Sample records for additive gene effects

  1. Additive effects of oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms on reward circuitry in youth with autism.

    Hernandez, L M; Krasileva, K; Green, S A; Sherman, L E; Ponting, C; McCarron, R; Lowe, J K; Geschwind, D H; Bookheimer, S Y; Dapretto, M


    Several common alleles in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) are associated with altered brain function in reward circuitry in neurotypical adults and may increase risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Yet, it is currently unknown how variation in the OXTR relates to brain functioning in individuals with ASD, and, critically, whether neural endophenotypes vary as a function of aggregate genetic risk. Here, for we believe the first time, we use a multi-locus approach to examine how genetic variation across several OXTR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affect functional connectivity of the brain's reward network. Using data from 41 children with ASD and 41 neurotypical children, we examined functional connectivity of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) - a hub of the reward network - focusing on how connectivity varies with OXTR risk-allele dosage. Youth with ASD showed reduced NAcc connectivity with other areas in the reward circuit as a function of increased OXTR risk-allele dosage, as well as a positive association between risk-allele dosage and symptom severity, whereas neurotypical youth showed increased NAcc connectivity with frontal brain regions involved in mentalizing. In addition, we found that increased NAcc-frontal cortex connectivity in typically developing youth was related to better scores on a standardized measure of social functioning. Our results indicate that cumulative genetic variation on the OXTR impacts reward system connectivity in both youth with ASD and neurotypical controls. By showing differential genetic effects on neuroendophenotypes, these pathways elucidate mechanisms of vulnerability versus resilience in carriers of disease-associated risk alleles.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 15 November 2016; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.209.

  2. Effects of dissolved oxygen concentration and iron addition on immediate-early gene expression of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1.

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Kasama, Takeshi; Workman, Mhairi; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro; Hobley, Timothy John


    We report the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and iron addition on gene expression of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 cells during fermentations, focusing on 0.25-24 h after iron addition. The DO was strictly controlled at 0.5% or 5% O2, and compared with aerobic condition. Uptake of iron (and formation of magnetosomes) was only observed in the 0.5% O2 condition where there was little difference in cell growth and carbon consumption compared to the 5% O2 condition. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis showed a rapid (within 0.25 h) genetic response of MSR-1 cells after iron addition for all the genes studied, except for MgFnr (oxygen sensor gene) and fur (ferric uptake regulator family gene), and which in some cases was oxygen dependent. In particular, expression of sodB1 (superoxide dismutase gene) and feoB1 (ferrous transport protein B1 gene) was markedly reduced in cultures at 0.5% O2 compared to those at higher oxygen tensions. Moreover, expression of katG (catalase-peroxidase gene) and feoB2 (ferrous transport protein B2 gene) was reduced markedly by iron addition, regardless of oxygen conditions. These data provide a greater understanding of molecular response of MSR-1 cells to environmental conditions associated with oxygen and iron metabolisms, especially relevant to immediate-early stage of fermentation. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  3. Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration and Iron Addition on Immediate-early Gene Expression of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Kasama, Takeshi


    iron addition for all the genes studied, except for MgFnr (oxygen sensor gene) and fur (ferric uptake regulator family gene), and which in some cases was oxygen-dependent. In particular, expression of sodB1 (superoxide dismutase gene) and feoB1 (ferrous transport protein B1 gene) were markedly reduced...... in cultures at 0.5% O2 compared to those at higher oxygen tensions. Moreover, expression of katG (catalase-peroxidase gene) and feoB2 (ferrous transport protein B2 gene) was reduced markedly by iron addition, regardless of oxygen conditions. The data provides a greater understanding of molecular response...

  4. Additive effect of mutations in LDLR and PCSK9 genes on the phenotype of familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Pisciotta, Livia; Priore Oliva, Claudio; Cefalù, Angelo Baldassare; Noto, Davide; Bellocchio, Antonella; Fresa, Raffaele; Cantafora, Alfredo; Patel, Dilip; Averna, Maurizio; Tarugi, Patrizia; Calandra, Sebastiano; Bertolini, Stefano


    Patients homozygous or compound heterozygous for LDLR mutations or double heterozygous for LDLR and apo B R3500Q mutation have higher LDL-C levels, more extensive xanthomatosis and more severe premature coronary disease (pCAD) than simple heterozygotes for mutations in either these genes or for missense mutations in PCSK9 gene. It is not known whether combined mutations in LDLR and PKCS9 are associated with such a severe phenotype. We sequenced Apo B and PCSK9 genes in two patients with the clinical diagnosis of homozygous FH who were heterozygous for LDLR gene mutations. Proband Z.P. (LDL-C 13.39 mmol/L and pCAD) was heterozygous for an LDLR mutation (p.E228K) inherited from her father (LDL-C 8.07 mmol/L) and a PCSK9 mutation (p.R496W) from her mother (LDL-C 5.58 mmol/L). Proband L.R. and her sister (LDL-C 11.51 and 10.47 mmol/L, xanthomatosis and carotid atherosclerosis) were heterozygous for an LDLR mutation (p.Y419X) inherited from their mother (LDL-C 6.54 mmol/L) and a PCSK9 mutation (p.N425S) probably from their deceased father. The LDL-C levels in double heterozygotes of these two families were 56 and 44% higher than those found in simple heterozygotes for the two LDLR mutations, respectively. The two PCSK9 mutations are novel and were not found in 110 controls and 80 patients with co-dominant hypercholesterolemia. These observations indicate that rare missense mutations of PCSK9 may worsen the clinical phenotype of patients carrying LDLR mutations.

  5. Applied the additive hazard model to predict the survival time of patient with diffuse large B- cell lymphoma and determine the effective genes, using microarray data

    Arefa Jafarzadeh Kohneloo


    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have shown that effective genes on survival time of cancer patients play an important role as a risk factor or preventive factor. Present study was designed to determine effective genes on survival time for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients and predict the survival time using these selected genes. Materials & Methods: Present study is a cohort study was conducted on 40 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. For these patients, 2042 gene expression was measured. In order to predict the survival time, the composition of the semi-parametric additive survival model with two gene selection methods elastic net and lasso were used. Two methods were evaluated by plotting area under the ROC curve over time and calculating the integral of this curve. Results: Based on our findings, the elastic net method identified 10 genes, and Lasso-Cox method identified 7 genes. GENE3325X increased the survival time (P=0.006, Whereas GENE3980X and GENE377X reduced the survival time (P=0.004. These three genes were selected as important genes in both methods. Conclusion: This study showed that the elastic net method outperformed the common Lasso method in terms of predictive power. Moreover, apply the additive model instead Cox regression and using microarray data is usable way for predict the survival time of patients.

  6. Effect of red mud addition on tetracycline and copper resistance genes and microbial community during the full scale swine manure composting.

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Wan, Hefeng; Tong, Juan; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong; Wei, Dongbin


    Swine manure has been considered as the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Composting is one of the most suitable technologies for treating livestock manures, and red mud was proved to have a positive effect on nitrogen conservation during composting. This study investigated the abundance of eight tetracycline and three copper resistance genes, the bacterial community during the full scale swine manure composting with or without addition of red mud. The results showed that ARGs in swine manure could be effectively removed through composting (reduced by 2.4log copies/g TS), especially during the thermophilic phase (reduced by 1.5log copies/g TS), which the main contributor might be temperature. Additionally, evolution of bacterial community could also have a great influence on ARGs. Although addition of red mud could enhance nitrogen conservation, it obviously hindered removal of ARGs (reduced by 1.7log copies/g TS) and affected shaping of bacterial community during composting.

  7. Additive estrogenic effects of mixtures of frequently used UV filters on pS2-gene transcription in MCF-7 cells.

    Heneweer, Marjoke; Muusse, Martine; van den Berg, Martin; Sanderson, J Thomas


    In order to protect consumers from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and enhance light stability of the product, three to eight UV filters are usually added to consumer sunscreen products. High lipophilicity of the UV filters has been shown to cause bioaccumulation in fish and humans, leading to environmental levels of UV filters that are similar to those of PCBs and DDT. In this paper, estrogen-regulated pS2 gene transcription in the human mammary tumor cell line MCF-7 was used as a measure of estrogenicity of four individual UV filters. Since humans are exposed to more than one UV filter at a time, an equipotent binary mixture of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone (BP-3) and its metabolite 2,4-dihydroxy benzophenone (BP-1), as well as an equipotent multi-component mixture of BP-1, BP-3, octyl methoxy cinnamate (OMC) and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), were also evaluated for their ability to induce pS2 gene transcription in order to examine additivity. An estrogen receptor-mediated mechanism of action was expected for all UV filters. Therefore, our null-hypothesis was that combined estrogenic responses, measured as increased pS2 gene transcription in MCF-7 cells after exposure to mixtures of UV filters, are additive, according to a concentration-addition model. Not all UV filters produced a full concentration-response curve within the concentration range tested (100 nM-1 microM). Therefore, instead of using EC50 values for comparison, the concentration at which each compound caused a 50% increase of basal pS2 gene transcription was defined as the C50 value for that compound and used to calculate relative potencies. For comparison, the EC50 value of a compound is the concentration at which the compound elicits an effect that is 50% of its maximal effect. Individual UV filters increased pS2 gene transcription concentration-dependently with C50 values of 0.12 microM, 0.5 microM, 1.9 microM, and 1.0 microM for BP-1, BP-3, 4-MBC and OMC, respectively. Estradiol (E2

  8. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Regulator-Encoding Genes Have an Additive Effect on Virulence Gene Expression in a Vibrio cholerae Clinical Isolate.

    Carignan, Bailey M; Brumfield, Kyle D; Son, Mike S


    Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the infectious disease cholera, which is characterized by vomiting and severe watery diarrhea. Recently, V. cholerae clinical isolates have demonstrated increased virulence capabilities, causing more severe symptoms with a much higher rate of disease progression than previously observed. We have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four virulence-regulatory genes (hapR, hns, luxO, and vieA) of a hypervirulent V. cholerae clinical isolate, MQ1795. Herein, all SNPs and SNP combinations of interest were introduced into the prototypical El Tor reference strain N16961, and the effects on the production of numerous virulence-related factors, including cholera toxin (CT), the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), and ToxT, were analyzed. Our data show that triple-SNP (hapR hns luxO and hns luxO vieA) and quadruple-SNP combinations produced the greatest increases in CT, TCP, and ToxT production. The hns and hns luxO SNP combinations were sufficient for increased TCP and ToxT production. Notably, the hns luxO vieA triple-SNP combination strain produced TCP and ToxT levels similar to those of MQ1795. Certain SNP combinations (hapR and hapR vieA) had the opposite effect on CT, TCP, and ToxT expression. Interestingly, the hns vieA double-SNP combination strain increased TCP production while decreasing CT production. Our findings suggest that SNPs identified in the four regulatory genes, in various combinations, are associated with increased virulence capabilities observed in V. cholerae clinical isolates. These studies provide insight into the evolution of highly virulent strains. IMPORTANCE Cholera, an infectious disease of the small intestine caused by the aquatic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, often results in vomiting and acute watery diarrhea. If left untreated or if the response is too slow, the symptoms can quickly lead to extreme dehydration and ultimately death of the patient. Recent anecdotal evidence of cholera

  9. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Regulator-Encoding Genes Have an Additive Effect on Virulence Gene Expression in a Vibrio cholerae Clinical Isolate

    Carignan, Bailey M.; Brumfield, Kyle D.


    ABSTRACT Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the infectious disease cholera, which is characterized by vomiting and severe watery diarrhea. Recently, V. cholerae clinical isolates have demonstrated increased virulence capabilities, causing more severe symptoms with a much higher rate of disease progression than previously observed. We have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four virulence-regulatory genes (hapR, hns, luxO, and vieA) of a hypervirulent V. cholerae clinical isolate, MQ1795. Herein, all SNPs and SNP combinations of interest were introduced into the prototypical El Tor reference strain N16961, and the effects on the production of numerous virulence-related factors, including cholera toxin (CT), the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), and ToxT, were analyzed. Our data show that triple-SNP (hapR hns luxO and hns luxO vieA) and quadruple-SNP combinations produced the greatest increases in CT, TCP, and ToxT production. The hns and hns luxO SNP combinations were sufficient for increased TCP and ToxT production. Notably, the hns luxO vieA triple-SNP combination strain produced TCP and ToxT levels similar to those of MQ1795. Certain SNP combinations (hapR and hapR vieA) had the opposite effect on CT, TCP, and ToxT expression. Interestingly, the hns vieA double-SNP combination strain increased TCP production while decreasing CT production. Our findings suggest that SNPs identified in the four regulatory genes, in various combinations, are associated with increased virulence capabilities observed in V. cholerae clinical isolates. These studies provide insight into the evolution of highly virulent strains. IMPORTANCE Cholera, an infectious disease of the small intestine caused by the aquatic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, often results in vomiting and acute watery diarrhea. If left untreated or if the response is too slow, the symptoms can quickly lead to extreme dehydration and ultimately death of the patient. Recent anecdotal evidence of

  10. The effect of nitrate addition on abundance of nirK, nirS and gln genes in acidified Norway spruce forest soil

    Bárta, Jiří; Tahovská, Karolina; Kaåa, Jiří; Antrå¯Čková, Hana Å.


    The denitrification is the main biotic process leading to loses of fixed nitrogen as well as removal of excess of nitrate (NO3-) from the soil environment. The reduction of NO2- to nitric oxide (NO) distinguishes the 'true' denitrifiers from other nitrate-respiring bacteria. This reaction is catalyzed by two different types of nitrite reductases, either a cytochrome cd1 encoded by nirS gene (nirS denitrifiers) or a Cu-containing enzyme encoded by nirK gene (nirK denitrifiers). The nirS denitrifiers are located mostly in rhizosphere, while the nirK denitrifiers are more abundant in bulk soil. These two groups can be also classified as markers of denitrification. Glutamine synthetase is one of the main bacterial NH4+ assimilating enzymes; it is coded by glnI gene. Glutamine synthetase is mostly active when N is the limiting factor for bacterial growth. There is recent evidence that the activity may be affected by the presence of alternative N source (i.e. NO3-). However, in anaerobic condition NO3- can be used also by the denitrifying bacteria so there may be strong competition for this nutrient. The laboratory experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of nitrates (NO3-) on abundance of nirK, nirS and gln gene copy numbers. The amount of NO3- corresponded to the actual atmospheric depositions on experimental sites in the Bohemian Forest. Litter organic layer (0-5cm of soil) was used for laboratory incubation experiment. Four replicates of control (no addition of NO3-), and NO3-addition were incubated anaerobically for one month. After the incubation DNA was extracted and the number of nirK, nirS and gln gene copies was determined using qPCR (SYBRGreen methodology). Results showed that the addition of NO3- significantly increased the number of nirK and nirS denitrifiers from 5.9x106 to 1.1x107 and from not detectable amount to 1.4x106, respectively. The gln gene copy number was also higher after NO3-addition. However, the difference was not statistically

  11. Clinical effects of sulphite additives.

    Vally, H; Misso, N L A; Madan, V


    Sulphites are widely used as preservative and antioxidant additives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Topical, oral or parenteral exposure to sulphites has been reported to induce a range of adverse clinical effects in sensitive individuals, ranging from dermatitis, urticaria, flushing, hypotension, abdominal pain and diarrhoea to life-threatening anaphylactic and asthmatic reactions. Exposure to the sulphites arises mainly from the consumption of foods and drinks that contain these additives; however, exposure may also occur through the use of pharmaceutical products, as well as in occupational settings. While contact sensitivity to sulphite additives in topical medications is increasingly being recognized, skin reactions also occur after ingestion of or parenteral exposure to sulphites. Most studies report a 3-10% prevalence of sulphite sensitivity among asthmatic subjects following ingestion of these additives. However, the severity of these reactions varies, and steroid-dependent asthmatics, those with marked airway hyperresponsiveness, and children with chronic asthma, appear to be at greater risk. In addition to episodic and acute symptoms, sulphites may also contribute to chronic skin and respiratory symptoms. To date, the mechanisms underlying sulphite sensitivity remain unclear, although a number of potential mechanisms have been proposed. Physicians should be aware of the range of clinical manifestations of sulphite sensitivity, as well as the potential sources of exposure. Minor modifications to diet or behaviour lead to excellent clinical outcomes for sulphite-sensitive individuals.

  12. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    Hughes, John R.


    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  13. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui


    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  14. Additive effect of polymorphisms in the β2 -adrenoceptor and NADPH oxidase p22 phox genes contributes to the loss of estimated glomerular filtration rate in Chinese.

    Wang, Tao; Zhang, Yan; Ma, JingTao; Feng, Zhen; Niu, Kai; Liu, Bing


    Because increased oxidative stress may mediate the detrimental actions of enhanced sympathetic nervous activity on renal function and vice versa, we investigated the effect of the polymorphic Arg16Gly in the β2 -adrenoceptor (ADRB2) gene, Trp64Arg in the β3 -adrenoceptor (ADRB3) gene and C242T in the NADPH oxidase p22phox (CYBA) gene on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in a Chinese population. Initially recruited from different outpatient services of HeBei General Hospital in northern China, 668 individuals were finally included in the study, with complete demographic information. Laboratory tests were performed and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was derived from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation for the Chinese population. Plasma noradrenaline levels and genotype were determined by HPLC and the TaqMan method, respectively. Only across the Arg16Gly polymorphism did eGFR show significant difference: it was lower in individuals with the Gly16Gly variation, who also had the highest plasma noradrenaline levels. This polymorphism remained a significant determinant of eGFR after multivariate analysis. Of importance, the multifactor dimensionality reduction method further detected a significant synergism between the Arg16Gly and C242T polymorphisms in reducing eGFR. These observations clarify the effects of the studied polymorphisms on eGFR and exemplify gene-gene interactions influencing renal function.

  15. New frontiers in the therapy of primary immunodeficiency: From gene addition to gene editing.

    Kohn, Donald B; Kuo, Caroline Y


    The most severe primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDs) have been successfully treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for more than 4 decades. However, such transplantations have the best outcomes when there is a well-matched donor available because immune complications, such as graft-versus-host disease, are greater without a matched sibling donor. Gene therapy has been developed as a method to perform autologous transplantations of a patient's own stem cells that are genetically corrected. Through an iterative bench-to-bedside-and-back process, methods to efficiently add new copies of the relevant gene to hematopoietic stem cells have led to safe and effective treatments for several PIDs, including forms of severe combined immune deficiency, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and chronic granulomatous disease. New methods for gene editing might allow additional PIDs to be treated by gene therapy because they will allow the endogenous gene to be repaired and expressed under its native regulatory elements, which are essential for genes involved in cell processes of signaling, activation, and proliferation. Gene therapy is providing exciting new treatment options for patients with PIDs, and advances are sure to continue.

  16. Addition of fish oil to diets for dairy cows. II. Effects on milk fat and gene expression of mammary lipogenic enzymes.

    Ahnadi, Charaf E; Beswick, Naomi; Delbecchi, Louis; Kennelly, John J; Lacasse, Pierre


    Sixteen Holstein cows in mid-lactation were used to determine whether alterations of mammary fatty acid metabolism are responsible for the milk fat depression associated with consumption of fish oil. Cows were given a total mixed ration with no added fish oil (control), unprotected fish oil (3.7 % of dry matter), or glutaraldehyde-protected microcapsules of fish oil (1.5% or 3.0% of dry matter) for 4 weeks. Milk samples were taken once a week and a mammary biopsy was taken from a rear quarter at the end of the treatment period. Milk fat content was lower in cows given unprotected fish oil (26.0 g/kg), 1.5% protected fish oil (24.6 g/kg) and 3% protected fish oil (20.4 g/kg) than in cows fed the control diet (36.0 g/kg). This was mainly due to a decrease in the synthesis of short-chain fatty acids. Consumption of protected fish oil decreased the abundance of lipogenic enzymes mRNA in the mammary gland. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase mRNAs for cows given 3% protected fish oil averaged only 30%, 25% and 25% of control values, respectively. Dietary addition of unprotected fish oil slightly decreased mRNA abundance of these enzymes but markedly reduced the amount of lipoprotein lipase mRNA. Milk fat content was significantly correlated with gene expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase but not lipoprotein lipase. These results suggest that fish oil reduces milk fat percentage by inhibiting gene expression of mammary lipogenic enzymes.

  17. STAT4 Associates with SLE Through Two Independent Effects that Correlate with Gene Expression and Act Additively with IRF5 to Increase Risk

    Abelson, Anna-Karin; Delgado-Vega, Angélica M.; Kozyrev, Sergey V.; Sánchez, Elena; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Eriksson, Niclas; Wojcik, Jerome; Reddy, Prasad Linga; Lima, Guadalupe; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Migliaresi, Sergio; Baca, Vicente; Orozco, Lorena; Witte, Torsten; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Abderrahim, Hadi; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Suárez, Ana; González-Escribano, Maria Francisca; Martin, Javier; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.


    Objectives To confirm and define the genetic association of STAT4 and systemic lupus erythematosus, investigate the possibility of correlations with differential splicing and/or expression levels, and genetic interaction with IRF5. Methods 30 tag SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of Spanish cases and controls. SNPs surviving correction for multiple tests were genotyped in 5 new sets of cases and controls for replication. STAT4 cDNA was analyzed by 5’-RACE PCR and sequencing. Expression levels were measured by quantitative PCR. Results In the fine-mapping, four SNPs were significant after correction for multiple testing, with rs3821236 and rs3024866 as the strongest signals, followed by the previously associated rs7574865, and by rs1467199. Association was replicated in all cohorts. After conditional regression analyses, two major independent signals represented by SNPs rs3821236 and rs7574865, remained significant across the sets. These SNPs belong to separate haplotype blocks. High levels of STAT4 expression correlated with SNPs rs3821236, rs3024866 (both in the same haplotype block) and rs7574865 but not with other SNPs. We also detected transcription of alternative tissue-specific exons 1, indicating presence of tissue-specific promoters of potential importance in the expression of STAT4. No interaction with associated SNPs of IRF5 was observed using regression analysis. Conclusions These data confirm STAT4 as a susceptibility gene for SLE and suggest the presence of at least two functional variants affecting levels of STAT4. Our results also indicate that both genes STAT4 and IRF5 act additively to increase risk for SLE. PMID:19019891

  18. Effects of Addition of Linseed and Marine Algae to the Diet on Adipose Tissue Development, Fatty Acid Profile, Lipogenic Gene Expression, and Meat Quality in Lambs.

    Urrutia, Olaia; Mendizabal, José Antonio; Insausti, Kizkitza; Soret, Beatriz; Purroy, Antonio; Arana, Ana


    This study examined the effect of linseed and algae on growth and carcass parameters, adipocyte cellularity, fatty acid profile and meat quality and gene expression in subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissues (AT) in lambs. After weaning, 33 lambs were fed three diets up to 26.7 ± 0.3 kg: Control diet (barley and soybean); L diet (barley, soybean and 10% linseed) and L-A diet (barley, soybean, 5% linseed and 3.89% algae). Lambs fed L-A diet showed lower average daily gain and greater slaughter age compared to Control and L (P algae increased α-linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid contents in both AT (P Algae had adverse effects on meat quality, with greater lipid oxidation and reduced ratings for odor and flavor. The expression of lipogenic genes was downregulated in the subcutaneous AT (P < 0.05): acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACACA) in L and L-A and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) in L-A. Fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1), fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS2) and fatty acid elongase 5 (ELOVL5) were unaffected. In the subcutaneous AT, supplementing either L or L-A increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) and CAAT-enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPA) (P < 0.05), although it had no effect on sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1 (SREBF1). In the intramuscular AT, expression of ACACA, SCD, FADS1 and FADS2 decreased in L and L-A (P < 0.001) and LPL in L (P < 0.01), but PPARG, CEBPA and SREBF1 were unaffected.

  19. Polygenic inheritance of Tourette syndrome, stuttering, attention deficit hyperactivity, conduct, and oppositional defiant disorder: The additive and subtractive effect of the three dopaminergic genes - DRD2, D{beta}H, and DAT1

    Comings, D.E.; Wu, S.; Chiu, C.; Ring, R.H.; Gade, R.; Ahn, C.; Dietz, G.; Muhleman, D. [Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)] [and others


    Polymorphisms of three different dopaminergic genes, dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (DRD2), dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase (D{beta}H), and dopamine transporter (DAT1), were examined in Tourette syndrome (TS) probands, their relatives, and controls. Each gene individually showed a significant correlation with various behavioral variables in these subjects. The additive and subtractive effects of the three genes were examined by genotyping all three genes in the same set of subjects. For 9 of 20 TS associated comorbid behaviors there was a significant linear association between the degree of loading for markers of three genes and the mean behavior scores. The behavior variables showing the significant associations were, in order, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stuttering, oppositional defiant, tics, conduct, obsessive-compulsive, mania, alcohol abuse, and general anxiety - behaviors that constitute the most overt clinical aspects of TS. For 16 of the 20 behavior scores there was a linear progressive decrease in the mean score with progressively lesser loading for the three gene markers. These results suggest that TS, ADHD, stuttering, oppositional defiant and conduct disorder, and other behaviors associated with TS, are polygenic, due in part to these three dopaminergic genes, and that the genetics of other polygenic psychiatric disorders may be deciphered using this technique. 144 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. Additive effect of polymorphisms in the IL-6, LTA, and TNF-{alpha} genes and plasma fatty acid level modulate risk for the metabolic syndrome and its components


    Context: Cytokine polymorphisms and dietary fat composition may influence the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between lymphotoxin-α (LTA), TNF-α, and IL-6 gene polymorphisms with MetS risk and investigate whether plasma fatty acid composition, a biomarker of dietary fat intake, modulated these associations. Design: Polymorphisms (LTA rs915654, TNF-α rs1800629, IL-6 rs1800797), biochemical measurements, and plasma f...

  1. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina


    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference.

  2. DNA-energetics-based analyses suggest additional genes in prokaryotes

    Garima Khandelwal; Jalaj Gupta; B Jayaram


    We present here a novel methodology for predicting new genes in prokaryotic genomes on the basis of inherent energetics of DNA. Regions of higher thermodynamic stability were identified, which were filtered based on already known annotations to yield a set of potentially new genes. These were then processed for their compatibility with the stereo-chemical properties of proteins and tripeptide frequencies of proteins in Swissprot data, which results in a reliable set of new genes in a genome. Quite surprisingly, the methodology identifies new genes even in well-annotated genomes. Also, the methodology can handle genomes of any GC-content, size and number of annotated genes.

  3. Sintering of magnesia: effect of additives

    Satyananda Behera; Ritwik Sarkar


    Effect of different additives, namely Cr2O3, Fe2O3 and TiO2, up to 2 wt% was studied on the sintering and microstructural developments of the chemically pure magnesia using the pressureless sintering technique between 1500 and 1600° C. Sintering was evaluated by per cent densification and microstructural developments were studied by electron microscopy and elemental distribution of the additives in the sintered products was also investigated for their distribution in the matrix. Cr2O3 and TiO2 were found to deteriorate the densification associated with grain growth. Fe2O3 was found to improve the densification and well-compacted grain distribution was observed in the microstructure.

  4. Deoxynivalenol impairs hepatic and intestinal gene expression of selected oxidative stress, tight junction and inflammation proteins in broiler chickens, but addition of an adsorbing agent shifts the effects to the distal parts of the small intestine.

    Osselaere, Ann; Santos, Regiane; Hautekiet, Veerle; De Backer, Patrick; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska


    Broiler chickens are rather resistant to deoxynivalenol and thus, clinical signs are rarely seen. However, effects of subclinical concentrations of deoxynivalenol on both the intestine and the liver are less frequently studied at the molecular level. During our study, we investigated the effects of three weeks of feeding deoxynivalenol on the gut wall morphology, intestinal barrier function and inflammation in broiler chickens. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated in both the liver and intestine. Besides, the effect of a clay-based mycotoxin adsorbing agent on these different aspects was also studied. Our results show that feeding deoxynivalenol affects the gut wall morphology both in duodenum and jejenum of broiler chickens. A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that deoxynivalenol acts in a very specific way on the intestinal barrier, since only an up-regulation in mRNA expression of claudin 5 in jejunum was observed, while no effects were seen on claudin 1, zona occludens 1 and 2. Addition of an adsorbing agent resulted in an up-regulation of all the investigated genes coding for the intestinal barrier in the ileum. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 and two markers of oxidative stress (heme-oxigenase or HMOX and xanthine oxidoreductase or XOR) were mainly seen in the jejunum and to a lesser extent in the ileum in response to deoxynivalenol, while in combination with an adsorbing agent main effect was seen in the ileum. These results suggest that an adsorbing agent may lead to higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol in the more distal parts of the small intestine. In the liver, XOR was up-regulated due to DON exposure. HMOX and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) were down-regulated due to feeding DON but also due to feeding the adsorbing agent alone or in combination with DON.

  5. Versatility of cooperative transcriptional activation: a thermodynamical modeling analysis for greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects.

    Till D Frank

    Full Text Available We derive a statistical model of transcriptional activation using equilibrium thermodynamics of chemical reactions. We examine to what extent this statistical model predicts synergy effects of cooperative activation of gene expression. We determine parameter domains in which greater-than-additive and less-than-additive effects are predicted for cooperative regulation by two activators. We show that the statistical approach can be used to identify different causes of synergistic greater-than-additive effects: nonlinearities of the thermostatistical transcriptional machinery and three-body interactions between RNA polymerase and two activators. In particular, our model-based analysis suggests that at low transcription factor concentrations cooperative activation cannot yield synergistic greater-than-additive effects, i.e., DNA transcription can only exhibit less-than-additive effects. Accordingly, transcriptional activity turns from synergistic greater-than-additive responses at relatively high transcription factor concentrations into less-than-additive responses at relatively low concentrations. In addition, two types of re-entrant phenomena are predicted. First, our analysis predicts that under particular circumstances transcriptional activity will feature a sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and eventually less-than-additive effects when for fixed activator concentrations the regulatory impact of activators on the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter increases from weak, to moderate, to strong. Second, for appropriate promoter conditions when activator concentrations are increased then the aforementioned re-entrant sequence of less-than-additive, greater-than-additive, and less-than-additive effects is predicted as well. Finally, our model-based analysis suggests that even for weak activators that individually induce only negligible increases in promoter activity, promoter activity can exhibit greater-than-additive

  6. cis sequence effects on gene expression

    Jacobs Kevin


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence and transcriptional variability within and between individuals are typically studied independently. The joint analysis of sequence and gene expression variation (genetical genomics provides insight into the role of linked sequence variation in the regulation of gene expression. We investigated the role of sequence variation in cis on gene expression (cis sequence effects in a group of genes commonly studied in cancer research in lymphoblastoid cell lines. We estimated the proportion of genes exhibiting cis sequence effects and the proportion of gene expression variation explained by cis sequence effects using three different analytical approaches, and compared our results to the literature. Results We generated gene expression profiling data at N = 697 candidate genes from N = 30 lymphoblastoid cell lines for this study and used available candidate gene resequencing data at N = 552 candidate genes to identify N = 30 candidate genes with sufficient variance in both datasets for the investigation of cis sequence effects. We used two additive models and the haplotype phylogeny scanning approach of Templeton (Tree Scanning to evaluate association between individual SNPs, all SNPs at a gene, and diplotypes, with log-transformed gene expression. SNPs and diplotypes at eight candidate genes exhibited statistically significant (p cis sequence effects in our study, respectively. Conclusion Based on analysis of our results and the extant literature, one in four genes exhibits significant cis sequence effects, and for these genes, about 30% of gene expression variation is accounted for by cis sequence variation. Despite diverse experimental approaches, the presence or absence of significant cis sequence effects is largely supported by previously published studies.

  7. Rosiglitazone and Fenofibrate Additive Effects on Lipids

    Ahmad Slim


    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the effect of rosiglitazone, fenofibrate, or their combined use on plasma lipids in normoglycemic healthy adults. Methods and Results. Subjects were randomized in a double-blind fashion to rosiglitazone + placebo, fenofibrate + placebo, rosiglitazone + fenofibrate, or matching double placebo. The between-group difference in the change in fasting TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-C, and plasma apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and C-III level were compared after 12 weeks of treatment. A total of 548 subjects were screened and 41 met the inclusion criteria. After 12 weeks of therapy, the median change in the triglyceride levels showed a significant reduction ranging from 47 to 55 mg per deciliter in the fenofibrate only and rosiglitazone/fenofibrate groups compared with placebo (=0.0496. However, the rosiglitazone only group did not show significant change in triglyceride level. The change in the Apo AII showed increase in all the treatment groups compared with placebo (=0.009. There was also significant change in the Apo CIII that showed reduction of its level in the fenofibrate only and rosiglitazone/fenofibrate groups (=0.0003. Conclusion. Rosiglitazone does not appear to modulate hypertriglyceridemia in patients with elevated triglycerides independent of glucose metabolism.

  8. Expression QTL analysis of top loci from GWAS meta-analysis highlights additional schizophrenia candidate genes.

    de Jong, Simone; van Eijk, Kristel R; Zeegers, Dave W L H; Strengman, Eric; Janson, Esther; Veldink, Jan H; van den Berg, Leonard H; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Boks, Marco P M; Ophoff, Roel A


    There is genetic evidence that schizophrenia is a polygenic disorder with a large number of loci of small effect on disease susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia have had limited success, with the best finding at the MHC locus at chromosome 6p. A recent effort of the Psychiatric GWAS consortium (PGC) yielded five novel loci for schizophrenia. In this study, we aim to highlight additional schizophrenia susceptibility loci from the PGC study by combining the top association findings from the discovery stage (9394 schizophrenia cases and 12 462 controls) with expression QTLs (eQTLs) and differential gene expression in whole blood of schizophrenia patients and controls. We examined the 6192 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significance threshold at Pschizophrenia cases and controls (n=202). After correction for multiple testing, the eQTL analysis yielded 40 significant cis-acting effects of the SNPs. Seven of these transcripts show differential expression between cases and controls. Of these, the effect of three genes (RNF5, TRIM26 and HLA-DRB3) coincided with the direction expected from meta-analysis findings and were all located within the MHC region. Our results identify new genes of interest and highlight again the involvement of the MHC region in schizophrenia susceptibility.

  9. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    Lenz, Tobias L; Deutsch, Aaron J; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W J; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P; Nöthen, Markus M; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E; Tsoi, Lam C; van Heel, David A; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T; Gregersen, Peter K; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya


    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer substantial risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen-binding repertoires between a heterozygote's two expressed HLA variants might result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested the

  10. Additive susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes conferred by HLA-DQB1 and insulin genes.

    She, J X; Bui, M M; Tian, X H; Muir, A; Wakeland, E K; Zorovich, B; Zhang, L P; Liu, M C; Thomson, G; Maclaren, N K


    Several genomic polymorphisms at the insulin (INS) gene and its flanking regions were analyzed in 197 unrelated Caucasian patients affected by insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) and 159 ethnically matched, normal controls ascertained from the South-Eastern United States. We found that the frequency of homozygotes for the common variant at the insulin gene was significantly increased in the diabetic population (RR = 2.0, p INS gene. We determined the HLA-DQB1 genotypes by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and/or sequence-specific primers (SSP) techniques to assess the possible interactions between INS and HLA. DQB1*0302 had the strongest predisposing effect on IDDM susceptibility (RR = 9.3) and DQB1*0602 the strongest protective effect (RR = 0.02). However, a significant predisposing effect of DQB1*0201 could be demonstrated only after removal of the effects of DQB1*0302 and DQB1*0602. Analyses of the genotypes revealed that all genotypes containing 0602 were protective and that the heterozygous genotype 0201/0302 and homozygous genotype 0302/0302 confer the highest risk (RR = 20.9 and 12.9 respectively). However, heterozygous genotypes 0302/X (X excludes 0201, 0302 and 0602) have a significantly lower predisposing risk. Similarly, there is heterogeneity in risk between predisposing 0201/0201 homozygous individuals and protective 0201/X individuals. When subjects were stratified by HLA genotypes, the relative risks conferred by INS did not vary, thus suggesting that the susceptibility effects conferred by HLA and INS are additive rather than interactive.

  11. Inverse gene-for-gene interactions contribute additively to tan spot susceptibility in wheat

    Tan spot of wheat, caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis, is an important disease in almost all wheat-growing areas of the world. The disease system is known to involve at least three fungal-produced necrotrophic effectors (NEs) that interact with corresponding host sensitivity (S) genes in an inv...

  12. The effect of genetic drift on the variance/covariance components generated by multilocus additive x additive epistatic systems.

    López-Fanjul, Carlos; Fernández, Almudena; Toro, Miguel A


    The effect of population bottlenecks on the components of the genetic variance/covariance generated by n neutral independent additive x additive loci has been studied theoretically. In its simplest version, this situation can be modelled by specifying the allele frequencies and homozygous effects at each locus, and an additional factor measuring the strength of the n-th order epistatic interaction. The variance/covariance components in an infinitely large panmictic population (ancestral components) were compared with their expected values at equilibrium over replicates randomly derived from the base population, after t bottlenecks of size N (derived components). Formulae were obtained giving the derived components (and the between-line variance) as functions of the ancestral ones (alternatively, in terms of allele frequencies and effects) and the corresponding inbreeding coefficient F(t). The n-th order derived component of the genetic variance/covariance is continuously eroded by inbreeding, but the remaining components may increase initially until a critical F(t) value is attained, which is inversely related to the order of the pertinent component, and subsequently decline to zero. These changes can be assigned to the between-line variances/covariances of gene substitution and epistatic effects induced by drift. Numerical examples indicate that: (1) the derived additive variance/covariance component will generally exceed its ancestral value unless epistasis is weak; (2) the derived epistatic variance/covariance components will generally exceed their ancestral values unless allele frequencies are extreme; (3) for systems showing equal ancestral additive and total non-additive variance/covariance components, those including a smaller number of epistatic loci may generate a larger excess in additive variance/covariance after bottlenecks than others involving a larger number of loci, provided that F(t) is low. Our results indicate that it is unlikely that the rate of

  13. Effectiveness of Low Temperature Additives for Biodiesel Blends



  14. Gene-Environment Interactions in Stress Response Contribute Additively to a Genotype-Environment Interaction.

    Takeshi Matsui


    Full Text Available How combinations of gene-environment interactions collectively give rise to genotype-environment interactions is not fully understood. To shed light on this problem, we genetically dissected an environment-specific poor growth phenotype in a cross of two budding yeast strains. This phenotype is detectable when certain segregants are grown on ethanol at 37°C ('E37', a condition that differs from the standard culturing environment in both its carbon source (ethanol as opposed to glucose and temperature (37°C as opposed to 30°C. Using recurrent backcrossing with phenotypic selection, we identified 16 contributing loci. To examine how these loci interact with each other and the environment, we focused on a subset of four loci that together can lead to poor growth in E37. We measured the growth of all 16 haploid combinations of alleles at these loci in all four possible combinations of carbon source (ethanol or glucose and temperature (30 or 37°C in a nearly isogenic population. This revealed that the four loci act in an almost entirely additive manner in E37. However, we also found that these loci have weaker effects when only carbon source or temperature is altered, suggesting that their effect magnitudes depend on the severity of environmental perturbation. Consistent with such a possibility, cloning of three causal genes identified factors that have unrelated functions in stress response. Thus, our results indicate that polymorphisms in stress response can show effects that are intensified by environmental stress, thereby resulting in major genotype-environment interactions when multiple of these variants co-occur.

  15. Non-additive gene regulation in a citrus allotetraploid somatic hybrid between C. reticulata Blanco and C. limon (L.) Burm.

    Bassene, J B; Froelicher, Y; Dubois, C; Ferrer, R M; Navarro, L; Ollitrault, P; Ancillo, G


    Polyploid plants often produce new phenotypes, exceeding the range of variability existing in the diploid gene pool. Several hundred citrus allotetraploid hybrids have been created by somatic hybridization. These genotypes are interesting models to study the immediate effects of allopolyploidization on the regulation of gene expression. Here, we report genome-wide gene expression analysis in fruit pulp of a Citrus interspecific somatic allotetraploid between C. reticulata cv 'Willowleaf mandarin'+C. limon cv 'Eureka lemon', using a Citrus 20K cDNA microarray. Around 4% transcriptome divergence was observed between the two parental species, and 212 and 160 genes were more highly expressed in C. reticulata and C. limon, respectively. Differential expression of certain genes was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. A global downregulation of the allotetraploid hybrid transcriptome was observed, as compared with a theoretical mid parent, for the genes displaying interspecific expression divergence between C. reticulata and C. limon. The genes underexpressed in mandarin, as compared with lemon, were also systematically repressed in the allotetraploid. When genes were overexpressed in C. reticulata compared with C. limon, the distribution of allotetraploid gene expression was far more balanced. Cluster analysis on the basis of gene expression clearly indicated the hybrid was much closer to C. reticulata than to C. limon. These results suggest there is a global dominance of the mandarin transcriptome, in consistence with our previous studies on aromatic compounds and proteomics. Interspecific differentiation of gene expression and non-additive gene regulation involved various biological pathways and different cellular components.

  16. Effects of Chinese Herb Additive on the Pork Quality-related Gene Expression%中药添加剂对猪肉相关基因表达量的影响

    胡广英; 曹日亮; 赵娟; 于纪宾; 孟冬霞; 任杰; 武果桃; 车向荣; 夏燕婷


    为研究复方中药对猪肉品质的影响,选择体重约15 kg的杜长大三元杂种猪72头,按体重和性别随机分为4个处理,每个处理3个重复,每个重复6头猪。对照组饲喂基础饲粮;抗生素组在生长猪每吨饲粮中添加金霉素50 g、肥育猪每吨饲粮中添加牛至油15 g;中药Ⅰ组在基础饲粮中添加1%中药配方Ⅰ;中药Ⅱ组在基础饲粮中添加1%中药配方Ⅱ。饲养试验预试期15 d,正试期120 d。结果表明,H-FABP基因表达量,3个试验组均极显著高于对照组(P<0.01)。CAST基因表达量,抗生素组是对照组的85%(P<0.01),中药Ⅰ组是对照组的1.10倍(P<0.01),中药Ⅱ组是对照组的1.24倍(P<0.01)。LPL基因表达量,抗生素组是对照组的1.65倍(P<0.01);中药Ⅰ组是对照组的1.92倍(P<0.01);中药Ⅱ组是对照组的1.20倍(P<0.01),并且中药Ⅱ组极显著低于抗生素组和中药Ⅰ组(P<0.01)。 MYOG基因表达量,抗生素组是对照组的55%(P<0.01),中药Ⅱ组是对照组的2.26倍(P<0.01),中药Ⅰ组是对照组的1.50倍(P<0.01),抗生素组极显著低于中药Ⅰ组和中药Ⅱ组(P<0.01)。%To study the effects of compound Chinese medicine on pork quality changes.Select Duroc ×Landrace × Yorkshire 72 which weighed about 15 kg,according to the weight and sex were randomly divided into four treatments with three replicates of six pigs.The control group was fed the basal diet;antibiotic group added in diets for growing pigs per ton chlortetracycline 50 g,per ton of feed finishing pigs add oregano oil 15 g;medicine groupⅠ1%on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine formula diets Ⅰ;medicine group Ⅱ1% on the basis of traditional Chinese medicine formula diets.Pre-trial feeding trial period 15 d,formal test 120 d.The results showed that,H-FABP gene,three experimental groups were significantly higher (P<0.01).CAST gene,antibiotic group was 85

  17. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives.

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin


    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies.

  18. Expression QTL analysis of top loci from GWAS meta-analysis highlights additional schizophrenia candidate genes

    de Jong, Simone; van Eijk, Kristel R; Zeegers, Dave W L H;


    There is genetic evidence that schizophrenia is a polygenic disorder with a large number of loci of small effect on disease susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia have had limited success, with the best finding at the MHC locus at chromosome 6p. A recent effort o...... (eQTLs) and differential gene expression in whole blood of schizophrenia patients and controls. We examined the 6192 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significance threshold at P......There is genetic evidence that schizophrenia is a polygenic disorder with a large number of loci of small effect on disease susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia have had limited success, with the best finding at the MHC locus at chromosome 6p. A recent effort...... of the Psychiatric GWAS consortium (PGC) yielded five novel loci for schizophrenia. In this study, we aim to highlight additional schizophrenia susceptibility loci from the PGC study by combining the top association findings from the discovery stage (9394 schizophrenia cases and 12 462 controls) with expression QTLs...

  19. Effect of Zr addition on precipitates in K4169 superalloy

    Li Yamin Liu Hongjun Liu Jie Wang Zhipeng Hao Yuan


    In order to investigate the effect of Zr addition on the precipitations of K4169 superalloy, a manual electric arc furnace was used to prepare the superalloy with different Zr addition from 0.03wt.% to 0.07wt...

  20. Interactions between chemical additives and their effects on emulsion separation

    Yang, M.; Stewart, A.C.; Davies, G.A.


    In offshore production, chemical additives are used to combat various operational problems such as corrosion, scaling, foaming and emulsion formation etc. Although individual chemicals may be found to be effective when used alone, there is no guarantee that they will perform as well when present as part of the complex cocktail of additives in the production fluids entering the primary separator. Little is known about interactions between these chemical additives and their effects on gas/oil/water phase separation. This paper will report results from a multi-national sponsored project with the aim of understanding the ways in which chemical additives interact and their effects on emulsion stability with an ultimate objective of developing a strategy for reduction of the chemical inventory offshore. The chemical additives studied include demulsifiers, corrosion inhibitors, scale inhibitors and antifoamants. Both interfacial tension and surface film pressure measurements have been successfully employed to identify interactions between chemical additives and their synergistic effects. Emulsion stability has been measured through conventional bottle tests. It was found that in most cases corrosion inhibitors increased emulsion stability considerably when present both alone and as part of a binary mixture. Interactions between the corrosion inhibitors and some of the demulsifiers were also observed. In contrast the de-foamant and scale inhibitors had little effect on emulsion stability and in most cases did not interact with the other additives.

  1. Effects of some polymeric additives on the cocrystallization of caffeine

    Chung, Jihae; Kim, Il Won


    Effects of polymeric additives on the model cocrystallization were examined. The model cocrystal was made from caffeine and oxalic acid, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly( L-lactide) (PLLA), poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL), and poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) were the additives. The cocrystals were formed as millimeter-sized crystals without additives, and they became microcrystals with PLLA and PCL, and nanocrystals with PAA. XRD and IR revealed that the cocrystal structure was unchanged despite the strong effects of the additives on the crystal morphology, although some decrease in crystallinity was observed with PAA as confirmed by DSC. The DSC study also showed that the cocrystal melted and recrystallized to form α-caffeine upon heating. The present study verified that the polymeric additives can be utilized to modulate the size and morphology of the cocrystals without interfering the intermolecular interactions essential to the integrity of the cocrystal structures.

  2. Reanalysis of RNA-sequencing data reveals several additional fusion genes with multiple isoforms.

    Sara Kangaspeska

    Full Text Available RNA-sequencing and tailored bioinformatic methodologies have paved the way for identification of expressed fusion genes from the chaotic genomes of solid tumors. We have recently successfully exploited RNA-sequencing for the discovery of 24 novel fusion genes in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate the importance of continuous optimization of the bioinformatic methodology for this purpose, and report the discovery and experimental validation of 13 additional fusion genes from the same samples. Integration of copy number profiling with the RNA-sequencing results revealed that the majority of the gene fusions were promoter-donating events that occurred at copy number transition points or involved high-level DNA-amplifications. Sequencing of genomic fusion break points confirmed that DNA-level rearrangements underlie selected fusion transcripts. Furthermore, a significant portion (>60% of the fusion genes were alternatively spliced. This illustrates the importance of reanalyzing sequencing data as gene definitions change and bioinformatic methods improve, and highlights the previously unforeseen isoform diversity among fusion transcripts.

  3. Effect of additive on the formation of polyacrylonitrile membrane

    YANG Sen; LIU Zhong-zhou


    The effect of additives CaCl2 and CaCl2/H2O on the properties of polyacrylonitrile(PAN) ultrafiltration(UF)membranes prepared by phase inversion process was studied. The dissolving capacity of the casting solution forCaCl2 was enhanced by the addition of H2O. The membranes are characterized in terms of the pure water flux andmolecular weight cut-off( MWCO). The addition of CaCl2 or CaCl2/H2O to the casting solution increases the resultingmembrane permeability.

  4. Cloning of the neurodegeneration gene drop-dead and characterization of additional phenotypes of its mutation.

    Blumenthal, Edward M


    Mutations in the Drosophila gene drop-dead (drd) result in early adult lethality and neurodegeneration, but the molecular identity of the drd gene and its mechanism of action are not known. This paper describes the characterization of a new X-linked recessive adult-lethal mutation, originally called lot's wife (lwf(1)) but subsequently identified as an allele of drd (drd(lwf)); drd(lwf) mutants die within two weeks of eclosion. Through mapping and complementation, the drd gene has been identified as CG33968, which encodes a putative integral membrane protein of unknown function. The drd(lwf) allele is associated with a nonsense mutation that eliminates nearly 80% of the CG33968 gene product; mutations in the same gene were also found in two previously described drd alleles. Characterization of drd (lwf) flies revealed additional phenotypes of drd, most notably, defects in food processing by the digestive system and in oogenesis. Mutant flies store significantly more food in their crops and defecate less than wild-type flies, suggesting that normal transfer of ingested food from the crop into the midgut is dependent upon the DRD gene product. The defect in oogenesis results in the sterility of homozygous mutant females and is associated with a reduction in the number of vitellogenic egg chambers. The disruption in vitellogenesis is far more severe than that seen in starved flies and so is unlikely to be a secondary consequence of the digestive phenotype. This study demonstrates that mutation of the drd gene CG33968 results in a complex phenotype affecting multiple physiological systems within the fly.

  5. Promotional effects of new types of additives on fat crystallization.

    Yoshikawa, Shinichi; Kida, Haruyasu; Sato, Kiyotaka


    We examined the promotional effects of additives on fat crystallization, such as inorganic (talc, carbon nanotube (CNT), and graphite) and organic (theobromine, ellagic acid dihydrate (EAD), and terephthalic acid) materials. The triacylglycerols (TAGs) of trilauroylglycerol (LLL), trimyristoylglycerol (MMM), and tripalmitoylglycerol (PPP) were employed as the fats. The additives (1 wt%) were added to the molten TAGs, and then the mixtures were cooled at a rate of 1°C/min followed by heating at a rate of 5°C/min. The crystallization and melting properties were observed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and polarized optical microscope (POM). Consequently, we found that the above six additives remarkably increased the initial temperatures of crystallization (Ti) on cooling without changing the melting temperatures. For example, in the case of LLL, the increases in Ti were 2.6°C (talc), 3.9°C (CNT), 8.1°C (graphite), 1.1°C (theobromine), 2.0°C (EAD), and 6.8°C (terephthalic acid). Very similar effects were observed for the crystallization of MMM and PPP with the six additives. Furthermore, the polymorphs of the first occurring crystals were changed from metastable to more stable forms by many of these additives. The POM observation revealed that the crystallization was initiated at the surfaces of additive particles. This study has shown for the first time that the heterogeneous nucleation of fat crystals can be greatly promoted by new types of additives. Such additives have great potential to promote fat crystallization by not only hydrophobic but also hydrophilic molecular interactions between the fats and additives.

  6. Impacts of BDE209 addition on Pb uptake, subcellular partitioning and gene toxicity in earthworm (Eisenia fetida)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Kou; Li, Jing; Liang, Jun; Lin, Kuangfei [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)


    Highlights: • 10 or 100 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 addition caused histological changes in Pb-exposed earthworms’ body wall. • Strong histopathological effects with BDE209 addition confirmed the enhanced Pb bioavailability. • The presence of higher levels of BDE209 altered subcellular partitioning of Pb in earthworm. • Co-exposure to Pb and BDE209 declined SOD and CAT gene transcripts synergistically. • BDE209 addition elicited up-regulation of Hsp90 gene expression compared to Pb exposure alone. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the mainly co-existed contaminants at e-waste recycling sites. The potential toxicity of Pb (250 μg g{sup −1}) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 (1, 10 and 100 μg g{sup −1}) was determined during 14-d incubation period. Compared to Pb treatment alone, the co-exposure with 1 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 barely affected Pb uptake, subcellular partitioning and gene expression; however, histopathological changes in earthworms’ body wall (epidermal, circular and longitudinal muscles) demonstrated that 10 and 100 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 additions enhanced Pb uptake and altered its subcellular partitioning, indicating that Pb redistributed from fractions E (cell debris) and D (metal-rich granules) to fraction C (cytosols); Additionally, BDE209 supply significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) the induction of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) gene expressions (maximum down-regulation 59% for SOD gene at Pb + 100 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 and 89% for CAT gene at Pb + 10 μg g{sup −1} BDE209), while facilitated (p < 0.05) Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) gene expression with maximum induction rate of 120% after exposure to Pb + 10 μg g{sup −1} BDE209. These findings illustrate the importance of considering environmental BDE209 co-exposure when assessing Pb bioaccumulation and toxicity in multi-contaminated soil ecosystems.

  7. Contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry

    Youzhi Zheng


    Full Text Available During the cementation of deep wells, contamination at the contact surface between cement slurry and drilling fluid will present a technical challenge, which may threaten operation safety. To deal with the problem, lab tests and analysis were performed specifically on the compatibility of fluids during cementation in Sichuan and Chongqing gas fields. Impacts of commonly used additives for drilling fluids were determined on fluidity and thickening time of conventional cement slurry. Through the infrared spectrum analysis, SEM and XRD, infrared spectrum data of kalium polyacrylamide (KPAM and bio-viscosifier were obtained, together with infrared spectrum, SEM and XRD data of cement slurry with additives. Contamination mechanisms of the cement slurry by conventional additives for drilling fluid were reviewed. Test results show that both KPAM and bio-viscosifier are such high-molecular materials that the long chains in these materials may easily absorb cement particles in the slurry to form mixed network structures; as a result, cement particles were prone to agglomeration and eventually lost their pumpability. Finally, assessment of and testing methods for the contamination effects of drilling fluid additives on cement slurry were further improved to form standards and codes that may help solve the said problems. This study will provide technological supports for the preparation of drilling fluids with desirable properties prior to cementation, the selection of optimal drilling fluids additives, and the development of innovative drilling fluids additives.

  8. Effect of Zr addition on precipitates in K4169 superalloy

    Liu Jie


    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of Zr addition on the precipitations of K4169 superalloy, a manual electric arc furnace was used to prepare the superalloy with different Zr addition from 0.03wt.% to 0.07wt%. After standard heat treatment and long-time aging, the microstructures of the alloys were observed using XRD, SEM and TEM. The results show that Zr not only inhibits the precipitation of Laves phase at the grain boundary, but also significantly promotes the precipitation of earlobe-like γ′and γ″ phases. After long time aging at 680 ℃ for 500 h, the γ″phase grows up obviously and forms a γ′/γ′′clad microstructure when the Zr addition is 0.03 wt.%. A large number of fine orbed γ′particles precipitate in the grains and some γ″phase transforms to disk-like δ phase when the Zr addition increases to 0.05wt.%. The nano-polycrystalline γ′phase precipitates in the grains and there is a little δ phase when the Zr addition is 0.07wt.%. As the Zr addition increases, the amount of Laves phase at the grain boundary decreases at first, and then increases and forms flaky morphology.

  9. Effects of water mist addition on kerosene pool fire

    ZHOU XiaoMeng; QIN Jun; LIAO GuangXuan


    The use of water mist to extinguish fire is a problem of particular interest since the banning of halo-gen-based agents for environmental reasons. This interest is reflected in the large number of re-searches performed on the main fire-extinguishing mechanisms of water mist: heat extraction, oxygen displacement and attenuation of heat fluxes. In contrast, there are still little known about the chemical and some other aspects of water mist addition on the pool fire. In this paper, a phenomenological study was conducted of the effect of water mist addition on the kerosene pool fire through the measurement of the heat release rate, CO, CO2 and O2 species concentration in combustion. The experimental results show that there is a significant enhancement effect at the beginning stage of water mist addition. Then, the flame size was decreased abruptly. By physical suppression effect combined with chemical effect, the experiments' results are explained especially. The study of effects of water mist on pool fire will be useful for optimizing designation of water mist fire-suppression system, improving the fire suppression efficiency and extending their application field.

  10. MHC class IIB additive and non-additive effects on fitness measures in the guppy Poecilia reticulata.

    Fraser, B A; Neff, B D


    The genetic architecture of fitness at the class IIB gene of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in the guppy Poecilia reticulata was analysed. Diversity at the MHC is thought to be maintained by some form of balancing selection; heterozygote advantage, frequency-dependent selection or spatially and temporally fluctuating selection. Here these hypotheses are evaluated by using an algorithm that partitions the effect of specific MHC allele and genotypes on fitness measures. The effect of MHC genotype on surrogate measures of fitness was tested, including growth rate (at high and low bulk food diets), parasite load following a parasite challenge and survival. The number of copies of the Pore_a132 MHC allele was inversely related to infection by Gyrodactylus flukes and it appeared to be positively related to faster growth. Also, genotypes combining the Pore_a132 or other relatively common alleles paired with rare MHC alleles produced both advantageous and detrimental non-additive effects. Thus, the genetic architecture underlying fitness at the MHC is complex in the P. reticulata.

  11. Extracellular complementation and the identification of additional genes involved in aerial mycelium formation in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Nodwell, J R; Yang, M; Kuo, D; Losick, R


    Morphogenesis in the bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor involves the formation of a lawn of hair-like aerial hyphae on the colony surface that stands up in the air and differentiates into chains of spores. bld mutants are defective in the formation of this aerial mycelium and grow as smooth, hairless colonies. When certain pairs of bld mutants are grown close to one another on rich sporulation medium, they exhibit extracellular complementation such that one mutant restores aerial mycelium formation to the other. The extracellular complementation relationships of most of the previously isolated bld mutants placed them in a hierarchy of extracellular complementation groups. We have screened for further bld mutants with precautions intended to maximize the discovery of additional genes. Most of the 50 newly isolated mutant strains occupy one of three of the previously described positions in the hierarchy, behaving like bldK, bldC, or bldD mutants. We show that the mutations in some of the strains that behave like bldK are bldK alleles but that others fall in a cluster at a position on the chromosome distinct from that of any known bld gene. We name this locus bldL. By introducing cloned genes into the strains that exhibit bldC or bldD-like extracellular complementation phenotypes, we show that most of these strains are likely to contain mutations in genes other than bldC or bldD. These results indicate that the genetic control of aerial mycelium formation is more complex than previously recognized and support the idea that a high proportion of bld genes are directly or indirectly involved in the production of substances that are exchanged between cells during morphological differentiation.

  12. Effectiveness of various organometallics as antiwear additives in mineral oil

    Buckley, D. H.


    Sliding friction experiments were conducted with 1045 steel contacting 302 stainless steel and lubricated with various organometallics in mineral oil. Auger emission spectroscopy was used to determine the element present in the wear contact zone. The results indicate that there are organometallics which are as effective an antiwear additives as the commonly used zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate. These include dimethyl cadmium, triphenyl lead thiomethoxide, and triphenyl tin chloride. The additives were examined in concentrations to 1 weight percent. With dimethyl cadmium at concentrations of 0.5 weight percent and above, cadmium was detected in the contact zone. Coincident with the detection of cadmium, a marked decrease in the friction coefficient was observed. All additives examined reduced friction, but only the aforementioned reduced wear to a level comparable to that observed with zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate.

  13. Effect of Additive on Microstructure of Transparent YAG Ceramics

    Sun Xudong; Wen Lei; Xiu Zhimeng; Huo Di; Li Xiaodong; Chi-Tay Tsai


    Transparent YAG (yttrium aluminum garnet) ceramics were fabricated by solid-state reaction method. Effect of additive (tetraethyl orthosilicate, TEOS) on microstructure of YAG ceramics was investigated. If the addition of TEOS is more than 3% (mass fraction), large amount of liquid phase can be yielded at grain boundaries, resulting in the formation of second phase particles at grain boundaries. If the addition is less than 0.05% (mass fraction), pores are entrapped in the grains. The suitable amount is 0.5% (mass fraction). A fully transparent YAG ceramic was fabricated by vacuum sintering at 1700 ℃ for 5 h. Optical transmittance of the YAG ceramic is 63% in the visible light wavelengths and 70% in the infrared wavelengths.

  14. Additive effects of oral fluoropyrimidine derivative S-1 and radiation on human hypopharyngeal cancer xenografts.

    Nakagawa, Takahiro; Otsuki, Naoki; Masai, Yohko; Sasaki, Ryohei; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Nibu, Ken-Ichi


    The results presented here provide evidence of the enhancing effect of oral fluoropyrimidine derivative S-1 in concomitant chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer and further insights into its biological mechanism. To investigate the additive effect of S-1 and radiation for human hypopharyngeal cancer. Nude mice bearing hypopharyngeal cancer cells (H891) were used for an in vivo model. S-1 was administered at a volume of 0.01 mg/g body weight per mouse for 14 days, and tumors were irradiated with 2.0 Gy on days 1 and 8. Mice treated with either radiation or S-1 alone were used as controls. The growth of tumors in each group was measured and, after completion of the treatment, a focused DNA array was used to determine mRNA expression levels in the tumors of 132 genes related to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), radiation or carcinogenesis. The additive antitumor effect of S-1 and radiation was statistically confirmed on day 14 (p=0.01). DNA array assay showed significant changes in expression of several genes, including DNA repair gene POLD, angiogenesis-related genes bFGF and TP, DNA topoisomerase TOP2A, and nucleoside transporter gene ENT1.

  15. Effects of amino acid additives during hemodialysis of children.

    Abitbol, C L; Mrozinska, K; Mandel, S; McVicar, M; Wapnir, R A


    The intradialytic losses into the dialysate of free amino acids (AA) and alpha-amino nitrogen were determined during the dialysis of three children. Variations in plasma AA were determined pre- and postdialysis. The effect of these losses with the addition of an Abbott General Amino Acid Mixture to the dialysate in concentrations of 8.5, 17, and 34 mg/100 ml was studied. The major determinant of AA losses was the plasma concentration of the AA before beginning the dialysis treatment. Dialysance of individual AA varied inversely with their molecular weights. A zero flux of alpha-amino nitrogen occurred at a derived concentration of 22 mg/100 ml of the AA additive in the dialysate. Plasma concentrations of nonessential amino acids were little affected by the dialysate additive. In contrast, total essential amino acid nitrogen which fell during baseline dialyses showed significant improvement when the AA solution was added to the dialysate. This study suggests that the addition of AA to the dialysate bath may be effective in decreasing AA nitrogen losses during dialysis.

  16. Effect of trehalose addition on volatiles responsible for strawberry aroma.

    Kopjar, Mirela; Hribar, Janez; Simcic, Marjan; Zlatić, Emil; Pozrl, Tomaz; Pilizota, Vlasta


    Aroma is one of the most important quality properties of food products and has a great influence on quality and acceptability of foods. Since it is very difficult to control, in this study the effect of addition of trehalose (3, 5 and 10%) to freeze-dried strawberry cream fillings was investigated as a possible means for retention of some of the aroma compounds responsible for the strawberry aroma. In samples with added trehalose, higher amounts of fruity esters were determined. Increase of trehalose content did not cause a proportional increase in the amount of fruity esters. However, results of our research showed that trehalose addition did not have the same effect on both gamma-decalactone and furaneol.

  17. Transformation of brushite to hydroxyapatite and effects of alginate additives

    Ucar, Seniz; Bjørnøy, Sindre H.; Bassett, David C.; Strand, Berit L.; Sikorski, Pawel; Andreassen, Jens-Petter


    Phase transformations are important processes during mineral formation in both in vivo and in vitro model systems and macromolecules are influential in regulating the mineralization processes. Calcium phosphate mineralized alginate hydrogels are potential candidates for hard tissue engineering applications and transformation of the resorbable calcium phosphate phases to apatitic bone mineral in vivo enhances the success of these composite materials. Here, the transformation of brushite to hydroxyapatite (HA) and the effects of alginate additives on this process are studied by the investigation of supersaturation profiles with HA-seeded and unseeded experiments. This experimental design allows for detailed kinetic interpretation of the transformation reactions and deduction of information on the nucleation stage of HA by evaluating the results of seeded and unseeded experiments together. In the experimental conditions of this work, transformation was controlled by HA growth until the point of near complete brushite dissolution where the growth and dissolution rates were balanced. The presence of alginate additives at low concentration were not highly influential on transformation rates during the growth dominated region but their retardant effect became more pronounced as the dissolution and growth rates reached an equilibrium where both reactions were effective on transformation kinetics. Decoupling of seeded and unseeded transformation experiments suggested that alginate additives retard HA nucleation and this was most evident in the presence of G-block oligomers.

  18. The Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea Rhizobia Can Be Improved by Additional Copies of the clpB Chaperone Gene.

    Paço, Ana; Brígido, Clarisse; Alexandre, Ana; Mateos, Pedro F; Oliveira, Solange


    The ClpB chaperone is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. Moreover, recent studies suggest that this protein has also a role in the chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. In order to improve both stress tolerance and symbiotic performance of a chickpea microsymbiont, the Mesorhizobium mediterraneum UPM-Ca36T strain was genetically transformed with pPHU231 containing an extra-copy of the clpB gene. To investigate if the clpB-transformed strain displays an improved stress tolerance, bacterial growth was evaluated under heat and acid stress conditions. In addition, the effect of the extra-copies of the clpB gene in the symbiotic performance was evaluated using plant growth assays (hydroponic and pot trials). The clpB-transformed strain is more tolerant to heat shock than the strain transformed with pPHU231, supporting the involvement of ClpB in rhizobia heat shock tolerance. Both plant growth assays showed that ClpB has an important role in chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. The nodulation kinetics analysis showed a higher rate of nodule appearance with the clpB-transformed strain. This strain also induced a greater number of nodules and, more notably, its symbiotic effectiveness increased ~60% at pH5 and 83% at pH7, compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, a higher frequency of root hair curling was also observed in plants inoculated with the clpB-transformed strain, compared to the wild-type strain. The superior root hair curling induction, nodulation ability and symbiotic effectiveness of the clpB-transformed strain may be explained by an increased expression of symbiosis genes. Indeed, higher transcript levels of the nodulation genes nodA and nodC (~3 folds) were detected in the clpB-transformed strain. The improvement of rhizobia by addition of extra-copies of the clpB gene may be a promising strategy to obtain strains with enhanced stress tolerance and symbiotic effectiveness, thus contributing to their success as crop inoculants, particularly under

  19. Arrays in rays: terminal addition in echinoderms and its correlation with gene expression.

    Mooi, Rich; David, Bruno; Wray, Gregory A


    The echinoderms are deuterostomes that superimpose radial symmetry upon bilateral larval morphology. Consequently, they are not the first animals that come to mind when the concepts of segmentation and terminal addition are being discussed. However, it has long been recognized that echinoderms have serial elements along their radii formed in accordance with the ocular plate rule (OPR). The OPR is a special case of terminal growth, forming elements of the ambulacra that define the rays in echinoderms. New elements are added at the terminus of the ray, which may or may not be marked by a calcified element called the terminal plate (the "ocular" of sea urchins). The OPR operates in every echinoderm, from the occasionally bizarre fossils of the Cambrian to the most familiar extant taxa. Using the OPR and other criteria of recognition, echinoderm body wall can be divided into two main regions: extraxial components are associated with the somatocoels, axial components (formed in accordance with the OPR) with the hydrocoel. We compare patterns of development in axial regions of echinoderms with those found in the anterior-posterior axes of the earliest echinoderms as well as other invertebrates. Although axial and extraxial skeletons appear to be composed of the same biomineral matrix, the genes involved in patterning these two skeletal components are likely distinct. During development of the axial skeleton, for instance, the genes engrailed and orthodenticle are expressed in spatial and temporal patterns consistent with the OPR. Other genes such as distal-less seem to demarcate early ontogenetic boundaries between the axial rudiment and the extraxial larval body. There is a complex and pervasive reorganization of gene expression domains to produce the highly divergent morphologies seen in the Echinodermata. We integrate morphological and genetic information, particularly with respect to the origins of radial symmetry in the rudiment, and the concomitant development of

  20. Segregation analysis of 231 Ashkenazi Jewish families for evidence of additional breast cancer susceptibility genes.

    Kaufman, David J; Beaty, Terri H; Struewing, Jeffery P


    Between 5 and 10% of breast cancer is attributable to inherited cancer susceptibility genes. Mutations in the genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 account for two-thirds of hereditary breast cancer cases. Using segregation analysis, families of cases without BRCA1/2 mutations were studied for statistical evidence of another major breast cancer gene in a community-based sample of Jewish probands tested previously for the presence of three BRCA founder mutations. A total of 231 probands with breast cancer, who do not carry a founder mutation, reported complete data on 602 female first-degree relatives of probands over age 20; 78 of these relatives had breast cancer. Segregation analysis was used to evaluate the likelihood of various genetic and nongenetic models. Sporadic, environmental, and general Mendelian genetic models fit the family data poorly and were rejected. A Mendelian recessive model fit better than dominant and codominant models, although none of these could be rejected. Cumulative incidence curves predicted by the recessive and codominant models fit observed incidence among first-degree relatives well. The assumption of Mendelian transmission of a major recessive gene(s) is compatible with the data. The recessive model predicts that 4% of women would carry the high-risk genotype, with 85% of them developing breast cancer by age 70. There was significant heterogeneity between these families and the 114 BRCA1/2 mutation-positive families from the same study population, implying that this apparent recessive effect is not because of undetected BRCA1/2 mutations. The study adds support for a major autosomal recessive component to breast cancer susceptibility.

  1. Coexposure to phytoestrogens and bisphenol a mimics estrogenic effects in an additive manner.

    Katchy, Anne; Pinto, Caroline; Jonsson, Philip; Nguyen-Vu, Trang; Pandelova, Marchela; Riu, Anne; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Samarov, Daniel; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Bondesson, Maria; Williams, Cecilia


    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are abundant in our environment. A number of EDCs, including bisphenol A (BPA) can bind to the estrogen receptors (ER), ERα and ERβ, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases such as breast cancer. Early exposure is of particular concern; many EDCs cross the placenta and infants have measurable levels of, eg, BPA. In addition, infants are frequently fed soy-based formula (SF) that contains phytoestrogens. Effects of combined exposure to xeno- and phytoestrogens are poorly studied. Here, we extensively compared to what extent BPA, genistein, and an extract of infant SF mimic estrogen-induced gene transcription and cell proliferation. We investigated ligand-specific effects on ER activation in HeLa-ERα and ERβ reporter cells; on proliferation, genome-wide gene regulation and non-ER-mediated effects in MCF7 breast cancer cells; and how coexposure influenced these effects. The biological relevance was explored using enrichment analyses of differentially regulated genes and clustering with clinical breast cancer profiles. We demonstrate that coexposure to BPA and genistein, or SF, results in increased functional and transcriptional estrogenic effects. Using statistical modeling, we determine that BPA and phytoestrogens act in an additive manner. The proliferative and transcriptional effects of the tested compounds mimic those of 17β-estradiol, and are abolished by cotreatment with an ER antagonist. Gene expression profiles induced by each compound clustered with poor prognosis breast cancer, indicating that exposure may adversely affect breast cancer prognosis. This study accentuates that coexposure to BPA and soy-based phytoestrogens results in additive estrogenic effects, and may contribute to estrogen-linked diseases, including breast cancer.

  2. Effects of Ca additions on some Mg-alloy hydrides

    Lupu, D.; Biris, A.; Indrea, E.; Bucur, R.V.


    The hydrogenation of the alloy of composition CaMg/sub 1/ /sub 8/Ni/sub 0/ /sub 5/ containing CaMg/sub 2/ and MgNi/sub 2/ shows fast activation kinetics. The Mg/sub 2/Ni phase is observed in the dehydrided samples. The three plateaus on the hydrogen desorption isotherms correspond to the most stable magnesium hydrides observed up to now in Mg-alloy ( H = 20 to 24 kcal/mol H/sub 2/). The effects of Ca additions on the hydrogen storage capacity and desorption rates of some Mg-rich alloys have been studied. 16 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  3. Priming effects in Haplic Luvisol after different substrate additions

    Bogomolova, I.; Blagodatskaya, E.; Blagodatsky, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.


    Although soils contain considerable amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), most of it is not easily available for microorganisms. Addition of various substrates to soil (for example, plant residues, root exudates) may affect SOC mineralization. The addition of mineral nutrients, especially N, may also affect C turnover and so change the mineralization rate of SOC. Such short-term changes in mineralization of organic substance of soil were termed as "priming-effects" (Bingemann et al., 1953). Priming effect leads to additional mineralization of SOC (van Elsas and van Overbeek, 1993). It has been shown that not only plant residues induce priming effects (Sauerbeck, 1966; Stemmer et al., 1999; Bell et al., 2003), but also easily available substrates such as sugars or amino acids, which are present in soil solutions and root exudates (Vasconcellos, 1994; Shen and Bartha, 1997; Hamer and Marschner, 2002). Since easily available substrates may not only accelerate SOC mineralization, but also may retard it, Kuzyakov et al. (2000) differentiated between positive and negative priming effects. It is not clear until now, how long priming effects persists in soil after substrate addition, and if they are induced every time when a substrate becomes available in soil. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate effects of glucose and plant residues on SOM decomposition, and influence of glucose on plant residues decomposition in soil. The experimental layout was designed as two factor experiment: 1) plant residues and 2) available substrate amendment. Maize shoot residues (50 mg added to 5 g soil) were 14C labeled (9•104 DPM per 5 g soil). Soil without of any plant residues served as a control for this treatment. Two levels of D (+) glucose as easily available substrates were added after three months of pre-incubation of soil samples with maize residues: 0.009 mg glucose C g-1 soil and 0.225 mg glucose C g-1 soil. The glucose was uniformly labelled with 14C (2.37•104 DPM per 5

  4. Effect of Copper Addition on Electromigration Behavior of Silver Metallization

    Bhagat, Shekhar; Theodore, N. David; Chenna, Santhosh; Alford, Terry


    This study investigates the effect of Cu alloying on electromigration behavior of Ag metallization. Electromigration tests are performed on pure Ag and Ag (1.5% Cu) samples deposited by e-beam evaporation. The experiments show that Ag (Cu) alloy interconnect has superior elctromigration resistance compared to pure Ag interconnect. X-ray diffraction, four point probe measurements and electron microscopy were used to investigate the test structures and corresponding thin film samples. The Cu improves the lifetime of interconnect test structures by hindering Ag diffusion and increasing 111 texture of Ag. Also, Cu addition seemingly reduces the agglomeration in Ag.

  5. The influence of oil additives on the effectiveness of herbicides

    Andrzej Chwedoruk


    Full Text Available The possibility to decrease herbicide doses without reducing their weed controlling effectiveness was investigated in two microplots and one field experiment. The following herbicides were used: atrazine, mixture of atrazine with terbutrine, MCPA + MCPP, MCPA + dikamba, desmedipham and phenmedipham (Betanal 31, 32 or 37. They were combined with one or several of the following adjuvants: parafinic oil, refuse product of rape oil rafination, oil mixture from the Institute of Organic Chemistry Industry (IPO-Warsaw, surfactant Rokafenol N-1O, mineral oil Nr 8 (Aviol. It was shown that the doses of herbicides could be lowered by 30-50% without loosing their phytotoxic effect on weeds due to addition of adjuvants. The mineral oil 8 was very active in a mixture with Betanal 37 and was completly non toxic toward sugar beets. The oil mixture from IPO and Rokafenol N-10 were very active in mixtures with atrazine or atraizine with terbutrine.

  6. Thermal processing of EVA encapsulants and effects of formulation additives

    Pern, F.J.; Glick, S.H. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)


    The authors investigated the in-situ processing temperatures and effects of various formulation additives on the formation of ultraviolet (UV) excitable chromophores, in the thermal lamination and curing of ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) encapsulants. A programmable, microprocessor-controlled, double-bag vacuum laminator was used to study two commercial as formulated EVA films, A9918P and 15295P, and solution-cast films of Elvaxrm (EVX) impregnated with various curing agents and antioxidants. The results show that the actual measured temperatures of EVA lagged significantly behind the programmed profiles for the heating elements and were affected by the total thermal mass loaded inside the laminator chamber. The antioxidant Naugard P{trademark}, used in the two commercial EVA formulations, greatly enhances the formation of UV-excitable, short chromophores upon curing, whereas other tested antioxidants show little effect. A new curing agent chosen specifically for the EVA formulation modification produces little or no effect on chromophore formation, no bubbling problems in the glass/EVX/glass laminates, and a gel content of {approximately}80% when cured at programmed 155{degrees}C for 4 min. Also demonstrated is the greater discoloring effect with higher concentrations of curing-generated chromophores.

  7. Eddy damping effect of additional conductors in superconducting levitation systems

    Jiang, Zhao-Fei; Gou, Xiao-Fan, E-mail:


    Highlights: • In this article, for the eddy current damper attached to the HTSC, we • quantitatively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. • presented four different arrangements of the copper damper, and comparatively studied their damping effects and Joule heating, and finally proposed the most advisable arrangement. - Abstract: Passive superconducting levitation systems consisting of a high temperature superconductor (HTSC) and a permanent magnet (PM) have demonstrated several fascinating applications such as the maglev system, flywheel energy storage. Generally, for the HTSC–PM levitation system, the HTSC with higher critical current density J{sub c} can obtain larger magnetic force to make the PM levitate over the HTSC (or suspended below the HTSC), however, the process of the vibration of the levitated PM, provides very limited inherent damping (essentially hysteresis). To improve the dynamic stability of the levitated PM, eddy damping of additional conductors can be considered as the most simple and effective approach. In this article, for the HTSC–PM levitation system with an additional copper damper attached to the HTSC, we numerically and comprehensively investigated the damping coefficient c, damping ratio, Joule heating of the copper damper, and the vibration frequency of the PM as well. Furthermore, we comparatively studied four different arrangements of the copper damper, on the comprehensive analyzed the damping effect, efficiency (defined by c/V{sub Cu}, in which V{sub Cu} is the volume of the damper) and Joule heating, and finally presented the most advisable arrangement.

  8. Mortar cohesión. The effect of additives

    Castro, J. H.


    Full Text Available This study was concerned with the hydration of clinker compounds in the presence of different additives; it appeared that accelerating additives, such as calcium chloride and silicic acid, produce longer fibers of tobermorite, whereas inhibitors, such as sugar, produce shorter fibers of tobermorite. This same effect was observed in the hydration of anhydrite, in which large crystals of gypsum were produced in the presence of sodium sulphate. So the cohesion in mortars of cement and anhydrite is explained in terms of the role of fibers.Se estudia la hidratación del clínker en presencia de diferentes aditivos encontrándose que los aceleradores, como el cloruro cálcico y el ácido salicílico, producen tobermorita de fibra larga y los inhibidores, como el azúcar, tobermorita de fibra corta. Este mismo efecto se encuentra en la anhidrita, produciéndose cristales de yeso largo, en presencia del sulfato de sodio, y cristales cortos en ausencia del catalizador. La cohesión de un mortero depende luego del largo de sus fibras. Así la cohesión de los morteros de cemento y anhidrita se explican en función del rol de la fibra.

  9. Effect of chemical additives on flow characteristics of coal slurries

    E.S. Mosa; A.-H. M. Saleh; T.A. Taha; A.M. El-Molla [Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt). Mining & Petroleum Engineering Department


    In the present paper, the effect of chemical additives or reagents on rheological characteristics of coal water slurry (CWS) was investigated. The power-law model was applied to determine the non-Newtonian properties of coal slurries. Three types of dispersants namely, sulphonic acid, sodium tripolyphosphate and sodium carbonate were studied and tested at different concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 1.5% by weight from total solids. Sodium salt of carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC) and xanthan gum were tested as stabilizers at concentrations in the range of 0.05 to 0.25% by weight from total solids. It was found that apparent viscosity and flow properties of CWS are sensitive to the use of chemical additives (dispersants and stabilizers). Among studied dispersing agents, sulphonic acid recorded the best performance in modification and reducing CWS viscosity. The best dosage of all tested dispersants was found to be 0.75% by wt of solids. With regard to studied stabilizers, Na-CMC recorded better performance than xanthan gum. The best dosage of investigated stabilizers was found to be as 0.1 % by wt. from total solids. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Effect of different additives on the properties of lithium alanate


    LiAlH4 doped with Ni and Ce(SO4)2 additives and the effect of doping on temperature and hydrogen release were studied by pressure-content-temperature (PCT) experiment and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis.It is indicated that doping with Ni induces a significant decrease in temperature in the first step and LiAlH4 doped with 1mol% Ni presents the most absorption of hydrogen.Doping with Ce(SO4)2 also causes a marked decrease,while the amount of hydrogen release changes only slightly.The results from X-ray diffraction analysis show that doping does not cause any structural change; Ni and Ce-containing phases are not observed at room temperature or even at 250℃.

  11. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald


    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  12. Effects of radio-opacifier addition in dental impression material

    Mota Eduardo


    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the effects of barium sulfate addition in two dental impression materials previously proved as radiolucent. Materials and Methods: An irreversible hydrocolloid (IH and polyether (PE were tested for optical density, linear dimension stability and detail reproduction. Statistical Analysis Used: The optical density data were submitted to Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test and compared with two-way ANOVA and Tukey (alpha=0.05. Results: The results of optical density (pixel were: IH control 45.24 f (±7.6, PE control 54.93 e (±4.45, PE 5Wt% 60.43 d (±6.27, IH 1Wt% 61.54 cd (±5.3, PE 1Wt% 66.9 bc (±5.05, IH 5Wt% 67.17 b (±6.01, PE 10Wt% 84.55 a (±5.14, IH 10Wt% 85.33 a (±5.53. On detail reproduction, polyether control was able to copy the 6 μm line. Adding 1 or 5Wt% of barium sulfate have not change this characteristic. For the irreversible hydrocolloid, the control group was able to copy a line with 14 μm, however, adding 1Wt% barium sulfate, the capability decreased to 22 μm. Adding barium sulfate in the polyether promoted an increase in between the copied lines, for the control, the average distance was 931.6 μm, 936 μm to 1Wt% and 954.5 μm to 5 Wt%. For the IH, the control presented 975 μm in comparison to 987.25 μm for 1 Wt% samples. Conclusion: The addition of barium sulfate was capable of increasing significantly the optical density of tested material, have changed the linear dimension stability, however, have not interfered in detail reproduction only for PE.

  13. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E.; Tsoi, Lam C.; Van Heel, David A.; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M.; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya


    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer strong risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen binding repertoires between a heterozygote’s two expressed HLA variants may result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Ncases=5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D, Ncases=5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (Ncases=3,089), idiopathic achalasia (Ncases=727), and celiac disease (Ncases=11,115). In four out of five diseases, we observed highly significant non-additive dominance effects (RA: P=2.5×1012; T1D: P=2.4×10−10; psoriasis: P=5.9×10−6; celiac disease: P=1.2×10−87). In three of these diseases, the dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (RA: P=1.8×10−3; T1D: P=8.6×1027; celiac disease: P=6.0×10−100). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (RA: 1.4%, T1D: 4.0%, and celiac disease: 4.1%, beyond a simple additive model). PMID:26258845

  14. Ivermectin plus diethylcarbamazine: an additive effect on early microfilarial clearance.

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Ottesen, E A; Cardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L


    The effects of ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine (DEC), and the combination of both drugs on levels of microfilaremia (mf) were studied in 30 male Polynesian Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Microfilarial densities were measured 30 min (H1/2), 1 hr (H1), and 2, 4, 8, 24, and 96 hr (H2, H4, H8, H24, and H96) after supervised single doses of ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, respectively, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, respectively, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg, respectively), DEC (6 mg/kg) alone, and ivermectin (400 micrograms/kg and 100 micrograms/kg, respectively) alone given to six groups of five patients each. The results showed that 1) DEC alone or combined with ivermectin induced a rapid clearance of mf after drug intake; at H1/2, the number of circulating microfilariae was reduced to 16%, 8%, 28%, and 31%, respectively, of pretreatment values in the groups receiving ivermectin plus DEC (400 micrograms/kg plus 1 mg/kg, 400 micrograms/kg plus 3 mg/kg, and 400 micrograms/kg plus 6 mg/kg) and DEC (6 mg/kg) alone; 2) ivermectin alone induced a rapid increase of mf densities during the first 2 hr, followed by a sharp decrease from H4 to H96; and 3) between H8 and H96, mf clearance was almost complete with the combination of ivermectin and DEC. A comparison among groups did not show any synergistic interaction between ivermectin and DEC on the clearance of microfilaria, with the effect of each drug being additive to each another.

  15. Effects of Several Purple Potato Additions on Bread Quality

    Bădărău Carmen Liliana


    Full Text Available Potato cultivars with purple flesh represent an efficient and natural source of antioxidants, this vegetable having high content in polyphenols (especially anthocyanin pigments. The research goal of this work was to evaluate the anthocyanin and polyphenols content of several Romanian potato varieties (Albastru-Violet de Gălănești and Christian and the effects of these potatoes (add to dough in different proportions on several bread quality indicators. The bread quality depends on physical and chemical properties and on several signs like: flavor and taste, external appearance, crumb porosity and texture, bread’s volume. In this research experiment, beside the total polyphenols and anthocyanin content, the analysis performed on bread (prepared using different potatoes addition 5%, 15% and 30% were sensorial and physic chemical analysis (product volume, crumb porosity, height/diameter ratio, moist and acidity. Experimental results indicated that 15% purple potato cultivar added on the dough was the most indicate proportion to be used in bread processing.

  16. Localization of eight additional genes in the human major histocompatibility complex, including the gene encoding the casein kinase II {beta} subunit (CSNK2B)

    Albertella, M.R.; Jones, H.; Thomson, W. [Oxford Univ. (United Kingdom)] [and others


    A wide range of autoimmune and other diseases are known to be associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility antigens in the class I and class II regions, but some appear to be more strongly associated with genes in the central 1100-kb class III region, making it important to characterize this region fully for the presence of novel genes. An {approximately}220-kb segment of DNA in the class III region separating the Hsp70 (HSPA1L) and BAT1 (D6S8IE) genes, which was previously known to contain 14 genes. Genomic DNA fragments spanning the gaps between the known genes were used as probes to isolate cDNAs corresponding to five new genes within this region. Evidence from Northern blot analysis and exon trapping experiments that suggested the presence of at least two more new genes was also obtained. Partial cDNA and complete exonic genomic sequencing of one of the new genes has identified it as the casein kinase II{beta} subunit (CSNK2B). Two of the other novel genes lie within a region syntenic to that implicated in susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis in the mouse, an autoimmune disease of the testis, and represent additional candidates for the Orch-1 locus associated with this disease. In addition, characterization of the 13-kb intergenic gap separating the RD (D6545) and G11 (D6S60E) genes has revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 1246-amino-acid polypeptide that shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast anti-viral Ski2p gene product. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Chemistry of Food Additives: Direct and Indirect Effects.

    Pauli, George H.


    The primary component(s), impurities, and degradation products of polysorbate 80, nitrate and nitrite salts, and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) are discussed. Safety considerations related to these food additives are also noted. The chick-edema factor which results from an additive in poultry feed is also discussed. (JN)

  18. Effect of Additional Structure on Effective Stack Height of Gas Dispersion in Atmosphere

    Takenobu Michioka


    Full Text Available Wind-tunnel experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of additional structure (building, sea wall and banking on the effective stack height, which is usually used in safety analyses of nuclear power facilities in Japan. The effective stack heights were estimated with and without the additional structure in addition to the reactor building while varying several conditions such as the source height, the height of additional structure and the distance between the source position and the additional structure. When the source height is equivalent to the reactor building height, the additional structure enhances both the vertical and horizontal gas dispersion widths and decreases the ground gas concentration, and it means that the additional structure does not decrease the effective stack height. When the source height is larger than the reactor height, the additional structures might affect the effective stack height. As the distance between the source and the additional structure decreases, or as the height of the additional structure increases, the structure has a larger effect on the effective stack height.

  19. The Effect Acid Addition on Characteristic Effervescent Tablet of Tamarillo

    Fidela Violalita


    Full Text Available The aim of study was to determine the percentage of acid and its influence on characteristic effervescent tablet of tamarillo. The percentages of  acid addition that consist with citric acid and tartaric acid (1:1 were 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35%. Water content, pH solution, vitamin C content, soluble duration, friability of tablet and organoleptic test on colour, aroma and flavour of tamarillo effervescent tablet were determined after addition of acid. The results showed that the difference in percentage of acid addition significantly affected to the water content, pH solution, soluble duration and friability of tablets. Based on organoleptic test, the tablet consist of 25% addition of acid was the best percentage of acid addition. The quality parameters in this percentage were the water content 6.09%, pH solution 4.80,  vitamin C 498.0800 mg/tablet, soluble duration 3.96 minute, friability of tablet 0.11%, while the averages of organoleptic test for colour were 3.40 (ordinary, aroma 3.36 (ordinary, and flavour 3.76 (like.

  20. Segregation Analysis of 231 Ashkenazi Jewish Families for Evidence of Additional Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes

    David J. Kaufman; Terri H. Beaty; Jeffery P. Struewing


    .... Using segregation analysis, families of cases without BRCA1/2 mutations were studied for statistical evidence of another major breast cancer gene in a community-based sample of Jewish probands tested...

  1. Arete - candidate gene prioritization using biological network topology with additional evidence types

    Artem Lysenko; Keith Anthony Boroevich; Tatsuhiko Tsunoda


    ... of the largest possible fraction of all available data. Results We have developed an easily accessible framework that links two established network-based gene prioritization approaches with a supporting isolation forest-based integrative ranking method...

  2. Effect of Additives on the Physicochemical and Drug Release ...


    diffusion method with and without additives (polyethylene glycol 6000, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, β cyclodextrin .... (ml) ratio. Appropriately diluted samples were filtered through Whatman filter paper no. 41(pore size 25 ... after one mechanical tap and tap volume was measured after ..... and surface area changes in compacted.


    Danielly Vieira de Lucena


    Full Text Available The influence of carboxymethylcellulose, CMC (filtrate reducer and xanthan gum (viscosifier in plastic and apparent viscosity at yield strength and the volume of filtrate in the composition of drilling fluids based on water was investigated based on statistical design. Five formulations consist of a range of concentrations used commercially were utilized in the design of the experiment. The formulations were prepared in accordance with company standards Petrobras. Regression models were calculated and correlated with the properties of the compositions. The relevance and validation of the models were confirmed by statistical analysis. The design can be applied to statistically optimize the mud properties considering the addition of CMC and xanthan gum, and to provide a better understanding of the influence of additives on the properties of polymer-based fluid system water. From the study it was observed that the values of the rheological properties vary with the concentration of additives, increasing with increasing concentration of the same, and that the concentration of the additives caused a decline of parameter values filtration.

  4. Effect of Additives on the Selectivity and Reactivity of Enzymes.

    Liang, Yi-Ru; Wu, Qi; Lin, Xian-Fu


    Enzymes have been widely used as efficient, eco-friendly, and biodegradable catalysts in organic chemistry due to their mild reaction conditions and high selectivity and efficiency. In recent years, the catalytic promiscuity of many enzymes in unnatural reactions has been revealed and studied by chemists and biochemists, which has expanded the application potential of enzymes. To enhance the selectivity and activity of enzymes in their natural or promiscuous reactions, many methods have been recommended, such as protein engineering, process engineering, and media engineering. Among them, the additive approach is very attractive because of its simplicity to use and high efficiency. In this paper, we will review the recent developments about the applications of additives to improve the catalytic performances of enzymes in their natural and promiscuous reactions. These additives include water, organic bases, water mimics, cosolvents, crown ethers, salts, surfactants, and some particular molecular additives. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. The clock gene circuit in Arabidopsis includes a repressilator with additional feedback loops.

    Pokhilko, Alexandra; Fernández, Aurora Piñas; Edwards, Kieron D; Southern, Megan M; Halliday, Karen J; Millar, Andrew J


    Circadian clocks synchronise biological processes with the day/night cycle, using molecular mechanisms that include interlocked, transcriptional feedback loops. Recent experiments identified the evening complex (EC) as a repressor that can be essential for gene expression rhythms in plants. Integrating the EC components in this role significantly alters our mechanistic, mathematical model of the clock gene circuit. Negative autoregulation of the EC genes constitutes the clock's evening loop, replacing the hypothetical component Y. The EC explains our earlier conjecture that the morning gene Pseudo-Response Regulator 9 was repressed by an evening gene, previously identified with Timing Of CAB Expression1 (TOC1). Our computational analysis suggests that TOC1 is a repressor of the morning genes Late Elongated Hypocotyl and Circadian Clock Associated1 rather than an activator as first conceived. This removes the necessity for the unknown component X (or TOC1mod) from previous clock models. As well as matching timeseries and phase-response data, the model provides a new conceptual framework for the plant clock that includes a three-component repressilator circuit in its complex structure.

  6. Effects of additive noise on the stability of glacial cycles

    Mitsui, Takahito


    It is well acknowledged that the sequence of glacial-interglacial cycles is paced by the astronomical forcing. However, how much is the sequence robust against natural fluctuations associated, for example, with the chaotic motions of atmosphere and oceans? In this article, the stability of the glacial-interglacial cycles is investigated on the basis of simple conceptual models. Specifically, we study the influence of additive white Gaussian noise on the sequence of the glacial cycles generated by stochastic versions of several low-order dynamical system models proposed in the literature. In the original deterministic case, the models exhibit different types of attractors: a quasiperiodic attractor, a piecewise continuous attractor, strange nonchaotic attractors, and a chaotic attractor. We show that the combination of the quasiperiodic astronomical forcing and additive fluctuations induce a form of temporarily quantised instability. More precisely, climate trajectories corresponding to different noise realiza...

  7. Investigation of Fuel Additive Effects on Sooting Flames


    material to be analyzed i, illuminated with a beam of soft x-rays. These cause both photo- and Auger-electrons to be emitted from surface layer atoms. controlled sputtering away of surface material with energetic argon cations done in sequence with the ESCA procedure described above. The ESCA...may not always be estimated accurately. This difficulty’ rn-y be overcome, how., vver , by making anI additional Rayleigh measurement of’ scattered

  8. A novel additional group II intron distinguishes the mitochondrial rps3 gene in gymnosperms.

    Regina, Teresa M R; Picardi, Ernesto; Lopez, Loredana; Pesole, Graziano; Quagliariello, Carla


    Comparative analysis of the ribosomal protein S3 gene (rps3) in the mitochondrial genome of Cycas with newly sequenced counterparts from Magnolia and Helianthus and available sequences from higher plants revealed that the positional clustering with the genes for ribosomal protein S19 (rps19) and L16 (rpl16) is preserved in gymnosperms. However, in contrast to the other land plant species, the rps3 gene in Cycas mitochondria is unique in possessing a second intron: rps3i2. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of the transcripts generated from the rps19-rps3-rpl16 cluster in Cycas mitochondria demonstrated that the genes are cotranscribed and extensively modified by RNA editing and that both introns are efficiently spliced. Despite remarkable size heterogeneity, the Cycas rps3i1 can be shown to be homologous to the group IIA introns present within the rps3 gene of algae and land plants, including Magnolia and Helianthus. Conversely, sequences similar to the rps3i2 have not been reported previously. On the basis of conserved primary and secondary structure the second intervening sequence interrupting the Cycas rps3 gene has been classified as a group II intron. The close relationship of the rps3i2 to a group of different plant mitochondrial introns is intriguing and suggestive of a mitochondrial derivation for this novel intervening sequence. Interestingly, the rps3i2 appears to be conserved at the same gene location in other gymnosperms. Furthermore, the pattern of the rps3i2 distribution among algae and land plants provides evidence for the evolutionary acquisition of this novel intron in gymnosperms via intragenomic transposition or retrotransposition.

  9. Effects of barley chromosome addition to wheat on behavior and development of Locusta migratoria nymphs.

    Suematsu, Shunji; Harano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Seiji; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Watari, Yasuhiko; Saito, Osamu; Tokuda, Makoto


    Locusta migratoria feeds on various Poaceae plants but barley. Barley genes related to feeding deterrence may be useful for developing novel resistant crops. We investigated the effects of barley cultivar Betzes, wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), and six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H-7H) on locomotor activity, feeding behavior, survival and development of L. migratoria nymphs. Locomotor activity was similar in nymphs kept with wheat and 2H-7H in an actograph, whereas it was generally high in those kept with barely. No-choice and choice feeding tests suggested that barley genes related to inhibition of feeding by L. migratoria are located on barley chromosomes 5H and 6H and those related to the palatability of plants on chromosomes 2H, 5H and 6H. Rearing experiments suggested the presence of barley genes negatively affecting the survival and growth of locust nymphs on chromosomes 5H and 2H, respectively, and the effects are phase-dependent.

  10. Cognitive Effects of Greek Affiliation in College: Additional Evidence

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Flowers, Lamont; Whitt, Elizabeth J.


    Previous research published in this journal found broad-based negative effects of Greek affiliation on standardized measures of cognitive development after 1 year of college. Following the same sample, and employing essentially the same research design and analytic model, the present study found that the negative effects of Greek affiliation were…

  11. Hyperoxic brain effects are normalized by addition of CO2.

    Paul M Macey


    Full Text Available Hyperoxic ventilation (>21% O2 is widely used in medical practice for resuscitation, stroke intervention, and chronic supplementation. However, despite the objective of improving tissue oxygen delivery, hyperoxic ventilation can accentuate ischemia and impair that outcome. Hyperoxia results in, paradoxically, increased ventilation, which leads to hypocapnia, diminishing cerebral blood flow and hindering oxygen delivery. Hyperoxic delivery induces other systemic changes, including increased plasma insulin and glucagon levels and reduced myocardial contractility and relaxation, which may derive partially from neurally mediated hormonal and sympathetic outflow. Several cortical, limbic, and cerebellar brain areas regulate these autonomic processes. The aim of this study was to assess recruitment of these regions in response to hyperoxia and to determine whether any response would be countered by addition of CO2 to the hyperoxic gas mixture.We studied 14 children (mean age 11 y, range 8-15 y. We found, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, that 2 min of hyperoxic ventilation (100% O2 following a room air baseline elicited pronounced responses in autonomic and hormonal control areas, including the hypothalamus, insula, and hippocampus, throughout the challenge. The addition of 5% CO2 to 95% O2 abolished responses in the hypothalamus and lingual gyrus, substantially reduced insular, hippocampal, thalamic, and cerebellar patterns in the first 48 s, and abolished signals in those sites thereafter. Only the dorsal midbrain responded to hypercapnia, but not hyperoxia.In this group of children, hyperoxic ventilation led to responses in brain areas that modify hypothalamus-mediated sympathetic and hormonal outflow; these responses were diminished by addition of CO2 to the gas mixture. This study in healthy children suggests that supplementing hyperoxic administration with CO2 may mitigate central and peripheral consequences of hyperoxia.

  12. Effects of an additional dimension in the Young experiment

    Barros, Allan Kardec


    The results of the Young experiment can be analyzed either by classical or Quantum Physics. The later one though leads to a more complete interpretation, based on two different patterns that appear when one works either with single or double slits. Here we show that the two patterns can be derived from a single principle, in the context of General Relativity, if one assumes an additional spatial dimension to the four known today. The found equations yield the same results as those in Quantum Mechanics.

  13. Effects of an additional dimension in the Young experiment

    Barros, Allan Kardec, E-mail:


    The results of the Young experiment can be analyzed either by classical or Quantum Physics. The later one though leads to a more complete interpretation, based on two different patterns that appear when one works either with single or double slits. Here we show that the two patterns can be derived from a single principle, in the context of General Relativity, if one assumes an additional spatial dimension to the four known today. The found equations yield the same results as those in Quantum Mechanics.

  14. The Effect of Fluorocarbon Surfactant Additives on the Effective Viscosity of Acetone Solutions of Cellulose Diacetate,



  15. Identification of a sugar beet BvM14-MADS box gene through differential gene expression analysis of monosomic addition line M14.

    Ma, Chunquan; Wang, Yuguang; Wang, Yuting; Wang, Lifa; Chen, Sixue; Li, Haiying


    Monosomic addition line M14 carrying an additional chromosome 9 from Beta corolliflora Zosimovic ex Buttler was obtained through hybridization between the wild species B. corolliflora and a cultivated species Beta vulgaris L. var Saccharifera Alef. The M14 line showed diplosporic reproduction and stress tolerance. To identify differentially expressed genes in M14, a subtractive cDNA library was prepared by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) between M14 (2n=18+1) and B. vulgaris (2n=18). A total of 190 unique sequences were identified in the library and their putative functions were analyzed using Gene Ontology (GO). One of the genes, designated as BvM14-MADS box, encodes a MADS box transcription factor. It was cloned from M14 and over-expressed in transgenic tobacco plants. Interestingly, this gene was located on chromosome 2 of B. vulgaris, not on the additional chromosome 9. Overexpression of BvM14-MADS box led to significant phenotypic changes in tobacco. The differential expression of BvM14-MADS box gene in M14 may be caused by the interaction between the additional chromosome 9 from B. corolliflora and the B. vulgaris chromosomes in M14.

  16. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Hypertension, and Their Additive Effects on Atherosclerosis

    Mario Francesco Damiani


    Full Text Available Background and Aims. It is widely accepted that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is independently associated with atherosclerosis. Similar to OSA, hypertension (HTN is a condition associated with atherosclerosis. However, to date, the impact of the simultaneous presence of OSA and HTN on the risk of atherosclerosis has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of the coexistence of OSA and HTN on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT and on inflammatory markers of atherosclerosis (such as interleukin- [IL-] 6 and pentraxin- [PTX-] 3. Methods. The study design allowed us to define 4 groups: (1 controls (n=30; (2 OSA patients without HTN (n=30; (3 HTN patients without OSA (n=30; (4 patients with OSA and HTN (n=30. In the morning after portable monitoring (between 7 am and 8 am, blood samples were collected, and carotid IMT was measured. Results. Carotid IMT, IL-6, and PTX-3 in OSA normotensive patients and in non-OSA HTN subjects were significantly higher compared to control subjects; in addition, in OSA hypertensive patients they were significantly increased compared to OSA normotensive, non-OSA HTN, or control subjects. Conclusions. OSA and HTN have an additive role in the progression of carotid atherosclerosis and in blood levels of inflammatory markers for atherosclerosis, such as interleukin-6 and pentraxin-3.

  17. Effect of hydrogen addition on autoignited methane lifted flames

    Choin, Byung Chul


    Autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets with hydrogen-enriched methane fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. The results showed that the autoignited lifted flame of the methane/hydrogen mixture, which had an initial temperature over 920 K, the threshold temperature for autoignition in methane jets, exhibited features typical of either a tribrachial edge or mild combustion depending on fuel mole fraction and the liftoff height increased with jet velocity. The liftoff height in the hydrogen-assisted autoignition regime was dependent on the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the addition of small amounts of hydrogen, as was the case for pure methane jets. When the initial temperature was below 920 K, where the methane fuel did not show autoignition behavior, the flame was autoignited by the addition of hydrogen, which is an ignition improver. The liftoff height demonstrated a unique feature in that it decreased nonlinearly as the jet velocity increased. The differential diffusion of hydrogen is expected to play a crucial role in the decrease in the liftoff height with increasing jet velocity.

  18. Detection of additional genes of the patulin biosynthetic pathway in Penicillium griseofulvum

    Genes in the patulin biosynthetic pathway are likely to be arranged in a cluster as has been found for biosynthetic pathways of other mycotoxins. The mycotoxin patulin, common in apples and apple juice, is most often associated with Penicillium expansum. However, of 15 fungal species capable of sy...

  19. [Effective prevention through nutritional and food additives: barriers and resistance].

    Lux, R; Walter, U


    The population-wide and individual preventive potentials of nutritional and food additives such as vitamins and trace elements are generally accepted in the international literature. Iodisation and fluoridation were and are a main focus of activity. The enrichment of food with folic acid is also partly population-related. Until now, however, the theoretical possibilities of nutritional supplementations have not been fully exploited. Various barriers and resistances arise in programme development and implementation. Interviews with key stakeholders and community groups can clarify decade-long discussions in the literature and the media. The study on hand is based on a structural analysis. It shows the various arguments as well as beneficial and impeding factors for a population-wide prevention programme, for specific target groups and individuals. The findings of this research could also be applied to other Public Health challenges.

  20. Characterization of the Soluble NSF Attachment Protein gene family identifies two members involved in additive resistance to a plant pathogen

    Lakhssassi, Naoufal; Liu, Shiming; Bekal, Sadia; Zhou, Zhou; Colantonio, Vincent; Lambert, Kris; Barakat, Abdelali; Meksem, Khalid


    Proteins with Tetratricopeptide-repeat (TPR) domains are encoded by large gene families and distributed in all plant lineages. In this study, the Soluble NSF-Attachment Protein (SNAP) subfamily of TPR containing proteins is characterized. In soybean, five members constitute the SNAP gene family: GmSNAP18, GmSNAP11, GmSNAP14, GmSNAP02, and GmSNAP09. Recently, GmSNAP18 has been reported to mediate resistance to soybean cyst nematode (SCN). Using a population of recombinant inbred lines from resistant and susceptible parents, the divergence of the SNAP gene family is analysed over time. Phylogenetic analysis of SNAP genes from 22 diverse plant species showed that SNAPs were distributed in six monophyletic clades corresponding to the major plant lineages. Conservation of the four TPR motifs in all species, including ancestral lineages, supports the hypothesis that SNAPs were duplicated and derived from a common ancestor and unique gene still present in chlorophytic algae. Syntenic analysis of regions harbouring GmSNAP genes in soybean reveals that this family expanded from segmental and tandem duplications following a tetraploidization event. qRT-PCR analysis of GmSNAPs indicates a co-regulation following SCN infection. Finally, genetic analysis demonstrates that GmSNAP11 contributes to an additive resistance to SCN. Thus, GmSNAP11 is identified as a novel minor gene conferring resistance to SCN. PMID:28338077

  1. Effects of various additives to enhance growth performance, blood ...

    Martina van Heerden


    Jun 28, 2017 ... later nursing period, and there were positive effects on feed ... To collect blood samples from the pigs, the cervical vein artery was ... (NH3, H2S, and VFAs) were analysed with a gas tech detection tube. ... were detected using Gastec GV-110S gas detection machine and tube namely, NH3 detector tube No.

  2. Effect of maceration enzymes addition on the aromatic white winemaking



    Full Text Available White grapes of Muscat Ottonel variety were treated enzymatically with maceration enzyme preparation and then fermented with selected yeast. These treatments resulted in an increase of the extraction of the compounds involved in wine aroma and of the must yield. Also an improvement of filterability and a decreasing of the sedimentation and clarification time were noticed. The enzymatic treatment presented a benefic effect on the dynamics of the alcoholic fermentation and the final wine composition. By using maceration enzymes, the wine aromatic intensity is emphasized, because the enzymatic preparation contains high concentrations of both glycosidase acting on the first stage of the enzymatic mechanism and the β-glucosidase acting on the second phase of enzyme mechanism able to release the aromatic constituents. These results are also closely related to the sensory analysis, which indicated that the glycosidase enzymatic treatment seemed to be effective for the improvement of the aroma of Muscat Ottonel wines.

  3. Decalcifying efficacy of different irrigating solutions: effect of cetrimide addition

    POGGIO Claudio


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare the influence of cetrimide on decalcifying capability of different irrigating solutions. Fifteen maxillary central incisor teeth has been collected. The canals were prepared in order to obtain four samples from each root. The specimens were randomly divided into 6 experimental groups (n=10 according to tested irrigating agents. Irrigating agents consisted in different composition of EDTA and citric acid solutions, addicted or not with cetrimide. Each specimen was submitted to three successive 5-min immersions in each solution. After exposures, the concentration of Ca2+ extracted was measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES. Data were analysed by means of Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney tests. Significance was predetermined at p < 0.05. For all irrigants, the amounts of Ca2+ extracted from root canal dentin samples at 10 minutes were not significantly different from values reported after 15 minutes respectively. Therefore, for all irrigants tested, 10 minutes of application are sufficient to obtain maximum Ca2+ release. Moreover citric acid based agents observed a higher release of Ca2+. The addition of cetrimide did not affect the decalcifying capability of the EDTA and citric acid solutions.

  4. Effect of inoculating addition on machinability of gray cast iron

    REN Fengzhang; LI Fengjun; LIU Weiming; MA Zhanhong; TIAN Baohong


    Gray cast irons were inoculated with FeSi75+RE and FeSi75+Sr inoculants. The changes of apex angle of the drills before and af-ter being used were used to evaluate machinability of gray cast irons. Effect of FeSi75+RE and FeSi75+Sr inoculants on mechanical proper-ties, machinability and sensibility of gray cast iron used in cylinder block were investigated. Experimental results showed that gray cast iron treated with 60%FeSi75+40% RE inoculants exhibited tensile strength consistently at about 295 MPa along with good hardness and im-proved metallurgical quality. While gray cast iron inoculated with 20%FeSi75+80% Sr inoculants exhibited the best machinability, the low-est cross-section sensibility and the least microhardness difference. The tool flank wear of the drill increased correspondingly with the in-crease of the microhardness difference of the matrix, indicating the great effect of homogeneity of the matrix on the machinability of gray cast iron.

  5. Effects of Charcoal Addition on the Properties of Carbon Anodes

    Asem Hussein


    Full Text Available Wood charcoal is an attractive alternative to petroleum coke in production of carbon anodes for the aluminum smelting process. Calcined petroleum coke is the major component in the anode recipe and its consumption results in a direct greenhouse gas (GHG footprint for the industry. Charcoal, on the other hand, is considered as a green and abundant source of sulfur-free carbon. However, its amorphous carbon structure and high contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals (e.g., Na and Ca make charcoal highly reactive to air and CO2. Acid washing and heat treatment were employed in order to reduce the reactivity of charcoal. The pre-treated charcoal was used to substitute up to 10% of coke in the anode recipe in an attempt to investigate the effect of this substitution on final anode properties. The results showed deterioration in the anode properties by increasing the charcoal content. However, by adjusting the anode recipe, this negative effect can be considerably mitigated. Increasing the pitch content was found to be helpful to improve the physical properties of the anodes containing charcoal.

  6. Gamma radiation effects on siloxane-based additive manufactured structures

    Schmalzer, Andrew M.; Cady, Carl M.; Geller, Drew; Ortiz-Acosta, Denisse; Zocco, Adam T.; Stull, Jamie; Labouriau, Andrea


    Siloxane-basedadditive manufactured structures prepared by the direct ink write (DIW) technology were exposed to ionizing irradiation in order to gauge radiolysis effects on structure-property relationships. These well-defined 3-D structures were subjected to moderate doses of gamma irradiation in an inert atmosphere and characterized by a suite of experimental methods. Changes in thermal, chemical, microstructure, and mechanical properties were evaluated by DSC, TGA, FT-IR, mass spectroscopy, EPR, solvent swelling, SEM, and uniaxial compressive load techniques. Our results demonstrated that 3-D structures made from aromatic-free siloxane resins exhibited hardening after being exposed to gamma radiation. This effect was accompanied by gas evolution, decreasing in crystallization levels, decreasing in solvent swelling and damage to the microstructure. Furthermore, long-lived radiation-induced radicals were not detected by EPR methods. Our results are consistent with cross-link formation being the dominant degradation mechanism over chain scission reactions. On the other hand, 3-D structures made from high phenyl content siloxane resins showed little radiation damage as evidenced by low off gassing.

  7. Supplementing High-Density SNP Microarrays for Additional Coverage of Disease-Related Genes: Addiction as a Paradigm

    SacconePhD, Scott F [Washington University, St. Louis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Bierut, Laura J [Washington University, St. Louis; Kalivas, Peter J [Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston; Lerman, Caryn [University of Pennsylvania; Saccone, Nancy L [Washington University, St. Louis; Uhl, George R [Johns Hopkins University; Li, Chuan-Yun [Peking University; Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Edenberg, Howard [Indiana University; Sherry, Steven [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Feolo, Michael [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Moyzis, Robert K [Johns Hopkins University; Rutter, Joni L [National Institute of Drug Abuse


    Commercial SNP microarrays now provide comprehensive and affordable coverage of the human genome. However, some diseases have biologically relevant genomic regions that may require additional coverage. Addiction, for example, is thought to be influenced by complex interactions among many relevant genes and pathways. We have assembled a list of 486 biologically relevant genes nominated by a panel of experts on addiction. We then added 424 genes that showed evidence of association with addiction phenotypes through mouse QTL mappings and gene co-expression analysis. We demonstrate that there are a substantial number of SNPs in these genes that are not well represented by commercial SNP platforms. We address this problem by introducing a publicly available SNP database for addiction. The database is annotated using numeric prioritization scores indicating the extent of biological relevance. The scores incorporate a number of factors such as SNP/gene functional properties (including synonymy and promoter regions), data from mouse systems genetics and measures of human/mouse evolutionary conservation. We then used HapMap genotyping data to determine if a SNP is tagged by a commercial microarray through linkage disequilibrium. This combination of biological prioritization scores and LD tagging annotation will enable addiction researchers to supplement commercial SNP microarrays to ensure comprehensive coverage of biologically relevant regions.

  8. Additional effective dose by patients undergoing NAI-131 capsules therapy

    Orlic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Spasic Jokic, V.; Cuknic, O.; Ilic, Z.; Vranjes Djuric, S. [VINCA - Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (Yugoslavia)


    Capsules or solutions containing Na{sup 131}I are indicated for the therapy of some thyroid carcinomas such as functioning metastatic papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid; and for the treatment of hyperthyroidism (diffuse toxic goiter and single or multiple toxic nodular goiter). The recommended dosage ranges of Na{sup 131}I capsules or solution for the therapy of the average patient (70 kg) are: (3.7-5.55) GBq for ablation of normal thyroid tissue; (3.7-7.4) GBq for subsequent treatments; a (148-370) MBq for hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this paper is to calculate effective dose as a result of iodine-131 capsules remaining in stomach before absorption starts. This result can determine the disadvantage of capsule versus solution containing sodium iodine-131 (Na{sup 131}I) in radionuclide therapy application from radiation protection point of view. The Monte Carlo code MCNP4b was used to model transport of gamma and beta particles emitted by radionuclide {sup 131}I treated as a point source at the bottom of stomach. Absorbed energy per unit transformation in stomach and surrounding organs has been calculated. (authors)

  9. Effect of bovine lactoferrin addition to milk in yogurt manufacturing.

    Franco, I; Castillo, E; Pérez, M D; Calvo, M; Sánchez, L


    The aim of this work was to study the effect of milk supplementation with lactoferrin of different iron saturation on the manufacturing and characteristics of yogurt. Bovine lactoferrin was added at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL in the holo (iron saturated) and apo (without iron) forms. Some physicochemical properties, such as pH, concentration of lactic acid, and texture of supplemented yogurts, were determined throughout the shelf-life period storage (28 d) at 4°C. We also evaluated the stability of lactoferrin in supplemented yogurt throughout the storage time. The supplementation of milk with bovine lactoferrin did not greatly affect the physical properties of the yogurt, though apo-lactoferrin slightly delayed the decrease of pH. This could be attributed to the partial inhibition observed on the growth of Streptococcus thermophilus. The integrity and immunoreactive concentration of lactoferrin, determined by Western blotting and noncompetitive ELISA, respectively, remained constant throughout the shelf life of yogurt.




    Full Text Available The experiment was been performed in the sector of Nutrition and Animal Feeding discipline from Timisoara Didactic Station, on a 6 week period, beginning with hatching and finishing with 42 days of age, on 120 broilers divided into four experimental variants, each of them with 30 individuals. In LEU group was incorporated essential oils of Satureja hortensis, Mentha piperita and Hyperici herba 250 mg in 1 kg combined fodder, in LEP group was included in combined fodder structure a plants premix in 2%, in LEUP group was incorporated plants premix 2% +250 mg essential oil of Satureja hortensis, Mentha piperita, Hyperici herba in 1 kg combined fodder. After seric lizozime quntification was observed an increase with 303.46% in LEPU group, followed by LEU with 200.14%, results who demonstrated the presence of an immunological stimulation in broiler chickens. Increased values of seric properdine were observed in LEPU group, with 210.45% more increased in comparison with LM group, followed by LEU group, demonstrating that the changing of unspecific immune effectors values took place like a result of a exogenous substance with immunomodulator effect. Was also observed an easy increase of limfocytes in LPU group, but not so important like in first two determinations, if the experiment will continue, these values maybe will be significant increased, taking into consideration that these increases become more evident after a period of time after stimulation.

  11. Effect of extracellular calcium on the additive effect of theophylline on the cardiac response to catecholamine

    Shamkuwar Prashant


    Full Text Available At different extracellular calcium concentrations, the positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol and isoproterenol in combination with theophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor have been evaluated in the isolated frog heart and the isolated guinea pig left atria to investigate whether extracellular calcium produces any effect on the additive effect of the theophylline on the cardiac response to catecholamine. Cumulative dose response study of isoproterenol and isoproterenol in presence of theophylline at different extracellular calcium concentration was performed. The study revealed an increase in additive effect of theophylline on the cardiac response to catecholamine with increase in extracellular calcium concentration, but increase in extracellular calcium concentration decreased the myocardial responsiveness to additive effect of theophylline and isoproterenol combination. The mechanism of positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol and in combination with theophylline involves increase in intracellular cAMP by different pathways and extracellular calcium produces positive inotropic effect by initiating the interaction between the contractile proteins actin and myosin. The study revealed that an increase in the concentration of extracellular calcium increased the additive effect of theophylline and isoproterenol combination, but a decrease in the myocardial responsiveness was observed.

  12. Relationship of p73 gene polymorphism and additional gene-smoking and gene-obesity interaction with non-small cell lung cancer risk.

    Wu, Qiuge; Shi, Yan; Ge, Lulu; Ma, Dongbo; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jing


    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism within P73 gene and additional interactions with current smoking and obesity on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) risk in a Chinese population. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association between genotypes of the AT allele in G4C14-to-A4T14 and decreased NSCLC risk. NSCLC risk was significantly lower in carriers of the G4C14-to-A4T14- AT allele than those with GC/GC genotype (AT/AT + GC/AT versus GC/GC), adjusted OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.55-0.93). We also found that the OR (95%CI) was 1.88 (1.32-2.47) for current smokers compared with never smokers and 0.69 (0.40-0.95) for obese subjects compared to participants with normal BMI. Never smokers with AT/AT or GC/AT of the G4C14-to-A4T14 genotype have the lowest NSCLC risk compared with smokers with the GC/GC genotype after covariates adjustment, OR (95%CI) = 0.52 (0.26-0.87). Obese participants with G4C14-to-A4T14- AT/AT or GC/AT genotype have the lowest NSCLC risk compared with non- obese subjects with the GC/GC genotype after adjusting for covariates, OR (95% CI) = 0.56 (0.33-0.85). A logistic regression model was used to examine the association between G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism and NSCLC, and its interaction with current smoking and obesity. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confident intervals (95%CI) were calculated. Our results support an important association between the G4C14-to-A4T14 and decreased NSCLC risk and additional impact of an interaction between G4C14-to-A4T14 and smoking or obesity on NSCLC risk.

  13. Expression QTL analysis of top loci from GWAS meta-analysis highlights additional schizophrenia candidate genes

    de Jong, Simone; van Eijk, Kristel R.; Zeegers, Dave W. L. H.; Strengman, Eric; Janson, Esther; Veldink, Jan; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, Rene S.; Boks, Marco P. M.; Ophoff, Roel A.


    There is genetic evidence that schizophrenia is a polygenic disorder with a large number of loci of small effect on disease susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia have had limited success, with the best finding at the MHC locus at chromosome 6p. A recent effort of t

  14. Potent antiatherosclerotic effects of alogliptin in addition to its potent antidiabetic effects

    Kapoor S


    Full Text Available Shailendra KapoorMechanicsville, Richmond, VA, USAI read with great interest the article by Andukuri et al in a recent issue of your journal.1 The article makes compelling reading. Interestingly, research over the past few years has shown that in addition to its significant diabetic-modulating effects, alogliptin also exerts significant direct antiatherosclerotic effects.View original paper by Andukuri and colleagues

  15. Influence of temperature, mixing, and addition of microcystin-LR on microcystin gene expression in Microcystis aeruginosa.

    Scherer, Pia I; Raeder, Uta; Geist, Juergen; Zwirglmaier, Katrin


    Cyanobacteria, such as the toxin producer Microcystis aeruginosa, are predicted to be favored by global warming both directly, through elevated water temperatures, and indirectly, through factors such as prolonged stratification of waterbodies. M. aeruginosa is able to produce the hepatotoxin microcystin, which causes great concern in freshwater management worldwide. However, little is known about the expression of microcystin synthesis genes in response to climate change-related factors. In this study, a new RT-qPCR assay employing four reference genes (GAPDH, gltA, rpoC1, and rpoD) was developed to assess the expression of two target genes (the microcystin synthesis genes mcyB and mcyD). This assay was used to investigate changes in mcyB and mcyD expression in response to selected environmental factors associated with global warming. A 10°C rise in temperature significantly increased mcyB expression, but not mcyD expression. Neither mixing nor the addition of microcystin-LR (10 μg L(-1) or 60 μg L(-1) ) significantly altered mcyB and mcyD expression. The expression levels of mcyB and mcyD were correlated but not identical.

  16. Additive effects of trastuzumab and genistein on human breast cancer cells.

    Lattrich, Claus; Lubig, Julia; Springwald, Anette; Goerse, Regina; Ortmann, Olaf; Treeck, Oliver


    Soy isoflavone genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor and agonist of estrogen receptor-β (ERβ), is known to have antitumoral properties. Given that ERβ often is coexpressed with HER2 in breast cancer, both functions of genistein might be able to enhance the antitumoral action of trastuzumab. In this in-vitro study, we tested whether combined treatment with genistein and trastuzumab exerts additive effects on breast cancer cells. HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines were treated with genistein alone and in combination with trastuzumab. The effects of this treatment on proliferation and gene expression were analyzed. Treatment with high-dose genistein (10 μmol/l) significantly increased the growth-inhibitory effect of trastuzumab on HER2-overexpressing, ERα/β-positive BT-474 breast cancer cells. Combinatory treatment using lower doses of trastuzumab exerted similar effects as a single treatment with standard doses of this drug. In contrast, this effect was absent in ERα-negative SK-BR-3 cells. Similar results were obtained after cotreatment with the ERβ agonist, 2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionitrile. The growth-inhibitory effect of both drugs was accompanied by an increased expression of the putative tumor suppressor ERβ variant, cx, and their combination further elevated mRNA levels of this receptor. In conclusion, genistein significantly enhanced the antitumoral effect of trastuzumab on BT-474 breast cancer cells in vitro. The relevance of these data particularly for women with HER2-overexpressing and ERα/β-positive breast cancer has to be verified in animal or clinical studies.

  17. Evidence for susceptibility genes to familial Wilms tumour in addition to WT1, FWT1 and FWT2

    Rapley, E A; Barfoot, R; Bonaïti-Pellié, C; Chompret, A; Foulkes, W; Perusinghe, N; Reeve, A; Royer-Pokora, B; Schumacher, V; Shelling, A; Skeen, J; Tourreil, S de; Weirich, A; Pritchard-Jones, K; Stratton, M R; Rahman, N


    Three loci have been implicated in familial Wilms tumour: WT1 located on chromosome 11p13, FWT1 on 17q12-q21, and FWT2 on 19q13. Two out of 19 Wilms tumour families evaluated showed strong evidence against linkage at all three loci. Both of these families contained at least three cases of Wilms tumour indicating that they were highly likely to be due to genetic susceptibility and therefore that one or more additional familial Wilms tumour susceptibility genes remain to be found. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901367

  18. An investigation of the effect of pit latrine additives on VIP latrine ...


    Jul 4, 2015 ... additives claim that by addition of this product to pit content, accumulation rate and pit content volume can be reduced, .... quantify the effect of natural degradation and dehydration of pit latrine ... through the toilet pedestal.

  19. Targeted gene addition in human epithelial stem cells by zinc-finger nuclease-mediated homologous recombination.

    Coluccio, Andrea; Miselli, Francesca; Lombardo, Angelo; Marconi, Alessandra; Malagoli Tagliazucchi, Guidantonio; Gonçalves, Manuel A; Pincelli, Carlo; Maruggi, Giulietta; Del Rio, Marcela; Naldini, Luigi; Larcher, Fernando; Mavilio, Fulvio; Recchia, Alessandra


    Preclinical and clinical studies showed that autologous transplantation of epidermis derived from genetically modified epithelial stem cells (EpSCs) leads to long-term correction of inherited skin adhesion defects. These studies were based on potentially genotoxic retroviral vectors. We developed an alternative gene transfer strategy aimed at targeting a "safe harbor" locus, the adeno-associated virus integration site 1 (AAVS1), by zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN)-induced homologous recombination (HR). Delivery of AAVS1-specific ZFNs and a GFP-expressing HR cassette by integration-defective lentiviral (LV) vectors (IDLVs) or adenoviral (Ad) vectors resulted in targeted gene addition with an efficiency of > 20% in a human keratinocyte cell line, > 10% in immortalized keratinocytes, and < 1% in primary keratinocytes. Deep sequencing of the AAVS1 locus showed that ZFN-induced double-strand breaks are mostly repaired by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) in primary cells, indicating that poor induction of the HR-dependent DNA repair pathway may be a significant limitation for targeted gene integration. Skin equivalents derived from unselected keratinocyte cultures coinfected with a GFP-IDLV and a ZFN-Ad vector were grafted onto immunodeficient mice. GFP-positive clones were observed in all grafts up to 18 weeks post-transplantation. By histological and molecular analysis, we were able to demonstrate highly efficient targeting of the AAVS1 locus in human repopulating EpSCs.

  20. Dissection of additive, dominance, and imprinting effects for production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle

    Although genome-wide association and genomic selection studies have primarily focused on additive effects, dominance and imprinting effects play an important role in mammalian biology and development. The degree to which these non-additive genetic effects contribute to phenotypic variation and wheth...

  1. Curcumin and Its Analogue Induce Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Have Additive Effects with Bortezomib in Cellular and Xenograft Models

    L. I. Nagy


    Full Text Available Combination therapy of bortezomib with other chemotherapeutics is an emerging treatment strategy. Since both curcumin and bortezomib inhibit NF-κB, we tested the effects of their combination on leukemia cells. To improve potency, a novel Mannich-type curcumin derivative, C-150, was synthesized. Curcumin and its analogue showed potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on the human leukemia cell line, HL60, with different potency but similar additive properties with bortezomib. Additive antiproliferative effects were correlated well with LPS-induced NF-κB inhibition results. Gene expression data on cell cycle and apoptosis related genes, obtained by high-throughput QPCR, showed that curcumin and its analogue act through similar signaling pathways. In correlation with in vitro results similar additive effect could be obsereved in SCID mice inoculated systemically with HL60 cells. C-150 in a liposomal formulation given intravenously in combination with bortezomib was more efficient than either of the drugs alone. As our novel curcumin analogue exerted anticancer effects in leukemic cells at submicromolar concentration in vitro and at 3 mg/kg dose in vivo, which was potentiated by bortezomib, it holds a great promise as a future therapeutic agent in the treatment of leukemia alone or in combination.

  2. Effect of Copper Addition on Crystallization and Properties of Hafnium Containing HITPERM Alloys



  3. Gene-environment effects on hippocampal neurodevelopment

    Rosenthal, Eva Helga

    Mental disorders like schizophrenia and autism put a heavy load on today’s societies, creating a steady call for revealing underlying disease mechanisms and the development of effective treatments. The etiology of major psychiatric illnesses is complex involving gene by environment susceptibility...... factors. Hence, a deeper understanding is needed of how cortical neurodevelopmental deficiencies can arise from such gene-environment interactions. The convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors is a recent field of research. It is now clear that disease, infection and stress factors may...

  4. The combined effects of vinclozolin and procymidone do not deviate from expected additivity in vitro and in vivo

    Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Dalgaard, Majken; Lam, Henrik Rye;


    % inhibition (IC50) values of 0.1 and 0.6 muM, respectively. By applying the isobole method, the effect of combining the two pesticides in vitro was found to be additive. In castrated testosterone-treated rats the administration of vinclozolin starting at 10 mg/kg led to a decrease in organ weight of all....../kg. The level of 5-HT in the rat brain was increased after a dose of 10 mg/kg. Using the isobole method, comparisons of the observed and predicted effects assuming additivity on reproductive organ weights, hormone levels, and gene expression showed agreement and thus the combination effects are suggested......The combination effects of the well-known antiandrogenic fungicides, vinclozolin and procymidone, were tested both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro both vinclozolin and procymidone significantly inhibited the binding of agonist to the androgen receptor with the concentration that resulted in 50...

  5. Cloning and characterization of a gene involved in triacylglycerol biosynthesis and identification of additional homologous genes in the oleaginous bacterium Rhodococcus opacus PD630.

    Alvarez, Adrian F; Alvarez, Héctor M; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Wältermann, Marc; Steinbüchel, Alexander


    The oleaginous bacterium Rhodococus opacus strain PD630 serves as a model organism to investigate the metabolism of storage triacylglycerols (TAGs) in bacteria. The key enzyme catalysing the last step of TAG biosynthesis in bacteria is a promiscuous acyltransferase (Atf), exhibiting acyl-CoA acyltransferase activity to both diacylglycerols (DGAT activity) and fatty alcohols (wax ester synthase, WS activity). An 800 bp PCR product was obtained from chromosomal DNA of strain PD630 by using degenerate primers designed from conserved stretches of Atf proteins of Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1 and Mycobacterium smegmatis mc(2)155. The atf fragment was used as a probe on a strain PD630 gene library, resulting in the identification of a 3948 bp chromosomal DNA fragment containing the complete atf1 gene. An atf1 disruption mutant of strain PD630 exhibited a TAG-leaky phenotype and accumulated up to 50 % less fatty acids than the wild-type, with significantly reduced oleic acid content when cultivated in the presence of gluconate or oleic acid. Whereas DGAT activity was drastically reduced in comparison to the wild-type, WS activity remained almost unchanged in the mutant. RT-PCR analysis of gluconate-grown cells of strain PD630 showed that there is expression of atf1 under conditions of TAG synthesis. To identify additional Atfs in strain PD630, PCR employing non-degenerate primers deduced from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 sequence data was used. This yielded nine additional atf-homologous genes exhibiting 88-99 % sequence identity to the corresponding strain RHA1 enzymes. Besides Atf1 only Atf2 exhibited high DGAT and/or WS activity when heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli.

  6. Differential effects of adenovirus-p16 on bladder cancer cell lines can be overcome by the addition of butyrate.

    Lee, C T; Seol, J Y; Park, K H; Yoo, C G; Kim, Y W; Ahn, C; Song, Y W; Han, S K; Han, J S; Kim, S; Lee, J S; Shim, Y S


    High frequency of p16 alteration and high local recurrence rate of bladder cancer make this cancer an ideal target for p16 gene therapy. However, a low transduction rate of p16 via adenoviral vector causes an inconsistent result. In this study, we have tested adenovirus-p16 in several bladder cancer cell lines and investigated a way of improving the low transduction rate. Adenovirus-p16 showed a strong antitumor effect on bladder cancer cell lines (253J and T24) with strong Coxackie-adenoviral receptor (CAR) expression but little antitumor effect on bladder cancer cell lines (J82 and HT1376) with little CAR expression. In this study, we suggest a simple way of overcoming the differential effects of the adenovirus. The addition of butyrate to media was found to increase the transduction rate of adenovirus remarkably and increase the antitumor effect of adenovirus-p16 in bladder cancer cell lines with little CAR expression. Butyrate effects were related with increased CAR expression on the cell surface as well as increased transgene expression from adenoviral vector. From these observations, application of adenovirus-p16 gene therapy with butyrate can overcome the obstacle of low gene transfer and enhance the antitumor effect of adenovirus-p16 in bladder cancer.

  7. A study on effective use of heat transfer additives in the process of steam condensation

    Vemuri, Srinivas; Kim, Kwang J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States); Kang, Yong Tae [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Systems Engineering, KyungHee University, KyungHee (Korea, Republic of)


    It is well known that the additives in absorption chillers play a significant role in increasing absorber performance. Realizing that the additives in absorption chillers circulate throughout the system including the condensers, we investigated the effect of additives in the condenser. Reported herein are the results of the experimental and theoretical investigations done by using effective heat transfer additives for enhancing heat transfer coefficient in condensation of steam over a horizontal copper (99.9% Cu, 0.1% P) tube surface. By using effective additives, the condensation heat transfer coefficient can be enhanced as much as 1.47 times when compared to filmwise condensation. The steam condensation, which occurred in our experiments while using effective additives, was mostly pseudo-dropwise like. In our experiments, we noted that the use of heat transfer additive such as 2-ethoxyethanol for steam condensation was highly effective. This increase in heat transfer coefficient can be attributed to concept of Marangoni effect. It is understood that this surface convection is caused by local variations in the interfacial tension. So far there has been very little noted literature available on the theoretical aspect of surface tension effect on enhancing heat transfer rate in steam condensation. In the current research we try to explain the surface tension effect for enhancing heat transfer rate in steam condensation using effective heat transfer additives. (author)

  8. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

    Jocković Milan


    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  9. The additive and interactive effects of parenting and children's personality on externalizing behaviour

    Prinzie, P; Onghena, P; Hellinckx, W; Grietens, H; Ghesquiere, P; Colpin, H


    Parenting practices have been previously linked to childhood externalizing behaviour However little attention has been given to the potential effect of individual personality differences among children on this relation. The current study assesses the additive effects of children's personality charac

  10. Lethality of mice bearing a knockout of the Ngly1-gene is partially rescued by the additional deletion of the Engase gene.

    Haruhiko Fujihira


    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase (Ngly1 in mammals is a de-N-glycosylating enzyme that is highly conserved among eukaryotes. It was recently reported that subjects harboring mutations in the NGLY1 gene exhibited severe systemic symptoms (NGLY1-deficiency. While the enzyme obviously has a critical role in mammals, its precise function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed Ngly1-deficient mice and found that they are embryonic lethal in C57BL/6 background. Surprisingly, the additional deletion of the gene encoding endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Engase, which is another de-N-glycosylating enzyme but leaves a single GlcNAc at glycosylated Asn residues, resulted in the partial rescue of the lethality of the Ngly1-deficient mice. Additionally, we also found that a change in the genetic background of C57BL/6 mice, produced by crossing the mice with an outbred mouse strain (ICR could partially rescue the embryonic lethality of Ngly1-deficient mice. Viable Ngly1-deficient mice in a C57BL/6 and ICR mixed background, however, showed a very severe phenotype reminiscent of the symptoms of NGLY1-deficiency subjects. Again, many of those defects were strongly suppressed by the additional deletion of Engase in the C57BL/6 and ICR mixed background. The defects observed in Ngly1/Engase-deficient mice (C57BL/6 background and Ngly1-deficient mice (C57BL/6 and ICR mixed background closely resembled some of the symptoms of patients with an NGLY1-deficiency. These observations strongly suggest that the Ngly1- or Ngly1/Engase-deficient mice could serve as a valuable animal model for studies related to the pathogenesis of the NGLY1-deficiency, and that cytoplasmic ENGase represents one of the potential therapeutic targets for this genetic disorder.

  11. Concrete with the addition of a high level of fly ash and effect of the additive on the concrete

    Salcedo Lorente, A.J.


    Flyash is usually considered an acceptable substitute for Portland cement in concrete mixtures. However, this article is studying a type of concrete in which flyash makes up between 40 and 80% of the total weight of the conglomerate material, being considered as an additional ingredient to Portland cement, aggregates and water as well as requiring different proportions. 42 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Concentration addition, independent action and generalized concentration addition models for mixture effect prediction of sex hormone synthesis in vitro

    Hadrup, Niels; Taxvig, Camilla; Pedersen, Mikael;


    , antagonism was observed for effects of Mixture 2 on this hormone. The mixtures contained chemicals exerting only limited maximal effects. This hampered prediction by the CA and IA models, whereas the GCA model could be used to predict a full dose response curve. Regarding effects on progesterone...

  13. Effect of small additions of vanadium and niobium on structure and mechanical properties of ductile iron

    Fraś E.


    Full Text Available Results of investigations of influence of small additions of vanadium (up to 0,15 % V and niobium (up to 0,04% Nb on structure of ductile iron is presented in this work. Effect of these additions on distribution of graphite nodule diameter, nodule count, fraction and carbide count have been determined. Investigations of effect of small additions of vanadium and niobium on mechanical properties taking into account tensile strength, yield strength and elongation have also been made.

  14. Virus-induced gene silencing in detached tomatoes and biochemical effects of phytoene desaturase gene silencing.

    Romero, Irene; Tikunov, Yury; Bovy, Arnaud


    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a technology that has rapidly emerged for gene function studies in plants. Many advances have been made in applying this technique in an increasing number of crops. Recently, VIGS has been successfully used to silence genes in tomato fruit through agroinfiltration of fruit attached to the plant. The phytoene desaturase (Pds) gene has been widely used as a reporter gene in VIGS experiments, although little is known about the changes that occur due to its silencing in plants. In this paper, we describe the efficient silencing of the Pds gene through the VIGS approach in detached tomato fruits, which makes the VIGS procedure even more versatile and applicable. After 16 days of agroinfiltration, approximately 75% of the tomatoes showed Pds silencing symptoms, although the distribution of silenced areas was variable among fruits. To study the potential effects caused by Pds silencing in detached tomatoes, carotenoids and other semi-polar secondary metabolites were analyzed using Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. In addition, potential differences in primary metabolites were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results indicated that the yellow phenotype observed in Pds-silenced fruit was mainly due to the lack of the red-colored lycopene and therefore to a more pronounced contribution of the yellow-orange carotenoids (lutein, violaxanthin, and zeaxanthin) to the final color of the fruits. Furthermore, the biochemical changes observed in Pds-silenced detached tomatoes suggested that carotenoid and other pathways, e.g. leading to alkaloids and flavonoids, might be affected by the silencing of this reporter gene, and this should be taken into consideration for future experimental designs.

  15. The state of the art on zinc addition effect in the nuclear reactor coolant system

    Kim, U. C.; Sung, K. W.; Kim, K. R.; Paek, S.; Maeng, W. Y


    Zinc addition to the primary coolant appears promising with regard to reducing radiation dose rate, and is being used in several plants. Zinc acts to inhibit the corrosion of stainless steel by forming a thin protective film. This oxide film, with no associated increase in cobalt concentration within the film, thereby lowers the dose rate. This report on the state of art presents an overview of the zinc addition to the reactor coolant to reduce the primary system dose rate. This report discusses the effect of zinc addition for BWRs and PWRs, the thermodynamic of zinc chemistry, and the effect of zinc addition on material corrosion. (author)

  16. The additional yield of GeneXpert MTB/RIF test in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis among household contacts of smear positive TB cases

    Dereje Habte


    Conclusion: GeneXpert test led to increased TB case detection among household contacts in addition to its advantage in the diagnosis of Rifampicin resistance among contacts and index TB cases. There should be a consideration in using GeneXpert MTB/RIF as a point of care TB testing tool among high risk groups.

  17. Effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and subsequent methane production by anaerobic digestion.

    Liu, Shan; Ge, Xumeng; Liew, Lo Niee; Liu, Zhe; Li, Yebo


    The effect of urea addition on giant reed ensilage and sequential anaerobic digestion (AD) of the ensiled giant reed was evaluated. The dry matter loss during ensilage (up to 90 days) with or without urea addition was about 1%. Addition of 2% urea enhanced production of lactic acid by about 4 times, and reduced production of propionic acid by 2-8 times. Besides, urea addition reduced degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and increased degradation of lignin in giant reed during ensilage. Ensilage with or without urea addition had no significant effects on the enzymatic digestibility of giant reed, but ensilage with urea addition achieved a cumulative methane yield of 173 L/kg VS, which was 18% higher than that of fresh giant reed. The improved methane yield of giant reed could be attributed to the production of organic acids and ethanol during ensilage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Non-additive effects of intra- and interspecific competition between two larval salamanders.

    Anderson, Thomas L; Whiteman, Howard H


    Assessment of the relative strengths of intra- and interspecific competition has increased in recent years and is critical to understanding the importance of competition. Yet, whether intra- and interspecific competition can have non-additive effects has rarely been tested. The resulting fitness consequences of such non-additive interactions are important to provide the context necessary to advance our understanding of competition theory. We compared the strength of additive and non-additive intra- and interspecific competition by manipulating densities of a pair of larval salamanders (Ambystoma talpoideum and A. maculatum) in experimental mesocosms within a response surface design. Intraspecific density had the strongest effect on the strength of competition for both species, and few observed comparisons indicated interspecific competition was an important factor in predicting body size, growth or larval period length of either species. Non-additive effects of intra- and interspecific competition influenced some response variables, including size and mass at metamorphosis in A. maculatum, but at a reduced strength compared to intraspecific effects alone. Intraspecific competition was thus the dominant biotic interaction, but non-additive effects also impact the outcome of competition in these species, validating the importance of testing for and incorporating non-additive density effects into competition models.

  19. Glucose uptake and its effect on gene expression in prochlorococcus.

    Guadalupe Gómez-Baena

    Full Text Available The marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus have been considered photoautotrophic microorganisms, although the utilization of exogenous sugars has never been specifically addressed in them. We studied glucose uptake in different high irradiance- and low irradiance-adapted Prochlorococcus strains, as well as the effect of glucose addition on the expression of several glucose-related genes. Glucose uptake was measured by adding radiolabelled glucose to Prochlorococcus cultures, followed by flow cytometry coupled with cell sorting in order to separate Prochlorococcus cells from bacterial contaminants. Sorted cells were recovered by filtration and their radioactivity measured. The expression, after glucose addition, of several genes (involved in glucose metabolism, and in nitrogen assimilation and its regulation was determined in the low irradiance-adapted Prochlorococcus SS120 strain by semi-quantitative real time RT-PCR, using the rnpB gene as internal control. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the Prochlorococcus strains studied in this work take up glucose at significant rates even at concentrations close to those found in the oceans, and also exclude the possibility of this uptake being carried out by eventual bacterial contaminants, since only Prochlorococcus cells were used for radioactivity measurements. Besides, we show that the expression of a number of genes involved in glucose utilization (namely zwf, gnd and dld, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively is strongly increased upon glucose addition to cultures of the SS120 strain. This fact, taken together with the magnitude of the glucose uptake, clearly indicates the physiological importance of the phenomenon. Given the significant contribution of Prochlorococcus to the global primary production, these findings have strong implications for the understanding of the phytoplankton role in the carbon

  20. Effects of Argonaute on Gene Expression in Thermus thermophilus.

    Daan C Swarts

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic Argonaute proteins mediate RNA-guided RNA interference, allowing both regulation of host gene expression and defense against invading mobile genetic elements. Recently, it has become evident that prokaryotic Argonaute homologs mediate DNA-guided DNA interference, and play a role in host defense. Argonaute of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus (TtAgo targets invading plasmid DNA during and after transformation. Using small interfering DNA guides, TtAgo can cleave single and double stranded DNAs. Although TtAgo additionally has been demonstrated to cleave RNA targets complementary to its DNA guide in vitro, RNA targeting by TtAgo has not been demonstrated in vivo.To investigate if TtAgo also has the potential to control RNA levels, we analyzed RNA-seq data derived from cultures of four T. thermophilus strain HB27 variants: wild type, TtAgo knockout (Δago, and either strain transformed with a plasmid. Additionally we determined the effect of TtAgo on expression of plasmid-encoded RNA and plasmid DNA levels.In the absence of exogenous DNA (plasmid, TtAgo presence or absence had no effect on gene expression levels. When plasmid DNA is present, TtAgo reduces plasmid DNA levels 4-fold, and a corresponding reduction of plasmid gene transcript levels was observed. We therefore conclude that TtAgo interferes with plasmid DNA, but not with plasmid-encoded RNA. Interestingly, TtAgo presence stimulates expression of specific endogenous genes, but only when exogenous plasmid DNA was present. Specifically, the presence of TtAgo directly or indirectly stimulates expression of CRISPR loci and associated genes, some of which are involved in CRISPR adaptation. This suggests that TtAgo-mediated interference with plasmid DNA stimulates CRISPR adaptation.

  1. Effectiveness of the Touch Math Technique in Teaching Basic Addition to Children with Autism

    Yikmis, Ahmet


    This study aims to reveal whether the touch math technique is effective in teaching basic addition to children with autism. The dependent variable of this study is the children's skills to solve addition problems correctly, whereas teaching with the touch math technique is the independent variable. Among the single-subject research models, a…

  2. Parental Anxiety and Child Symptomatology: An Examination of Additive and Interactive Effects of Parent Psychopathology

    Burstein, Marcy; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Tein, Jenn-Yun


    The current study examined relations between parent anxiety and child anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms. In addition, the study tested the additive and interactive effects of parent anxiety with parent depression and externalizing symptoms in relation to child symptoms. Forty-eight parents with anxiety disorders and 49 parents…

  3. Parental Anxiety and Child Symptomatology: An Examination of Additive and Interactive Effects of Parent Psychopathology

    Burstein, Marcy; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Tein, Jenn-Yun


    The current study examined relations between parent anxiety and child anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms. In addition, the study tested the additive and interactive effects of parent anxiety with parent depression and externalizing symptoms in relation to child symptoms. Forty-eight parents with anxiety disorders and 49 parents…

  4. Additives effects on crystallization and morphology in a novel caustic aluminate solution decomposition process

    Ying ZHANG; Sbili ZHENG; Yifei ZHANG; Hongbin XU; Yi ZHANG


    A novel process of caustic aluminate solution decomposition by alcohol medium was developed by the Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences in order to solve the problem of low decomposi-tion ratio in the traditional Bayer seeded hydrolysis process. In this research, effects of additives on the crystallization ratio, secondary particle size and morphol-ogy of aluminum hydroxide in the new process were studied to obtain high-quality products. On the basis of primary selection of additives, an orthogonal design L9(34)was used as a chemometric method to investigate the effects of additives. The studied parameters include the reaction style, quantity of additives, caustic soda concen-tration, as well as the combination manner. The crystal-lization ratios of sodium aluminate solution and crystal size of aluminum hydroxide, determined by ICP-OES, SEM and MLPSA (Malvern Laser Particle Size Analyzer), were used to evaluate the effects of the additives. The results showed that different combination manners could promote agglomeration or dispersion. An additive composed by Tween 80 and PEG 200 could promote agglomeration,while a spot of PEG species had a relatively strong dispersion effect. However, the additives had little effects on the crystallization ratios. According to the Raman spectra result, the added alcohol medium might serve as a kind of solvent.

  5. Epidermal Patterning Genes Impose Non-cell Autonomous Cell Size Determination and have Additional Roles in Root Meristem Size Control

    Christian L?fke; Kai Dünser; Jürgen Kleine-Vehn


    The regulation of cellular growth is of vital importance for embryonic and postembryonic patterning. Growth regulation in the epidermis has importance for organ growth rates in roots and shoots, proposing epidermal cells as an interesting model for cellular growth regulation. Here we assessed whether the root epidermis is a suitable model system to address cell size determination. In Arabidopsis thaliana L., root epidermal cells are regularly spaced in neighbouring tricho-(root hair) and atrichoblast (non-hair) cells, showing already distinct cell size regulation in the root meristem. We determined cell sizes in the root meristem and at the onset of cellular elongation, revealing that not only division rates but also cellular shape is distinct in tricho-and atrichoblasts. Intriguingly, epidermal-patterning mutants, failing to define differential vacuolization in neighbouring epidermal cell files, also display non-differential growth. Using these epidermal-patterning mutants, we show that polarized growth behaviour of epidermal tricho-and atrichoblast is interdependent, suggesting non-cell autonomous signals to integrate tissue expansion. Besides the interweaved cell-type-dependent growth mechanism, we reveal an additional role for epidermal patterning genes in root meristem size and organ growth regulation. We conclude that epidermal cells represent a suitable model system to study cell size determination and interdependent tissue growth.

  6. Effect of fluorapatite additive on the mechanical properties of tricalcium phosphate-zirconia composites

    Sallemi, I.; Ben Ayed, F.; Bouaziz, J.


    The effect of fluorapatite addition on the mechanical properties of tricalcium phosphate - 50 wt% zirconia composites was investigated during the sintering process. The Brazilian test was used to measure the mechanical resistance of bioceramics. The mechanical properties of composites increase with the sintering temperature and with fluorapatite additive. At 1400°C, the fluorapatite additive ameliorates the densification and the mechanical resistance of tricalcium phosphate - 50 wt% zirconia composites. The 31P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of tricalcium phosphate - zirconia composites sintered with fluorapatite additives reveals the presence of tetrahedral P sites.

  7. Effects of Ta Addition on NiTi Shape Memory Alloys


    @@The effect of Ta addition on the martensitic transformation characteristics and the X-ray visibility on NiTi shape memory alloy have been studied in (Ni51Ti49)1-xTax system. It was found that the transformation temperatures of the Ni51Ti49 binary alloy increased drastically by an addition of 0~4 at. pct Ta, but only slightly when the concentration exceeded 4 at. pct; the addition of Ta greatly decreases the sensitivity of the martensitic transformations to the variation in the Ni-Ti ratio. The addition of Ta to the NiTi binary alloy can improve its X-ray visibility.

  8. Effect of Nano Oil Additive Proportions on Friction and Wear Performance of Automotive Materials

    A. Vadiraj


    Full Text Available The effect of nano boric acid and nano copper based engine and transmission oil additives in different volume ratios (1:10, 2:10, and 3:10 on friction and wear performance of cast iron and case carburized gear steel has been investigated. The results show that coefficient of friction increases with increase in volume ratio of engine oil additives and decreases with increasing in volume ratio of transmission oil additives. Cast iron substrate shows higher wear damage than case carburized gear steel. Nano copper additive with crystalline atomic structure shows more severe three body wear compared to boric acid with layered lattice structure.

  9. The Effects of Non—Metal Additives on Hydration Reisitance of MgO—C Bricks

    OUYAGNG; WANGRuikun; 等


    The general method of solving the problem of hydration of MgO-C brick is by adding with metal Si,Mg or compround metal additives,but metal additives have bad effect on the MgO-C brick,The test tried adding non-metal additives to matrix material.The results showed that a suitable amount of this kind of additives not only inhibits hydration of MgO-C brick and does not affect corrosion resistance and avoids thermal expansion,but also can improve oxidation resistance.

  10. Effect of gene polymorphisms on periodontal diseases

    Fouzia Tarannum


    Full Text Available Periodontal diseases are inflammatory diseases of supporting structures of the tooth. It results in the destruction of the supporting structures and most of the destructive processes involved are host derived. The processes leading to destruction and regeneration of the destroyed tissues are of great interest to both researchers and clinicians. The selective susceptibility of subjects for periodontitis has remained an enigma and wide varieties of risk factors have been implicated for the manifestation and progression of periodontitis. Genetic factors have been a new addition to the list of risk factors for periodontal diseases. With the availability of human genome sequence and the knowledge of the complement of the genes, it should be possible to identify the metabolic pathways involved in periodontal destruction and regeneration. Most forms of periodontitis represent a life-long account of interactions between the genome, behaviour, and environment. The current practical utility of genetic knowledge in periodontitis is limited. The information contained within the human genome can potentially lead to a better understanding of the control mechanisms modulating the production of inflammatory mediators as well as provides potential therapeutic targets for periodontal disease. Allelic variants at multiple gene loci probably influence periodontitis susceptibility.

  11. The Effects of Hallucinogens on Gene Expression.

    Martin, David A; Nichols, Charles D


    The classic serotonergic hallucinogens, or psychedelics, have the ability to profoundly alter perception and behavior. These can include visual distortions, hallucinations, detachment from reality, and mystical experiences. Some psychedelics, like LSD, are able to produce these effects with remarkably low doses of drug. Others, like psilocybin, have recently been demonstrated to have significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and addiction that persist for at least several months after only a single therapeutic session. How does this occur? Much work has recently been published from imaging studies showing that psychedelics alter brain network connectivity. They facilitate a disintegration of the default mode network, producing a hyperconnectivity between brain regions that allow centers that do not normally communicate with each other to do so. The immediate and acute effects on both behaviors and network connectivity are likely mediated by effector pathways downstream of serotonin 5-HT2A receptor activation. These acute molecular processes also influence gene expression changes, which likely influence synaptic plasticity and facilitate more long-term changes in brain neurochemistry ultimately underlying the therapeutic efficacy of a single administration to achieve long-lasting effects. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the molecular genetic responses to psychedelics within the brain and discuss how gene expression changes may contribute to altered cellular physiology and behaviors.

  12. Effect of bentonite addition on residual strength of microwave-hardened waterglass-containing moulding sands

    M. Stachowicz


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a preliminary research of the effect of bentonite addition on residual strength of microwave-hardened moulding sands, containing sodium waterglass. Strength was determined at ambient temperature, on cylindrical specimens baked in an oven. Moulding sands for examinations were based on high-silica sand with addition of 2.5 % of non-modified, domestic-made waterglass grade 145. The prepared standard cylindrical specimens were hardened using the innovative microwave heating process and next baked for 30 minutes at temperatures between 100 and 1200 °C. Strength parameters of the specimens were determined on the specimens cooled- down to ambient temperature. The obtained results were compared with literature data to evaluate the effect of the applied hardening method and of the special additive on residual strength as a function of baking temperature. A favourable effect was found of both the innovative heating process and the applied bentonite addition.

  13. Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error.

    Fan, Qiao; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Wojciechowski, Robert; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Hysi, Pirro G; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Höhn, René; Vitart, Veronique; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yamashiro, Kenji; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lu, Yi; Haller, Toomas; Xie, Jing; Delcourt, Cécile; Pirastu, Mario; Wedenoja, Juho; Gharahkhani, Puya; Venturini, Cristina; Miyake, Masahiro; Hewitt, Alex W; Guo, Xiaobo; Mazur, Johanna; Huffman, Jenifer E; Williams, Katie M; Polasek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Vatavuk, Zoran; Wilson, James F; Joshi, Peter K; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M; Simpson, Claire L; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Igo, Robert P; Mirshahi, Alireza; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Bellenguez, Céline; Blettner, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Seppala, Ilkka; Zeller, Tanja; Meitinger, Thomas; Ried, Janina S; Gieger, Christian; Portas, Laura; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Amin, Najaf; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Xu; Tai-Hui Boh, Eileen; Ikram, M Kamran; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Gupta, Preeti; Tan, Vincent; Zhou, Lei; Ho, Candice E H; Lim, Wan'e; Beuerman, Roger W; Siantar, Rosalynn; Tai, E-Shyong; Vithana, Eranga; Mihailov, Evelin; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Hayward, Caroline; Luben, Robert N; Foster, Paul J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Hoi-Suen; Mitchell, Paul; Metspalu, Andres; Aung, Tin; Young, Terri L; He, Mingguang; Pärssinen, Olavi; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Jin Wang, Jie; Williams, Cathy; Jonas, Jost B; Teo, Yik-Ying; Mackey, David A; Oexle, Konrad; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Paterson, Andrew D; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wong, Tien-Yin; Baird, Paul N; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E Bailey; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Hammond, Christopher J; Klaver, Caroline C W; Saw, Seang-Mei; Rahi, Jugnoo S; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Kemp, John P; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Fogarty, Rhys D; Iyengar, Sudha K; Chew, Emily; Janmahasatian, Sarayut; Martin, Nicholas G; MacGregor, Stuart; Xu, Liang; Schache, Maria; Nangia, Vinay; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Wright, Alan F; Fondran, Jeremy R; Lass, Jonathan H; Feng, Sheng; Zhao, Jing Hua; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia; Tam, Pancy O; Jhanji, Vishal; Young, Alvin L; Döring, Angela; Raffel, Leslie J; Cotch, Mary-Frances; Li, Xiaohui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K H; Biino, Ginevra; Vaccargiu, Simona; Fossarello, Maurizio; Fleck, Brian; Yazar, Seyhan; Tideman, Jan Willem L; Tedja, Milly; Deangelis, Margaret M; Morrison, Margaux; Farrer, Lindsay; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Mäkelä, Kari Matti


    Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) main effects and SNP × education interaction effects on refractive error in 40,036 adults from 25 studies of European ancestry and 10,315 adults from 9 studies of Asian ancestry. In European ancestry individuals, we identify six novel loci (FAM150B-ACP1, LINC00340, FBN1, DIS3L-MAP2K1, ARID2-SNAT1 and SLC14A2) associated with refractive error. In Asian populations, three genome-wide significant loci AREG, GABRR1 and PDE10A also exhibit strong interactions with education (P<8.5 × 10(-5)), whereas the interactions are less evident in Europeans. The discovery of these loci represents an important advance in understanding how gene and environment interactions contribute to the heterogeneity of myopia.

  14. Nitrogen Addition Altered the Effect of Belowground C Allocation on Soil Respiration in a Subtropical Forest.

    Tongxin He

    Full Text Available The availabilities of carbon (C and nitrogen (N in soil play an important role in soil carbon dioxide (CO2 emission. However, the variation in the soil respiration (Rs and response of microbial community to the combined changes in belowground C and N inputs in forest ecosystems are not yet fully understood. Stem girdling and N addition were performed in this study to evaluate the effects of C supply and N availability on Rs and soil microbial community in a subtropical forest. The trees were girdled on 1 July 2012. Rs was monitored from July 2012 to November 2013, and soil microbial community composition was also examined by phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs 1 year after girdling. Results showed that Rs decreased by 40.5% with girdling alone, but N addition only did not change Rs. Interestingly, Rs decreased by 62.7% under the girdling with N addition treatment. The reducing effect of girdling and N addition on Rs differed between dormant and growing seasons. Girdling alone reduced Rs by 33.9% in the dormant season and 54.8% in the growing season compared with the control. By contrast, girdling with N addition decreased Rs by 59.5% in the dormant season and 65.4% in the growing season. Girdling and N addition significantly decreased the total and bacterial PLFAs. Moreover, the effect of N addition was greater than girdling. Both girdling and N addition treatments separated the microbial groups on the basis of the first principal component through principal component analysis compared with control. This indicated that girdling and N addition changed the soil microbial community composition. However, the effect of girdling with N addition treatment separated the microbial groups on the basis of the second principal component compared to N addition treatment, which suggested N addition altered the effect of girdling on soil microbial community composition. These results suggest that the increase in soil N availability by N deposition alters the

  15. Effects of Different Addition Amounts of Superphosphate on Vegetable Waste Compost

    YANG Yan


    Full Text Available The effects of different addition amounts of superphosphate on vegetable waste compost were studied. Results showed that, addition of superphosphate improved the temperature during the compost. It had the highest temperature of 64.33℃, when the addition quantity of superphosphate was 10.26% of dry matter weight. At the end of the composting, adding superphosphate had no significant effect on C/N, however, it decreased pH and improved the EC of the compost. The EC values were significantly higher than CK, when the addition amount was be tween 4.10%and 10.26%of dry matter weight. When the addition below 10.26%, the GI values were significantly higher than CK(P<0.01, and the highest value was 105.61%, when the addition was 2.05%(S5. Adding superphosphate significantly reduced the nitrogen loss rate of composting(P<0.05, and the lowest was 23.94%,when the addition was 2.05%, meanwhile, the input-output ratio was 3.93, which was the highest value. Under this experimental condition, adding superphosphate promoted the compost maturity significantly, reduced the nitrogen loss rate, and the optimal addition of superphosphate was 2.05%of dry matter weight.

  16. A Comprehensive Review of Effect of Biodiesel Additives on Properties, Performance, and Emission

    Madiwale, S.; Karthikeyan, A.; Bhojwani, V.


    Objectives:- To presents the literature review on effect of biodiesel additives on properties, performance and on emission. Method:-In the current paper reviews are taken from previous years paper which necessitates the need of addition of additives in the blends of biodiesel and studied the its effect on properties, performance and emissions. Emissions from the diesel powered vehicles mostly damaged the earth’s environment and also increased the overall earth’s temperature. This attracts the need of alternative fuels in the field of transportation sector. Past inventions and research showed that Biodiesel can be used as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine. Biodiesel have good combustion characteristics because of their long chain hydrocarbon structure. However biodiesel possesses few disadvantages such as lower heating value, higher flow ability, much high density and not able to flow at low temperature. Higher rate of fuel consumption is identified and higher level of NOx emissions when biodiesel used in an engine as an alternative fuels. Findings:-Different additives such as antioxidants, improvers for cetane number, cold flow properties improver, etc were investigated by the many researcher and scientists and added in the different feedstock of biodiesel or blends of biodiesel with diesel in different proportions. Directly or indirectly fuel additives can improve the reduction in the emissions, improve the fuel economy, and reduce the dependency of the one’s nation on other. Performances of biodiesel vehicles were drastically improved because of additioninthe blends of biodiesel with diesel fuel in specific percentages to meet the international emission standards. Addition of additives in the biodiesel or in the blends of biodiesel basically changes the high temperature and low temperature flow properties of blends of biodiesel. Current paper finds and compares properties of different additives and its effect on blends of biodiesel properties

  17. Effect of rhenium addition on tungsten fuzz formation in helium plasmas

    Khan, A.; De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T. W.; M. B. Ward,


    The effect of the addition of rhenium to tungsten on the formation of a nanostructure referred to as ‘fuzz’ when exposed to helium plasmas at fusion relevant ion fluxes was investigated in the Magnum and Pilot PSI devices at the FOM Institute DIFFER. The effect rhenium had on fuzz growth was seen to

  18. Effects of whey and molasses as silage additives on potato hash ...

    Effects of whey and molasses as silage additives on potato hash silage ... by higher concentrations of butyric acid, ammonia-N and pH compared to the other silages. ... inclusion level of 20% without any adverse effect on animal performance.

  19. Estimation of direct effects for survival data by using the Aalen additive hazards model

    Martinussen, T.; Vansteelandt, S.; Gerster, M.


    We extend the definition of the controlled direct effect of a point exposure on a survival outcome, other than through some given, time-fixed intermediate variable, to the additive hazard scale. We propose two-stage estimators for this effect when the exposure is dichotomous and randomly assigned...

  20. Co-addition of manure increases the dissipation rates of tylosin A and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments.

    Li, Qian; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yong-De; Liao, Xin-Di; Liang, Juan-Boo; Xin, Wen; Wu, Yin-Bao


    The behavior of veterinary antibiotics in the soil is commonly studied using the following methods to add antibiotics to the soil: (A) adding manure collected from animals fed a diet that includes antibiotics; (B) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics; and (C) the direct addition of antibiotics. However, most studies have only used methods (B) and (C) in their research, and few studies have simultaneously compared the different antibiotic addition methods. This study used tylosin A (TYLA) as a model antibiotic to compare the effects of these three commonly used antibiotic addition methods on the dissipation rates of TYLA and the numbers of resistance genes in laboratory incubation experiments. The results showed that the three treatment methods produced similar TYLA degradation trends; however, there were significant differences (Ptylosin B (TYLB) and tylosin D (TYLD). The main route for veterinary antibiotics to enter the soil is via the manure of animals that have been administered antibiotics. Therefore, the more appropriate method to study the degradation and ecotoxicity of antibiotic residues in the soil is by using manure from animals fed/administered the particular antibiotic rather than by adding the antibiotic directly to the soil.

  1. Transcriptome Analysis of Arabidopsis Wild-Type and g13-sst sim Trichomes Identifies Four Additional Genes Required for Trichome Development

    M.David Marks; Jonathan R Wenger; Edward Gilding; Ross Jilk; Richard A.Dixon


    Transcriptome analyses have been performed on mature trichomes isolated from wild-type Arabidopsis leaves and on leaf trichomes isolated from the g13-sst sire double mutant,which exhibit many attributes of immature trichomes.The mature trichome profile contained many highly expressed genes involved in cell wall synthesis,protein turnover,and abiotic stress response.The most highly expressed genes in the g13-sst sim profile encoded ribosomal proteins and other proteins involved in translation.Comparative analyses showed that all but one of the genes encoding transcription factors previously found to be important for trichome formation,and many other trichome-important genes,were preferentially expressed in g13-sstsim trichomes.The analysis of genes preferentially expressed in g13-sstsim led to the identification of four additional genes required for normal trichome development.One of these was the HDG2 gene,which is a member of the HD-ZIP IV transcription factor gene family.Mutations in this gene did not alter trichome expansion,but did alter mature trichome cell walls.Mutations in BLT resulted in a loss of trichome branch formation.The relationship between bit and the phenotypically identical mutant,sti,was explored.Mutations in PEL3,which was previously shown to be required for development of the leaf cuticle,resulted in the occasional tangling of expanding trichomes.Mutations in another gene encoding a protein with an unknown function altered trichome branch formation.

  2. Thermogravimetric Analysis of Effects of High-Content Limstone Addition on Combustion Characteristics of Taixi Anthracite

    ZHANG Hong; LI Mei; SUN Min; WEI Xian-yong


    Combustion characteristics of Taixi anthracite admixed with high content of limestone addition were investigated with thermogravimetric analysis. The results show that limestone addition has a little promoting effect on the ignition of raw coals as a whole. The addition of limestone is found to significantly accelerate the combustion and burnout of raw coals. The higher the sample mass is, the more significant the effect will be. The results also show that the change of limestone proportion between 45%-80% has little effect on ignition temperatures of coal in the blended samples. Increasing limestone content lowers the temperature corresponding to the maximum weight loss. Although higher maximum mass loss rates are observed with higher limestone content, the effect is found not ascribed to changing limestone addition, but to the decrease of absolute coal mass in the sample. The change of limestone proportion has little effect on its burnout temperature. Mechanism analysis indicates that these phenomena result mainly from improved heat conduction due to limestone addition.

  3. Effects of magnetic ion-exchange resin addition during coagulation on floc properties and membrane filtration.

    Choi, Yang Hun; Kweon, Ji Hyang; Jeong, Young Mi; Kwon, Soonbuhm; Kim, Hyung-Soo


    The application of magnetic ion-exchange resin (MIEX) during chemical coagulation was investigated for the removal of organic matters responsible for fouling in membrane processes. Two different coagulants were used-polyaluminium chloride (PAC1) and polyaluminum chloride silicate (PACS). The MIEX addition during coagulation with both PAC1 and PACS considerably enhanced removal of dissolved organic carbon. Coagulation with MIEX treatment substantially removed all portions of natural organic matter (NOM), while the MIEX treatment alone effectively removed the hydrophobic and transphilic portions of NOM. The enhanced NOM removal by PAC1 coagulation with the addition of MIEX had positive effects on membrane flux at moderate transmembrane pressure conditions. However, the almost identical flux patterns were reported in the experiments of coagulation with PACS and PACS with MIEX addition. The results of the specific cake resistances indicated that the MIEX addition substantially decreased the resistances. The larger size distributions of PAC1 with MIEX corresponded well with the flux improvement.

  4. Effects of different chemical additives on biodiesel fuel properties and engine performance. A comparison review

    Ali Obed Majeed


    Full Text Available Biodiesel fuel can be used as an alternative to mineral diesel, its blend up to 20% used as a commercial fuel for the existing diesel engine in many countries. However, at high blending ratio, the fuel properties are worsening. The feasibility of pure biodiesel and blended fuel at high blending ratio using different chemical additives has been reviewed in this study. The results obtained by different researchers were analysed to evaluate the fuel properties trend and engine performance and emissions with different chemical additives. It found that, variety of chemical additives can be utilised with biodiesel fuel to improve the fuel properties. Furthermore, the chemical additives usage in biodiesel is inseparable both for improving the cold flow properties and for better engine performance and emission control. Therefore, research is needed to develop biodiesel specific additives that can be adopted to improve the fuel properties and achieve best engine performance at lower exhaust emission effects.

  5. Experimental Investigations on the Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additives on Biodiesel

    V. Sajith


    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of experimental investigations on the influence of the addition of cerium oxide in the nanoparticle form on the major physicochemical properties and the performance of biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the base fuel and the modified fuel formed by dispersing the catalyst nanoparticles by ultrasonic agitation are measured using ASTM standard test methods. The effects of the additive nanoparticles on the individual fuel properties, the engine performance, and emissions are studied, and the dosing level of the additive is optimized. Comparisons of the performance of the fuel with and without the additive are also presented. The flash point and the viscosity of biodiesel were found to increase with the inclusion of the cerium oxide nanoparticles. The emission levels of hydrocarbon and NOx are appreciably reduced with the addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles.

  6. Extensive families of constant region genes in a phylogenetically primitive vertebrate indicate an additional level of immunoglobulin complexity.

    Kokubu, F; Hinds, K; Litman, R; Shamblott, M J; Litman, G W


    A homologous probe for the constant region of the Heterodontus francisci (horned shark) immunoglobulin heavy chain was used to screen a genomic DNA library constructed in bacteriophage lambda, and a large number of independent clones were recovered. Their hybridization patterns with segment-specific probes are consistent with the close linkage of heavy-chain constant (CH), joining (JH), and variable (VH) gene segments. Differences in the nucleotide sequences of the first CH exon of five genes primarily are localized to 5' positions; extended regions of sequence identity are noted at 3' positions. The predicted amino acid sequences of each gene are different and are related distantly to the corresponding regions of higher vertebrate immunoglobulins. Gene-specific oligodeoxynucleotide probes were used to establish that at least three of the five genes are transcriptionally active. Quantitative gene titration data are consistent with the large numbers of genes suggested by the library screening analyses. In this representative early vertebrate, it appears that (VH-diversity-JH) segments are associated with individual constant region genes that can differ at the predicted protein level. Images PMID:3475706

  7. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida

    Bartolomaeus Thomas


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula.

  8. Effect of addition of ethyl alcohol on gelation and viscoelasticity of tissue conditioners

    Murata, Hiroshi; Hamada, Taizo; Harshini,; Toki, Kazuhito; Nikawa, Hiroki


    The clinical effectiveness of tissue conditioners is influenced by their gelation characteristics and viscoelastic properties after gelation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of ethyl alcohol (EtOH) on these properties, and to compare the effect of EtOH with that of the powder/liquid (P/L) ratio. Three tissue conditioners were used in this study. The gelation times were obtained with an oscillating rheometer. The viscoelastic properties after gelation were also...

  9. Effect of Additives on Sintering of Cr2O3 in Reductive Atmosphere

    LIANGYonghe; SUNChengxu; 等


    The influence of additives TiO2,Y2O3 and composite rare earth on sintering of Cr2O3 in reductive atmosphere was studied.Results show that TiO2 can effectively increase the sinteed density at low temperature,As the increase of sintering temperature,such kind of effect becomes more and more unobvious and finaly disappear at 1550℃.Moreover,Y2O3 and composite rare earth have negative effect on sintering.

  10. Effects of Sn Addition on Core Loss and Texture of Non-Oriented Electrical Steels

    DONG Hao; ZHAO Yu; YU Xiao-jun; LIAN Fa-zeng


    The effects of Sn addition on core loss and texture of non-oriented electrical steels were investigated. Ex-periments revealed that the core loss of non-oriented electrical steels could be obviously decreased and the intensity of {111} texture and {112} texture of final annealed specimens could be markedly reduced by Sn addition. The reasons for reducing core loss and the intensity of unfavorable texture were analyzed.

  11. Effect of zinc and cerium addition on property of copper-based adsorbents for phosphine adsorption

    宁平; 易红宏; 余琼粉; 唐晓龙; 杨丽萍; 叶智青


    A series of copper-based activated carbon (AC) adsorbents were prepared in order to investigate the effect of Zn, Ce addition on Cu-based AC adsorbent for phosphine (PH3) adsorption removal from yellow phosphorous tail gas. N2 adsorption isotherm and X-ray diffrac-tion (XRD) results suggested that the addition of Zn could increase the adsorbent ultramicropores, decrease the adsorbent supermicropores and the adsorbent average pore diameter. Therefore it enhanced the PH3 adsorption capacity. Appropriate amoun...

  12. Dynamic Response of Pseudomonas putida S12 to Sudden Addition of Toluene and the Potential Role of the Solvent Tolerance Gene trgI.

    Volkers, Rita J M; Snoek, L Basten; Ruijssenaars, Harald J; de Winde, Johannes H


    Pseudomonas putida S12 is exceptionally tolerant to various organic solvents. To obtain further insight into this bacterium's primary defence mechanisms towards these potentially harmful substances, we studied its genome wide transcriptional response to sudden addition of toluene. Global gene expression profiles were monitored for 30 minutes after toluene addition. During toluene exposure, high oxygen-affinity cytochrome c oxidase is specifically expressed to provide for an adequate proton gradient supporting solvent efflux mechanisms. Concomitantly, the glyoxylate bypass route was up-regulated, to repair an apparent toluene stress-induced redox imbalance. A knock-out mutant of trgI, a recently identified toluene-repressed gene, was investigated in order to identify TrgI function. Remarkably, upon addition of toluene the number of differentially expressed genes initially was much lower in the trgI-mutant than in the wild-type strain. This suggested that after deletion of trgI cells were better prepared for sudden organic solvent stress. Before, as well as after, addition of toluene many genes of highly diverse functions were differentially expressed in trgI-mutant cells as compared to wild-type cells. This led to the hypothesis that TrgI may not only be involved in the modulation of solvent-elicited responses but in addition may affect basal expression levels of large groups of genes.

  13. Effect of addition of CO2 to raw milk on quality of UHT-treated milk

    Vianna, PCB; Walter, EHM; Dias, MEF; Faria, JAF; Netto, FM; Gigante, ML


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of addition of CO2 to raw milk on UHT milk quality during storage. Control milk (without CO2 addition) and treated milk (with CO2 addition up to pH 6.2) were stored in bulk tanks at 4°C for 6d. After storage, both samples were UHT processed using indirect heating (140°C for 5s). Samples were aseptically packed in low-density polyethylene pouches and stored in the dark at room temperature. Raw milk was evaluated upon receipt for physicoche...

  14. The effect of phosphate additives on the lubrication of rolling element bearings in a refrigerant environment

    Tuomas, Roger; Isaksson, Ove [Luleaa University of Technology, Division of Machine Elements, SE-971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)


    Chlorine free replacement refrigerants, HFC (hydrofluorocarbons) and HC (hydrocarbons), have shown less lubricating properties. Phosphate based additives were used to improve the lubricity with refrigerant R-134a, demonstrating positive effects. In the present paper, the ability to form lubricating film and wear of two additives, phosphate ester and acid phosphate, was investigated in a bearing test apparatus. The results show that phosphate additive in polyolester oil, in an R-134a environment, increases the lubricating film and reduce wear. Surface topography during the initial run-in changes to a more favorable profile with lower RMS angle and longer wavelengths that promote load-carrying capacity and film build-up. (author)

  15. Effect of ensiling and silage additives on fatty acid composition of ryegrass and corn experimental silages.

    Alves, S P; Cabrita, A R J; Jerónimo, E; Bessa, R J B; Fonseca, A J M


    Two experiments were conducted using laboratory mini-silos to study the effect of ensiling and silage additives on fatty acid (FA) composition, including minor or unusual FA, of ryegrass and corn silages. Ryegrass was ensiled for 12 wk with no additives, with the addition of a bacterial inoculant or formic acid. Corn was ensiled for 9 wk without additives, with the addition of a bacterial inoculant or calcium formate. Ensiling affected both total FA content and FA composition of ryegrass silages. Total FA concentration increased (P 0.05) by ensiling. However, their concentration (mg/g of DM) in silages was greater (P=0.017 and P=0.001, respectively) than in fresh ryegrass. Two 18:2 FA (trans-11,cis-15 and cis-9,cis-15) that were not originally present in the fresh ryegrass were detected in silages. Silage additives affected the FA composition of ryegrass silages, mostly by increasing the proportions of SFA, but not on total FA concentration. Ensiling did not affect (P=0.83) total FA content of corn silages; however, FA composition was affected, mostly by decreasing the proportions of 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3. Silage additives had no effect on corn silage FA composition. Exposing corn silages to air resulted in no oxidation of FA or reduction in total FA content or composition.

  16. Effects of additional food in a delayed predator-prey model.

    Sahoo, Banshidhar; Poria, Swarup


    We examine the effects of supplying additional food to predator in a gestation delay induced predator-prey system with habitat complexity. Additional food works in favor of predator growth in our model. Presence of additional food reduces the predatory attack rate to prey in the model. Supplying additional food we can control predator population. Taking time delay as bifurcation parameter the stability of the coexisting equilibrium point is analyzed. Hopf bifurcation analysis is done with respect to time delay in presence of additional food. The direction of Hopf bifurcations and the stability of bifurcated periodic solutions are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold theorem. The qualitative dynamical behavior of the model is simulated using experimental parameter values. It is observed that fluctuations of the population size can be controlled either by supplying additional food suitably or by increasing the degree of habitat complexity. It is pointed out that Hopf bifurcation occurs in the system when the delay crosses some critical value. This critical value of delay strongly depends on quality and quantity of supplied additional food. Therefore, the variation of predator population significantly effects the dynamics of the model. Model results are compared with experimental results and biological implications of the analytical findings are discussed in the conclusion section.

  17. Effects of Polymeric Additives on the Crystallization and Release Behavior of Amorphous Ibuprofen

    Su Yang Lee


    Full Text Available Some polymeric additives were studied to understand their effects on the amorphous phase of ibuprofen (IBU, used as a poorly water soluble pharmaceutical model compound. The amorphous IBU in bulk, as well as in nanopores (diameter ~24 nm of anodic aluminum oxide, was examined with the addition of poly(acrylic acid, poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone, or poly(4-vinylphenol. Results of bulk crystallization showed that they were effective in limiting the crystal growth, while the nucleation of the crystalline phase in contact with water was nearly instantaneous in all cases. Poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone, the most effective additive, was in specific interaction with IBU, as revealed by IR spectroscopy. The addition of the polymers was combined with the nanoscopic confinement to further stabilize the amorphous phase. Still, the IBU with addition of polymeric additives showed sustained release behavior. The current study suggested that the inhibition of the crystal nucleation was probably the most important factor to stabilize the amorphous phase and fully harness its high solubility.

  18. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan


    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  19. Effect of additives on isothermal crystallization kinetics and physical characteristics of coconut oil.

    Chaleepa, Kesarin; Szepes, Anikó; Ulrich, Joachim


    The effect of lauric acid and low-HLB sucrose esters (L-195, S170) on the isothermal crystallization of coconut oil was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. The fundamental crystallization parameters, such as induction time of nucleation and crystallization rate, were obtained by using the Gompertz equation. The Gibb's free energy of nucleation was calculated via the Fisher-Turnbull equation based on the equilibrium melting temperature. All additives, investigated in this work, proved to have an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of coconut oil. Our results revealed that the inhibition effect is related to the dissimilarity of the molecular characteristics between coconut oil and the additives. The equilibrium melting temperature (T(m) degrees ) of the coconut oil-additive mixtures estimated by the Hoffman-Weeks method was decreased with the addition of lauric acid and increased by using sucrose esters as additives. Micrographs showing simultaneous crystallization of coconut oil and lauric acid indicated that strong molecular interaction led to the increase in lamellar thickness resulting in the T(m) degrees depression of coconut oil. The addition of L-195 modified the crystal morphology of coconut oil into large, dense, non-porous crystals without altering the polymorphic occurrence of coconut oil. The enhancement in lamellar thickness and crystal perfection supported the T(m) degrees elevation of coconut oil.

  20. Gene by Environment Interaction and Resilience: Effects of Child Maltreatment and Serotonin, Corticotropin Releasing Hormone, Dopamine, and Oxytocin Genes

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.


    In this investigation, gene-environment interaction effects in predicting resilience in adaptive functioning among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 595) were examined. A multi-component index of resilient functioning was derived and levels of resilient functioning were identified. Variants in four genes, 5-HTTLPR, CRHR1, DRD4 -521C/T, and OXTR, were investigated. In a series of ANCOVAs, child maltreatment demonstrated a strong negative main effect on children’s resilient functioning, whereas no main effects for any of the genotypes of the respective genes were found. However, gene-environment interactions involving genotypes of each of the respective genes and maltreatment status were obtained. For each respective gene, among children with a specific genotype, the relative advantage in resilient functioning of nonmaltreated compared to maltreated children was stronger than was the case for nonmaltreated and maltreated children with other genotypes of the respective gene. Across the four genes, a composite of the genotypes that more strongly differentiated resilient functioning between nonmaltreated and maltreated children provided further evidence of genetic variations influencing resilient functioning in nonmaltreated children, whereas genetic variation had a negligible effect on promoting resilience among maltreated children. Additional effects were observed for children based on the number of subtypes of maltreatment children experienced, as well as for abuse and neglect subgroups. Finally, maltreated and nonmaltreated children with high levels of resilience differed in their average number of differentiating genotypes. These results suggest that differential resilient outcomes are based on the interaction between genes and developmental experiences. PMID:22559122

  1. Gene × Environment interaction and resilience: effects of child maltreatment and serotonin, corticotropin releasing hormone, dopamine, and oxytocin genes.

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A


    In this investigation, gene-environment interaction effects in predicting resilience in adaptive functioning among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 595) were examined. A multicomponent index of resilient functioning was derived and levels of resilient functioning were identified. Variants in four genes (serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region, corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1, dopamine receptor D4-521C/T, and oxytocin receptor) were investigated. In a series of analyses of covariance, child maltreatment demonstrated a strong negative main effect on children's resilient functioning, whereas no main effects for any of the genotypes of the respective genes were found. However, gene-environment interactions involving genotypes of each of the respective genes and maltreatment status were obtained. For each respective gene, among children with a specific genotype, the relative advantage in resilient functioning of nonmaltreated compared to maltreated children was stronger than was the case for nonmaltreated and maltreated children with other genotypes of the respective gene. Across the four genes, a composite of the genotypes that more strongly differentiated resilient functioning between nonmaltreated and maltreated children provided further evidence of genetic variations influencing resilient functioning in nonmaltreated children, whereas genetic variation had a negligible effect on promoting resilience among maltreated children. Additional effects were observed for children based on the number of subtypes of maltreatment children experienced, as well as for abuse and neglect subgroups. Finally, maltreated and nonmaltreated children with high levels of resilience differed in their average number of differentiating genotypes. These results suggest that differential resilient outcomes are based on the interaction between genes and developmental experiences.

  2. [Effects of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and the need for regulation].

    Kahnert, S; Nair, U; Mons, U; Pötschke-Langer, M


    Menthol is the most widely used and the most prominent tobacco additive in tobacco products advertised and marketed by the tobacco industry. Besides its characteristic flavor, it possesses a variety of pharmacological properties facilitating tobacco smoke inhalation and potentiating dependence. These properties of menthol not only favor tobacco initiation and consumption but can also prevent smoking cessation. This article summarizes the effect of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and its effect on tobacco consumption that causes a number of chronic diseases and premature death and, therefore, counteracts tobacco control measures. Currently, there is no legislative regulation in Germany that considers the health hazard, addiction-enhancing and attractiveness-increasing properties of additives permitted in tobacco products. Effective regulation or even a ban could contribute to a reduction of tobacco consumption and, hence, save many people from a long-lasting tobacco dependence.

  3. Joint additive effects of temperature and UVB radiation on zoeae of the crab Taliepus dentatus

    Carreja, B


    Warming and enhanced ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation are 2 global stressors acting across the ocean. We tested their effects on the survival and performance (consumption rates and activity) on the zoea I stage of the Chilean kelp crab Taliepus dentatus. Our goal was to resolve whether these stressors, when acting concurrently, had additive or interactive effects, either synergistic or antagonistic. A multifactorial experiment of 4 temperatures and 3 UVB irradiance levels was run. The larvae showed a significant increase in mortality with increasing temperature. Exposure to UVB reduced the thermal tolerance of the larvae by a significant increase of their mortality rate. Oxygen consumption increased as temperature increased. When exposed to UVB radiation, larval oxygen consumption increased significantly for all the temperatures tested. Two statistical models of joint effects confirmed that the combined effect of both stressors was additive, with no interaction, either synergistic or antagonistic. One of them, the independent action (IA) model, also revealed that concurrent effects on mortality remained additive when doubling the UVB dose. Additivity of the stressors improved the predictability of their effects on larval mortality. Exposure to UVB radiation increased mortality rates by 1.5 times at any temperature tested, independently of the dose. © The authors 2016.




    Full Text Available The effects of four different additive formulations namely 5748, 801, 264 and 261 on the viscosity index of two lubricating oils (base oils namely 150N and 500N at two temperatures 400C and 1000C wereinvestigated. The base oils were blended with the additives in three different proportions of 100/4. 100/8 and 100/12. The results gave a viscosity index of 96 and 98 respectively for 150N and 500N withoutadditives. On the other hand, the addition of 12g of 261 additive formulations to 100cm3 of both base oils gave about 180% increase in kinematic viscosity at 400C, about 161% increase and 146% increase at1000C for 150N and 500N respectively. About 60% in viscosity index was achieved by 100/12 blend of 261 additives in 150N. The results revealed that 261 additive formulations gave the highest increase inviscosity in all proportions increasing as the weight of the additive increases. Generally, all the four additive formulations used mproved the viscosities of all the blends in all the proportions and at both temperatures. The blends can be classified as very high viscosity index being above 110. This means that they will undergo very little change in viscosity with temperature extremes and so can be considered to have stable viscosity.

  5. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y


    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods.

  6. Microarray Analysis of Gene Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae kap108Δ Mutants upon Addition of Oxidative Stress.

    Belanger, Kenneth D; Larson, Nathaniel; Kahn, Jonathan; Tkachev, Dmitry; Ay, Ahmet


    Protein transport between the nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is tightly regulated, providing a mechanism for controlling intracellular localization of proteins, and regulating gene expression. In this study, we have investigated the importance of nucleocytoplasmic transport mediated by the karyopherin Kap108 in regulating cellular responses to oxidative stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae We carried out microarray analyses on wild-type and kap108 mutant cells grown under normal conditions, shortly after introduction of oxidative stress, after 1 hr of oxidative stress, and 1 hr after oxidative stress was removed. We observe more than 500 genes that undergo a 40% or greater change in differential expression between wild-type and kap108Δ cells under at least one of these conditions. Genes undergoing changes in expression can be categorized in two general groups: 1) those that are differentially expressed between wild-type and kap108Δ cells, no matter the oxidative stress conditions; and 2) those that have patterns of response dependent upon both the absence of Kap108, and introduction or removal of oxidative stress. Gene ontology analysis reveals that, among the genes whose expression is reduced in the absence of Kap108 are those involved in stress response and intracellular transport, while those overexpressed are largely involved in mating and pheromone response. We also identified 25 clusters of genes that undergo similar patterns of change in gene expression when oxidative stresses are added and subsequently removed, including genes involved in stress response, oxidation-reduction processing, iron homeostasis, ascospore wall assembly, transmembrane transport, and cell fusion during mating. These data suggest that Kap108 is important for regulating expression of genes involved in a variety of specific cell functions.

  7. Effects of Stress and MDMA on Hippocampal Gene Expression

    Georg F. Weber


    Full Text Available MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine is a substituted amphetamine and popular drug of abuse. Its mood-enhancing short-term effects may prompt its consumption under stress. Clinical studies indicate that MDMA treatment may mitigate the symptoms of stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD. On the other hand, repeated administration of MDMA results in persistent deficits in markers of serotonergic (5-HT nerve terminals that have been viewed as indicative of 5-HT neurotoxicity. Exposure to chronic stress has been shown to augment MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. Here, we examine the transcriptional responses in the hippocampus to MDMA treatment of control rats and rats exposed to chronic stress. MDMA altered the expression of genes that regulate unfolded protein binding, protein folding, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity, and neuropeptide signaling. In stressed rats, the gene expression profile in response to MDMA was altered to affect sensory processing and responses to tissue damage in nerve sheaths. Subsequent treatment with MDMA also markedly altered the genetic responses to stress such that the stress-induced downregulation of genes related to the circadian rhythm was reversed. The data support the view that MDMA-induced transcriptional responses accompany the persistent effects of this drug on neuronal structure/function. In addition, MDMA treatment alters the stress-induced transcriptional signature.

  8. Effects of site substitution and metal ion addition on doped manganites

    Pradhan, A K; Roul, B K; Sahu, D R; Muralidhar, M


    We report transport, magnetization and transmission electron microscopy studies of the effects of A-and B-site substitution, and the addition of metal ions such as Pt, Ag and Sr, on doped ABO sub 3 perovskites, where A = La, Pr etc and B = Mn. Disorder induced by such substitution changes the behaviour of the charge-ordered (CO) state significantly. A-and B-site substitution suppresses the CO phase due to size mismatch and disorder produced by inhomogeneity. On the other hand, addition of metal ions such as Pt and Ag improves several colossal-magnetoresistance properties significantly due to microstructural effects and enhanced current percolation through grain boundaries.

  9. Effects of Additives on Sintering and Characterization of Calcium Phosphate Ceramics


    Calcium phosphate precursory powders containing Na and Mg have been prepared by the citric acid sol-gel combustion method. The elements of Na and Mg were introduced from component of CaO- P2O5-Na2 O-MgO. The effect of sintering additives on the phase composition was characterized by XRD. The effect of sintering additives on sintering of materials was also characterized by linear shrinkage, TEM and SEM. Finally the microstructure of porous calcium phosphate ceramic was determined by SEM.

  10. The effect of tailor-made additives on crystal growth of methyl paraben: Experiments and modelling

    Cai, Zhihui; Liu, Yong; Song, Yang; Guan, Guoqiang; Jiang, Yanbin


    In this study, methyl paraben (MP) was selected as the model component, and acetaminophen (APAP), p-methyl acetanilide (PMAA) and acetanilide (ACET), which share the similar molecular structure as MP, were selected as the three tailor-made additives to study the effect of tailor-made additives on the crystal growth of MP. HPLC results indicated that the MP crystals induced by the three additives contained MP only. Photographs of the single crystals prepared indicated that the morphology of the MP crystals was greatly changed by the additives, but PXRD and single crystal diffraction results illustrated that the MP crystals were the same polymorph only with different crystal habits, and no new crystal form was found compared with other references. To investigate the effect of the additives on the crystal growth, the interaction between additives and facets was discussed in detail using the DFT methods and MD simulations. The results showed that APAP, PMAA and ACET would be selectively adsorbed on the growth surfaces of the crystal facets, which induced the change in MP crystal habits.

  11. Dissociating compatibility effects and distractor costs in the additional singleton paradigm.

    Folk, Charles L


    The interpretation of identity compatibility effects associated with irrelevant items outside the nominal focus of attention has fueled much of the debate over early versus late selection and perceptual load theory. However, compatibility effects have also played a role in the debate over the extent to which the involuntary allocation of spatial attention (i.e., attentional capture) is completely stimulus-driven or whether it is contingent on top-down control settings. For example, in the context of the additional singleton paradigm, irrelevant color singletons have been found to produce not only an overall cost in search performance but also significant compatibility effects. This combination of search costs and compatibility effects has been taken as evidence that spatial attention is indeed allocated in a bottom-up fashion to the salient but irrelevant singletons. However, it is possible that compatibility effects in the additional singleton paradigm reflect parallel processing of identity associated with low perceptual load rather than an involuntary shift of spatial attention. In the present experiments, manipulations of load were incorporated into the traditional additional singleton paradigm. Under low-load conditions, both search costs and compatibility effects were obtained, replicating previous studies. Under high-load conditions, search costs were still present, but compatibility effects were eliminated. This dissociation suggests that the costs associated with irrelevant singletons may reflect filtering processes rather than the allocation of spatial attention.

  12. Effect of GdL Addition on Physico-chemical Properties of Fermented Sausages during Ripening.

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young


    This study investigated the effects of glucono-δ-lactone (GdL) addition on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Five batches of sausages were produced under ripening conditions: without GdL and with 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75% of GdL addition. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25th day of ripening. Chemical analysis showed a significant decrease in moisture content of sausages with increasing amounts of GdL added (pfermented sausages showed the highest in T4 (psausages were increased on the 25th day compared to day 0 (psausages. The addition of 0.75% GdL was effective in controlling bacteria counts. Addition of GdL in sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than no addition of GdL without any harmful effect.

  13. Effect of Mixed Solvents and Additives on the Habit Modification of 6-APA Crystals

    GONG Junbo; WANG Jingkang; WEI Hongyuan


    6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) crystals obtained under different physical and chemical conditions of the solutions may present different habits. The habits of diamond-shaped plates are desirable compared with other habits of 6-APA crystals. To obtain ideal 6-APA crystals, the effects of the mixed solvents and additives on 6-APA crystal habits were investigated. Ethanol or acetone was used as the organic solvent, and impurities existing in the 6-APA purification process were used as the additives. 6-APA growth habits were changed when the concentrations of ethanol, acetone or phenyl acetic acid were increased to exceed their critical concentration. The observed results show that the dominant face on 6-APA crystals was identified to be {020}, but the overall habit was controlled by the relative growth rates of the {101} and {002} faces. Crystal growth rates and habits can be appreciably changed by specific adsorption of additives on crystal faces.In some cases solvent molecules can act in a similar way and may be regarded as bulk additives. The effects of additives and organic solvents on 6-APA crystal habits were the results of adsorption effect, which fitted the experimental results quite well.

  14. The effect of lactic acid bacterial starter culture and chemical additives on wilted rice straw silage.

    Wang, Yan-Su; Shi, Wei; Huang, Lin-Ting; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are suitable for rice straw silage fermentation, but have been studied rarely, and rice straw as raw material for ensiling is difficult because of its disadvantages, such as low nutrition for microbial activities and low abundances of natural populations of LAB. So we investigated the effect of application of LAB and chemical additives on the fermentation quality and microbial community of wilted rice straw silage. Treatment with chemical additives increased the concentrations of crude protein (CP), water soluble carbohydrate (WSC), acetic acid and lactic acid, reduced the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF), but did not effectively inhibit the growth of spoilage organisms. Inoculation with LABs did not improve the nutritional value of the silage because of poor growth of LABs in wilted rice straw. Inoculation with LAB and addition of chemical materials improved the quality of silage similar to the effects of addition of chemical materials alone. Growth of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria was inhibited by this mixed treatment and the LAB gradually dominated the microbial community. In summary, the fermentation quality of wilted rice straw silage had improved by addition of LAB and chemical materials.

  15. Effect of the prefermentative addition of five enological tannins on anthocyanins and color in red wines.

    Liu, Yan-Xia; Liang, Na-Na; Wang, Jun; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Duan, Chang-Qing


    The effects of prefermentation addition of 5 exogenous tannins with different-origin anthocyanins and color characteristics were investigated in "Cabernet Sauvignon wines" at the end of alcoholic fermentation and the end of malolactic fermentation, and after 6 mo and 9 mo of bottle aging, respectively. The results showed that the application of GSKT2 could significantly retard the degradation of most anthocyanins in the process of alcoholic fermentation and the decrease of some pyranoanthocyanins during the subsequent 3 stages, thus causing more yellowness of wine in comparison with the control. Three other condensed tannins, GSKT1, QUET, and GSET, had a positive impact only on several anthocyanin components. Four condensed tannins all contributed to more redness, suggesting that the action mechanism might be to protect wine against oxidation or contribute to form copigmented anthocyanidins, or polymeric pigments. The application of FOLT (hydrolysable tannin) did not produce any influence on wine redness even after 9 mo of bottle aging. This work provides some reasons for the reasonable application of tannin additives. The prefermentative application of condensed tannins overall could protect some pigment components from degradation and enhance wine redness. Tannin additives with different origins have different effectiveness. The tannin additive obtained from grape skins, like GSKT2, could produce significant promotion on both redness and yellowness in wine. The prefermentation addition of hydroxylase tannin like FOLT seems not to have a significant effect on wine color. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Effects of Ga Addition on Interfacial Reactions Between Sn-Based Solders and Ni

    Wang, Chao-Hong; Li, Kuan-Ting


    The use of Ga as a micro-alloying element in Sn-based solders can change the microstructure of solder joints to improve the mechanical properties, and even suppress the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) growth. This research investigated the effects of Ga addition (0.2-1 wt.%Ga) on the IMC formation and morphological evolution in the Sn-based solder joints with Ni substrate. In the soldering reaction at 250°C and with less than 0.2 wt.%Ga addition, the formed phase was Ni3Sn4. When the Ga addition increased to 0.5 wt.%, it changed to a thin Ni2Ga3 layer of ˜1 μm thick, which stably existed at the interface in the initial 1-h reaction. Subsequently, the whole Ni2Ga3 layer detached from the Ni substrate and drifted into the molten solder. The Ni3Sn4 phase became dominant in the later stage. Notably, the Ga addition significantly reduced the grain size of Ni3Sn4, resulting in the massive spalling of Ni3Sn4 grains. With 1 wt.%Ga addition, the Ni2Ga3 layer remained very thin with no significant growth, and it stably existed at the interface for more than 10 h. In addition, the solid-state reactions were examined at temperatures of 160°C to 200°C. With addition of 0.5 wt.%Ga, the Ni3Sn4 phase dominated the whole reaction. By contrast, with increasing to 1 wt.%Ga, only a thin Ni2Ga3 layer was found even after aging at 160°C for more than 1200 h. The 1 wt.%Ga addition in solder can effectively inhibit the Ni3Sn4 formation in soldering and the long-term aging process.

  17. Effects of Ga Addition on Interfacial Reactions Between Sn-Based Solders and Ni

    Wang, Chao-Hong; Li, Kuan-Ting


    The use of Ga as a micro-alloying element in Sn-based solders can change the microstructure of solder joints to improve the mechanical properties, and even suppress the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) growth. This research investigated the effects of Ga addition (0.2-1 wt.%Ga) on the IMC formation and morphological evolution in the Sn-based solder joints with Ni substrate. In the soldering reaction at 250°C and with less than 0.2 wt.%Ga addition, the formed phase was Ni3Sn4. When the Ga addition increased to 0.5 wt.%, it changed to a thin Ni2Ga3 layer of ˜1 μm thick, which stably existed at the interface in the initial 1-h reaction. Subsequently, the whole Ni2Ga3 layer detached from the Ni substrate and drifted into the molten solder. The Ni3Sn4 phase became dominant in the later stage. Notably, the Ga addition significantly reduced the grain size of Ni3Sn4, resulting in the massive spalling of Ni3Sn4 grains. With 1 wt.%Ga addition, the Ni2Ga3 layer remained very thin with no significant growth, and it stably existed at the interface for more than 10 h. In addition, the solid-state reactions were examined at temperatures of 160°C to 200°C. With addition of 0.5 wt.%Ga, the Ni3Sn4 phase dominated the whole reaction. By contrast, with increasing to 1 wt.%Ga, only a thin Ni2Ga3 layer was found even after aging at 160°C for more than 1200 h. The 1 wt.%Ga addition in solder can effectively inhibit the Ni3Sn4 formation in soldering and the long-term aging process.


    Karoon Fangsuwannarak


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to perform comparative analysis of the effect of the different fuel additives as polymer based-bio-solution, natural organic based-bio-solution and nano-titanium metalloid (TiO2 compound on the performance parameters and exhuast emissions of a pickup Diesel engine, operating on commercial Diesel fuel (D and B5 palm biodiesel (95% D+5% palm oil. The basic properties of the fuel blended with TiO2 metalloid compound and bio-solution based additives were measured according to ASTM standard. Engine performance of a pickup diesel engine was investigated by testing on a chassis dynamometer with the simulation of road load condition. It was found that TiO2 based-additive is more effective for improving engine power than pure Diesel and B5 fuels by 7.78% and 1.36%, respectively. Meanwhile, with using TiO2 additive, the maximum engine torque on average increased by 1.01% and 1.53% in the wide range between 1,700 and 3,000 rpm as compared with Diesel and B5 fuels, respectively. The TiO2 and natural organic additives is significantly effective on Diesel fuel for reducing brake specific fuel consumption reached by 13.22% and 10.01%, respectively as compared with pure Diesel. Moreover, the exhuast emissions (NOx, CO and CO2 decreased from the engine using the TiO2 additive in Diesel fuel and natural organic additive in Diesel fuel.

  19. Synthetic Effect of Vivid Shark Skin and Polymer Additive on Drag Reduction Reinforcement

    Huawei Chen


    Full Text Available Natural shark skin has a well-demonstrated drag reduction function, which is mainly owing to its microscopic structure and mucus on the body surface. In order to improve drag reduction, it is necessary to integrate microscopic drag reduction structure and drag reduction agent. In this study, two hybrid approaches to synthetically combine vivid shark skin and polymer additive, namely, long-chain grafting and controllable polymer diffusion, were proposed and attempted to mimic such hierarchical topography of shark skin without waste of polymer additive. Grafting mechanism and optimization of diffusion port were investigated to improve the efficiency of the polymer additive. Superior drag reduction effects were validated, and the combined effect was also clarified through comparison between drag reduction experiments.

  20. Effects from additives on deacetylation of chitin; Efeito de aditivos na desacetilacao de quitina

    Campana Filho, Sergio P.; Signini, Roberta [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    Deacetylation reactions of commercial chitin were carried out in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at 115 deg C for 6 hours. The effect from additives (sodium borohydride or anthraquinone) and of bubbling inert gas (nitrogen or argon) on the characteristics of deacetylated samples were evaluated. Average degrees of acetylation and intrinsic viscosity were determined by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and capillary viscometry, respectively. X-ray diffraction was employed to evaluate changes in crystallinity and infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor structural changes due to deacetylation. The bubbling of inert gas during the deacetylation reaction resulted in more crystalline samples of chitosan. Deacetylation carried out without any additive produced slightly more deacetylated chitosan but they were severely depolymerized. The depolymerization process was much less important when sodium borohydride was added to the reaction medium but the addition of anthraquinone and the bubbling of nitrogen, or argon, did not have any effect, this suggests that oxygen is not required for depolymerization. (author)

  1. Parental Anxiety and Child Symptomatology: An Examinzation of Additive and Interactive Effects of Parent Psychopathology

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Tein, Jenn-Yun


    The current study examined relations between parent anxiety and child anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms. In addition, the study tested the additive and interactive effects of parent anxiety with parent depression and externalizing symptoms in relation to child symptoms. Forty-eight parents with anxiety disorders and 49 parents without any psychiatric disorder participated with one of their children (ages 6 to 14 years; 46.4% male; 75.8% Caucasian). Parent anxiety was related to both child anxiety and depression, but not child externalizing symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that only parent externalizing symptoms had additive effects, beyond parent anxiety symptoms, in relation to child anxiety symptoms. Further, parent anxiety symptoms moderated the relationship between parent and child externalizing symptoms, such that the strength of this relationship was reduced in the presence of high levels of parent anxiety symptoms. Results of this study illuminate the role of parent comorbidity in understanding relations between parent and child symptoms. PMID:20432062

  2. Additional Interventions to Enhance the Effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support: A Rapid Evidence Assessment

    Naomi Boycott


    Full Text Available Topic. Additional interventions used to enhance the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS. Aim. To establish whether additional interventions improve the vocational outcomes of IPS alone for people with severe mental illness. Method. A rapid evidence assessment of the literature was conducted for studies where behavioural or psychological interventions have been used to supplement standard IPS. Published and unpublished empirical studies of IPS with additional interventions were considered for inclusion. Conclusions. Six published studies were found which compared IPS alone to IPS plus a supplementary intervention. Of these, three used skills training and three used cognitive remediation. The contribution of each discrete intervention is difficult to establish. Some evidence suggests that work-related social skills and cognitive training are effective adjuncts, but this is an area where large RCTs are required to yield conclusive evidence.

  3. Quantification of Treatment Effect Modification on Both an Additive and Multiplicative Scale.

    Girerd, Nicolas; Rabilloud, Muriel; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, Patrick; Roy, Pascal


    In both observational and randomized studies, associations with overall survival are by and large assessed on a multiplicative scale using the Cox model. However, clinicians and clinical researchers have an ardent interest in assessing absolute benefit associated with treatments. In older patients, some studies have reported lower relative treatment effect, which might translate into similar or even greater absolute treatment effect given their high baseline hazard for clinical events. The effect of treatment and the effect modification of treatment were respectively assessed using a multiplicative and an additive hazard model in an analysis adjusted for propensity score in the context of coronary surgery. The multiplicative model yielded a lower relative hazard reduction with bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting in older patients (Hazard ratio for interaction/year = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.00 to 1.06, p = 0.05) whereas the additive model reported a similar absolute hazard reduction with increasing age (Delta for interaction/year = 0.10, 95%CI: -0.27 to 0.46, p = 0.61). The number needed to treat derived from the propensity score-adjusted multiplicative model was remarkably similar at the end of the follow-up in patients aged 70. The present example demonstrates that a lower treatment effect in older patients on a relative scale can conversely translate into a similar treatment effect on an additive scale due to large baseline hazard differences. Importantly, absolute risk reduction, either crude or adjusted, can be calculated from multiplicative survival models. We advocate for a wider use of the absolute scale, especially using additive hazard models, to assess treatment effect and treatment effect modification.

  4. Quantification of Treatment Effect Modification on Both an Additive and Multiplicative Scale.

    Nicolas Girerd

    Full Text Available In both observational and randomized studies, associations with overall survival are by and large assessed on a multiplicative scale using the Cox model. However, clinicians and clinical researchers have an ardent interest in assessing absolute benefit associated with treatments. In older patients, some studies have reported lower relative treatment effect, which might translate into similar or even greater absolute treatment effect given their high baseline hazard for clinical events.The effect of treatment and the effect modification of treatment were respectively assessed using a multiplicative and an additive hazard model in an analysis adjusted for propensity score in the context of coronary surgery.The multiplicative model yielded a lower relative hazard reduction with bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting in older patients (Hazard ratio for interaction/year = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.00 to 1.06, p = 0.05 whereas the additive model reported a similar absolute hazard reduction with increasing age (Delta for interaction/year = 0.10, 95%CI: -0.27 to 0.46, p = 0.61. The number needed to treat derived from the propensity score-adjusted multiplicative model was remarkably similar at the end of the follow-up in patients aged 70.The present example demonstrates that a lower treatment effect in older patients on a relative scale can conversely translate into a similar treatment effect on an additive scale due to large baseline hazard differences. Importantly, absolute risk reduction, either crude or adjusted, can be calculated from multiplicative survival models. We advocate for a wider use of the absolute scale, especially using additive hazard models, to assess treatment effect and treatment effect modification.

  5. The Effects of CO2 Addition on the Partial Oxidation of Heptane for Hydrogen Generation

    Ran RAN; Guo Xing XIONG; Shi Shan SHENG; Wei Shen YANG


    The effects of CO2 on the partial oxidation of heptane for hydrogen generation have been studied. Based on the experimental results and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations, the validity of CO2 addition to weaken the hot spots, and the feasibility of the autothermal operation are discussed.

  6. Effects of carbohydrate addition on production in extensive shrimp culture systems

    Hari, B.; Kurup, B.M.; Varghese, J.T.; Schrama, J.W.; Verdegem, M.C.J.


    One indoor and one on-farm trial were conducted to evaluate the effect of control of carbon/ nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) by addition of carbohydrate to the water column in extensive types of shrimp culture systems. In the indoor experiment, 25% and 40% dietary protein ('P25' and 'P40') with or withou

  7. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.


    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a

  8. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.


    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharma

  9. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L


    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  10. Effects of DCD addition to slurry on nitrate leaching in sandy soils

    Corré, W.J.; Zwart, K.B.


    The effects of the addition of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) to cattle slurry, applied in autumn to an arable sandy soil, were investigated in a three-year field experiment in the Netherlands. Treatments included application of slurry with DCD in November and December, application

  11. The cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in addition to screening : a Dutch perspective

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Westra, Tjalke Arend; Wilschut, Jan C.; Suwantika, Auliya A.; Daemen, Toos; Atthobari, Jarir; Wilffert, Bob; Postma, Maarten J.


    Addition of the HPV vaccine to available cytological screening has been proposed to increase HPV-related cancer prevention. A comprehensive review on this combined strategy implemented in the Netherlands is lacking. For this review, we therefore analyzed all relevant studies on cost-effectiveness of

  12. The Effect of Enzyme Addition on Anaerobic Digestion of Jose Tall Wheat Grass

    The effects of the addition of enzyme products containing cellulase, hemicellulase, and Beta-glucosidase to anaerobic digestion systems were studied. Anaerobic digestion tests were performed using batch reactors operated at 35°C. The application of enzyme products in three digestion configurations w...

  13. Effects of fat/ester addition on niche-specific genes expression of Lactoba-cillus sakei%添加脂类物质对米酒乳杆菌生境适应相关基因表达的影响

    许慧卿; 高璐; 田颖; 蒋云升; 彭景; 陈玉


    为了了解米酒乳杆菌在脂类环境中的生存状况,为改进发酵剂和发酵产品提供理论基础,用定量PCR方法对米酒乳杆菌La22在橄榄油和三丁酸甘油培养基中生长时生境适应相关基因表达进行分析。结果显示,与对照相比,无论是在添加橄榄油还是添加三丁酸甘油的 MRS培养基中,米酒乳杆菌中与精氨酸脱亚氨酶途径( ADI)途径相关的6个arc操纵子基因的表达量下调十分明显,且在橄榄油中arc操纵子基因的表达量均低于其在含三丁酸甘油培养基中的表达量;压力相关基因usp5在三丁酸甘油培养基中的表达量明显下调,usp2、usp4、lsa0169和lsa0170在2种培养基中的表达量均明显下调,lsa01079的表达量在三丁酸甘油培养基中明显上调,lsa0674和lsa0697在2种培养基中的表达量均明显上调;应激基因lsa1152 b在橄榄油和三丁酸甘油培养基中的表达量明显上调,而lsa1111、lsa1112、lsa0552和lsa0619基因的表达量在三丁酸甘油培养基中明显下调。结果表明米酒乳杆菌能适应脂类丰富的培养环境,但需进一步研究来证实米酒乳杆菌对各种脂类环境的适应性。%Lactobacillus sakei is a ubiquitous heterofermentative 1actic acid bacterium that is frequent1y used as an industria1 cu1ture in vegetab1e, fish and meat fermentation. To investigate the adaptation of L. sakei in a fat/ester environ-ment and to provide fundamenta1 basis for improvement of starter cu1ture and fermented product, rea1-time quantitative PCR ( RT-qPCR) were emp1oyed to ana1yze the niche-specific genes expression re1ated to the growth of L. sakei strain La22 when grown in o1ive oi1 or tributyrin supp1emented MRS. Compared with CK, expression of six arc operon genes of L. sakei strain La22, which be1ong to the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway, were down-regu1ated obvious1y and the expression of six arc operon genes in o1ive oi1 supp1emented MRS was 1ower than that in

  14. High frequency of additional gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia with MLL partial tandem duplication: DNMT3A mutation is associated with poor prognosis.

    Kao, Hsiao-Wen; Liang, D Cherng; Kuo, Ming-Chung; Wu, Jin-Hou; Dunn, Po; Wang, Po-Nan; Lin, Tung-Liang; Shih, Yu-Shu; Liang, Sung-Tzu; Lin, Tung-Huei; Lai, Chen-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hui; Shih, Lee-Yung


    The mutational profiles of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with partial tandem duplication of mixed-lineage leukemia gene (MLL-PTD) have not been comprehensively studied. We studied 19 gene mutations for 98 patients with MLL-PTD AML to determine the mutation frequency and clinical correlations. MLL-PTD was screened by reverse-transcriptase PCR and confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. The mutational analyses were performed with PCR-based assays followed by direct sequencing. Gene mutations of signaling pathways occurred in 63.3% of patients, with FLT3-ITD (44.9%) and FLT3-TKD (13.3%) being the most frequent. 66% of patients had gene mutations involving epigenetic regulation, and DNMT3A (32.7%), IDH2 (18.4%), TET2 (18.4%), and IDH1 (10.2%) mutations were most common. Genes of transcription pathways and tumor suppressors accounted for 23.5% and 10.2% of patients. RUNX1 mutation occurred in 23.5% of patients, while none had NPM1 or double CEBPA mutation. 90.8% of MLL-PTD AML patients had at least one additional gene mutation. Of 55 MLL-PTD AML patients who received standard chemotherapy, age older than 50 years and DNMT3A mutation were associated with inferior outcome. In conclusion, gene mutations involving DNA methylation and activated signaling pathway were common co-existed gene mutations. DNMT3A mutation was a poor prognostic factor in MLL-PTD AML.

  15. Mangiferin has an additive effect on the apoptotic properties of hesperidin in Cyclopia sp. tea extracts.

    Rafal Bartoszewski

    Full Text Available A variety of biological pro-health activities have been reported for mangiferin and hesperidin, two major phenolic compounds of Honeybush (Cyclopia sp. tea extracts. Given their increasing popularity, there is a need for understanding the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of these compounds. In this study, we used real-time cytotoxicity cellular analysis of the Cyclopia sp. extracts on HeLa cells and found that the higher hesperidin content in non-fermented "green" extracts correlated with their higher cytotoxicity compared to the fermented extracts. We also found that mangiferin had a modulatory effect on the apoptotic effects of hesperidin. Quantitative PCR analysis of hesperidin-induced changes in apoptotic gene expression profile indicated that two death receptor pathway members, TRADD and TRAMP, were up regulated. The results of this study suggest that hesperidin mediates apoptosis in HeLa cells through extrinsic pathway for programmed cell death.

  16. Mangiferin Has an Additive Effect on the Apoptotic Properties of Hesperidin in Cyclopia sp. Tea Extracts

    Bartoszewski, Rafal; Hering, Anna; Marszałł, Marcin; Stefanowicz Hajduk, Justyna; Bartoszewska, Sylwia; Kapoor, Niren; Kochan, Kinga; Ochocka, Renata


    A variety of biological pro-health activities have been reported for mangiferin and hesperidin, two major phenolic compounds of Honeybush (Cyclopia sp.) tea extracts. Given their increasing popularity, there is a need for understanding the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of these compounds. In this study, we used real-time cytotoxicity cellular analysis of the Cyclopia sp. extracts on HeLa cells and found that the higher hesperidin content in non-fermented "green" extracts correlated with their higher cytotoxicity compared to the fermented extracts. We also found that mangiferin had a modulatory effect on the apoptotic effects of hesperidin. Quantitative PCR analysis of hesperidin-induced changes in apoptotic gene expression profile indicated that two death receptor pathway members, TRADD and TRAMP, were up regulated. The results of this study suggest that hesperidin mediates apoptosis in HeLa cells through extrinsic pathway for programmed cell death. PMID:24633329

  17. Additive Effects of Millimeter Waves and 2-Deoxyglucose Co-Exposure on the Human Keratinocyte Transcriptome

    Soubere Mahamoud, Yonis; Aite, Meziane; Martin, Catherine; Zhadobov, Maxim; Sauleau, Ronan; Le Dréan, Yves


    Millimeter Waves (MMW) will be used in the next-generation of high-speed wireless technologies, especially in future Ultra-Broadband small cells in 5G cellular networks. Therefore, their biocompatibilities must be evaluated prior to their massive deployment. Using a microarray-based approach, we analyzed modifications to the whole genome of a human keratinocyte model that was exposed at 60.4 GHz-MMW at an incident power density (IPD) of 20 mW/cm2 for 3 hours in athermic conditions. No keratinocyte transcriptome modifications were observed. We tested the effects of MMWs on cell metabolism by co-treating MMW-exposed cells with a glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxyglucose (2dG, 20 mM for 3 hours), and whole genome expression was evaluated along with the ATP content. We found that the 2dG treatment decreased the cellular ATP content and induced a high modification in the transcriptome (632 coding genes). The affected genes were associated with transcriptional repression, cellular communication and endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. The MMW/2dG co-treatment did not alter the keratinocyte ATP content, but it did slightly alter the transcriptome, which reflected the capacity of MMW to interfere with the bioenergetic stress response. The RT-PCR-based validation confirmed 6 MMW-sensitive genes (SOCS3, SPRY2, TRIB1, FAM46A, CSRNP1 and PPP1R15A) during the 2dG treatment. These 6 genes encoded transcription factors or inhibitors of cytokine pathways, which raised questions regarding the potential impact of long-term or chronic MMW exposure on metabolically stressed cells. PMID:27529420

  18. Additive Effects of Millimeter Waves and 2-Deoxyglucose Co-Exposure on the Human Keratinocyte Transcriptome.

    Soubere Mahamoud, Yonis; Aite, Meziane; Martin, Catherine; Zhadobov, Maxim; Sauleau, Ronan; Le Dréan, Yves; Habauzit, Denis


    Millimeter Waves (MMW) will be used in the next-generation of high-speed wireless technologies, especially in future Ultra-Broadband small cells in 5G cellular networks. Therefore, their biocompatibilities must be evaluated prior to their massive deployment. Using a microarray-based approach, we analyzed modifications to the whole genome of a human keratinocyte model that was exposed at 60.4 GHz-MMW at an incident power density (IPD) of 20 mW/cm2 for 3 hours in athermic conditions. No keratinocyte transcriptome modifications were observed. We tested the effects of MMWs on cell metabolism by co-treating MMW-exposed cells with a glycolysis inhibitor, 2-deoxyglucose (2dG, 20 mM for 3 hours), and whole genome expression was evaluated along with the ATP content. We found that the 2dG treatment decreased the cellular ATP content and induced a high modification in the transcriptome (632 coding genes). The affected genes were associated with transcriptional repression, cellular communication and endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis. The MMW/2dG co-treatment did not alter the keratinocyte ATP content, but it did slightly alter the transcriptome, which reflected the capacity of MMW to interfere with the bioenergetic stress response. The RT-PCR-based validation confirmed 6 MMW-sensitive genes (SOCS3, SPRY2, TRIB1, FAM46A, CSRNP1 and PPP1R15A) during the 2dG treatment. These 6 genes encoded transcription factors or inhibitors of cytokine pathways, which raised questions regarding the potential impact of long-term or chronic MMW exposure on metabolically stressed cells.

  19. Effect of three different anti-mycotoxin additives on broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxin B1

    AA Oliveira


    Full Text Available The growth of filamentous fungi on food often causes, aside from its deterioration, the mycotoxin production which determines economic losses in poultry industry, such as decreased productivity and injuries on poultry's carcass. Adsorbents based on yeast cell wall from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which contain esterified glucomannan, are an alternative to reduce the mycotoxins bioavailability. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro and in vivo the performance of new three anti-mycotoxin additives (AMA based on yeast cell wall from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The adsorption process was quantified in vitro, and the data obtained when plotted with Hill's equation indicated a cooperative process. Then, the three different AMA were tested for its ability to reduce the effects of aflatoxins in the diet of growing broiler chickens. The addition of 1 mg kg-1 aflatoxin B1 to the diets of broilers caused a negative change on the performance parameters besides increasing liver weight, fatty degeneration and liver necrosis. The addition of two different kinds of AMA (0.2% could reverse such effects. In conclusion, AMA 1 and 2 are additives with good potential for application on animal production. The AMA 3 ingredients must be re-tested alone for its adsorption capacity. These are the first data reported from Brazil anti-mycotoxin additives with preliminary isothermal analysis. Since beneficial characteristics of S. cerevisiae cell wall in animal industry are strain dependent, this study suggests two new promising alternatives to ameliorate mycotoxin problem.

  20. Effect of phosphorus addition in combustion of biomass fuels; Effekter av fosfortillsats vid foerbraenning av biomassa

    Grimm, Alejandro; Skoglund, Nils; Eriksson, Gunnar; Bostroem, Dan; Oehman, Marcus


    The results from this project show that phosphorous-rich additives could be of interest to reduce fouling and high temperature corrosion without causing increase in slagging and/or bed agglomeration tendency for typical biofuels. General results in this series of experiments show that in order to achieve a good potassium-binding effect the calcium and magnesium content should be low in the phosphorous-rich fuel and additive. If the content of Ca and Mg is high in the final fuel mixture (including both P-fuel/additive and the bulk fuel) the K-binding effect is reduced and more P needs to be added. Of course, this also means that the additive of choice (fuel or chemical) should have a low content of calcium and magnesium. It is therefore probable that the best results will be obtained when using a fuel mix where the final blend has a molar ratio of P/(K+Na+2/3Ca+2/3Mg) approaching 1. For instance, using monoammonium phosphate, this would be equivalent to a cost (autumn 2009) of about 9-14, 10-15 and 30-40 SEK in P-additive cost per MWh of added fuel to achieve this molar ratio for typical logging residue, salix and wheat straw biofuels.

  1. The Blazhko effect and additional excited modes in RR Lyrae stars

    Benkő, J M


    Recent photometric space missions, such as CoRoT and Kepler revealed that many RR Lyrae stars pulsate -- beyond their main radial pulsation mode -- in low amplitude modes. Space data seem to indicate a clear trend, namely overtone (RRc) stars and modulated fundamental (RRab) RR Lyrae stars ubiquitously show additional modes, while non-Blazhko RRab stars never do. Two Kepler stars (V350 Lyr and KIC 7021124), however, apparently seemed to break this rule: they were classified as non-Blazhko RRab stars showing additional modes. We processed Kepler pixel photometric data of these stars. We detected small amplitude, but significant Blazhko effect for both stars by using the resulted light curves and O$-$C diagrams. This finding strengthens the apparent connection between the Blazhko effect and the excitation of additional modes. In addition, it yields a potential tool for detecting Blazhko stars through the additional frequency patterns even if we have only short but accurate time series observations. V350 Lyr sho...

  2. Effect of the Addition of Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    S. K. Jin


    Full Text Available The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0% were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm. SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness and W (whiteness values, and higher b* (yellowness values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05. Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05. As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05. The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05 increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP (p<0.05. Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05. As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05. These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages.

  3. Effects of Zeolite Addition on Ammonia Volatilization and Influence Factors in Sludge Composting

    XU Jun-xiang


    Full Text Available An experiment of sludge composting was conducted to study the effects of zeolite addition(occupying the wet weight of sludge and straw 5% and 10%on ammonia volatilization and influence factors. Sludge and straw were raw materials. The results indicated that adding 5% and 10% zeolite to the sludge could significantly decrease the NH3 volatilization cumulative rate of 27.9% and 48.7%. The pH value of composting with zeolite addition increased 0.09~0.22 compared with the contrast. Electrical conductivity(ECof composting with zeolite addition maintained lower level which were 1 876.7~2 636.7 uS·cm-1. Zeolite addition decreased the content of NH4+-N by 9.07%~22.2% when compared with the contrast. Zeolite as an additive in sludge composting could decrease the cumulative rate of ammonia volatilization. Thus, zeolite is a new potential additive which will bring prospects of application in sludge composting.

  4. Effects of Bi Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystalline Ag Coatings

    Yuxin Wang


    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Bi addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ag coating. Microstructural features were investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results indicate that the addition of Bi introduced nanometer-scale Ag-Bi solid solution particles and more internal defects to the initial Ag microstructures. The anisotropic elastic-plastic properties of the Ag nanocrystalline coating with and without Bi addition were examined with nanoindentation experiments in conjunction with the recently-developed inverse method. The results indicate that the as-deposited nanocrystalline Ag coating contained high mechanical anisotropy. With the addition of 1 atomic percent (at% Bi, the anisotropy within Ag-Bi coating was very small, and yield strength of the nanocrystalline Ag-Bi alloy in both longitudinal and transverse directions were improved by over 100% compared to that of Ag. On the other hand, the strain-hardening exponent of Ag-Bi was reduced to 0.055 from the original 0.16 of the Ag coating. Furthermore, the addition of Bi only slightly increased the electrical resistivity of the Ag-Bi coating in comparison to Ag. Results of our study indicate that Bi addition is a promising method for improving the mechanical and physical performances of Ag coating for electrical contacts.

  5. Effects of Bi Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystalline Ag Coatings

    Wang, Yuxin; Cheng, Guang; Tay, See Leng; Guo, Yuxia; Sun, Xin; Gao, Wei


    In this study we investigated the effects of Bi addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ag coatings. Microstructural features were investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the addition of Bi introduced nanometer scale Ag-Bi solid solution particles and more internal defects to the initial Ag microstructures. The anisotropic elastoplastic properties of Ag nanocrystalline coatings with and without Bi addition were examined with nanoindentation experiments in conjunction with the recently developed inverse calculation. The results indicate that the as-deposited nanocrystalline Ag coating contained high mechanical anisotropy. With the addition of 1 atomic percent (at.%) Bi, the anisotropy within Ag-Bi coating was very small, and yield strength of nanocrystalline Ag-Bi alloy in both longitudinal and transverse directions were improved by over 100% compared to that of Ag. On the other hand, the strain hardening exponent of Ag-Bi was reduced to 0.055 from the original 0.16 of Ag coating. Furthermore, the addition of Bi only slightly increased the electrical resistivity of the Ag-Bi coating in comparison to Ag. Results of our study indicate that Bi addition is a promising method for improving the physical and mechanical performances of Ag coating for electrical contact.

  6. Effects of Bi Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystalline Ag Coatings

    Tay, See Leng; Guo, Yunxia; Sun, Xin; Gao, Wei


    In this study we investigated the effects of Bi addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ag coating. Microstructural features were investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that the addition of Bi introduced nanometer-scale Ag-Bi solid solution particles and more internal defects to the initial Ag microstructures. The anisotropic elastic-plastic properties of the Ag nanocrystalline coating with and without Bi addition were examined with nanoindentation experiments in conjunction with the recently-developed inverse method. The results indicate that the as-deposited nanocrystalline Ag coating contained high mechanical anisotropy. With the addition of 1 atomic percent (at%) Bi, the anisotropy within Ag-Bi coating was very small, and yield strength of the nanocrystalline Ag-Bi alloy in both longitudinal and transverse directions were improved by over 100% compared to that of Ag. On the other hand, the strain-hardening exponent of Ag-Bi was reduced to 0.055 from the original 0.16 of the Ag coating. Furthermore, the addition of Bi only slightly increased the electrical resistivity of the Ag-Bi coating in comparison to Ag. Results of our study indicate that Bi addition is a promising method for improving the mechanical and physical performances of Ag coating for electrical contacts. PMID:28796189

  7. Experimental investigation of effects of bio-additives on fuel economy of the gasoline engine


    The matter extracted from palm oil was considered as gasoline additive. The effect of various percentages (0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%) of the bio-additives on fuel economy of SI engine respectively running on prime gasoline, gasoline with known compo- nents, ethanol gasoline, and methanol gasoline under typical urban operation condition 2000 r/min was investigated. The results showed that the bio-additives can remarkably improve the fuel economy of SI engine while operating on all kinds of fuel. The optimal ratio of bio-additive to gasoline depends on the fuel used and on the different engine operating conditions. Besides, the experiments of constant volume combustion bomb, analysis of in cylinder processes, the synchrotron ra- diation and high-temperature friction were conducted to probe into the mechanism of the bio-additive impact on fuel economy. It indicated that the bio-additives can increase the maximum cylinder combustion pressure, improve exhaust emissions and largely reduce the frication coefficient.

  8. Experimental investigation of effects of bio-additives on fuel economy of the gasoline engine

    YAO ChunDe; ZHANG ZhiHui; XU YuanLi; HUANG Yu


    The matter extracted from palm oil was considered as gasoline additive. The effect of various percentages (0.2%, 0.4% and 0.6%) of the bio-additives on fuel economy of SI engine respectively running on prime gasoline, gasoline with known compo-nents, ethanol gasoline, and methanol gasoline under typical urban operation condition 2000 r/min was investigated. The results showed that the bio-additives can remarkably improve the fuel economy of Sl engine while operating on all kinds of fuel. The optimal ratio of bio-additive to gasoline depends on the fuel used and on the different engine operating conditions. Besides, the experiments of constant volume combustion bomb, analysis of in cylinder processes, the synchrotron re-dietion and high-temperature friction were conducted to probe into the mechanism of the bio-additive impact on fuel economy. It indicated that the bio-additives can increase the maximum cylinder combustion pressure, improve exhaust emissions and largely reduce the frication coefficient.

  9. The Effect of Silicon and Aluminum Additions on the Oxidation Resistance of Lean Chromium Stainless Steels

    Dunning, J.S.; Alman, D.E.; Rawers, J.C.


    The effect of Si and Al additions on the oxidation of lean chromium austenitic stainless steels has been studied. A baseline composition of Fe-16Cr-16Ni-2Mn-1Mo was selected to allow combined Si and Al additions of up to 5 wt. pct. in a fully austenitic alloy. The baseline composition was selected using a net Cr equivalent equation to predict the onset of G-ferrite formation in austenite. Cyclic oxidation tests in air for 1000 hours were carried out on alloys with Si only or combined Si and Al additions in the temperature range 700 C to 800 C. Oxidation resistance of alloys with Si only additions were outstanding, particularly at 800 C. It was evident that different rate controlling mechanisms for oxidation were operative at 700 C and 800 C in the Si alloys. In addition, Si alloys pre-oxidized at 800 C, showed a zero weight gain in subsequent testing for 1000 hours at 700 C. The rate controlling mechanism in alloys with combined Si and Al addition for oxidation at 800 C was also different than alloys with Si only. SEM and ESCA analysis of the oxide films and base material at the oxide/base metal interface were conducted to study potential rate controlling mechanisms.

  10. Effect of Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid Used as Additive on Residue Hydrotreating

    Sun Yudong; Yang Chaohe


    The effect of additive—dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA)—on residue hydrotreating was studied in the au-toclave. The results showed that the additive improved stabilization of the colloid system of residue, which could delay the aggregation and coke formation from asphaltenes on the catalyst, and make heavy components transformed into light oil. The residue conversion in the presence of this additive increased by 1.94%, and the yield of light oil increased by 1.53% when the reaction time was 90 min. The surface properties of the catalyst in the presence of this additive were better than that of the blank test within a very short time (30 min) and deteriorated rapidly after a longer reaction time due to higher conversion and coke deposition. Compared with the blank test, the case using the said additive had shown that the structure of hydrotreated asphaltene units was smaller and the condensation degrees were higher. The test results indicated that the additive could improve the hydrotreating reactivity of residue via permeation and depolymerization, the heavier components could be transformed into light oil more easily, and the light oil yield and residue conversion were higher for the case using the said additive in residue hydrotreating process.

  11. Effect of Ingredient Loading on Surface Migration Kinetics of Additives in Vulcanized Natural Rubber Compounds

    Bryan B. Pajarito


    Full Text Available Surface migration kinetics of chemical additives in vulcanized natural rubber compounds were studied as function of ingredient loading. Rubber sheets were compounded according to a 212-8 fractional factorial design of experiment, where ingredients were treated as factors varied at two levels of loading. Amount of migrated additives in surface of rubber sheets was monitored through time at ambient conditions. The maximum amount and estimated rate of additive migration were determined from weight loss kinetic curves. Attenuated total reflection–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy were used to characterize the chemical structure and surface morphology of sheet specimens during additive migration. ANOVA results showed that increased loading of reclaimed rubber, CaCO3, and paraffin wax signif icantly decreased the maximum amount of additive migration; by contrast, increased loading of used oil, asphalt, and mercaptobenzothiazole disulphide (MBTS increased the maximum amount. Increased loading of sulfur, diphenylguanidine (DPG, and paraffin wax significantly decreased the additive migration rate; increased loading of used oil, asphalt, and stearic acid elicited an opposite effect. Comparison of ATRFTIR spectra of migrated and cleaned rubber surfaces showed signif icant variation in intensity of specif ic absorbance bands that are also present in infrared spectra of migrating chemicals. Paraffin wax, used oil, stearic acid, MBTS, asphalt, and zinc stearate were identified to bloom and bleed in the rubber sheets. Optical micrographs of migrated rubber surfaces revealed formation of white precipitates due to blooming and of semi-transparent wet patches due to bleeding.

  12. Effects of aluminum and iron nanoparticle additives on composite AP/HTPB solid propellant regression rate

    Styborski, Jeremy A.

    This project was started in the interest of supplementing existing data on additives to composite solid propellants. The study on the addition of iron and aluminum nanoparticles to composite AP/HTPB propellants was conducted at the Combustion and Energy Systems Laboratory at RPI in the new strand-burner experiment setup. For this study, a large literature review was conducted on history of solid propellant combustion modeling and the empirical results of tests on binders, plasticizers, AP particle size, and additives. The study focused on the addition of nano-scale aluminum and iron in small concentrations to AP/HTPB solid propellants with an average AP particle size of 200 microns. Replacing 1% of the propellant's AP with 40-60 nm aluminum particles produced no change in combustive behavior. The addition of 1% 60-80 nm iron particles produced a significant increase in burn rate, although the increase was lesser at higher pressures. These results are summarized in Table 2. The increase in the burn rate at all pressures due to the addition of iron nanoparticles warranted further study on the effect of concentration of iron. Tests conducted at 10 atm showed that the mean regression rate varied with iron concentration, peaking at 1% and 3%. Regardless of the iron concentration, the regression rate was higher than the baseline AP/HTPB propellants. These results are summarized in Table 3.

  13. GeneLibrarian: an effective gene-information summarization and visualization system

    Liu Heng-Hui


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abundant information about gene products is stored in online searchable databases such as annotation or literature. To efficiently obtain and digest such information, there is a pressing need for automated information-summarization and functional-similarity clustering of genes. Results We have developed a novel method for semantic measurement of annotation and integrated it with a biomedical literature summarization system to establish a platform, GeneLibrarian, to provide users well-organized information about any specific group of genes (e.g. one cluster of genes from a microarray chip they might be interested in. The GeneLibrarian generates a summarized viewgraph of candidate genes for a user based on his/her preference and delivers the desired background information effectively to the user. The summarization technique involves optimizing the text mining algorithm and Gene Ontology-based clustering method to enable the discovery of gene relations. Conclusion GeneLibrarian is a Java-based web application that automates the process of retrieving critical information from the literature and expanding the number of potential genes for further analysis. This study concentrates on providing well organized information to users and we believe that will be useful in their researches. GeneLibrarian is available on

  14. Species composition and fire: non-additive mixture effects on ground fuel flammability

    Cassandra eVan Altena


    Full Text Available Biodiversity effects on many aspects of ecosystem function have been well documented. However, fire is an exception: fire experiments have mainly included single species, bulk litter, or vegetation, and, as such, the role of biodiversity as a determinant of flammability, a crucial aspect of ecosystem function, is poorly understood. This study is the first to experimentally test whether flammability characteristics of two-species mixtures are non-additive, i.e. differ from expected flammability based on the component species in monoculture. In standardized fire experiments on ground fuels, including monocultures and mixtures of five contrasting subarctic plant fuel types in a controlled laboratory environment, we measured flame speed, flame duration and maximum temperature. Broadly half of the mixture combinations showed non-additive effects for these flammability indicators; these were mainly enhanced dominance effects, where the fuel types with the more flammable value for a characteristic determined the flammability of the whole mixture. The high incidence of species non-additive effects on ground fuel flammability suggest that the combinations of fuel types may have important effects on ground fire regimes in vegetations differing or changing in species composition.

  15. Categorical and continuous - disentangling the neural correlates of the carry effect in multi-digit addition

    Dressel Katharina


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently it was suggested that the carry effect observed in addition involves both categorical and continuous processing characteristics. Methods In the present study, we aimed at identifying the specific neural correlates associated with processing either categorical or continuous aspects of the carry effect in an fMRI study on multi-digit addition. Results In line with our expectations, we observed two distinct parts of the fronto-parietal network subserving numerical cognition to be associated with either one of these two characteristics. On the one hand, the categorical aspect of the carry effect was associated with left-hemispheric language areas and the basal ganglia probably reflecting increased demands on procedural and problem solving processes. Complementarily, the continuous aspect of the carry effect was associated with increased intraparietal activation indicating increasing demands on magnitude processing as well as place-value integration with increasing unit sum. Conclusions In summary, the findings suggest representations and processes underlying the carry effect in multi-digit addition to be more complex and interactive than assumed previously.

  16. Effects of water and nitrogen addition on species turnover in temperate grasslands in northern China.

    Zhuwen Xu

    Full Text Available Global nitrogen (N deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species turnover underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and turnover in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and turnover in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to affect species richness and species turnover, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and turnover, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change.

  17. Effect of Addition of Cereal Based Beta-glucan on Technological and Functional Properties of Foods

    Nihal Şimşekli


    Full Text Available Nowadays usage of dietary fibers in foods has been increasing duo to revealing of health benefits. Beta-glucans found especially in oats and barley, are polysaccharide and source of water-soluble dietary fiber. Positive effects of beta-glucans like healing coronary-heart disease, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level and preventing obesity, made beta-glucans widespread functional food components for producing various foods. In addition to beneficial physiological effects of beta-glucans, they texturize, gelatinize, emulsify and stabilize the foods. They increase viscosity, replace fat and enhance rheological properties in cereal, meat and dairy products. They are also used to produce packing material depending on their mechanical properties and molecular weights. In this review, effects of addition of cereal based beta-glucans on technological and functional properties of various foods are revealed based on previous studies.

  18. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Wiencek, T.; O'Hare, E.; Fortner, J.; Wright, A.; Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.


    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (∼50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys was performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.

  19. Effects of Coal Combustion Additives on the Forms and Recovery of Uranium in Coal Bottom Ash

    Tang, Ye; Li, Yilian


    Recovering uranium from uranium-rich coal ash is an important way to utilize unconventional uranium resource. Although it might be expected that the uranium in residual form would prevent uranium recovery from coal ash, raising the recovery rate in way of controlling residual uranium has not yet been studied. In this study, three different kinds of combustion promoting additives were investigated by coal combustion experiments, in order to decrease the proportion of residual-form uranium in ash and increase the acid leaching rate. Analytical procedures included Tessier sequential extraction, acidleaching, and characterization(ICP-MS, XRF, BET and SEM-EDS). It was showed that the effects of additives in reducing residual uranium were as the following order: alkaline earth metal compounds > transition metal compounds> alkali metal compounds. Adding alkali metal additives(KCl, NaCl, K2CO3, Na2CO3) raised the percentage of residual uranium largely. Additionally, one transition metal additive(Fe2O3) reached a decreasing amplitude of 5.15%, while the other two additives(MnO2 and Fe3O4)made the rates increased. However, coal combustion with alkaline earth metal compounds mixed had target effects. Among this kind of additives(Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, CaO, CaCl2), CaCO3displayed the best effect on restricting the rising proportion of residual uranium by 18%. Moreover, the leaching recovery research indicated that CaCO3 could raise the recovery rate by 10.8%. The XRF profiles supported that the CaCO3 could lower the concentration of SiO2 in the bottom ash from 79.76% to 49.69%. Besides, The BET and SEM revealed that the decomposition of CaCO3 brought about a variation of surface structures and area, which promoted the contact between the leaching agent and bottom ash. The uranium content increase was determined by ICP-MS and EDS. These findings suggest that CaCO3 could be a favorable additive for the controlling of residual uranium and improvement of uranium recovery rates. Key words

  20. Effect of cerium addition on microstructures of carbon-alloyed iron aluminides

    S Sriram; R Balasubramaniam; M N Mungole; S Bharagava; R G Baligidad


    The effect of Ce addition on the microstructure of carbon-alloyed Fe3Al-based intermetallic has been studied. Three different alloys of composition, Fe–18.5Al–3.6C, Fe–20.0Al–2.0C and Fe–19.2Al–3.3C–0.07Ce (in at%), were prepared by electroslag remelting process. Their microstructures were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopies. Stereological methods were utilized to understand the observed microstructures. All the alloys exhibited a typical two-phase microstructure consisting of Fe3AlC carbides in an iron aluminide matrix. In the alloy without Ce addition, large bulky carbides were equally distributed throughout the matrix with many smaller precipitates interspersed in between. In the alloy with Ce addition, the carbide grain sizes were finer and uniformly distributed throughout the matrix. The effect of Ce addition on the carbide morphology has been explained based on the known effect of Ce in modifying carbide morphology in cast irons.

  1. Assessment of the Low Alloy Cast Steel Inoculation Effects with Chosen Additives

    D. Bartocha


    Full Text Available Structure, and thus the mechanical properties of steel are primarily a function of chemical composition and the solidification process which can be influenced by the application of the inoculation treatment. This effect depends on the modifier used. The article presents the results of studies designed to assess the effects of structural low alloy steel inoculation by selected modifying additives. The study was performed on nine casts modeled with different inoculants, assessment of the procedure impact was based on the macrostructure of made castings. The ratio of surface area equivalent to the axial zone of the crystals and columnar crystals zone was adopted as a measure of the inoculation effect.

  2. Solvent additive effects on small molecule crystallization in bulk heterojunction solar cells probed during spin casting

    Pérez, Louis A.


    Solvent additive processing can lead to drastic improvements in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in solution processable small molecule (SPSM) bulk heterojunction solar cells. In situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the kinetics of crystallite formation during and shortly after spin casting. The additive is shown to have a complex effect on structural evolution invoking polymorphism and enhanced crystalline quality of the donor SPSM. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. The effect of Y2O3 addition on thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel

    Pošarac Milica


    Full Text Available The effect of yttria additive on the thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel has been investigated. As a starting material we used spinel (MgAl2O4 obtained by the modified glycine nitrate procedure (MGNP. Sintered products were characterized in terms of phase analysis, densities, thermal shock, monitoring the damaged surface area in the refractory specimen during thermal shock and ultrasonic determination of the Dynamic Young modulus of elasticity. It was found that a new phase between yttria and alumina is formed, which improved thermal shock properties of the spinel refractories. Also densification of samples is enhanced by yttria addition.

  4. Addition of alarm pheromone components improves the effectiveness of desiccant dusts against Cimex lectularius.

    Benoit, Joshua B; Phillips, Seth A; Croxall, Travis J; Christensen, Brady S; Yoder, Jay A; Denlinger, David L


    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss.

  5. Cis and trans effects of human genomic variants on gene expression.

    Julien Bryois


    Full Text Available Gene expression is a heritable cellular phenotype that defines the function of a cell and can lead to diseases in case of misregulation. In order to detect genetic variations affecting gene expression, we performed association analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and copy number variants (CNVs with gene expression measured in 869 lymphoblastoid cell lines of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC cohort in cis and in trans. We discovered that 3,534 genes (false discovery rate (FDR = 5% are affected by an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL in cis and 48 genes are affected in trans. We observed that CNVs are more likely to be eQTLs than SNPs. In addition, we found that variants associated to complex traits and diseases are enriched for trans-eQTLs and that trans-eQTLs are enriched for cis-eQTLs. As a variant affecting both a gene in cis and in trans suggests that the cis gene is functionally linked to the trans gene expression, we looked specifically for trans effects of cis-eQTLs. We discovered that 26 cis-eQTLs are associated to 92 genes in trans with the cis-eQTLs of the transcriptions factors BATF3 and HMX2 affecting the most genes. We then explored if the variation of the level of expression of the cis genes were causally affecting the level of expression of the trans genes and discovered several causal relationships between variation in the level of expression of the cis gene and variation of the level of expression of the trans gene. This analysis shows that a large sample size allows the discovery of secondary effects of human variations on gene expression that can be used to construct short directed gene regulatory networks.

  6. Additive scales in degenerative disease - calculation of effect sizes and clinical judgment

    Riepe Matthias W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The therapeutic efficacy of an intervention is often assessed in clinical trials by scales measuring multiple diverse activities that are added to produce a cumulative global score. Medical communities and health care systems subsequently use these data to calculate pooled effect sizes to compare treatments. This is done because major doubt has been cast over the clinical relevance of statistically significant findings relying on p values with the potential to report chance findings. Hence in an aim to overcome this pooling the results of clinical studies into a meta-analyses with a statistical calculus has been assumed to be a more definitive way of deciding of efficacy. Methods We simulate the therapeutic effects as measured with additive scales in patient cohorts with different disease severity and assess the limitations of an effect size calculation of additive scales which are proven mathematically. Results We demonstrate that the major problem, which cannot be overcome by current numerical methods, is the complex nature and neurobiological foundation of clinical psychiatric endpoints in particular and additive scales in general. This is particularly relevant for endpoints used in dementia research. 'Cognition' is composed of functions such as memory, attention, orientation and many more. These individual functions decline in varied and non-linear ways. Here we demonstrate that with progressive diseases cumulative values from multidimensional scales are subject to distortion by the limitations of the additive scale. The non-linearity of the decline of function impedes the calculation of effect sizes based on cumulative values from these multidimensional scales. Conclusions Statistical analysis needs to be guided by boundaries of the biological condition. Alternatively, we suggest a different approach avoiding the error imposed by over-analysis of cumulative global scores from additive scales.

  7. Classification of suppressor additives based on synergistic and antagonistic ensemble effects

    Broekmann, P., E-mail: [BASF SE, Global Business Unit Electronic Materials, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Fluegel, A.; Emnet, C.; Arnold, M.; Roeger-Goepfert, C.; Wagner, A. [BASF SE, Global Business Unit Electronic Materials, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany); Hai, N.T.M. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Mayer, D. [BASF SE, Global Business Unit Electronic Materials, 67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)


    Highlights: > Three fundamental types of suppressor additives for copper electroplating could be identified by means of potential transient measurements. > These suppressor additives differ in their synergistic and antagonistic interplay with anions that are chemisorbed on the metallic copper surface during electrodeposition. > In addition these suppressor chemistries reveal different barrier properties with respect to cupric ions and plating additives (Cl, SPS). - Abstract: Three fundamental types of suppressor additives for copper electroplating could be identified by means of potential transient measurements. These suppressor additives differ in their synergistic and antagonistic interplay with anions that are chemisorbed on the metallic copper surface during electrodeposition. In addition these suppressor chemistries reveal different barrier properties with respect to cupric ions and plating additives (Cl, SPS). While the type-I suppressor selectively forms efficient barriers for copper inter-diffusion on chloride-terminated electrode surfaces we identified a type-II suppressor that interacts non-selectively with any kind of anions chemisorbed on copper (chloride, sulfate, sulfonate). Type-I suppressors are vital for the superconformal copper growth mode in Damascene processing and show an antagonistic interaction with SPS (Bis-Sodium-Sulfopropyl-Disulfide) which involves the deactivation of this suppressor chemistry. This suppressor deactivation is rationalized in terms of compositional changes in the layer of the chemisorbed anions due to the competition of chloride and MPS (Mercaptopropane Sulfonic Acid) for adsorption sites on the metallic copper surface. MPS is the product of the dissociative SPS adsorption within the preexisting chloride matrix on the copper surface. The non-selectivity in the adsorption behavior of the type-II suppressor is rationalized in terms of anion/cation pairing effects of the poly-cationic suppressor and the anion-modified copper

  8. Independent and additive effects of glutamic acid and methionine on yeast longevity.

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian


    It is established that glucose restriction extends yeast chronological and replicative lifespan, but little is known about the influence of amino acids on yeast lifespan, although some amino acids were reported to delay aging in rodents. Here we show that amino acid composition greatly alters yeast chronological lifespan. We found that non-essential amino acids (to yeast) methionine and glutamic acid had the most significant impact on yeast chronological lifespan extension, restriction of methionine and/or increase of glutamic acid led to longevity that was not the result of low acetic acid production and acidification in aging media. Remarkably, low methionine, high glutamic acid and glucose restriction additively and independently extended yeast lifespan, which could not be further extended by buffering the medium (pH 6.0). Our preliminary findings using yeasts with gene deletion demonstrate that glutamic acid addition, methionine and glucose restriction prompt yeast longevity through distinct mechanisms. This study may help to fill a gap in yeast model for the fast developing view that nutrient balance is a critical factor to extend lifespan.

  9. Effect of Ca addition on the corrosion behavior of Mg-Al-Mn alloy

    Yang, Jiang; Peng, Jian; Nyberg, Eric A.; Pan, Fu-sheng


    The microstructures and corrosion resistance of magnesium-5 wt% aluminum-0.3 wt% manganese alloys (Mg-Al-Mn) with different Ca additions (0.2-4 wt%) were investigated. Results showed that with increasing Ca addition, the grain of the alloys became more refined, whereas the corrosion resistant ability of the alloys initially increased and then decreased. The alloy with 2 wt% Ca addition exhibited the best corrosion resistance, attributed to the effect of the oxide film and (Mg,Al)2Ca phases which were discontinuously distributed on the grain boundaries. These phases acted as micro-victims, they preferentially corroded to protect the α-Mg matrix. The oxide film formed on the alloy surface can hinder the solution further to protect the α-Mg matrix.

  10. Effect of bauxite addition on densification and mullitization behaviour of West Bengal clay

    N S Raut; P Biswas; T K Bhattacharya; K Das


    The effect of bauxite addition on the densification and mullitization of reaction sintered bauxite–clay mixture had been studied in the temperature range 1400–1500°C. The maximum bulk density (2.89 g/cc) and minimum apparent porosity (0.58%) was achieved by addition of 50 wt% bauxite. The impurities present in bauxite and clay formed liquid phase which helped in particle diffusion to aid densification. The X-ray diffraction of sample fired at 1500°C showed cristoballite phase gradually disappearing and at the same time mullite and -Al2O3 phase appearing at a higher level of bauxite addition. The in situ nascent alumina formed was reactive that facilitated the formation of secondary mullite by solution precipitation mechanism. The presence of bauxite also changed the morphology of the mullite particles. Two types of mullite were distinctly observed in the SEM photographs: elongated primary mullite and equiaxed secondary mullite.

  11. Effects of polymer additives in the bulk of turbulent thermal convection

    Xie, Yi-Chao; Funfschilling, Denis; Li, Xiao-Ming; Ni, Rui; Xia, Ke-Qing


    We present experimental evidence that a minute amount of polymer additives can significantly enhance heat transport in the bulk region of turbulent thermal convection. The effects of polymer additives are found to be the \\textit{suppression} of turbulent background fluctuations that give rise to incoherent heat fluxes that make no net contribution to heat transport, and at the same time to \\textit{increase} the coherency of temperature and velocity fields. The suppression of small-scale turbulent fluctuations leads to more coherent thermal plumes that result in the heat transport enhancement. The fact that polymer additives can increase the coherency of thermal plumes is supported by the measurements of a number of local quantities, such as the extracted plume amplitude and width, the velocity autocorrelation functions and the velocity-temperature cross-correlation coefficient. The results from local measurements also suggest the existence of a threshold value for the polymer concentration, only above which c...

  12. Effect of Additional Elements of Al-Si Filler Alloy on Flowability and Clearance Fillability

    Edo, Masakazu; Yoshino, Michihide; Kuroda, Shuu

    Aluminum alloys are widely used for automotive heat exchangers manufactured by brazing processes. All joint gaps must be filled with Al-Si filler metal to prevent the leak of refrigerant. Recently, brazing of heat exchanger components has become difficult due to the decrease in the thickness of the brazing sheets. Since the fluidity of Al-Si molten metal is very high, the flow of molten filler metal sometimes causes dissolution of the base metal or defect of joints. In this study, we investigated the effect of additional elements (such as Mn, Fe, Ti and Zr) of Al-Si filler metal on the flowability and clearance fillability using our original evaluation model. The results indicated that the addition of Mn or Ti improved the clearance fillability significantly. We clarified the mechanism that additional elements change the properties of molten filler metal, by measuring the viscosity of each filler metal and observing the solidified microstructure.

  13. Effects of different additives on bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles electrodeposited onto indium tin oxide electrodes

    Ballarin, Barbara, E-mail: ballarin@ms.fci.unibo.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica, Universita di Bologna, V.le Risorgimento, 4, 40136-Bologna (Italy)] [INSTM, UdR Bologna (Italy); Gazzano, Massimo [ISOF-CNR, V. Selmi, 40126-Bologna (Italy); Tonelli, Domenica [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica, Universita di Bologna, V.le Risorgimento, 4, 40136-Bologna (Italy)] [INSTM, UdR Bologna (Italy)


    Bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles (Au-Pt{sub NPs}) have been synthesized using an electrochemical reduction approach. The effects of the addition of different additives in the electrodeposition bath namely KI, 1-nonanesulfonic acid sodium salt and Triton X-100 have been investigated. The structural characterization of the bimetallic nanoparticles has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Au-Pt{sub NPs} prepared in the presence of KI and Triton X-100 characterized by a relatively narrow size distribution as well as a higher particle density and surface coverage whereas no changes in the morphology were observed. These results suggest a dependence of the size and distribution of the bimetallic nanoparticles from the type and concentration of the additives employed.

  14. Effect of cerium and lanthanum additives on plasma electrolytic oxidation of AZ31 magnesium alloy

    沈德久; 马豪杰; 郭长虹; 蔡景瑞; 李国龙; 何东磊; 杨庆祥


    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings on AZ31 magnesium (Mg) alloy were developed using the aqueous solution with alkaline silicate and sodium hydroxide as a base electrolyte system. The effects of cerium (Ce) nitrate and lanthanum (La) nitrate additives on the voltage response, microstructure, compositions and corrosion resistance of PEO coatings were investigated by scan-ning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrum (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and potentiodynamic polarization tests, etc. The results showed that Ce and La additives increased the stable voltage and compactness of the PEO coatings, while, those did not change the compositions of the PEO coatings. The corrosion resistance of the PEO coating obtained in solutions with La nitrate of 0.1 g/L was the best, followed by that with Ce nitrate of 0.1 g/L and that without additives.

  15. Effect of TiC whisker addition on properties of YG1OF alloy


    The cemented carbide material (YG10F) with different additions of TiC whisker (0%, 0.3%, 0.6%, mass fraction) was prepared by different techniques. The effect of TiC whisker addition on the density, microhardness and toughness of the experimental material was investigated. The results indicate that after the wet-milling for 8 h and sintering in vacuum at 1 440 ℃, the toughness of YG10F is remarkably improved and meanwhile higher microhardness is obtained by 0.3% TiC whisker addition. Preliminary analysis suggests that the main toughening mechanism of TiC whisker in YG10F is whisker pull-out and bridging phenomena.

  16. Effect of Graphene Addition on Mechanical Properties of TiN

    Shon, In-Jin [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jin-Kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Despite of many attractive properties of TiN, the current concern about the TiN focuses on its low fracture toughness below the ductile-brittle transition temperature. To improve its mechanical properties, the approach generally utilized has been the addition of a second phase to form composites and to make nanostructured materials. In this respect, highly dense nanostructured TiN and TiN-graphene composites were obtained within two min at 1250 ℃. The grain size of TiN was reduced remarkably by the addition of graphene. The addition of graphene to TiN simultaneously improved the fracture toughness and hardness of TiN-graphene composite due to refinement of TiN and deterring crack propagation by graphene. This study demonstrates that the graphene can be an effective reinforcing agent for improved hardness and fracture toughness of TiN composites.

  17. Effects of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Additions on Carbon Cycling of Tropical Mountain Rainforests in Hainan, China

    Lai, J.


    Nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P) deposition is projected to increase significantly in tropical regions in the coming decades, which has changed and will change the structure and function of ecosystems, and affects on ecosystem Carbon (C) cycle. As an important part in global C cycle, how the C cycle of tropical rainforests will be influenced by the N and P deposition should be focused on. This study simulated N and P deposition in a primary and secondary forest of tropical mountain rainforest in Jianfengling, Hainan, China, during five-year field experiment to evaluate the effects of N and P deposition on C cycling processes and relate characteristics. Six levels of N and P treatments were treated: Control, Low-N, Medium-N, High-N, P and N+P. The relative growth rates (RGR) of tree layer in treatment plots were different from that in control plots after years of N and P addition. Simulated N and P deposition also increased ANPP in primary forest. N and P addition changed the growth of trees by altering soil nutrient and microbial activities. N and P addition increased soil organic carbon (SOC) and total N (TN) content, and significantly increased soil total P (TP) content, not changing soil pH. During the whole process of N and P addition, as net nitrification rate and net N mineralization rate were promoted by N and P addition, and effective N content (nitrate) of soil increased in the plot treated with N treatments compared to the control treatment. The microbial P content was increased by N and P addition, and microbial N was not changed. The increasing N deposition may enhance soil nutrient and stimulate growth of trees, which will lead to an increase of the C sequestration.

  18. Effect of rhenium addition on tungsten fuzz formation in helium plasmas

    Khan, Aneeqa; De Temmerman, Gregory; Morgan, Thomas W.; Ward, Michael B.


    The effect of the addition of rhenium to tungsten on the formation of a nanostructure referred to as 'fuzz' when exposed to helium plasmas at fusion relevant ion fluxes was investigated in the Magnum and Pilot PSI devices at the FOM Institute DIFFER. The effect rhenium had on fuzz growth was seen to be dependent on time, temperature and flux. Initial fuzz growth was seen to be highly dependent on grain orientation, with rhenium having little effect. Once the fuzz was fully developed, the effect of grain orientation disappeared and the rhenium had an inhibiting effect on growth. This could be beneficial for inhibiting fuzz growth in a future fusion reactor, where transmutation of tungsten to rhenium is expected. It also appears that erosion or annealing of the fuzz is limiting growth of fuzz at higher temperatures in the range of ∼1340 °C.

  19. Effect of rhenium addition on tungsten fuzz formation in helium plasmas

    Khan, Aneeqa, E-mail: [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); De Temmerman, Gregory [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046 - 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Morgan, Thomas W. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Ward, Michael B. [Institute for Materials Research, School of Chemical Process Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)


    The effect of the addition of rhenium to tungsten on the formation of a nanostructure referred to as ‘fuzz’ when exposed to helium plasmas at fusion relevant ion fluxes was investigated in the Magnum and Pilot PSI devices at the FOM Institute DIFFER. The effect rhenium had on fuzz growth was seen to be dependent on time, temperature and flux. Initial fuzz growth was seen to be highly dependent on grain orientation, with rhenium having little effect. Once the fuzz was fully developed, the effect of grain orientation disappeared and the rhenium had an inhibiting effect on growth. This could be beneficial for inhibiting fuzz growth in a future fusion reactor, where transmutation of tungsten to rhenium is expected. It also appears that erosion or annealing of the fuzz is limiting growth of fuzz at higher temperatures in the range of ∼1340 °C.

  20. Complete sequence of a plasmid from a bovine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus harbouring a novel ica-like gene cluster in addition to antimicrobial and heavy metal resistance genes.

    Feßler, Andrea T; Zhao, Qin; Schoenfelder, Sonja; Kadlec, Kristina; Brenner Michael, Geovana; Wang, Yang; Ziebuhr, Wilma; Shen, Jianzhong; Schwarz, Stefan


    The multiresistance plasmid pAFS11, obtained from a bovine methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolate, was completely sequenced and analysed for its structure and organisation. Moreover, the susceptibility to the heavy metals cadmium and copper was determined by broth macrodilution. The 49,189-bp plasmid harboured the apramycin resistance gene apmA, two copies of the macrolide/lincosamide/streptogramin B resistance gene erm(B) (both located on remnants of a truncated transposon Tn917), the kanamycin/neomycin resistance gene aadD, the tetracycline resistance gene tet(L) and the trimethoprim resistance gene dfrK. The latter three genes were part of a 7,284-bp segment which was bracketed by two copies of IS431. In addition, the cadmium resistance operon cadDX as well as the copper resistance genes copA and mco were located on the plasmid and mediated a reduced susceptibility to cadmium and copper. Moreover, a complete novel ica-like gene cluster of so far unknown genetic origin was detected on this plasmid. The ica-like gene cluster comprised four different genes whose products showed 64.4-76.9% homology to the Ica proteins known to be involved in biofilm formation of the S. aureus strains Mu50, Mu3 and N315. However, 96.2-99.4% homology was seen to proteins from S. sciuri NS1 indicating an S. sciuri origin. The finding of five different antibiotic resistance genes co-located on a plasmid with heavy metal resistance genes and an ica-like gene cluster is alarming. With the acquisition of this plasmid, antimicrobial multiresistance, heavy metal resistances and potential virulence properties may be co-selected and spread via a single horizontal gene transfer event. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of hepatocyte growth factor on gene transcription during intestinal adaptation.

    Katz, Michael S; Thatch, Keith A; Schwartz, Marshall Z


    Previously, we investigated the physiologic effects of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on intestinal adaptation using a massive small bowel resection (MSBR) rat model. To correlate these altered physiologic changes with gene alterations, we used microarray technology at 7, 14, and 21 days after MSBR. Forty-five adult female rats were divided into 3 groups and underwent 70% MSBR, MSBR + HGF (intravenous 150 μg/kg per day), or sham operation (control). Five animals per group were killed at each time point. Ileal mucosa was harvested and RNA extracted. Rat Gene Chips and Expression Console software (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) were used. Statistical analysis was done by analysis of variance using Partek Genomics Suite (Partek, Inc, St Louis, MO). Results were significant if fold change was more than 2 or less than -2, with P cellular hypertrophy families had 30 genes up-regulated, and HGF up-regulated an additional 14 genes. At 21 days, 5 hyperplasia gene families had 32 up-regulated genes. Hepatocyte growth factor up-regulated an additional 16 genes. Microarray analysis of intestinal adaptation identified an early emphasis on hypertrophy and later emphasis on hyperplasia. This is the first demonstration that the effect of HGF on intestinal adaptation is recruitment of more genes rather than an increase in the fold change of already up-regulated genes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Priming effects in aggregate size fractions induced by glucose addition and grinding

    Tian, Jing; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Pausch, Johanna; Kuzaykov, Yakov


    It is widely recognized that soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization can be accelerated (positive priming) or retarded (negative priming) by addition of easily available substrates to soil. SOM is a heterogeneous mixture, which contains numerous compounds with different degradability and turnover rates times. Nevertheless, so far, there is still lack of knowledge on identifying single fractions of the SOM as the source of C and N released by priming effects. The aim of this study was to determine the priming effect as related to different aggregate fractions, aggregate disruption and the amounts of substrate. In a 49 days incubation experiment, the soil samples were separated into three aggregate fractions (>2 mm, 2-0.25 mm and 0.25 mm) than in the microaggregates (priming effect increased as added glucose increased in all intact aggregate size, and highest priming effect was observed in >2 mm fraction. However, the magnitude of priming effect response to glucose addition depended on the aggregate size after grinding. This study demonstrates that substrate amounts, aggregate fractionation and grinding can have obvious impacts on priming effect, indicating important implications for understanding SOM cycling and stability.

  3. Effect of titanium addition on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite/zirconia nanocomposite

    Wang L.I.


    Full Text Available HA/ZrO2 composite nanpowder with various addition of titanium (0.2-2.4wt% were synthesized via wet chemical method using ZrOCl2.8H2O, H3PO4, Ca(OH2 and tetraethylorthotitanate as precursor materials. The composites were then sintered at 900-1200ºC for 2h, respectively. Effect of titanium addition to the composite on the phase composition and thermal stability during thermal treatment was investigated. The results suggested that as the sintering temperature increased from 900°C to 1200ºC and with the addition of titanium to the composite below 0.8wt%, main phases were HA and ZrO2. As the sintering temperature increased to 1200°C and with the addition of titanium to the composite above 0.8wt%, main phases were HA, ZrO2 and a small amount of dicalcium phosphate (DCP. There were still no tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP and CaZrO3 phases observed, which indicated that the addition of titanium restrained decomposition of HA and thermal reaction between HA and ZrO2. It also suggested that the addition of 0.8wt% titanium to the composite was optimum for producing HA/ZrO2 composite nanopowder with expected main phases. With the addition of 0.8wt% titanium to the composite, SEM images showed that the individual particles of the two materials were still visible, which also implied that the reaction between HA and ZrO2 did not occur.

  4. Effect of several variables in the polymer toys additive migration to saliva.

    Noguerol-Cal, R; López-Vilariño, J M; González-Rodríguez, M V; Barral-Losada, L


    Capacity to migrate of a representative group of polymeric additives, dyes, antioxidants, hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) or antistatics, from plastic toys to saliva was analyzed to protect children in their habits of sucking and biting. Most of target additives appear no-regulated in toys normative but adverse effects on human health of some of them have been demonstrated and their presence in others commercial articles normative has been included. In order to offer an effective and easy tool to perform these controls, migration tests by dynamic and static contact, followed by a preconcentration step by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and ultra performance liquid chromatographic analysis with ultraviolet-visible and evaporative light scattering detections (UPLC-UV/Vis-ELSD) have been optimized to evaluate the migrated amounts of the additives in saliva simulant. The detection limits of the migration methodologies were ranged from 8.68 × 10(-2) to 1.30 × 10(-3)mg migrated (L simulant)(-1). Influence of several variables on this mass transport, as time, temperature and friction, was also analyzed to achieve the most aggressive methodology to protect consumers. Migration of several studied additives, whose presence has been demonstrated in several purchased commercial toys, has been observed.

  5. The effect of chemical admixtures and mineral additives on the properties of self-compacting mortars

    Mustafa Sahmaran; Heru Ari Christianto; Ismail Ozgur Yaman [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Civil Engineering


    Mortar serves as the basis for the workability properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) and these properties could be assessed by self-compacting mortars (SCM). In fact, assessing the properties of SCM is an integral part of SCC design. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various mineral additives and chemical admixtures in producing SCMs. For this purpose, four mineral additives (fly ash, brick powder, limestone powder, and kaolinite), three superplasticizers (SP), and two viscosity modifying admixtures (VMA) were used. Within the scope of the experimental program, 43 mixtures of SCM were prepared keeping the amount of mixing water and total powder content (Portland cement and mineral additives) constant. Workability of the fresh mortar was determined using mini V-funnel and mini slump flow tests. The setting time of the mortars, were also determined. The hardened properties that were determined included ultrasonic pulse velocity and strength determined at 28 and 56 days. It was concluded that among the mineral additives used, fly ash and limestone powder significantly increased the workability of SCMs. On the other hand, especially fly ash significantly increased the setting time of the mortars, which can, however, be eliminated through the use of ternary mixtures, such as mixing fly ash with limestone powder. The two polycarboxyl based SPs yield approximately the same workability and the melamine formaldehyde based SP was not as effective as the other two.


    M.C.Chaturvedi; Y.L.Wang; N.L.Richards


    Four alloys TMS-75 (Base), Base+B, Base+C and TMD-103 (Base+B+C) with varying levels of B, C were directionally solidified (DS), and their weldability was investigated by bead-onplate electron beam welding.It was found that cracking occurred in the weld-metal, as well as in the heat affected zone (HAZ).Both γ/γ' and/or γ/carbide eutectic contributed to the weld-metal cracking, and the γ/γ' eutectic was found to be mainly responsible for cracking in HAZ However, constitutional liquation of carbides seems to have made some contribution also.The B addition had a detrimental effect on HAZ cracking susceptibility, while C addition improved it appreciably even in the presence of B.In addition, no obvious differences were observed in cracking susceptibility of weld-metal in the four alloys.The cracking modes and mechanisms underlying the effect of B and C addition on weldability could be explained on the basis of microstructures of the four alloys.

  7. Co-digestion of manure and industrial waste--The effects of trace element addition.

    Nordell, Erik; Nilsson, Britt; Nilsson Påledal, Sören; Karisalmi, Kaisa; Moestedt, Jan


    Manure is one of the most common substrates for biogas production. Manure from dairy- and swine animals are often considered to stabilize the biogas process by contributing nutrients and trace elements needed for the biogas process. In this study two lab-scale reactors were used to evaluate the effects of trace element addition during co-digestion of manure from swine- and dairy animals with industrial waste. The substrate used contained high background concentrations of both cobalt and nickel, which are considered to be the most important trace elements. In the reactor receiving additional trace elements, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was 89% lower than in the control reactor. The lower VFA concentration contributed to a more digested digestate, and thus lower methane emissions in the subsequent storage. Also, the biogas production rate increased with 24% and the biogas production yield with 10%, both as a result of the additional trace elements at high organic loading rates. All in all, even though 50% of the feedstock consisted of manure, trace element addition resulted in multiple positive effects and a more reliable process with stable and high yield.

  8. Effect of Incubation Time and Sucrose Addition on the Characteristics of Cheese Whey Yoghurt

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Sari, A. M.; Widowati, E.; Sanjaya, A. P.; Esnadewi, E. A.


    The effect of incubation time and concentration of sucrose addition on the characteristics of cheese whey yogurt (lactic acid content, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, viscosity) and sensory characteristics (color, odor, flavor, consistency, and overalls) were investigated. The cheese whey yogurt fermentation process was carried out for 24h and 36h with the addition of sucrose 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of total solid, respectively. The results showed that the lactic acid content, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and viscosity of cheese whey yogurt were affected by the incubation time and sucrose addition. The level of pH of yogurt which was incubated at 24h and 36h were relatively in the same levels, which were 4.51 up to 4.63. Due the sensory characteristic of cheese whey yogurt the panellists gave the high score for the cheese whey yogurt which was incubated at 24h and sucrose addition 12% (w/w) of total solid. The cheese whey yogurt has 0.41% lactic acid content; pH 4.51; 7.09 log total lactic acid bacteria cells / ml; 5.78% antioxidant activity; and 5.97 cP viscosity. The best sensory and physico-chemical characteristic of cheese whey yogurt was achieved by 24h incubation time and 12% concentration of sucrose addition.

  9. Effects of Calcium Superphosphate Additive on Nitrogen Conservation During Dead-pig Composting

    LEI Ping


    Full Text Available To study the effects of calcium superphosphate additive on nitrogen conservation, an experiment of 30 days dead-pig composting was carried out. Three mixtures were treated with different amount of calcium superphosphate additive of 0%(CK, 5%(T1 and 10%(T2. The results showed that each composte temperature higher than 50 ℃ remained above 10 days, meeting the requirements of hygiene index about the compost rotten. The pH of composting with calcium superphosphate was significantly decreased, while NH4+-N, NH3-N, total nitrogen contents were significant higher than the control. 5% and 10% calcium superphosphate addition increased the total nitrogen contents by 10.7%, 10.1%, respectively. The seed germination index(GI of 5% calcium superphosphate addition was up to 101.4% on the 14th day, which was significant higher than the contrast. It demonstrated that calcium superphosphate could accelerate maturity during dead-pig compositng. Thus, calcium superphosphate as an additive in dead-pig composting could decrease nitrogen losses, which would bring prospects of application in dead-pig composting.

  10. Effect of the BSCCO superconducting properties by tiny Y2O3 addition

    Dong, Yan; Sun, Aimin; Xu, Bin; Zhang, Hongtao; Zhang, Meng


    In this paper, the effect of tiny Y2O3 addition in (Bi,Pb)-2223 superconductor prepared by solid state reaction technique was studied. The properties of samples have been investigated via X-ray diffraction (XRD), resistance-temperature (R-T) curve, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD data indicated that all samples are multiphase and the major phases are high-temperature phases and low-temperature phases. The volume fraction of (Bi,Pb)-2223 is not great change with tiny Y2O3 addition. All samples exhibit superconducting phase with the critical transition temperature and one-step transition, however, the transition width was decreased with the Y2O3 addition up to 0.04 wt.% and sharp increased with the excessive oxide addition. SEM pictures show that the Y2O3 appeared on the flake-type grains surface obviously, but the number and size of the hole between grains are decreased in the 0.04 wt.% addition.

  11. CAN Canopy Addition of Nitrogen Better Illustrate the Effect of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem?

    Zhang, Wei; Shen, Weijun; Zhu, Shidan; Wan, Shiqiang; Luo, Yiqi; Yan, Junhua; Wang, Keya; Liu, Lei; Dai, Huitang; Li, Peixue; Dai, Keyuan; Zhang, Weixin; Liu, Zhanfeng; Wang, Faming; Kuang, Yuanwen; Li, Zhian; Lin, Yongbiao; Rao, Xingquan; Li, Jiong; Zou, Bi; Cai, Xian; Mo, Jiangming; Zhao, Ping; Ye, Qing; Huang, Jianguo; Fu, Shenglei


    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition could profoundly impact community structure and ecosystem functions in forests. However, conventional experiments with understory addition of N (UAN) largely neglect canopy-associated biota and processes and therefore may not realistically simulate atmospheric N deposition to generate reliable impacts on forest ecosystems. Here we, for the first time, designed a novel experiment with canopy addition of N (CAN) vs. UAN and reviewed the merits and pitfalls of the two approaches. The following hypotheses will be tested: i) UAN overestimates the N addition effects on understory and soil processes but underestimates those on canopy-associated biota and processes, ii) with low-level N addition, CAN favors canopy tree species and canopy-dwelling biota and promotes the detritus food web, and iii) with high-level N addition, CAN suppresses canopy tree species and other biota and favors rhizosphere food web. As a long-term comprehensive program, this experiment will provide opportunities for multidisciplinary collaborations, including biogeochemistry, microbiology, zoology, and plant science to examine forest ecosystem responses to atmospheric N deposition.

  12. Effect of organic additives on positive electrolyte for vanadium redox battery

    Li Sha [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Huang Kelong, E-mail: [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Suqin; Fang Dong; Wu Xiongwei; Lu Dan; Wu Tao [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)


    Highlights: > Four organics as electrolyte additives of vanadium redox battery. > Changes are examined in the electrochemical properties of vanadium redox battery. > D-sorbitol is a suitable additive to the electrolyte for the vanadium redox battery. > The mechanism of improvement is discussed in detail. - Abstract: Fructose, mannitol, glucose, D-sorbitol are explored as additives in electrolyte for vanadium redox battery (VRB), respectively. The effects of additives on electrolyte are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the vanadium redox cell using the electrolyte with the additive of D-sorbitol exhibits the best electrochemical performance (the energy efficiency 81.8%). The EIS results indicate that the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte is improved by adding D-sorbitol, which can be interpreted as the increase of available (-OH) groups providing active sites for electron transfer. The Raman spectra show that VO{sup 2+} ions take part in forming a complex with the D-sorbitol, which not only improve solubility of V(V) electrolyte, but also provide more activity sites for the V(IV)/V(V) redox reaction.

  13. Effect of additives on size and shape of lithium carbonate crystals

    Taborga, P.; Brito, I.; Graber, T. A.


    Generally, properties such internal structure, shape, and size distribution influence the reactivity, fluidity and wettability of the crystals, and may be modified by the use of additives such as polyelectrolytes or surfactants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different additives on the size and morphology of lithium carbonate crystals obtained by reactive crystallization from solutions of LiCl and Na2CO3. The additives used were: polyethylenimine (PEI), polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid), (P4SA), polyacrylic acid (PAA), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS). Obtained crystals were observed using scanning electron microscopy, the crystal size distribution was determined by a size image analyzer, and the crystal structure were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the presence of PEI, PEG and P4SA, increased the length of the lithium carbonate particles. The presence of SDS decreases the crystals size. Using SDBS as additive, the crystals had a needle-like shape, Finally PAA allowed the production of Li2CO3 spherulites. Crystal structure of lithium carbonate did not change in the presence of the tested additives.

  14. Effect of sodium reduction and flavor enhancer addition on probiotic Prato cheese processing.

    Silva, H L A; Balthazar, C F; Esmerino, E A; Vieira, A H; Cappato, L P; Neto, R P C; Verruck, S; Cavalcanti, R N; Portela, J B; Andrade, M M; Moraes, J; Franco, R M; Tavares, M I B; Prudencio, E S; Freitas, M Q; Nascimento, J S; Silva, M C; Raices, R S L; Cruz, A G


    The effect of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl and the flavor enhancers addition (arginine, yeast extract and oregano extract) on Probiotic Prato cheese processing with (L. casei 01, 7logCFU/mL) was investigated. Microbiological (lactic acid bacteria and probiotic counts), physicochemical (proximate composition, pH, proteolysis), bioactivity (antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity), rheological (uniaxial compression and creep tests), water mobility (time domain low field magnetic resonance), microstructure (scanning electron microscopy) and sensory evaluation (consumer test) were performed. Sodium reduction and flavor enhancers addition did not constitute an obstacle to the survival of lactic and probiotic bacteria. Proximate composition, antioxidant and angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, and the rheological parameters were affected by the addition of flavor enhancer. No change in the fatty acid profile of cheeses was observed while good performance in the consumer test was obtained by the addition of yeast extract and oregano extract. Prato cheese can be an adequate carrier of probiotics and the addition of different flavor enhancers can contribute developing this functional product in the cheese industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    H.M. Geng; X.C. Wu; Y.A. Min; H.B. Wang; H.K. Zhang


    Experiments conducted to determine the effect of copper addition on the machinability of plastic mold steel, 4Cr16Mo, were presented. The machinability of mold steel 4Cr16Mo was visibly improved by adding Cu. The top wear of 4Cr16Mo with copper was less than that without copper. The Cu-rich phase had the effect of a lubricant and the heat conductivity, which reduced cutting-tool wear, improved machinability, and increased the service life of the cutting-tool. Increasing of copper addition decreased the hot-working character of 4Cr16Mo. The optimal hot-working parameters for 4Cr16Mo with copper were determined by the tensile test and the compression test. The rate of deformation should be adopted as 0.6 s-1. The heating-up temperature, initial forging temperature, and terminal forging temperature were 1200℃, 1150℃, and 950℃, respectively.

  16. Effect Of The Gadolinium Oxide Addition On The Electrical Properties Of Tetragonal Zirconium Dioxide

    Cyran J.


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was examination of gadolinium-doped 3YSZ electrical and structural properties. Such materials may be used as electrolytes in intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFC. First step of the research was synthesis of 3YSZ with different contents of gadolinium (0.25; 0.5; 1.0 at %. Prepared materials were characterized by high porosity. No effect of gadolinium addition on grain size was observed. The experimentally determined values of grain interiors electrical conductivities for gadolinium doped samples are comparable to grain interior conductivities of gadolinium free tetragonal zirconia. On the other hand, a clear effect of gadolinium addition on electrical conductivity of grain boundaries was observed. It was found that 3YSZ containing 0.25 at. % Gd was the most promising from the investigated materials as a solid electrolyte for IT SOFC.

  17. Overexpression of erg1 gene in Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413: effect on the induction of tomato defence-related genes.

    Cardoza, R E; Malmierca, M G; Gutiérrez, S


    To investigate the effect of the overexpression of erg1 gene of Trichoderma harzianum CECT 2413 (T34) on the Trichoderma-plant interactions and in the biocontrol ability of this fungus. Transformants of T34 strain overexpressing erg1 gene did not show effect on the ergosterol level, although a drastic decrease in the squalene level was observed in the transformants at 96 h of growth. During interaction with plants, the erg1 overexpression resulted in a reduction of the priming ability of several tomato defence-related genes belonging to the salicylate pathway, and also of the TomLoxA gene, which is related to the jasmonate pathway. Interestingly, other jasmonate-related genes, such as PINI and PINII, were slightly induced. The erg1 overexpressed transformants also showed a reduced ability to colonize tomato roots. The ergosterol biosynthetic pathway might play an important role in regulating Trichoderma-plant interactions, although this role does not seem to be restricted to the final product; instead, other intermediates such as squalene, whose role in the Trichoderma-plant interaction has not been characterized, would also play an important role. The functional analysis of genes involved in the synthesis of ergosterol could provide additional strategies to improve the ability of biocontrol of the Trichoderma strains and their interaction with plants. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. Effect of additives on mycelial growth and fructification of Pleurotus squarrosulus (Polyporales: Polyporaceae)

    Kadiri, Mukaila


    The effects of dungs (cow, horse. poultry), yam peels, rice bran, chaff (Sorghum, maize) and several sugars on mycelial growth and fructification of Pleurolus squarrosulus (Mant.). Singer were investigated. The concentrations were 5%, 10% and 15% (for sugars: 1%,3% and 5%). The substrate raw materials were maize and rice straw and cotton waste (substrates without the additives used as controls). Optirnum mycelial growth was obtained with 10% rice bran, or Sorghum or maize chaff, 5% dung (any)...

  19. Effect of alumina particle additions of the aging kinetics of 6061 aluminum matrix composites

    Allen, Susan Marie.


    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was conducted using a monolithic 6061 aluminum material and two 6061 aluminum matrix composite materials. The composite materials were reinforced with 10 volume percent and 15 volume percent alumina particles. Electrical resistivity and hardness measurements during isothermal aging treatments were also conducted. The effects of prior aging and alumina particle additions on the growth kinetics and...

  20. Effectivity of Aloe vera bioactives as feed additive for broilers reared on deep litter

    A.P Sinurat; T Purwadaria; T Pasaribu; W Rakhmani; J Dharma; J Rosida; S Sitompul; Udjianto


    There are plenty of Indonesian plants contain usefull bioactive components. One of them is Aloe vera. Previous experiment showed that Aloe vera bioactives reduced aerob bacteria in the intestinal and improved feed efficiency in broilers reared in cages. The results however, gave some variations, may be due to variation in rearing the chickens. Two experiments were carried out to study the effectivity of Aloe vera bioactives as feed additives for broilers reared on deep litter. In the first st...

  1. The Additive Risk Model for Estimation of Effect of Haplotype Match in BMT Studies

    Scheike, Thomas; Martinussen, T; Zhang, MJ


    leads to a missing data problem. We show how Aalen's additive risk model can be applied in this setting with the benefit that the time-varying haplomatch effect can be easily studied. This problem has not been considered before, and the standard approach where one would use the expected-maximization (EM...... be developed using product-integration theory. Small sample properties are investigated using simulations in a setting that mimics the motivating haplomatch problem....

  2. The effect of Y2O3 addition on thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel

    Pošarac Milica; Devečerski A.; Volkov-Husović T.; Matović B.; Minić D.M.


    The effect of yttria additive on the thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel has been investigated. As a starting material we used spinel (MgAl2O4) obtained by the modified glycine nitrate procedure (MGNP). Sintered products were characterized in terms of phase analysis, densities, thermal shock, monitoring the damaged surface area in the refractory specimen during thermal shock and ultrasonic determination of the Dynamic Young modulus of elasticity. It was found that a new phase...

  3. Effect of cerium addition on microstructure and texture of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors

    王海燕; 李文学; 任慧平; 黄丽颖; 王向阳


    Anode foil of aluminum electrolytic capacitor,which requires large surface area for high capacitance,were prepared by rolling,annealing and electrochemical etching.Effects of cerium addition on the capacitance of aluminum electrolytic capacitors were investigated.Microstructure of the aluminum foil surface was observed by optical microscopy(OM) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM).Electron back scattered diffraction(EBSD) was also employed to reveal texture evolvement of cold-rolled aluminum foil after ann...

  4. Asymmetry Effects in Chinese Stock Markets Volatility: A Generalized Additive Nonparametric Approach

    Hou, Ai Jun


    The unique characteristics of the Chinese stock markets make it difficult to assume a particular distribution for innovations in returns and the specification form of the volatility process when modeling return volatility with the parametric GARCH family models. This paper therefore applies a generalized additive nonparametric smoothing technique to examine the volatility of the Chinese stock markets. The empirical results indicate that an asymmetric effect of negative news exists in the Chin...

  5. Homogeneous Gold Catalysis through Relativistic Effects: Addition of Water to Propyne

    Lein, Matthias; Schwerdtfeger, Peter


    In the catalytic addition of water to propyne the Au(III) catalyst is not stable under non-relativistic conditions and dissociates into a Au(I) compound and Cl2. This implies that one link in the chain of events in the catalytic cycle is broken and relativity may well be seen as the reason why Au(III) compounds are effective catalysts.


    White, T


    The effectiveness of three dispersants to modify rheology was examined using rheology measurements and laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) in simulated waste solutions. All of the dispersants lowered the yield stress of the slurries below the baseline samples. The rheology curves were fitted reasonably to a Bingham Plastic model. The three-dimensional LSCM images of simulants showed distinct aggregates were greatly reduced after the addition of dispersants leading to a lowering of the yield stress of the simulated waste slurry solutions.

  7. Effects of Sodium Sulfate as Electrolyte Additive on Electrochemical Performance of Lead Electrode

    YU Jin-yu; QIAN Zhao-hong; ZHAO Meng; WANG Yu-jie; NIU Lin


    Sodium sulfate as an electrolyte additive was studied via electrochemical methods including linear sweep voltammetry(LSV),cyclic voltammetry(CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy(EIS) to deeply understand its effect on the hydrogen evolution current and overpotential as well as the formation and structure of anodic passivation films on lead surface during the redox processes.The results achieved will be valuable to improve the cycle life and maintenance-free properties of lead-acid batteries.

  8. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao


    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (pmethane production under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester.

  9. Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt

    Yanna Syamsuddin


    Full Text Available Research on Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt has been done. Soyghurt is a probiotic drinking product made from soy-milk produced by fermentation process using lactic acid bacteria. The bacteria used as starter was Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of skimmed-milk and starter addition on the formation of lactic acid. Variables used in this research was skimmed-milk concentration of 5, 10, and 15% and starter concentration of 3, 5, and 7%, based on volume of soy-milk used as raw material. The soy-milk used was analyzed for its carbohydrate and protein content, and the soyghurt produced was analyzed for its lactic acid, pH and syneresis. The result showed that carbohydrate and protein content in soy-milk was 122.39 mg/L and 2.75%, respectively. The best condition of this process was the addition of 15% skimmed-milk and 5% starter, which yielded the highest lactic acid of 15% with pH of 4.23 and syneresis of 15%. It can be concluded that increasing skimmed-milk concentration cause the increase in lactic acid formation and decrease pH and syneresis. While effect of starter concentration on product analysis was influenced by the amount of nutrition contain in soy-milk.

  10. Micellar Effects on Nucleophilic Addition Reaction and Applicability of Enzyme Catalysis Model

    R. K. London Singh


    Full Text Available This study describes the effect of anionic and cationic micelles on nucleophilic addition reaction of rosaniline hydrochloride (RH with hydroxide under pseudo-first order condition. Strong inhibitory effect is observed due to SDS micelle, whereas CTAB catalysed the reaction. This is explained on the basis of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions which are simultaneously operating in the reaction system. The kinetic data obtained is quantitatively analysed by applying the positive cooperativity model of enzyme catalysis. Binding constants and influence of counterions on the reaction have also been investigated.

  11. Richly parameterized linear models additive, time series, and spatial models using random effects

    Hodges, James S


    A First Step toward a Unified Theory of Richly Parameterized Linear ModelsUsing mixed linear models to analyze data often leads to results that are mysterious, inconvenient, or wrong. Further compounding the problem, statisticians lack a cohesive resource to acquire a systematic, theory-based understanding of models with random effects.Richly Parameterized Linear Models: Additive, Time Series, and Spatial Models Using Random Effects takes a first step in developing a full theory of richly parameterized models, which would allow statisticians to better understand their analysis results. The aut

  12. Microscopic Studies Of The Effect Of Some Food Additives On The Kidney Of Albino Rat

    Abd El-Tawab M. Ismail - Ashraf M.Moustafa


    Recently the use of synthetic food coloring additives was increased and the levels of human exposure to such agents are very broad, thus feeding over long periods may continually possess potential hazards to the human health. Also most of the food colors tested in the conventional toxicity experiments showed toxic effects at very high level of intake i.e. 1-5 % in the diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological and histochemical effects of some of these substances (Sodium nit...

  13. Health Effects Associated with Inhalation Exposure to Diesel Emission Generated with and without CeO2 Nano Fuel Additive

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Addition of nano cerium (Ce) oxide additive to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency resulting in altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. We hypothesized that inh...

  14. Spoken numbers versus Arabic numerals: differential effects on adults' multiplication and addition.

    Metcalfe, Arron W S; Campbell, Jamie I D


    J.-A. LeFevre, Q. Lei, B. L. Smith-Chant, and D. B. Mullins (2001) examined effects of auditory versus Arabic visual presentation formats on performance of simple multiplication. They observed a smaller problem-size effect (response time [RT] increases with numerical size) with auditory stimuli compared with Arabic stimuli. If this arises during problem encoding, as opposed to during subsequent calculation processes, the authors would expect comparable Format x Problem Size interactions for both multiplication and addition. For multiplication, the authors replicated the finding of a smaller problem-size effect for auditory stimuli than for Arabic stimuli, but found the opposite pattern for addition whereby the problem-size effect was larger with auditory stimuli than with Arabic stimuli. Decomposition of mean RT into its ex-Gaussian components, mu and tau, demonstrated that the triple interaction arose entirely in connection with tau. This suggests that the effects of auditory versus Arabic format on RT substantially reflected format-related shifts in the use of procedural strategies. Copyright (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Effects of V addition on recrystallization resistance of 7150 aluminum alloy after simulative hot deformation

    Lai, Jing; Shi, Cangji; Chen, X.-Grant, E-mail:


    The effects of different V contents (0.01 to 0.19 wt.%) on the recrystallization resistance of 7150 aluminum alloys during post-deformation heat treatment were investigated. The microstructural evolutions at as-cast, as-homogenized conditions and after post-deformation annealing were studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes and using the electron backscattered diffraction technique. The precipitation of Al{sub 21}V{sub 2} dispersoids was observed in alloys containing 0.11 to 0.19 wt.% V after homogenization. The dispersoids were mainly distributed in the dendrite cells, and the precipitate-free zones occurred in the interdendritic regions and near grain boundaries. V addition could significantly enhance the recrystallization resistance during post-deformation annealing, particularly in the presence of a great number of Al{sub 21}V{sub 2} dispersoids. Recrystallized grain growth was effectively restricted because of the dispersoid pinning effect. The alloy containing 0.15 wt.% V exhibited the highest recrystallization resistance amongst all V-containing alloys studied. - Highlights: • Investigated the effect of V level on microstructure and flow stress of 7150 alloys • Characterized microstructures using optical microscopy, SEM, TEM and EBSD • Described the precipitation behavior of V-dispersoids in the dendritic structure • Studied the V effect on recrystallization resistance during post heat treatment • V addition greatly enhanced the recrystallization resistance during annealing.

  16. Characterization of three mnp genes of Fomitiporia mediterranea and report of additional class II peroxidases in the order hymenochaetales.

    Morgenstern, Ingo; Robertson, Deborah L; Hibbett, David S


    We report the sequence-based characterization and expression patterns of three manganese peroxidase genes from the white rot fungus and grape vine pathogen Fomitiporia mediterranea (Agaricomycotina, Hymenochaetales), termed Fmmnp1, Fmmnp2, and Fmmnp3. The predicted open reading frames (ORFs) are 1,516-, 1,351-, and 1,345-bp long and are interrupted by seven, four, and four introns, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences encode manganese peroxidases (EC containing 371, 369, and 371 residues, respectively, and are similar to the manganese peroxidases of the model white rot organism Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The expression of the genes is most likely differentially regulated, as revealed by real-time PCR analysis. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that other members of the order Hymenochaetales harbor mnp genes encoding proteins that are related only distantly to those of F. mediterranea. Furthermore, multiple partial lip- and mnp-like sequences obtained for Pycnoporus cinnabarinus (Agaricomycotina, Polyporales) suggest that lignin degradation by white rot taxa relies heavily on ligninolytic peroxidases and is not efficiently achieved by laccases only.

  17. Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on soil methane uptake in disturbed forests

    Zheng, Mianhai; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Xiankai; Mo, Jiangming


    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is generally thought to suppress soil methane (CH4) uptake in natural forests, and phosphorus (P) input may alleviate this negative effect. However, it remains unclear how N and P inputs control soil CH4 uptake in disturbed forests. In this study, soil CH4 uptake rates were measured in two disturbed forests, including a secondary forest (with previous, but not recent, disturbance) and a plantation forest (with recent continuous disturbance), in southern China for 34 months of N and/or P additions: control, N addition (150 kg N ha-1 yr-1), P addition (150 kg P ha-1 yr-1), and NP addition (150 kg N ha-1 yr-1 plus 150 kg P ha-1 yr-1). Mean CH4 uptake rate in control plots was significantly higher in the secondary forest (24.40 ± 0.81 µg CH4-C m-2 h-1) than in the plantation forest (17.07 ± 0.70 µg CH4-C m-2 h-1). CH4 uptake rate had negative relationships with soil water-filled pore space in both forests. In the secondary forest, N, P, and NP additions significantly decreased CH4 uptake by 39.7%, 27.8%, and 37.6%, respectively, but had no significant effects in the plantation forest, indicating that P input does not alleviate the suppression of CH4 uptake by N deposition. Taken together, our findings suggest that reducing anthropogenic disturbance, including harvesting of forest floor, and anthropogenic N and P inputs will increase soil CH4 uptake in disturbed forests, which is important in view of the increased trends in global warming during recent decades.

  18. Effect of silver addition on the properties of nickel-titanium alloys for dental application.

    Oh, Keun-Taek; Joo, Uk-Hyon; Park, Gee-Ho; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Kim, Kyoung-Nam


    Equiatomic and near-equiatomic nickel-titanium alloys exhibit a shape-memory effect and superelasticity. However, the properties of such alloys are extremely sensitive to the precise nickel-titanium ratio and the addition of alloying elements. High corrosion resistance is necessary for biomedical applications, especially orthodontic. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of silver addition to nickel-titanium alloys for dental and medical application. Arc melting, homogenization, hot rolling, and solution heat treatment were performed to prepare the nickel-titanium-silver (NiTi-Ag) specimens. The properties of the ternary NiTi-Ag alloys such as phase-transformation temperature, microstructure, microhardness, corrosion resistance, and cytotoxicity were investigated. The NiTi-Ag alloys showed low silver recovery rate for the cast alloy, due to silver's low evaporation temperature, and low silver solubility in nickel-titanium. Silver addition to nickel-titanium increased the transition temperature range to 100 degrees C and stabilized the martensitic phase (monoclinic structure) at room temperature, because the martensitic transformation starting temperature (Ms) was above room temperature. Martensitic and austenitic phases existed in X-ray diffraction patterns of solution-annealed NiTi-Ag alloys. The silver addition was considered to improve the corrosion resistance and form a stable passive film. Significantly, the mechanical properties of the silver-added alloys were dependent upon the amount of alloying addition. There was no toxicity in the NiTi-Ag alloys, as the response index showed none or mild levels.

  19. The effect of additional physiotherapy to hospital inpatients outside of regular business hours: a systematic review.

    Brusco, Natasha K; Paratz, Jennifer


    Provision of out of regular business hours (OBH) physiotherapy to hospital inpatients is widespread in the hospital setting. This systematic review evaluated the effect of additional OBH physiotherapy services on patient length of stay (LOS), pulmonary complications, discharge destination, discharge mobility status, quality of life, cost saving, adverse events, and mortality compared with physiotherapy only within regular business hours. A literature search was completed on databases with citation tracking using key words. Two reviewers completed data extraction and quality assessment independently by using modified scales for historical cohorts and case control studies as well as the PEDro scale for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials. This search identified nine articles of low to medium quality. Four reported a significant reduction in LOS associated with additional OBH physiotherapy, with two articles reporting overall significance and two reporting only for specific subgroups. Two studies reported significant reduction in pulmonary complications for two different patient groups in an intensive care unit (ICU) with additional OBH physiotherapy. Three studies accounted for discharge destination and/or discharge mobility status with no significant difference reported. Quality of life, adverse events, and mortality were not reported in any studies. Cost savings were considered in three studies, with two reporting a cost saving. This systematic review was unable to conclude that the provision of additional OBH physiotherapy made significant improvement to patient outcomes for all subgroups of inpatients. One study in critical care reported that overnight physiotherapy decreased LOS and reduced pulmonary complications of patients in the ICU. However, the studies in the area of orthopaedics, neurology, postcardiac surgery, and rheumatology, which all considered additional daytime weekend physiotherapy intervention, did not provide

  20. Effect of SNPs in protein kinase Czgene on gene expression in the reporter gene detection system

    Zhuo Liu; Hong-Xia Sun; Yong-Wei Zhang; Yun-Feng Li; Jin Zuo; Yan Meng; Fu-De Fang


    AIM: To investigated the effects of the SNPs (rs411021,rs436045, rs427811, rs385039 and rs809912) on gene expression and further identify the susceptibility genes of type 2 diabetes.METHODS: Ten allele fragments (49 bp each) were synthesized according to the 5 SNPs mentioned above.These fragments were cloned into luciferase reporter gene vector and then transfected into HepG2 cells. The activity of the luciferase was assayed. Effects of the SNPs on RNA splicing were analyzed by bioinformatics.RESULTS: rs427811T allele and rs809912G allele enhanced the activity of the reporter gene expression. None of the 5 SNPs affected RNA splicing.CONCLUSION: SNPs in protein kinase Cz (PKCZ) gene probably play a role in the susceptibility to type 2 diabetes by affecting the expression level of the relevant genes.


    Elena Vasilyevna Chetina


    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the changes in clinical, immunological, X-ray indicators and expression of the mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin genes, the key regulator of cell growth and proliferation; ULK1 (autophagy marker; р21 (cyclindependent kinase inhibitor; caspase 3 (indicator of apoptotic activity; MMP9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9 and cathepsin K, which participate in joint destruction, and proinflammatory cytokine TNFα (tumor necrosis factor α in blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA receiving methotrexate (MT therapy.Materials and Methods. Thirty-three RA patients (21 with positive and 12 with negative rheumatoid factor (RF, respectively; median age, 47.1 years and 28 healthy volunteers (median age, 45.1 years were examined. All patients have been receiving MT for 2 years. The clinical response was assessed according to the DAS28 score. ESR and the serum levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA, C-reactive protein (CRP, and RF were also determined. Degenerative changes in the joints were evaluated by X-ray examination. Gene expression was measured in peripheral blood cells using reverse transcriptase reaction and real-time polymerase chain reaction.Results. MT therapy considerably reduced the disease severity according to DAS28 score, as well as the number of swollen and painful joints both in seropositive (RF+ and seronegative (RF- RA patients. Ten patients reached remission by the end of the study. In (RF- RA patients, the absence of progression of joint destruction was accompanied by the absence of any significant changes in expression of MMP9 and cathepsin K, as well as a stronger suppression of TGFα (its expression became comparable to that in the control group. Patients who achieved remission showed a significant decrease in the expression level of the cathepsin K gene as compared to that at the start of the study. In (RF+ RA patients, MT therapy significantly reduced the clinical and

  2. The effect of the humic acid and herbal additive supplement on production parameters of broiler chicken

    Veronika Pistová


    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and dietary herbal additive (clove (Syzygium aromaticum, lavender (Lavendula angustifolia and black pepper (Piper nigrum L. on production parameters of broiler chicken were studied.  A total of 60 Ross 308 broiler chicken were divided into 3 treatments (n=20. The control group of chickens was fed with complete feed mixtures without any additives. Chicken in treatment T1 were fed a diet containing 1% of humic acid and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. Chicken in treatment T2 were fed with complete feed mixture without any additives and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. The body weight, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. The results shout that the body weight was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in treatments groups compared to the control group (the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 2052.9±197.9 and 2140.4±300.4 g±SD. The feed intake was in the control group 3.11 kg, in the treatment T1 3.00 kg and in the treatment T2 3.12 kg. Feed conversion for the entire fattening period was in control group 2.19 kg/kg complete feed mixture, in the treatment T1 1.83 kg/kg complete feed mixture and in the treatment T2 1.84 kg/kg complete feed mixture with no significant different (P≥0.05 compared to control group. In conclusion, supplement by humic acid and herbal additive can improve production parameters of broiler chicken.

  3. Synergistic effect between nano-ceramic lubricating additives and electroless deposited Ni-W-P coating

    Chen, Min; Cheng, Wushan; Zhao, Zuxin; Huang, Xiaobo


    The major solving ways for the material wear are surface modification and lubrication. Currently, the researches at home and abroad are all limited to the single study of either nano-lubricating oil additive or electroless deposited coating. The surface coating has high hardness and high wear resistance, however, the friction reduction performance of the coating with high hardness is not good, the thickness of the coating is limited, and the coating can not regenerate after wearing. The nano-lubricating additives have good tribological performance and self-repair function, but under heavy load, the self-repair rate to the worn surface with the nano-additives is smaller than the wearing rate of the friction pair. To solve the above problems, the Ni-W-P alloy coating and deposition process with excellent anti-wear, and suitable for industrial application were developed, the optimum bath composition and process can be obtained by studying the influence of the bath composition, temperature and PH value to the deposition rate and the plating solution stability. The tribological properties as well as anti-wear and friction reduction mechanism of wear self-repair nano-ceramic lubricating additives are also studied. The ring-block abrasion testing machine and energy dispersive spectrometer are used to explore the internal relation between the coating and the nano-lubricating oil additives, and the tribology mechanism, to seek the synergetic effect between the two. The test results show that the wear resistance of Ni-W-P alloy coating (with heat treatment and in oil with nano-ceramic additives) has increased hundreds times than 45 steel as the metal substrate in basic oil, the friction reduction performance is improved. This research breaks through the bottleneck of previous separate research of the above-mentioned two methods, and explores the combination use of the two methods in industrial field.

  4. Additive effects of physical exercise and environmental enrichment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice

    Klaus Fabel


    Full Text Available Voluntary physical exercise (wheel running, RUN and environmental enrichment (ENR both stimulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis but do so by different mechanisms. RUN induces precursor cell proliferation, whereas ENR exerts a survival-promoting effect on newborn cells. In addition, continued RUN prevented the physiologically occurring age-related decline in precursor cell in the dentate gyrus but did not lead to a corresponding increase in net neurogenesis. We hypothesized that in the absence of appropriate cognitive stimuli the potential for neurogenesis could not be realized but that an increased potential by proliferating precursor cells due to RUN could actually lead to more adult neurogenesis if an appropriate survival-promoting stimulus follows the exercise. We thus asked whether a sequential combination of RUN and ENR (RUNENR would show additive effects that are distinct from the application of either paradigm alone. We found that the effects of 10 days of RUN followed by 35 days of ENR were additive in that the combined stimulation yielded an approximately 30% greater increase in new neurons than either stimulus alone, which also increased neurogenesis. Surprisingly, this result indicates that although overall the amount of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus is poorly predictive of net adult neurogenesis, an increased neurogenic potential nevertheless provides the basis for a greater efficiency of the same survival-promoting stimulus. We thus propose that physical activity can “prime” the neurogenic region of the dentate gyrus for increased neurogenesis in the case the animal is exposed to an additional cognitive stimulus, here represented by the enrichment paradigm.

  5. Effects of carbon nanotube addition on superconductivity in Y-Ba-Cu-O bulk superconductors

    Inoue, K.; Miyake, Y.; Miryala, M.; Murakami, M.


    Bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors have significant potential for engineering applications due to high critical current density, which is attributed to the presence of pinning centers such as Y2BaCuO5. The introduction of nano-sized secondary phase is known to act as more effective pinning center than those in micron sizes. The diameter of carbon nanotube (CNT) is close to that of the coherence length of high-temperature superconductors, which is expected to improve the flux pinning performance. We have investigated the effects of CNT addition on the microstructure, superconducting transition temperature (T c), and critical current density (J c) of YBa2Cu3O x (Y123) based bulk superconductors. SEM observation showed the distribution of needle-like particles around 100 nm in length in the Y123 matrix for the CNT added samples. The highly porous texture was also observed for the excess addition of CNT. T c was enhanced from 90.5 K to 91.8 K with increasing CNT addition. It is probable that carbon originated from CNT suppressed oxidation and carrier doping. Jc exhibited the highest value for 0.25 wt% CNT added sample. This suggests that nano-sized needle-like particles act as effective pinning centers. However, a further increase of CNT led to the decline of J c, which suggests that there is an optimum amount of CNT for the improvement of J c. The secondary peak was observed for the sample with 1 wt% CNT addition, where CO3 substitutions with Cu site at the Cu-O chain might induce oxygen vacancies leading to the field induced pinning.

  6. Effect of the different level of a dry feed additive on the lupin silage quality

    Petr Doležal


    Full Text Available In the experiment, the effect of additive on the fermentation quality of lupine was examined, by comparing with the untreated control. Fresh green Lupine (Lupines lupine, variete Juno, dry matter content 187.15 g/kg at full waxy stage of maturiy were chopped to the legth of cut ca 30–50 mm. The crop was artificially wilted for a periody 24 h and ensiled as described above. Lupine were ensiled for 98 days in laboratory silos, capacity about 4 L alone or with supplementation of feed additive (5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 or 70 kg/tone forage respectively. The composition and as effective substances of this silage ingredient were dry whey (30%, maize meal (40% and dry molases (30%. The silages fermented rapidly and changes in volatile fatty acids (VFA production (P<0.01 and in sum of acids were noted. The different supplementation of additive in our experiment conditions increased significantly (P<0.01 the dry matter content, and decreased statistically significantly (P<0.01 the pH value. The higher DM content was in all experimental silages, but the highest DM content (P<0.01 was in silage with addition of 70 kg/t (231.58Ī0.91 g/kg. All treated silages were well fermented with low levels of ammonia and pH. The different addition of this aditive increased significantly (P<0.01 the contents of lactic acid and total content of acids in comparison with control silage. The experimental silage with higher (5%, resp. 7% feed supplementation was of better quality (significantly higher ratio LA/sum of acids, higher content of lactic acid, lower NH3 content and pH value than the control silage, or silage with lower concentration. In experiment feed additive–treated silages (by groups of 5 or 50 and 70 kg/t had significantly higher alcohol content than untreated silage. It was concluded that feed additive used as a silage additive improved fermentation of lupine, reduced acetic acid and ammonia production and increased silage nutritive value.

  7. Effects of AI Addition on the Thermoelectric Properties of Zn-Sb Based Alloys

    CUI Jiaolin; LIU Xianglian; YANG Wei; CHEN Dongyong; MAO Liding; QIAN Xin


    The β-Zn4Sb3, emerged as a compelling p-type thermoelectric material, is widely used in heat-electricity conversion in the 400-650 K range. In order to probe the effects of slight doping on the crystal structure and physical properties, we prepared the samples of Al-added Zn-Sb based alloys by spark plasma sintering and evaluated their microstructures and thermoelectric properties. After a limited Al addition into the Zn-Sb based alloys we observed many phases in the alloys, which include a major phase β-Zn4Sb3,intermetallic phases ZnSb and AISb. The major β-Zn4Sb3 phase plays a fundamental role in controlling the thermoelectric performance, the precipitated phases ZnSb and AISb are of great importance to tailor the transport properties, such as the gradual enhancement of lattice thermal conductivity, in spite of an increased phonon scattering in additional grain boundaries. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit of 0.55 is obtained for the alloy with a limited AI addition at 653 K, which is 0.08 higher than that of un-doped β-Zn4Sb3 at the corresponding temperature. Physical property experiments indicate that there is a potentiality for the improvement of thermoelectric properties if a proper elemental doping is carried out into the Zn-Sb based alloys, which was confirmed by AI addition in the present work.

  8. Effect of phosphor addition on eutectic solidification and microstructure of an Al-13%Si alloy

    Liao Hengcheng


    Full Text Available As the refiner or modifier, the master alloys containing high concentration phosphor are widely used in preparing eutectic or hypereutectic Al-Si alloys. To study the effect of phosphor addition on the eutectic solidification and microstructure of the Al-13%Si alloy, an investigation has been undertaken by means of thermal analysis and micro/macro-structure observation. Results indicate that addition of phosphor in near eutectic Al-Si alloy promotes the nucleation of eutectic but has little refinement impact on primary Si particles as expected. Conversely, both primary Si particles and eutectic Si flakes become slightly coarser in P-rich alloys. The coarsening of eutectic Si flakes ties closely to the increased eutectic growth temperature with phosphor addition. The eutectic solidification of the alloy proceeds from the near mold zone towards the center, and it is also found that a few independent nucleation regions emerge in liquid at the solidification front due to the addition of phosphor.

  9. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik


    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effect of a bacterial inoculum and additive on dry matter in situ degradability of sugarcane silage

    Jos A Reyes-Gutirrez; Oziel D Montaez-Valdez; Ramn Rodrguez-Macias; Mario Ruz-Lpez; Eduardo Salcedo-Prez; Cndido E Guerra-Medina


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding a bacterial inoculum and a handmade additive to sugarcane silage (SCS) on the in situ digestibility of dry matter (DM). The treatments were:T1) sugarcane silage (SCS) and T2) sugar-cane silage with 1%inoculum and 1%additive (SCS+). The bacterial inoculum consisted of 10.0%molasses, 1.0%yogurt, 5.0%chicken manure, 0.5%urea, and 83.0%water, and the additive was formulated with 1.0%urea, 0.1%ammonium sulfate, and 0.25%phosphorus. In situ dry matter digestibility (DMD) was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows equipped with ruminal ifstulas. Cows were fed with ensiled sugarcane supplemented with 1 kg of commercial concentrate. 5 g of ground sample for each sugarcane treatment were weighted in nylon bags and incubated for 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h in a completely randomized design with six replicates. The DMD (%) was higher (P<0.05) for SCS+for al incubation times when compared with SCS. There were no differences in ruminal pH between the treatments for al the incubation times. The data suggested that the sugarcane silage with bacterial inoculum and additive could be an alternative for providing forage for ruminants during the season of low growth and quality grass.

  11. Effect of Additives on Melting Point of LATS Refining Ladle Slag

    WANG Hong-ming; LI Gui-rong; DING Zhen-tao; DAI Qi-xun; LI Bo


    To avoid slag sticking on the ladle immersion cover during the LATS refining and alloying process, the effect of Al2O3 on the melting point of the ladle slag was studied and the additives including CaF2, B2O3, Li2O, and CaO were used to decrease the melting point of the ladle slag. The melting point was measured using the hemisphere method. The results show that the addition of Al2O3 to the ladle slag increases the melting point. The fluxing action is not remarkable if only CaF2 or CaO is used as the additive. The fluxing action of the composite additive obtained by the mixing of CaO and CaF2 in the mass proportion of wCaO∶wCaF2=2∶1 is preferred. The fluxing action of B2O3 is also notable. When the B2O3 content in mass percent is in the range from 2% to 10%, the corresponding melting point is 1 380 ℃ to 1 290 ℃. The fluxing action of Li2O is the most remarkable. When the Li2O content is up to 5%, the melting point of the slag is lower than 1 300 ℃.

  12. Rheological behavior and organoleptic effects of ovalbumin addition in yogurt mousse production.

    Menéndez, M; Paredes, B; Iglesias, O; Rendueles, M; Díaz, M


    Yogurt mousse is a novel, high added-value dairy product that has been well received by the market. This paper presents a study of the effect of the addition of ovalbumin to the product on its rheological and organoleptic qualities. The ovalbumin was previously separated from egg white with a high grade of purity using an ion exchange resin synthesized by the authors. Diverse rheological tests at different temperatures and corresponding sensorial assessments were conducted to compare samples without and with added ovalbumin. The obtained results confirm that the product is viscoelastic and combines the properties of foams and emulsions; the elastic component is greater than the viscous component. Moreover, at temperatures ranging from 5 to 15 degrees C, a usual interval of consumption, the product behaves rheologically in a similar way. Conversely, the addition of ovalbumin under the assayed conditions also makes the elastic character of the product increase at a given temperature. Finally, the sensorial assessment tests and determinations of stability and volume yield enabled us to verify that the addition of ovalbumin at an amount of 1.3% hardly alters the stability, resistance to shear stress, or the texture and improves the degree of foaming. Therefore, the product with additive is of good commercial quality.

  13. Effects of beta-glucan addition to a probiotic containing yogurt.

    Vasiljevic, T; Kealy, T; Mishra, V K


    This study investigated the effects of addition of beta-glucan from 2 different cereal sources (oat and barley) on growth and metabolic activity of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (Bb-12) as determined by plating on a selective medium in yogurt during prolonged cold storage. These yogurt batches were compared to unsupplemented and inulin supplemented controls. All batches were also assessed for syneresis. Oat beta-glucan addition resulted in improved probiotic viability and stability comparable to that of inulin. It also enhanced lactic and propionic acid production. The barley beta-glucan addition suppressed proteolytic activity more than that from oat. These improvements were hindered by greater syneresis caused likely by thermodynamic incompatibility. Small amplitude oscillatory measurements of acidified model mixture of beta-glucan/skim milk solids showed formation of casein gel within the beta-glucan network. Binary mixtures of beta-glucan and skim milk solids had apparent pseudoplastic and non-Newtonian behavior governed mainly by beta-glucan contribution. Above critical concentrations, the mixtures underwent phase separation with the lower phase rich in protein. The phase diagram also showed that the addition of beta-glucan may be possible at or below 0.24 w/w%.

  14. Effect of the Additives on the Desulphurization Rate of Flash Hydrated and Agglomerated CFB Fly Ash

    Li, D. X.; Li, H. L.; Xu, M.; Lu, J. F.; Liu, Q.; Zhang, J. S.; Yue, G. X.

    CFB fly ash from separators was mixed with water or the mixture of water and additives under the temperature of 363K by use of a blender. Then, this compound of fly ash and water or additives was pumped into a CFB combustion chamber by a sludge pump. Because the temperature of flue gas was high in CFB, the fly ash was hydrated fast and agglomerated in the same time. Through this process, the size of agglomerating fly ash is larger than the original particle and the relative residence time of agglomerated fly ash in CFB becomes longer. Therefore, the rate of utility of calcium in fly ash improves and the content of carbon in fly ash decreases. This results in a low Ca/S and low operational cost for CFB boiler. The additive is one key factor, which affects the rate of desulfurization of agglomerated fly ash. Effect of different additives on rate of desulfurization is not same. Cement and limestone are beneficiated to sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash, but sodium silicate does not devote to the rate of sulfur removal of agglomerated fly ash.

  15. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro


    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat.

  16. Effects of rare earth elements addition on microstructures, tensile properties and fractography of A357 alloy

    Jiang, Wenming, E-mail: [State Key Lab of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Fan, Zitian; Dai, Yucheng; Li, Chi [State Key Lab of Materials Processing and Die and Mould Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)


    The effects of rare earth (RE) containing Ce and La elements addition on the microstructures characteristics, tensile properties and fracture behavior of A357 alloy under as-cast and T6 conditions were systematically investigated in this study. Obtained results showed that the addition of RE obviously reduced the sizes of the α-Al primary phase and eutectic silicon particles as well as SDAS value and improved the morphology of eutectic silicon particles. The optimum level of added RE content were 0.2 wt%, and the aspect ratio of eutectic silicon particles of the A357 modified alloy under as-cast and T6 conditions decreased 142% and 174%, respectively, compared with the unmodified alloy. In addition, the addition of RE greatly improved the tensile properties of A357 alloy as result of the significant improvement in microstructure, especially in elongation under T6 condition. The fracture surfaces of the A357 unmodified alloy tensile samples showed a clear brittle fracture nature, and its fracture path passed through the eutectic silicon particles and displayed a transgranular fracture mode, leading to poorer ductility. The fracture path of the A357 modified alloys passed through the eutectic phase along the grain boundaries of the α-Al primary phase, and the fracture generated by dimple rupture with cracked eutectic silicon particles, and it showed an intergranular fracture mode, resulting in superior ductility.

  17. Superior MgH2 Kinetics with MgO Addition: A Tribological Effect

    Kondo-Francois Aguey-Zinsou


    Full Text Available The kinetics of hydrogen absorption/desorption in magnesium can be improved without any catalysis assistance and MgO was found to be more effective than the best catalyst reported so far, i.e., Nb2O5. Herein, a quantitative analysis of the hydrogen kinetics in magnesium modified with MgO was performed in order to identify possible rate controlling mechanisms. While hydrogen absorption was found to be diffusion controlled as commonly reported, hydrogen desorption evolved from nucleation and growth to an interface controlled process depending on the desorption temperature. Comparison with the effect of Nb2O5 indicates that similar rate limiting steps occur regardless of the oxide additive. These findings are reconciled by considering the tribological effect of solid oxide additives, as a correlation between oxides electronegativity and improvement in hydrogen kinetics was found. Such a correlation clearly highlights the mechanical effect of solid oxides in facilitating the grinding and stabilisation of small magnesium particles for efficient and fast hydrogen kinetics.

  18. Combined effect of sourdough lactic acid bacteria and additives on bread firmness and staling.

    Corsetti, A; Gobbetti, M; De Marco, B; Balestrieri, F; Paoletti, F; Russi, L; Rossi, J


    The effect of various sourdoughs and additives on bread firmness and staling was studied. Compared to the bread produced with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 141, the chemical acidification of dough fermented by S. cerevisiae 141 or the use of sourdoughs increased the volume of the breads. Only sourdough fermentation was effective in delaying starch retrogradation. The effect depended on the level of acidification and on the lactic acid bacteria strain. The effect of sourdough made of S. cerevisiae 141-Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis 57-Lactobacillus plantarum 13 was improved when fungal alpha-amylase or amylolytic strains such as L. amylovorus CNBL1008 or engineered L. sanfranciscensis CB1 Amy were added. When pentosans or pentosans, endoxylanase enzyme, and L. hilgardii S32 were added to the same sourdough, a greater delay of the bread firmness and staling was found. When pentosans were in part hydrolyzed by the endoxylanase enzyme, the bread also had the highest titratable acidity, due to the fermentation of pentoses by L. hilgardii S32. The addition of the bacterial protease to the sourdough increased the bread firmness and staling.

  19. Effects of feed additives on rumen and blood profiles during a starch and fructose challenge.

    Golder, H M; Celi, P; Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J


    We evaluated the effect of feed additives on the risk of ruminal acidosis in Holstein heifers (n = 40) fed starch and fructose in a challenge study. Heifers were randomly allocated to feed additive groups (n = 8 heifers/group): (1) control (no additives); (2) virginiamycin (VM); (3) monensin + tylosin (MT); (4) monensin + live yeast (MLY); and (5) sodium bicarbonate + magnesium oxide (BUF). Heifers were fed 2.5% of body weight (BW) dry matter intake (DMI) per day of a total mixed ration (62:38 forage:concentrate) and feed additives for a 20-d adaptation period. Fructose (0.1% of BW/d) was included for the last 10d of the adaptation period. On d 21, heifers were fed to target a DMI of 1.0% of BW of wheat, fructose at 0.2% of BW, and their feed additives. Rumen fluid samples obtained by stomach tube and blood samples were collected weekly as well as during a 3.6-h period on challenge day (d 21). Virginiamycin and BUF groups maintained a consistently high DMI across the 20-d adaptation period. The MLY heifers had low DMI of the challenge ration. Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by feed additives. All rumen and plasma measures changed weekly over adaptation and over the challenge sampling period with the exception of rumen total lactate and histamine concentrations, plasma oxidative stress index, and ceruloplasmin. Substantial within- and between-group variation was observed in rumen and plasma profiles at challenge sampling. No significant group changes were observed in rumen total volatile fatty acids, propionate, acetate-to-propionate ratio, isobutyrate, caproate, isovalerate, total lactate, d- and l-lactate, and pH measures on challenge day. Acetate concentration was increased in the BUF and control groups on challenge day. Butyrate concentration was lower in the MLY and MT groups compared with other groups at challenge. Valerate concentrations were lowest in the control, VM, and BUF groups and lactate concentrations were numerically

  20. Clinical effect of the midperipherv additional designed lenses combined adjustment training on myopia in childhood

    Yu-Min Lu


    Full Text Available AIM:To observe the clinical effect of the midperipherv additional designed lenses and adjustment training on myopia in childhood.METHODS: Eighty childhood(160 eyes in allwith myopia were included in this study. All patients were divided into two groups according to the methods of correcting refractive error: the midperipherv additional designed lenses and adjustment training group(treatment group, 80 eyes of 40 casesand frame glasses group(comparison group, 80 eyes of 40 cases. The two groups had been measured myopia progress indicators and adjustment function indicators for ever 3mo. The results were compared and analyzed after 1a follow-up.RESULTS: The visual acuity, refraction, axial length had a little change after wearing lens 1a in treatment group, there was no statistically significant difference compared with wearing before(P>0.05. The visual acuity decreased, refraction and axial length increased in comparison group, the differences were statistically significant(PPPP>0.05. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant(PCONCLUSION: Midperipherv additional designed lenses and adjustment training treatment of juvenile myopia is effective, which can delay the diopters development of myopic children, improve the regulatory function, control the development of myopia, improve the adjustment function.

  1. Effect of organic residues addition on the technological properties of clay bricks.

    Demir, Ismail


    The objective of this study is to investigate the utilization potential of several organic residues in clay bricks. Sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass are widespread by-products of industrial and agricultural processes in Turkey. These residue materials have long cellulose fibres. Sawdust and tobacco residues generally are used as fuel, and the grass is utilized for agricultural purposes. The insulation capacity of brick increases with the increasing porosity of the clay body. Combustible, organic types of pore-forming additives are most frequently used for this purpose. For this reason, increasing amounts of organic residues (0%, 2.5%, 5% and 10% in wt.) were mixed with raw brick-clay. All samples were fired at 900 degrees C. Effects on shaping, plasticity, density, and mechanical properties were investigated. The organic residue additions were found to be effective for pore-forming in the clay body with the clay maintaining acceptable mechanical properties. It was observed that the fibrous nature of the residues did not create extrusion problems. However, higher residue addition required a higher water content to ensure the right plasticity. As a result, sawdust, tobacco residues, and grass can be utilized in an environmentally safe way as organic pore-forming agents in brick-clay.

  2. Effect of the La alloying addition on the antibacterial capability of 316L stainless steel.

    Yuan, J P; Li, W; Wang, C


    316L stainless steel is widely used for fashion jewelry but it can carry a large number of bacteria and cause the potential risk of infection since it has no antimicrobial ability. In this paper, La is used as an alloying addition. The antibacterial capability, corrosion resistance and processability of the La-modified 316L are investigated by microscopic observation, thin-film adhering quantitative bacteriostasis, electrochemical measurement and mechanical test. The investigations reveal that the La-containing 316L exhibits the Hormesis effect against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli DH5α, 0.05 wt.% La stimulates their growth, as La increases, the modified 316L exhibits the improved antibacterial effect. The more amount of La is added, the better antibacterial ability is achieved, and 0.42 wt.% La shows excellent antibacterial efficacy. No more than 0.11 wt.% La addition improves slightly the corrosion resistance in artificial sweat and has no observable impact on the processability of 316L, while a larger La content degrades them. Therefore, the addition of La alone in 316L is difficult to obtain the optimal combination of corrosion resistance, antibacterial capability and processability. In spite of that, 0.15 wt.% La around is inferred to be the trade-off for the best overall performance.

  3. Effect of additive on synthesis of MnZn ferrite nanocrystal by hydrothermal crystallization

    桑商斌; 古映莹; 黄可龙


    The effect of additive RCOONa on the formation of MnZn ferrite homogeneous coprecipitation precursor was studied in this paper. The action of additive in the MnZn ferrite hydrothermal crystallization process was investigated according to crystal field theory and crystal growth unit theory. And the growth unit formation process was presented and its structure was illustrated. The results show that the precursor of MnZn ferrite is a colloidal mixture composed of Zn(OH)2, Fe(OH)2, Mn(OH)2, MnO(OH) , MnO2 @ xH2O and so on, and dissolves in solution in the form of hydroxyl coordination tetrahedron and octahedron such as Zn(OH)2-4,Fe(OH)2-4 , Fe(OH)4-6 ,Fe(OH)-4 , Fe(OH)3-6 ,Mn(OH)2-4 ,Mn(OH)3-6 etc. , and the growth unit is formed by combination of the coordination polyhedra subsequently in the hydrothermal precess. The additive is beneficial to the formation of homogeneous precursor and has dispersive effect on the aggregation of the crystal growth unit by forming associate with hydrogen bond,which is beneficial to the synthesis of the pure product with a tiny size and a narrow size distribution.

  4. Additive effect of cysteinyl leukotriene or thromboxane modifiers to inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic patients

    Shigeharu Myou


    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the conducting airways. Current asthma treatment guidelines recommend inhaled corticosteroids (ICS as the first-line maintenance therapy for mild to severe persistent asthma, because ICS are the most efficacious anti-inflammatory medication. Despite treatment with ICS, suppression of inflammation is often incomplete and blockade by ICS of cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT and thromboxane (TX A2 biosynthesis is limited. The addition of a CysLT1 receptor antagonist to an ICS represents a reasonable alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of asthma patients whose symptoms remain uncontrolled on ICS alone. Indeed, CysLT1 receptor antagonists are demonstrated both to have an additive effect to ICS therapy and to allow the reduction of ICS dosage. Thromboxane modifiers also have an additive effect with low- to moderate-dose ICS. Although the long-term usefulness of add-on therapy of CysLT or TX modifiers (vs long-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonists to ICS is unclear, these alternatives are worthy of further consideration.


    Wang Xishu; Zhang Yihe; Fu Shaoyun; Feng Xiqiao


    Tensile deformation and fracture characteristics of polyimide/montmorillonite nanocomposite films are investigated to enhance the particular mechanical properties and understand the effective factors in dominating the mechanical properties of nanocomposites, such as the nanolayer, matrix and nanolayer/matrix interface. How to contribute to the mechanical properties of nanocomposite film is a very complex problem. In this paper, these factors are analyzed based on the addition amount and fracture mechanics. The results indicate that the specimen at 20 wt% MMT breaks prematurely with a fracture strength (σb=78 MPa) much lower than that (σb = 128 MPa) at the 1wt% MMT. However, the Young's modulus (3.2 GPa) of the former is higher than that (1.9 GPa) of the latter. Fractography also indicates that the brittle cracking formed in high content addition is the main cause of failure but microscopically ductile fracture morphology still exists locally. And for the trace element addition, the smaller threading slipping veins are evenly distributed on the entire fracture section of these films. Therefore, these characteristics would presumably be associated with both the concentration effects of size of nanocomposite sheets and the increasing deformation harmony in nanolayers.

  6. Effect of calcium chloride addition on ice cream structure and quality.

    Costa, F F; Resende, J V; Abreu, L R; Goff, H D


    The influence of calcium fortification by the addition of calcium chloride on quality parameters of ice cream based on physical properties was investigated, as was the effect of kappa-carrageenan at modifying the effects of this calcium fortification. Four ice cream mixes of conventional composition, with added kappa-carrageenan (0 or 0.025%) and added calcium chloride (0 or 4.4 g L(-1) = 40 mM of added Ca(2+)), were prepared. Modulated temperature-differential scanning calorimetry was used to investigate the effect of calcium chloride on the nucleation temperature, enthalpy of melting, and freezing point depression. The protein composition of 15.4% (wt/wt) reconstituted skim milk powder solutions with or without 4.4 g L(-1) added CaCl(2) and in the supernatant after ultracentrifugation was determined. Fat particle size distributions in ice cream were characterized by light scattering. Ice crystal sizes before and after temperature cycling were determined by cold-stage light microscopy. The results demonstrated that the addition of calcium chloride led to a substantial increase in ice crystal sizes and in fat partial coalescence, which were exacerbated by the addition of kappa-carrageenan. These results can be explained by the interaction between Ca(2+) ions and casein micelles, rather than any effects on freezing point depression. The calcium ions led to a more compact micelle, less serum beta-casein, and high fat destabilization, all of which would be expected to reduce macromolecular structure and volume occupancy in the unfrozen phase, which led to increased rates of ice recrystallization.

  7. Effect of Sc addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of 1460 alloy

    Juan Ma


    Full Text Available The effect of minor addition of Sc on microstructure, age hardening behavior, tensile properties and fracture morphology of 1460 alloy have been studied. It is found that Sc content increase from 0.11 wt% to 0.22 wt% is favorable for grain refinement in as-cast alloy but results in a coarsening of Cu-rich particles. The alloy with 0.11 wt% Sc exhibits enhanced mechanical properties and age hardening effect. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM investigations on the alloy with 0.11 wt% Sc have suggested that a large amount of Al3(Sc, Zr particles precipitated at the earlier aging may inhibit recrystallization effectively.

  8. Effect of salt addition on the thermal behavior of proteins of bovine meat from Argentina.

    Pighin, D G; Sancho, A M; Gonzalez, C B


    Research was undertaken to investigate how the addition of sodium chloride (NaCl) and/or sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to sous vide cooked meat pieces produces an increase in water holding capacity (WHC). Semitendinosus muscles were injected to obtain tissue final concentrations of 0.70% NaCl, 0.25% TPP, 0.70% NaCl+0.25% TPP, and 1.20% NaCl+0.25% TPP. SDS-PAGE analysis showed increased protein solubilization in those treatments which included NaCl. Thermal analysis of whole muscles and isolated myofibrils showed the destabilizing effect of NaCl and a global stabilizing effect of TPP. Both salts together induced a destabilizing global effect, where TPP assisted NaCl in breaking the meat structure. It is suggested that the WHC increments are related to conformational changes in myofibrillar proteins and to the weakening of myofibrillar structure by the removal of myofibrillar proteins.

  9. The Effectiveness of the Additional Vocational Education and Staff Development for Industrial Enterprises

    Y. S. Kalabina


    Full Text Available In the course of the Russian economy modernization, developing the effec- tive system of vocational training and further professional training appears to be the main condition for the dynamic competitive advantage of industrial enterprises. The paper inves- tigates the urgent issue of developing the system of additional vocational training and staff development with the reference to the ever-changing institutional logic controlling the em- ployee – employer relations. The paper presents the review of theoretic approaches to the system of additional vocational training, as well as the economic analysis and estimates of return on investment in different forms of vocational training. The methodological approach to the system efficiency estimation is given along with the factors determining the forma- tion and development of vocational training system. Based on the research findings, the recommendations integrating the staff development policy are given aimed at promoting the effectiveness of the employee – employer relations. 

  10. Renormalization and additional degrees of freedom within the chiral effective theory for spin-1 resonances

    Kampf, Karol; Trnka, Jaroslav


    We study in detail various aspects of the renormalization of the spin-1 resonance propagator in the effective field theory framework. First, we briefly review the formalisms for the description of spin-1 resonances in the path integral formulation with the stress on the issue of propagating degrees of freedom. Then we calculate the one-loop 1-- meson self-energy within the Resonance chiral theory in the chiral limit using different methods for the description of spin-one particles, namely the Proca field, antisymmetric tensor field and the first order formalisms. We discuss in detail technical aspects of the renormalization procedure which are inherent to the power-counting non-renormalizable theory and give a formal prescription for the organization of both the counterterms and one-particle irreducible graphs. We also construct the corresponding propagators and investigate their properties. We show that the additional poles corresponding to the additional one-particle states are generated by loop corrections...

  11. Effect of Additives on Magnetic Properties of High Frequency MnZn Power Ferrite

    YU Zhong; LAN Zhongwen; WANG Jingmei; ZHANG Yidong; WANG Haocai


    The effect of additives,such as CaO and V2O5 on the magnetic properties of high frequency MnZn power ferrite is studied by the conventional ceramic process.As a result,the grain boundary resistivity increases and the power loss declines with the addition of CaO enriched at the grain boundary.By adding an optimum amount of V2O5 which acts indirectly via liquid phase formation and influences the microstructural development during sintering,the crystalline grain of ferrite was refined,the porosity decreases,the amount of grain boundary and the grain boundary resistivity increased,so the power loss is suppressed.

  12. Effects on stress rupture life and tensile strength of tin additions to Inconel 718

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Johnson, W.


    Because Inconel 718 represents a major use of columbium and a large potential source of columbium for aerospace alloys could be that of columbium derived from tin slags, the effects of tin additions to Inconel 718 at levels which might be typical of or exceed those anticipated if tin slag derived columbium were used as a melting stock were investigated. Tin was added to 15 pound Inconel 718 heats at levels varying from none added to approximately 10,000 ppm (1 wt%). Limited 1200 F stress rupture testing was performed at stresses from 68,000 to 115,000 psi and a few tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 800 and 1200 F. Additions of tin in excess of 800 ppm were detrimental to ductility and stress rupture life.

  13. Effect of boron addition on the microstructure and stress-rupture properties of directionally solidified superalloys

    Bao-ping Wu; Lin-han Li; Jian-tao Wu; Zhen Wang; Yan-bin Wang; Xing-fu Chen; Jian-xin Dong; Jun-tao Li


    This study is focused on the effect of boron addition, in the range of 0.0007wt% to 0.03wt%, on the microstructure and stress-rupture properties of a directionally solidified superalloy. With increasing boron content in the as-cast alloys, there is an increase in the fraction of theγ′/γ eutectic and block borides precipitate around theγ′/γ eutectic. At a high boron content of 0.03wt%, there is precipitation of lamellar borides. Upon heat treatment, fine block borides tend to precipitate at grain boundaries with increasing boron content. Overall, the rupture life of the directionally solidified superalloy is significantly improved with the addition of nominal content of boron. However, the rupture life decreases when the boron content exceeds 0.03wt%.

  14. Effect of PVP Additive on Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Prepared by Hydrothermal Method

    P. Razmjouee


    Full Text Available In this investigation, the effect of Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP additive on microstructure, morphology and magnetic properties of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles prepared by hydrothermal method was studied. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies in different synthesis conditions showed the formation of cobalt ferrite and cobalt oxide. Comparing IR spectrum of PVP additive, sol prepared before hydrothermal process and C-0.1PVP3, 190 obtained by FTIR spectroscopy indicated the formation of bond between PVP and surface of metallic hydroxide and cobalt ferrite particles, which prevented them from growing and coarsening. Scanning electron microscope (SEM was used to study the morphology of samples. According to vibration sample magnetometer (VSM results, as PVP amount increases from 0.1 to 0.3 volume percent, coercive field increases from 298 to 684 Oe and saturation magnetization decreases from 58 to 51 emu/g.

  15. Effects of lanthanum addition on corrosion resistance of hot-dipped galvalume coating

    YANG Dong; CHEN Jianshe; HAN Qing; LIU Kuiren


    Effects of La addition on corrosion resistance of hot-dipped galvalume coating steel wire were investigated. The corrosion resistance of Zn-Al-Si-La alloy coatings containing 0, 0.02wt.%, 0.05wt.%, 0.1wt.% and 0.2wt.% La were evaluated by various tests such as copper-accelerated acetic acid salt spray testing (CASS), immersion test in 3.5% NaCl solution, electrochemical tests including weak polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests, scanning electron microscope (SEM) test and X-ray diffraction (XRD) test. It was found that the corrosion resistance of galvalume coating could be improved by adding proper amounts of La. Meanwhile, the mechanism of the improvement of corrosion resistance by La addition was discussed.

  16. Effect of red mud addition on the corrosion parameters of reinforced concrete evaluated by electrochemical methods

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud, the main waste generated in aluminum and alumina production from bauxite ore by the Bayer process, is considered "hazardous" due to its high pH. The high pH also provides greater protection of rebars, which is reflected in the low corrosion potential and high electrical resistivity (filler effect of concrete. The corrosion potential was monitored by electrochemical measurements and the electrical resistivity was evaluated using sensors embedded in concrete test specimens. The results showed that the addition of red mud is beneficial to concrete, reducing its corrosion potential and increasing its electrical resistivity. Red mud proved to be a promising additive for concrete to inhibit the corrosion process.

  17. Effect of Additive on Sulfur-fixation Process of Sulfur-fixation Agent

    XIE Jun-lin; QIU Jian-rong; ZHAO Gai-ju; LOU Jin-ping; HAN Chun-hua


    The crystallization behavior of desulfurization product is directly related to its high-temperatureresistant ability. Effects of the additive on the sulfur-fixation efficiency of the Ba-sulfur-fixation agent and also on the crystallization behavior of the sulfur-fixation product were studied when CaCO3 and BaCO3 were used as the desulfurization agent and MgO and SrCO3 used as the assistant sulfur-fixation agent. The result shows that increase of sulfur-fixation capability for the additive is not owe to their directly react to form sulfate or interact with CaCO3 and BaCO3 to form composite mineral heat-resistant in high temperature, but owe to their activation to sulfur-fixation reaction of the sulfur-fixation agent.

  18. Reference Gene Selection for qPCR Analysis in Tomato-Bipartite Begomovirus Interaction and Validation in Additional Tomato-Virus Pathosystems.

    Ana L M Lacerda

    Full Text Available Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR is currently the most sensitive technique used for absolute and relative quantification of a target gene transcript, requiring the use of appropriated reference genes for data normalization. To accurately estimate the relative expression of target tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. genes responsive to several virus species in reverse transcription qPCR analysis, the identification of reliable reference genes is mandatory. In the present study, ten reference genes were analyzed across a set of eight samples: two tomato contrasting genotypes ('Santa Clara', susceptible, and its near-isogenic line 'LAM 157', resistant; subjected to two treatments (inoculation with Tomato chlorotic mottle virus (ToCMoV and its mock-inoculated control and in two distinct times after inoculation (early and late. Reference genes stability was estimated by three statistical programs (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. To validate the results over broader experimental conditions, a set of ten samples, corresponding to additional three tomato-virus pathosystems that included tospovirus, crinivirus and tymovirus + tobamovirus, was analyzed together with the tomato-ToCMoV pathosystem dataset, using the same algorithms. Taking into account the combined analyses of the ranking order outputs from the three algorithms, TIP41 and EF1 were identified as the most stable genes for tomato-ToCMoV pathosystem, and TIP41 and EXP for the four pathosystems together, and selected to be used as reference in the forthcoming expression qPCR analysis of target genes in experimental conditions involving the aforementioned tomato-virus pathosystems.


    YANG Ji-song; LIU Jing-shuang; YU Jun-bao; WANG Jin-da; QIN Sheng-jin; LI Xin-hua


    Soil respiration is a main dynamic process of carbon cycle in wetland. It is important to contribute to global climate changes. Water table and nutritious availability are significant impact factors to influence responses of CO2 emission from wetland soil to climate changes. Twenty-four wetland soil monoliths at 4 water-table positions and in 3 nitrogen status have been incubated to measure rates of CO2 emission from wetland soils in this study.Three static water-table controls and a fluctuant water-table control, with 3 nitrogen additions in every water-table control,were carried out. In no nitrogen addition treatment, high CO2 emissions were found at a static low water table ( Ⅰ )and a fluctuant water table (Ⅳ),averaging 306.7mg/(m2·h) and 307.89mg/(m2·h), respectively, which were 51%-57% higher than that at static high water table ( Ⅱ and Ⅲ). After nitrogen addition, however, highest CO2 emission was found at Ⅱ and lowest emission at Ⅲ. The results suggested that nutritious availability of wetland soil might be important to influence the effect of water table on the CO2 emission from the wetland soil. Nitrogen addition led to enhancing CO2 emissions from wetland soil, while the highest emission was found in 1N treatments other than in 2N treatments. In 3 nutritious treatments,low CO2 emissions at high water tables and high CO2 emissions at low water tables were also observed when water table fluctuated. Our results suggested that both water table changes and nutritious imports would effect the CO2 emission from wetland.

  20. Anaerobic digestion of Jatropha curcas L. press cake and effects of an iron-additive.

    Schmidt, Thomas


    Oil production from Jatropha curcas L. seeds generates large amounts of Jatropha press cake (JPC) which can be utilized as a substrate for biogas production. The objective of this work was to investigate anaerobic mono-digestion of JPC and the effects of an iron additive (IA) on gas quality and process stability during the increase of the organic loading rate (OLR). With the increase of the OLR from 1.3 to 3.2 g(VS) L(-1) day(-1), the biogas yield in the reference reactor (RR) without IA decreased from 512 to 194 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.3 to 44.4%. In the iron additive reactor (IAR), the biogas yield decreased from 530 to 462 L(N) kg(VS) (-1) and the CH₄ concentration decreased from 69.4 to 61.1%. The H₂S concentration in the biogas was reduced by addition of the IA to values below 258 ppm in the IAR while H₂S concentration in the RR increased and exceeded the detection limit of 5000 ppm. The acid capacity (AC) in the RR increased to more than 20 g L(-1), indicating an accumulation of organic acids caused by process instability. AC values in the IAR remained stable at values below 5 g L(-1). The results demonstrate that JPC can be used as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion up to an OLR of 2.4 g(VS) l(-1) day(-1). The addition of IA has effectively decreased the H(2)S content in the biogas and has improved the stability of the anaerobic process and the biogas quality.

  1. Thermodynamic Effect of Platinum Addition to beta-NiAl: An Initial Investigation


    An initial investigation was conducted to determine the effect of platinum addition on the activities of aluminum and nickel in beta-NiAl(Pt) over the temperature range 1354 to 1692 K. These measurements were made with a multiple effusion-cell configured mass spectrometer (multi-cell KEMS). The results of this study show that Pt additions act to decreased alpha(Al) and increased the alpha(Ni) in beta-NiAl(Pt) for constant X(sub Ni)/X(sub Al) approx. = 1.13, while at constant X(sub Al) the affect of Pt on Al is greatly reduced. The measured partial enthalpies of mixing indicate Al-atoms have a strong self interaction while Ni- and Pt-atoms in have similar interactions with Al-atoms. Conversely the binding of Ni-atoms in beta-NiAl decreases with Pt addition independent of Al concentration. These initial results prove the technique can be applied to the Ni-Al-Pt system but more activity measurements are required to fully understand the thermodynamics of this system and how Pt additions improved the scaling behavior of nickel-based superalloys. In addition, with the choice of a suitable oxide material for the effusion-cell, the "closed" isothermal nature of the effusion-cell allows the direct investigation of an alloy-oxide equilibrium which resembles the "local-equilibrium" description of the metal-scale interface observed during high temperature oxidation. It is proposed that with an Al(l) + Al2O3(s) experimental reference state together with the route measurement of the relative partial-pressures of Al(g) and Al2O(g) allows the activities of O and Al2O3 to be determined along with the activities of Ni and Al. These measurements provide a direct method of investigating the thermodynamics of the metal-scale interface of a TGO-scale.

  2. Effects of temperature and chemical addition on the formation of bromoorganic DBPs during ozonation.

    Zhang, Xiangru; Echigo, Shinya; Lei, Hongxia; Smith, Michael E; Minear, Roger A; Talley, Jeffrey W


    The effects of temperature and addition of OH radical scavengers/enhancers or HOBr scavenger on the formation of bromoorganic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from ozonation of six raw waters were studied in true batch reactors. The formation of bromoorganic DBPs during ozonation generally increased with the increase of temperature, but might also decrease for the waters with somewhat higher values of specific UV absorbance (SUVA). The addition of hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, or ammonium dramatically decreased the formation of bromoorganic DBPs; t-butanol addition significantly increased the formation of bromoorganic DBPs; bicarbonate addition might increase or decrease bromoorganic DBP formation depending on the water source. For all the waters treated with the chemical addition, the level of total organic bromine (TOBr) varied with the same pace as that of ozone exposure (CT), which suggests that TOBr formed during ozonation may be used to estimate the CT, a measure for the achieved degree of disinfection. The results demonstrate that for each water, the correlation between TOBr and CT was less affected by the change of chemical composition of the water than that between BrO(3)(-) and CT; for a given chemical composition and temperature of a water, there generally were well-defined relationships between TOBr and CT, and bromoform and CT just as that between BrO(3)(-) and CT. The possible mechanisms behind the linear functions of TOBr or BrO(3)(-) versus CT were given. Further study is needed to examine whether the trends found in this research can be applicable for the high SUVA waters.

  3. Effect of metallic additives on in situ combustion of Huntington Beach crude experiments

    Baena, C.J.; Castanier, L.M.; Brigham, W.E.


    The economics and applicability of an in-situ combustion process for the recovery of crude oil are dictated to a large extent by the nature and the amount of fuel formed during the process. The aim of this work is to use combustion tube studies to determine on a quantitative basis, how the nature and the amount of fuel formed could be changed by the presence of metallic additives. These experiments follow from the qualitative observations on the effect of metallic additives on the in-situ combustion of Huntington Beach crude oil made by De los Rios (1987) at SUPRI. He performed kinetic studies on the oxidation of Huntington Beach crude in porous media and showed that the nature of the fuel formed changed when metallic additives were present. Combustion tube runs were performed using the metallic additives: ferrous chloride (FeCl{sub 2{center dot}}4H{sub 2}O), zinc chloride (ZnCl{sub 2}) and stannic chloride (SnCl{sub 4{center dot}}5H{sub 2}O). Unconsolidated cores were prepared by mixing predetermined amounts of an aqueous solution of the metal salt, Huntington Beach crude oil, Ottawa sand and clay in order to achieve the desired fluid saturations. The mixture was then tamped into the combustion tube. Dry air combustion tube runs were performed keeping the conditions of saturation, air flux and injection pressure approximately the same during each run. The nature of the fuel formed and its impact on the combustion parameters were determined and compared with a control run -- an experiment performed with no metallic additive. 30 refs., 33 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Spatial interpolation of hourly rainfall – effect of additional information, variogram inference and storm properties

    A. Verworn


    Full Text Available Hydrological modelling of floods relies on precipitation data with a high resolution in space and time. A reliable spatial representation of short time step rainfall is often difficult to achieve due to a low network density. In this study hourly precipitation was spatially interpolated with the multivariate geostatistical method kriging with external drift (KED using additional information from topography, rainfall data from the denser daily networks and weather radar data. Investigations were carried out for several flood events in the time period between 2000 and 2005 caused by different meteorological conditions. The 125 km radius around the radar station Ummendorf in northern Germany covered the overall study region. One objective was to assess the effect of different approaches for estimation of semivariograms on the interpolation performance of short time step rainfall. Another objective was the refined application of the method kriging with external drift. Special attention was not only given to find the most relevant additional information, but also to combine the additional information in the best possible way. A multi-step interpolation procedure was applied to better consider sub-regions without rainfall.

    The impact of different semivariogram types on the interpolation performance was low. While it varied over the events, an averaged semivariogram was sufficient overall. Weather radar data were the most valuable additional information for KED for convective summer events. For interpolation of stratiform winter events using daily rainfall as additional information was sufficient. The application of the multi-step procedure significantly helped to improve the representation of fractional precipitation coverage.

  5. Spatial interpolation of hourly rainfall – effect of additional information, variogram inference and storm properties

    A. Verworn


    Full Text Available Hydrological modelling of floods relies on precipitation data with a high resolution in space and time. A reliable spatial representation of short time step rainfall is often difficult to achieve due to a low network density. In this study hourly precipitation was spatially interpolated with the multivariate geostatistical method kriging with external drift (KED using additional information from topography, rainfall data from the denser daily networks and weather radar data. Investigations were carried out for several flood events in the time period between 2000 and 2005 caused by different meteorological conditions. The 125 km radius around the radar station Ummendorf in northern Germany covered the overall study region. One objective was to assess the effect of different approaches for estimation of semivariograms on the interpolation performance of short time step rainfall. Another objective was the refined application of the method kriging with external drift. Special attention was not only given to find the most relevant additional information, but also to combine the additional information in the best possible way. A multi-step interpolation procedure was applied to better consider sub-regions without rainfall.

    The impact of different semivariogram types on the interpolation performance was low. While it varied over the events, an averaged semivariogram was sufficient overall. Weather radar data were the most valuable additional information for KED for convective summer events. For interpolation of stratiform winter events using daily rainfall as additional information was sufficient. The application of the multi-step procedure significantly helped to improve the representation of fractional precipitation coverage.

  6. The effect of negative autoregulation on eukaryotic gene expression

    Nevozhay, Dmitry; Adams, Rhys; Murphy, Kevin; Josic, Kresimir; Balázsi, G. Ábor


    Negative autoregulation is a frequent motif in gene regulatory networks, which has been studied extensively in prokaryotes. Nevertheless, some effects of negative feedback on gene expression in eukaryotic transcriptional networks remain unknown. We studied how the strength of negative feedback regulation affects the characteristics of gene expression in yeast cells carrying synthetic transcriptional cascades. We observed a drastic reduction of gene expression noise and a change in the shape of the dose-response curve. We explained these experimentally observed effects by stochastic simulations and a simple set of algebraic equations.

  7. Effect of Eu addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties of A356 aluminum alloys

    Mao, Feng; Yan, Guangyuan; Xuan, Zhenjing [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Cao, Zhiqiang, E-mail: [Laboratory of Special Processing of Raw Materials, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Tongmin, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)


    The effect of Eu additions (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1 wt.%) and T6 heat treatment on the microstructures and mechanical properties of A356 alloy have been investigated in the present work. Microstructures of the as-cast and T6 heat treated samples were examined by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that 0.1%Eu modified the eutectic Si from a coarse plate-like form to a fully modified and fine fibrous one with a better uniform distribution. T6 treatment encouraged the spheroidization of eutectic Si particles. Correlating with the as-cast samples, the 0.1%Eu modified A356 alloy achieved likewise full modification of eutectic Si particles with lowest mean area and aspect ratio. In addition, the coarse and small Eu-rich intermetallics were both found in the 0.1%Eu modified A356 alloy. The cooling curves of A356 alloys showed that increasing Eu addition resulted in increasing nucleation undercooling and increasing growth undercooling. However, the recalescence (T{sub G} − T{sub Min}) increased by the initial addition of Eu, while it remained relatively stable for increasing additions (above 0.06%). The quenching experiment indicated that a large number of eutectic grains were located at or close to the tips of the aluminum dendrites with a jagged solid–liquid interface in unmodified alloy, while very few eutectic grains were formed in the interdendritic region with a smooth solid–liquid interface in 0.1%Eu modified alloy. An optimal combination of UTS (265 MPa) and EI (14.7%) of A356 alloy was achieved by the 0.1%Eu addition combined with T6 heat treatment. - Highlights: • The rare earth Eu is firstly used to improve the mechanical property of A356 alloy. • A fully modified and fine fibrous eutectic Si is observed by addition of 0.1 wt% Eu. • A complete spheroidization of 0.1wt%Eu modified eutectic Si is observed after T6. • Three kinds of Eu-rich intermetallics are found in the 0.1%Eu modified A356 alloy

  8. Effect of zirconium addition on the recrystallization behaviour of a commercial Al–Cu–Mg alloy

    K T Kashyap


    It is well known that the second phase particles have an effect on recrystallization and grain growth behaviour of an alloy. Particularly the bimodal distribution of second phase particles has an effect which is opposite in sense where coarse second phase particles (> 1 m) stimulate nucleation while fine particles exhibit Zener drag. In the literature, the effect of zirconium addition to aluminium alloys has been well documented in order to produce superplasticity by giving ultra fine grain size to the alloy. Addition of zirconium produces Al3Zr particles which pin the grain boundaries during recrystallization and grain growth. In the present work, zirconium was added to a commercial Al–Cu–Mg alloy and by heat treatment Al3Zr particles were precipitated and after forging, the grain size was an order of magnitude lower than the alloy without zirconium. Transmission electron microscopy was employed to characterize the second phase particles, i.e. Al3Zr particles and found to be rod shaped and identified to be cubic ordered 12 phase with a lattice parameter of 0.408 nm. Further, it was observed that fine (100 nm) Al3Zr particles promote only continuous recrystallization which is polygonization of subgrains and subgrain growth. It was found that the fine dispersion of Al3Zr particles inhibits both recrystallization and grain growth in the commercial Al–Cu–Mg alloy.

  9. The Effect of the Addition of Encapsulated Collagen Hydrolysate on Some Quality Characteristics of Sucuk


    The effect of addition commercial fish collagen hydrolysate and encapsulated fish collagen hydrolysate on the quality characteristics of sucuk (a traditional Turkish dry-fermented sausage) was investigated. Fish collagen hydrolysates were encapsulated with maltodextrin (MD) which has two different dextrose equivalent (12DE and 19 DE), with two different types of core/coating material ratios (10% peptide : 90% MD, 20% peptide : 80% MD). Than six group of sucuk dough (control, peptide, MD1210, MD1220, MD1910, MD1920) prepared and naturally fermented. The effects of the ripening period (28 d), treatment (peptide and encapsulated peptide addition) ‘ripening period × treatment’ interaction on sucuk’s pH, lactic acid contents, aw values and moisture contents were statistically significant (pfermentation for both activities. Antioxidant activity of encapsulated peptide added (%39.56-40.48) groups were higher than control (34.28%) and peptide added (33.99%) groups except MD1920 (38.30%). The effect of the ripening period of the sucuk samples on TBA values was found to be statistically significant (p<0.01) while treatment and ‘ripening period × treatment’ interaction were not to be significant (p<0.05). The value of hardness was the highest in the encapsulated peptide added groups (29.27, 35.83 N), and it was 20.40 N and 15.41 N in the peptide added group and the control group respectively. PMID:28115893

  10. Effect of sodium alginate addition to resveratrol on acute gouty arthritis.

    Wang, Peng; Ren, Dunlin; Chen, Ying; Jiang, Meiju; Wang, Robin; Wang, Yan-Gang


    Resveratrol has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, while sodium alginate is a common pharmaceutic adjuvant with antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties. We performed an animal study to investigate the effect of sodium alginate addition to resveratrol on acute gouty arthritis. Twenty-four SPF Wistar mice were randomized to four groups receiving the combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol, resveratrol alone, colchicine, and placebo, respectively. Acute gouty arthritis was induced by injection of 0.05 ml monosodium urate (MSU) solution (25g/mL) into ankle joint cavity. IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 levels in both serum and synovial fluid were measured using ELISA. NLRP3 expression in the synovial tissues was measured using western plot. The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol significantly reduced synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 when compared with colchicines, and all P values were less than 0.0001. The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol was also superior to resveratrol in terms of both serum levels and synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10. In addition, resveratrol, with or without sodium alginate, could reduce NLRP3 expression obviously in the synovial tissues. The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol has better effect over colchicines in treating MSU-induced acute gouty arthritis.

  11. Comparison of image quality and effective dose by additional filtration on digital chest tomosynthesis

    Kim, Kye Sun [Dept. of Dignostic Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Chul [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to suggest proper additional filtration by comparisons patient dose and image quality among additional filters in digital chest tomosynthesis (DTS). We measured the effective dose, dose area product (DAP) by changing thickness of Cu, Al and Ni filter to compare image quality by CD curve and SNR, CNR. Cu, Al and Ni exposure dose were similar thickness 0.3 mm, 3 mm and 0.3 mm respectively. The exposure dose using filter was decreased average about 33.1% than non filter. The DAP value of 0.3 mm Ni were decreased 72.9% compared to non filter and the lowest dose among 3 filter. The effective dose of 0.3 mm Ni were decreased 48% compared to 0.102 mSv effective dose of non filter. At the result of comparison of image quality through CD curve there were similar aspect graph among Cu, Al and Ni. SNR was decreased average 19.07%, CNR was average decreased 18.17% using 3 filters. In conclusion, Ni filtration was considered to be most suitable when considered comprehensive thickness, character, sort of filter, dose reduction and image quality evaluation in DTS.

  12. Effect of Sodium Alginate Addition to Resveratrol on Acute Gouty Arthritis

    Peng Wang


    Full Text Available Objective: Resveratrol has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, while sodium alginate is a common pharmaceutic adjuvant with antioxidative and immunomodulatory properties. We performed an animal study to investigate the effect of sodium alginate addition to resveratrol on acute gouty arthritis. Methods: Twenty-four SPF Wistar mice were randomized to four groups receiving the combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol, resveratrol alone, colchicine, and placebo, respectively. Acute gouty arthritis was induced by injection of 0.05 ml monosodium urate (MSU solution (25g/mL into ankle joint cavity. IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 levels in both serum and synovial fluid were measured using ELISA. NLRP3 expression in the synovial tissues was measured using western plot. Results: The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol significantly reduced synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10 when compared with colchicines, and all P values were less than 0.0001. The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol was also superior to resveratrol in terms of both serum levels and synovial levels of IL-1β, CCR5, and CXCL10. In addition, resveratrol, with or without sodium alginate, could reduce NLRP3 expression obviously in the synovial tissues. Conclusion: The combination of sodium alginate and resveratrol has better effect over colchicines in treating MSU-induced acute gouty arthritis.

  13. Effects of boron addition and austempering time on microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of ductile irons

    Guerra L, F.V. [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico); Bedolla-Jacuinde, A., E-mail: [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico); Mejía, I. [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico); Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica UAEH, México (Mexico); Zuno, J. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica UAEH, México (Mexico); Maldonado, C. [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico)


    The present work analyzes the effect of boron addition to an Austempered Ductile Iron, in amounts from zero to 120 ppm. It has been found that boron has a strong effect on the equivalent carbon content, resulting in an increase on the precipitated graphite volume and a decrease in the dissolved carbon content in the matrix. This in turn, increases the ferrite volume fraction in the as-cast conditions from 0.24 in the base alloy to 0.78 for the iron with 120 ppm of boron. Furthermore, a decrease in the nodularity from 100% in the base alloy to 83% with 120 ppm of boron has been observed. During austempering, the transformation to ausferrite was faster and lower volumes of martensite and unstable austenite were detected when boron increased; this promoted lower hardness values, 239 HV for the base iron and 189 HV for the 120 ppm boron alloy. The increase in hardness and strength, typical for the start of bainite formation, were not observed in the boron added irons, but just in the base alloy. Under this basis, it is assumed that at least the addition of 60 ppm of boron extended the optimal processing window. The higher values of strength and ductility were obtained for the alloy with 60 ppm of boron; these results are discussed in terms of the graphitizing effect of boron in these irons and the reduced amount of carbon dissolved in austenite.

  14. Effect of Crumb Rubber and Warm Mix Additives on Asphalt Aging, Rheological, and Failure Properties

    Agrawal, Prashant

    Asphalt-rubber mixtures have been shown to have useful properties with respect to distresses observed in asphalt concrete pavements. The most notable change in properties is a large increase in viscosity and improved low-temperature cracking resistance. Warm mix additives can lower production and compaction temperatures. Lower temperatures reduce harmful emissions and lower energy consumption, and thus provide environmental benefits and cut costs. In this study, the effects of crumb rubber modification on various asphalts such as California Valley, Boscan, Alaska North Slope, Laguna and Cold Lake were also studied. The materials used for warm mix modification were obtained from various commercial sources. The RAF binder was produced by Imperial Oil in their Nanticoke, Ontario, refinery on Lake Erie. A second commercial PG 52-34 (hereafter denoted as NER) was obtained/sampled during the construction of a northern Ontario MTO contract. Some regular tests such as Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) and Bending Beam Rheometer (BBR), Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) and some modified new protocols such as the extended BBR test (LS-308) and the Double-Edge Notched Tension (DENT) test (LS-299) are used to study, the effect of warm mix and a host of other additives on rheological, aging and failure properties. A comparison in the properties of RAF and NER asphalts has also been made as RAF is good quality asphalt and NER is bad quality asphalt. From the studies the effect of additives on chemical and physical hardening tendencies was found to be significant. The asphalt samples tested in this study showed a range of tendencies for chemical and physical hardening.

  15. Effect of additives and steaming on quality of air dried noodles.

    Gatade, Abhijeet Arun; Sahoo, Akshaya Kumar


    Texture is the most important property for consumer acceptance in cooked noodles. The air dried noodles are known to have higher cooking loss and cooking time, to that of instant fried noodles. But the fat content of instant fried noodles is more. In the present work attempts were made to optimize the moisture content so as to obtain a smooth dough for extruded noodle preparation and develop air dried noodles of low fat content with lesser cooking loss and cooking time. To meet the objectives, the effect of various additives and steaming treatment on cooking quality, sensory attributes, textural properties and microstructure of noodles were studied. Dough prepared by addition of 40 ml water to 100 g flour resulted into formation of a soft dough, leading to production of noodles of improved surface smoothness and maximum yield. The use of additives (5 g oil, 0.2 g guar gum, 2 g gluten and 1 ml of 1 % kansui solution for 100 g of flour) and steaming treatment showed significant effect on noodles quality, with respect to cooking characteristics, sensory attributes and textural properties. The microstructure images justified the positive correlation between the effects of ingredients with steaming and quality parameters of noodles. Air dried noodles with reduced cooking loss (~50 % reduction) with marginal reduction in cooking time was developed, which were having similar characteristics to that of instant fried noodles. Compared to the instant fried noodle, the prepared air dried noodle was having substantially reduced fat content (~70 % reduction). Thus the present study will be useful for guiding extrusion processes for production of air dried noodles having less cooking time and low fat content.

  16. Effect of titanium addition on fracture toughness behavior of ZL108 alloy

    WENG Yong-gang; LI Zi-jing; LIU Zhi-yong; LIU Wen-cai; WANG Ming-xing; SONG Tian-fu


    Two different titanium alloying methods were applied to ZL108 alloy for preparing specimens containing titanium. The specimens were tested on the MTS 810 material test system for studying their behavior of the plane strain fracture toughness KIC. The experimental data were analyzed by the statistical significance tests. The results show that the fracture toughness of the ZL108 alloy containing titanium is superior to that of common ZL108 alloy containing no titanium, but there is no significant difference for different titanium alloying methods. Therefore titanium addition is an effective method for improving the fracture toughness of the alloy ZL108.

  17. The Effect of Chelating Copolymer Additive on the Yttrium Iron Garnet Nanoparticle Formation

    Wang; Cheng-chien


    1 Results Yttrium iron garnet (YIG) is a well-known ferromagnetic garnet material and has widely used in electronic devices[1].A new acrylic chelating polymer was developed to act as the additive of the preparation of YIG precursor in our previous study[2].The sintering temperature of YIG nanocrystal obtained by this YIG precursor (ACP) was magnificently descended from 1 000 to 600 ℃.In this study,we were further to study the effect of amount of chelating polymer and the compositions of chelating polyme...

  18. The Effects of Bottom Ash from MSWI Used as Mineral Additions in Concrete

    Che Amat Roshazita


    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI produce by products which can be classified as bottom and fly ashes. The bottom ash accounts for 85–90 % of the solid product resulting from MSW combustion. The aimed of the present work is to study the effect of replacing partial of bottom ash were manufactured. Fresh and hardened properties of the concrete were compared in order to study the suitable cement-bottom ash replacement. Bottom ash was found to have some reactivity, but without greatly affecting the hydration process of OPC at 10 % replacement. However at more than 10 % replacement, the addition of bottom ash greatly affected strength.

  19. Inhibition of Aluminium Corrosion in Hydrochloric Acid Using Nizoral and the Effect of Iodide Ion Addition

    I. B. Obot


    Full Text Available The effect of nizoral (NZR on the corrosion inhibition of aluminium alloy AA 1060 in 2 M HCl solution was investigated using the mylius thermometric technique. Results of the study revealed that nizoral acts as corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in the acidic medium. In general, at constant acid concentration, the inhibition efficiency increases with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The addition of KI to the inhibitor enhanced the inhibition efficiency to a considerable extent. The adsorption of nizoral onto the aluminium surface was found to obey the Fruendlich adsorption isotherm. The value of the free energy for the adsorption process shows that the process is spontaneous.

  20. Effect of Graphene Addition on the Mechanical Properties of TiO{sub 2}

    Shon, In-Jin [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)


    Despite of the many attractive properties of TiO{sub 2}, its low fracture toughness limits many industrial applications. To improve its fracture toughness, the approach commonly utilized has been the addition of a second phase, to form composites, and to make nanostructured composites. In this regard, highly dense nanostructured TiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}-graphene composites were consolidated within one min at 1000 ℃. The effect of graphene on the microstructure and the mechanical properties (hardness and fracture toughness) of TiO{sub 2}-graphene composites was investigated.

  1. Effect of glass microfibre addition on the mechanical performances of fly ash-based geopolymer composites

    Thamer Alomayri


    Full Text Available In the present study, various amounts of glass microfibres were introduced into a geopolymer for reinforcement purposes. The influence of these microfibres on the performance of the geopolymer composites was investigated. Results show that the appropriate addition of glass microfibres can improve the mechanical properties of geopolymer composites. In particular, the flexural strength, flexural modulus and impact strength increase at an optimum fibre content of 2 wt%. Further, adding glass microfibres to a plain geopolymer matrix has a significant effect on the pre-cracking behaviour. It substantially enhances the post-cracking response.

  2. Choosing components in the additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI models

    Dias Carlos Tadeu dos Santos


    Full Text Available The additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI models allows analysts to detect interactions between rows and columns in a two-way table. However, there are many methods proposed in the literature to determine the number of multiplicative components to include in the AMMI model. These methods typically give different results for any particular data set, so the user needs some guidance as to which methods to use. In this paper we compare four commonly used methods using simulated data based on real experiments, and provide some general recommendations.

  3. Effect of transition-metal additives on hydrogen desorption kinetics of MgH2

    Roy, Anindya; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.


    Using first-principles calculations, we study the effect of transition-metal additives (Ti, Fe, Co, and Ni) on the rate of hydrogen desorption in MgH2. The presence of large concentrations of transition-metal impurities causes the Fermi level to shift according to the position of the transition-metal acceptor/donor levels in the band gap. This shift can lower the formation energy of native defects and increase their concentration. The resulting higher rates of hydrogen desorption enhance the prospect of MgH2 as a solid-state hydrogen-storage material.

  4. Contributions of Work-Related Stress and Emotional Intelligence to Teacher Engagement: Additive and Interactive Effects.

    Mérida-López, Sergio; Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes


    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of role stress and emotional intelligence for predicting engagement among 288 teachers. Emotional intelligence and engagement were positively associated. Role ambiguity and role conflict showed negative associations with vigor and dedication scores. The interaction of role ambiguity and emotional intelligence was significant in explaining engagement dimensions. Similar results were found considering overall teacher engagement. Emotional intelligence boosted engagement when the levels of role ambiguity were higher. Our findings suggest the need for future research examining the impact of job hindrances on the links between emotional intelligence and teachers' occupational well-being indicators. Finally, the implications for emotional intelligence training in education are discussed.

  5. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and comparative analysis with five additional insects.

    Shi, Houxia; Pei, Lianghong; Gu, Shasha; Zhu, Shicheng; Wang, Yanyun; Zhang, Yi; Li, Bin


    Glutathione S-transferases are important detoxification enzymes involved in insecticide resistance. Sequencing the Tribolium castaneum genome provides an opportunity to investigate the structure, function, and evolution of GSTs on a genome-wide scale. Thirty-six putative cytosolic GSTs and 5 microsomal GSTs have been identified in T. castaneum. Furthermore, 40, 35, 13, 23, and 32 GSTs have been discovered the other insects, Drosophila, Anopheles, Apis, Bombyx, and Acyrthosiphon, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that insect-specific GSTs, Epsilon and Delta, are the largest species-specific expanded GSTs. In T. castaneum, most GSTs are tandemly arranged in three chromosomes. Particularly, Epsilon GSTs have an inverted long-fragment duplication in the genome. Other four widely distributed classes are highly conserved in all species. Given that GSTs specially expanded in Tribolium castaneum, these genes might help to resist poisonous chemical environments and produce resistance to kinds of different insecticides.

  6. Effect of carbon nanotube addition on the wear behavior of basalt/epoxy woven composites.

    Kim, M T; Rhee, K Y; Lee, B H; Kim, C J


    The effect of acid-treated carbon nanotube (CNT) addition on the wear and dynamic mechanical thermal properties of basalt/epoxy woven composites was investigated in this study. Basalt/CNT/epoxy composites were fabricated by impregnating woven basalt fibers into epoxy resin mixed with 1 wt% CNTs which were acid-treated. Wear and DMA (dynamic mechanical analyzer) tests were performed on basalt/epoxy composites and basalt/CNT/epoxy composites. The results showed that the addition of the acid-treated CNTs improved the wear properties of basalt/epoxy woven composites. Specifically, the friction coefficient of the basalt/epoxy composite was stabilized in the range of 0.5-0.6 while it fell in the range of 0.3-0.4 for basalt/CNT/epoxy composites. The wear volume loss of the basalt/CNT/epoxy composites was approximately 68% lower than that of the basalt/epoxy composites. The results also showed that the glass transition temperature of basalt/CNT/epoxy composites was higher than that of basalt/epoxy composites. The improvement of wear properties of basalt/epoxy composites by the addition of acid-treated CNTs was caused by the homogeneous load transfer between basalt fibers and epoxy matrix due to the reinforcement of CNTs.

  7. Effect of organic additives on the corrosion resistance properties of electroless nickel deposits

    Liu Haiping [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li Ning [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)], E-mail:; Bi Sifu; Li Deyu; Zou Zhongli [Department of Applied Chemistry, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)


    The effects of two organic additives, 3-S isothiuronium propyl sulfonate (UPS) and thiourea (TU) on the properties of electroless nickel (EN) deposit were investigated. The properties of EN deposits were examined by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and nitric acid corrosion test in combination with scanning electron microscope, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The results show that TU and UPS had different influences on the morphology of EN deposits. The two additives decreased phosphorus content and increased sulfur content in the EN deposit. XRD studies indicated that addition TU or UPS could enhance the crystallization of EN deposits. EIS studies demonstrated that the EN coating with TU or UPS has a lower corrosion resistance. However, the nitric acid test indicated that the corrosion resistance of EN deposit could be improved by adding UPS to EN bath. A cause for understanding the increase of the nitric acid corrosion resistance with UPS was indicated based on the above experiments.

  8. Effect of addition of (different types of) free radical initiators on petroleum pitch formation

    Gupta, Shalini [Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited, G' Noida (India). Corporate R and D Center; Srivastava, Manoj [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun (India); Singh, Himmat [Petroleum and Natural Gas, Dehradun (India)


    Petroleum Pitch is a complex mixture of poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and is an excellent precursor for a number of advanced carbon materials. Conventionally, pitches are prepared by thermal treatment of aromatic rich feed stocks. The types of reactions taking place during thermal soaking can be described adequately by the free radical mechanism. The properties of pitches can be tailor-made for specific applications by varying thermal soaking temperature and residence time. Different types of free radical initiators can be used to promote the polymerization and condensation reactions viz; organic peroxide, azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN), polythene etc. Keeping the above details in view, four pitches were prepared using different additives/initiators to study their effect on process parameters leading to polymerization and condensation reactions. The influence of the addition of initiator on pitch composition and properties was monitored by elemental analysis, thermo gravimetric analysis, FTIR and by NMR techniques. The pitches thus prepared, compare well in properties with Ashland Petroleum Company's A-240 pitch (a reference pitch), usedworldwide in graphite electrodes plants. The petroleum pitch formation study described below presents investigations carried out using pyrolysis tar as the feed stock. It is observed that the addition of initiators results in significant reduction in heat treatment time, which can lead to increase in yield of pitches during commercial production within a given time.

  9. Effect of Nd2O3 addition on structure and characterization of lead bismuth borate glass

    I. Kashif


    Full Text Available The effect of different contents of Nd2O3 on the thermal transition temperature, density and structure of 25 Bi2O3 – 25 PbO – 50 B2O3 has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA, infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR and optical absorption. The amorphous phase has been identified based on X-ray diffraction analysis. The neodymium oxide plays the role as a glass-modifier and influences on BO3 ↔ BO4 conversion. The observed increase in Tg with Nd2O3 reflects an increase in bond strength. The decrease of the density and the increase of the molar volume with the addition of Nd2O3 contents attributed to an increase in the number of Non-bridging oxygen (NBOS. The optical absorption results are indicating the higher covalency of the Nd–O bond for glass containing 2 mol% of Nd2O3. In addition, a lowest covalency is observed in glass with 1 mol% Nd2O3. In addition, it is considered necessary in the construction of compact and efficient laser source.

  10. Effect of commercial mineral-based additives on composting and compost quality.

    Himanen, M; Hänninen, K


    The effectiveness of two commercial additives meant to improve the composting process was studied in a laboratory-scale experiment. Improver A (sulphates and oxides of iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc mixed with clay) and B (mixture of calcium hydroxide, peroxide, and oxide) were added to source-separated biowaste:peat mixture (1:1, v/v) in proportions recommended by the producers. The composting process (T, emissions of CO(2), NH(3), and CH(4)) and the quality of the compost (pH, conductivity, C/N ratio, water-soluble NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, water- and NaOH-soluble low-weight carboxylic acids, nutrients, heavy metals and phytotoxicity to Lepidium sarivum) were monitored during one year. Compared with the control, the addition of improver B increased pH by two units, led to an earlier elimination of water-soluble ammonia, an increase in nitrates, a 10-fold increase in concentrations of acetic acid, and shortened phytotoxicity period by half; as negative aspect it led to volatilization of ammonia. The addition of improver A led to a longer thermophilic stage by one week and lower concentrations of low-weight carboxylic acids (both water- and NaOH-extractable) with formic and acetic of similar amounts, however, most of the aspects claimed by the improver's producer were not confirmed in this trial.

  11. Compensation and additivity of anthropogenic mortality: life-history effects and review of methods.

    Péron, Guillaume


    Demographic compensation, the increase in average individual performance following a perturbation that reduces population size, and, its opposite, demographic overadditivity (or superadditivity) are central processes in both population ecology and wildlife management. A continuum of population responses to changes in cause-specific mortality exists, of which additivity and complete compensation constitute particular points. The position of a population on that continuum influences its ability to sustain exploitation and predation. Here I describe a method for quantifying where a population is on the continuum. Based on variance-covariance formulae, I describe a simple metric for the rate of compensation-additivity. I synthesize the results from 10 wildlife capture-recapture monitoring programmes from the literature and online databases, reviewing current statistical methods and the treatment of common sources of bias. These results are used to test hypotheses regarding the effects of life-history strategy, population density, average cause-specific mortality and age class on the rate of compensation-additivity. This comparative analysis highlights that long-lived species compensate less than short-lived species and that populations below their carrying capacity compensate less than those above.

  12. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage.

    Jin, S K; Park, J H


    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a(*) values at a 0.5% addition (psausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (psausage significantly (psausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (psausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (psausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages.

  13. Effect of additives on the properties of polyaniline nanofibers prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization.

    Zhao, Yibo; Arowo, Moses; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jianfeng


    Polyaniline (PANI) nanofibers with improved properties were prepared by high gravity chemical oxidative polymerization in a rotating packed bed with the assistance of p-aminodiphenylamine (AD) and p-phenylenediamine (AP). The effects of reactor type, additive dosage, reaction temperature, and high-gravity level on the properties of products were investigated in detail. Three conclusions were made: (1) a small amount of additive can significantly improve some properties of the nanofibers such as uniformity, specific surface area, and specific capacitance; (2) in order to obtain high-quality nanofibers, the high-gravity level should coordinate with the reaction rate; (3) the molecular weight and conductivity of PANI decrease with the increase of additive dosage. The products have larger specific surface areas of up to 73.9 and 68.4 m(2)/g and consequently improved specific capacitance of up to 527.5 and 552 F/g for the PANI nanofibers prepared with AD and AP, respectively. However, the specific surface area and specific capacitance of pure PANI are only 49.1 m(2)/g and 333.3 F/g, respectively. This research provides a simple, reliable, and scalable method to produce PANI nanofibers of high performances.

  14. Effects of La and Ce Addition on the Modification of Al-Si Based Alloys

    Emad M. Elgallad


    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effects of the addition of rare earth metals (mainly lanthanum and cerium on the eutectic Si characteristics in Al-Si based alloys. Based on the solidification curves and microstructural examination of the corresponding alloys, it was found that addition of La or Ce increases the alloy melting temperature and the Al-Si eutectic temperature, with an Al-Si recalescence of 2-3°C, and the appearance of post-α-Al peaks attributed to precipitation of rare earth intermetallics. Addition of La or Ce to Al-(7–13% Si causes only partial modification of the eutectic Si particles. Lanthanum has a high affinity to react with Sr, which weakens the modification efficiency of the latter. Cerium, however, has a high affinity for Ti, forming a large amount of sludge. Due to the large difference in the length of the eutectic Si particles in the same sample, the normal use of standard deviation in this case is meaningless.

  15. Monitoring Residual Solvent Additives and Their Effects in Solution Processed Solar Cells

    Fogel, Derek M.; Basham, James I.; Engmann, Sebastian; Pookpanratana, Sujitra J.; Bittle, Emily G.; Jurchescu, Oana D.; Gundlach, David J.


    High boiling point solvent additives are a widely adopted approach for increasing bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell efficiency. However, experiments show residual solvent can persist for hours after film deposition, and certain common additives are unstable or reactive. We report here on the effects of residual 1,8-diiodooctane on the electrical performance of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT): phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC[71]BM) BHJ photovoltaic cells. We optimized our fabrication process for efficiency at an active layer thickness of 220 nm, and all devices were processed in parallel to minimize unintentional variations between test structures. The one variable in this study is the active layer post spin drying time. Immediately following the cathode deposition, we measured the current-voltage characteristics at one sun equivalent illumination intensity, and performed impedance spectroscopy to quantify charge density, lifetime, and recombination process. Spectroscopic ellipsometry, FTIR, and XPS are also used to monitor residual solvent and correlated with electrical performance. We find that residual additive degrades performance by increasing the series resistance and lowering efficiency, fill factor, and free carrier lifetime.

  16. Synergistic Effect of Selenium Addition and Water Stress on Melilotus officinalis L. Mineral Content

    Panagiota KOSTOPOULOU


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the combined effects of selenium (Se enrichment and water stress on the accumulation of available macro- and micronutrients in Melilotus officinalis L. aerial parts. Plants of M. officinalis were subjected to three levels of Se addition (0, 1 and 3 mg Se L-1 water and to two water treatments: a full irrigation and b limited irrigation (water stress. The above ground biomass (stems and leaves was analyzed for Se, potassium (K, sodium (Na, magnesium (Mg, iron (Fe, copper (Cu, calcium (Ca, manganese (Mn and zinc (Zn. Se addition differentially affected the K, Mg and Ca content of M. officinalis aerial parts, while it led to the reduction of the micronutrients Cu, Fe and Mn. Water stress resulted in the increase of K, Na, Mg, Ca and Cu, and to the decrease of the Fe, Zn and Mn content. An interaction between selenium addition and water treatment was more notable for Ca and Mg, which decreased under water stress at low Se level and for Zn and Cu, which increased under water stress at high Se level. According to our findings, Se-induced increased accumulation of some inorganic ions in the aerial parts of this species under water stress conditions could serve as a means to alleviate the adverse impact of water deficit on important metabolic processes, enhancing M. officinalis tolerance to water stress.

  17. Effect of reinforcement nanoparticles addition on mechanical properties of SBS/curaua fiber composites

    Borba, Patricia M. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (CETEPO/SENAI/RS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico de Polimeros; Tedesco, Adriana [Braskem S. A., III Polo Petroquimico, Triunfo, RS (Brazil); Lenz, Denise M., E-mail: [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), Canoas, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Materiais e Processos Sustentaveis


    Composites of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) matrix with curauá fiber and/or a nanoparticulated mineral (montmorillonite clay - MMT) used as reinforcing agents were prepared by melt-mixing. The influence of clay addition on properties like tensile and tear strength, rebound resilience, flex fatigue life, abrasion loss, hardness and water absorption of composites with 5, 10 and 20 wt% of curauá fiber was evaluated in presence of maleic anhydride grafted styrene-(ethylene-co-butylene)-styrene triblock copolymer (MA-g-SEBS) coupling agent. Furthermore, the effect of mineral plasticizer loading on tensile strength of selected composites was investigated. The hybrid SBS composite that showed the best overall mechanical performance was composed by 2 wt% of MMT and 5 wt% of curauá fiber. Increasing fiber content up to 20 wt% resulted in a general decrease in all mechanical properties as well as incorporation of 5 wt% MMT caused a decrease in the tensile strength in all fiber contents. The hybrid composites showed clay agglomerates (tactoids) poorly dispersed that could explain the poor mechanical performance of composites at higher concentrations of curauá fiber and MMT nanoparticles. The addition of plasticizer further decreased the tensile strength while the addition of MMT nanoparticles decreased water absorption for all SBS composites. (author)

  18. Effect of Meltable Triazine-DOPO Additive on Rheological, Mechanical, and Flammability Properties of PA6

    Irina Butnaru


    Full Text Available Through a straightforward approach, a new meltable, halogen-free, nitrogen-phosphorus-based flame retardant (FR, 6-(2-(4,6-diamino-1,3,5-triazin-2-ylethyl dibenzo[c,e][1,2]oxaphosphinine 6-oxide (DTE-DOPO was synthesized and incorporated in polyamide 6 (PA6. It was proved that a very low phosphorus content of 1.46 wt% for DTE-DOPO additive improved the flame retardancy of PA6, leading to a non-flammable material. The performance of the new additive was compared to that of the commercially-available Exolit® OP 1230. The PA6 formulations were evaluated by measuring the rheological, mechanical, and flammability behavior. Using compounding by melt extrusion, 17 wt% additives was introduced into PA6 matrix and the corresponding formulations were characterized. The results evidenced a higher homogeneity of DTE-DOPO with PA6, a high thermal stability with a catalyzing decomposition effect on PA6 caused by the presence of the new developed FR, enhanced elasticity for the PA6/DTE-DOPO formulation and a V0 rating for both formulations. Thermal and fire analysis indicated a primary gas-phase activity, combined with a complete suppression of the self-sustained burning for the PA6/DTE-DOPO formulation.

  19. Additive effects of levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol on brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) in zebrafish specific in vitro and in vivo bioassays.

    Hinfray, N; Tebby, C; Garoche, C; Piccini, B; Bourgine, G; Aït-Aïssa, S; Kah, O; Pakdel, F; Brion, F


    Estrogens and progestins are widely used in combination in human medicine and both are present in aquatic environment. Despite the joint exposure of aquatic wildlife to estrogens and progestins, very little information is available on their combined effects. In the present study we investigated the effect of ethinylestradiol (EE2) and Levonorgestrel (LNG), alone and in mixtures, on the expression of the brain specific ER-regulated cyp19a1b gene. For that purpose, recently established zebrafish-derived tools were used: (i) an in vitro transient reporter gene assay in a human glial cell line (U251-MG) co-transfected with zebrafish estrogen receptors (zfERs) and the luciferase gene under the control of the zebrafish cyp19a1b gene promoter and (ii) an in vivo bioassay using a transgenic zebrafish expressing GFP under the control of the zebrafish cyp19a1b gene promoter (cyp19a1b-GFP). Concentration-response relationships for single chemicals were modeled and used to design the mixture experiments following a ray design. The results from mixture experiments were analyzed to predict joint effects according to concentration addition and statistical approaches were used to characterize the potential interactions between the components of the mixtures (synergism/antagonism). We confirmed that some progestins could elicit estrogenic effects in fish brain. In mixtures, EE2 and LNG exerted additive estrogenic effects both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that some environmental progestin could exert effects that will add to those of environmental (xeno-)estrogens. Moreover, our zebrafish specific assays are valuable tools that could be used in risk assessment for both single chemicals and their mixtures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-additive genome-wide association scan reveals a new gene associated with habitual coffee consumption

    Nicola Pirastu; Maarten Kooyman; Antonietta Robino; Ashley van der Spek; Luciano Navarini; Najaf Amin; Lennart C. Karssen; Cornelia M van Duijn; Paolo Gasparini


    Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages world-wide and one of the primary sources of caffeine intake. Given its important health and economic impact, the underlying genetics of its consumption has been widely studied. Despite these efforts, much has still to be uncovered. In particular, the use of non-additive genetic models may uncover new information about the genetic variants driving coffee consumption. We have conducted a genome-wide association study in two Italian populations using...

  1. Effect of CD4 gene expression on adenovirus replication.

    Hotta, J; Shi, L; Ginsberg, H S


    The gene encoding the CD4 receptor was introduced into KB cells to establish the KBT4 cell line, a cell line susceptible to infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Adenovirus replication was found to be significantly less in these cells than in the parental KB cells. Similar decreased adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) replication occurred in HeLaT4 cells compared with the original HeLa cells. The presence of CD4 did not alter the cell surface population of KB cell adenovirus receptors, since viral adsorption was similar in the two cell lines. Moreover, addition of soluble CD4 did not reduce viral replication in either KB or KBT4 infected cells. Uncoating of viral DNA was also unchanged in KBT4 cells compared with the parental KB cells. In contrast, migration to or entrance of viral DNA into nuclei and synthesis of early viral RNAs was delayed and reduced in KBT4 cells. These effects were more pronounced for Ad7 than for Ad5. The yields of infectious viruses were the same in both cell lines, however, after transfection of naked viral DNAs to initiate infection. These results imply that the expression of the CD4 gene in KBT4 cells interfered with passage of uncoated virus across endosomal vesicles and/or transfer of uncoated core viral DNA into the nucleus.

  2. Effects of Rice Straw and Its Biochar Addition on Soil Labile Carbon and Soil Organic Carbon

    YIN Yun-feng; HE Xin-hua; GAO Ren; MA Hong-liang; YANG Yu-sheng


    Whether the biochar amendment could affect soil organic matter (SOM) turnover and hence soil carbon (C) stock remains poorly understood. Effects of the addition of 13C-labelled rice straw or its pyrolysed biochar at 250 or 350°C to a sugarcane soil (Ferrosol) on soil labile C (dissolved organic C, DOC;microbial biomass C, MBC;and mineralizable C, MC) and soil organic C (SOC) were investigated after 112 d of laboratory incubation at 25°C. Four treatments were examined as (1) the control soil without amendment (Soil);(2) soil plus 13C-labelled rice straw (Soil+Straw);(3) soil plus 250°C biochar (Soil+B250) and (4) soil plus 350°C biochar (Soil+B350). Compared to un-pyrolysed straw, biochars generally had an increased aryl C, carboxyl C, C and nitrogen concentrations, a decreased O-alkyl C and C:N ratio, but similar alkyl C and d13C (1 742-1 877‰). Among treatments, signiifcant higher DOC, MBC and MC derived from the new C (straw or biochar) ranked as Soil+Straw>Soil+B250>Soil+B350, whilst signiifcant higher SOC from the new C as Soil+B250>Soil+Straw≈Soil+B350. Compared to Soil, DOC and MBC derived from the native soil were decreased under straw or biochar addition, whilst MC from the native soil was increased under straw addition but decreased under biochar addition. Meanwhile, native SOC was similar among the treatments, irrespective of the straw or biochar addition. Compared to Soil, signiifcant higher total DOC and total MBC were under Soil+Straw, but not under Soil+B250 and Soil+B350, whilst signiifcant higher total MC and total SOC were under straw or biochar addition, except for MC under Soil+B350. Our results demonstrated that the application of biochar to soil may be an appropriate management practice for increasing soil C storage.

  3. Morphology tuning of CoMo catalysts: Effect of La and Fe as an additive

    Yu Pei


    Full Text Available Three catalysts CoMo/γ-Al2O3, CoMo-La/γ-Al2O3, CoMo-Fe/γ-Al2O3 with different morphologies were prepared for study the effect of introduction of La and Fe on morphology properties and hydrodesulfurization (HDS activity. The morphology properties of catalysts were characterized by BET, XPS and HRTEM. In addition, the catalytic performances of catalysts were investigated. The results indicated that the introduction of La and Fe promoted the sulfidation of Mo species and made the average length and stacking layer numbers of MoS2 slabs longer and higher. These effects could improve the activity of catalysts for HDS. The present results indicated that the catalyst modified by Fe had the best HDS activity with the optimal morphology among three catalysts

  4. Additive and non-additive effects of simulated leaf and inflorescence damage on survival, growth and reproduction of the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata.

    Puentes, Adriana; Ågren, Jon


    Herbivores may damage both leaves and reproductive structures, and although such combined damage may affect plant fitness non-additively, this has received little attention. We conducted a 2-year field experiment with a factorial design to examine the effects of simulated leaf (0, 12.5, 25, or 50% of leaf area removed) and inflorescence damage (0 vs. 50% of inflorescences removed) on survival, growth and reproduction in the perennial herb Arabidopsis lyrata. Leaf and inflorescence damage negatively and independently reduced flower, fruit and seed production in the year of damage; leaf damage also reduced rosette size by the end of the first season and flower production in the second year. Leaf damage alone reduced the proportion of flowers forming a fruit and fruit production per plant the second year, but when combined with inflorescence damage no such effect was observed (significant leaf × inflorescence damage interaction). Damage to leaves (sources) caused a greater reduction in future reproduction than did simultaneous damage to leaves and inflorescences (sinks). This demonstrates that a full understanding of the effects of herbivore damage on plant fitness requires that consequences of damage to vegetative and reproductive structures are evaluated over more than 1 year and that non-additive effects are considered.

  5. Impact of Zn, Mg, Ni and Co elements on glass alteration: Additive effects

    Aréna, H.; Godon, N.; Rébiscoul, D.; Podor, R.; Garcès, E.; Cabie, M.; Mestre, J.-P.


    The minor elements present in the nuclear glass composition or coming from the groundwater of the future repository may impact glass alteration. In this study, the effects of Zn, Mg, Ni and Co on the International Simple Glass (ISG) alteration were studied throughout 511 days of aqueous leaching experiments. The aim was to determine their additive or competitive effect on glass alteration and the nature of the alteration products. The four elements were introduced separately or altogether in solution as XCl2 chloride salts (X = Zn, Mg, Ni or Co) with monthly additions to compensate for their consumption. The alteration kinetics were determined by leachate analyses (ICP-AES) and alteration products were characterized in terms of composition, morphology and microstructure (SEM, TEM-EDX, ToF-SIMS and XRD). Results indicate that when they are introduced separately, Zn, Mg, Ni and Co have the same qualitative and quantitative effect on glass alteration kinetics and on pH: they form secondary phases leading to a pH decrease and a significant increase in glass alteration. The secondary phases were identified as silicates of the added X element: trioctahedral smectites with a stoichiometry of[(Si(4-a) Ala) (X(3-b) Alb) O10 (OH)2](a+b)- [Xc Nad Cae] (2c+d+2e)+ with a = 0.11 to 0.45, b = 0.00 to 0.29, c = 0, d = 0.19 to 0.74 and e = 0.10 to 0.14. . It was shown that as pH stabilizes at a minimum value, X-silicates no longer precipitate, thus leading to a significant drop in the glass alteration rate. This pH value depends on X and it has been identified as being 8 for Mg-silicates, probably around 7.3 for Ni and Co-silicates and less than 6.2 for Zn-silicates. When tested together, the effects of these four elements on glass alteration are additive and lead to the formation of a mix of X-silicates that precipitate as long as their constitutive elements are available and the pH is above their respective minimum value. This study brings new quantitative information about the

  6. Effect of jenny milk addition on the inhibition of late blowing in semihard cheese.

    Cosentino, C; Paolino, R; Valentini, V; Musto, M; Ricciardi, A; Adduci, F; D'Adamo, C; Pecora, G; Freschi, P


    The occurrence of late blowing defects in cheese produces negative effects on the quality and commercial value of the product. In this work, we verified whether the addition of raw jenny milk to bulk cow milk reduced the late blowing defects in semihard cheeses. During cheesemaking, different aliquots of jenny milk were poured into 2 groups of 4 vats, each containing a fixed amount of cow milk. A group of cheeses was created by deliberately contaminating the 4 vats with approximately 3 log10 cfu/mL milk of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CLST01. The other 4 vats, which were not contaminated, were used for a second group of cheeses. After 120 d of ripening, some physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters were evaluated on the obtained semihard cheeses. Differences in sensory properties among cheeses belonging to the uncontaminated group were evaluated by 80 regular consumers of cheese. Our results showed that the increasing addition of jenny milk to cow milk led to a reduction of pH and total bacterial count in both cheese groups, as well as C. tyrobutyricum spores that either grew naturally or artificially inoculated. We observed a progressive reduction of the occurrence of late blowing defects in cheese as consequence of the increasing addition of jenny milk during cheese making. Moreover, the addition of jenny milk did not affect the acceptability of the product, as consumers found no difference among cheeses concerning sensorial aspects. In conclusion, the important antimicrobial activity of lysozyme contained in jenny milk has been confirmed in the current research. It is recommend for use as a possible and viable alternative to egg lysozyme for controlling late blowing defects in cheese.

  7. Effects of minor yttrium addition on hot deformability of lamellar Ti-45Al-5Nb alloy

    CHEN Yu-yong; LI Bao-hui; KONG Fan-tao


    The effects of 0.3%(molar fraction, the same below) yttrium addition on hot deformability of lamellar Ti-45Al-5Nb alloy were investigated by simulated isothermal forging tests. The ingots with the nominal compositions of Ti-45Al-5Nb and Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.3Y were prepared by induction skull melting. Simulated isothermal forging tests were conducted on Gleeble 1500D thermo-simulation machine using a 6 mm in diameter and 10 mm in length compressive specimen at the deformation temperatures of 1 100, 1 150, 1 200 ℃ and strain rates of 1.0, 0.1, 0.01 s-1. The results show that yttrium addition remarkably improves hot deformability of Ti-45Al-5Nb alloy. An appropriate hot deformation processing parameter of Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.3Y alloy is determined as 1 200 ℃, 0.01 s-1. The flow stresses are decreased by yttrium addition under the same compressive conditions. The activation energies of deformation Q are calculated as 448.6 and 399.5 kJ/mol for Y-free and Y-containing alloys, respectively. The deformed microstructure observation under 1 200 ℃, 0.01 s-1 condition indicates that Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.3Y alloy shows more dynamic recrystallization. The improvement of hot deformability of Ti-45Al-5Nb-0.3Y alloy induced by yttrium addition should be attributed to that the smaller the original lamellar colonies, the lower the deformation resistance and activation energy of deformation are, and the more the dynamic recrystallization is.

  8. Radiation processing of thermoplastic starch by blending aromatic additives: Effect of blend composition and radiation parameters

    Khandal, Dhriti; Mikus, Pierre-Yves; Dole, Patrice; Coqueret, Xavier


    This paper reports on the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on poly α-1,4-glucose oligomers (maltodextrins) in the presence of water and of various aromatic additives, as model blends for gaining a better understanding at a molecular level the modifications occurring in amorphous starch-lignin blends submitted to ionizing irradiation for improving the properties of this type of bio-based thermoplastic material. A series of aromatic compounds, namely p-methoxy benzyl alcohol, benzene dimethanol, cinnamyl alcohol and some related carboxylic acids namely cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, was thus studied for assessing the ability of each additive to counteract chain scission of the polysaccharide and induce interchain covalent linkages. Gel formation in EB-irradiated blends comprising of maltodextrin was shown to be dependent on three main factors: the type of aromatic additive, presence of glycerol, and irradiation dose. The chain scission versus grafting phenomenon as a function of blend composition and dose were studied using Size Exclusion Chromatography by determining the changes in molecular weight distribution (MWD) from Refractive Index (RI) chromatograms and the presence of aromatic grafts onto the maltodextrin chains from UV chromatograms. The occurrence of crosslinking was quantified by gel fraction measurements allowing for ranking the cross-linking efficiency of the additives. When applying the method to destructurized starch blends, gel formation was also shown to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the sample submitted to irradiation. The results demonstrate the possibility to tune the reactivity of tailored blend for minimizing chain degradation and control the degree of cross-linking.

  9. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen


    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  10. Effect of Additive Agent on the Electrochemical Capacitance of Activated Carbon

    Wang Gui-Xin; Qu Mei-Zhen; Chen Li; Wang Guo-Ping; Zhang Qing-Tang; Yu Zuo-Long


    In order to compare the effect of additive agent on the electrochemical capacitance of activated carbon, three additive agents like carbon nanotubes (CNTs), activated carbon fibre (ACF)and acetylene black (AB) were added to activated carbon by ultrasonic dispersion. Two electrodes including 95wt.% activated carbon, 2wt.% additive agent and 3wt.% PTFE binder were prepared.Ecs were assembled in an argon-filled glove box by sandwiching a microporous separator (Celgard 2400) between two electrodes. 1.0 M LiClO4/ethylene carbonate (EC)-diethyl carbonate (DEC) (1:1in vol.) was used as the electrolyte. The performance of the Ecs was tested with constant current charge-discharge model between 0.0 and 3.0V at 298K using a battery-testing instrument under the same conditions.From the Fig. 1, we can know that the specific capacitance decreases with the current density increasing. As far as the three carbon materials, CNTs show better performance than others. At low current density, the specific capacitance of CNTs is adjacent to that of ACF, while higher than that of AB; At high current density, the specific capacitance of CNTs is higher than that of both ACF and AB. What's more, capacity fading of CNTs is smaller than those of both ACF and AB. At 10 mA/cm2 current density, the specific capacitance of CNTs is 1.33 times of that ACF and 1.58 times of that AB, respectively. From the CVs (Fig. 2), the capacitance of three materials is contributed mainly by double-layer, nonfaradically. The performance difference is ascribed to the structure and electrolyte reservoir: CNTs used have a wide diameter range between 20 and 100nm and hollow tube structure, ACF has a narrow diameter range and many micropores, AB are dots and cannot form good conductive net. All the above reasons lead the different electrochemical properties of three additive agents.

  11. Effect of methylene methanedisulfonate as an additive on the cycling performance of spinel lithium titanate electrode

    Wang, Renheng; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Bao, E-mail:; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun


    In order to overcome the poor cyclability of lithium-ion batteries with spinel lithium titanate (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}), methylene methanedisulfonate (MMDS) is evaluated as electrolyte additive. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicate that MMDS participates in the formation process of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film above 1 V, which is due to the interfacial reaction between the electrode and electrolyte: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anodes are previously considered free from SEI films when cycled between 1 and 3 V. The stable SEI film around Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} is seen most effective as a barrier layer in suppressing the interfacial reaction and resulting gassing from the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} surface. In addition, the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrate that a thin and good conductive film can be formed on the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} surface ascribed to MMDS additive, which resulting the improvement of conductivity and a good ability of Li{sup +} migration. - Highlights: • MMDS used as additive to improve cycling performance of the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Li cells. • A SEI film can be formed using MMDS in the electrolyte above 1 V. • Sulfur-containing species is the main component of the SEI formed by MMDS.

  12. Additive effect of red blood cell rigidity and adherence to endothelial cells in inducing vascular resistance.

    Kaul, D K; Koshkaryev, A; Artmann, G; Barshtein, G; Yedgar, S


    To explore the contribution of red blood cell (RBC) deformability and interaction with endothelial cells (ECs) to circulatory disorders, these RBC properties were modified by treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and their effects on vascular resistance were monitored following their infusion into rat mesocecum vasculature. Treatment with 0.5 mM H(2)O(2) increased RBC/EC adherence without significant alteration of RBC deformability. At 5.0 mM H(2)O(2), RBC deformability was considerably reduced, inducing a threefold increase in the number of undeformable cells, whereas RBC/EC adherence was not further affected by the increased H(2)O(2) concentration. This enabled the selective manipulation of RBC adherence and deformability and the testing of their differential effect on vascular resistance. Perfusion of RBCs with enhanced adherence and unchanged deformability (treatment with 0.5 mM H(2)O(2)) increased vascular resistance by about 35% compared with untreated control RBCs. Perfusion of 5.0 mM H(2)O(2)-treated RBCs, with reduced deformability (without additional increase of adherence), further increased vascular resistance by about 60% compared with untreated control RBCs. These results demonstrate the specific effects of elevated adherence and reduced deformability of oxidized RBCs on vascular resistance. These effects can be additive, depending on the oxidation conditions. The oxidation-induced changes applied in this study are moderate compared with those observed in RBCs in pathological states. Yet, they caused a considerable increase in vascular resistance, thus demonstrating the potency of RBC/EC adherence and RBC deformability in determining resistance to blood flow in vivo.


    Kulibaba, R A; Yurko, P S; Liashenkon, Y V


    The MspI-polymorphism in the fourth intron of the growth hormone gene in populations of White Plymouth Rock, Poltava Clay, Rhode Island Red and Borkovskaya Barvistaya chicken breeds was studied. It is shown that in all examined chicken populations the growth hormone gene is polymorphic. It was found that the presence of "additional" phenotype (restriction pattern) is not associated with duplication of the growth hormone gene. The possibility of formation of heteroduplex DNA of two different types in the course of amplification of heterozygous samples B/C, containing the site 'CCGG', which leads to formation the additional DNA fragment which do not contain the site 'CCGG', was described. The nucleotide sequences of alleles A, B, C and "additional" fragment is described. Frequencies of alleles A, B and C in chicken population of White Plymouth Rock breed were 0.56; 0.16 and 0.28; Poltava Clay--0.10; 0.07 and 0.83; Rhode Island Red--0.27; 0.31 and 0.42; Borkovskaya Barvistaya--0.75; 0.08 and 0.17 respectively.

  14. Bayesian variable selection in searching for additive and dominant effects in genome-wide data.

    Tomi Peltola

    Full Text Available Although complex diseases and traits are thought to have multifactorial genetic basis, the common methods in genome-wide association analyses test each variant for association independent of the others. This computational simplification may lead to reduced power to identify variants with small effect sizes and requires correcting for multiple hypothesis tests with complex relationships. However, advances in computational methods and increase in computational resources are enabling the computation of models that adhere more closely to the theory of multifactorial inheritance. Here, a Bayesian variable selection and model averaging approach is formulated for searching for additive and dominant genetic effects. The approach considers simultaneously all available variants for inclusion as predictors in a linear genotype-phenotype mapping and averages over the uncertainty in the variable selection. This leads to naturally interpretable summary quantities on the significances of the variants and their contribution to the genetic basis of the studied trait. We first characterize the behavior of the approach in simulations. The results indicate a gain in the causal variant identification performance when additive and dominant variation are simulated, with a negligible loss of power in purely additive case. An application to the analysis of high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in a dataset of 3895 Finns is then presented, demonstrating the feasibility of the approach at the current scale of single-nucleotide polymorphism data. We describe a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm for the computation and give suggestions on the specification of prior parameters using commonly available prior information. An open-source software implementing the method is available at and

  15. Effects of Cutting Time, Ensiling Duration and Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Silage

    M.H. Delavar


    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of daytime cutting management (p.m. vs. a.m. cut, ensiling duration and adding microbial inoculants on chemical composition of alfalfa silage. For this, Second growth Alfalfa harvested at the early bud stage of development after a sunny day at sundown (about 1900 h; PM alfalfa, whereas the second half was cut next day at sunup (about 0800 h; AM alfalfa. After cutting, alfalfa Forage was chopped by using a chopper to a length of 8 to10 cm, and then ensiled without or with microbial additive as factorial experiment (2×2 with repeated measurement design. Silages were provided in laboratory silos (6 repeats in every treatment lined with two layers of plastic, after air exclusion. Silos were opened at 3, 10 and 30 day for determination of pH and other chemical analysis. The numerically lower pH of PM vs. AM silages indicates that the former forage was more extensively fermented possibly because of its increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC concentration. Shifting alfalfa harvesting from sun up to sundown significantly decreased NDF% and ADF%, because of the dilution effect associated with increased concentrations of TNC in the former forage. The NPN content and N-NH3 concentration of the silages treated in the afternoon was lower compared with AM group. CP content decreased, but NDF, ADF, NPN and N-NH3 concentration increased during ensiling time. Silage pH decreased by using of microbial additive and ensiling time. Dry matter and nitrogen losses were lower in silages treated by microbial inoculants, and, increased with increasing fermentation time. It can be concluded that microbial additives and time of cutting can be used as proper way to improve fermentation situation and silage quality.

  16. Self-Assembly of Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow and Effects of Ionic Additives

    Park, Heung-Shik; Kang, Shin-Woong; Tortora, Luana; Nastishin, Yuriy; Finotello, Daniele; Kumar, Satyendra; Lavrentovich, Oleg D. (NSF); (Institute of Physical Optics, Ukraine); (Kent)


    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) are formed by molecules with ionic groups at the periphery that associate into stacks through noncovalent self-assembly while in water. The very existence of the nematic (N) phase in the typical LCLC, the dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) is a puzzle, as the correlation length associated with the stacking, as measured in the X-ray experiments, is too short to explain the orientational order by the Onsager model. We propose that the aggregates can be more complex than simple rods and contain 'stacking faults' such as junctions with a shift of neighboring molecules, 3-fold junctions, etc. We study how ionic additives, such as salts of different valency and pH-altering agents, alter the N phase of SSY purified by recrystallization. The additives induce two general trends: (a) stabilization of the N phase, caused by the mono and divalent salts (such as NaCl), and evidenced by the increase of the N-to-I transition temperature and the correlation length; (b) suppression of the N phase manifested in the decrease of the N-to-I transition temperature and in separation of the N phase into a more densely packed N phase or the columnar (C) phase, coexisting with a less condensed I phase. The scenario (b) can be triggered by simply increasing pH (adding NaOH). The effects produced by tetravalent spermine fall mostly into the category (b), but the detail depends on whether this additive is in its salt form or a free base form. The base form causes changes through changes in pH and possible excluded volume effects whereas the salt form might disrupt the structure of SSY aggregates.

  17. Effect of highly dispersed yttria addition on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite

    Parente, P., E-mail: [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Savoini, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Ferrari, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Sanchez-Herencia, A.J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain)


    The capability of the colloidal method to produce yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) has been investigated as an alternative method to the conventional method of mechanical mixing and sintering for developing HA-based materials that could exhibit controllable and enhanced functional properties. A water based colloidal route to produce HA materials with highly dispersed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been applied, and the effect of 10 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition to HA investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These measurements evidence a remarkable effect of this Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on decomposition mechanisms of synthetic HA. Results show that incorporation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dispersed second phase is beneficial because it hinders the decomposition mechanisms of HA into calcium phosphates. This retardation will allow the control of the sintering conditions for developing HA implants with improved properties. Besides, substitution of Ca{sup 2+} with Y{sup 3+} ions appears to promote the formation of OH{sup -} vacancies, which could improve the conductive properties of HA favorable to osseointegration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reveal the influence of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} delays decomposition of hydroxyapatite to calcium phosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} enables sintering conditions more favorable to the densification.

  18. Effect of medium additives during liquid storage on developmental competence of in vitro matured bovine oocytes.

    Suttirojpattana, Tayita; Somfai, Tamas; Matoba, Satoko; Parnpai, Rangsun; Nagai, Takashi; Geshi, Masaya


    Our aim was to improve the developmental competence of bovine oocytes during their liquid storage by using additives. In vitro matured oocytes were stored for 20 h at 25°C in HEPES buffered TCM 199 medium (base medium). After storage, in vitro embryo development after in vitro fertilization was compared to those of non-stored (control) ones. Addition of 10% (v/v) newborn calf serum or 10.27 mmol/L pyruvate alone to the base medium did not improve blastocyst formation rates in stored oocytes; however, their simultaneous addition significantly improved the rate compared with those stored in base medium (P < 0.05). Supplementation of the holding medium with dithiothreitol (DTT) at any concentrations did not improve embryo development from stored oocytes. Although supplementation with cyclosporine A (CsA) significantly reduced apoptosis and membrane damage rates during storage, it did not improve the developmental competence of oocytes. 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis-acetoxymethyl ester and ruthenium red had no effect on oocyte apoptotic rates. Blastocyst formation rates in all stored groups remained significantly lower than that of the control. In conclusion, pyruvate and serum had a synergic effect to moderate the reduction of oocyte quality during storage, whereas mitochondrial membrane pore inhibitor CsA and the antioxidant DTT did not affect their developmental competence. © 2016 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Effect of dietary feed additives on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens.

    Alonge EO


    Full Text Available The effect of dietary feed additives on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens was evaluated. 180 day-old Arbor acre broiler chicks were weighed and randomly allotted to five dietary treatments with 3 replicates of 12 birds each. Broiler starter diet (2855.7 kcal/kg ME; 23.01% and finisher diet (2911 kcal/kg; 20.71% CP were formulated. Dietary treatments were control diet (basal diet without additives, OXYT diet (basal diet with oxytetracycline at 600 ppm as antibiotic, GRO-UP diet (basal diet with probiotic at 500 ppm, MOS-500 diet (basal diet with mannan oligosaccharide at 500 ppm and MOS-1000 diet (basal diet with mannan oligosaccharide at 1000 ppm. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum. At the end of weeks 4 and 8, blood samples were collected and analyzed. The haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broiler chickens fed diets containing feed additives at the starter phase were not statistically significant (P> 0.05. At the finisher phase, there were no significant (P> 0.05 differences in all the parameters measured except in the heterophils and eosinophils where birds fed the control diets had the lowest value among all treatments. Serum globulin values were significantly (P< 0.05 different as birds fed diets containing OXYT (antibiotics recorded the lowest value among all treatments. The inclusion of prebiotics and probiotics in the diets of broiler chickens elicited no adverse effect on haematological and serum biochemical parameters, thus, they can be used as replacement for antibiotics.

  20. Effect of Hydrogen Addition on Low Temperature Metallurgical Property of Sinter

    MU Lin; JIANG Xin; GAO Qiang-jian; WEI Guo; SHEN Feng-man


    Hydrogen-enrich iron making process is certainly to be an effective method to reduce greenhouse gases emission.However,the effect of hydrogen addition on the low temperature metallurgical property of sinter is still unclear.A detailed investigation was performed on the above topic.The results are as follows.When CO is partially replaced by H2,the RDI〈3.15(RDI〈2.8) of sinter decreases with the increase of the H2 content;when the content of H2 increases,the CO,CO2 and N2 decrease proportionally,in this case,RDI〈3.15(RDI〈2.8) of sinter increases with the increase of H2 content;the value of RDI〈3.15(RDI〈2.8) basically depends on the reduction index(Ri).The experimental data of RDI〈2.8 based on Japanese industrial standard(JIS) are a little higher than the data of RDI〈3.15 based on Chinese industrial standard(CIS) in the same condition.In addition,for part of CO is replaced by H2:RDI〈2.8=3.38394+1.1585 RDI〈3.15;for other gases,except H2,are decreased proportionally:RDI〈2.8=17.39678+0.42922 RDI〈3.15

  1. Effects of insoles and additional shock absorption foam on the cushioning properties of sport shoes.

    Chiu, Hung-Ta; Shiang, Tzyy-Yuang


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of insoles and additional shock absorption foam on the cushioning properties of various sport shoes with an impact testing method. Three commercial sport shoes were used in this study, and shock absorption foam (TPE5020; Vers Tech Science Co. Ltd., Taiwan) with 2-mm thickness was placed below the insole in the heel region for each shoe. Eight total impacts with potential energy ranged from 1.82 to 6.08 J were performed onto the heel region of the shoe. The order of testing conditions was first without insole, then with insole, and finally interposing the shock absorption foam for each shoe. Peak deceleration of the striker was measured with an accelerometer attached to the striker during impact. The results of this study seemed to show that the insole or additional shock absorption foam could perform its shock absorption effect well for the shoes with limited midsole cushioning. Further, our findings showed that insoles absorbed more, even up to 24-32% of impact energy under low impact energy. It seemed to indicate that insoles play a more important role in cushioning properties of sport shoes under a low impact energy condition.

  2. The effect of Tricresyl-Phosphate (TCP) as an additive on wear of Iron (Fe)

    Ghose, Hiren M.; Ferrante, John; Honecy, Frank C.


    The effect of tricresyl phosphate (TCP) as an antiwear additive in lubricant trimethyol propane triheptanoate (TMPTH) was investigated. The objective was to examine step loading wear by use of surface analysis, wetting, and chemical bonding changes in the lubricant. The investigation consisted of steploading wear studies by a pin or disk tribometer, the effects on wear related to wetting by contact angle and surface tension measurements of various liquid systems, the chemical bonding changes between lubricant and TCP chromatographic analysis, and by determining the reaction between the TCP and metal surfaces through wear scar analysis by Auger emission spectroscopy (AES). The steploading curve for the base fluid alone shows rapid increase of wear rate with load. The steploading curve for the base fluid in presence of 4.25 percent by volume TCP under dry air purge has shown a great reduction of wear rate with all loads studied. It has also been found that the addition of 4.25 percent by volume TCP plus 0.33 percent by volume water to the base lubricant under N2 purge also greatly reduces the wear rate with all loads studied. AES surface analysis reveals a phosphate type wear resistant film, which greatly increases load-bearing capacity, formed on the iron disk. Preliminary chromatographic studies suggest that this film forms either because of ester oxidation or TCP degradation. Wetting studies show direct correlation between the spreading coefficient and the wear rate.

  3. The influence of additional electrons on memory effect in nitrogen at low pressures

    Nesic, Nikola T; Pejovic, Momcilo M; Pejovic, Milic M; Zivanovic, Emilija N, E-mail: [University of Nis, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18000 Nis (Serbia)


    Memory effect in nitrogen based on experimental data of electrical breakdown time delay as a function of afterglow period in the presence of additional electrons has been investigated. The additional electrons were supplied as a result of extraction from the auxiliary electrode pair or nitrogen irradiation with the radioactive source {sub 88}{sup 226}Ra of low activity. The results show that these electrons have an important role in the recombination of positive ions formed in mutual metastable molecules' collisions and collisions between metastable and highly vibrationally excited molecules in the early afterglow. As a consequence of the ion-electron recombination N({sup 4}S) atoms are formed which, as well as N({sup 4}S) atoms formed in previous discharge, have a significant influence on the memory effect in late afterglow. The presence of N({sup 4}S) atoms in the late afterglow is tracked by monitoring the secondary emission which they induce via catalytic recombination on the cathode of a nitrogen-filled tube. Also, it has been shown that the contribution of secondary electrons which originate from N({sup 4}S) atoms and Compton electrons when the radioactive source is and isn't present can be distinguished.

  4. Effect of Co addition on crystallization and magnetic properties of FeSiBPCu alloy

    Rui Xiang


    Full Text Available The effects of Co addition on the microstructure, crystallization processes and soft magnetic properties of (Fe1−xCox83Si4B8P4Cu1 (x=0.35, 0.5, 0.65 alloys were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that the addition of Co decreased the thermal stability against crystallization of the amorphous phase, and thus improved the heat treatment temperature of this alloy. FeCoSiBPCu nanocrystalline alloys with a dispersed α′-FeCo phase were obtained by appropriately annealing the as-quenched ribbons at 763 K for 10 min. The α′-FeCo with grains size ranging from 9 to 28 nm was identified in primary crystallization. The coercivity (Hc markedly increased with increasing x and exhibited a minimum value at x=0.35, while the saturation magnetic flux density (Bs shows a slight decrease. The (Fe0.65Co0.3583Si4B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy exhibited a high saturation magnetic flux density Bs of 1.68 T, a low coercivity, Hc of 5.4 A/m and a high effective permeability µe of 29,000 at 1 kHz.

  5. A critical review on the spray drying of fruit extract: effect of additives on physicochemical properties.

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Nithyanandam, Rajesh; Sarbatly, Rosalam


    Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form.

  6. Essential Structural Requirements and Additive Effects for Flavonoids to Scavenge Methylglyoxal.

    Shao, Xi; Chen, Huadong; Zhu, Yingdong; Sedighi, Rashin; Ho, Chi-Tang; Sang, Shengmin


    Reactive dicarbonyl species, such as methylglyoxal (MGO), are considered as the major precursors of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which are believed to be one of the physiological causes of diabetes and its complications. Scavenging of reactive dicarbonyl species using naturally occurring flavonoids has been proposed as an effective way to prevent diabetic complications. To elucidate the structural requirements of flavonoids in scavenging MGO, seven flavonoids (quercetin, luteolin, epicatechin, genistein, daidzein, apigenin, and phloretin) and five sub-components of the flavonoids (gallic acid, phloroglucinol, pyrogallol, pyrocatechol, and resorcinol) were examined in this study. Our results showed the following: (1) 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) has higher MGO scavenging activity than 1,3,5-trihydroxybenzene and 1,2- and 1,3-dihydroxybenzene, and substitution at position 5 of pyrogallol diminished the scavenging activity, indicating that position 5 is the active site of pyrogallol; (2) the A ring is the active site of flavonoids in contributing the MGO-trapping efficacy, and the hydroxyl group at C-5 on the A ring enhances the trapping efficacy; (3) the double bond between C-2 and C-3 on the C ring could facilitate the trapping efficacy; and (4) the number of hydroxyl groups on the B ring does not significantly influence the trapping efficacy. In addition, we found there is an additive effect in MGO trapping by two common flavonoids, quercetin and phloretin, indicating that flavonoid-enriched foods and beverages hold great promise to prevent the development of diabetic complications.

  7. Effects of Aluminum Addition on Tensile and Cup Forming Properties of Three Twinning Induced Plasticity Steels

    Hong, Seokmin; Shin, Sang Yong; Kim, Hyoung Seop; Lee, Sunghak; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Chin, Kwang-Geun; Kim, Nack J.


    In the present study, a high Mn twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) steel and two Al-added TWIP steels were fabricated, and their microstructures, tensile properties, and cup formability were analyzed to investigate the effects of Al addition on deformation mechanisms in tensile and cup forming tests. In the high Mn steel, the twin formation was activated to increase the strain hardening rate and ultimate tensile strength, which needed the high punch load during the cup forming test. In the Al-added TWIP steels, the twin formation was reduced, while the slip activation increased, thereby leading to the decrease in strain hardening rate and ultimate tensile strength. As twins and slips were homogeneously formed during the tensile or cup forming test, the punch load required for the cup forming and residual stresses were relatively low, and the tensile ductility was sufficiently high even after the cup forming test. This indicated that making use of twins and slips simultaneously in TWIP steels by the Al addition was an effective way to improve overall properties including cup formability.

  8. The additive effect on suicidality of family history of suicidal behavior and early traumatic experiences.

    Lopez-Castroman, J; Guillaume, S; Olié, E; Jaussent, I; Baca-García, E; Courtet, P


    Family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood abuse are reported risk factors for suicide attempts and suicide completion. We aim to quantify the additive effect of family history of suicidal behavior and different subtypes of childhood abuse on suicidal behavior. We examined a sample of 496 suicide attempters, comparing individuals with family history of suicidal behavior and personal history of childhood (physical or sexual) abuse, individuals with family history of suicidal behavior only, individuals with history of early traumatic experiences only, and individuals with none of these two risk factors with regards to suicidal features. An additive effect was found for the age at the first attempt in suicide attempters with both family history of suicidal behavior and either physical or sexual abuse. No significant interactions were found between family history of suicidal behavior and childhood trauma in relation to any characteristics of suicidal behavior. Subjects presenting family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse attempt suicide earlier in life than subjects with just one or none of them, particularly if they were sexually abused. Other suicidality indexes were only partially or not associated with this combination of risk factors. A careful assessment of patients with both family history of suicidal behavior and childhood abuse could help to prevent future suicide attempts, particularly in young people.


    Henrieta Arpášová


    Full Text Available Essentialoils areintensivefragrant, oilyliquidsubstances containedindifferent parts of theplant. Their function is based on organoleptic effect and stimulation of organism to the production of digestive juices. Result is ahigherdigestibilityandabsorption of nutirents. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral,antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with thyme essential oils on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied.Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks on diets with thyme essential oil supplemented. In the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with thyme essential oil addition in a dose 0.5 g/kg, in the second one some essential oil in a dose 1g/kg. The results suggest that all of qualitative parameters of egg internal content (yolk weight (g, yolk index, percentage portion egg yolk (%, yolk index, yolk colour (°HLR, albumen weight (g, percentage portion of albumen (%, Haugh Units (HU, albumen index were with thyme essential oil addition insignificantly influenced (P>0.05. The number of coliforms, enterococci, fungi and yeasts decreased with increasing dose of oil. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  10. The effect of water plant extracts addition on the oxidative stability of meat products

    Karolina M. Wójciak


    Full Text Available Background. Natural antioxidants extracted from plants have a lot of antioxidants catechins, epigallocatechins (green tea rosmariquinone, rosmaridiphenol (rosemary, capsaicinoids (red pepper. They can be used as alternatives to the synthetic antioxidants because of their equivalence or greater effect on inhibition of lipid oxidation and haem pigment (nitrosohemachrome protection. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of addition of green tea extract, red pepper extract and rosemary extract while curing process on colour and lipid stability during refrigerated storage of meat products. Material and methods. The pork meat was ground (10 mm plate and divided into four equal parts. To the first part (control sample – C was added curring mixture in amount of 2.2% in a ratio of meat dissolved in water. To the rests of parts were added the same curring mixtures in the same proportion dissolved in 0.5% water plant extracts: green tea (GT, red pepper (P, rosemary (R respectively. All samples were left at 4°C for 24 hours. After curing, samples were stuffed in casings and then heated in water until a final internal temperature of 70°C was reached. All samples were stored up to 30 days at 4°C. Analysis of acidity, oxidation – reduction potential, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, surface colour (Hunter L*, a* and b* values were measured directly after production and after 10, 20 and 30 days of chilling storage. Results. The addition of the plant extracts (pepper, green tea, rosemary to the pork meat samples does not change significantly acidity of the samples during chilling storage. All plants extracts effectively reduce lipid oxidation in cooked pork meat compared to the control. Pepper extract was effective in maintaining redness because of its reduction activity (low potential redox value in sample and low TBARS values in sample during chilling storage. Conclusions. Addition of pepper extract and green tea extract in

  11. Addition of antifungal skin bacteria to salamanders ameliorates the effects of chytridiomycosis.

    Harris, Reid N; Lauer, Antje; Simon, Mary Alice; Banning, Jenifer L; Alford, Ross A


    Chytridiomycosis, caused by the skin fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has caused population declines of many amphibians in remote protected habitats. Progress has been made in understanding the pathogen's life cycle, documenting its devastating effects on individual amphibians and on populations, and understanding how and why disease outbreaks occur. No research has directly addressed the critical question of how to prevent declines and extinctions caused by outbreaks of the disease. We have identified a number of bacterial species of amphibian skin that inhibit Bd in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that a species of anti-Bd skin bacteria can be successfully added to skins of salamanders Plethodon cinereus, and that addition of this bacterium reduced the severity of a disease symptom in experimentally infected individuals. This is the first demonstration that manipulating the natural skin microbiota of an amphibian species can alter the pathogen's negative effects on infected amphibians and appears to be the first demonstration that an epibiotic manipulation of any wildlife species can lessen the effects of an emerging infectious disease. It suggests that probiotic or bio-augmentation manipulations of cutaneous microbiota could have the potential to reduce susceptibility of amphibians to the disease in nature. This is the first approach suggested that could slow or halt epidemic outbreaks and allow successful reintroductions of amphibian species that have become locally or globally extinct in the wild. Our results also suggest a mechanism for the association of climate change and the likelihood of chytridiomycosis outbreaks via the effects of the former on antifungal bacterial communities.

  12. [Analysis of genetic models and gene effects on main agronomy characters in rapeseed].

    Li, J; Qiu, J; Tang, Z; Shen, L


    According to four different genetic models, the genetic patterns of 8 agronomy traits were analysed by using the data of 24 generations which included positive and negative cross of 81008 x Tower, both of the varieties are of good quality. The results showed that none of 8 characters could fit in with additive-dominance models. Epistasis was found in all of these characters, and it has significant effect on generation means. Seed weight/plant and some other main yield characters are controlled by duplicate interaction genes. The interaction between triple genes or multiple genes needs to be utilized in yield heterosis.


    Ivana Klarić


    Full Text Available Propolis and bee pollen belong to a group of natural substances of animal and vegetable origin with a particu¬larly expressed antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Recent studies in the world have pointed out to the possi¬ble application of propolis and bee pollen, each supplement separately or in combination in the certain proportion as additives in broilers feeding whereby the expected effects of these additives on the health of the chickens and the quality of their meat is still not fully investigated, nor unam¬biguously defined. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of propolis and bee pollen (each supplement separately or in combination in the certain proportion as additives in broilers feeding on: production indicators in chickens, the values of selected blood (hema-tologic and biochemical parameters in chickens, microbial flora of the intestinal content and the content of the chicken crop and the presence of a selected bacterial pathogens in cloacal swabs of a chickens, the morphology of the liver and intestines of chickens, chicken meat quality, the values of selected indicators in the feces of chickens and behaviour, health status, and mortality of chickens. The study was conducted on 200 Ross 308 chickens of equally distributed sex, divided into five groups (control and four experimental groups of chickens. Fattening was saw dust on the wooden floor and lasted for 42 days. The control group of chickens throughout the whole study was fed feed mixture while the feed mixture that was fed to experimen¬tal groups of chickens contained additives (propolis and/or bee pollen, each supplement separately or in combination in the certain proportion. The study showed that propolis and bee pollen (separately or in combination had a signi¬ficant positive impact on the performance in broilers, the values of selected blood (hematologic and biochemical parameters in chickens, the presence of selected bacterial

  14. Effects of Coating Materials and Mineral Additives on Nitrate Reduction by Zerovalent Iron

    Kim, K. H.; Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, S.; Kang, N.; Choi, H. J.; Park, M.


    In efforts to facilitate nitrate removal, a variety of coating materials and mineral additives were assessed for their effects on the nitrate reduction by zerovalent iron (ZVI). Coated ZVIs were prepared by reacting Fe particles with Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and S(-II) solutions under anoxic conditions, with the resultant materials named Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, Ni/Fe, Cu/Fe, and FeS/Fe, respectively. The mineral additives used, synthesized or purchased, included goethite, magnetite, and hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Kinetic experiments were performed using air-tight serum vials containing 1.0 g Fe (uncoated or coated forms) in 15 mL of 100 mg NO3×N/L solutions with pH buffered at 7.0. To monitor the reaction progress, the solution phase was analyzed for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ on an ion chromatography, while the headspace was analyzed for H2, N2, and O2 on a gas chromatography. By uncoated Fe, ca. 60% of nitrate was reductively transformed for 3.6 h, with NH4+ being the predominant product. Compared with uncoated one, Cr/Fe, Co/Fe, and Cu/Fe showed faster removal rates of nitrate. The observed reactivity enhancement was thought to result from additional reduction of nitrate by H atoms adsorbed on the surface of Cr, Co, or Cu metal. In contrast, both Ni/Fe and FeS/Fe showed slower removal of nitrate than uncoated Fe. In both cases, the coating, which highly disfavors the adsorption of nitrate, would form on the Fe surface. When goethite, HFO, and magnetite were amended, the nitrate reduction by Fe was significantly increased, with the effect being most evident with HFO. Although not capable of reducing nitrate, the mineral additives would serve as crystal nuclei for the corrosion products of Fe, thus making the development of passivation layers on the Fe surface less. In the future, we will perform a kinetic modeling of the experimental data to assess the relative contribution of multiple reaction paths in the nitrate reduction by Fe.

  15. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.


    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3


    Saptadi Darmawan


    Full Text Available The manufacturing of medium density fiberboard (MDF using dry forming process for interior purpose requires extensive amount of thermo-setting urea formaldehyde (UF adhesive. Unfortunately, this adhesive brings about formaldehyde emission from the resulting MDF, which was potentially harmful to human beings. The use of activated charcoal can be effective to reduce such emission. As the relevance, this research aimed to investigate the effect of activated charcoal addition to the MDF pulp on formaldehyde emission from the MDF. The fibers for the MDF-mat forming were the pulp procured from the MDF factory, resulting from the thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP conducted on the mixed mangium wood (Acacia mangium and rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis in 3:1 (w/w proportion, respectively.  Such mixed TMP pulping was also done in the factor y.  The bonding between TMP pulp fiber during mat forming was assisted by the use of UF adhesive.  Prior to the MDF mat forming , was added to the resulting TMP pulp-fibers activated charcoal in  various amount, 2%, 4% and 6% based on fiber mass as well as based on UF adhesive mass. The activated charcoal was prepared by carbonizing candle nut shell into charcoal followed by activation process using phosphate solution.  Meanwhile the forming of MDF mat employed air-dr y process. As the control, MDF forming with UF adhesive was performed without addition of activated charcoal. It turned out that the activated charcoal-added MDF exhibited effective reduction in formaldehyde emission and significant improvement in physical and mechanical properties, i.e. lower thickness swelling , and greater MOR , MOE and internal bond, compared to the control MDF. The use of activated charcoal at 4% based on the adhesive mass seemed to be the optimum amount.  Physical and mechanical properties of the activated charcoal added MDF could mostly meet the JIS specification.

  17. Trichostatin A effects on gene expression in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    Singh Upinder


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone modification regulates chromatin structure and influences gene expression associated with diverse biological functions including cellular differentiation, cancer, maintenance of genome architecture, and pathogen virulence. In Entamoeba, a deep-branching eukaryote, short chain fatty acids (SCFA affect histone acetylation and parasite development. Additionally, a number of active histone modifying enzymes have been identified in the parasite genome. However, the overall extent of gene regulation tied to histone acetylation is not known. Results In order to identify the genome-wide effects of histone acetylation in regulating E. histolytica gene expression, we used whole-genome expression profiling of parasites treated with SCFA and Trichostatin A (TSA. Despite significant changes in histone acetylation patterns, exposure of parasites to SCFA resulted in minimal transcriptional changes (11 out of 9,435 genes transcriptionally regulated. In contrast, exposure to TSA, a more specific inhibitor of histone deacetylases, significantly affected transcription of 163 genes (122 genes upregulated and 41 genes downregulated. Genes modulated by TSA were not regulated by treatment with 5-Azacytidine, an inhibitor of DNA-methyltransferase, indicating that in E. histolytica the crosstalk between DNA methylation and histone modification is not substantial. However, the set of genes regulated by TSA overlapped substantially with genes regulated during parasite development: 73/122 genes upregulated by TSA exposure were upregulated in E. histolytica cysts (p-value = 6 × 10-53 and 15/41 genes downregulated by TSA exposure were downregulated in E. histolytica cysts (p-value = 3 × 10-7. Conclusion This work represents the first genome-wide analysis of histone acetylation and its effects on gene expression in E. histolytica. The data indicate that SCFAs, despite their ability to influence histone acetylation, have minimal effects on gene

  18. The Effect of Growth Promoter Feed Additives on Performance of Broilers Challenged With Escherichia coli

    A.R Valipouri


    Full Text Available A total of 528 day-old Ross 308 male broilers were used to study the effect of antibiotic, probiotic, prebiotic and organic acid on performance, cecal Coliform load and internal organs’ weight. The chickens were placed into 6 groups with 4 replicates and 22 chickens per pen. Six dietary treatments included: 1 negative control as basal diet without any antibiotic growth promoter and coccidiostat (Control, 2 Diet 1+ 0.9 g/kg Primalac® (Primalac, 3 Diet 1+0.1 g/kg Bactocell® (Bactocell, 4 Diet 1+15ppm virginiamycin (Virginiamycin, 5 Diet 1+2 g/kg Fermacto® (Fermacto, and 6 Diet 1+2 g/kg Formycin Gold® (Formycin. At day 7 all chickens were orally gavaged with a 0.5 mL of 107 cfu/mL of mixed culture of pathogenic E. coli (O2K12 and O78K80 verified for presence of genes including stx1, stx2, eaeA and hlyA. Eight chickens from each group were euthanized for detection of the challenged bacteria in liver, spleen and cecum content at days 14, 28 and 42. Overall weight gain (P

  19. Impacts of addition of natural zeolite or a nitrification inhibitor on antibiotic resistance genes during sludge composting.

    Zhang, Junya; Chen, Meixue; Sui, Qianwen; Tong, Juan; Jiang, Chao; Lu, Xueting; Zhang, Yuxiu; Wei, Yuansong


    Composting is commonly used for the treatment and resource utilization of sewage sludge, and natural zeolite and nitrification inhibitors can be used for nitrogen conservation during sludge composting, while their impacts on ARGs control are still unclear. Therefore, three lab-scale composting reactors, A (the control), B (natural zeolite addition) and C (nitrification inhibitor addition of 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate, DMPP), were established. The impacts of natural zeolite and DMPP on the levels of ARGs were investigated, as were the roles that heavy metals, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and the bacterial community play in ARGs evolution. The results showed that total ARGs copies were enriched 2.04 and 1.95 times in reactors A and C, respectively, but were reduced by 1.5% in reactor B due to the reduction of conjugation and co-selection of heavy metals caused by natural zeolite. Although some ARGs (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, ermB, ereA and tetW) were reduced by 0.3-2 logs, others (ermF, sulI, sulII, tetG, tetX, mefA and aac(6')-Ib-cr) increased by 0.3-1.3 logs after sludge composting. Although the contributors for the ARGs profiles in different stages were quite different, the results of a partial redundancy analysis, Mantel test and Procrustes analysis showed that the bacterial community was the main contributor to the changes in ARGs compared to MGEs and heavy metals. Network analysis determined the potential host bacteria for various ARGs and further confirmed our results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene expression suggests double-segmental and single-segmental patterning mechanisms during posterior segment addition in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Janssen, Ralf


    In the model arthropod Drosophila, all segments are patterned simultaneously in the blastoderm. In most other arthropods, however, posterior segments are added sequentially from a posterior segment addition zone. Posterior addition of single segments likely represents the ancestral mode of arthropod segmentation, although in Drosophila, segments are patterned in pairs by the pair-rule genes. It has been shown that in the new model insect, the beetle Tribolium, a segmentation clock operates that apparently patterns all segments in pairs as well. Here, I report on the expression of the segment polarity gene H15/midline in Tribolium. In the anterior embryo, segmental stripes of H15 appear in pairs, but in the posterior of the embryo stripes appear in a single-segmental periodicity. This implies that either two completely different segmentation-mechanisms may act in the germ band of Tribolium, that the segmentation clock changes its periodicity during development, or that the speed in which posterior segments are patterned changes. In any case, the data suggest the presence of another (or modified), yet undiscovered, mechanism of posterior segment addition in one of the best-understood arthropod models. The finding of a hitherto unrecognized segmentation mechanism in Tribolium may have major implications for the understanding of the origin of segmentation mechanisms, including the origin of pair rule patterning. It also calls for (re)-investigation of posterior segment addition in Tribolium and other previously studied arthropod models.

  1. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    Avelino APA


    Full Text Available Ana Paula A Avelino,1 Gláucia MM Oliveira,1 Célia CD Ferreira,2 Ronir R Luiz,3 Glorimar Rosa1,4 1Post-Graduate Program of Medicine-Cardiology, 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, 3Institute of Public Health Studies, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Josué de Castro Nutrition Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA.Methods: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value.Results: Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020. The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol (P<0.050, suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol.Conclusion: The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed

  2. Combined treatment of xenon and hypothermia in newborn rats--additive or synergistic effect?

    Hemmen Sabir

    Full Text Available Breathing the inert gas Xenon (Xe enhances hypothermic (HT neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia (HI in small and large newborn animal models. The underlying mechanism of the enhancement is not yet fully understood, but the combined effect of Xe and HT could either be synergistic (larger than the two effects added or simply additive. A previously published study, using unilateral carotid ligation followed by hypoxia in seven day old (P7 rats, showed that the combination of mild HT (35°C and low Xe concentration (20%, both not being neuroprotective alone, had a synergistic effect and was neuroprotective when both were started with a 4 h delay after a moderate HI insult. To examine whether another laboratory could confirm this finding, we repeated key aspects of the study.After the HI-insult 120 pups were exposed to different post-insult treatments: three temperatures (normothermia (NT NT37°C, HT35°C, HT32°C or Xe concentrations (0%, 20% or 50% starting either immediately or with a 4 h delay. To assess the synergistic potency of Xe-HT, a second set (n = 101 of P7 pups were exposed to either HT35°C+Xe0%, NT+Xe20% or a combination of HT35°C+Xe20% starting with a 4 h delay after the insult. Brain damage was analyzed using relative hemispheric (ligated side/unligated side brain tissue area loss after seven day survival.Immediate HT32°C (p = 0.042, but not HT35°C significantly reduced brain injury compared to NT37°C. As previously shown, adding immediate Xe50% to HT32°C increased protection. Neither 4 h-delayed Xe20%, nor Xe50% at 37°C significantly reduced brain injury (p>0.050. In addition, neither 4 h-delayed HT35°C alone, nor HT35°C+Xe20% reduced brain injury. We found no synergistic effect of the combined treatments in this experimental model.Combining two treatments that individually were ineffective (delayed HT35°C and delayed Xe20% did not exert neuroprotection when combined, and therefore did not show a synergistic

  3. Addition of Urban Waste to Semiarid Degraded Soil: Long-term Effect


    The addition of municipal solid wastes (MSW) is considered as a possible strategy for soil rehabilitation in southeast Spain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term (17 years) effect of five doses of MSW addition on the microbiological, biochemical, and physical properties of semiarid soil. Increased values of several parameters that serve as indicators of general microbiological activity, such as, basal respiration, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or dehydrogenase activity; microbial population size (microbial biomass C), and extracellular hydrolase activity related to macronutrient cycles, such as, urease, β-glucosidase, and N-α-benzoyl-L-argininamide protease, were observed in the amended soils. The highest MSW doses showed the highest values in these hydrolase activities. The incorporation of municipal waste resulted in a more dense development of the plant cover, 50% greater in higher doses than in the control treatment, which generated a substantial increase in several C fractions. Total organic carbon reached 12 g kg-1 soil with the highest MSW doses,compared to 4.30 g kg-1 soil in the control treatment. The physical properties of the soil were also improved, showing greater percentage of stable aggregates and water holding capacity. Positive correlation coefficients between C fractions and parameters related to microbial activity and aggregate stability were observed. Although these improvements were greater in the soils receiving the highest doses of organic amendment, the increases were not proportional to the amount added, demonstrating the existence of a threshold, above which an increase in the amount of organic matter added is not reflected in an increase in the soil's physical, biochemical, and microbiological properties. However, the addition of municipal solid wastes proved its suitability for improving soil quality, thereby indicating the potential of such an amendment, to prevent desertification in Mediterranean areas such as

  4. Effect of ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel colorant additives and acrylamide formation.

    Chen, Hongxing; Gu, Zhengbiao


    Ammonia caramels are among the most widely used colorant additives in the food industry. They are commonly prepared through the Maillard reaction and caramelization of mixtures of reducing sugars with ammonia or ammonium salts. Antioxidants are known to inhibit acrylamide formation during the Maillard reaction, and they may affect the properties of the ammonia caramel products. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the antioxidant ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel. A mixture of glucose and ammonia was allowed to react at 120 °C for 60 min in the presence of ascorbic acid at final concentrations of 0 to 0.08 M. The ammonia caramels obtained from these reactions were all positively charged. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased, the color intensity of the ammonia caramel showed a decreasing trend, while the intensity of the fluorescence and total amount of pyrazines in the volatiles showed a tendency to increase. The addition of ascorbic acid did not result in obvious changes in the UV-visible spectra of the ammonia caramels and the types of pyrazines in the volatiles were also unchanged. It is noteworthy that the addition of 0.02 to 0.08 M ascorbic acid did reduce the formation of the by-product acrylamide, a harmful substance in food. When the concentration of ascorbic acid added reached 0.04 M, the content of acrylamide in the ammonia caramel was 20.53 μg/L, which was approximately 44% lower than that without ascorbic acid. As a result, ascorbic acid can be considered to improve the quality and safety of ammonia caramels.

  5. An Experimental Study on Effect of Palm – Shell Waste Additive to Cement Strenght Enhancement

    Adi Novriansyah


    Full Text Available Enhancing the cement strength through attaching chemical additive has been popular to meet the required condition for a particular well-cementing job. However, due to a low oil-price phenomenon, pouring and additive should be reconsidered because it can raise the cost and make the project become uneconomic. Another additive material in nanocomposite form will be introduced through this experimental study. The nanocomposite material consist of silica nanoparticle, known as “Nanosilica” and a palm-shell-waste, which is abundant in Indonesia. Before making a nanocomposite, the palm-shell should be burned to obtain a charcoal form, ground and sieved to attain a uniform size.   The study focuses on the two parameters, compressive strength and shear bond strength, which can reflect the strength of the cement. These values are obtained by performing a biaxial loading test to the cement sample. Various samples with different concentration of nanocomposite should be prepared and following the mixing, drying, and hardening process before the loading test is carried out. The result from the test shows a positive indication for compressive strength and shear bond strength values, according to the representative well cementing standards. Increasing the nanocomposite concentration on the cement will increase these values. Furthermore, an investigation on the temperature effect confirms that the sample with 700oC burning temperature have highest compressive-strength and shear-bond-strength values. This is a potential opportunity utilizing a waste-based material to produce another product with higher economic value.

  6. Genome-Wide Association Study of Intelligence: Additive Effects of Novel Brain Expressed Genes

    Loo, Sandra K.; Shtir, Corina; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Smalley, Susan L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nelson, Stanley F.


    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with human intelligence or general cognitive ability. Method: We performed a genome-wide association analysis with a dense set of 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative intelligence scores within an ancestrally…

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study of Intelligence: Additive Effects of Novel Brain Expressed Genes

    Loo, Sandra K.; Shtir, Corina; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Smalley, Susan L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nelson, Stanley F.


    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with human intelligence or general cognitive ability. Method: We performed a genome-wide association analysis with a dense set of 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative intelligence scores within an ancestrally…

  8. Revaccination with Live Attenuated Vaccines Confer Additional Beneficial Nonspecific Effects on Overall Survival

    Benn, Christine S; Fisker, Ane B; Whittle, Hilton C


    BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore hypothesi......BACKGROUND: Live vaccines against measles (MV), tuberculosis (BCG), polio (OPV) and smallpox reduce mortality more than explained by target-disease prevention. The beneficial nonspecific effects (NSEs) of MV are strongest when MV is given in presence of maternal antibodies. We therefore....... In a quasi-experimental study two doses before and after 9months compared with one dose of MV after 9months of age reduced mortality by 59% (25-81%). BCG-revaccination significantly enhanced BCG's effect against overall child mortality in two RCTs. In a natural experiment study of OPV campaigns over a 13......-year-period in Guinea-Bissau, each additional dose of OPV was associated with a 13% (4-21%) reduction in mortality rate. The beneficial NSEs of smallpox vaccination for survival increased significantly with the number of smallpox vaccination scars. INTERPRETATION: Revaccination with live vaccines led...

  9. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults.

    Avelino, Ana Paula A; Oliveira, Gláucia M M; Ferreira, Célia C D; Luiz, Ronir R; Rosa, Glorimar


    Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA). We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (7% SFA/day of the total energy value). Low SFA (linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020). The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (Plinseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol. The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed oil showed notable effects by increasing the HDL cholesterol concentration. In addition, consumption of linseed oil, demonstrating the importance of reducing the consumption of saturated fat.

  10. Effects of Surface Modification Conditions on Hydrophobicity of Silica-based Coating Additives

    Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Hunter, Scott Robert [ORNL; Haynes, James A [ORNL; Hillesheim, Daniel A [ORNL


    Superhydrophobic silica (SHS) powders are being evaluated as a potential additive to the polyurethane topcoats used in Chemical Agent Resistant Coating (CARC) systems, with the goal of improving water repellency and corrosion protection characteristics. The current generation of CARC topcoats is already highly loaded with solids, and thus there is a premium on minimization of the total SHS powder required to achieve the desired properties. Therefore, efficient surface modification of the silica and proper dispersion in the coating will be required. The effect of a dispersant on the surface modification of silica particles by chlorosilanes was addressed in this study. The properties of various SHS powders were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis and mass spectroscopy. Correlations between powder modification conditions and the ultimate effects of the modified particles on hydrophobicity of CARC topcoats were assessed. The use of contact and rolling angle measurements along with scanning electron microscopy are discussed as they pertain to the ability to quantify the effects of modified silicas on corrosion prevention coatings. Furthermore, a systematic approach to modifying and testing both powders and top coats of corrosion prevention systems is presented.

  11. Effect of Additives on Liner Properties of Case-bonded Composite Propellants

    S. B. Navale


    Full Text Available A thin layer of liner is applied to ensure a good bond between the insulator and the propellant in case-bonded rocket motors. It also acts as a protective shield for the insulatorby providing a limited fire protection effect. Liner compositions should preferably be based on the same binder system used in the propellant formulations. As the liner has to hold the propellant and the insulator without debond under all the environmental conditions, it plays a key role in predicted performance of a rocket motor. Hence, studies were carried out to improve the liner properties using various hydroxyl compounds, such as butanediol, cardanol, trimethylol propane, pyrogallol, etc as additives. Butanediol and phloroglucinol combination gave the best results in terms of mechanical properties and interface properties for the liner compositions. The effect of filler content on the liner properties was also studied. The results showed that higher filler content does not affect interface properties. Considering the fire retardancy effect and reinforcement of antimony trioxide (S£203, the formulation containing higher Sb2O3 was selected. The studies on pot life/castable life of liner showed that propellant could be cast up to 6 days after liner coating, without adversely affecting the bonding and the bond strength.

  12. Effect of crystals and fibrous network polymer additives on cellular morphology of microcellular foams

    Miyamoto, Ryoma; Utano, Tatsumi; Yasuhara, Shunya; Ishihara, Shota; Ohshima, Masahiro


    In this study, the core-back foam injection molding was used for preparing microcelluar polypropylene (PP) foam with either a 1,3:2,4 bis-O-(4-methylbenzylidene)-D-sorbitol gelling agent (Gel-all MD) or a fibros network polymer additive (Metablen 3000). Both agent and addiive could effectively control the celluar morphology in foams but somehow different ways. In course of cooling the polymer with Gel-all MD in the mold caity, the agent enhanced the crystal nucleation and resulted in the large number of small crystals. The crystals acted as effective bubble nucleation agent in foaming process. Thus, the agent reduced the cell size and increased the cell density, drastically. Furthermore, the small crystals provided an inhomogenuity to the expanding cell wall and produced the high open cell content with nano-scale fibril structure. Gell-all as well as Metablene 3000 formed a gel-like fibrous network in melt. The network increased the elongational viscosity and tended to prevent the cell wall from breaking up. The foaming temperature window was widened by the presence of the network. Especially, the temperature window where the macro-fibrous structure was formed was expanded to the higher temperature. The effects of crystal nucleating agent and PTFE on crystals' size and number, viscoelsticity, rheological propreties of PP and cellular morphology were compared and thorougly investigated.

  13. Cryptic biodiversity effects: importance of functional redundancy revealed through addition of food web complexity.

    Philpott, Stacy M; Pardee, Gabriella L; Gonthier, David J


    Interactions between predators and the degree of functional redundancy among multiple predator species may determine whether herbivores experience increased or decreased predation risk. Specialist parasites can modify predator behavior, yet rarely have cascading effects on multiple predator species and prey been evaluated. We examined influences of specialist phorid parasites (Pseudacteon spp.) on three predatory ant species and herbivores in a coffee agroecosystem. Specifically, we examined whether changes in ant richness affected fruit damage by the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) and whether phorids altered multi-predator effects. Each ant species reduced borer damage, and without phorids, increasing predator richness did not further decrease borer damage. However, with phorids, activity of one ant species was reduced, indicating that the presence of multiple ant species was necessary to limit borer damage. In addition, phorid presence revealed synergistic effects of multiple ant species, not observed without the presence of this parasite. Thus, a trait-mediated cascade resulting from a parasite-induced predator behavioral change revealed the importance of functional redundancy, predator diversity, and food web complexity for control of this important pest.

  14. Effects of pulverized coal fly-ash addition as a wet-end filler in papermaking

    Sinha, A.S.K. [SLIET, Longowal (India). Dept. of Chemical Technology


    This experimental study is based on the innovative idea of using pulverized coal fly ash as a wet-end filler in papermaking. This is the first evaluation of the possible use of fly ash in the paper industry. Coal-based thermal power plants throughout the world are generating fly ash as a solid waste product. The constituents of fly ash can be used effectively in papermaking. Fly ash has a wide variation in particle size, which ranges from a few micrometers to one hundred micrometers. Fly ash acts as an inert material in acidic, neutral, and alkaline papermaking processes. Its physical properties such as bulk density (800-980 kg/m{sup 3}), porosity (45%-57%), and surface area (0.138-2.3076 m{sup 2}/g) make it suitable for use as a paper filler. Fly ash obtained from thermal power plants using pulverized coal was fractionated by a vibratory-sieve stack. The fine fraction with a particle size below 38 micrometers was used to study its effect on the important mechanical-strength and optical properties of paper. The effects of fly-ash addition on these properties were compared with those of kaolin clay. Paper opacity was found to be much higher with fly ash as a filler, whereas brightness decreased as the filler percentage increased Mechanical strength properties of the paper samples with fly ash as filler were superior to those with kaolin clay.


    Streptococcus infection in human populations continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the effect of genetic background and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on antibacterial defense to streptococcal infection, eight genetically diverse strains of mic...

  16. Effect of hydroxy (HHO gas addition on gasoline engine performance and emiss

    Mohamed M. EL-Kassaby


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to construct a simple innovative HHO generation system and evaluate the effect of hydroxyl gas HHO addition, as an engine performance improver, into gasoline fuel on engine performance and emissions. HHO cell was designed, fabricated and optimized for maximum HHO gas productivity per input power. The optimized parameters were the number of neutral plates, distance between them and type and quantity of two catalysts of Potassium Hydroxide (KOH and sodium hydroxide (NaOH. The performance of a Skoda Felicia 1.3 GLXi gasoline engine was evaluated with and without the optimized HHO cell. In addition, the CO, HC and NOx emissions were measured using TECNO TEST exhaust gas analyzer TE488. The results showed that the HHO gas maximum productivity of the cell was 18 L/h when using 2 neutrals plates with 1 mm distance and 6 g/L of KOH. The results also showed 10% increment in the gasoline engine thermal efficiency, 34% reduction in fuel consumption, 18% reduction in CO, 14% reduction in HC and 15% reduction in NOx.

  17. Effect of fluoride additives on production and characterization of nano--Al2O3 particles

    F Mirjalili


    Nano--Al2O3 particles were synthesized by a sol–gel method using aqueous solutions of aluminum isopropoxide and 0.5 Maluminum nitrate. Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) was used as surfactant stabilizing agents. The solution was stirred for 48 h at 60 °C. The microstructural observation showed that surfactant with 48 h stirring time nanoscale -Al2O3 powder was produced at 1200 °C in the range of 20–30 nm in the presence of SDBS as a surfactant with 48 h stirring time. Temperature reduction of -Al2O3 formation has been achieved by introducing fluoride in the alumina precursor. The effects of ZnF2 additive and milling on the phase transformation as well as micrograph of the prepared -Al2O3 particles were investigated. The samples were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectra, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Results indicated that using zinc fluoride (ZnF2) additive accompanied by milling led to retardation of the transformation temperature and modification of the alumina particle shape. The finest size for nonagglomerated nano-plate-like -Al2O3 particles (15–20 nm) was achieved at 950 °C.

  18. Effect of fluxing additive on sintering temperature, microstructure and properties of BaTiO3

    Yaseen Iqbal; Asad Jamal; Riaz Ullah; M Naeem Khan; Rick Ubic


    Various fluxing materials are added to technical ceramics in an attempt to lower their sintering temperatures and make their processing economical. The effect of 0.3wt%Li2CO3 addition on the phase, microstructure, phase transition temperatures and dielectric properties of BaTiO3 was investigated in the present study. The addition of 0.3wt% Li2CO3 was observed to lower the optimum sintering temperature by ∼200°C with no second phase formation and cause a five-fold reduction in grain size. Rhombohedral-to-orthorhombic and tetragonal-to-cubic phase transitions at the expected temperatures were evident from the Raman spectra, but the orthorhombic-totetragonal phase transition was not clearly discernible. The persistence of various phase(s) at higher temperatures in the flux-added materials indicated that the phase transitions occurred relatively slowly. A decrease in dielectric constant of Li2O-added BaTiO3 in comparison to pure BaTiO3 may be due to the diminished dielectric polarizability of Li+ in comparison to Ba2+.

  19. Non-additive effects of genotypic diversity increase floral abundance and abundance of floral visitors.

    Mark A Genung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the emerging field of community and ecosystem genetics, genetic variation and diversity in dominant plant species have been shown to play fundamental roles in maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function. However, the importance of intraspecific genetic variation and diversity to floral abundance and pollinator visitation has received little attention. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using an experimental common garden that manipulated genotypic diversity (the number of distinct genotypes per plot of Solidago altissima, we document that genotypic diversity of a dominant plant can indirectly influence flower visitor abundance. Across two years, we found that 1 plant genotype explained 45% and 92% of the variation in flower visitor abundance in 2007 and 2008, respectively; and 2 plant genotypic diversity had a positive and non-additive effect on floral abundance and the abundance of flower visitors, as plots established with multiple genotypes produced 25% more flowers and received 45% more flower visits than would be expected under an additive model. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide evidence that declines in genotypic diversity may be an important but little considered factor for understanding plant-pollinator dynamics, with implications for the global decline in pollinators due to reduced plant diversity in both agricultural and natural ecosystems.

  20. Lack of additional effect of adjunct of assisted ventilation to pulmonary rehabilitation in mild COPD patients.

    Bianchi, L; Foglio, K; Porta, R; Baiardi, R; Vitacca, M; Ambrosino, N


    Different modalities of assisted ventilation improve breathlessness and exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of assisted ventilation during exercise training on the outcome of a structured pulmonary rehabilitation programme (PRP) in COPD patients. Thirty-three male patients with stable COPD (mean (SD) forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 44 (16) % pred), without chronic ventilatory failure, undergoing a 6-week multidisciplinary outpatient PRP including exercise training, were randomised to training during either mask proportional assist ventilation (PAV: 18 patients) or spontaneous breathing (SB: 15 patients). Assessment included exercise tolerance, dyspnoea, leg fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQL). Five out of 18 patients (28%) in the PAV group dropped out due to lack of compliance with the equipment. Both groups showed significant post-PRP improvements in exercise tolerance (peak work rate difference: 20 (95% Cl 2.4-37.6) and 14 (3.8% CI to 24.2) W in PAV and SB group, respectively), dyspnoea and leg fatigue, but not in HRQL, without any significant difference between groups. It is concluded that with the modality and in the patients assessed in this study assisted ventilation during training sessions included in a multidisciplinary PRP was not well tolerated by all patients and gave no additional physiological benefit in comparison with exercise training alone.

  1. Effect of interface reflection in pseudophakic eyes with an additional refractive intraocular lens.

    Schrecker, Jens; Zoric, Katja; Meßner, Arthur; Eppig, Timo


    To compare the surface reflections in a pseudophakic model eye with and without a monofocal additional refractive intraocular lens (add-on IOL). Department of Ophthalmology, Rudolf-Virchow-Klinikum Glauchau, Glauchau, and Experimental Ophthalmology, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany. Experimental study. The Liou and Brennan model eye was used to determine the retinal surface reflections in a pseudophakic model eye with and without an add-on IOL. The crystalline lens of the model eye was replaced by (1) a standard posterior chamber IOL (PC IOL) with a refractive power of 22.0 diopters (D) and (2) a PC IOL and an add-on IOL with refractive powers of 19.0 D and 2.5 D, respectively. To theoretically estimate the impact of the reflected images to visual impression, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated under 2 conditions: without and with straylight and double reflection effects. Compared with the pseudophakic model eye without an add-on IOL, the pseudophakic model eye with an add-on IOL showed no relevant differences in the SNR under both conditions. Findings indicate that implantation of monofocal add-on IOLs will not induce relevant additional disturbing glare compared with conventional pseudophakia. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of tert-butyl hydroperoxide addition on spontaneous chemiluminescence in brain.

    Azorin, I; Bella, M C; Iborra, F J; Fornas, E; Renau-Piqueras, J


    It is well known that light emission is related to lipid peroxidation in biological material, and that this process occurs spontaneously in the brain. tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) is an organic peroxide widely used as initiator of free radical production in several biological systems. However, the prooxidant capacity of this compound remins unclear. To clarify its role in brain spontaneous autooxidation, rat brain homogenates were incubated with and without tBHP. Light emission and lipid peroxidation were measured by luminometry and the TBARs test, respectively. Several inhibitors of free radical-induced lipid peroxidation were also used. These inhibitors included ascorbate, EDTA, and desferrioxamine. Our results indicate that the pattern of light emission spontaneously produced in brain was different from that observed after the addition of tBHP to the homogenates, and that these differences depended on the tBHP concentration. The main difference was that tBHP caused a rapid light emission that reached its maximum more quickly than in the case of spontaneous emission. Addition of ascorbate resulted in an increase in chemiluminescence in presence of tBHP. In contrast, EDTA and desferrioxamine inhibited light emission in homogenates both with and without tBHP. The results of MDA determination were similar to those described, including the effect of inhibitors. A common feature in MDA and luminometric determinations was the dispersion of data. In conclusion, these results suggest that tBHP, under specific conditions, modify the kinetic pattern of brain spontaneous autooxidation.

  3. Effect of organic acids as additives on the performance of thermoplastic starch/polyester blown films.

    Olivato, J B; Grossmann, M V E; Bilck, A P; Yamashita, F


    The influence of citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA) and tartaric acid (TA) in starch/poly (butylene adipate co-terephthalate) blown films was evaluated by examining the barrier, structural and mechanical properties of the films. These properties were analysed in different relative humidities. Greater concentrations of TA and CA (1.5 wt%) produced films with improved tensile strength (6.8±0.3 and 6.7±0.3 MPa, respectively), reduced water vapour permeability and a more homogeneous structure. The compatibilising effect of MA was less efficient, as shown in the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Changes in the relative humidity (RH) affected the elongation of the films, which reached values of 5.7±0.5 at 33% RH and increased to 312.4±89.5% at 53% RH. The FT-IR spectra showed no additional reactions caused by the incorporation of the additives, and the observed results are attributed to the esterification reactions and/or hydrolysis of the starch, producing films with interesting properties. This process represents an alternative to the use of non-biodegradable materials.

  4. Effect of an additional dose of indacaterol in COPD patients under regular treatment with indacaterol.

    Cazzola, Mario; Segreti, Andrea; Stirpe, Emanuele; Puxeddu, Ermanno; Ora, Josuel; Rogliani, Paola; Matera, Maria Gabriella


    In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study, we explored the acute effects on respiratory function and safety of an additional dose of indacaterol 150 μg in stable COPD patients regularly treated with a conventional dose of indacaterol 150 μg. On two non-consecutive days, patients inhaled indacaterol 150 μg. After 180 min, they inhaled an additional dose of indacaterol 150 μg or placebo. Lung function, oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO(2)) and heart rate were measured before the first drug administration and up to 360 min thereafter. In both treatment groups, indacaterol induced a significant (P indacaterol 150 μg with the second dose of 150 μg. Indacaterol 150 μg induced a modest but significant decrease in SpO(2) up to 60 min and a second dose of indacaterol 150 μg significantly decreased the SpO(2) mean value up to 360 min. This study suggests that it is reasonable and safe to increase the dose of indacaterol in those stable COPD patients who are under regular therapy with indacaterol 150 μg from which they do not draw the maximum benefit because they are unable to perceive bronchodilation. However, only a minority of patients seem to benefit from this dose escalation, at least in terms of spirometric improvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry: effects of acidification and sulfur addition.

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik V; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Petersen, Søren O


    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (HS) with addition of sulfate and methionine ( slurries resulted in little accumulation of MT and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under neutral conditions, in contrast to acidic conditions where the degradation was inhibited and both MT and DMS accumulated. Based on odor activity values, untreated slurry had little odor development from S compounds, especially the aged slurry. Acidification did not significantly increase odor contribution from any of the compounds in fresh or aged slurry. Generally, addition of a sulfate increased the contribution from HS dramatically, whereas acidification lowered the HS contribution but increased that of MT. Thus, acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid may potentially produce more odor from S compounds than untreated slurry. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. Effect of Ca and Y additions on oxidation behavior of AZ91 alloy at elevated temperatures

    CHENG Su-ling; YANG Gen-cang; FAN Jian-feng; LI You-jie; ZHOU Yao-he


    In order to develop the ignition-proof magnesium alloy, the effect of alloying elements, Ca and Y, on the oxidation behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy at elevated temperatures was investigated. The ignition-proof performance, oxide products and oxidation kinetics of Ca- and Y-containing AZ91 alloys were studied. The results indicate that the proper addition of Ca can increase the ignition point of AZ91 alloy greatly. However, the oxide film of Ca-bearing AZ91 alloy formed at elevated temperature is thick and brittle, which is prone to crack in melting and cooling process. In addition, the oxide film of AZ91-xCa alloy is incompact and cannot inhibit the diffusion of reaction particles. The oxide film of AZ91-xCa alloy turns to thin and plastic one after Y is added, and the density of the oxide film increases greatly due to the formation of composite oxide film composed of MgO, CaO and Y2O3.

  7. Studies on effect of additives on protein profile, microstructure and quality characteristics of pasta.

    Purnima, C; Ramasarma, P R; Prabhasankar, P


    Wheat storage proteins play a vital role in pasta making quality. In the present study, SDS-PAGE, Gel filtration chromatography and Scanning electron microscopy techniques were employed to understand the changes in the wheat protein fractions and their interactions with additives namely Sodium Steroyl Lactate (SSL), Glycerol Monostearate (GMS) and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) during processing of pasta. SDS-PAGE studies indicated changes in High Molecular Weight Glutenin (HMW) fractions during drying stages of pasta preparation and in cooked pasta samples. In uncooked pasta, gel filtration patterns showed four peaks corresponding to different storage proteins whereas in the case of cooked pasta, these peaks were merged into three peaks. Pasta quality characteristics studies indicated that pasta with HPMC was found to have minimum percentage of cooking loss (5.6%), increased cooked weight (82 g), firmness (2.97 N) and high overall quality score (27) than GMS, SSL and control. Microstructure studies confirm the beneficial effect of HPMC. The present study indicated that HPMC is better additive for pasta manufacture followed by GMS. This could be due to interaction of HPMC with starch and protein matrix is different from that of GMS and SSL.

  8. Effect of Additional Information on Consumer Acceptance: An Example with Pomegranate Juice and Green Tea Blends

    Federica Higa


    Full Text Available Pomegranate Juice (PJ and Green Tea (GT products have increased in popularity because of their beneficial health properties. Consumers look for healthier beverages, and rely on labels, claims, and product packaging when choosing a product. The objectives of this study were to determine (1 the sensory profiles and acceptance of PJ and GT blends; (2 whether additional information would have an effect on consumer acceptance; and (3 the total phenolic content (TPC of the samples. Six PJ and GT blends were evaluated by a descriptive panel in order to explore sensory differences in flavor characteristics. A consumer panel (n = 100 evaluated the samples before and after beneficial health information about the samples was provided to them. The blends that were higher in tea concentration were higher in Green and GT-like flavors, and lower in berry, beet, floral, sweetness, and cherry flavors. The overall liking scores of all of the samples increased after the information was provided to the consumers. The sample highest in PJ and lowest in GT blend was liked the most. In addition, as the samples increased in PJ, the TPC content increased. These results may be of interest to the beverage industry, providing information of consumer liking of beverage blends, and how information on health related claims affects consumer acceptance.

  9. Effect of electrolyte addition to rehydration drinks consumed after severe fluid and energy restriction.

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M


    This study examined the effect of electrolyte addition to drinks ingested after severe fluid and energy restriction (FER). Twelve subjects (6 male and 6 female) completed 3 trials consisting of 24-hour FER (energy intake: 21 kJ·kg body mass; water intake: 5 ml·kg body mass), followed by a 2-hour rehydration period and a 4-hour monitoring period. During rehydration, subjects ingested a volume of drink equal to 125% of the body mass lost during FER in 6 aliquots, once every 20 minutes. Drinks were a sugar-free lemon squash (P) or the P drink with the addition of 50 mmol·L sodium chloride (Na) or 30 mmol·L potassium chloride (K). Total void urine samples were given before and after FER and every hour during rehydration and monitoring. Over all trials, FER produced a 2.1% reduction in body mass and negative sodium (-67 mmol), potassium (-48 mmol), and chloride (-84 mmol) balances. Urine output after drinking was 1627 (540) ml (P), 1391 (388) ml (K), and 1150 (438) ml (Na), with a greater postdrinking urine output during P than Na (p ≤ 0.05). Ingestion of drink Na resulted in a more positive sodium balance compared with P or K (p drink K resulted in a more positive potassium balance compared with P or Na (p drink results in an increased sodium balance that augments greater drink retention compared with a low electrolyte placebo drink.

  10. Effect of Graphene Addition on Shape Memory Behavior of Epoxy Resins

    Williams, Tiffany; Meador, Michael; Miller, Sandi; Scheiman, Daniel


    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) and composites are a special class of smart materials known for their ability to change size and shape upon exposure to an external stimulus (e.g. light, heat, pH, or magnetic field). These materials are commonly used for biomedical applications; however, recent attempts have been made towards developing SMPs and composites for use in aircraft and space applications. Implementing SMPs and composites to create a shape change effect in some aircraft structures could potentially reduce drag, decrease fuel consumption, and improve engine performance. This paper discusses the development of suitable materials to use in morphing aircraft structures. Thermally responsive epoxy SMPs and nanocomposites were developed and the shape memory behavior and thermo-mechanical properties were studied. Overall, preliminary results from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that thermally actuated shape memory epoxies and nanocomposites possessed Tgs near approximately 168 C. When graphene nanofiller was added, the storage modulus and crosslinking density decreased. On the other hand, the addition of graphene enhanced the recovery behavior of the shape memory nanocomposites. It was assumed that the addition of graphene improved shape memory recovery by reducing the crosslinking density and increasing the elasticity of the nanocomposites.

  11. Effects of thermal treatments on the characterisation and utilisation of red mud with sawdust additive.

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Du, Jianhua


    Extremely large amounts of red mud (bauxite residue) are generated globally every year from alumina refining industries, which are being disposed of on engineered landfills. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thermal treatments on red mud for development of utilisation strategies. Thermal treatments of red mud samples and their characterisations were investigated under inert (N2) and oxidative (air) conditions with and without sawdust addition at 200-600°C. After calcination, the resulting samples were analysed using thermogravimetric-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) for functional group transformations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal loss profiles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral transformations. The characterisation results showed that in N2 environment, boehmite in red mud was transferred to transition alumina at around 400°C while losing water from structural components. The addition of sawdust for incubation and calcination of red mud in air increased the surface area, whereas that in nitrogen atmosphere lead to reduction of hematite to magnetite at around 500°C. The incorporated carbon materials played a major role in increasing the surface area especially for pore size less than 2.5 nm. This treated red mud with altered mineral composition and improved properties for binding contaminants can be used for environmental remediation and in the process of metal recovery such as iron.

  12. Effect of titania addition on hot hardness of UO{sub 2}

    Sengupta, A.K. E-mail:; Basak, C.B.; Jarvis, T.; Bhagat, R.K.; Pandey, V.D.; Majumdar, S


    Large grain UO{sub 2} is a potential fuel for LWR's for achieving extended burn up. Large grains are obtained by addition of dopants like Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} etc. However, presence of such dopants might affect the thermophysical and thermomechanical properties of the fuel. In the present investigation the effect of TiO{sub 2} addition on the hot hardness (H) of sintered UO{sub 2} fuel has been studied from ambient to 1573 K in vacuum. TiO{sub 2} content was varied from 0.01 to 0.15 w/o resulting in a grain size (G) variation of 9 to 94 {mu}m. With increase in grain size (or TiO{sub 2} content) H first decreases, attains a minima and then increases further. The increase is more prominent at lower temperature (<773 K) than that at higher temperatures. H vs. G{sup -1/2} plots indicates the same type of variation like other oxide ceramics with H minima at an intermediate grain size at low temperature. The intrinsic hardness and softening coefficient of UO{sub 2} indicate cubic dependence on TiO{sub 2} content.

  13. Effect of Boron Addition on the Thermal, Degradation, and Cytocompatibility Properties of Phosphate-Based Glasses

    Nusrat Sharmin


    Full Text Available In this study eight different phosphate-based glass compositions were prepared by melt-quenching: four in the (P2O545-(CaO16--(MgO24- system and four in the system (P2O550-(CaO16--(MgO24-, where and 10 mol%. The effect of B2O3 addition on the thermal properties, density, molar volume, dissolution rates, and cytocompatibility were studied for both glass systems. Addition of B2O3 increased the glass transition (, crystallisation (, melting (, Liquidus ( and dilatometric softening ( temperature and molar volume (. The thermal expansion coefficient (α and density ( were seen to decrease. An assessment of the thermal stability of the glasses was made in terms of their processing window (crystallisation onset, minus glass transition temperature, , and an increase in the processing window was observed with increasing B2O3 content. Degradation studies of the glasses revealed that the rates decreased with increasing B2O3 content and a decrease in degradation rates was also observed as the P2O5 content reduced from 50 to 45 mol%. MG63 osteoblast-like cells cultured in direct contact with the glass samples for 14 days revealed comparative data to the positive control for the cell metabolic activity, proliferation, ALP activity, and morphology for glasses containing up to 5 mol% of B2O3.

  14. Effects of additional team-based learning on students' clinical reasoning skills: a pilot study.

    Jost, Meike; Brüstle, Peter; Giesler, Marianne; Rijntjes, Michel; Brich, Jochen


    In the field of Neurology good clinical reasoning skills are essential for successful diagnosing and treatment. Team-based learning (TBL), an active learning and small group instructional strategy, is a promising method for fostering these skills. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a supplementary TBL-class on students' clinical decision-making skills. Fourth- and fifth-year medical students participated in this pilot study (static-group comparison design). The non-treatment group (n = 15) did not receive any additional training beyond regular teaching in the neurology course. The treatment group (n = 11) took part in a supplementary TBL-class optimized for teaching clinical reasoning in addition to the regular teaching in the neurology course. Clinical decision making skills were assessed using a key-feature problem examination. Factual and conceptual knowledge was assessed by a multiple-choice question examination. The TBL-group performed significantly better than the non-TBL-group (p = 0.026) in the key-feature problem examination. No significant differences between the results of the multiple-choice question examination of both groups were found. In this pilot study participants of a supplementary TBL-class significantly improved clinical decision-making skills, indicating that TBL may be an appropriate method for teaching clinical decision making in neurology. Further research is needed for replication in larger groups and other clinical fields.

  15. Effects of Honey Addition on Antioxidative Properties of Different Herbal Teas

    Toydemir Gamze


    Full Text Available Tea and herbal infusions are among the major contributors of phenolic compounds, specifically flavonoids, in our daily diet. Honey is another antioxidant-rich food that is widely used as a natural sweetener. In this work, the effects of honey addition on antioxidant properties of different herbal teas were investigated. For this purpose, 2 different types of honey (flower and pine honey were added into 9 different herbal teas (melissa, green tea, rosehip, sage, echinacea, fennel, linden, daisy, and ginger at 4 different temperatures (55°C, 65°C, 75°C, and 85°C, and the changes in the content of total pheolics, total flavonoids, and total antioxidant capacity were determined. The total phenolic content and the total antioxidant capacity of the honey-added-tea samples were found to be increased (up to 57% for both, especially with pine honey and at higher temperatures of honey addition. The findings of this study supported the use of honey as a natural sweetener in tea in order to be able to benefit from the health-enhancing antioxidative properties of these two promising food products.

  16. Effects of Additives, Photodegradation, and Water-tree Degradation on the Photoluminescence in Polyethylene and Polypropylene

    Ito, Toshihide; Fuse, Norikazu; Ohki, Yoshimichi

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectra induced by irradiation of ultraviolet photons are compared among low-density polyethylene (LDPE), crosslinked polyethylene (XLPE), and polypropylene (PP). Three PL bands appear around 4.2, 3.6, and 3.1 eV in LDPE and XLPE, while similar three PL bands are observed at similar energies in PP. The PL spectra and their decay profiles are independent of the presence of additives and are also independent of whether the samples were crosslinked or not. These results indicate that neither the additives nor the crosslinking has any significant effects on the respective three PLs in PE and PP. When the sample was pre-irradiated by the ultraviolet photons under different atmospheres (air, O2, and vacuum), all the PL intensities decrease with the progress of the pre-irradiation regardless of whether the sample is PE or PP. Therefore, all the PLs are considered to result from impurities. In all the pre-irradiated samples, a new PL band appears at 2.9 eV, of which intensity is stronger when the oxygen partial pressure during the pre-irradiation was lower. This PL is considered to be due to photo-induced conjugated double bonds. It has also been confirmed that water-tree degradation in LDPE or in XLPE does not contribute to PL.

  17. Effect of Ti-V-Nb-Mo addition on microstructure of high chromium cast iron

    Ma Youping


    Full Text Available The effects of trace additions of multi-alloying elements (Ti, Nb, V, Mo on carbides precipitation and as-cast microstructure of eutectic high chromium cast iron containing 2.85wt.%C and 31.0wt.%Cr were investigated from thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. The thermodynamic calculations show that Ti and Nb exist in the multi-alloying system in the forms of TiC and NbC. The formation of VC during the solidification is not feasible from the thermodynamic consideration. XRD analysis shows that the V exists in alloy compounds (VCr2C2, VCrFe8. The first precipitated high melting point particles (TiC, NbC can act as the heterogeneous substrate of M7C3 carbides, which results in significant refinement of the M7C3 carbides. After the addition of alloying elements, C atom diffusion is hindered due to the strong affinities of the strong carbide forming elements for carbon, which decreases the growth rate of carbides. The combined roles of the increase of nucleation rate and the decrease of carbides growth rate lead to the finer microstructure.

  18. Effect of Salt and Ethanol Addition on Zein-Starch Dough and Bread Quality.

    Smith, Brennan M; Bean, Scott R; Selling, Gordon; Sessa, David; Aramouni, Fadi M


    Development of viscoelastic doughs from non-wheat proteins allows for a wider range of gluten-free products. Little work has been completed to describe mechanisms of zein functionality in food systems. To identify factors responsible for dough development in zein-starch mixtures and their influence on zein bread quality, a mixture of 20% zein-80% maize starch was mixed with water and various reagents. Salts, NaSCN, NaCl, and Na2 SO4 were evaluated at concentrations from 0 to 2M for their influence on the properties of zein-starch dough systems. NaSCN at low concentrations produced softer dough. Ethanol treatments produced softer more workable dough in the absence of salts. Increasing concentrations of NaCl and Na2 SO4 resulted in coalescing of the proteins and no dough formation. The addition of β-ME had minimal softening effects on zein-starch dough. Specific volumes of zein-starch bread increased with decreasing NaCl addition in bread formulations. Likewise, including 5% ethanol (v/v) in the bread formula increased bread quality.

  19. Multiple splice variants within the bovine silver homologue (SILV gene affecting coat color in cattle indicate a function additional to fibril formation in melanophores

    Weikard Rosemarie


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The silver homologue(SILV gene plays a major role in melanosome development. SILV is a target for studies concerning melanoma diagnostics and therapy in humans as well as on skin and coat color pigmentation in many species ranging from zebra fish to mammals. However, the precise functional cellular mechanisms, in which SILV is involved, are still not completely understood. While there are many studies addressing SILV function upon a eumelaneic pigment background, there is a substantial lack of information regarding the further relevance of SILV, e.g. for phaeomelanosome development. Results In contrast to previous results in other species reporting SILV expression exclusively in pigmented tissues, our experiments provide evidence that the bovine SILV gene is expressed in a variety of tissues independent of pigmentation. Our data show that the bovine SILV gene generates an unexpectedly large number of different transcripts occurring in skin as well as in non-pigmented tissues, e.g. liver or mammary gland. The alternative splice sites are generated by internal splicing and primarily remove complete exons. Alternative splicing predominantly affects the repeat domain of the protein, which has a functional key role in fibril formation during eumelanosome development. Conclusion The expression of the bovine SILV gene independent of pigmentation suggests SILV functions exceeding melanosome development in cattle. This hypothesis is further supported by transcript variants lacking functional key elements of the SILV protein relevant for eumelanosome development. Thus, the bovine SILV gene can serve as a model for the investigation of the putative additional functions of SILV. Furthermore, the splice variants of the bovine SILV gene represent a comprehensive natural model to refine the knowledge about functional domains in the SILV protein. Our study exemplifies that the extent of alternative splicing is presumably much higher than

  20. The Effect of Nano-TiC Addition on Sintered Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets

    Mural, Zorjana; Kollo, Lauri; Xia, Manlong


    This paper addresses the effect of nano-TiC addition on sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. TiC nanoparticles were added to sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with a specific aim to improve the Curie temperature and thermal stability. A standard powder metallurgy route was adopted to prepare the magnets. I...... for such magnets showed an improved shape and VSM analysis a coercivity value of 1188 kA/m, a remanence value of 0.96 T and a maximum energy product of 132 kJ/m3. The maximum working point and the Curie temperature of the developed magnets were 373 K and 623 K respectively....

  1. Effect of the addition of CMC on the aggregation behaviour of proteins

    Yu, H.; Sabato, S.F.; D' Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M. E-mail:


    The effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the aggregation of formulation based on calcium caseinate, commercial whey protein (WPC), and a 1:1 mixture of soy protein isolate (SPI) and whey protein isolate (WPI) was investigated. Protein aggregation could be observed upon addition of CMC, as demonstrated by size-exclusion chromatography. This aggregation behaviour was enhanced by means of physical treatments, such as heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min or gamma-irradiation at 32 kGy. A synergy resulted from the combination of CMC to gamma-irradiation in Caseinate/CMC and SPI/WPI/CMC formulations. Furthermore, CMC prevented precipitation in irradiated protein solutions for a period of more than 3 months at 4 deg. C.

  2. Effect of galactooligosaccharide addition on the physical, optical, and sensory acceptance of vanilla ice cream.

    Balthazar, C F; Silva, H L A; Celeguini, R M S; Santos, R; Pastore, G M; Junior, C A Conte; Freitas, M Q; Nogueira, L C; Silva, M C; Cruz, A G


    The effect of the addition of galactooligosaccharide (GOS) on the physicochemical, optical, and sensory characteristics of ice cream was investigated. Vanilla ice cream was supplemented with 0, 1.5, and 3.0% (wt/wt) GOS and characterized for pH, firmness, color, melting, overrun, as well as subjected to a discriminative sensory test (triangle test). For comparison purposes, ice creams containing fructooligosaccharide were also manufactured. The GOS ice creams were characterized by increased firmness and lower melting rates. Different perceptions were reported in the sensory evaluation for the 3.0% GOS ice cream when compared with the control, which was not observed for the fructooligosaccharide ice cream. Overall, the findings suggest it is possible to produce GOS ice cream with improved stability in relation to the physicochemical parameters and sensory perception.

  3. Implementation of industrial waste ferrochrome slag in conventional and low cement castables: Effect of microsilica addition

    Pattem Hemanth Kumar


    Samples with decreasing cement content 15–05 wt.% were formulated in combination of both slag and calcined bauxite as matrix components. Effects of varying 0–10 wt.% microsilica as a micro-fine additive in these castables were investigated in this work. Pore filling properties of microsilica improved apparent porosity and bulk density. Phase analysis through X-ray diffraction techniques demonstrates successful formation of spinel and mullite crystalline phases. Mechanical behavior was evaluated through cold crushing strength and residual cold crushing strength after five consecutive water quenching cycles. Scanning electron microscopy measurements were carried out in order to better understand the packing density and reaction mechanisms of fired castables. Slag containing castables portrays good thermal properties such as thermal shock resistance, permanent linear change and pyrometric cone equivalent.

  4. Effects of rare earth oxide additives on the thermal behaviors of aluminum nitride ceramics

    YAO Yijun; WANG Ling; LI Chuncheng; JIANG Xiaolong; QIU Tai


    The effects of Y_2O_3 and Er_2O_3 on the sintering behaviors, thermal properties and microstructure of AIN ceramics were investigated. The ex-perimental results show that the sintering temperature can be decreased; the relative density and thermal behavior can be improved by adding rare earth oxide in AIN ceramics. For AIN ceramics with 3 wt.% Er_2O_3 additive, the relative density is 98.8%, and the thermal conductivity reaches 106 W·m~(-1)·K~(-1). The microstructure research found that no obvious aluminum erbium oxide was found in AIN ceramics doped with 3 wt.% Er_2O_3, which favored the improvement of the thermal conductivity of AIN ceramics.

  5. Effect of gas environment and sorbate addition on flavor characteristics of irradiated apple cider during storage.

    Crook, Loretta R; Boylston, Terri D; Glatz, Bonita A


    Apple cider, with (0.1%) and without potassium sorbate, was packaged in polystyrene containers and exposed to three different gas environments: oxygen flush, nitrogen flush, and atmospheric air. To evaluate the effects of irradiation (2 kGy) and storage on flavor and microbial quality, these irradiated apple cider samples were compared to a control, unirradiated sample exposed to atmospheric air. Volatile compounds, soluble solids, titratable acidity, and microbiological counts were determined weekly throughout 7 weeks of refrigerated (4 degrees C) storage. Cider irradiated and stored in atmospheric air or nitrogen-flush environments had lower rates of loss for characteristic flavor volatiles compared to unirradiated apple cider and cider irradiated and stored in an oxygen-flush environment. The addition of potassium sorbate to the apple cider resulted in lower counts of yeasts and aerobic microorganisms, reduced fermentation of sugars to organic acids, and improved retention of volatile compounds characteristic of apple cider.

  6. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay


    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  7. The addition effects of macro and nano clay on the performance of asphalt binder

    M. El-Shafie


    Full Text Available The study was carried out to explore the addition effect of macro and organically modified nanoclay on the physical and mechanical properties of asphalt binders. Both macroclay and modified nanoclay were blended in an asphalt binder in various percentages (starting from 2% to 8%. The blended asphalt binders were characterized using kinematic viscosity (, softening point (°C, and penetration and compared with anunmodified binder. The tensile strength of the asphalt binders was also tested as a function of clay types and content%. The results of the study indicated an increase in softening point; kinematics viscosity and decrease in binder penetration. The tensile strength of modified clay binders was enhanced at all percentages by a comparison with both macroclay and unmodified binders. The best improvements in the modified binders were obtained with 6% nanoclay.

  8. Effect of yttrium addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of ODS RAF steels

    Auger, M.A., E-mail: [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Av Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Castro, V. de; Leguey, T.; Tarcísio-Costa, J.; Monge, M.A.; Muñoz, A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Av Universidad 30, 28911 Leganés (Spain)


    An oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy with nominal composition Fe–14Cr–2W–0.3Ti–0.24Y (wt.%) was produced by mechanical alloying using elemental powders, and subsequent hot isostatic pressing. The microstructure of the material and characteristics of the oxide particle dispersion were investigated by electron microscopy. The effect of heat treatments on the microhardness and tensile properties at room temperature was also studied. The results show that a fine dispersion of Y–O-rich nanoparticles is achieved, together with larger (Cr, Ti)-rich precipitates. The absence of Ti is apparent in the majority of these nanoparticles, in contrast with reported results for ODS Ti-modified steels processed with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition.

  9. Effect of filler addition on the compressive and impact properties of glass fibre reinforced epoxy

    Nikhil Gupta; Balraj Singh Brar; Eyassu Woldesenbet


    Flyash is incorporated in glass fibre reinforced epoxies to study their response to the filler addition. Low cost of flyash can reduce the overall cost of the component. Only very low volume fractions of filler are investigated in the present study. To obtain further clarification of the observed phenomenon, another abundantly available low cost material, calcium carbonate is incorporated in one set of the specimens. Compressive strength of the material is found to decrease, whereas steep increase in impact strength is observed by introduction of very small quantity of fillers. Specimens containing calcium carbonate are tested for impact properties only. Effect of specimen aspect ratio on the compressive strength values is also studied by testing specimens of three different aspect ratios. Scanning electron microscopic observations are taken to develop a better understanding of the phenomena taking place in the material system at microscopic level.

  10. Independent, additive effects of five dietary variables on ad libitum energy intake in a residential study.

    Urban, Lorien E; McCrory, Megan A; Rasmussen, Helen; Greenberg, Andrew S; Fuss, Paul J; Saltzman, Edward; Roberts, Susan B


    To examine the relationship between dietary characteristics of self-selected foods and energy balance in a cafeteria-style dining hall. Ad libitum dietary intake from a self-selection menu was measured over two days in 151 adults (70% female, mean age 41 years, mean BMI 24.9 kg/m(2) ). The associations of dietary variables with energy balance (calculated as measured energy intake/predicted energy requirements, pER) were assessed. Measured energy intake was significantly correlated with pER (R(2) =0.83, P obese individuals. There are independent associations of dietary protein, liquid calories, energy density, dietary variety, and glycemic index with energy balance, indicating additive effects of these dietary factors on energy intake and energy balance. Intervention studies are needed to determine whether dietary prescriptions combining these dietary factors facilitate long-term prevention of weight gain. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  11. Effect of ionic additives on elasticity of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal

    Zhou, Shuang; Cervenka, Adam J.; Singh, Yogesh; Tortora, Luana T.; Almasan, Carmen C.; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.


    Using a magnetic Frederiks transition technique, we determine how the splay K1 and bend K3 elastic constants of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal Sunset Yellow (SSY) depend on concentration of ionic additives, sodium chloride (NaCl) and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4). Both salts increase the ratio K1 /K3 , by mainly increasing K1 (MgSO4) or mainly decreasing K3 (NaCl). The effects are attributed to the screening of electrostatic repulsions of chromonic molecules, which is expected to increase the contour length (thus increasing K1) and to decrease the persistence length (thus decreasing K3) of the chromonic aggregates in which the molecules are stacked face-to-face. As in salt-free SSY, the ratio K1 /K3 increases when the temperature decreases. The work was supporeted by NSF grants DMR 1104850 and 11212878.

  12. Effect Of LLDPE Addition On The Reduction Of Feo From EAF Slags

    James Ransford Dankwah


    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of waste linear low density propylene LLDPE addition on the reduction of FeO-containing slag by metallurgical coke has been investigated through experiments conducted in a laboratory scale horizontal tube furnace. Composite pellets of EAF slag 47.1 FeO with coke LLDPE and blends of cokeLLDPE in four different proportions were rapidly heated at 1520 C under high purity argon gas and the off gas was continuously analysed for CO and CO2 using an online infrared gas analyser IR. The extent of reduction after ten minutes level of carburisation and desulphurization were determined for each carbonaceous reductant. The results show significant improvements in extent of reduction along with improved levels of carburisation and desulphurisation of the reduced metal when coke was blended with LLDPE.

  13. Effect of solid particle loading on nucleophilic addition of epoxy-resin to isophorone diisocyanate

    Wei Zhang; Richard S.Blackburn; Abbas A.Dehghani-Sanij


    In the preparation of surface coatings made of conductive composites consisting of conductive particulate fillers in a soft matrix, cracks will develop with increase of the particulate loading, which is believed to be related to the nucleophilic addition reaction between glycidyl end-capped poly (bisphenol A-co-epichlorohydrin) and isophorone diisocyanate molecules. This curing reaction is responsible for the generation of cross-linking network throughout the coatings. The influence of solid particle loading on the chemical reaction may be described as a volume-excluded effect, that is, the high solid particle loading will occupy the space between the functional groups thus preventing the chemical reaction to take place. As a direct consequence, the cross-linking network cannot develop properly due to the insufficiency of curing reaction. This will lead to the generation of cracks, as was supported by FT-IR analysis in this work.

  14. Effect of crushed mussel shell addition on bacterial growth in acid polluted soils

    Fernandez Calviño, David; Garrido-Rodríguez, B.; Arias-Estévez, M.


    We applied three different doses of crushed mussel shell (CMS) on two Cu-polluted acid soils to study the effect of these amendments on the growth of the bacterial community during 730 days. Soil pH increased in the short and medium term due to CMS addition. In a first stage, bacterial growth...... was lower in the CMS-amended than in the un-amended samples. Thereafter, bacterial growth increased slowly. The soil having the highest initial pH value (4.5) showed the first significant increase in bacterial growth 95 days after the CMS amendment. However, in the soil with the lowest initial pH value (3...... as an agronomic sound practice for strongly acid soils (pH

  15. Poly iron sulfate flocculant as an effective additive for improving the performance of microbial fuel cells.

    Miyahara, Morio; Sakamoto, Akihiro; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya


    Laboratory microbial fuel cells were supplied with artificial wastewater and used to examine how supplementation with poly iron sulfate, an inorganic polymer flocculant widely used in wastewater-treatment plants, affects electricity generation and anode microbiomes. It is shown that poly iron sulfate substantially increases electric outputs from microbial fuel cells. Microbiological analyses show that iron and sulfate separately affect anode microbiomes, and the increase in power output is associated with the increases in bacteria affiliated with the families Geobacteraceae and/or Desulfuromonadaceae. We suggest that poly iron sulfate is an effective additive for increasing the electric output from microbial fuel cells. Other utilities of poly iron sulfate in microbial fuel cells are also discussed.

  16. Thermoplastic starch/polyester films: effects of extrusion process and poly (lactic acid) addition.

    Shirai, Marianne Ayumi; Olivato, Juliana Bonametti; Garcia, Patrícia Salomão; Müller, Carmen Maria Olivera; Grossmann, Maria Victória Eiras; Yamashita, Fabio


    Biodegradable films were produced using the blown extrusion method from blends that contained cassava thermoplastic starch (TPS), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with two different extrusion processes. The choice of extrusion process did not have a significant effect on the mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP) or viscoelasticity of the films, but the addition of PLA decreased the elongation, blow-up ratio (BUR) and opacity and increased the elastic modulus, tensile strength and viscoelastic parameters of the films. The films with 20% PLA exhibited a lower WVP due to the hydrophobic nature of this polymer. Morphological analyses revealed the incompatibility between the polymers used.

  17. Additive effects of cortisol and growth hormone on regional and systemic lipolysis in humans.

    Djurhuus, C B; Gravholt, C H; Nielsen, S; Pedersen, S B; Møller, N; Schmitz, O


    Growth hormone (GH) and cortisol are important to ensure energy supplies during fasting and stress. In vitro experiments have raised the question whether GH and cortisol mutually potentiate lipolysis. In the present study, combined in vivo effects of GH and cortisol on adipose and muscle tissue were explored. Seven lean males were examined four times over 510 min. Microdialysis catheters were inserted in the vastus lateralis muscle and in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of the thigh and abdomen. A pancreatic-pituitary clamp was maintained with somatostatin infusion and replacement of GH, insulin, and glucagon at baseline levels. At t = 150 min, administration was performed of NaCl (I), a 2 hydrocortisone infusion (II), a 200-microg bolus of GH (III), or a combination of II and III (IV). Systemic free fatty acid (FFA) turnover was estimated by [9,10-3H]palmitate appearance. Circulating levels of glucose, insulin, and glucagon were comparable in I-IV. GH levels were similar in I and II (0.50 +/- 0.08 microg/l, mean +/- SE). Peak levels during III and IV were approximately 9 microg/l. Cortisol levels rose to approximately 900 nmol/l in II and IV. Systemic (i.e., palmitate fluxes, s-FFA, s-glycerol) and regional (interstitial adipose tissue and skeletal muscle) markers of lipolysis increased in response to both II and III. In IV, they were higher and equal to the isolated additive effects of the two hormones. In conclusion, we find that GH and cortisol stimulate systemic and regional lipolysis independently and in an additive manner when coadministered. On the basis of previous studies, we speculate that the mode of action is mediated though different pathways.

  18. Effect of Addition of Mill Scale on Sintering of Iron Ores

    Wang, Zhe; Pinson, David; Chew, Sheng; Monaghan, Brian J.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Webster, Nathan A. S.; Rogers, Harold; Zhang, Guangqing


    Iron-rich (65 to 70 pct total Fe) mill scale generated during processing by steel mills can be recycled by using it as a ferrous raw material in the sintering process. The effect of mill scale addition on the phase formation of sintered specimens from an industrial sinter blend containing 0 to 15 wt pct mill scale was examined, and the mineral phases formed during sintering under various conditions ( T = 1523 K to 1598 K [1250 °C to 1325 °C] and gas compositions of pO2 = 0.5, 5 and 21 kPa) were quantitatively measured. For samples sintered in air (pO2 = 21 kPa), there was negligible effect of mill scale addition on the phases formed. The oxidation of the mill scale was complete, and phases such as Silico-Ferrite of Calcium and Aluminum (SFCA), SFCA-I, and hematite dominated. Under lower oxygen partial pressures (pO2 = 0.5 or 5 kPa), and throughout the temperature range examined, the mill scale was converted to magnetite, with the extent of reaction controlled by the hematite-magnetite conversion kinetics. When sintered in the gas mixture with pO2 = 5 kPa, an increase in the mill scale content from 0 to 15 wt pct resulted in a decrease of hematite and total SFCA phases and a corresponding increase in the amount of magnetite which formed. The oxidation of wustite in mill scale to magnetite decreased the local partial pressure of O2 and increased sintering temperature, which promoted the decomposition of hematite.

  19. Effects of Carbon Addition and Biochemical Control on N2O Emission from Facility Vegetable Soil

    WANG Lin


    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out with soil of greenhouse in Yongqing, Hebei Province, under constant temperature(25±1℃ and soil moisture (70% WFPS, using the static incubation method to study the effect of different management controls, i.e. urea, controlled release urea, straw, biochar, dicyandiamide (DCD, CaCN2, straw and CaCN2 while covering the shed, organic fertilizer, on N2O emission and nitrogen transformation. The results showed that the N2O emission peaks reached 644.11 μg N·kg-1·d-1 with the addition of urea in soil, while the ad-dition of DCD or CaCN2 not only reduced the N2O emission to 101.47 μg N·kg-1·d-1 or 36.74 μg N·kg-1·d-1 relatively, but also inhibited the production of nitrite nitrogen effectively. Controlled release urea, biochar or organic fertilizer could play a role to reduce N2O emission, while adding CaCN2 and covering the shed significantly increased the N2O emission. Controlled release urea, straw, biochar, DCD and CaCN2 inhib-ited the transformation from ammonium to nitrate nitrogen. CaCN2 and organic fertilizer could reduce the transformation from nitrate to nitrite. Correlation analysis showed that the increase of the content of nitrate or nitrite in soil contributed to the process of denitrification and N2O e-missions.

  20. Effect of Additives on Arsenic, Boron and Selenium Leaching from Coal Fly Ash

    Sri Hartuti


    Full Text Available The establishment of an inexpensive leaching control method to prevent the leaching of trace elements from fly ash is required for the utilization of large-scale fly ash as an embankment material. This study examined the effects of the additives on suppressing As, B, and Se leaching from coal fly ash using Ca(OH2, paper sludge ashes (PS Ash 3, PS Ash 4 and PS Ash 5, and filter cake (FC. PS Ash and FC are waste generated in the papermaking and lime industry processes and contain high levels of calcium. The treated fly ash H (FAH and the resulting mixtures were subjected to a leaching test as per the Environmental Agency of Japan Notifications No. 13. The results indicate that the leaching concentrations of As, B, and Se could be greatly reduced in FAH with the highest effect given by Ca(OH2, followed by PS Ash 3 and PS Ash 5. Ca(OH2 greatly reduced both the leaching concentrations of As, B, and Se by about 91–100%, while PS Ash 3 reduced the As and B leaching concentrations by approximately 89–96% and 83–92%, respectively; and PS Ash 5 reduced the Se leaching concentration by about 87–96%. FC did not have any impact on As and B leaching, but reduced Se leaching by about 58–78%. A reason for the decrease in leaching concentrations of As, B, and Se may be the precipitation with calcium or the formation of ettringite. The presence of leached Ca and Na ions are key factors affecting the decrease of As, B, and Se leaching concentrations from fly ash. The utilization of PS Ash 3 and PS Ash 5 as inexpensive additives is a promising method to control the leaching of As, B, and Se into the environment.

  1. Synergistic and additive effects of hydrostatic pressure and growth factors on tissue formation.

    Benjamin D Elder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hydrostatic pressure (HP is a significant factor in the function of many tissues, including cartilage, knee meniscus, temporomandibular joint disc, intervertebral disc, bone, bladder, and vasculature. Though studies have been performed in assessing the role of HP in tissue biochemistry, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have demonstrated enhanced mechanical properties from HP application in any tissue. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hydrostatic pressure (HP, with and without growth factors, on the biomechanical and biochemical properties of engineered articular cartilage constructs, using a two-phased approach. In phase I, a 3x3 full-factorial design of HP magnitude (1, 5, 10 MPa and frequency (0, 0.1, 1 Hz was used, and the best two treatments were selected for use in phase II. Static HP at 5 MPa and 10 MPa resulted in significant 95% and 96% increases, respectively, in aggregate modulus (H(A, with corresponding increases in GAG content. These regimens also resulted in significant 101% and 92% increases in Young's modulus (E(Y, with corresponding increases in collagen content. Phase II employed a 3x3 full-factorial design of HP (no HP, 5 MPa static, 10 MPa static and growth factor application (no GF, BMP-2+IGF-I, TGF-beta1. The combination of 10 MPa static HP and TGF-beta1 treatment had an additive effect on both H(A and E(Y, as well as a synergistic effect on collagen content. This group demonstrated a 164% increase in H(A, a 231% increase in E(Y, an 85% increase in GAG/wet weight (WW, and a 173% increase in collagen/WW, relative to control. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate increases in the biomechanical properties of tissue from pure HP application, using a cartilage model. Furthermore, it is the only study to demonstrate additive or synergistic effects between HP and growth factors on tissue functional properties

  2. In vitro additive effect of imipenem combined with vancomycin against multiple-drug resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci.

    Traub, W H; Spohr, M; Bauer, D


    Imipenem combined with vancomycin resulted in a marked additive effect in vitro against 9 clinical isolates of multiple-drug resistant (MDR), coagulase-negative staphylococci, including strains resistant against imipenem. The additive effect was documented with the aid of checkerboard MIC determinations and with time kill curve experiments. In contrast, imipenem combined with vancomycin merely yielded weak additive or indifferent effects against 10 MDR isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, all of which were susceptible to imipenem.

  3. The effect of selected feed additives on the shell qualitative parameters of table eggs

    Henrieta Arpášová


    Full Text Available Herbs, spices and their extracts (botanicals have a wide range of activities. May have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with different doses of thyme or oregano essential oil addition on egg shell quality parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=50 were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10 and fed for 20 weeks with diets with thyme or oregano essential oil. supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first and  second experimental groups were supplemented with 0.5 ml/kg or 1.0 ml/kg thyme essential oil. The diets in the third and fourth experimental groups were supplemented with 0.5 ml/kg or 1.0 ml/kg oregano essential oil.  The egg shell weight (g, specific egg shell weight (g/cm3, percentage of egg shell (%, egg shell strength (N/cm2 and egg shell thickness (mm were evaluated. The egg shell weight for the whole period was in the order of the groups 5.70±0.52; 5.65±0.44; 5.54±0.42; 5.62±0.38 and 5.49±0.48 g±S.D (P>0.05. Egg shell strength during the reporting period was in order of the groups: 27.81±6.00; 27.63±6.43; 27.17±6.36; 27.76±6.27 and 28.41±6.36 (N/cm2±S.D. Similarly, in the egg shell specific weight (g/cm3, egg shell percentage ratio (% and egg shell thickness (mm were observed statistically non-significant differences compared to the control group (P>0.05. The results suggest that the qualitative parameters of egg shell were not significantly influenced with thyme or oregano oil addition (P>0.05.  

  4. The Effects of Application Vinasseand additive nitrogen and phosphorus on Growth and Yield of Tomato

    Ahmad Golchin


    Full Text Available Introduction:Vinasse is a byproduct of the sugar industry. Sugarcane or Sugarbeet is processed to produce crystallinesugar, pulp and molasses. The latter isfurther processed by fermentation to ethanol, ascorbicacid or other products. After the removal of the desired product (alcohol, ascorbicacid, etc. the remaining material is called vinasse. Vinasse is sold after a partial dehydration and usually has a viscositycomparable to molasses. Commercially offered vinasse comes either from sugarcaneand is called cane-vinasse or from sugarbeet and is called beet-vinasse. On average, for each liter of vinasse, 12 liters alcohol produced. Vinasse is a material with dark brown color and the smell of burned sugar, which is rich in potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and nitrogen. Materials and Methods:To determine the effect of vinasse and additive nitrogen and phosphorus on growth and yield of tomato, a factorial pot experiment was conducted at ZanjanUniversity in 2008. Two different plant nutrient including N and P and their combination (N+P were added to vinasse with three different concentrations to form experimental treatments. In addition to these treatments, three control treatments with vinasse of different concentrations, but with no additive were also included in the experiment. Each treatment used with two different application methods (soil application and soil + foliar application.The experiment had 24 treatments, a complete randomized design and three replications. The vinasse used in this experiment was diluted with water 10, 20 and 40 times to make a nutrient solution of three different concentrations of tomato plant. The amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus that were added to vinasse were 224 and 62 mg/l, respectively. Phosphorus and nitrogen were applied to as super-phosphate triple and calcium nitrate and ammonium nitrate respectively. After being deployed to ensure complete installation of tomatoes in pots containing perlite (about 2

  5. Effective Expression-Independent Gene Trapping and Mutagenesis Mediated by Sleeping Beauty Transposon

    Guili Song; Qing Li; Yong Long; Perry B. Hackett; Zongbin Cui


    Expression-independent gene or polyadenylation [poly(A)] trapping is a powerful tool for genome-wide mutagenesis regardless of whether a targeted gene is expressed.Although a number of poly(A)-trap vectors have been developed for the capture and mutation of genes across a vertebrate genome,further efforts are needed to avoid the 3′-terminal insertion bias and the splice donor (SD)read-through,and to improve the mutagenicity.Here,we present a Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon-based vector that can overcome these limitations through the inclusion of three functional cassettes required for gene-finding,gene-breaking and large-scale mutagenesis,respectively.The functional cassette contained a reporter/selective marker gene driven by a constitutive promoter in front of a strong SD signal and an AU-rich RNA-destabilizing element (ARE),which greatly reduced the SD read-through events,except that the internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) element was introduced in front of the SD signal to overcome the phenomenon of 3′-bias gene trapping.The breaking cassette consisting of an enhanced splicing acceptor (SA),a poly(A) signal coupled with a transcriptional terminator (TT) effectively disrupted the transcription of trapped genes.Moreover,the Hsp70 promoter from tilapia genome was employed to drive the inducible expression of SB11,which allows the conditional remobilization of a trap insert from a non-coding region.The combination of three cassettes led to effective capture and disruption of endogenous genes in HeLa cells.In addition,the Cre/LoxP system was introduced to delete the Hsp70-SB11 cassette for stabilization of trapped gene interruption and biosafety.Thus,this poly(A)-trap vector is an alternative and effective tool for identification and mutation of endogenous genes in cells and animals.

  6. Risk association of hepatocellular carcinoma with S-gene additional N-glycosylation mutation of hepatitis B virus in HBsAg and anti-HBs coexistent patients

    Yan QIAO


    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the association of additional N-glycosylation mutation in major hydrophilic region (MHR of hepatitis B virus (HBV S gene with the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in HBsAg and anti-HBs coexistent patients. Methods  A total of 284 patients with coexistence of HBsAg and anti-HBs were enrolled in this study, who were admitted in 302 Hospital of PLA from July 2009 to June 2016. HBV DNA was extracted from serum samples and subjected to nested PCR for full-length S-gene sequencing. The association of MHR additional N-glycosylation mutation and clinical parameters with HCC occurrence risk was analyzed. Specifically, the additional N-glycosylation mutation was dynamically analyzed pre-and post-HCC occurrence for 18 patients. Results  Multivariate analysis showed that age >40 years, HBsAg >median, HBeAg negativity, and additional N-glycosylation mutation in MHR were associated with HCC occurrence for the HBsAg and anti-HBs coexistent patients (OR=4.281, 95%CI 1.843-9.941, P=0.001; OR=3.146, 95%CI 1.633-6.060, P=0.001; OR=2.097, 95%CI 1.010-4.357, P=0.047; and OR=4.381, 95%CI 1.842-10.417, P=0.001. In contrast, ALT, anti-HBs, anti-HBe, and HBV DNA levels had no significant association with HCC occurrence. Dynamical analysis showed that the additional N-glycosylation mutation had already developed 1-4 years prior to HCC occurrence in the 8 of 18 observed patients. Conclusion  Additional N-glycosylation mutation in MHR of HBV S gene had close association with HCC occurrence in HBsAg and anti-HBs coexistent patients, suggesting that HBsAg and anti-HBs coexistence and additional N-glycosylation mutation together could serve as a predictive indicator for HCC occurrence in chronic HBV-infected patients. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.08

  7. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    Stierum, R.; Heijne, W.; Kienhuis, A.; Ommen, B. van; Groten, J.


    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples

  8. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    Stierum, R.; Heijne, W.; Kienhuis, A.; Ommen, B. van; Groten, J.


    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples

  9. Protective Effect of Two Yeast Based Feed Additives on Pigs Chronically Exposed to Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone

    Weaver, Alexandra C.; See, M. Todd; Kim, Sung Woo


    To evaluate the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on pigs and the benefits of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies, gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to four treatments: CON (control); MT (4.8 mg/kg feed DON and 0.3 mg/kg feed ZEA); MT-YC (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall product); and MT-YF (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast fermentation product). After 42 days of feeding, pigs fed MT had reduced (p < 0.05) growth performance compared with pigs fed CON. Pigs fed MT-YF had greater (p < 0.05) average daily gain and tended to have greater (p = 0.080) average daily feed intake than MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YC did not differ from MT. Oxidative DNA damage increased (p < 0.05) in MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YF tended to have lower (p = 0.067) oxidative stress. Liver hydropic degeneration was increased (p < 0.05) in MT in contrast to CON and MT-YF, and tended to be greater (p = 0.079) than MT-YC. Collectively, feeding diets contaminated with mycotoxins significantly reduced growth performance and impacted pig health. The yeast additives had varied ability to reduce mycotoxin effects on pig growth and health, but may still play a beneficial role in reducing the overall impacts of a mycotoxin challenge on pigs. PMID:25533517

  10. Effect of hafnium addition on solidifi cation structure of cast Ti-46Al alloys

    Su Yanqing


    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of hafnium addition on the solidifi cation structure, Ti-46Al alloys with nominal compositions of Ti-46Al-xHf (x = 0, 3, 5, 7 (at.% were arc-melted into small ingots in an argon atmosphere. The characteristics of the macrostructures and microstructures were studied using a linear intercept method, OM, SEM (BSE, XRD and TEM. The results showed that the ingots with Hf have near lamellar microstructure in columnar and dendrite morphology. The hafnium concentration has a strong effect on the columnar spacing refi nement. Increasing Hf from 0 to 7 (at.%, the columnar spacing can be reduced from ~ 1000 to ~ 400 μm. Constitute phases of the ingots are α2, a small amount of B2 and c. Most of the B2 phases, richer in Hf and leaner in Al and Ti, exist on the node of the dendrite core in block shape and a little across the lamellar colonies in stick shape. The c phases exist on the boundaries of lamellar colonies in small cellular shape. There also exists a segregation of Hf on the columnar and dendrite core. Particularly, both the α- and β-phase form from the melt as prior phases. The possible phase sequencing during solidifi cation and solid-state transformations with Hf is given in this paper.

  11. Additive pressor effects of caffeine and stress in male medical students at risk for hypertension.

    Shepard, J D; al'Absi, M; Whitsett, T L; Passey, R B; Lovallo, W R


    The effects of caffeine on blood pressure (BP) and cortisol secretion were examined during elevated work stress in medical students at high versus low risk for hypertension. Among 31 male medical students who were regular consumers of caffeine, 20 were considered at low risk for hypertension (negative parental history and all screening BP caffeine during two lectures (low work stress) and two exams (high work stress) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Caffeine consumption and exam stress increased cortisol secretion in both groups (P caffeine or exam stress in both groups, low versus high risk, respectively (Caffeine: + 5/4 vs + 3/3 mm Hg; Stress: + 4/1 vs + 7/3 mm Hg; P caffeine caused additive increases in BP (Low Risk + 9/5 mm Hg, High Risk + 10/6 mm Hg) such that 46% of high-risk participants had average systolic BP > or = 140 mm Hg. This combined effect of stress and caffeine on BP suggests that it may be beneficial for individuals at high risk for hypertension to refrain from the use of caffeinated beverages, particularly at times when work demands and attendant stressors are high. For the same reasons, recent intake of caffeine should be controlled in patients undergoing BP measurement for the diagnosis of hypertension.

  12. [Effect of concomitant substances and addition order on the adsorption of Tween 80 on sand].

    Xu, Wei; Zhao, Yong-sheng; Li, Sui; Dai, Ning


    Adsorption of Tween 80 on sand was investigated, and the effect of inorganic salts (CaCl2), anionic surfactant (SDS) and lignosulphonates (sodium lignosulphonate or ammonium lignosulphonate) on the adsorption of Tween 80 on sand were evaluated at 25 degrees C. The results show that saturated adsorption amount of Tween 80 on sand enhance when CaCl2 or SDS is added into flushing solution of Tween 80. And the adsorption of Tween 80 on sand increase with the increase of molar fraction of CaCl2 or SDS in mixed flushing solution. And adsorption amount of Tween 80 on sand also enhance when SDS is added into sand firstly. The effects of mixing ratios and addition order of lignosulphonates on adsorption of Tween 80 were considered. The results show that with the increase of molar fraction of lignosulphonates in mixing flushing solution, adsorption amount of Tween 80 on sand decrease. The adsorption amount of Tween 80 reduce 20%-75% due to the exist of ammonium lignosulphonate is superior to sodium lignosulphonate (10%-60%) when mix the lignosulphonates-Tween 80 at the total mass ratios of 1:10, while the adsorption amount of Tween 80 reduce 70%-90% at the total mass ratios of 1:2. Lignosulphonates added into sand firstly is more efficient than that together. Therefore,use of lignosulphonates as a preflush can reduce the adsorption of surfactants on sand and is a better method to applied in in situ flushing.

  13. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín


    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking. PMID:24451845

  14. Additive effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles and isoorientin on apoptosis in human hepatoma cell line.

    Yuan, Li; Wang, Yutang; Wang, Jing; Xiao, Haifang; Liu, Xuebo


    Metal nanomaterial could effectively decrease tumour resistance to anti-cancer drugs. In this paper, we have explored the synergistic effect and mechanisms of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Nps) and isoorientin (ISO) on cytotoxicity in human hepatoma (HepG2) cells. The results showed that ZnO Nps could exert dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells, and the combining treatment resulted in a greater cytotoxicity than single treatment. ZnO Nps could synergistically potentiate ISO to induce apoptosis through resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibiting the phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2, and enhancing the phosphorylation of JNK and P38. Additionally, ZnO Nps were uptaked by cells through endocytic pathway and it enhanced the cellular uptake of ISO, while no significant injury was found in normal liver cells after the combined treatment. These results suggest that the combination of metal nanoparticle with anti-cancer drugs may provide a promising alternative for novel cancer treatments.

  15. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Isabel Giménez


    Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD. During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking.

  16. Effect of salt addition on sous vide cooked whole beef muscles from Argentina.

    Vaudagna, S R; Pazos, A A; Guidi, S M; Sanchez, G; Carp, D J; Gonzalez, C B


    Sodium chloride (NaCl, 0-1.4%) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP, 0-0.5%) were added to Semitendinosus muscles and submitted to sous vide cooking at different temperatures (55-75°C). The effects of these three factors on pH, cooking loss, instrumental colour parameters, protein solubilization and distribution, and micro- and ultra-structure were evaluated. Quadratic surface responses equations were obtained from data (pH, cooking loss and colour parameters) as a function of the salts concentrations and cooking temperature. Both salts - alone or in combination - successfully reduced cooking loss. The best results were obtained for the combinations 0.25%STPP+1.20%NaCl and 0.25%STPP+0.70%NaCl, and temperatures between 60 and 65°C. Under these conditions, cooking loss was reduced close to 0%. pH was only dependent on STPP concentration, with a threshold concentration value of 0.25%. Temperature increment and NaCl addition produced a redness reduction. STPP incorporation recovered partially this parameter in comparison to non-added samples. Microscopy and SDS-PAGE results support the effect of the selected combinations of factors, suggesting that both salts together induced protein solubilization and gelation upon heating.

  17. The effects of electron beam irradiation on additives present in food-contact polymers

    Crowson, Andrew.


    A range of additives (Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, Irganox 1330, Irgafos 168 and Tinuvin 622) has been incorporated into a variety of food-contact polymers including polypropylene and low density polyethylene. Samples of these stabilized polymers were subjected to electron-beam or gamma irradiation to receive doses of 1,5,10,25 and 50 kGy. The effects of electron-beam irradiation on the amount of extractable antioxidant in polymers were determined. Using hplc techniques it was found that there was a dose-related reduction in the amount of extractable antioxidant similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. The magnitude of this reduction was found to be dependent upon the nature of both the antioxidant and the polymer type. Electron-beam irradiation was also found to cause a dose-related reduction in the levels of the antioxidants Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076 migrating from polymers into a food simulant. This effect was similar to that caused by gamma irradiation. (author).

  18. Effects of bread making and wheat germ addition on the natural deoxynivalenol content in bread.

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín


    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking.

  19. Effect of additives for higher removal rate in lithium niobate chemical mechanical planarization

    Jeong, Sukhoon; Lee, Hyunseop; Cho, Hanchul; Lee, Sangjik [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoungjae; Kim, Sungryul [KITECH, Busan 618-230 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaehong [Nitta-Haas Inc., Kannanidai, Kyotannbe, Kyoto 610-0333 (Japan); Jeong, Haedo, E-mail: [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)


    High roughness and a greater number of defects were created by lithium niobate (LN; LiNbO{sub 3}) processes such as traditional grinding and mechanical polishing (MP), should be decreased for manufacturing LN device. Therefore, an alternative process for gaining defect-free and smooth surface is needed. Chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) is suitable method in the LN process because it uses a combination approach consisting of chemical and mechanical effects. First of all, we investigated the LN CMP process using commercial slurry by changing various process conditions such as down pressure and relative velocity. However, the LN CMP process time using commercial slurry was long to gain a smooth surface because of lower material removal rate (MRR). So, to improve the material removal rate (MRR), the effects of additives such as oxidizer (hydrogen peroxide; H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and complexing agent (citric acid; C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7}) in a potassium hydroxide (KOH) based slurry, were investigated. The manufactured slurry consisting of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-citric acid in the KOH based slurry shows that the MRR of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 2 wt% and the citric acid at 0.06 M was higher than the MRR for other conditions.

  20. Effect of hafnium addition on solidification structure of cast Ti-46AI alloys

    Su Yanqing; Zhang Li; Guo Jingjie; K. Maruyama; Li Zhiming


    To investigate the effect of hafnium addition on the solidification structure, Ti-46Al alloys with nominal compositions of Ti-46Al-xHf (x = 0, 3, 5, 7) (at.%) were arc-melted into small ingots in an argon atmosphere. The characteristics of the macrostructures and microstructures were studied using a linear intercept method, OM, SEM (BSE), XRD and TEM. The results showed that the ingots with Hf have near lamellar microstructure in columnar and dendrite morphology. The hafnium concentration has a strong effect on the columnar spacing refinement. Increasing Hf from 0 to 7 (at.%), the columnar spacing can be reduced from~1000 to~400 pm. Constitute phases of the ingots are α2, a small amount of B2 and γ. Most of the B2 phases, richer in Hf and leaner in AI and Ti, exist on the node of the dendrite core in block shape and a little across the lamellar colonies in stick shape. The γ phases exist on the boundaries of lamellar colonies in small cellular shape. There also exists a segregation of Hf on the columnar and dendrite core. Particularly, both the α- andβ-phase form from the melt as prior phases. The possible phase sequencing during solidification and solid-state transformations with Hf is given in this paper.