansion by dilatometric measurements. The results was indicated that with the effect of calcium-magnesium phases and porosity on thermal expansion of wall tile bodies. (author)

  16. Additional magnetoelectric effect in electrode-arrayed magnetoelectric composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Pan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An electrode-arrayed magnetoelectric (ME composite was proposed, in which the positive and negative electrodes of the PZT-5H plate (Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 were equally divided into a 2 × 5 array, while the PZT plate remained intact. The ME voltage coefficients of these 10 sections were measured individually and in parallel/series modes. The magnetoelectric coefficient is doubled compared with un-arrayed condition, when the 10 sections are connected in parallel/series using an optimized connecting sequence derived from the charge matching rule. This scheme can also be applied to other types of layered magnetoelectric composites to obtain additional magnetoelectric effect from the original composite structure.

  17. Effects of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Exercises Accompanied by Music on Low Back Pain and Quality of Life During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akmeşe, Zehra Baykal; Oran, Nazan Tuna

    2014-01-01

    Back pain is commonly experienced by pregnant women. Evidence suggests that progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) therapy, a complementary therapy widely used by pregnant women, may improve the physical and psychological outcomes of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PMR training accompanied by music on perceived pain and quality of life (QOL) in pregnant women with low back pain (LBP). This was a prospective randomized controlled trial. The study was designed to examine the effects of PMR accompanied by music on pregnant women with LBP. In total, 66 pregnant women were assigned randomly to a PMR group or a control group (33 women in each). A personal information form was used as a data collection tool; a visual analog scale was used for measuring pain; and the Short Form-36 was used to evaluate QOL. The control and intervention groups were comparable at baseline. Significant differences were observed between the 2 groups after 4 and 8 weeks of intervention. The intervention group showed significant improvement in all QOL subscales after the intervention. The intervention group, but not the control group, showed significant improvement in perceived pain after the intervention. The intervention group experienced a greater decrease in perceived pain and improved QOL than the control group. Our findings show that PMR accompanied by music may be an effective therapy for improving pain and QOL in pregnant women with LBP. Large randomized studies are recommended to confirm these results. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse‐Midwives.

  18. A transfer-function approach to the interpretation of relaxation spectra of second-order cross-effects in material science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloos, G.

    1996-01-01

    The interpretation of relaxation spectra of second-order cross-effects is a problem that arises in some branches of materials science when coupling between thermal, mechanical and dielectric quantities is investigated. In this article, a transfer-function approach is combined with thermodynamics to

  19. The Effects of Group Relaxation Training/Large Muscle Exercise, and Parental Involvement on Attention to Task, Impulsivity, and Locus of Control among Hyperactive Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)

  20. Effect of Additional Structure on Effective Stack Height of Gas Dispersion in Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Takenobu Michioka; Koichi Sada; Kazuki Okabayashi

    2016-01-01

    Wind-tunnel experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of additional structure (building, sea wall and banking) on the effective stack height, which is usually used in safety analyses of nuclear power facilities in Japan. The effective stack heights were estimated with and without the additional structure in addition to the reactor building while varying several conditions such as the source height, the height of additional structure and the distance between the source position and the...

  1. Inhibiting Effect of Additives on Pressure Solution of Calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traskine, V.; Skvortsova, Z.; Badun, G.; Chernysheva, M.; Simonov, Ya.; Gazizullin, I.

    2018-05-01

    The task of protection of cultural heritage requires a better understanding of combined effects of mechanical and chemical factors involved in environmental deterioration of monuments. The present paper deals with extending some known physicochemical methods proposed for inhibiting the decay of unstressed materials to their study during water-assisted deformation. The tests have been carried out on natural limestone samples and calcite powders in CaCO3 saturated aqueous solutions under static loads causing measurable pressure solution creep. In the solutions containing 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-diphosphonic acid, nitrilotriacetic acid, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, the creep rate decreases considerably with increasing concentration of additives. The extent of creep deceleration has been found to be proportional to the independently estimated calcite surface area occupied by adsorbed species. This fact enables us to discriminate the adsorption-induced effect from other variables controlling the pressure solution rate and may be used in screening of compounds able to minimize the environmental impact on marble and limestone objects undergoing mechanical stresses.

  2. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  3. Stress relaxation of thermally bowed fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, I.G.; Speight, M.V.

    1983-01-01

    The presence of cross-pin temperature gradients in nuclear reactor fuel pins produces differential thermal expansion which, in turn, causes the fuel pin to bow elastically. If the pin is restrained in any way, such thermal bowing causes the pin to be stressed. At high temperatures these stresses can relax by creep and it is shown here that this causes the pin to suffer an additional permanent deflection, so that when the cross-pin temperature difference is removed the pin remains bowed. By representing the cylindrical pin by an equivalent I-beam, the present work examines this effect when it takes place by secondary creep. Two restraint systems are considered, and it is demonstrated that the rate of relaxation depends mainly upon the creep equation, and hence the temperature, and also the magnitude of the initial stresses. (author)

  4. On the Effects of Thermal History on the Development and Relaxation of Thermo-Mechanical Stress in Cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, David P; Steif, Paul S; Rabin, Yoed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of the thermal protocol on the development and relaxation of thermo-mechanical stress in cryopreservation by means of glass formation, also known as vitrification. The cryopreserved medium is modeled as a homogeneous viscoelastic domain, constrained within either a stiff cylindrical container or a highly compliant bag. Annealing effects during the cooling phase of the cryopreservation protocol are analyzed. Results demonstrate that an intermediate temperature-hold period can significantly reduce the maximum tensile stress, thereby decreasing the potential for structural damage. It is also demonstrated that annealing at temperatures close to glass transition significantly weakens the dependency of thermo-mechanical stress on the cooling rate. Furthermore, a slower initial rewarming rate after cryogenic storage may drastically reduce the maximum tensile stress in the material, which supports previous experimental observations on the likelihood of fracture at this stage. This study discusses the dependency of the various stress components on the storage temperature. Finally, it is demonstrated that the stiffness of the container wall can affect the location of maximum stress, with implications on the development of cryopreservation protocols.

  5. Effect of Additives on the Physicochemical and Drug Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and evaluate spherical agglomerates of pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGH) for direct compression with different additives. Method: Spherical agglomerates of pioglitazone hydrochloride were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method with and without additives (polyethylene glycol 6000, polyvinyl ...

  6. Effect of viscoelastic and dielectric relaxing matrix on ferroelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Jayendiran

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on evaluating the time-dependent non-linear ferroelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites under pure uni-axial compressive stress loading condition. An experimental setup is developed to study the influence of high-stress levels on the stress-strain and stress-polarization behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites. The electro-elastic effective properties of 1-3 piezocomposites are measured experimentally based on IEEE standard and compared with the proposed numerical model using finite-element software ABAQUS. The time-dependent effective properties are evaluated using viscoelastic model and it is incorporated into a 3D micromechanical model to predict the viscoelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites under mechanical loading. The simulated results are compared with the viscoelastic behaviour of 1-3 piezocomposites obtained from experiments.

  7. Non-linear finite element modelling and analysis of the effect of gasket creep-relaxation on circular bolted flange connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyt, P.C.B.; Theron, N.J.; Pietra, F.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that gasket creep-relaxation results in a reduction of contact pressure between the surface of a gasket and the face of a flange over an extended period of time. This reduction may result in the subsequent failure of the circular bolted flange connection due to leakage. In this paper a pair of flat and raised face integral flanges, PN 10 DN 50 (in accordance with the European EN 1092-1 standard), with non-asbestos compressed fibre ring gaskets with aramid and a nitrile rubber binder were considered. Finite element modelling and analyses were done, for both the circular bolted flange configurations, during the seating condition. The results of the finite element analyses were experimentally validated. It was found that the number of bolt tightening increments as well as the time between the bolt tightening increments had a significant impact on the effect which gasket creep-relaxation had after the seating condition. An increase in either the number of bolting increments or the time between the bolting increments will reduce the effect which gasket creep-relaxation has once the bolts had been fastened. Based on these results it is possible to develop an optimisation scheme to minimize the effect which gasket creep-relaxation has on the contact pressure between the face of the flange and the gasket, after seating, by either increasing or decreasing the number of bolt tightening increments or the time between the bolt tightening increments. - Highlights: • Number of bolt tightening increments and time between bolt tightening increments had significant impact on effect of gasket creep-relaxation after the seating condition. • Impact of gasket creep-relaxation during seating and operating phases investigated by means of finite element analysis and experimentally verified. • Possible to develop optimisation scheme to minimize effect ofh gasket creep-relaxation on contact pressure between flange face and gasket. • Knowing the contact pressure is

  8. Effective holographic theories of momentum relaxation and violation of conductivity bound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goutéraux, Blaise [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics,Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States); APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205,Paris Cedex 13, France (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France); Kiritsis, Elias [APC, Université Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Obs. de Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bâtiment Condorcet, F-75205,Paris Cedex 13, France (UMR du CNRS 7164) (France); Crete Center for Theoretical Physics and I.P.P.,Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Li, Wei-Jia [Crete Center for Theoretical Physics and I.P.P.,Department of Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece)

    2016-04-19

    We generalize current holographic models with homogeneous breaking of translation symmetry by incorporating higher derivative couplings, in the spirit of effective field theories. Focusing on charge transport, we specialize to two simple couplings between the charge and translation symmetry breaking sectors. We obtain analytical charged black brane solutions and compute their DC conductivity in terms of horizon data. We constrain the allowed values of the couplings and note that the DC conductivity can vanish at zero temperature for strong translation symmetry breaking, thus showing that in general there is no lower bound on the conductivity.

  9. Effective holographic theories of momentum relaxation and violation of conductivity bound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goutéraux, Blaise; Kiritsis, Elias; Li, Wei-Jia

    2016-01-01

    We generalize current holographic models with homogeneous breaking of translation symmetry by incorporating higher derivative couplings, in the spirit of effective field theories. Focusing on charge transport, we specialize to two simple couplings between the charge and translation symmetry breaking sectors. We obtain analytical charged black brane solutions and compute their DC conductivity in terms of horizon data. We constrain the allowed values of the couplings and note that the DC conductivity can vanish at zero temperature for strong translation symmetry breaking, thus showing that in general there is no lower bound on the conductivity.

  10. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide: occurrence and relaxant effect in female genital tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, B R; Alm, P; Hannibal, J

    1995-01-01

    The distribution, localization, and smooth muscle effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) were studied in the human female genital tract. The concentrations of PACAP-38 and PACAP-27 were measured by radioimmunoassays, and both peptides were found throughout the genital...... was observed. The findings suggest a smooth muscle regulatory role of PACAP in the human female reproductive tract....... tract. The highest concentrations of PACAP-38 were detected in the ovary, the upper part of vagina, and the perineum. The concentrations of PACAP-27 were generally low, in some regions below the detection limit and in other regions 1 to 5% of the PACAP-38 concentrations. Immunocytochemistry revealed...

  11. Radiation Effects on Thermoluminescence Characteristics of HDPE Containing Additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Chung; Ryu, Boo Hyung

    2005-01-01

    Polymeric materials are widely used for electrical insulation in a broad range of applications that cover the power supply industry to inner and outer space. However, the electrical performance of these materials could be compromised by their working environment and one of the most deleterious is that where a nuclear radiation is present. Radiation effects on polymers can be interpreted by two main reactions, a cross-linking reaction and degradation reactions or a main-chain scission process. There are no absolute rules for determining whether or not any given polymer will cross-link or degrade upon an irradiation. But, the polymers can be divided empirically into two groups; polymers which are crosslinked by radiation (especially by the incorporation of chemical cross-linking promoters) and polymers which degrade by radiation into a product of lower molecular weight due to random main-chain scission process. These polymers become very hard and brittle with a high dose of radiation. Most polymeric materials contain some stabilizers such as flame retardant and antioxidant to prevent combustion and oxidation. Because of these additives, degradation mechanism of the polymer became complicated. Many of the novel properties of the insulating materials used in nuclear power plants are important for radiation degradation. Therefore we have used the thermal methods such as thermoluminescence (TL) detection for irradiated high density polyethylene containing flame retardant and antioxidant

  12. Assessing the effects of subject motion on T2 relaxation under spin tagging (TRUST) cerebral oxygenation measurements using volume navigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jeffrey N; Tisdall, M Dylan; McDaniel, Patrick; Gagoski, Borjan; Bolar, Divya S; Grant, Patricia Ellen; Adalsteinsson, Elfar

    2017-12-01

    Subject motion may cause errors in estimates of blood T 2 when using the T 2 -relaxation under spin tagging (TRUST) technique on noncompliant subjects like neonates. By incorporating 3D volume navigators (vNavs) into the TRUST pulse sequence, independent measurements of motion during scanning permit evaluation of these errors. The effects of integrated vNavs on TRUST-based T 2 estimates were evaluated using simulations and in vivo subject data. Two subjects were scanned with the TRUST+vNav sequence during prescribed movements. Mean motion scores were derived from vNavs and TRUST images, along with a metric of exponential fit quality. Regression analysis was performed between T 2 estimates and mean motion scores. Also, motion scores were determined from independent neonatal scans. vNavs negligibly affected venous blood T 2 estimates and better detected subject motion than fit quality metrics. Regression analysis showed that T 2 is biased upward by 4.1 ms per 1 mm of mean motion score. During neonatal scans, mean motion scores of 0.6 to 2.0 mm were detected. Motion during TRUST causes an overestimate of T 2 , which suggests a cautious approach when comparing TRUST-based cerebral oxygenation measurements of noncompliant subjects. Magn Reson Med 78:2283-2289, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  13. Effect of lanthanum substitution on dielectric relaxation, impedance response, conducting and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Want, Basharat, E-mail: bawant@kashmiruniversity.ac.in; Bhat, Bilal Hamid; Ahmad, Bhat Zahoor

    2015-04-05

    Highlights: • The substitution of La affects the dielectric and magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite. • The electric behaviour of the compound follows the Koop’s phenomenological theory. • The impedance study shows the role of grain boundaries to the electric properties of the compound. • The substitution of La to strontium hexaferrite reduces the resistive nature of grain boundaries. - Abstract: Lanthanum strontium hexaferrite Sr{sub 1−x}La{sub x}Fe{sub 12}O{sub 19} (x = 0, 0.08, 0.13 , 0.18) has been successfully synthesized by using citrate-precursor method and characterized by different techniques. The X-ray diffraction results revealed that the sample is crystalline in nature and is of single phase with the space group P63/mmc. The dielectric, conducting and impedance related studies have been carried out as a function of frequency and concentration of lanthanum in the frequency ranges of 20 Hz–3 MHz. Impedance studies were performed in the frequency domain to distinguish between bulk and grain boundary contributions of the material to the overall dielectric response. The electric response of the material was also modeled by an equivalent circuit and different circuit parameters were calculated. Magnetic characterization of the material was also performed and the effect of lanthanum concentration was studied. The hysteresis loop obtained from the magnetometer showed that with the increase of lanthanum concentration, the saturation magnetisation decreases while as coercivity increases.

  14. Ecotoxicological effects of activated carbon addition to sediments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Suijkerbuijk, M.P.; Schmitt, H.; Sinnige, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) addition is a recently developed technique for the remediation of sediments and soils contaminated with hydrophobic organic chemicals. Laboratory and field experiments have demonstrated that the addition of 3-4% of AC can reduce aqueous concentrations and the bioaccumulation

  15. Effect of Apacox, a feed additive containing herb extracts and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC

    basal diet but contained an additional 200 mg α-tocopheryl acetate/kg (TOC), ... of this resistance to humans through the food chain, all antibacterial feed additives will be ... main biologically active constituents of saffron are crocins, a family of ...

  16. Energy-effective Grinding of Inorganic Solids Using Organic Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ratan K; Weibel, Martin; Müller, Thomas; Heinz, Hendrik; Flatt, Robert J

    2017-08-09

    We present our research findings related to new formulations of the organic additives (grinding aids) needed for the efficient grinding of inorganic solids. Even though the size reduction phenomena of the inorganic solid particles in a ball mill is purely a physical process, the addition of grinding aids in milling media introduces a complex physicochemical process. In addition to further gain in productivity, the organic additive helps to reduce the energy needed for grinding, which in the case of cement clinker has major environmental implications worldwide. This is primarily due to the tremendous amounts of cement produced and almost 30% of the associated electrical energy is consumed for grinding. In this paper, we examine the question of how to optimize these grinding aids linking molecular insight into their working mechanisms, and also how to design chemical additives of improved performance for industrial comminution.

  17. The effects of short-term relaxation therapy on indices of heart rate variability and blood pressure in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Gopal Krushna; Ganesh, Venkata; Karthik, Shanmugavel; Nanda, Nivedita; Pal, Pravati

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of short-term practice of relaxation therapy on autonomic and cardiovascular functions in first-year medical students. Case-control, interventional study. Medical college laboratory. Sixty-seven medical students, divided into two groups: study group (n = 35) and control group (n = 32). Study group subjects practiced relaxation therapy (shavasana with a soothing background music) daily 1 hour for 6 weeks. Control group did not practice relaxation techniques. Cardiovascular parameters and spectral indices of heart rate variability (HRV) were recorded before and after the 6-week practice of relaxation therapy. The data between the groups and the data before and after practice of relaxation techniques were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Student t-test. In the study group, prediction of low-frequency to high-frequency ratio (LF-HF) of HRV, the marker of sympathovagal balance, to blood pressure (BP) status was assessed by logistic regression. In the study group, there was significant reduction in heart rate (p = .0001), systolic (p = .0010) and diastolic (p = .0021) pressure, and rate pressure product (p linked to BP status in these individuals.

  18. Atomic level structural modulation during the structural relaxation and its effect on magnetic properties of Fe81Si4B10P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, C. C.; Zhu, L.; Meng, Y.; Zhai, X. B.; Wang, Y. G.

    2018-06-01

    The evolution of local structure and defects in the Fe81Si4B10P4Cu1 amorphous alloy during the structural relaxation has been investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to explore their effects on magnetic properties of the nanocrystalline. The atomic rearrangements at the early stage of the structural relaxation cause the density increase of the amorphous matrix, but the subsequent atomic rearrangements contribute to the transformation of Fe3B-like atomic arrangements to FeB-like ones with the temperature increasing. As the structural relaxation processes, the released Fe atoms both from Fe3B- and Fe3P-like atomic arrangements result in the formation of new Fe clusters and the increase of Fe-Fe coordination number in the existing Fe clusters and the nucleation sites for α-Fe gradually increase, both of which promote the crystallization. However, the homogeneity of amorphous matrix will be finally destroyed under excessive relaxation temperature, which coarsens nanograins during the crystallization instead. Therefore, soft magnetic properties of the Fe81Si4B10P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy can be improved by pre-annealing the amorphous precursor at an appropriate temperature due to the atomic level structural optimization.

  19. High-field transport of electrons and radiative effects using coupled force-balance and Fokker-Planck equations beyond the relaxation-time approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Danhong; Apostolova, T.; Alsing, P.M.; Cardimona, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of a many-electron system under both dc and infrared fields is separated into a center-of-mass and a relative motion. The first-order force-balance equation is employed for the slow center-of-mass motion of electrons, and the Fokker-Planck equation is used for the ultrafast relative scattering motion of degenerate electrons. This approach allows us to include the anisotropic energy-relaxation process which has been neglected in the energy-balance equation in the past. It also leads us to include the anisotropic coupling to the incident infrared field with different polarizations. Based on this model, the transport of electrons is explored under strong dc and infrared fields by going beyond the relaxation-time approximation. The anisotropic dependence of the electron distribution function on the parallel and perpendicular kinetic energies of electrons is displayed with respect to the dc field direction, and the effect of anisotropic coupling to an incident infrared field with polarizations parallel and perpendicular to the applied dc electric field is shown. The heating of electrons is more accurately described beyond the energy-balance equation with the inclusion of an anisotropic coupling to the infrared field. The drift velocity of electrons is found to increase with the amplitude of the infrared field due to a suppressed momentum-relaxation process (or frictional force) under parallel polarization but decreases with the amplitude due to an enhanced momentum-relaxation process under perpendicular polarization

  20. Electrodeposition of Asphaltenes. 2. Effect of Resins and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khvostichenko, Daria S; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2010-01-01

    Electrodeposition of asphaltenes from oil/heptane, asphaltene/heptane, and asphaltene/heptane/additive mixtures has been investigated. Toluene, native petroleum resins, and a synthetic asphaltene dispersant, p-nonylphenol, were used as additives. The addition of these components led to partial...... dissolution of asphaltenes in heptane. The charge of asphaltenic particles was found to be negative in oil/heptane mixtures and positive in asphaltene/heptane mixtures. In asphaltene/heptane/toluene systems, the charge of the deposit varied from positive to neutral to negative, depending upon the method...

  1. Effect of Additional Structure on Effective Stack Height of Gas Dispersion in Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu Michioka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind-tunnel experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of additional structure (building, sea wall and banking on the effective stack height, which is usually used in safety analyses of nuclear power facilities in Japan. The effective stack heights were estimated with and without the additional structure in addition to the reactor building while varying several conditions such as the source height, the height of additional structure and the distance between the source position and the additional structure. When the source height is equivalent to the reactor building height, the additional structure enhances both the vertical and horizontal gas dispersion widths and decreases the ground gas concentration, and it means that the additional structure does not decrease the effective stack height. When the source height is larger than the reactor height, the additional structures might affect the effective stack height. As the distance between the source and the additional structure decreases, or as the height of the additional structure increases, the structure has a larger effect on the effective stack height.

  2. Effects of cognitive behavioral therapy with relaxation vs. imagery rescripting on test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Neele; Warnecke, Irene; Tolgou, Theano; Krampen, Dorothea; Luka-Krausgrill, Ursula; Rohrmann, Sonja

    2017-01-15

    Test anxiety is a common condition in students, which may lead to impaired academic performance as well as to distress. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of two cognitive-behavioral interventions designed to reduce test anxiety. Test anxiety in the participants was diagnosed as social or specific phobia according to DSM-IV. Subsequently subjects were randomized to three groups: a moderated self-help group, which served as a control group, and two treatment groups, where either relaxation techniques or imagery rescripting were applied. Students suffering from test anxiety were recruited at two German universities (n=180). The randomized controlled design comprised three groups which received test anxiety treatment in weekly three-hour sessions over a period of five weeks. Treatment outcome was assessed with a test anxiety questionnaire, which was administered before and after treatment, as well as in a six-month follow-up. A repeated-measures ANOVA for participants with complete data (n=59) revealed a significant reduction of test anxiety from baseline to six-month follow-up in all three treatment groups (panxiety. The sample may therefore represent only more severe forms of text anxiety . Moreover, the sample size in this study was small, the numbers of participants per group differed, and treatment results were based on self-report. Due to the length of the treatment, an implementation of the group treatments used in this study might not be feasible in all settings. Group treatments constitute an effective method of treating test anxiety, e.g. in university settings. Imagery rescripting may particularly contribute to treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanism of action of relaxant effect of Agastache mexicana ssp.mexicana essential oil in guinea-pig trachea smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Andrés; Ávila-Rosas, Natalia; Majín-León, Mateo; Balderas-López, José Luis; Alfaro-Romero, Alejandro; Tavares-Carvalho, José Carlos

    2017-12-01

    Agastache mexicana ssp. mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Lamiaceae), popularly known as 'toronjil morado', is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of several diseases such as hypertension, anxiety and respiratory disorders. This study investigates the relaxant action mechanism of A. mexicana ssp. mexicana essential oil (AMEO) in guinea-pig isolated trachea model. AMEO was analyzed by GC/MS. The relaxant effect of AMEO (5-50 μg/mL) was tested in guinea-pig trachea pre-contracted with carbachol (3 × 10  -   6  M) or histamine (3 × 10  -   5  M) in the presence or absence of glibenclamide (10  -   5  M), propranolol (3 × 10  -   6  M) or 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine (10  -   5  M). The antagonist effect of AMEO (10-300 μg/mL) against contractions elicited by carbachol (10  -   15 -10  -   3  M), histamine (10  -   15 -10  -   3  M) or calcium (10-300 μg/mL) was evaluated. Essential oil composition was estragole, d-limonene and linalyl anthranilate. AMEO relaxed the carbachol (EC 50  =   18.25 ± 1.03 μg/mL) and histamine (EC 50  =   13.3 ± 1.02 μg/mL)-induced contractions. The relaxant effect of AMEO was not modified by the presence of propranolol, glibenclamide or 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, suggesting that effect of AMEO is not related to β 2 -adrenergic receptors, ATP-sensitive potassium channels or adenylate cyclase activation. AMEO was more potent to antagonize histamine (pA 2 ' = -1.507 ± 0.122) than carbachol (pA 2 ' = -2.180 ± 0.357). Also, AMEO antagonized the calcium chloride-induced contractions. The results suggest that relaxant effect of AMEO might be due to blockade of calcium influx in guinea-pig trachea smooth muscle. It is possible that estragole and d-limonene could contribute majority in the relaxant effect of AMEO.

  4. Characterization of the transverse relaxation rates in lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watnick, P.I.; Dea, P.; Chan, S.I.

    1990-01-01

    The 2H NMR transverse relaxation rates of a deuterated phospholipid bilayer reflect slow motions in the bilayer membrane. A study of dimyristoyl lecithin specifically deuterated at several positions of the hydrocarbon chains indicates that these motions are cooperative and are confined to the hydrocarbon chains of the lipid bilayer. However, lipid head group interactions do play an important role in modulating the properties of the cooperative fluctuations of the hydrocarbon chains (director fluctuations), as evidenced by the effects of various lipid additives on the 2H NMR transverse relaxation rates of the dimyristoyl lecithin bilayer

  5. Chip-Based Measurements of Brownian Relaxation of Magnetic Beads Using a Planar Hall Effect Magnetic Field Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Snakenborg, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    using only the self-field arising from the bias current applied to the sensors as excitation field. We present measurements on a suspension of magnetic beads with a nominal diameter of 250 nm vs. temperature and find that the observations are consistent with the Cole-Cole model for Brownian relaxation...... with a constant hydrodynamic bead diameter when the temperature dependence of the viscosity of water is taken into account. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of performing measurements of the Brownian relaxation response in a lab-on-a-chip system and constitute the first step towards an integrated...... biosensor based on the detection of the dynamic response of magnetic beads....

  6. Effect of gold nano-particles on switch-on voltage and relaxation frequency of nematic liquid crystal cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Inam

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the observation of large changes in the electro-optical properties of nematic liquid crystal (NLC due to inclusion of small concentration of 10 nm diameter gold nanoparticles (GNPs. It is observed that GNPs lower switch-on voltage and also lower the relaxation frequency with applied voltage (AC field to NLC cell. These studies of GNP doped NLC cell have been done using optical interferometry and capacity measurement by impedance analyzer. The change in threshold voltage and relaxation frequency by doping GNPs in NLC is explained theoretically.

  7. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron and its constituents: possible mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mokhtari-Zaer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO are also reviewed.

  8. Rotation and scale change invariant point pattern relaxation matching by the Hopfield neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Nong; Zhang, Tianxu

    1997-12-01

    Relaxation matching is one of the most relevant methods for image matching. The original relaxation matching technique using point patterns is sensitive to rotations and scale changes. We improve the original point pattern relaxation matching technique to be invariant to rotations and scale changes. A method that makes the Hopfield neural network perform this matching process is discussed. An advantage of this is that the relaxation matching process can be performed in real time with the neural network's massively parallel capability to process information. Experimental results with large simulated images demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the method to perform point patten relaxation matching invariant to rotations and scale changes and the method to perform this matching by the Hopfield neural network. In addition, we show that the method presented can be tolerant to small random error.

  9. Effect of Ferrous Additives on Magnesia Stone Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimich, V.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the modification of the magnesia binder with additives containing two- and three-valent iron cations which could be embedded in the chloromagnesium stone structure and also increase the strength from 60 MPa in a non-additive stone to 80MPa, water resistance from 0.58 for clear stone to 0.8 and reduce the hygroscopicity from 8% in the non-additive stone to 2% in the modified chloromagnesium stone. It is proposed to use the iron hydroxide sol as an additive in the quantities of up to 1% of the weight of the binder. The studies were carried out using the modern analysis methods: the differentialthermal and X-ray phase analysis. The structure was studied with an electron microscope with an X-ray microanalyzer. A two-factor plan-experiment was designed which allowed constructing mathematical models characterizing the influence of variable factors, such as the density of the zatcher and the amount of sol in the binder, on the basic properties of the magnesian stone. The result of the research was the magnesia stone with the claimed properties and formed from minerals characteristic for magnesian materials as well as additionally formed from amachenite and goethite. It has been established that a highly active iron hydroxide sol the ion sizes of which are commensurate with magnesium ions is actively incorporated into the structure of pentahydroxychloride and magnesium hydroxide changing the habit of crystals compacting the structure of the stone and changing its hygroscopicity.

  10. Effects of the Relaxation of Upwelling-Favorable Winds on the Diurnal and Semidiurnal Water Temperature Fluctuations in the Santa Barbara Channel, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizábal, María. F.; Fewings, Melanie R.; Washburn, Libe

    2017-10-01

    In the Santa Barbara Channel, California, and around the Northern Channel Islands, water temperature fluctuations in the diurnal and semidiurnal frequency bands are intermittent, with amplitudes that vary on time scales of days to weeks. The cause of this intermittency is not well understood. We studied the effects of the barotropic tide, vertical stratification, propagation of coastal-trapped waves, regional wind relaxations, and diurnal-band winds on the intermittency of the temperature fluctuations during 1992-2015. We used temperature data from 43 moorings in 10-200 m water depth and wind data from two buoys and one land station. Subtidal-frequency changes in vertical stratification explain 20-40% of the intermittency in diurnal and semidiurnal temperature fluctuations at time scales of days to weeks. Along the mainland north of Point Conception and at the Northern Channel Islands, the relaxation of upwelling-favorable winds substantially increases vertical stratification, accounting for up to 55% of the subtidal-frequency variability in stratification. As a result of the enhanced stratification, wind relaxations enhance the diurnal and semidiurnal temperature fluctuations at those sites, even though the diurnal-band wind forcing decreases during wind relaxation. A linear model where the background stratification is advected vertically explains a substantial fraction of the temperature fluctuations at most sites. The increase of vertical stratification and subsequent increase in diurnal and semidiurnal temperature fluctuations during wind relaxation is a mechanism that can supply nutrients to the euphotic zone and kelp forests in the Channel in summer when upwelling is weak.

  11. Effects of alloying elements on the Snoek-type relaxation in Ti–Nb–X–O alloys (X = Al, Sn, Cr, and Mn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, H.; Li, C.X.; Yin, F.X.; Fang, Q.F.; Umezawa, O.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The O Snoek-type relaxation in the Ti–Nb–X–O alloys was investigated. ► The dipole shape factor (δλ) and critical temperature T c were deduced from the peak. ► The δλ and T c were analyzed in terms of the d-orbital energy level (Md). ► With decreasing Md, the δλ increases and saturates at last while the T c decreases. ► The Md can be taken as a key parameter in designing high damping β-Ti alloys. - Abstract: The effect of alloying elements on the oxygen Snoek-type relaxation in the Ti–24Nb–X–1.7O alloys (X = 1Al, 2Al, 1Sn, 2Sn, 2Cr, 2Mn) was investigated in order to develop high damping materials based on point defect relaxation process. The relaxation strength of the Ti–Nb–Al–O and Ti–Nb–Sn–O alloys is the highest while that of the Ti–Nb–Mn–O and Ti–Nb–Cr–O alloys is the lowest. The dipole shape factor (δλ) and critical temperature T c , which are intrinsic to the Snoek-type relaxation, were figured out and analyzed in terms of the d-orbital energy level (Md) for each alloy based on the measured damping peak. With the decreasing Md, the δλ increases and saturates at last when the Md decreases to a certain value (about 2.435 eV), while the critical temperature T c decreases linearly. The parameter Md can be taken as a key parameter in designing high damping β-Ti alloys, that is, to design an intermediate value of Md at which the values of both δλ and T c are as high as possible.

  12. Laser Beam Melting of Alumina: Effect of Absorber Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniz, Liliana; Colin, Christophe; Bartout, Jean-Dominique; Terki, Karim; Berger, Marie-Hélène

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic laser beam melting offers new manufacturing possibilities for complex refractory structures. Poor absorptivity in near infra-red wavelengths of oxide ceramics is overcome with absorber addition to ceramic powders. Absorbers affect powder bed densities and geometrical stability of melted tracks. Optimum absorber content is defined for Al2O3 by minimizing powder bed porosity, maximizing melting pool geometrical stability and limiting shrinkage. Widest stability fields are obtained with addition of 0.1 wt.% C and 0.5 wt.% β-SiC. Absorption coefficient values of Beer-Lambert law follow stability trends: they increase with C additions, whereas with β-SiC, a maximum is reached for 0.5 wt.%. Powder particle ejections are also identified. Compared to metallic materials, this ejection phenomenon can no longer be neglected when establishing a three-dimensional manufacturing strategy.

  13. Concentration addition, independent action and generalized concentration addition models for mixture effect prediction of sex hormone synthesis in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Hadrup

    Full Text Available Humans are concomitantly exposed to numerous chemicals. An infinite number of combinations and doses thereof can be imagined. For toxicological risk assessment the mathematical prediction of mixture effects, using knowledge on single chemicals, is therefore desirable. We investigated pros and cons of the concentration addition (CA, independent action (IA and generalized concentration addition (GCA models. First we measured effects of single chemicals and mixtures thereof on steroid synthesis in H295R cells. Then single chemical data were applied to the models; predictions of mixture effects were calculated and compared to the experimental mixture data. Mixture 1 contained environmental chemicals adjusted in ratio according to human exposure levels. Mixture 2 was a potency adjusted mixture containing five pesticides. Prediction of testosterone effects coincided with the experimental Mixture 1 data. In contrast, antagonism was observed for effects of Mixture 2 on this hormone. The mixtures contained chemicals exerting only limited maximal effects. This hampered prediction by the CA and IA models, whereas the GCA model could be used to predict a full dose response curve. Regarding effects on progesterone and estradiol, some chemicals were having stimulatory effects whereas others had inhibitory effects. The three models were not applicable in this situation and no predictions could be performed. Finally, the expected contributions of single chemicals to the mixture effects were calculated. Prochloraz was the predominant but not sole driver of the mixtures, suggesting that one chemical alone was not responsible for the mixture effects. In conclusion, the GCA model seemed to be superior to the CA and IA models for the prediction of testosterone effects. A situation with chemicals exerting opposing effects, for which the models could not be applied, was identified. In addition, the data indicate that in non-potency adjusted mixtures the effects cannot

  14. The effect of low dose rocuronium on globe position, muscle relaxation and ventilation in dogs: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Ulrike; Mosing, Martina; Moens, Yves P S

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate globe position, muscle relaxation and changes in ventilatory parameters after intravenous administration of 0.1 mg/kg rocuronium. Prospective clinical study. Sixteen dogs of different breeds, with a body weight of 22.1 +/- 13 kg and age of 5.6 +/- 2.8 years (mean +/- SD), were anesthetized for a short ophthalmic examination requiring central position of the globe. All dogs were premedicated with 0.005 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.1 mg/kg methadone IV. Anesthesia was induced with propofol to effect and maintained with 10 mg/kg/h propofol by continuous rate infusion. Following endotracheal intubation all dogs breathed 100% oxygen via an anesthetic circle system. Neuromuscular function was assessed with an acceleromyograph (TOF-Guard, Organon Teknika NV, Turnhout, Belgium) and by stimulation of the nervus peroneus superficialis. The ventilation parameters were measured using spirometry and capnography. After baseline measurements 0.1 mg/kg rocuronium was administered IV. Minute volume (MV), tidal volume (Vt), respiratory rate (RR), end expiratory carbon dioxide concentration (PE'CO(2)) and maximal depression of the response of the first twitch (T1) of train-of-four (TOF) stimulation and train-of-four ratio (TOFR) was measured. The change in the position of the globe was recorded. T1 decreased to 61 +/- 18% and the TOF ratio to 45 +/- 21% of baseline values. Both parameters returned to baseline after 9 min. There was no significant reduction in MV, TV and RR and no increase in PE'CO(2). The globe rotated to a central position of 45 +/- 7.7 s after administration of rocuronium and remained there for 23 +/- 10.8 min in all dogs. Rocuronium administered intravenously at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg to dogs causes a central position of the globe but minimal impairment of ventilation parameters.

  15. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  16. EFFECTS OF PROPERTIES POLYMERIC ADDITIVES IN RHEOLOGIC AND DRILLING FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Vieira de Lucena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carboxymethylcellulose, CMC (filtrate reducer and xanthan gum (viscosifier in plastic and apparent viscosity at yield strength and the volume of filtrate in the composition of drilling fluids based on water was investigated based on statistical design. Five formulations consist of a range of concentrations used commercially were utilized in the design of the experiment. The formulations were prepared in accordance with company standards Petrobras. Regression models were calculated and correlated with the properties of the compositions. The relevance and validation of the models were confirmed by statistical analysis. The design can be applied to statistically optimize the mud properties considering the addition of CMC and xanthan gum, and to provide a better understanding of the influence of additives on the properties of polymer-based fluid system water. From the study it was observed that the values of the rheological properties vary with the concentration of additives, increasing with increasing concentration of the same, and that the concentration of the additives caused a decline of parameter values filtration.

  17. Effects of sulphur addition on modification and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CW Onyia, BA Okorie, NI Amalu, SI Neife ... The results showed that the addition of sulphur to Al-12wt%Si alloy modified the Al-Si eutectic ... of the eutectic silicon structure with significant decrease in mechanical properties of the alloy and this ...

  18. Effect of zirconium addition on the recrystallization behaviour of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    commercial Al–Cu–Mg alloy. Keywords. Al–Cu–Mg alloy; recrystallization; Al3Zr particles; Zr addition. 1. Introduction. It is well known that recrystallization behaviour of an alloy is altered by the presence of second phase particles. Coarse second phase particles (> 1 µm) stimulate recrysta- llization by a mechanism known as ...

  19. Effect of Additives on the Selectivity and Reactivity of Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi-Ru; Wu, Qi; Lin, Xian-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Enzymes have been widely used as efficient, eco-friendly, and biodegradable catalysts in organic chemistry due to their mild reaction conditions and high selectivity and efficiency. In recent years, the catalytic promiscuity of many enzymes in unnatural reactions has been revealed and studied by chemists and biochemists, which has expanded the application potential of enzymes. To enhance the selectivity and activity of enzymes in their natural or promiscuous reactions, many methods have been recommended, such as protein engineering, process engineering, and media engineering. Among them, the additive approach is very attractive because of its simplicity to use and high efficiency. In this paper, we will review the recent developments about the applications of additives to improve the catalytic performances of enzymes in their natural and promiscuous reactions. These additives include water, organic bases, water mimics, cosolvents, crown ethers, salts, surfactants, and some particular molecular additives. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Modelling Creep (Relaxation of the Urinary Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravkovic Nebojsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We first present the results of an experiment in which the passive properties of the urinary bladder were investigated using strips of rabbit bladder. Under the assumption that the urinary bladder had orthopaedic characteristics, the strips were taken in the longitudinal and in the circumferential directions. The material was subjected to uniaxial tension, and stress-stretch curves were generated for various rates of deformation. We found that the rates did not have a significantly effect on the passive response of the material. Additionally, the stress-stretch dependence during relaxation of the material when exposed to isometric conditions was determined experimentally.

  1. Relaxation time and impurity effects on linear and nonlinear refractive index changes in (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE My Youssef, Rabat (Morocco); Jorio, Anouar [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco)

    2014-10-01

    By means of a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan method, the changes in linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index associated with intra-conduction band transition are investigated with and without shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical quantum dot. For both cases with and without impurity, the calculation is performed within the framework of single band effective-mass and parabolic band approximations. Impurity's position and relaxation time effects are investigated. It is found that the modulation of the refractive index changes, suitable for good performance optical modulators and various infra-red optical device applications can be easily obtained by tailoring the relaxation time and the position of the impurity.

  2. Relaxation time and impurity effects on linear and nonlinear refractive index changes in (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar

    2014-01-01

    By means of a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan method, the changes in linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index associated with intra-conduction band transition are investigated with and without shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical quantum dot. For both cases with and without impurity, the calculation is performed within the framework of single band effective-mass and parabolic band approximations. Impurity's position and relaxation time effects are investigated. It is found that the modulation of the refractive index changes, suitable for good performance optical modulators and various infra-red optical device applications can be easily obtained by tailoring the relaxation time and the position of the impurity

  3. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study on the structural relaxation of phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy hybrids at different aging temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chia-Wen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Ma, Chen-Chi M., E-mail: ccma@che.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Tan, Chung-Sung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Li, Hsun-Tien [Material and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)

    2015-07-15

    The cured network conformations and structural relaxation behaviours of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) modified with phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy (PMSE) at different aging temperatures were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The DMA results revealed that the cured PMSE network can insert into the cured DGEBA network to form interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 produced using DGEBA, PMSE, and MHHPA at a ratio of 0.6:0.4:1 by equivalent weight were studied using PALS at 150 °C and 55 °C. The aging-induced free volume relaxation parameters of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 at 150 °C and 55 °C were investigated using the double additive exponential model and the Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts exponential model. For double additive exponential model, only one relaxation time (ζ) of 584.5 h was found at 150 °C; By contrast, there were two separate relaxation times of 37.4 h (ζ{sub 1}) and 753.6 h (ζ{sub 2}) at 55 °C. The ζ{sub 1} of the IPNs hybrid can be attributed to the network relaxation of PMSE, and the ζ{sub 2} can be attributed to the network relaxation of DGEBA at 55 °C. The results suggested the double additive exponential model can effectively predict DGEBA–PMSE hybrid relaxation behaviours. - Highlights: • The cured network conformations of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using DMA. • The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using PALS. • The cured DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). • PALS studies provided a quantitative demonstration of relaxation behaviours. • Double additive exponential model effectively predicted the relaxation times of hybrids.

  4. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy study on the structural relaxation of phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy hybrids at different aging temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Chia-Wen; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Tan, Chung-Sung; Li, Hsun-Tien

    2015-01-01

    The cured network conformations and structural relaxation behaviours of the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-methylhexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) modified with phenylmethylsiloxane-modified epoxy (PMSE) at different aging temperatures were studied using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The DMA results revealed that the cured PMSE network can insert into the cured DGEBA network to form interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 produced using DGEBA, PMSE, and MHHPA at a ratio of 0.6:0.4:1 by equivalent weight were studied using PALS at 150 °C and 55 °C. The aging-induced free volume relaxation parameters of DGEBA–PMSE-0.4 at 150 °C and 55 °C were investigated using the double additive exponential model and the Kohlrausch–Williams–Watts exponential model. For double additive exponential model, only one relaxation time (ζ) of 584.5 h was found at 150 °C; By contrast, there were two separate relaxation times of 37.4 h (ζ 1 ) and 753.6 h (ζ 2 ) at 55 °C. The ζ 1 of the IPNs hybrid can be attributed to the network relaxation of PMSE, and the ζ 2 can be attributed to the network relaxation of DGEBA at 55 °C. The results suggested the double additive exponential model can effectively predict DGEBA–PMSE hybrid relaxation behaviours. - Highlights: • The cured network conformations of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using DMA. • The structural relaxation behaviours of DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were studied using PALS. • The cured DGEBA–PMSE hybrids were interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs). • PALS studies provided a quantitative demonstration of relaxation behaviours. • Double additive exponential model effectively predicted the relaxation times of hybrids

  5. Increasing the effective energy barrier promoted by the change of a counteranion in a Zn-Dy-Zn SMM: slow relaxation via the second excited state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzabal, I; Ruiz, J; Ruiz, E; Aravena, D; Seco, J M; Colacio, E

    2015-08-11

    The trinuclear complex [ZnCl(μ-L)Dy(μ-L)ClZn]PF6 exhibits a single-molecule magnetic behaviour under zero field with a relatively large effective energy barrier of 186 cm(-1). Ab initio calculations reveal that the relaxation of the magnetization is symmetry-driven (the Dy(III) ion possesses a C2 symmetry) and occurs via the second excited state.

  6. Peeling mode relaxation ELM model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimblett, C. G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to modelling Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) in which toroidal peeling modes are envisaged to initiate a constrained relaxation of the tokamak outer region plasma. Relaxation produces both a flattened edge current profile (which tends to further destabilise a peeling mode), and a plasma-vacuum negative current sheet which has a counteracting stabilising influence; the balance that is struck between these two effects determines the radial extent (rE) of the ELM relaxed region. The model is sensitive to the precise position of the mode rational surfaces to the plasma surface and hence there is a 'deterministic scatter' in the results that has an accord with experimental data. The toroidal peeling stability criterion involves the edge pressure, and using this in conjunction with predictions of rE allows us to evaluate the ELM energy losses and compare with experiment. Predictions of trends with the edge safety factor and collisionality are also made

  7. Effects of additives on thermal stability of Li ion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Daniel H.; Roth, E. Peter; Crafts, Chris C.; Nagasubramanian, G.; Henriksen, Gary; Amine, Khalil

    Li ion cells are being developed for high-power applications in hybrid electric vehicles, because these cells offer superior combination of power and energy density over current cell chemistries. Cells using this chemistry are proposed for battery systems in both internal combustion engine and fuel cell-powered hybrid electric vehicles. However, the safety of these cells needs to be understood and improved for eventual widespread commercial applications. The thermal-abuse response of Li ion cells has been improved by the incorporation of more stable anode carbons and electrolyte additives. Electrolyte solutions containing vinyl ethylene carbonate (VEC), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), tris(trifluoroethyl)phosphate (TFP) as well as some proprietary flame-retardant additives were evaluated. Test cells in the 18,650 configuration were built at Sandia National Laboratories using new stable electrode materials and electrolyte additives. A special test fixture was designed to allow determination of self-generated cell heating during a thermal ramp profile. The flammability of vented gas and expelled electrolyte was studied using a novel arrangement of a spark generator placed near the cell to ignite vent gas if a flammable gas mixture was present. Flammability of vent gas was somewhat reduced by the presence of certain additives. Accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) was also used to characterize 18,650-size test cell heat and gas generation. Gas composition was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and was found to consist of CO 2, H 2, CO, methane, ethane, ethylene and small amounts of C1-C4 organic molecules.

  8. Dielectric relaxation of glass particles with conductive nano-coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Shahid [Applied Technologies Department, QinetiQ Limited, Cody Technology Park, Farnborough, Hampshire, GU14 0LX (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-21

    This research focuses on the dielectric properties of particles consisting of glass cores with nanometre conductive coatings. The effects of the core glass particle shape (sphere, flake and fibre) and size are investigated for different coating characteristics over the frequency range 0.5-18 GHz. Experimental results for the coated glass particle combinations show the existence of a dielectric loss peak. This feature is associated with interfacial relaxation between the insulating core glass particle and the nanoscale conductive coating. The relaxation mechanism provides enhanced loss that is not observed in conventional solid metal particle composites. The results are fitted to a model, which shows that the relaxation frequency increases with increasing coating conductivity and thickness, with additional parameters identified for further particle optimizations.

  9. Effects of Fuel Specification and Additives on Soot Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    17 3 Isokinetic Sampling ..................................... 17 C. 4 Chemical Strlture of Amberlite XAD-20...drawbacksof rake probes is their inability to provide spatial differentiation and, unless very sophisticated, isokinetic sampling across the entire flow...is quite effective but necessitates more complex probes and metering systems, and care must be taken to prevent any undesirable reactions or effects

  10. The effect of peri-implantation administration of uterine relaxing agents in assisted reproduction treatment cycles: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed; Dhillon, Rima K; Chu, Justin; Rajkhowa, Madhurima; Coomarasamy, Arri

    2016-04-01

    Sub-endometrial junctional zone peristalsis is increased by ovarian stimulation and traumatic embryo transfer, and is linked with decreased implantation and pregnancy rates in assisted reproduction treatments. Various agents have been used to inhibit uterine hyper-peristalsis at the time of embryo transfer with conflicting results. This systematic review aimed to identify if uterine relaxants administered in the peri-implantation period during assisted reproduction treatments could improve pregnancy outcomes through literature search with no language restrictions. The review reports on 3546 patients in 17 randomized controlled trials published between 1993 and 2014. Women undergoing assisted reproduction techniques who either received a uterine relaxant agent in the peri-implantation period versus placebo or no treatment were included. Primary outcome was live birth rate. The meta-analyses did not show statistically significant benefit of any uterine relaxing agents on live birth rate. Other meta-analyses did not show a significant effect on the clinical pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, ectopic pregnancy and multiple pregnancy rate. Most of the included studies were of low quality and lacked significant power to detect minimally important effect. Evidence is insufficient to recommend using these agents in routine practice. Further methodologically robust randomized controlled trials with more refined selection criteria might reveal a beneficial effect. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Effects of afloqualone, a centrally acting muscle relaxant, on the sleep-wakefulness cycle in cats with chronically implanted electrodes (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, M; Kudo, Y; Ishida, R

    1981-11-01

    The present study was carried out to elucidate whether or whether not afloqualone has a hypnotic action because of its similarity in chemical structure to methaqualone. In the sleep-wakefulness cycles during the 8-hour observation period (9:00-17:00), afloqualone increased the percentages of resting (REST) and slow wave light sleep (SWLS) stages at a dose of 25 mg/kg (p.o.), producing a moderate muscle relaxation. Even at a dose of 50 mg/kg (p.o.) where a marked muscle relaxation was produced, afloqualone had no influence on the percentage of slow wave deep sleep (SWDS) stage, though it increased the percentages of SWLS and decreased the percentages of awake (AWK), REST and fast wave sleep (FWS) stages. On the other hand, tolperisone . HCl, chlormezanone, methaqualone and pentobarbital . Na, used as the reference drugs, all increased the percentage of SWDS stage, but either decreased or had no effect on the percentages of the other four stages at pharmacologically effective doses. From these results it was concluded that afloqualone seems to be devoid of a hypnotic action and has different effects on the sleep-wakefulness cycle than those of both the hypnotics and the other muscle relaxants used.

  12. Effects of relaxation on depression levels in women with high-risk pregnancies: a randomised clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Wanda Scherrer de; Romero, Walckiria Garcia; Zandonade, Eliana; Amorim, Maria Helena Costa

    2016-09-09

    to analyse the effects of relaxation as a nursing intervention on the depression levels of hospitalised women with high-risk pregnancies. a randomised clinical trial realised in a reference centre for high-risk pregnancies. The sample consisted of 50 women with high-risk pregnancies (25 in the control group and 25 in the intervention group). The Benson relaxation technique was applied to the intervention group for five days. Control variables were collected using a predesigned form, and the signs and symptoms of depression were evaluated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20.0, was used with a significance level of 5%. The Wilcoxon and paired t-tests were used to evaluate depression levels between two timepoints. Using categorical data, the McNemar test was used to analyse differences in depression severity before and after the intervention. depression levels decreased in the intervention group five days after the relaxation technique was applied (4.5 ± 3, pcomposta de 50 mulheres com gravidez de alto risco (25 no grupo controle e 25 no grupo intervenção). A técnica de relaxamento de Benson foi aplicada ao grupo intervenção por cinco dias. Variáveis de controle foram coletados por meio de um formulário previamente desenvolvido e os sinais e sintomas de depressão foram avaliados usando o Edinburgh Postnatal depression Scale (EPDS). O Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), versão 20.0, foi utilizado com nível de significância de 5%. Os testes de Wilcoxon e t pareado foram utilizados para avaliar os níveis de depressão entre os dois momentos. Em relação aos dados categóricos, foi utilizado o teste de McNemar para analisar diferenças na gravidade da depressão antes e depois da intervenção. os níveis de depressão diminuíram no grupo intervenção cinco dias após a aplicação da técnica de relaxamento (4.5±3, p<0.05) em comparação sos níveis do

  13. Effects of an additional dimension in the Young experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Allan Kardec, E-mail: allan@elo.com.br

    2015-09-15

    The results of the Young experiment can be analyzed either by classical or Quantum Physics. The later one though leads to a more complete interpretation, based on two different patterns that appear when one works either with single or double slits. Here we show that the two patterns can be derived from a single principle, in the context of General Relativity, if one assumes an additional spatial dimension to the four known today. The found equations yield the same results as those in Quantum Mechanics.

  14. Tensions relaxation in Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuniberti, A.M.; Picasso, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    Traction and stress relaxation studies were performed on polycrystalline Zry-4 at room temperature. The effect of loading velocity on the plastic behaviour of the material is discussed, analysing log σ vs. log dε/dt at different deformation levels. The contribution introduced by the testing machine was taken into account in data evaluation. (Author). 7 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Effects of non-antibiotic feed additives on performance, immunity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but .... probiotic had no significant effects on performance traits. .... Some information on the gut health could be obtained by studying the structure of the intestinal.

  16. Effect of hydrogen addition on autoignited methane lifted flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choin, Byung Chul

    2012-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets with hydrogen-enriched methane fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. The results showed that the autoignited lifted flame of the methane/hydrogen mixture, which had an initial temperature over 920 K, the threshold temperature for autoignition in methane jets, exhibited features typical of either a tribrachial edge or mild combustion depending on fuel mole fraction and the liftoff height increased with jet velocity. The liftoff height in the hydrogen-assisted autoignition regime was dependent on the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the addition of small amounts of hydrogen, as was the case for pure methane jets. When the initial temperature was below 920 K, where the methane fuel did not show autoignition behavior, the flame was autoignited by the addition of hydrogen, which is an ignition improver. The liftoff height demonstrated a unique feature in that it decreased nonlinearly as the jet velocity increased. The differential diffusion of hydrogen is expected to play a crucial role in the decrease in the liftoff height with increasing jet velocity.

  17. Relaxation characteristics of hastelloy X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    1980-02-01

    Relaxation diagrams of Hastelloy X (relaxation curves, relaxation design diagrams, etc.) were generated from the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, using inelastic stress analysis code TEPICC-J. These data are in good agreement with experimental relaxation data of ORNL-5479. Three typical inelastic stress analyses were performed for various relaxation behaviors of the high-temperature structures. An attempt was also made to predict these relaxation behaviors by the relaxation curves. (author)

  18. Mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation of the guinea pig fundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Tey, Shu-Leei; Lee, Ming-Che; Liu, Ching-Wen; Su, Yu-Tsun; Huang, Shih-Che

    2018-04-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that can be isolated from plants and also is a constituent of red wine. Resveratrol induces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Impaired gastric accommodation plays an important role in functional dyspepsia and fundic relaxation and is a therapeutic target of functional dyspepsia. Although drugs for fundic relaxation have been developed, these types of drugs are still rare. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relaxant effects of resveratrol in the guinea pig fundus. We studied the relaxant effects of resveratrol in the guinea pig fundus. In addition, we investigated the mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation on the guinea pig fundus by using tetraethylammonium (a non-selective potassium channel blocker), apamine (a selective inhibitor of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), iberiotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels), glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker), KT 5720 (a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor), KT 5823 (a cGMP-dependent protein kinase G inhibitor), NG-nitro-L-arginine (a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), tetrodotoxin (a selective neuronal Na + channel blocker), ω-conotoxin GVIA (a selective neuronal Ca 2+ channel blocker) and G-15 (a G-protein coupled estrogen receptor antagonist). The results of this study showed that resveratrol has potent and dose-dependent relaxant effects on the guinea pig fundic muscle. In addition, the results showed that resveratrol-induced relaxation of the guinea pig fundus occurs through nitric oxide and ATP-sensitive potassium channels. This study provides the first evidence concerning the relaxant effects of resveratrol in the guinea pig fundic muscle strips. Furthermore, resveratrol may be a potential drug to relieve gastrointestinal dyspepsia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Dielectric relaxation dependent memory elements in pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester bi-layer field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoungnam

    2015-03-02

    We fabricate a pentacene/[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bi-layer field effect transistor (FET) featuring large hysteresis that can be used as memory elements. Intentional introduction of excess electron traps in a PCBM layer by exposure to air caused large hysteresis in the FET. The memory window, characterized by the threshold voltage difference, increased upon exposure to air and this is attributed to an increase in the number of electron trapping centers and (or) an increase in the dielectric relaxation time in the underlying PCBM layer. Decrease in the electron conduction in the PCBM close to the SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric upon exposure to air is consistent with the increase in the dielectric relaxation time, ensuring that the presence of large hysteresis in the FET originates from electron trapping at the PCBM not at the pentacene. - Highlights: • Charge trapping-induced memory effect was clarified using transistors. • The memory window can be enhanced by controlling charge trapping mechanism. • Memory transistors can be optimized by controlling dielectric relaxation time.

  20. Effects of Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing Combined with psychosomatic relaxation on Depression and Anxiety in Patients with Type-2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingying; Zhou, Yiyi; Lai, Qiujia

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to observe the effects of Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing combined with psychosomatic relaxation on depression and anxiety in patients with Type-2 Diabetes. One hundred and twenty (120) patients with Type-2 Diabetes and depressive/anxious symptoms were divided into intervention group (60 cases) and control group (60 cases) according to the minimum distribution principle of unbalanced indicators. Twenty-four Move Shadow Boxing group used this intervention combined with psychosomatic relaxation. Control group underwent conventional treatment. All the patients in the two groups completed the Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) before and after treatment. Among the 52 people included in the statistical analysis, the recovery rate was 13.3%. The differences between depression and anxiety scores in the intervention group before and after treatment were statistically significant (PBoxing and psychosomatic relaxation has a beneficial auxiliary therapeutic effect on depression and anxiety accompanying Type-2 Diabetes.

  1. Effect of B addition to hypereutectic Ti-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louzguina-Luzgina, Larissa V.; Louzguine-Luzgin, Dmitri V.; Inoue, Akihisa

    2009-01-01

    The structure and mechanical properties of Ti-Fe-B and Ti-Fe-Co-B alloys produced in the shape of the arc-melted ingots of about 25 mm diameter and 10 mm height are studied. The hypereutectic alloys showed excellent compressive mechanical properties. The structures of the high-strength and ductile hypereutectic alloys studied by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy were found to consist of the primary cubic cP2 intermetallic compound (TiFe-phase or a solid solution on its base) and a dispersed eutectic consisting of this cP2 intermetallic compound + BCC cI2 β-Ti supersaturated solid solution phase. The addition of B increased mechanical strength. Si causes embrittlement owing to the formation of alternative intermetallic compounds. The structure and deformation behaviour were studied

  2. Effect of ethanol fuel additive on diesel emissions.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, R. L.; Poola, R. B.; Sekar, R.; Schaus, J. E.; McPartlin, P.

    2001-01-01

    Engine-out emissions from a Volkswagen model TDI engine were measured for three different fuels: neat diesel fuel, a blend of diesel fuel and additives containing 10% ethanol, and a blend of diesel fuel and additives containing 15% ethanol. The test matrix covered five speeds from 1,320 to 3,000 rpm, five torques from 15 Nm to maximum plus the 900-rpm idle condition, and most of the points in the FTP-75 and US-06 vehicle tests. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO(sub x)), unburned hydrocarbons (HCs), and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured at each point, as were fuel consumption, exhaust oxygen, and carbon dioxide output. PM emissions were reduced up to 75% when ethanol-diesel blends were used instead of neat diesel fuel. Significant reductions in PM emissions occurred over one-half to two-thirds of the test matrix. NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 84%. Although the regions of reduced NO(sub x) emissions were much smaller than the regions of reduced PM emissions, there was considerable overlap between the two regions where PM emissions were reduced by up to 75% and NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 84%. Such simultaneous reduction of both PM and NO(sub x) emissions would be difficult to achieve by any other means. HC and CO emissions were also reduced in the regions of reduced PM and NO(sub x) emissions that overlapped. Because the ethanol-diesel blends contain less energy on both a per-unit-mass basis and a per-unit-volume basis, there was a reduction in maximum torque of up to 10% and an increase in brake-specific fuel consumption of up to 7% when these blends were used

  3. Effectiveness of home-based cupping massage compared to progressive muscle relaxation in patients with chronic neck pain--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Materdey, Svitlana; Cramer, Holger; Haller, Heidemarie; Stange, Rainer; Dobos, Gustav; Rampp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a major public health problem with very few evidence-based complementary treatment options. This study aimed to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of a partner-delivered home-based cupping massage, compared to the same period of progressive muscle relaxation in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Patients were randomly assigned to self-directed cupping massage or progressive muscle relaxation. They were trained and asked to undertake the assigned treatment twice weekly for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the current neck pain intensity (0-100 mm visual analog scale; VAS) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included pain on motion, affective pain perception, functional disability, psychological distress, wellbeing, health-related quality of life, pressure pain thresholds and adverse events. Sixty one patients (54.1±12.7 years; 73.8%female) were randomized to cupping massage (n = 30) or progressive muscle relaxation (n = 31). After treatment, both groups showed significantly less pain compared to baseline however without significant group differences. Significant effects in favor of cupping massage were only found for wellbeing and pressure pain thresholds. In conclusion, cupping massage is no more effective than progressive muscle relaxation in reducing chronic non-specific neck pain. Both therapies can be easily used at home and can reduce pain to a minimal clinically relevant extent. Cupping massage may however be better than PMR in improving well-being and decreasing pressure pain sensitivity but more studies with larger samples and longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm these results. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01500330.

  4. Effectiveness of Home-Based Cupping Massage Compared to Progressive Muscle Relaxation in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Materdey, Svitlana; Cramer, Holger; Haller, Heidemarie; Stange, Rainer; Dobos, Gustav; Rampp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a major public health problem with very few evidence-based complementary treatment options. This study aimed to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of a partner-delivered home-based cupping massage, compared to the same period of progressive muscle relaxation in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Patients were randomly assigned to self-directed cupping massage or progressive muscle relaxation. They were trained and asked to undertake the assigned treatment twice weekly for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the current neck pain intensity (0–100 mm visual analog scale; VAS) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included pain on motion, affective pain perception, functional disability, psychological distress, wellbeing, health-related quality of life, pressure pain thresholds and adverse events. Sixty one patients (54.1±12.7 years; 73.8%female) were randomized to cupping massage (n = 30) or progressive muscle relaxation (n = 31). After treatment, both groups showed significantly less pain compared to baseline however without significant group differences. Significant effects in favor of cupping massage were only found for wellbeing and pressure pain thresholds. In conclusion, cupping massage is no more effective than progressive muscle relaxation in reducing chronic non-specific neck pain. Both therapies can be easily used at home and can reduce pain to a minimal clinically relevant extent. Cupping massage may however be better than PMR in improving well-being and decreasing pressure pain sensitivity but more studies with larger samples and longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm these results. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01500330 PMID:23762355

  5. Effects of spin vacancies on the correlated spin dynamics in La2Cu1-xZnxO4 from 63Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretta, P.; Rigamonti, A.; Sala, R.

    1997-01-01

    63 Cu nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) relaxation measurements in La 2 CuO 4 doped Zn are used in order to investigate the temperature dependence of the in-plane magnetic correlation length ξ 2D and the effects associated to spin vacancies in two dimensional quantum Heisenberg antiferromagnets (QHAF). The relaxation rates T 1 -1 and T 2 -1 have been related to the static generalized susceptibility χ(q,0) and to the decay rate Γ q of the normal excitations. By using scaling arguments for χ(q,0) and Γ q , the relaxation rates have been expressed in close form in terms of ξ 2D (x,T) and its dependence on temperature and spin doping x thus extracted. The experimental findings are analyzed in light of the renormalized classical (RC) and quantum critical (QC) behaviors predicted for ξ 2D by recent theories for S=1/2 HAF in square lattices. It is first shown that in pure La 2 CuO 4 , ξ 2D is consistent with a RC regime up to about 900 K, with tendency toward the QC regime above. The spin vacancies reduce the Nacute eel temperature according to the law T N (x)∼T N (0)(1 3.5x). From the temperature dependence of 63 Cu NQR relaxation rate T 1 -1 , T 2 -1 and from the composition dependence of T N it is consistently proved that the effect on ξ 2D can be accounted for by the modification of the spin stiffness in a simple dilutionlike model, the system still remaining in the RC regime, at least for T≤900 K. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MR Imaging of the Liver: The Effect on T2 Relaxation Times and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Podgórska, Joanna; Rosiak, Grzegorz; Maj, Edyta; Grudziński, Ireneusz P.; Kaczyński, Bartosz; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Milczarek, Krzysztof; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) on T2 relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the liver and focal liver lesions on a 1.5-T system. Magnetic resonance (MR) studies of 50 patients with 35 liver lesions were retrospectively analyzed. All examinations were performed at 1.5T and included T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) images acquired before and after intravenous administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. To assess the effect of this hepatobiliary contrast agent on T2-weighted TSE images and DW images T2 relaxation times and ADC values of the liver and FLLs were calculated and compared pre- and post-injection. The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal hepatic lesions were lower on enhanced than on unenhanced T2-weighted TSE images (decrease of 2.7% and 3.6% respectively), although these differences were not statistically significant. The mean ADC values of the liver showed statistically significant decrease (of 4.6%) on contrast-enhanced DW images, compared to unenhanced images (P>0.05). The mean ADC value of liver lesions was lower on enhanced than on unenhanced DW images, but this difference (of 2.9%) did not reach statistical significance. The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal liver lesions as well as the mean ADC values of liver lesions were not significantly different before and after administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Therefore, acquisition of T2-weighted and DW images between the dynamic contrast-enhanced examination and hepatobiliary phase is feasible and time-saving

  7. Effects of various additives on antioxidant and antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of rosemary extract (RE), α-tocopherol (AT) and chitosan (CH) added individually or in combination as compared with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) on microbiological parameters [total viable count (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), enterobacteria (ENB), pseudomonas bacteria (PSY)], pH and ...

  8. Effects of enzyme additive on haematological and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (ROXAZYME G®) on blood parameters of calves fed fresh grass and grass hay-based diets. Chemical composition of concentrate, fresh grass and grass-hay were determined. Sixteen crossbred (N'dama × Muturu) calves were subjected to ...

  9. TEACHING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NORRIS, JEANNE E.; STEINHAUS, ARTHUR H.

    THIS STUDY ATTEMPTED TO FIND OUT WHETHER (1) THE METHODS FOR ATTAINING NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION THAT HAVE PROVED FRUITFUL IN THE ONE-TO-ONE RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLINIC CAN BE SUCCESSFULLY ADAPTED TO THE TEACHER-CLASS RELATIONSHIP OF THE CLASSROOM AND GYMNASIUM, AND (2) NEUROMUSCULAR RELAXATION CAN BE TAUGHT SUCCESSFULLY BY AN APPROPRIATELY TRAINED…

  10. Relaxation of Anisotropic Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deubener, Joachim; Martin, Birgit; Wondraczek, Lothar

    2004-01-01

    . When the load was removed at room temperature a permanent optical anisotropy (birefringence) was observed only perpendicular to cylinder axis and the pressure direction indicating complete elimination of thermal stresses. Relaxation of structural anisotropy was studied from reheating experiments using...... the energy release, thermo-mechanical and optical relaxation behaviour are drawn....

  11. Relaxation techniques for stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... raise your heart rate. This is called the stress response. Relaxation techniques can help your body relax and lower your blood pressure ... also many other types of breathing techniques you can learn. In many cases, you do not need much ... including those that cause stress. Meditation has been practiced for thousands of years, ...

  12. Tragacanth gum: an effective oil well drilling fluid additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahto, V.; Sharma, V. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Department of Petroleum Engineering

    2005-02-15

    The low penetration rate, excessive torque and drag, poor hole cleaning and formation damage are major impediments in drilling oil and gas well. These have a major impact on drilling efficiency and well economics. Keeping these in mind, an attempt was made to design a water based drilling fluid system using Indian bentonite clays and tragacanth gum. The effect of tragacanth gum on rheological behavior of three different Indian bentonite water suspensions was studied and a drilling fluid system was developed. The filtrates of these drilling fluids were subjected to formation damage study on the field core using Ruska Liquid Permeameter. The laboratory investigation furnishes that tragacanth gum acts as a good viscosifier and fluid loss control agent. The drilling fluid filtrate also has less effect on formation damage. (author)

  13. Effect of amendments addition on adsorption of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, X. J.; Zhang, H. Y.; Wang, G. Q.; Gu, J.; Wang, J. H.; Duan, G. P.

    2018-03-01

    The disposal of leachate has become one of the most pressing problems for landfills. This study taking three kinds of amendments, corn straw, mushroom residue and garden waste as adsorbent materials, evaluates the different amendments on the leachate adsorption effect through analyzing indicators as the saturation adsorption ratio, sulfur containing odor emission, heat value. The results showed that all three kinds of amendments can effectively adsorb leachate, with saturation adsorption ratio between 1: 2 and 1: 4. Adding amendment could significantly reduce the sulfur containing odor emission of leachate. Compared the three kinds of amendments, mushroom residue could adsorb leachate at a maximize degree with a low concentration of sulfur containing odor emission. The industrial analysis showed that the heat values of the amendments after absorbing leachate are more than 14MJ/kg, and it can be utilized as a biomass fuel.

  14. ALE: Additive Latent Effect Models for Grade Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Zhiyun; Ning, Xia; Rangwala, Huzefa

    2018-01-01

    The past decade has seen a growth in the development and deployment of educational technologies for assisting college-going students in choosing majors, selecting courses and acquiring feedback based on past academic performance. Grade prediction methods seek to estimate a grade that a student may achieve in a course that she may take in the future (e.g., next term). Accurate and timely prediction of students' academic grades is important for developing effective degree planners and early war...

  15. Effects of Relaxing Music on Mental Fatigue Induced by a Continuous Performance Task: Behavioral and ERPs Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Ren, Jie; Wang, Biye; Zhu, Qin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether listening to relaxing music would help reduce mental fatigue and to maintain performance after a continuous performance task. The experiment involved two fatigue evaluation phases carried out before and after a fatigue inducing phase. A 1-hour AX-continuous performance test was used to induce mental fatigue in the fatigue-inducing phase, and participants' subjective evaluation on the mental fatigue, as well as their neurobehavioral performance in a Go/NoGo task, were measured before and after the fatigue-inducing phase. A total of 36 undergraduate students (18-22 years) participated in the study and were randomly assigned to the music group and control group. The music group performed the fatigue-inducing task while listening to relaxing music, and the control group performed the same task without any music. Our results revealed that after the fatigue-inducing phase, (a) the music group demonstrated significantly less mental fatigue than control group, (b) reaction time significantly increased for the control group but not for the music group, (c) larger Go-P3 and NoGo-P3 amplitudes were observed in the music group, although larger NoGo-N2 amplitudes were detected for both groups. These results combined to suggest that listening to relaxing music alleviated the mental fatigue associated with performing an enduring cognitive-motor task.

  16. Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation: can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, C; van Dijk, G; Smolders, A J P; Pancotto, V A; Elzenga, T J T M; Roelofs, J G M; Grootjans, A P

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-bog ecosystems have a limited capability to retain carbon and nutrients when subjected to increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Although it has been proposed that phosphorus (P) can dilute negative effects of nitrogen by increasing biomass production of Sphagnum mosses, it is still unclear whether P-addition can alleviate physiological N-stress in Sphagnum plants. A 3-year fertilisation experiment was conducted in lawns of a pristine Sphagnum magellanicum bog in Patagonia, where competing vascular plants were practically absent. Background wet deposition of nitrogen was low (≈ 0.1-0.2 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)). Nitrogen (4 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)) and phosphorus (1 g · P · m(-2) · year(-1)) were applied, separately and in combination, six times during the growing season. P-addition substantially increased biomass production of Sphagnum. Nitrogen and phosphorus changed the morphology of Sphagnum mosses by enhancing height increment, but lowering moss stem density. In contrast to expectations, phosphorus failed to alleviate physiological stress imposed by excess nitrogen (e.g. amino acid accumulation, N-saturation and decline in photosynthetic rates). We conclude that despite improving growth conditions by P-addition, Sphagnum-bog ecosystems remain highly susceptible to nitrogen additions. Increased susceptibility to desiccation by nutrients may even worsen the negative effects of excess nitrogen especially in windy climates like in Patagonia. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. In situ vitrification and the effects of soil additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepel, G.F.; Shade, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a case study involving in situ vitrification (ISV), a process for immobilizing chemical or nuclear wastes in soil by melting-dissolving the contaminated soil into a glass block. One goal of the study was to investigate how viscosity and electrical conductivity were affected by mixing CaO and Na 2 O with soil. A three-component constrained-region mixture experiment design was generated and the viscosity and electrical conductivity data collected. Several second-order mixture models were considered, and the Box-Cox transformation technique was applied to select property transformations. The fitted models were used to produce contour and component effects plots

  18. The effect of yeast culture addition on utility of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, examined was the effect of a yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Strain 47 on performance (especially on daily gains, feed conversion and condition in an experiment with a group of Holstein calves within the period of plant nutrition. Animals received a diet consisting of 3 kg of good maize silage, 5.5 kg of grass haylage, 1 kg of meadow hay and 1.6 kg of supplementary starter feed mixture ČOT B. The yeast culture was added to the starter in the dose of 1 g.kg–1. This means that each experimental calf received 1.6 g of yeast culture per day. The supplement of yeast culture showed a positive effect on daily gains and on the final body weight of calves; however, the differences were statistically not significant (P>0.05. In control and experimental groups, the mean conversion rates of concentrate were 2.19 kg and 2.13 kg, respectively. There was no difference in feed intake and feed conversion efficiency. The difference in final live body weights of calves in the control and experimental groups was also not significant. However, the condition of calves in the experimental group was much better and the scours were in general less frequent.

  19. Additional therapeutic effect of balneotherapy in low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Murat; Sahin, Ozlem; Elden, Hasan; Hayta, Emrullah; Kaptanoglu, Ece

    2011-08-01

    Balneotherapy has been widely used for treatment of chronic low back pain recently. However there are only a few clinical controlled trials on balneotherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of balneotherapy in patients with chronic low back pain. Sixty patients with lumbar spondylosis were included in the study. In Group 1, patients received both balneotherapy and physiotherapy and in Group 2, patients received only physiotherapy for three weeks. The intensity of the pain was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and functional disability was scored according to Revised Oswestry Index (ROI). Spinal mobility was assessed by the Schober and lateral flexion tests. Variables were evaluated before and after the three weeks of treatment. The groups were comparable regarding age (P = 0.970) and sex (P = 0.357). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for baseline VAS (P = 0.838), Schober test (P = 0.226), and right (P = 0.642) and left (P = 0.674) lateral flexion measurements, and ROI scores (P = 0.798). At the end of the therapy, all clinical parameters significantly improved in patients in both of the groups (P balneotherapy may be effective in the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain.

  20. Effects of Charcoal Addition on the Properties of Carbon Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Hussein

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood charcoal is an attractive alternative to petroleum coke in production of carbon anodes for the aluminum smelting process. Calcined petroleum coke is the major component in the anode recipe and its consumption results in a direct greenhouse gas (GHG footprint for the industry. Charcoal, on the other hand, is considered as a green and abundant source of sulfur-free carbon. However, its amorphous carbon structure and high contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals (e.g., Na and Ca make charcoal highly reactive to air and CO2. Acid washing and heat treatment were employed in order to reduce the reactivity of charcoal. The pre-treated charcoal was used to substitute up to 10% of coke in the anode recipe in an attempt to investigate the effect of this substitution on final anode properties. The results showed deterioration in the anode properties by increasing the charcoal content. However, by adjusting the anode recipe, this negative effect can be considerably mitigated. Increasing the pitch content was found to be helpful to improve the physical properties of the anodes containing charcoal.

  1. Three isostructural one-dimensional Ln(III) chains with distorted cubane motifs showing dual fluorescence and slow magnetic relaxation/magnetocaloric effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Yu, Jia-Wen; Liu, Zhong-Yi; Yang, En-Cui; Zhao, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-05

    Three new homometallic lanthanide complexes with mixed carboxylate-modified rigid ligands, [Ln(μ3-OH)(na)(pyzc)]n (na(-) = 1-naphtholate, pyzc(-) = 2-pyrazinecarboxylate, Ln = Dy (1), Yb (2), and Gd (3)), were solvothermally synthesized, and their structures and magnetic as well as photophysical properties were completely investigated. Complexes 1-3 are crystallographically isostructural, exhibiting linear chains with four bidentate bridging μ-COO(-) moieties encapsulated cubic {Ln4(μ3-OH)4}(8+) clusters repeatedly extended by 4-fold chelating-bridging-pyzc(-) connectors. Magnetically, the former two complexes with highly anisotropic Dy(III) and weak anisotropic Yb(III) ions in the distorted NO7 triangular dodecahedron coordination environment display field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization. Fitting the dynamic magnetic data to the Arrhenius law gives energy barrier ΔE/kB = 39.6 K and pre-exponential factor τo = 1.52 × 10(-8) s for 1 and ΔE/kB = 14.1 K and τo = 2.13 × 10(-7) s for 2. By contrast, complex 3 with isotropic Gd(III) ion and weak intracluster antiferromagnetic coupling shows a significant cryogenic magnetocaloric effect, with a maximum -ΔSm value of 30.0 J kg(-1) K(-1) at 2.5 K and 70 kOe. Additionally, the chromophoric na(-) and pyzc(-) ligands can serve as antenna groups, selectively sensitizing the Dy(III)- and Yb(III)-based luminescence of 1 and 2 in the UV-visible region by an intramolecular energy transfer process. Thus, complexes 1-3, incorporating field-induced slow magnetic magnetization and interesting luminescence together, can be used as composite magneto-optical materials. More importantly, these interesting results further demonstrate that the mixed-ligand system with rigid carboxylate-functionalized chromophores can be excellent candidates for the preparations of new bifunctional magneto-optical materials.

  2. Effect of Au{sup 8+} irradiation on Ni/n-GaP Schottky diode: Its influence on interface state density and relaxation time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiwakoti, N.; Bobby, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM) Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004 (India); Asokan, K. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Antony, Bobby, E-mail: bka.ism@gmail.com [Department of Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (ISM) Dhanbad, Jharkhand 826004 (India)

    2017-01-01

    The in-situ capacitance-frequency and conductance-frequency measurements of 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} swift heavy ion irradiated Ni/n-GaP Schottky structure at a constant bias voltage have been carried out in the frequency range 1 kHz–1 MHz at room temperature. The interface states density and the relaxation time of the charge carriers have been calculated from Nicollian and Brews method. Various dielectric parameters such as dielectric constant, dielectric loss, loss tangent, series resistance, ac conductivity, real and imaginary parts of electric modulus have been extracted and analyzed under complex permittivity and complex electric modulus formalisms. The capacitance and conductance characteristics are found to exhibit complex behaviors at lower frequency region (1–20 kHz) for all the samples. The observed peaks and dips at low frequency region are attributed to the relaxation mechanisms of charge carriers and the interface or dipolar polarization at the interface. The dielectric properties are found to be effectively changed by the ion fluence which is attributed to the variation in interface states density and their relaxation time.

  3. The Effect of Ratio of Contraction to Relaxation Durations in PNF Exercises on the Muscle Strength and Range of Motion of Hip Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rashedi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of ratios of contraction- Relaxation on the muscle strength and range of motion of hip joint in PNF exercises. Methods: Thirty nine nonathletic male students (Mean±SD; age, 13±1.2 years; body mass, 55±9.8 kg were assigned .Three groups designated as I, II and III groups. The ratios of contraction to relaxation periods for groups were 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Training program included three sessions per week (CR-PNF for 6 weeks. Measurements of hip extensors muscles stretch and strength were performed at the beginning and at the end of training using an inclinometer (during leg raise test and dynamometer. Data were analyzed using dependent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA. Results: The results of the present study showed significant increases in hip extensor muscles flexibility and strength for three groups. This increase the in the strength in group I equaled 6 kg, in group II 4 kg and in group III 7 kg. The amount of increase in the hip extensor muscles flexibility in group I, II and II were 15, 8 and 12 degrees, respectively. The increase in these two variables was significant and similar in all three groups. Conclusion: Different contraction to relaxation ratio normally, 0.5, 1 and 2, did not show any meaningful differences on hip extensor muscular strength and hip range of motion.

  4. The effect of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on stress, anxiety, and depression of pregnant women referred to health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Saeideh; Akbari, Hossein; Tagharrobi, Leila; Tabatabaee, Akram Sadat

    2018-01-01

    If anxiety and depression do not detect in pregnant women, they may cause complications for the mother, child, and family, including postpartum depression. With regard to the administrative capability of relaxation in health centers, this study was conducted to determine the effect of progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery on stress, anxiety, and depression in pregnant women. This randomized clinical trial was conducted on pregnant women in the city of Kashan at 28-36 weeks. At the onset of the study, demographic questionnaire, Edinburgh Depression Scale, and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) were completed. Providing obtaining score of mild-to-moderate in the stress, anxiety, and depression scale and score of 10 or higher in Edinburgh Depression Scale, individuals were divided randomized to the intervention group ( n = 33) and control group ( n = 33). DASS-21 was again completed in the 4 th -7 th weeks of beginning of the study by all women. Analysis of variance with repeated measures indicated significant differences in mean of scores of stress, anxiety, and depression at three different times in relaxation group ( P pregnancy outcomes.

  5. Effect of temperature on cyclic deformation behavior and residual stress relaxation of deep rolled under-aged aluminium alloy AA6110

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juijerm, P.; Altenberger, I.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical surface treatment (deep rolling) was performed at room temperature on the under-aged aluminium wrought alloy AA6110 (Al-Mg-Si-Cu). Afterwards, specimens were cyclically deformed at room and elevated temperatures up to 250 deg. C. The cyclic deformation behavior and s/n-curves of deep rolled under-aged AA6110 were investigated by stress-controlled fatigue tests and compared to the as-polished condition as a reference. The stability of residual stresses as well as diffraction peak broadening under high-loading and/or elevated-temperature conditions was investigated by X-ray diffraction methods before and after fatigue tests. Depth profiles of near-surface residual stresses as well as full width at half maximum (FWHM) values before and after fatigue tests at elevated temperatures are presented. Thermal residual stress relaxation of deep rolled under-aged AA6110 was investigated and analyzed by applying a Zener-Wert-Avrami function. Thermomechanical residual stress relaxation was analyzed through thermal residual stress relaxation and depth profiles of residual stresses before and after fatigue tests. Finally, an effective border line for the deep rolling treatment due to instability of near-surface work hardening was found and established in a stress amplitude-temperature diagram

  6. Effectiveness of a Combined Dance and Relaxation Intervention on Reducing Anxiety and Depression and Improving Quality of Life among the Cognitively Impaired Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Adam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Cognitive impairment is a common problem among the elderly and is believed to be a precursor to dementia. This study aimed to explore the effectiveness of a combined dance and relaxation intervention as compared to relaxation alone in reducing anxiety and depression levels and improving quality of life (QOL and cognitive function among the cognitively impaired elderly. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted between May and December 2013 in Peninsular Malaysia. Subjects from four government residential homes for older adults aged ≥60 years with mild to moderate cognitive function as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination were included in the study. Subjects were divided into an intervention group and a control group; the former participated in a combined poco-poco dance and relaxation intervention whilst the latter participated in relaxation exercises only. Both groups participated in two sessions per week for six weeks. Anxiety and depression were self-assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and QOL was self-assessed using the Quality of Life in Alzheimer’s Disease questionnaire. Results: A total of 84 elderly subjects were included in the study; 44 were in the intervention group and 40 were in the control group. When compared to control subjects, those in the intervention group showed significantly decreased anxiety (P <0.001 and depression (P <0.001 levels as well as improved QOL (P <0.001 and cognitive impairment (P <0.001. Conclusion: Dance as a form of participationbased physical exercise was found to reduce anxiety and depression levels and improve QOL and cognitive function among the studied sample of cognitively impaired elderly subjects in Malaysia.

  7. Stress relaxation under cyclic electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bystrov, L.N.; Reznitskij, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of deformation process in a relaxating sample under 2 MeV electron cyclic irradiation was studied experimentally. The Al-Mg alloys with controllable and different (in dislocation density precipitate presence and their character) structure were used in experiments. It was established that after the beam was switched on the deformation rate increased sharply and then, during prolonged irradiation, in a gradual manner. After the switching-off the relaxation rate decreases by jumps up to values close to extrapolated rates of pre-radiation relaxation. The exhibition of these effects with radiation switching-off and switchin-on is dependent on the initial rate of thermal relaxation, the test temperature, the preliminary cold deformation and the dominating deformation dislocation mechanism. The preliminary cold deformation and test temperature elevation slightly decrease the effect of instantaneous relaxation acceleration with the irradiation switch-on. 17 refs., 5 figs

  8. Vibrational Energy Relaxation in Water-Acetonitrile Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cringus, Dan; Yeremenko, Sergey; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Wiersma, Douwe A.; Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Nelson, Keith A.; Okada, Tadashi; Silvestri, Sandro De

    2004-01-01

    IR pump-probe spectroscopy is used to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the vibrational energy relaxation pathways. Hydrogen bonding accelerates the population relaxation from 12ps in diluted acetonitrile solution to 700fs in bulk water.

  9. The Efficacy of Relaxation Training in Treating Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesco, Pagnini; Mauro, Manzoni Gian; Gianluca, Castelnuovo; Enrico, Molinari

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a review of scientific literature about relaxation training and its effects on anxiety. Research investigating progressive relaxation, meditation, applied relaxation and autogenic training were considered. All these methods proved to be effective in reducing anxiety in all kind of samples, affected or not by physical or…

  10. Muscarinic receptors, nitric oxide formation and cyclooxygenase pathway involved in tracheal smooth muscle relaxant effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of Lavandula angustifolia flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Farzaneh; Gholamnezhad, Zahra; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhshesh, Morteza

    2018-06-01

    Lavandula angustifolia (L. angustifolia) Mill. (Common name Lavender) is used in traditional and folk medicines for the treatment of various diseases including respiratory disorders worldwide. The relaxant effect of the plant on the smooth muscle of some tissues was shown previously. The present study has investigated the role of different receptors and pathways in the relaxant effect of L. angustifolia on tracheal smooth muscle. Cumulative concentrations of the hydro-ethanolic extract of L. angustifolia flowers (0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/ml) were added on pre-contracted tracheal smooth muscle by methacholine (10 μM) or KCl (60 mM) on non-preincubated or preincubated tissues with atropine, chlorpheniramine, propranolol, diltiazem, glibenclamide, indomethacin, ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and papaverine. The results compared with of theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mM) as positive control and saline (1 ml) as negative control. The extract showed concentration-dependent relaxant effects in non-preincubated tracheal smooth muscle contracted by KCl and methacholine (p effect ofL. angustifolia was not significantly different between non-preincubated and preincubated tissues with chlorpheniramine, propranolol, diltiazem, glibenclamide, and papaverine. However, two higher concentrations of L. angustifolia in preincubated tissues with L-NAME (p effects than non-preincubated tissues. The EC 50 values of L. angustifolia in tissues preincubated with indomethacin was significantly higher than non-preincubated trachea (p effects of three first concentrations of the extract on KCl and methacholine-induced muscle contraction were significantly lower than those of theophylline (p effect ofL. angustifolia that was lower than the effect of theophylline. The possible mechanisms of relaxant effect of this plant on tracheal smooth muscle are muscarinic receptors blockade, inhibition of cyclooxygenase pathways and/or involvement of nitric oxide production

  11. Additional effective dose by patients undergoing NAI-131 capsules therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Spasic Jokic, V.; Cuknic, O.; Ilic, Z.; Vranjes Djuric, S. [VINCA - Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia)

    2006-07-01

    Capsules or solutions containing Na{sup 131}I are indicated for the therapy of some thyroid carcinomas such as functioning metastatic papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid; and for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (diffuse toxic goiter and single or multiple toxic nodular goiter). The recommended dosage ranges of Na{sup 131}I capsules or solution for the therapy of the average patient (70 kg) are: (3.7-5.55) GBq for ablation of normal thyroid tissue; (3.7-7.4) GBq for subsequent treatments; a (148-370) MBq for hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this paper is to calculate effective dose as a result of iodine-131 capsules remaining in stomach before absorption starts. This result can determine the disadvantage of capsule versus solution containing sodium iodine-131 (Na{sup 131}I) in radionuclide therapy application from radiation protection point of view. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4b was used to model transport of gamma and beta particles emitted by radionuclide {sup 131}I treated as a point source at the bottom of stomach. Absorbed energy per unit transformation in stomach and surrounding organs has been calculated. (authors)

  12. Effects on Diagnostic Parameters After Removing Additional Synchronous Gear Meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Harry J.

    2003-01-01

    Gear cracks are typically difficult to diagnose with sufficient time before catastrophic damage occurs. Significant damage must be present before algorithms appear to be able to detect the damage. Frequently there are multiple gear meshes on a single shaft. Since they are all synchronous with the shaft frequency, the commonly used synchronous averaging technique is ineffective in removing other gear mesh effects. Carefully applying a filter to these extraneous gear mesh frequencies can reduce the overall vibration signal and increase the accuracy of commonly used vibration metrics. The vibration signals from three seeded fault tests were analyzed using this filtering procedure. Both the filtered and unfiltered vibration signals were then analyzed using commonly used fault detection metrics and compared. The tests were conducted on aerospace quality spur gears in a test rig. The tests were conducted at speeds ranging from 2500 to 5000 revolutions per minute and torques from 184 to 228 percent of design load. The inability to detect these cracks with high confidence results from the high loading which is causing fast fracture as opposed to stable crack growth. The results indicate that these techniques do not currently produce an indication of damage that significantly exceeds experimental scatter.

  13. Molecular motions in sucrose-PVP and sucrose-sorbitol dispersions-II. Implications of annealing on secondary relaxations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sisir; Bhardwaj, Sunny P; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2014-10-01

    To determine the effect of annealing on the two secondary relaxations in amorphous sucrose and in sucrose solid dispersions. Sucrose was co-lyophilized with either PVP or sorbitol, annealed for different time periods and analyzed by dielectric spectroscopy. In an earlier investigation, we had documented the effect of PVP and sorbitol on the primary and the two secondary relaxations in amorphous sucrose solid dispersions (1). Here we investigated the effect of annealing on local motions, both in amorphous sucrose and in the dispersions. The average relaxation time of the local motion (irrespective of origin) in sucrose, decreased upon annealing. However, the heterogeneity in relaxation time distribution as well as the dielectric strength decreased only for β1- (the slower relaxation) but not for β2-relaxations. The effect of annealing on β2-relaxation times was neutralized by sorbitol while PVP negated the effect of annealing on both β1- and β2-relaxations. An increase in local mobility of sucrose brought about by annealing could be negated with an additive.

  14. The relaxation time approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gairola, R.P.; Indu, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A plausible approximation has been made to estimate the relaxation time from a knowledge of the transition probability of phonons from one state (r vector, q vector) to other state (r' vector, q' vector), as a result of collision. The relaxation time, thus obtained, shows a strong dependence on temperature and weak dependence on the wave vector. In view of this dependence, relaxation time has been expressed in terms of a temperature Taylor's series in the first Brillouin zone. Consequently, a simple model for estimating the thermal conductivity is suggested. the calculations become much easier than the Callaway model. (author). 14 refs

  15. Le Chatelier's principle with multiple relaxation channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, R.; Levine, R. D.

    1986-05-01

    Le Chatelier's principle is discussed within the constrained variational approach to thermodynamics. The formulation is general enough to encompass systems not in thermal (or chemical) equilibrium. Particular attention is given to systems with multiple constraints which can be relaxed. The moderation of the initial perturbation increases as additional constraints are removed. This result is studied in particular when the (coupled) relaxation channels have widely different time scales. A series of inequalities is derived which describes the successive moderation as each successive relaxation channel opens up. These inequalities are interpreted within the metric-geometry representation of thermodynamics.

  16. Relaxivity of blood pool contrast agent depends on the host tissue as suggested by semianalytical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G

    Concentration of MRI contrast agents (CA) is commonly determined indirectly using their relaxation effect. In quantitative perfusion studies, the change in the relaxation following a bolus passage is converted into concentrations assuming identical relaxivities for tissue and blood. Simulations...

  17. Internal additive noise effects in stochastic resonance using organic field effect transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshiharu; Asakawa, Naoki [Division of Molecular Science, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Gunma University, 1-5-1 Tenjin-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-8515 (Japan); Matsubara, Kiyohiko [KOOROGI LLC, 6-1585-1-B Sakaino-cho, Kiryu, Gunma 376-0002 (Japan)

    2016-08-29

    Stochastic resonance phenomenon was observed in organic field effect transistor using poly(3-hexylthiophene), which enhances performance of signal transmission with application of noise. The enhancement of correlation coefficient between the input and output signals was low, and the variation of correlation coefficient was not remarkable with respect to the intensity of external noise, which was due to the existence of internal additive noise following the nonlinear threshold response. In other words, internal additive noise plays a positive role on the capability of approximately constant signal transmission regardless of noise intensity, which can be said “homeostatic” behavior or “noise robustness” against external noise. Furthermore, internal additive noise causes emergence of the stochastic resonance effect even on the threshold unit without internal additive noise on which the correlation coefficient usually decreases monotonically.

  18. The Effect of Crystal Packing and Re(IV) Ions on the Magnetisation Relaxation of [Mn6 ]-Based Molecular Magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Lillo, José; Cano, Joan; Wernsdorfer, Wolfgang; Brechin, Euan K

    2015-01-01

    The energy barrier to magnetisation relaxation in single-molecule magnets (SMMs) proffers potential technological applications in high-density information storage and quantum computation. Leading candidates amongst complexes of 3d metals ions are the hexametallic family of complexes of formula [Mn6 O2 (R-sao)6 (X)2 (solvent)y ] (saoH2 =salicylaldoxime; X=mono-anion; y=4-6; R=H, Me, Et, and Ph). The recent synthesis of cationic [Mn6 ][ClO4 ]2 family members, in which the coordinating X ions we...

  19. Relaxation dynamics following transition of solvated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.B.; Landman, U.; Nitzan, A.

    1989-01-01

    Relaxation dynamics following an electronic transition of an excess solvated electron in clusters and in bulk water is studied using an adiabatic simulation method. In this method the solvent evolves classically and the electron is constrained to a specified state. The coupling between the solvent and the excess electron is evaluated via the quantum expectation value of the electron--water molecule interaction potential. The relaxation following excitation (or deexcitation) is characterized by two time scales: (i) a very fast (/similar to/20--30 fs) one associated with molecular rotations in the first solvation shell about the electron, and (ii) a slower stage (/similar to/200 fs), which is of the order of the longitudinal dielectric relaxation time. The fast relaxation stage exhibits an isotope effect. The spectroscopical consequences of the relaxation dynamics are discussed

  20. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  1. Giant deviation of a relaxation time from generalized Newtonian theory in discontinuous shear thickening suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Rijan; Brown, Eric

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the transient relaxation of a discontinuous shear thickening (DST) suspension of cornstarch in water. We performed two types of relaxation experiments starting from a steady shear in a parallel-plate rheometer, followed either by stopping the top plate rotation and measuring the transient torque relaxation or by removing the torque on the plate and measuring the transient rotation of the tool. We found that at low effective weight fraction ϕeffmodel. The regime where the relaxation was inconsistent with the generalized Newtonian model was the same where we found positive normal stress during relaxation, and in some cases we found an oscillatory response, suggestive of a solidlike structure consisting of a system-spanning contact network of particles. This regime also corresponds to the same packing fraction range where we consistently found discontinuous shear thickening in rate-controlled, steady-state measurements. The relaxation time in this range scales with the inverse of the critical shear rate at the onset of shear thickening, which may correspond to a contact relaxation time for nearby particles in the structure to flow away from each other. In this range, the relaxation time was the same in both stress- and rate-controlled relaxation experiments, indicating the relaxation time is more intrinsic than an effective viscosity in this range and is needed in addition to the steady-state viscosity function to describe transient flows. The discrepancy between the measured relaxation times and the generalized Newtonian prediction was found to be as large as four orders of magnitude, and extrapolations diverge in the limit as ϕeff→ϕc as the generalized Newtonian prediction approaches 0. This quantitative discrepancy indicates the relaxation is not controlled by the dissipative terms in the constitutive relation. At the highest weight fractions, the relaxation time scales were measured to be on the order of ˜1 s. The fact that this time scale is

  2. Chirality effect on electron phonon relaxation, energy loss, and thermopower in single and bilayer graphene in BG regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Meenhaz; Ashraf, S. S. Z.

    2017-10-01

    We investigate the energy dependent electron-phonon relaxation rate, energy loss rate, and phonon drag thermopower in single layer graphene (SLG) and bilayer graphene (BLG) under the Bloch-Gruneisen (BG) regime through coupling to acoustic phonons interacting via the Deformation potential in the Boltzmann transport equation approach. We find that the consideration of the chiral nature of electrons alters the temperature dependencies in two-dimensional structures of SLG and BLG from that shown by other conventional 2DEG system. Our investigations indicate that the BG analytical results are valid for temperatures far below the BG limit (˜TBG/4) which is in conformity with a recent experimental investigation for SLG [C. B. McKitterick et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 075410 (2016)]. For temperatures above this renewed limit (˜TBG/4), there is observed a suppression in energy loss rate and thermo power in SLG, but enhancement is observed in relaxation rate and thermopower in BLG, while a suppression in the energy loss rate is observed in BLG. This strong nonmonotonic temperature dependence in SLG has also been experimentally observed within the BG limit [Q. Ma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 247401 (2014)].

  3. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel ring-opened cromakalim analogues with relaxant effects on vascular and respiratory smooth muscles and as stimulators of elastin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhedja, Mourad; Peres, Basile; Fhayli, Wassim; Ghandour, Zeinab; Boumendjel, Ahcène; Faury, Gilles; Khelili, Smail

    2018-01-20

    Two new series of ring-opened analogues of cromakalim bearing sulfonylurea moieties (series A: with N-unmethylated sulfonylureas, series B: with N-methylated sulfonylureas) were synthesized and tested as relaxants of vascular and respiratory smooth muscles (rat aorta and trachea, respectively). Ex vivo biological evaluations indicated that the most active compounds, belonging to series B, displayed a marked vasorelaxant activity on endothelium-intact aortic rings and the trachea. A majority of series B compounds exhibited a higher vasorelaxant activity (EC 50  stronger relaxant effects on the trachea than the reference compound cromakalim (EC 50  = 124 μM), in particular compounds B4, B7 and B16 (EC 50   57 μM for all, and EC 50  > 200 μM for a majority of them), but some of them showed an interesting relaxing effect on trachea (i.e. A15 and A33, EC 50  = 30 μM). The most potent compounds of both series, i.e. A15, A33 and B16, tested on aortic rings in the presence of glibenclamide or 80 mM KCl, suggested that they acted as voltage-gated Ca 2+ channel blockers, like verapamil, instead of being ATP-potassium channel activators, as is cromakalim, the parent molecule. Further investigations on cultured vascular smooth muscle cells showed a strong stimulating effect on elastin synthesis, especially compound B16, which was more active at 20 μM than diazoxide, a reference ATP-sensitive potassium channel activator. Taken together, our results show that the N-methylation of the sulfonylurea moieties of ring-opened cromakalim analogues led to new compounds blocking calcium-gated channels, which had a major impact on the arterial and tracheal activities as well as selectivity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Diagnostic value of T1 and T2 * relaxation times and off-resonance saturation effects in the evaluation of Achilles tendinopathy by MRI at 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Ulrich; Syha, Roland; Hein, Tobias; Gatidis, Sergios; Grözinger, Gerd; Schabel, Christoph; Martirosian, Petros; Schick, Fritz; Springer, Fabian

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate and compare the diagnostic value of T1 , T2 * relaxation times and off-resonance saturation ratios (OSR) in healthy controls and patients with different clinical and morphological stages of Achilles tendinopathy. Forty-two healthy Achilles tendons and 34 tendons of 17 patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic tendinopathy were investigated clinically with conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences on a 3T whole-body MR scanner and a dynamic ultrasound examination. In addition, T1 and T2 * relaxation times were assessed using an ultrashort echo time (UTE) imaging sequence with flip angle and echo time variation. For the calculation of OSR values a Gaussian off-resonance saturation pulse (frequency offset: 750-5000 Hz) was used. The diagnostic value of the derived MR values was assessed and compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. ROC curves demonstrate the highest overall test performance for OSR values at 2000 Hz off-resonance in differentiating slightly (OSR-2000 [AUC: 0.930] > T2 * [AUC: 0.884] > T1 [AUC: 0.737]) and more severe pathologically altered tendon areas (OSR-2000 [AUC: 0.964] > T2 * [AUC: 0.917] > T1 [AUC: 0.819]) from healthy ones. OSR values at a frequency offset of 2000 Hz demonstrated a better sensitivity and specificity for detecting mild and severe stages of tendinopathy compared to T2 * and particularly when compared to T1 relaxation times. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Slow relaxation in weakly open rational polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokshenev, Valery B; Vicentini, Eduardo

    2003-07-01

    The interplay between the regular (piecewise-linear) and irregular (vertex-angle) boundary effects in nonintegrable rational polygonal billiards (of m equal sides) is discussed. Decay dynamics in polygons (of perimeter P(m) and small opening Delta) is analyzed through the late-time survival probability S(m) approximately equal t(-delta). Two distinct slow relaxation channels are established. The primary universal channel exhibits relaxation of regular sliding orbits, with delta=1. The secondary channel is given by delta>1 and becomes open when m>P(m)/Delta. It originates from vertex order-disorder dual effects and is due to relaxation of chaoticlike excitations.

  6. Effect of glass composition on the relaxation of the 4Isub(13/2) level of erbium ions in borate and silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryba-Romanowski, W.; Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, B.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of glass nerwork formers and glass modifiers on radiative transition probabilities and quantum efficiencies of the 4 Isub(13/2) level of Er +3 ions in ternary borate and silicate glasses was studied by both absorption and emission spectroscopy. It was found that the transition probabilities may be widely varied by changes glass network former and alkali ion substitution. The role of multiphonon emission and O-H vibration in the relaxation of the 4 Isub(13/2) level is discussed. (author)

  7. A comparative study of the effects of problem-solving skills training and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression

    OpenAIRE

    Nasiri, Saeideh; Kordi, Masoumeh; Gharavi, Morteza Modares

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-esteem is a determinant factor of mental health. Individuals with low self-esteem have depression, and low self-esteem is one of main symptoms of depression. Aim of this study is to compare the effects of problem-solving skills and relaxation on the score of self-esteem in women with postpartum depression. Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was performed on 80 women. Sampling was done in Mashhad healthy centers from December 2009 to June 2010. Women were randomly divi...

  8. Ab-initio study on the absorption spectrum of color change sapphire based on first-principles calculations with considering lattice relaxation-effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novita, Mega; Nagoshi, Hikari; Sudo, Akiho; Ogasawara, Kazuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we performed an investigation on α-Al2O3: V3+ material, or the so-called color change sapphire, based on first-principles calculations without referring to any experimental parameter. The molecular orbital (MO) structure was estimated by the one-electron MO calculations using the discrete variational-Xα (DV-Xα) method. Next, the absorption spectra were estimated by the many-electron calculations using the discrete variational multi-electron (DVME) method. The effect of lattice relaxation on the crystal structures was estimated based on the first-principles band structure calculations. We performed geometry optimizations on the pure α-Al2O3 and with the impurity V3+ ion using Cambridge Serial Total Energy Package (CASTEP) code. The effect of energy corrections such as configuration dependence correction and correlation correction was also investigated in detail. The results revealed that the structural change on the α-Al2O3: V3+ resulted from the geometry optimization improved the calculated absorption spectra. By a combination of both the lattice relaxation-effect and the energy correction-effect improve the agreement to the experiment fact.

  9. Characterization of structural relaxation in inorganic glasses using length dilatometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Erick

    low temperature state with many relaxations to a high temperature state with only a single relaxation. Evidence was found for the existence of a definitive transition of some kind in the range of Tg possibly relating the idea of a percolation temperature (T*) as defined by Carmi. The results of the measurements showed substantial support for both the Adam-Gibbs interpretation of decreasing entropy towards the Kauzmann temperature, while also displaying trends compatible with energy landscape theory and the idea of broken ergodicity of glass configuration below Tg. In addition effective relaxation energies were calculated and the energy needed for relaxation showed a definite upward trend with decreasing temperature also supporting the idea of reduced entropy and configurational freedom at lower temperatures. The effective relaxation energies are not purely thermodynamic in nature because they also characterize the effects of viscosity and the kinetics of the material that was relaxing. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  10. The effects of single-session music therapy interventions on the observed and self-reported levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation of hospice patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krout, R E

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the process and results of a three-month music therapy clinical effectiveness study conducted with terminally ill patients. The purpose of this study was to quantify and evaluate the effectiveness of single-session music therapy interventions with hospice patients in three patient problem areas: pain control; physical comfort; and relaxation. Data from a total of 90 sessions conducted with a total of 80 subjects served by Hospice of Palm Beach County, Florida, were included in the study. Music therapy services were provided by five board-certified music therapists and one music therapist eligible for board certification. The subjects in this study were receiving regularly scheduled music therapy services from the hospice organization. The study used both behavioral observation and subject's self-reporting as methods of data reporting and recording. Subjects were observed for, or self-reported, their levels of pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation, both before and after each music therapy session. The subjects were served in the environments where music therapy services would normally be delivered (i.e., home, hospital, nursing home, or inpatient acute-care unit of the hospice organization). Music therapy services included live active and passive music-based experiences. These were designed to build and to establish rapport with patient or family, to facilitate family interaction and patient control, to provide support and comfort, to facilitate relaxation, to enable reminiscence and life review, to provide a frame-work for spiritual exploration and validation, and to encourage the identification and expression of feelings of anticipatory mourning and grief. A total of six hypotheses stated that there would be significant pre- to postsession differences in each of the three variables: pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation, as measured during two different session and data collection scenarios. These scenarios included the

  11. Interfacial effects revealed by ultrafast relaxation dynamics in BiFeO 3 / YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Springer, D.

    2016-02-12

    The temperature dependence of the relaxation dynamics in the bilayer thin film heterostructure composed of multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) and superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) grown on a (001) SrTiO3 substrate is studied by a time-resolved pump-probe technique, and compared with that of pure YBCO thin film grown under the same growth conditions. The superconductivity of YBCO is found to be retained in the heterostructure. We observe a speeding up of the YBCO recombination dynamics in the superconducting state of the heterostructure, and attribute it to the presence of weak ferromagnetism at the BFO/YBCO interface as observed in magnetization data. An extension of the Rothwarf-Taylor model is used to fit the ultrafast dynamics of BFO/YBCO, that models an increased quasiparticle occupation of the ferromagnetic interfacial layer in the superconducting state of YBCO.

  12. Effectiveness of the Relaxation Response-Based Group Intervention for Treating Depressed Chinese American Immigrants: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Yeung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an 8-week Relaxation Response (RR-based group. Methods: Twenty-two depressed Chinese American immigrants were recruited. Outcomes measures were response and remission rates, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale. Results: Participants (N = 22 were 82% female, mean age was 53 (±12. After intervention, completers (N = 15 showed a 40% response rate and a 27% remission rate, and statistically significant improvement in most outcome measures. Discussion: The RR-based group is feasible and safe in treating Chinese American immigrants with depression.

  13. Untangling surface oxygen exchange effects in YBa2Cu3O6+x thin films by electrical conductivity relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayado, P; Sánchez-Valdés, C F; Stangl, A; Coll, M; Roura, P; Palau, A; Puig, T; Obradors, X

    2017-05-31

    The kinetics of oxygen incorporation (in-diffusion process) and excorporation (out-diffusion process), in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x (YBCO) epitaxial thin films prepared using the chemical solution deposition (CSD) methodology by the trifluoroacetate route, was investigated by electrical conductivity relaxation measurements. We show that the oxygenation kinetics of YBCO films is limited by the surface exchange process of oxygen molecules prior to bulk diffusion into the films. The analysis of the temperature and oxygen partial pressure influence on the oxygenation kinetics has drawn a consistent picture of the oxygen surface exchange process enabling us to define the most likely rate determining step. We have also established a strategy to accelerate the oxygenation kinetics at low temperatures based on the catalytic influence of Ag coatings thus allowing us to decrease the oxygenation temperature in the YBCO thin films.

  14. Interfacial effects revealed by ultrafast relaxation dynamics in BiFeO 3 / YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Springer, D.; Nair, Saritha K.; He, Mi; Lu, C. L.; Cheong, S. A.; Wu, Tao; Panagopoulos, C.; Chia, Elbert E. M.; Zhu, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the relaxation dynamics in the bilayer thin film heterostructure composed of multiferroic BiFeO3 (BFO) and superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) grown on a (001) SrTiO3 substrate is studied by a time-resolved pump-probe technique, and compared with that of pure YBCO thin film grown under the same growth conditions. The superconductivity of YBCO is found to be retained in the heterostructure. We observe a speeding up of the YBCO recombination dynamics in the superconducting state of the heterostructure, and attribute it to the presence of weak ferromagnetism at the BFO/YBCO interface as observed in magnetization data. An extension of the Rothwarf-Taylor model is used to fit the ultrafast dynamics of BFO/YBCO, that models an increased quasiparticle occupation of the ferromagnetic interfacial layer in the superconducting state of YBCO.

  15. Relaxed Poisson cure rate models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Josemar; Cordeiro, Gauss M; Cancho, Vicente G; Balakrishnan, N

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to make the standard promotion cure rate model (Yakovlev and Tsodikov, ) more flexible by assuming that the number of lesions or altered cells after a treatment follows a fractional Poisson distribution (Laskin, ). It is proved that the well-known Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, ) is a simple way to obtain a new cure rate model that is a compromise between the promotion and geometric cure rate models allowing for superdispersion. So, the relaxed cure rate model developed here can be considered as a natural and less restrictive extension of the popular Poisson cure rate model at the cost of an additional parameter, but a competitor to negative-binomial cure rate models (Rodrigues et al., ). Some mathematical properties of a proper relaxed Poisson density are explored. A simulation study and an illustration of the proposed cure rate model from the Bayesian point of view are finally presented. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Arresting relaxation in Pickering Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Tim; Burke, Chris

    2015-03-01

    Pickering emulsions consist of droplets of one fluid dispersed in a host fluid and stabilized by colloidal particles absorbed at the fluid-fluid interface. Everyday materials such as crude oil and food products like salad dressing are examples of these materials. Particles can stabilize non spherical droplet shapes in these emulsions through the following sequence: first, an isolated droplet is deformed, e.g. by an electric field, increasing the surface area above the equilibrium value; additional particles are then adsorbed to the interface reducing the surface tension. The droplet is then allowed to relax toward a sphere. If more particles were adsorbed than can be accommodated by the surface area of the spherical ground state, relaxation of the droplet is arrested at some non-spherical shape. Because the energetic cost of removing adsorbed colloids exceeds the interfacial driving force, these configurations can remain stable over long timescales. In this presentation, we present a computational study of the ordering present in anisotropic droplets produced through the mechanism of arrested relaxation and discuss the interplay between the geometry of the droplet, the dynamical process that produced it, and the structure of the defects observed.

  17. Relaxed plasma-vacuum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Lortz, D.; Kaiser, R.

    2001-01-01

    Taylor's theory of relaxed toroidal plasmas (states of lowest energy with fixed total magnetic helicity) is extended to include a vacuum between the plasma and the wall. In the extended variational problem, one prescribes, in addition to the helicity and the magnetic fluxes whose conservation follows from the perfect conductivity of the wall, the fluxes whose conservation follows from the assumption that the plasma-vacuum interface is also perfectly conducting (if the wall is a magnetic surface, then one has the toroidal and the poloidal flux in the vacuum). Vanishing of the first energy variation implies a pressureless free-boundary magnetohydrostatic equilibrium with a Beltrami magnetic field in the plasma, and in general with a surface current in the interface. Positivity of the second variation implies that the equilibrium is stable according to ideal magnetohydrodynamics, that it is a relaxed state according to Taylor's theory if the interface is replaced by a wall, and that the surface current is nonzero (at least if there are no closed magnetic field lines in the interface). The plane slab, with suitable boundary conditions to simulate a genuine torus, is investigated in detail. The relaxed state has the same double symmetry as the vessel if, and only if, the prescribed helicity is in an interval that depends on the prescribed fluxes. This interval is determined in the limit of a thin slab

  18. Off-centre dynamic Jahn-Teller effect studied by electron spin relaxation of Cu2+ ions in SrF2 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Temperature cw-EPR and pulsed EPR electron spin echo experiments were performed for a low concentration of Cu 2+ ions in cubic SrF 2 crystals. The well resolved EPR spectrum at low temperatures (below 30 K) with parameters g parallel = 2.493, g perpendicular = 2.083, A parallel = 121, A perpendicular = 8.7, A parallel ( 19 F) = 135, A parallel ( 19 F) = 33.0 (A-values in 10 -4 cm -1 ) is transformed continuously into a single broad line above 225 K on heating, due to the g-factor shift and EPR line broadening. These data along with the angular variation EPR data are described in terms of a pseudo-Jahn-Teller effect of (T 2g +A 2u )x(a 1g +e g +t 1u ) type producing six off-centre positions of the Cu 2+ ion in the fluorine cube. Above 30 K a two-step averaging g -factor process occurs and is governed by vibronic dynamics between potential wells of the off-centre positions. This dynamics governs the electron spin relaxation in the whole temperature range. The electron spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/T 1 grows rapidly by six orders of magnitude in the temperature range 30-100 K and is determined by the Orbach-type process with excitations to two excited vibronic levels of energy 83 and 174 cm -1 . For higher temperatures the relaxation is dominated by overbarrier jumps leading to the isotropic EPR spectrum above 225 K. The phase memory time T M has the rigid lattice value 3.5 μs determined by nuclear spectral diffusion and its temperature variation is governed by the vibronic dynamics indicating that the excitations between vibronic levels produce a dephasing of the electron spin precessional motion. (author)

  19. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang; Liu, Taixiang; Liao, G J; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.

  20. Magneto-dependent stress relaxation of magnetorheological gels

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Yangguang

    2017-09-01

    The stress relaxation behaviors of magnetorheological (MR) gels under stepwise shear loading are systematically investigated. The particle-enhanced effect, the magneto-induced effect, and the temperature-enhanced effect on the stress relaxation of MR gels are discussed. For further analysis of the magneto-induced stress relaxation mechanism in MR gels, a phenomenological model is established to describe the stress relaxation behavior of the matrix and the magnetic particle chains. All characteristic parameters introduced in the model, i.e. relaxation time, instantaneous modulus, and stable modulus, have well-defined physical meanings and are fitted based on the experimental results. The influence of each parameter on the macroscopic response is discussed and it is found that the relaxation stress induced by the magneto-mechanical coupling effect plays an important role in the stress relaxation process of MR gels.

  1. Spin relaxation in nanowires by hyperfine coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria-Arrondo, C.; Sherman, E.Ya.

    2012-01-01

    Hyperfine interactions establish limits on spin dynamics and relaxation rates in ensembles of semiconductor quantum dots. It is the confinement of electrons which determines nonzero hyperfine coupling and leads to the spin relaxation. As a result, in nanowires one would expect the vanishing of this effect due to extended electron states. However, even for relatively clean wires, disorder plays a crucial role and makes electron localization sufficient to cause spin relaxation on the time scale of the order of 10 ns. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. The Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation Exercises After Endotracheal Extubation on Vital Signs and Anxiety Level in Open Heart Surgery Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem İbrahimoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the exercises of progressive muscle relaxation (PMR on vital signs and anxiety level after endotracheal extubation in open heart surgery. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out as quasi-experimental, pre-test, and post-test with a control group. The study recruited 30 experimental and 30 control group open heart surgery patients, who met the inclusion criteria, from a cardiac and vascular surgery clinic of a university hospital. PMR exercises, which were taught before the surgery, were implemented after the surgery in the intensive care unit simultaneously with endotracheal extubation. The vital signs of the patients were monitored for the first 30 min. The anxiety levels were measured after 30 min of extubation with state anxiety inventory. Results: The lower rates of heartbeat, breathing, arterial blood pressure, and anxiety were observed in the experimental group in all measurements (first 30 min after endotracheal extubation, and the differences were statistically significant in favor of the experimental group (p<0.05. Conclusion: The study showed that the relaxation exercises after endotracheal extubation in open heart surgery patients was effective in improving vital signs and reducing anxiety level.

  3. The Relaxation Matrix for Symmetric Tops with Inversion Symmetry. I. Effects of Line Coupling on Self-Broadened v (sub 1) and Pure Rotational Bands of NH3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q.; Boulet, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Robert-Bonamy formalism has been commonly used to calculate half-widths and shifts of spectral lines for decades. This formalism is based on several approximations. Among them, two have not been fully addressed: the isolated line approximation and the neglect of coupling between the translational and internal motions. Recently, we have shown that the isolated line approximation is not necessary in developing semi-classical line shape theories. Based on this progress, we have been able to develop a new formalism that enables not only to reduce uncertainties on calculated half-widths and shifts, but also to model line mixing effects on spectra starting from the knowledge of the intermolecular potential. In our previous studies, the new formalism had been applied to linear and asymmetric-top molecules. In the present study, the method has been extended to symmetric-top molecules with inversion symmetry. As expected, the inversion splitting induces a complete failure of the isolated line approximation. We have calculated the complex relaxation matrices of selfbroadened NH3. The half-widths and shifts in the ?1 and the pure rotational bands are reported in the present paper. When compared with measurements, the calculated half-widths match the experimental data very well, since the inapplicable isolated line approximation has been removed. With respect to the shifts, only qualitative results are obtained and discussed. Calculated off-diagonal elements of the relaxation matrix and a comparison with the observed line mixing effects are reported in the companion paper (Paper II).

  4. Separating the Influence of Environment from Stress Relaxation Effects on Dwell Fatigue Crack Growth in a Nickel-Base Disk Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesman, J.; Gabb, T. P.; Ghosn, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Both environmental embrittlement and crack tip visco-plastic stress relaxation play a significant role in determining the dwell fatigue crack growth (DFCG) resistance of nickel-based disk superalloys. In the current study performed on the Low Solvus High Refractory (LSHR) disk alloy, the influence of these two mechanisms were separated so that the effects of each could be quantified and modeled. Seven different microstructural variations of LSHR were produced by controlling the cooling rate and the subsequent aging and thermal exposure heat treatments. Through cyclic fatigue crack growth testing performed both in air and vacuum, it was established that four out of the seven LSHR heat treatments evaluated, possessed similar intrinsic environmental resistance to cyclic crack growth. For these four heat treatments, it was further shown that the large differences in dwell crack growth behavior which still persisted, were related to their measured stress relaxation behavior. The apparent differences in their dwell crack growth resistance were attributed to the inability of the standard linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) stress intensity parameter to account for visco-plastic behavior. Crack tip stress relaxation controls the magnitude of the remaining local tensile stresses which are directly related to the measured dwell crack growth rates. It was hypothesized that the environmentally weakened grain boundary crack tip regions fail during the dwells when their strength is exceeded by the remaining local crack tip tensile stresses. It was shown that the classical creep crack growth mechanisms such as grain boundary sliding did not contribute to crack growth, but the local visco-plastic behavior still plays a very significant role by determining the crack tip tensile stress field which controls the dwell crack growth behavior. To account for the influence of the visco-plastic behavior on the crack tip stress field, an empirical modification to the LEFM stress

  5. Spin-lattice relaxation of individual solid-state spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, A.; Muñoz, E.; Dinani, H. T.; Jarmola, A.; Maletinsky, P.; Budker, D.; Maze, J. R.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the effect of vibrations on the relaxation process of individual spins is crucial for implementing nanosystems for quantum information and quantum metrology applications. In this work, we present a theoretical microscopic model to describe the spin-lattice relaxation of individual electronic spins associated to negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, although our results can be extended to other spin-boson systems. Starting from a general spin-lattice interaction Hamiltonian, we provide a detailed description and solution of the quantum master equation of an electronic spin-one system coupled to a phononic bath in thermal equilibrium. Special attention is given to the dynamics of one-phonon processes below 1 K where our results agree with recent experimental findings and analytically describe the temperature and magnetic-field scaling. At higher temperatures, linear and second-order terms in the interaction Hamiltonian are considered and the temperature scaling is discussed for acoustic and quasilocalized phonons when appropriate. Our results, in addition to confirming a T5 temperature dependence of the longitudinal relaxation rate at higher temperatures, in agreement with experimental observations, provide a theoretical background for modeling the spin-lattice relaxation at a wide range of temperatures where different temperature scalings might be expected.

  6. Functional behavior of the anomalous magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} samples showing the paramagnetic Meissner effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, F.T., E-mail: fabio.dias@ufpel.edu.br [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Vieira, V.N.; Garcia, E.L. [Instituto de Física e Matemática, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Caixa Postal 354, 96010-900, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Wolff-Fabris, F.; Kampert, E. [Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 01314, Dresden (Germany); Gouvêa, C.P. [National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro), Material Metrology Division, 25250-020, Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Schaf, J. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Obradors, X.; Puig, T. [Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, CSIC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Roa, J.J. [Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales e Ingeniería Metalúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028, Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • Paramagnetic Meissner effect observed up to 5T in FCC and FCW measurements. • Time effects evidenced by irreversibilities between FCC and FCW measurements. • Strong time effects causing an anomalous paramagnetic relaxation. • Paramagnetic relaxation governed by different flux dynamics in different intervals. • An interpretative analysis to identify the flux dynamics in the relaxation process. - Abstract: We have studied the functional behavior of the field-cooled (FC) magnetic relaxation observed in melt-textured YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-δ} (Y123) samples with 30 wt% of Y{sub 2}Ba{sub 1}Cu{sub 1}O{sub 5} (Y211) phase, in order to investigate anomalous paramagnetic moments observed during the experiments. FC magnetic relaxation experiments were performed under controlled conditions, such as cooling rate and temperature. Magnetic fields up to 5T were applied parallel to the ab plane and along the c-axis. Our results are associated with the paramagnetic Meissner effect (PME), characterized by positive moments during FC experiments, and related to the magnetic flux compression into the samples. After different attempts our experimental data could be adequately fitted by an exponential decay function with different relaxation times. We discuss our results suggesting the existence of different and preferential flux dynamics governing the anomalous FC paramagnetic relaxation in different time intervals. This work is one of the first attempts to interpret this controversial effect in a simple analysis of the pinning mechanisms and flux dynamics acting during the time evolution of the magnetic moment. However, the results may be useful to develop models to explain this interesting and still misunderstood feature of the paramagnetic Meissner effect.

  7. [Vibration-assisted music therapy reduces pain and promotes relaxation of para- and tetraplegic patients. A pilot study of psychiatric and physical effects of simultaneous acoustic and somatosensory music stimulation as pain management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariauzouls, C; Michel, D; Schiftan, Y

    1999-11-01

    Pain is a well known phenomenon in posttraumatic spinal cord injuries. Nearly 10% of the patients develop most severe, invalidizing, as a rule neurogenic pain conditions that are hardly accessible to conventional therapies. A pilot study was therefore conducted with 10 paraplegics and tetraplegics suffering chronic pain, investigating how vibration supported music therapy with the Musica Medica method affected pain experience, tension/relaxation and well-being. In addition to subjective experience, we measured physiological parameters (finger tip skin temperature, electrodermal activity, heart rate, respiration frequency) during the therapy sessions. All patients had a high acceptance of the method which throughout the group had brought about an increase in relaxation and well-being as well as a decrease of pain experience. The autonomic nervous system variables correlated with relaxation and in addition pointed to an activating impact of the therapy chosen.

  8. Relaxation processes during amorphous metal alloys heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinochka, E.Ya.; Durachenko, A.M.; Borisov, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    Behaviour of Te+15 at.%Ge and Fe+13 at.%P+7 at.%C amorphous metal alloys during heating has been studied using the method of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as the most convenient one for determination of the value of heat effects, activation energies, temperature ranges of relaxation processes. Thermal effects corresponding to high-temperature relaxation processes taking place during amorphous metal alloys (AMA) heating are detected. The change of ratio of relaxation peaks values on DSC curves as a result of AMA heat treatment can be explained by the presence of a number of levels of inner energy in amorphous system, separated with potential barriers, the heights of which correspond to certain activation energies of relaxation processes

  9. Effects of amantadine on the dynamics of membrane-bound influenza A M2 transmembrane peptide studied by NMR relaxation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cady, Sarah D.; Hong Mei [Iowa State University, Department of Chemistry (United States)], E-mail: mhong@iastate.edu

    2009-09-15

    The molecular motions of membrane proteins in liquid-crystalline lipid bilayers lie at the interface between motions in isotropic liquids and in solids. Specifically, membrane proteins can undergo whole-body uniaxial diffusion on the microsecond time scale. In this work, we investigate the {sup 1}H rotating-frame spin-lattice relaxation (T{sub 1{rho}}) caused by the uniaxial diffusion of the influenza A M2 transmembrane peptide (M2TMP), which forms a tetrameric proton channel in lipid bilayers. This uniaxial diffusion was proved before by {sup 2}H, {sup 15}N and {sup 13}C NMR lineshapes of M2TMP in DLPC bilayers. When bound to an inhibitor, amantadine, the protein exhibits significantly narrower linewidths at physiological temperature. We now investigate the origin of this line narrowing through temperature-dependent {sup 1}H T{sub 1{rho}} relaxation times in the absence and presence of amantadine. Analysis of the temperature dependence indicates that amantadine decreases the correlation time of motion from 2.8 {+-} 0.9 {mu}s for the apo peptide to 0.89 {+-} 0.41 {mu}s for the bound peptide at 313 K. Thus the line narrowing of the bound peptide is due to better avoidance of the NMR time scale and suppression of intermediate time scale broadening. The faster diffusion of the bound peptide is due to the higher attempt rate of motion, suggesting that amantadine creates better-packed and more cohesive helical bundles. Analysis of the temperature dependence of ln (T{sub 1{rho}}{sup -1}) indicates that the activation energy of motion increased from 14.0 {+-} 4.0 kJ/mol for the apo peptide to 23.3 {+-} 6.2 kJ/mol for the bound peptide. This higher activation energy indicates that excess amantadine outside the protein channel in the lipid bilayer increases the membrane viscosity. Thus, the protein-bound amantadine speeds up the diffusion of the helical bundles while the excess amantadine in the bilayer increases the membrane viscosity.

  10. The effect of residual stress relaxation by the vibratory stress relief technique on the textures of grains in AA 6061 aluminum alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jia-Siang; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Chen, Erh-Chiang; Kuo, Che-Wei; Wu, Weite, E-mail: wwu@dragon.nchu.edu.tw

    2014-05-01

    The textures and crystallographic orientations beneath the treatment area in AA 6061 aluminum alloy after vibratory stress relief (VSR) process were investigated by combining the electron backscatter diffraction analysis of the misoriented low- or high-angle boundaries, the (inverse) pole figures, the line scans and the various grain orientations. The relaxation effect caused by compressive residual stress in the intermediate region is superior to that of tensile residual stress on both sides of the cantilever by means of X-ray diffraction techniques. The residual stress relaxation that occurs due to vibrational stress excitation accompanies the “orientation of banding” disintegration, the decreases in the dislocation density, the strain energy, and the fraction of low-angle boundaries within each type of grain orientation, such as Copper {112} 〈111〉, S {123} 〈634〉, Goss {110} 〈001〉, and Brass {110} 〈112〉, excepting the Cube (or near-Cube) {100} 〈001〉 grain orientation. The maintained invariance in the Cube texture can be attributed to the maximum number of active primary slip systems, resulting in an interaction that results from hindered slip on intersecting families of the planes.

  11. [Effects of hypnotic and musical relaxation therapy on the treatment of the parents of children with cleft lip and/or palate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanyan, Zhang; Caixia, Gong; Xiaolin, Zhang; Ying, Chen; Jingchen, Xu; Pin, Ha; Jingtao, Li; Bing, Shi

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of hypnotic and musical relaxation therapy and psychological consultation for parents of children with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP) and to provide a scientific basis of clinical-psychological treatment options. Sixty-six subjects with children with CLP participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to a test group (n = 33) and a control group (n = 33). The test group was treated with hypnotic and musical relaxation therapy; the control group were subjected to psychological consultation. Anxiety and depression states were evaluated by using a self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and a self-rating depression scale (SDS) before and after treatment was administered. 1) The test group demonstrated a significant decrease in SAS and SDS scores (t = 2.855, P 0.05). 2) The test group yielded a higher percentage of remission indicated by the SDS scores than the control group (test group = 75.76%; control group = 60.61%; P palate than psychological consultation.

  12. The effect of residual stress relaxation by the vibratory stress relief technique on the textures of grains in AA 6061 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jia-Siang; Hsieh, Chih-Chun; Lin, Chi-Ming; Chen, Erh-Chiang; Kuo, Che-Wei; Wu, Weite

    2014-01-01

    The textures and crystallographic orientations beneath the treatment area in AA 6061 aluminum alloy after vibratory stress relief (VSR) process were investigated by combining the electron backscatter diffraction analysis of the misoriented low- or high-angle boundaries, the (inverse) pole figures, the line scans and the various grain orientations. The relaxation effect caused by compressive residual stress in the intermediate region is superior to that of tensile residual stress on both sides of the cantilever by means of X-ray diffraction techniques. The residual stress relaxation that occurs due to vibrational stress excitation accompanies the “orientation of banding” disintegration, the decreases in the dislocation density, the strain energy, and the fraction of low-angle boundaries within each type of grain orientation, such as Copper {112} 〈111〉, S {123} 〈634〉, Goss {110} 〈001〉, and Brass {110} 〈112〉, excepting the Cube (or near-Cube) {100} 〈001〉 grain orientation. The maintained invariance in the Cube texture can be attributed to the maximum number of active primary slip systems, resulting in an interaction that results from hindered slip on intersecting families of the planes

  13. Application of the Maxwell-Wagner-Hanai effective medium theory to the analysis of the interfacial polarization relaxations in conducting composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adohi, B J-P; Bouanga, C Vanga; Fatyeyeva, K; Tabellout, M

    2009-01-01

    A new approach to explain the interfacial polarization phenomenon in conducting composite films is proposed. HCl-doped poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and polyamide-6 (PA-6) matrices with embedded polyaniline (PANI) particles as filler were investigated and analysed, combining dielectric spectroscopy and AFM electrical images with the effective medium theory analysis. Up to three relaxation peaks attributed to the interfacial polarization phenomena were detected in the studied frequency range (0.1 Hz-1 MHz). The AFM electrical images revealed that the doped PA-6/PANI composite can be modelled as a single-type particle medium and the PET/PANI one as a two-type particle medium. A simple dielectric loss expression was derived from the Maxwell-Wagner-Hanai mixture equation and was applied to the experimental data to identify the interfaces involved in each of the relaxation peaks. The parameter values (permittivity, conductivity, volume fraction of the PANI particles) were found to agree well with the measured one, hence validating the models.

  14. Stereoselective and stereospecific effects in the formation of heteronuclear tartrate complexes of 3d- and 4f-elements from proton magnetic relaxation data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sal'nikov, Yu.I.; Chevela, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    A new approach to identification of stereoselective and stereospecific effects in the formation of heteronuclear tartrate complexes of 3d- and 4f-elements according to proton magnetic relaxation data is developed. At the first stage comparison of experimental dependences of the property measured (relaxation efficiency coefficient, Bjerrum function etc.) on the consentrational parameters is conducted. Their different course in systems with dH 4 L (d-tartaric acid) and dlH 4 L (dl-tartaric acid) points out to the presence of stereoeffects. Then, using mathematical simulation the most true stoichiometry of complex particles is determined as well as optimized values of their stability constants and intensity factors. The method is used when investigating the following systems: Fe 3+ -dH 4 L(dlH 4 L), Ln 3+ -dH 4 L(dlH 4 L), Fe 3+ -Ln 3+ -dH 4 L(dlH 4 L)(Ln 3+ -Gd 3+ , Ho 3+ , Er 3+ , Tm 3+ )

  15. Effect of Ti additions on the swelling of electron irradiated austenitic steels and Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbon, D.; Didout, G.; Le Naour, L.; Levy, V.

    1979-01-01

    It has been shown that titanium is a beneficial additive for the swelling of austenitic steels. The amplitude of the effects observed depends much on the nature and concentration of the other additives in the austenitic matrix [fr

  16. Dynamics of helicity transport and Taylor relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, P.H.; Malkov, M.

    2003-01-01

    A simple model of the dynamics of Taylor relaxation is derived using symmetry principles alone. No statistical closure approximations are invoked or detailed plasma model properties assumed. Notably, the model predicts several classes of nondiffusive helicity transport phenomena, including traveling nonlinear waves and superdiffusive turbulent pulses. A universal expression for the scaling of the effective magnetic Reynolds number of a system undergoing Taylor relaxation is derived. Some basic properties of intermittency in helicity transport are examined

  17. Effect of metallic silver nanoparticles on the alignment and relaxation behaviour of liquid crystalline material in smectic C* phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, Tripti; Kumar Gupta, Swadesh; Katiyar, Rohit; Srivastava, Atul; Czerwinski, Michal; Krup, Katarzyna; Kumar, Sandeep; Manohar, Rajiv

    2017-09-01

    The influence of silver nanoparticles dispersed in a Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal (FLC) on the properties of the resultant composite system has been investigated by thermal, electro-optical, and dielectric methods. We show that the concentration of thiol capped silver nanoparticles is a critical factor in governing the alignment of nanoparticles (NPs) in the host FLC. The orientation of NPs in composite samples affects the ordering of the LC (Liquid Crystal) phase and consequently changes the various phase transition temperatures of the host LC. Formation of self-assembled 2D (two dimensional) arrays of nanoparticles is observed for high concentration of dopant in the LC, oriented perpendicular to the direction of rubbing. We propose that the molecular interaction between the thiol capped NPs and LC molecules is the key factor behind such an arrangement of NPs. Orientation of NPs has affected the relaxation behaviour and various other material parameters, significantly. A noteworthy change in DC conductivity articulates our proposed idea of the formation of 2D array of NPs perpendicular to the direction of rubbing. This comprehensive study endorses the importance of dopant concentration in modifying the properties of the host LC material.

  18. Effects of stress management and relaxation training on the relationship between diabetes symptoms and affect among Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Julie; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2018-06-01

    Stress management and relaxation (SMR) interventions can reduce symptoms of chronic disease and associated distress. However, there is little evidence that such interventions disrupt associations between symptoms and affect. This study examined whether SMR dampened the link between symptoms of hyperglycemia and proximal levels of affect. We predicted that during periods of increased hyperglycemia, individuals receiving SMR training, relative to controls, would demonstrate smaller increases in negative affect. Fifty-five adult Latinos with type 2 diabetes were randomised to either one group session of diabetes education (DE-only; N = 23) or diabetes education plus eight group sessions of SMR (DE + SMR; N = 32). After treatment, participants reported five diabetes symptoms and four affective states twice daily for seven days using a bilingual telephonic system. Mean age = 57.8 years, mean A1c = 8.4%, and ¾ was female with less than a high school education. Individuals receiving DE + SMR, compared to DE-only, showed a weaker positive within-person association between daily diabetes symptoms and nervous affect. Groups also differed on the association between symptoms and enthusiasm. Age moderated these associations in most models with older individuals showing less affect reactivity to symptoms. Findings provide partial support for theorised mechanisms of SMR.

  19. Charge carrier relaxation model in disordered organic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Sun, Pengxiao; Liu, Ming

    2013-01-01

    The relaxation phenomena of charge carrier in disordered organic semiconductors have been demonstrated and investigated theoretically. An analytical model describing the charge carrier relaxation is proposed based on the pure hopping transport theory. The relation between the material disorder, electric field and temperature and the relaxation phenomena has been discussed in detail, respectively. The calculated results reveal that the increase of electric field and temperature can promote the relaxation effect in disordered organic semiconductors, while the increase of material disorder will weaken the relaxation. The proposed model can explain well the stretched-exponential law by adopting the appropriate parameters. The calculation shows a good agreement with the experimental data for organic semiconductors

  20. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.E.; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H.

    2013-01-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  1. Distinct mechanisms of relaxation to bioactive components from chamomile species in porcine isolated blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.E., E-mail: Richard.roberts@nottingham.ac.uk; Allen, S.; Chang, A.P.Y.; Henderson, H.; Hobson, G.C.; Karania, B.; Morgan, K.N.; Pek, A.S.Y.; Raghvani, K.; Shee, C.Y.; Shikotra, J.; Street, E.; Abbas, Z.; Ellis, K.; Heer, J.K.; Alexander, S.P.H., E-mail: steve.alexander@nottingham.ac.uk

    2013-11-01

    German chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), a widely-used herbal medicine, has been reported to have a wide range of biological effects, including smooth muscle relaxation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of representative compounds from chamomile (apigenin, luteolin, (−)-α-bisabolol, farnesene, umbelliferone; 3–30 μM) on vascular tone using porcine coronary and splenic arteries mounted for isometric tension recording in isolated tissue baths and precontracted with the thromboxane-mimetic U46619. Apigenin, luteolin, and (−)-α-bisabolol produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in both the coronary and splenic arteries that were not blocked by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase or potassium channels. Removal of extracellular calcium inhibited the relaxations to all three compounds, and these compounds also inhibited calcium re-addition-evoked contractions, indicating that the relaxation response may be mediated through inhibition of calcium influx. Apigenin and luteolin, but not (−)-α-bisabolol, enhanced the relaxation to the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside, indicating that apigenin and luteolin may act to regulate cyclic GMP levels. Umbelliferone produced a rapid, transient relaxation in the splenic artery, but not the coronary artery, that was inhibited by L-NAME and removal of the endothelium, suggesting an influence on nitric oxide production. Farnesene, at concentrations up to 30 μM, was without effect in either blood vessel. In conclusion, hydroxylated compounds (apigenin, luteolin and (−)-α-bisabolol) found in chamomile all caused a slow relaxation of isolated blood vessels through an effect on calcium influx. Umbelliferone, on the other hand, produced a rapid, transient relaxation dependent upon release of nitric oxide from the endothelium. - Highlights: • Apigenin, luteolin, and (-)-α-bisabolol are present in chamomile. • They produced slow, concentration-dependent relaxations in arteries. • These

  2. ASM-024, a piperazinium compound, promotes the in vitro relaxation of β2-adrenoreceptor desensitized tracheas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israël-Assayag, Evelyne; Beaulieu, Marie-Josée; Cormier, Yvon

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled β2-adrenoreceptor agonists are widely used in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) for bronchoconstriction relief. β2-Adrenoreceptor agonists relax airway smooth muscle cells via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) mediated pathways. However, prolonged stimulation induces functional desensitization of the β2-adrenoreceptors (β2-AR), potentially leading to reduced clinical efficacy with chronic or prolonged administration. ASM-024, a small synthetic molecule in clinical stage development, has shown activity at the level of nicotinic receptors and possibly at the muscarinic level and presents anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator properties. Aerosolized ASM-024 reduces airway resistance in mice and promotes in-vitro relaxation of tracheal and bronchial preparations from animal and human tissues. ASM-024 increased in vitro relaxation response to maximally effective concentration of short-acting beta-2 agonists in dog and human bronchi. Although the precise mechanisms by which ASM-024 promotes airway smooth muscle (ASM) relaxation remain unclear, we hypothesized that ASM-024 will attenuate and/or abrogate agonist-induced contraction and remain effective despite β2-AR tachyphylaxis. β2-AR tachyphylaxis was induced with salbutamol, salmeterol and formoterol on guinea pig tracheas. The addition of ASM-024 relaxed concentration-dependently intact or β2-AR desensitized tracheal rings precontracted with methacholine. ASM-024 did not induce any elevation of intracellular cAMP in isolated smooth muscle cells; moreover, blockade of the cAMP pathway with an adenylate cyclase inhibitor had no significant effect on ASM-024-induced guinea pig trachea relaxation. Collectively, these findings show that ASM-024 elicits relaxation of β2-AR desensitized tracheal preparations and suggest that ASM-024 mediates smooth muscle relaxation through a different target and signaling pathway than β2-adrenergic receptor agonists. These findings suggest ASM-024

  3. Peroxynitrite-induced relaxation in isolated canine cerebral arteries and mechanisms of action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianfeng; Li Wenyan; Altura, Bella T.; Altura, Burton M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the vascular actions of peroxynitrite (ONOO - ), the product of superoxide and nitric oxide (NO), in isolated canine cerebral arteries and to gain insight into its potential mechanisms of action. In the absence of any vasoactive agent, ONOO - (from 10 -7 to 10 -6 M) was able to reduce the basal tension. In prostaglandin F2α-precontracted canine basilar arterial rings, ONOO - elicited concentration-dependent relaxation at concentrations from 10 -8 to 10 -5 M. The effective concentrations producing approximately 50% maximal relaxation (EC 50 ) to ONOO - were 4.06 x 10 -6 and 4.12 x 10 -6 M in intact and denuded rings, respectively (P > 0.05). No significant differences in relaxation responses were found in ring preparations with or without endothelium (P > 0.05). The presence of either 5 μM methylene blue (MB) or 5 μM 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo-[4,3-α]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ) significantly inhibited the relaxations induced by ONOO - . Tetraethylammonium chloride (T-2265) significantly decreased the ONOO - -induced relaxations in a concentration-dependent manner. However, ONOO - had no effect on rings precontracted by high KCL (P > 0.05). Addition of low concentrations of calyculin A (50 nM) was able to abolish the ONOO - -induced relaxation. Furthermore, ONOO - significantly inhibited calcium-induced contractions of K + -depolarized canine cerebral rings in a concentration-related manner. Lastly, a variety of pharmacological agents and antagonists including L-NMMA, L-arginine, indomethacin, atropine, naloxone, diphenhydramine, cimetine, glibenclamide, haloperidol, etc., did not influence the relaxant effects of ONOO - on the rings. Our new results suggest that ONOO - -triggered relaxation, on canine cerebral arteries, is mediated by elevation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels, membrane hyperpolarization via K+ channel activation, activation of myosin light chain phosphatase activity, and interference with

  4. Relaxed Binaural LCMV Beamforming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutrouvelis, A.; Hendriks, R.C.; Heusdens, R.; Jensen, Jesper Rindom

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new binaural beamforming technique, which can be seen as a relaxation of the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) framework. The proposed method can achieve simultaneous noise reduction and exact binaural cue preservation of the target source, similar to the

  5. The benefit of heart rate variability biofeedback and relaxation training in reducing trait anxiety†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Kim, Jung K; Wachholtz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Previous research studies have indicated that biofeedback treatment and relaxation techniques are effective in reducing psychological and physical symptoms (Hammond, 2005; Manzoni, G. M., Pagnini, F., Castelnuovo, G., & Molinari, E., 2008). However, dearth of studies has compared heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback treatment and relaxation training to reduce trait anxiety. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of HRV biofeedback treatment and relaxation training in reducing trait anxiety compared to control group without any treatment using students in a science and engineering university of South Korea. For the present study, a total of 15 graduate students with moderate level of trait anxiety were recruited for 4 individual sessions every two weeks. They were randomly assigned into three groups: biofeedback treatment (n = 5), relaxation training (n = 5), and no treatment control group (n = 5). Our results revealed significant difference in change score of trait anxiety between the HRV biofeedback treatment and the no treatment control group. However, no significant difference was found between the relaxation training group and the no treatment control group. In addition, there was no significant difference between the HRV biofeedback treatment and the relaxation training. Results of the present study indicate that there is potential benefit in utilizing HRV biofeedback treatment for stress management programs and/or anxiety reduction treatment PMID:27099546

  6. [A study on Korean concepts of relaxation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J S

    1992-01-01

    Relaxation technique is an independent nursing intervention used in various stressful situations. The concept of relaxation must be explored for the meaning given by the people in their traditional thought and philosophy. Korean relaxation technique, wanting to become culturally acceptable and effective, is learning to recognize and develop Korean concepts, experiences, and musics of relaxation. This study was aimed at discovering Korean concepts, experiences and musics of relaxation and contributing the development of the relaxation technique for Korean people. The subjects were 59 nursing students, 39 hospitalized patients, 61 housewives, 21 rural residents and 16 researchers. Data were collected from September 4th to October 24th, 1991 by interviews or questionnaires. The data analysis was done by qualitative research method, and validity assured by conformation of the concept and category by 2 nursing scientists who had written a Master's thesis on the relaxation technique. The results of the study were summarized as follows; 1. The meaning of the relaxation concept; From 298 statements, 107 concepts were extracted and then 5 categories "Physical domain", "Psychological domain", "Complex domain", "Situation", and "environment" were organized. 'Don't have discomforts, 'don't have muscle tension', 'don't have energy (him in Korean)', 'don't have activities' subcategories were included in "Physical domain". 'Don't have anxiety', 'feel good', 'emotional stability', 'don't have wordly thoughts', 'feel one's brain muddled', 'loss of desire' subcategories were included in "physical domain" 'Comfort body and mind', 'don't have tension of body and mind', 'be sagged' 'liveliness of thoughts' subcategories were included in "Complex domain". 'Rest', 'sleep', 'others' subcategories were included in "Situation domain". And 'quite environment' & 'comfortable environment' subcategories were included in "Environmental domain". 2. The experiences of the relaxation; From 151

  7. Effectiveness of a worksite social & physical environment intervention on need for recovery, physical activity and relaxation; results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffeng, Jennifer K; Boot, Cécile R L; Duijts, Saskia F A; Twisk, Jos W R; van Mechelen, Willem; Hendriksen, Ingrid J M

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a worksite social and physical environment intervention on need for recovery (i.e., early symptoms of work-related mental and physical fatigue), physical activity and relaxation. Also, the effectiveness of the separate interventions was investigated. In this 2 × 2 factorial design study, 412 office employees from a financial service provider participated. Participants were allocated to the combined social and physical intervention, to the social intervention only, to the physical intervention only or to the control group. The primary outcome measure was need for recovery. Secondary outcomes were work-related stress (i.e., exhaustion, detachment and relaxation), small breaks, physical activity (i.e., stair climbing, active commuting, sport activities, light/moderate/vigorous physical activity) and sedentary behavior. Outcomes were measured by questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months follow-up. Multilevel analyses were performed to investigate the effects of the three interventions. In all intervention groups, a non-significant reduction was found in need for recovery. In the combined intervention (n = 92), exhaustion and vigorous physical activities decreased significantly, and small breaks at work and active commuting increased significantly compared to the control group. The social intervention (n = 118) showed a significant reduction in exhaustion, sedentary behavior at work and a significant increase in small breaks at work and leisure activities. In the physical intervention (n = 96), stair climbing at work and active commuting significantly increased, and sedentary behavior at work decreased significantly compared to the control group. None of the interventions was effective in improving the need for recovery. It is recommended to implement the social and physical intervention among a population with higher baseline values of need for recovery. Furthermore, the intervention itself could be improved by increasing the

  8. Effectiveness of a worksite social & physical environment intervention on need for recovery, physical activity and relaxation; results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K Coffeng

    Full Text Available To investigate the effectiveness of a worksite social and physical environment intervention on need for recovery (i.e., early symptoms of work-related mental and physical fatigue, physical activity and relaxation. Also, the effectiveness of the separate interventions was investigated.In this 2 × 2 factorial design study, 412 office employees from a financial service provider participated. Participants were allocated to the combined social and physical intervention, to the social intervention only, to the physical intervention only or to the control group. The primary outcome measure was need for recovery. Secondary outcomes were work-related stress (i.e., exhaustion, detachment and relaxation, small breaks, physical activity (i.e., stair climbing, active commuting, sport activities, light/moderate/vigorous physical activity and sedentary behavior. Outcomes were measured by questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months follow-up. Multilevel analyses were performed to investigate the effects of the three interventions.In all intervention groups, a non-significant reduction was found in need for recovery. In the combined intervention (n = 92, exhaustion and vigorous physical activities decreased significantly, and small breaks at work and active commuting increased significantly compared to the control group. The social intervention (n = 118 showed a significant reduction in exhaustion, sedentary behavior at work and a significant increase in small breaks at work and leisure activities. In the physical intervention (n = 96, stair climbing at work and active commuting significantly increased, and sedentary behavior at work decreased significantly compared to the control group.None of the interventions was effective in improving the need for recovery. It is recommended to implement the social and physical intervention among a population with higher baseline values of need for recovery. Furthermore, the intervention itself could be improved by

  9. Transverse magnetic field effects on the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 measured by {sup 55}Mn-NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Kumagai, K.; Borsa, F.; Gatteschi, D

    2003-05-01

    The longitudinal (H{sub Z}) and transverse (H{sub T}) magnetic field dependence of the relaxation time of the magnetization in Mn12 in its S=10 ground state was measured by NMR. The minima in the relaxation time at the fields for level crossing are due to the quantum tunneling of the magnetization. The shortening of the relaxation time under the application of H{sub T} is shown to be due mainly to the reduction of the energy barrier.

  10. A wrinkling-based method for investigating glassy polymer film relaxation as a function of film thickness and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun Young; Douglas, Jack F; Stafford, Christopher M

    2017-10-21

    We investigate the relaxation dynamics of thin polymer films at temperatures below the bulk glass transition T g by first compressing polystyrene films supported on a polydimethylsiloxane substrate to create wrinkling patterns and then observing the slow relaxation of the wrinkled films back to their final equilibrium flat state by small angle light scattering. As with recent relaxation measurements on thin glassy films reported by Fakhraai and co-workers, we find the relaxation time of our wrinkled films to be strongly dependent on film thickness below an onset thickness on the order of 100 nm. By varying the temperature between room temperature and T g (≈100 °C), we find that the relaxation time follows an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence to a good approximation at all film thicknesses investigated, where both the activation energy and the relaxation time pre-factor depend appreciably on film thickness. The wrinkling relaxation curves tend to cross at a common temperature somewhat below T g , indicating an entropy-enthalpy compensation relation between the activation free energy parameters. This compensation effect has also been observed recently in simulated supported polymer films in the high temperature Arrhenius relaxation regime rather than the glassy state. In addition, we find that the film stress relaxation function, as well as the height of the wrinkle ridges, follows a stretched exponential time dependence and the short-time effective Young's modulus derived from our modeling decreases sigmoidally with increasing temperature-both characteristic features of glassy materials. The relatively facile nature of the wrinkling-based measurements in comparison to other film relaxation measurements makes our method attractive for practical materials development, as well as fundamental studies of glass formation.

  11. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Garry; Morris, Tony; Kueh, Yee Cheng; Terry, Peter C

    2018-01-01

    Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004). There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007), although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM), unfamiliar arousing music (UAM), or no music (NM) groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR), peripheral temperature (PT), and heart rate (HR) were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R) was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F 2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η 2 = 0.14). GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  12. Effects of Relaxing and Arousing Music during Imagery Training on Dart-Throwing Performance, Physiological Arousal Indices, and Competitive State Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Kuan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004. There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007, although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers. Participants had moderate-to-high imagery ability and were randomly assigned to unfamiliar relaxing music (URM, unfamiliar arousing music (UAM, or no music (NM groups. Performance was assessed by 40 dart throws at a concentric circles dartboard before and after 12 imagery sessions over 4 weeks. Measures of galvanic skin response (GSR, peripheral temperature (PT, and heart rate (HR were taken during imagery sessions 1 and 12, and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 Revised (CSAI-2R was administered prior to the pre- and post-intervention performance task. Dart-throwing gain scores were significantly higher for URM than for UAM and NM, with no significant difference between UAM and NM (URM = 37.24 ± 5.66, UAM = 17.57 ± 5.30, and NM = 13.19 ± 6.14, F2,62 = 5.03, p = 0.01, η2 = 0.14. GSR, PT, and HR reflected lower arousal for URM than for UAM or NM. Significant decreases in somatic anxiety were evident for URM and UAM but not NM. Significant decreases in cognitive anxiety were evident for URM and NM but not UAM. Significant increases in self-confidence were evident for URM but not UAM or NM. Performance improved in all three conditions but URM was associated with the largest performance gain, the lowest physiological indices of arousal, and the most positive CSAI-2R profiles. Listening to relaxing music during imagery may have benefits for

  13. Tocotrienol Rich Palm Oil Extract Is More Effective Than Pure Tocotrienols at Improving Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in the Presence of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saher F. Ali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative endothelial dysfunction is a critical initiator of vascular disease. Vitamin E is an effective antioxidant but attempts to use it to treat vascular disorders have been disappointing. This study investigated whether tocotrienols, the less abundant components of vitamin E compared to tocopherols, might be more effective at preserving endothelial function. Superoxide generated by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase or rat aorta was measured using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. The effect of α-tocopherol, α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols and a tocotrienol rich palm oil extract (tocomin on levels of superoxide was assessed. Endothelial function in rat aorta was assessed in the presence of the auto-oxidant pyrogallol. Whilst all of the compounds displayed antioxidant activity, the tocotrienols were more effective when superoxide was produced by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase whereas tocomin and α-tocopherol were more effective in the isolated aorta. Tocomin and α-tocopherol restored endothelial function in the presence of oxidant stress but α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols were ineffective. The protective effect of tocomin was replicated when the tocotrienols were present with, but not without, α-tocopherol. Tocotrienol rich tocomin is more effective than α-tocopherol at reducing oxidative stress and restoring endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortae and although α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols effectively scavenged superoxide, they did not improve endothelial function.

  14. Tocotrienol Rich Palm Oil Extract Is More Effective Than Pure Tocotrienols at Improving Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in the Presence of Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Saher F.; Woodman, Owen L.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative endothelial dysfunction is a critical initiator of vascular disease. Vitamin E is an effective antioxidant but attempts to use it to treat vascular disorders have been disappointing. This study investigated whether tocotrienols, the less abundant components of vitamin E compared to tocopherols, might be more effective at preserving endothelial function. Superoxide generated by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase or rat aorta was measured using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. The effect of α-tocopherol, α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols and a tocotrienol rich palm oil extract (tocomin) on levels of superoxide was assessed. Endothelial function in rat aorta was assessed in the presence of the auto-oxidant pyrogallol. Whilst all of the compounds displayed antioxidant activity, the tocotrienols were more effective when superoxide was produced by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase whereas tocomin and α-tocopherol were more effective in the isolated aorta. Tocomin and α-tocopherol restored endothelial function in the presence of oxidant stress but α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols were ineffective. The protective effect of tocomin was replicated when the tocotrienols were present with, but not without, α-tocopherol. Tocotrienol rich tocomin is more effective than α-tocopherol at reducing oxidative stress and restoring endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortae and although α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols effectively scavenged superoxide, they did not improve endothelial function. PMID:26075031

  15. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and children's personality on externalizing behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P; Onghena, P; Hellinckx, W; Grietens, H; Ghesquiere, P; Colpin, H

    2003-01-01

    Parenting practices have been previously linked to childhood externalizing behaviour However little attention has been given to the potential effect of individual personality differences among children on this relation. The current study assesses the additive effects of children's personality

  16. The Relaxant Effect of Seed's Essential Oil and Oleo-Gum-Resin of Ferula Assa-Foetida on Isolated Rat's Ileum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Sm; Hejazian, Sh; Dashti-R, Mh

    2014-03-01

    In Iranian folk medicine, several plants are used for treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, such as diarrhea and spasm. One of these herbal medications are the essential oil yielded from seeds of Ferula assa-foetida L. and an oleo-gum-resin known as asafetida, which is exudated from its root. F. assa-foetida grows wildly in south and central mountains of Iran. In this study, relaxant effect of asafoetida and seed's essential oil of F. assa-foetida was investigated in isolated rat's ileum in three doses. A total of 5 cm of ileum was removed and sets for recording its isotonic contractions. The amplitude of contractions induced by different doses of asafoetida and essential oil before and after exposing the specimens with cumulative logarithmic concentrations of acetylcholine (Ach) was evaluated. The relaxant effect of asafoetida and seed's essential oil of F. assa-foetida was investigated in isolated rat's ileum in three doses (0.1 0.2 and 0.3%). All statistical analysis was by GraphPad Prism 5 (San Diego, California) and comparisons were made by means of the analysis of variances followed by Tukey's test. The statistical significance was considered as P essential oil has significant antispasmodic action against cumulative concentrations of 10(-12) up to 10(-2) M Ach. In spasmolytic evaluation, our findings showed that the essential oil derived from F. assa-foetida seed in concentrations of 0.2% and 0.3% significantly reduced Ach (10(-4) M) induced contractions. Exposure to the 0.2% and 0.3% asafoetida, reduced the percentage of maximum contraction induced by 10(-4) M Ach to 43% and 12% respectively, which this reduction was statistically significant. The results of the present study, supports the traditional claim of asafoetida as an antispasmodic therapeutic.

  17. Effects of music therapy and music-assisted relaxation and imagery on health-related outcomes in diabetes education: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Susan E; Davis, Beth A; Secic, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the feasibility study was to compare the effects of music-assisted relaxation and imagery, administered via compact disc recording (MARI CD) without therapeutic intervention, to the effects of music therapy (MT), facilitated by a board-certified music therapist, on selected health outcomes of patients enrolled in diabetes self-management education/training (DSME/T). A 3-group, parallel, randomized controlled trial with