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Sample records for additive gene effects

  1. Major genes with additive effects for seed size in kabuli chickpea ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Major genes with additive effects for seed size in kabuli chickpea. (Cicer arietinum L.) H. D. UPADHYAYA. ∗. , SHIVALI SHARMA and C. L. L. GOWDA. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, Hyderabad 502 324, India. [Upadhyaya H. D., Sharma S. and Gowda C. L. L. 2011 ...

  2. Effects of Dissolved Oxygen Concentration and Iron Addition on Immediate-early Gene Expression of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Kasama, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    of iron (and formation of magnetosomes) was only observed in the 0.5% O2 condition where there was little difference in cell growth and carbon consumption compared to the 5% O2 condition. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR analysis showed a rapid (within 0.25 h) genetic response of MSR-1 cells after......We report effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and iron addition on gene expression of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 cells during fermentations, focusing on 0.25-24 h after iron addition. The DO was strictly controlled at 0.5% or 5% O2, and compared with aerobic condition. Uptake...... in cultures at 0.5% O2 compared to those at higher oxygen tensions. Moreover, expression of katG (catalase-peroxidase gene) and feoB2 (ferrous transport protein B2 gene) was reduced markedly by iron addition, regardless of oxygen conditions. The data provides a greater understanding of molecular response...

  3. The role of histamine degradation gene polymorphisms in moderating the effects of food additives on children's ADHD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jim; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; McCann, Donna; Grimshaw, Kate; Parker, Karen M; Rose-Zerilli, Matthew J; Holloway, John W; Warner, John O

    2010-09-01

    Food additives can exacerbate ADHD symptoms and cause non-immunoglobulin E-dependent histamine release from circulating basophils. However, children vary in the extent to which their ADHD symptoms are exacerbated by the ingestion of food additives. The authors hypothesized that genetic polymorphisms affecting histamine degradation would explain the diversity of responses to additives. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial, challenges involving two food color additive and sodium benzoate (preservative) mixtures in a fruit drink were administered to a general community sample of 3-year-old children (N = 153) and 8/9-year-old children (N = 144). An aggregate ADHD symptom measure (based on teacher and parent blind ratings of behavior, blind direct observation of behavior in the classroom, and--for 8/9-year-old children only--a computerized measure of attention) was the main outcome variable. The adverse effect of food additives on ADHD symptoms was moderated by histamine degradation gene polymorphisms HNMT T939C and HNMT Thr105Ile in 3- and 8/9-year-old children and by a DAT1 polymorphism (short versus long) in 8/9-year-old children only. There was no evidence that polymorphisms in catecholamine genes COMT Val108Met, ADRA2A C1291G, and DRD4-rs7403703 moderated the effect on ADHD symptoms. Histamine may mediate the effects of food additives on ADHD symptoms, and variations in genes influencing the action of histamine may explain the inconsistency between previous studies. Genes influencing a range of neurotransmitter systems and their interplay with environmental factors, such as diet, need to be examined to understand genetic influences on ADHD symptoms.

  4. Applied the additive hazard model to predict the survival time of patient with diffuse large B- cell lymphoma and determine the effective genes, using microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arefa Jafarzadeh Kohneloo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have shown that effective genes on survival time of cancer patients play an important role as a risk factor or preventive factor. Present study was designed to determine effective genes on survival time for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients and predict the survival time using these selected genes. Materials & Methods: Present study is a cohort study was conducted on 40 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. For these patients, 2042 gene expression was measured. In order to predict the survival time, the composition of the semi-parametric additive survival model with two gene selection methods elastic net and lasso were used. Two methods were evaluated by plotting area under the ROC curve over time and calculating the integral of this curve. Results: Based on our findings, the elastic net method identified 10 genes, and Lasso-Cox method identified 7 genes. GENE3325X increased the survival time (P=0.006, Whereas GENE3980X and GENE377X reduced the survival time (P=0.004. These three genes were selected as important genes in both methods. Conclusion: This study showed that the elastic net method outperformed the common Lasso method in terms of predictive power. Moreover, apply the additive model instead Cox regression and using microarray data is usable way for predict the survival time of patients.

  5. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Regulator-Encoding Genes Have an Additive Effect on Virulence Gene Expression in a Vibrio cholerae Clinical Isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Bailey M; Brumfield, Kyle D; Son, Mike S

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is the etiological agent of the infectious disease cholera, which is characterized by vomiting and severe watery diarrhea. Recently, V. cholerae clinical isolates have demonstrated increased virulence capabilities, causing more severe symptoms with a much higher rate of disease progression than previously observed. We have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in four virulence-regulatory genes (hapR, hns, luxO, and vieA) of a hypervirulent V. cholerae clinical isolate, MQ1795. Herein, all SNPs and SNP combinations of interest were introduced into the prototypical El Tor reference strain N16961, and the effects on the production of numerous virulence-related factors, including cholera toxin (CT), the toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP), and ToxT, were analyzed. Our data show that triple-SNP (hapR hns luxO and hns luxO vieA) and quadruple-SNP combinations produced the greatest increases in CT, TCP, and ToxT production. The hns and hns luxO SNP combinations were sufficient for increased TCP and ToxT production. Notably, the hns luxO vieA triple-SNP combination strain produced TCP and ToxT levels similar to those of MQ1795. Certain SNP combinations (hapR and hapR vieA) had the opposite effect on CT, TCP, and ToxT expression. Interestingly, the hns vieA double-SNP combination strain increased TCP production while decreasing CT production. Our findings suggest that SNPs identified in the four regulatory genes, in various combinations, are associated with increased virulence capabilities observed in V. cholerae clinical isolates. These studies provide insight into the evolution of highly virulent strains. IMPORTANCE Cholera, an infectious disease of the small intestine caused by the aquatic bacterium Vibrio cholerae, often results in vomiting and acute watery diarrhea. If left untreated or if the response is too slow, the symptoms can quickly lead to extreme dehydration and ultimately death of the patient. Recent anecdotal evidence of cholera

  6. Additive estrogenic effects of mixtures of frequently used UV filters on pS2-gene transcription in MCF-7 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heneweer, Marjoke; Muusse, Martine; Berg, Martin van den; Sanderson, J. Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In order to protect consumers from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and enhance light stability of the product, three to eight UV filters are usually added to consumer sunscreen products. High lipophilicity of the UV filters has been shown to cause bioaccumulation in fish and humans, leading to environmental levels of UV filters that are similar to those of PCBs and DDT. In this paper, estrogen-regulated pS2 gene transcription in the human mammary tumor cell line MCF-7 was used as a measure of estrogenicity of four individual UV filters. Since humans are exposed to more than one UV filter at a time, an equipotent binary mixture of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy-benzophenone (BP-3) and its metabolite 2,4-dihydroxy benzophenone (BP-1), as well as an equipotent multi-component mixture of BP-1, BP-3, octyl methoxy cinnamate (OMC) and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4-MBC), were also evaluated for their ability to induce pS2 gene transcription in order to examine additivity. An estrogen receptor-mediated mechanism of action was expected for all UV filters. Therefore, our null-hypothesis was that combined estrogenic responses, measured as increased pS2 gene transcription in MCF-7 cells after exposure to mixtures of UV filters, are additive, according to a concentration-addition model. Not all UV filters produced a full concentration-response curve within the concentration range tested (100 nM-1 μM). Therefore, instead of using EC 50 values for comparison, the concentration at which each compound caused a 50% increase of basal pS2 gene transcription was defined as the C50 value for that compound and used to calculate relative potencies. For comparison, the EC 50 value of a compound is the concentration at which the compound elicits an effect that is 50% of its maximal effect. Individual UV filters increased pS2 gene transcription concentration-dependently with C50 values of 0.12 μM, 0.5 μM, 1.9 μM, and 1.0 μM for BP-1, BP-3, 4-MBC and OMC, respectively. Estradiol (E2) had a C50

  7. An Additive Effect of Promoting Thermogenic Gene Expression in Mice Adipose-Derived Stromal Vascular Cells by Combination of Rosiglitazone and CL316,243.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, You-Lei; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Tian-Tuan; Fan, Jia-Min; Zheng, Xue-Li; Shi, Xin-E; Yu, Tai-Yong; Chu, Gui-Yan; Yang, Gong-She

    2017-05-08

    It is well-documented that CL316,243 (a β3 agonist) or rosiglitazone (a PPARγ agonist) can induce white adipocyte populations to brown-like adipocytes, thus increasing energy consumption and combating obesity. However, whether there is a combined effect remains unknown. In the present study, stromal vascular cells of inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT-SVCs for short) from mice were cultured and induced into browning by CL316,243, rosiglitazone, or both. Results showed that a combination of CL316,243 and rosiglitazone significantly upregulated the expression of the core thermogenic gene Ucp1 as well as genes related with mitochondrial function ( Cidea , Cox5b , Cox7a1 , Cox8b , and Cycs ), compared with the treatment of CL316,243 or rosiglitazone alone. Moreover, co-treatment with rosiglitazone could reverse the downregulation of Adiponectin resulting from CL316,243 stimuli alone. Taken together, a combination of rosiglitazone and CL316,243 can produce an additive effect of promoting thermogenic gene expression and an improvement of insulin sensitivity in mouse iWAT-SVCs.

  8. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    234-8034714355. 8034714355. 1. EFFECTS OF SULPHUR ADDITION ON. ADDITION ON. 2. AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES O. 3. 4. C. W. Onyia. 5. 1DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS. 6. 2, 4DEPT. OF METALLURGICAL ...

  9. effects of sulphur addition on addition on and mechanical properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The effects of sulphur addition addition addition on the microstruc on the microstruc. 14. Al-12wt%Si alloy have alloy have alloy have been investigated in thi been investigated in this been investigated in thi been investigated .... ce sand castings for micro-structural structural structural carried out carried out to determine the.

  10. DNA-energetics-based analyses suggest additional genes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-25

    Jun 25, 2012 ... [Khandelwal G, Gupta J and Jayaram B 2012 DNA-energetics-based analyses suggest additional genes in prokaryotes. J. Biosci. 37 433–444] DOI ..... illustration for detecting potential new genes in 12 different genomes with varied GC ..... maps and genetic map of DNA double strand. J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.

  11. Additive and non-additive effects on fitness traits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GScholtz

    2014-11-09

    Nov 9, 2014 ... To develop effective suckler cow replacement strategies, beef producers must have information about breed-specific genetic effects for economically .... regression coefficients representing individual and maternal additive effects; βk and βl are partial regression coefficients representing individual and ...

  12. Polygenic inheritance of Tourette syndrome, stuttering, attention deficit hyperactivity, conduct, and oppositional defiant disorder: The additive and subtractive effect of the three dopaminergic genes - DRD2, D{beta}H, and DAT1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comings, D.E.; Wu, S.; Chiu, C.; Ring, R.H.; Gade, R.; Ahn, C.; Dietz, G.; Muhleman, D. [Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-05-31

    Polymorphisms of three different dopaminergic genes, dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (DRD2), dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase (D{beta}H), and dopamine transporter (DAT1), were examined in Tourette syndrome (TS) probands, their relatives, and controls. Each gene individually showed a significant correlation with various behavioral variables in these subjects. The additive and subtractive effects of the three genes were examined by genotyping all three genes in the same set of subjects. For 9 of 20 TS associated comorbid behaviors there was a significant linear association between the degree of loading for markers of three genes and the mean behavior scores. The behavior variables showing the significant associations were, in order, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stuttering, oppositional defiant, tics, conduct, obsessive-compulsive, mania, alcohol abuse, and general anxiety - behaviors that constitute the most overt clinical aspects of TS. For 16 of the 20 behavior scores there was a linear progressive decrease in the mean score with progressively lesser loading for the three gene markers. These results suggest that TS, ADHD, stuttering, oppositional defiant and conduct disorder, and other behaviors associated with TS, are polygenic, due in part to these three dopaminergic genes, and that the genetics of other polygenic psychiatric disorders may be deciphered using this technique. 144 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Gene delivery using calcium phosphate nanoparticles: Optimization of the transfection process and the effects of citrate and poly(l-lysine) as additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed A; Wu, Victoria M; Ghosh, Shreya; Uskoković, Vuk

    2016-06-01

    CaP nanoparticles than the MC3T3-E1 cells. The addition of citrate increased the transfection rate at lower concentrations; however, a complete redispersal of CaP-pDNA nanoparticles at higher concentrations of citrate coincided with a complete diminishment of transfection, implying the benefits of partial aggregation of CaP nanoparticles carrying pDNA. In contrast, PLL delayed transfection initially, but enhanced it at longer time points (⩾96h), leading to the conclusion that both citrate and PLL could exert positive effects on transfection: citrate if added at low concentrations and PLL to extend transfection over longer periods of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Excessive Additive Effect On Engine Oil Viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Vojtěch Kumbár; Jiří Votava

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is excessive additive (for oil filling) effect on engine oil dynamic viscosity. Research is focused to commercially distribute automotive engine oil with viscosity class 15W–40 designed for vans. There were prepared blends of new and used engine oil without and with oil additive in specific ratio according manufacturer’s recommendations. Dynamic viscosity of blends with additive was compared with pure new and pure used engine oil. The temperature dependence dynamic...

  15. Food Additives and Effects to Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayper Boga

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Food purchasing patterns have changed dramatically over the past fifty years. Packaged and processed foods get many a family through the day. They’re convenient, portable, and they stay fresh for a long time. There are over fourteen thousand man-made chemicals added to American food supply today. Food additives are not natural nutrition for humans or their pets. Children are suffering the most from food additives because they are exposed to food chemicals from infancy, and human bodies were not meant to be exposed to the degree of chemicals and food additives that we are currently. These additives, may include side effects, food allergies, increased waist lines, decreased absorption of minerals and vitamins, cancer and more. It is important for everyone to be aware of the types of chemicals and food additives they are consuming. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(3.000: 141-154

  16. DNA-energetics-based analyses suggest additional genes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/037/03/0433-0444 ... We present here a novel methodology for predicting new genes in prokaryotic genomes on the basis of inherent energetics of DNA. Regions of ... Quite surprisingly, the methodology identifies new genes even in well-annotated genomes. Also, the ...

  17. Additive effects in radiation grafting and curing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viengkhou, V.; Ng, L.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Detailed studies on the accelerative effect of novel additives in radiation grafting and curing using acrylated monomer/oligomer systems have been performed in the presence of ionising radiation and UV as sources. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) is used as typical monomer for these grafting studies in the presence of the additives with model backbone polymers, cellulose and propropylene. Additives which have been found to accelerate these grafting processes are: mineral acid, occlusion compounds like urea, thermal initiators and photoinitiators as well as multifunctional monomers such as multifunctional acrylates. The results from irradiation with gamma rays have also been compared with irradiation from a 90W UV lamp. The role of the above additives in accelerating the analogous process of radiation curing has been investigated. Acrylated urethanes, epoxies and polyesters are used as oligomers together with acrylated monomers in this work with uv lamps of 300 watts/inch as radiation source. In the UV curing process bonding between film and substrate is usually due to physical forces. In the present work the presence of additives are shown to influence the occurrence of concurrent grafting during cure thus affecting the nature of the bonding of the cured film. The conditions under which concurrent grafting with UV can occur will be examined. A mechanism for accelerative effect of these additives in both grafting and curing processes has been proposed involving radiation effects and partitioning phenomena

  18. Deoxynivalenol impairs hepatic and intestinal gene expression of selected oxidative stress, tight junction and inflammation proteins in broiler chickens, but addition of an adsorbing agent shifts the effects to the distal parts of the small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselaere, Ann; Santos, Regiane; Hautekiet, Veerle; De Backer, Patrick; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska

    2013-01-01

    Broiler chickens are rather resistant to deoxynivalenol and thus, clinical signs are rarely seen. However, effects of subclinical concentrations of deoxynivalenol on both the intestine and the liver are less frequently studied at the molecular level. During our study, we investigated the effects of three weeks of feeding deoxynivalenol on the gut wall morphology, intestinal barrier function and inflammation in broiler chickens. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated in both the liver and intestine. Besides, the effect of a clay-based mycotoxin adsorbing agent on these different aspects was also studied. Our results show that feeding deoxynivalenol affects the gut wall morphology both in duodenum and jejenum of broiler chickens. A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that deoxynivalenol acts in a very specific way on the intestinal barrier, since only an up-regulation in mRNA expression of claudin 5 in jejunum was observed, while no effects were seen on claudin 1, zona occludens 1 and 2. Addition of an adsorbing agent resulted in an up-regulation of all the investigated genes coding for the intestinal barrier in the ileum. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 and two markers of oxidative stress (heme-oxigenase or HMOX and xanthine oxidoreductase or XOR) were mainly seen in the jejunum and to a lesser extent in the ileum in response to deoxynivalenol, while in combination with an adsorbing agent main effect was seen in the ileum. These results suggest that an adsorbing agent may lead to higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol in the more distal parts of the small intestine. In the liver, XOR was up-regulated due to DON exposure. HMOX and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) were down-regulated due to feeding DON but also due to feeding the adsorbing agent alone or in combination with DON.

  19. Deoxynivalenol impairs hepatic and intestinal gene expression of selected oxidative stress, tight junction and inflammation proteins in broiler chickens, but addition of an adsorbing agent shifts the effects to the distal parts of the small intestine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Osselaere

    Full Text Available Broiler chickens are rather resistant to deoxynivalenol and thus, clinical signs are rarely seen. However, effects of subclinical concentrations of deoxynivalenol on both the intestine and the liver are less frequently studied at the molecular level. During our study, we investigated the effects of three weeks of feeding deoxynivalenol on the gut wall morphology, intestinal barrier function and inflammation in broiler chickens. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated in both the liver and intestine. Besides, the effect of a clay-based mycotoxin adsorbing agent on these different aspects was also studied. Our results show that feeding deoxynivalenol affects the gut wall morphology both in duodenum and jejenum of broiler chickens. A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that deoxynivalenol acts in a very specific way on the intestinal barrier, since only an up-regulation in mRNA expression of claudin 5 in jejunum was observed, while no effects were seen on claudin 1, zona occludens 1 and 2. Addition of an adsorbing agent resulted in an up-regulation of all the investigated genes coding for the intestinal barrier in the ileum. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 and two markers of oxidative stress (heme-oxigenase or HMOX and xanthine oxidoreductase or XOR were mainly seen in the jejunum and to a lesser extent in the ileum in response to deoxynivalenol, while in combination with an adsorbing agent main effect was seen in the ileum. These results suggest that an adsorbing agent may lead to higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol in the more distal parts of the small intestine. In the liver, XOR was up-regulated due to DON exposure. HMOX and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α were down-regulated due to feeding DON but also due to feeding the adsorbing agent alone or in combination with DON.

  20. Effects from additives on deacetylation of chitin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana Filho, Sergio P.; Signini, Roberta

    2001-01-01

    Deacetylation reactions of commercial chitin were carried out in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at 115 deg C for 6 hours. The effect from additives (sodium borohydride or anthraquinone) and of bubbling inert gas (nitrogen or argon) on the characteristics of deacetylated samples were evaluated. Average degrees of acetylation and intrinsic viscosity were determined by 1 H NMR spectroscopy and capillary viscometry, respectively. X-ray diffraction was employed to evaluate changes in crystallinity and infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor structural changes due to deacetylation. The bubbling of inert gas during the deacetylation reaction resulted in more crystalline samples of chitosan. Deacetylation carried out without any additive produced slightly more deacetylated chitosan but they were severely depolymerized. The depolymerization process was much less important when sodium borohydride was added to the reaction medium but the addition of anthraquinone and the bubbling of nitrogen, or argon, did not have any effect, this suggests that oxygen is not required for depolymerization. (author)

  1. Excessive Additive Effect On Engine Oil Viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Kumbár

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is excessive additive (for oil filling effect on engine oil dynamic viscosity. Research is focused to commercially distribute automotive engine oil with viscosity class 15W–40 designed for vans. There were prepared blends of new and used engine oil without and with oil additive in specific ratio according manufacturer’s recommendations. Dynamic viscosity of blends with additive was compared with pure new and pure used engine oil. The temperature dependence dynamic viscosity of samples was evaluated by using rotary viscometer with standard spindle. Concern was that the oil additive can moves engine oil of several viscosity grades up. It is able to lead to failure in the engine. Mathematical models were used for fitting experimental values of dynamic viscosity. Exponential fit function was selected, which was very accurate because the coefficient of determination R2 achieved high values (0.98–0.99. These models are able to predict viscosity behaviour blends of engine oil and additive.

  2. Effects of additives on PVG dosifilm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Wenxiu; Liu, Aiguo

    1995-01-01

    Dosifilm PVG is a new radiochromic film dosimeter composed of matrix material polyvinyl butyral (PVB), leuco malachite green (LMG) and additive halogenated organic compound (RX), etc. The control of the dose range on PVG dosifilm was examined. The addition of halogenated compounds played an important role in the radiation reaction of LMG beyond the concentration of LMG. Bromide is more effective than chloride in this system, the oxidative species are X · and X 2 · - . PVB with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) can induce the oxidation of LMG before irradiation. The reaction mechanism of PVG was discussed. Different linear ranges of radiation response on PVG dosifilm could be controlled by alternating the relative concentrations of halogenated compounds and LMG. (author)

  3. Gene expression profiling in colon of mice exposed to food additive titanium dioxide (E171).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proquin, Héloïse; Jetten, Marlon J; Jonkhout, Marloes C M; Garduño-Balderas, Luis G; Briedé, Jacob J; de Kok, Theo M; Chirino, Yolanda I; van Loveren, Henk

    2018-01-01

    Dietary factors that may influence the risks of colorectal cancer, including specific supplements, are under investigation. Previous studies showed the capacity of food additive titanium dioxide (E171) to induce DNA damage in vitro and facilitate growth of colorectal tumours in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these effects after E171 exposure. BALB/c mice were exposed by gavage to 5 mg/kg bw /day of E171 for 2, 7, 14, and 21 days. Transcriptome changes were studied by whole genome mRNA microarray analysis on the mice's distal colons. In addition, histopathological changes as well as a proliferation marker were analysed. The results showed significant gene expression changes in the olfactory/GPCR receptor family, oxidative stress, the immune system and of cancer related genes. Transcriptome analysis also identified genes that thus far have not been included in known biological pathways and can induce functional changes by interacting with other genes involved in different biological pathways. Histopathological analysis showed alteration and disruption in the normal structure of crypts inducing a hyperplastic epithelium. At cell proliferation level, no consistent increase over time was observed. These results may offer a mechanistic framework for the enhanced tumour growth after ingestion of E171 in BALB/c mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. DNA-energetics-based analyses suggest additional genes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-06-25

    Jun 25, 2012 ... 2009; Morey et al. 2011). Previous studies have also documented the effect of various energy components on the stability of DNA and mutational stability of DNA sequences (Delcourt and Blake 1991; Hunter. 1993; Sugimoto et al. 1996; Owczarzy et al. 1999; Sponer et al. 2001, 2004; Protozanova et al.

  5. One gene's shattering effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Kenneth M

    2012-05-29

    A new study shows that three independent mutations in the Sh1 gene, which encodes a YABBY transcription factor, gave rise to the non-shattering seed phenotype in domesticated sorghum. This same gene may have also had a role in the domestication of other cereals, including maize and rice.

  6. Additive Effectiveness Investigations in Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Proprietary chemistry marketed by Innospec as Stadis 450. The CI/LI and FSII were added to the SPKs in bulk before additizing to the test plan. Since...275 275 275 ASTM Code ɚ ɚ ɚ. ɚ 4AP > 4P ɚ ɚ ɚ >4AP > 4P Ellipsometry Depth, 2.5mm2 nm 8.9 9.7 10.9 12.2 219.4 181.9 4.3 7.3 9.0 >250 >250 Maximum...23.0 23.0 D3241 Jet Fuel Thermal Stability Test Temperature °C 275 275 275 275 275 275 275 275 275 275 275 ASTM Code ɚ ɚ ɚ. ɚ 4AP > 4P ɚ ɚ ɚ >4AP

  7. Sparse Additive Ordinary Differential Equations for Dynamic Gene Regulatory Network Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hulin; Lu, Tao; Xue, Hongqi; Liang, Hua

    2014-04-02

    The gene regulation network (GRN) is a high-dimensional complex system, which can be represented by various mathematical or statistical models. The ordinary differential equation (ODE) model is one of the popular dynamic GRN models. High-dimensional linear ODE models have been proposed to identify GRNs, but with a limitation of the linear regulation effect assumption. In this article, we propose a sparse additive ODE (SA-ODE) model, coupled with ODE estimation methods and adaptive group LASSO techniques, to model dynamic GRNs that could flexibly deal with nonlinear regulation effects. The asymptotic properties of the proposed method are established and simulation studies are performed to validate the proposed approach. An application example for identifying the nonlinear dynamic GRN of T-cell activation is used to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method.

  8. Robust Tests for Additive Gene-Environment Interaction in Case-Control Studies Using Gene-Environment Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Lee, Seunggeun; Lee, Alice W

    2018-01-01

    There have been recent proposals advocating the use of additive gene-environment interaction instead of the widely used multiplicative scale, as a more relevant public health measure. Using gene-environment independence enhances the power for testing multiplicative interaction in case...... in a data-adaptive way, to the additive scale. An EB estimator of Relative Excess Risk due to Interaction is derived and the corresponding Wald test is proposed with general regression setting under a retrospective likelihood framework. We study the impact of gene-environment association on the resultant...... test with case-control data. Our simulation studies suggest that the EB approach uses the gene-environment independence assumption in a data-adaptive way and provides power gain compared to the standard logistic regression analysis and better control of Type I error when compared to the analysis...

  9. The bystander effect of cancer gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumniczky, K.; Safrany, G.

    2008-01-01

    Cancer gene therapy is a new, promising therapeutic agent. In the clinic, it should be used in combination with existing modalities, such as tumour irradiation. First, we summarise the most important fields of cancer gene therapy: gene directed enzyme pro-drug therapy; the activation of an anti-tumour immune attack; restoration of the wild type p53 status; the application of new, replication competent and oncolytic viral vectors; tumour specific, as well as radiation- and hypoxia-induced gene expression. Special emphasizes are put on the combined effect of these modalities with local tumour irradiation. Using the available vector systems, only a small portion of the cancer cells will contain the therapeutic genes under therapeutic situations. Bystander cell killing might contribute to the success of various gene therapy protocols. We summarise the evidences that lethal bystander effects may occur during cancer gene therapy. Bystander effects are especially important in the gene directed enzyme pro-drug therapy. There, bystander cell killing might have different routes: cell communication through gap junction intercellular contacts; release of toxic metabolites into the neighbourhood or to larger distances; phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies; and the activation of the immune system. Bystander cell killing can be enhanced by the introduction of gap junction proteins into the cells, by further activating the immune system with immune-stimulatory molecules, or by introducing genes into the cells that help the transfer of cytotoxic genes and / or metabolites into the bystander cells. In conclusion, there should be additional improvements in cancer gene therapy for the more efficient clinical application. (orig.)

  10. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W. J.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P.; Noethen, Markus M.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapaa-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E.; Tsoi, Lam C.; van Heel, David A.; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M.; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer substantial risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen-binding repertoires between a heterozygote's two expressed HLA variants might result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested the

  11. Gene-Environment Interactions in Stress Response Contribute Additively to a Genotype-Environment Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Matsui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available How combinations of gene-environment interactions collectively give rise to genotype-environment interactions is not fully understood. To shed light on this problem, we genetically dissected an environment-specific poor growth phenotype in a cross of two budding yeast strains. This phenotype is detectable when certain segregants are grown on ethanol at 37°C ('E37', a condition that differs from the standard culturing environment in both its carbon source (ethanol as opposed to glucose and temperature (37°C as opposed to 30°C. Using recurrent backcrossing with phenotypic selection, we identified 16 contributing loci. To examine how these loci interact with each other and the environment, we focused on a subset of four loci that together can lead to poor growth in E37. We measured the growth of all 16 haploid combinations of alleles at these loci in all four possible combinations of carbon source (ethanol or glucose and temperature (30 or 37°C in a nearly isogenic population. This revealed that the four loci act in an almost entirely additive manner in E37. However, we also found that these loci have weaker effects when only carbon source or temperature is altered, suggesting that their effect magnitudes depend on the severity of environmental perturbation. Consistent with such a possibility, cloning of three causal genes identified factors that have unrelated functions in stress response. Thus, our results indicate that polymorphisms in stress response can show effects that are intensified by environmental stress, thereby resulting in major genotype-environment interactions when multiple of these variants co-occur.

  12. Gene-Environment Interactions in Stress Response Contribute Additively to a Genotype-Environment Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takeshi; Ehrenreich, Ian M

    2016-07-01

    How combinations of gene-environment interactions collectively give rise to genotype-environment interactions is not fully understood. To shed light on this problem, we genetically dissected an environment-specific poor growth phenotype in a cross of two budding yeast strains. This phenotype is detectable when certain segregants are grown on ethanol at 37°C ('E37'), a condition that differs from the standard culturing environment in both its carbon source (ethanol as opposed to glucose) and temperature (37°C as opposed to 30°C). Using recurrent backcrossing with phenotypic selection, we identified 16 contributing loci. To examine how these loci interact with each other and the environment, we focused on a subset of four loci that together can lead to poor growth in E37. We measured the growth of all 16 haploid combinations of alleles at these loci in all four possible combinations of carbon source (ethanol or glucose) and temperature (30 or 37°C) in a nearly isogenic population. This revealed that the four loci act in an almost entirely additive manner in E37. However, we also found that these loci have weaker effects when only carbon source or temperature is altered, suggesting that their effect magnitudes depend on the severity of environmental perturbation. Consistent with such a possibility, cloning of three causal genes identified factors that have unrelated functions in stress response. Thus, our results indicate that polymorphisms in stress response can show effects that are intensified by environmental stress, thereby resulting in major genotype-environment interactions when multiple of these variants co-occur.

  13. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  14. Effect of antistripping additives on the compaction of bituminous concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of antistripping additives on the compaction of bituminous concrete. To do this, the densities obtained on test sections with and without additive were compared. Comparisons of nuclear d...

  15. Reanalysis of RNA-sequencing data reveals several additional fusion genes with multiple isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangaspeska, Sara; Hultsch, Susanne; Edgren, Henrik; Nicorici, Daniel; Murumägi, Astrid; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2012-01-01

    RNA-sequencing and tailored bioinformatic methodologies have paved the way for identification of expressed fusion genes from the chaotic genomes of solid tumors. We have recently successfully exploited RNA-sequencing for the discovery of 24 novel fusion genes in breast cancer. Here, we demonstrate the importance of continuous optimization of the bioinformatic methodology for this purpose, and report the discovery and experimental validation of 13 additional fusion genes from the same samples. Integration of copy number profiling with the RNA-sequencing results revealed that the majority of the gene fusions were promoter-donating events that occurred at copy number transition points or involved high-level DNA-amplifications. Sequencing of genomic fusion break points confirmed that DNA-level rearrangements underlie selected fusion transcripts. Furthermore, a significant portion (>60%) of the fusion genes were alternatively spliced. This illustrates the importance of reanalyzing sequencing data as gene definitions change and bioinformatic methods improve, and highlights the previously unforeseen isoform diversity among fusion transcripts.

  16. Drag reduction by natural polymeric additives in PMDS microchannel: Effect of types of additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Fiona W.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction technology was used in medical applications to enhance the blood flow in semiclogged blood streams which can be an alternative treatment for atherosclerosis. In this present study, natural polymeric drag reducing additives (DRA was introduced to replace synthetic polymer which has the possibility of bringing side effects to human health. Three different sources, namely okra, aloe vera and hibiscus were utilized to extract the natural polymeric additives which were then tested in custom made microchannel simulating human heart blood vessels. The performance of different types of additives was evaluated using pressure measurements. The maximum drag reduction up to 63.48% is achieved using 300 ppm of hibiscus mucilage at operating pressure of 50 mbar. In this present work, hibiscus showed the best drag reduction performance, giving the highest %FI in most of the cases. This experimental results proved that these natural polymeric additives could be utilized as DRA in enhancing the blood flow in semiclogged blood streams.

  17. Recombinase-mediated reprogramming and dystrophin gene addition in mdx mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunli; Farruggio, Alfonso P; Bjornson, Christopher R R; Chavez, Christopher L; Geisinger, Jonathan M; Neal, Tawny L; Karow, Marisa; Calos, Michele P

    2014-01-01

    A cell therapy strategy utilizing genetically-corrected induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) may be an attractive approach for genetic disorders such as muscular dystrophies. Methods for genetic engineering of iPSC that emphasize precision and minimize random integration would be beneficial. We demonstrate here an approach in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy that focuses on the use of site-specific recombinases to achieve genetic engineering. We employed non-viral, plasmid-mediated methods to reprogram mdx fibroblasts, using phiC31 integrase to insert a single copy of the reprogramming genes at a safe location in the genome. We next used Bxb1 integrase to add the therapeutic full-length dystrophin cDNA to the iPSC in a site-specific manner. Unwanted DNA sequences, including the reprogramming genes, were then precisely deleted with Cre resolvase. Pluripotency of the iPSC was analyzed before and after gene addition, and ability of the genetically corrected iPSC to differentiate into myogenic precursors was evaluated by morphology, immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, FACS analysis, and intramuscular engraftment. These data demonstrate a non-viral, reprogramming-plus-gene addition genetic engineering strategy utilizing site-specific recombinases that can be applied easily to mouse cells. This work introduces a significant level of precision in the genetic engineering of iPSC that can be built upon in future studies.

  18. Recombinase-mediated reprogramming and dystrophin gene addition in mdx mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunli Zhao

    Full Text Available A cell therapy strategy utilizing genetically-corrected induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC may be an attractive approach for genetic disorders such as muscular dystrophies. Methods for genetic engineering of iPSC that emphasize precision and minimize random integration would be beneficial. We demonstrate here an approach in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy that focuses on the use of site-specific recombinases to achieve genetic engineering. We employed non-viral, plasmid-mediated methods to reprogram mdx fibroblasts, using phiC31 integrase to insert a single copy of the reprogramming genes at a safe location in the genome. We next used Bxb1 integrase to add the therapeutic full-length dystrophin cDNA to the iPSC in a site-specific manner. Unwanted DNA sequences, including the reprogramming genes, were then precisely deleted with Cre resolvase. Pluripotency of the iPSC was analyzed before and after gene addition, and ability of the genetically corrected iPSC to differentiate into myogenic precursors was evaluated by morphology, immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR, FACS analysis, and intramuscular engraftment. These data demonstrate a non-viral, reprogramming-plus-gene addition genetic engineering strategy utilizing site-specific recombinases that can be applied easily to mouse cells. This work introduces a significant level of precision in the genetic engineering of iPSC that can be built upon in future studies.

  19. Effect of Boron Addition on the Mechanical Wear Resistance of Additively Manufactured Biomedical Titanium Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantri, S. A.; Torgerson, T.; Ivanov, E.; Scharf, T. W.; Banerjee, R.

    2018-03-01

    The effect of the addition of boron to the biomedical alloy Ti-13Nb-13Zr (TNZ) has been studied. A noticeable change between TNZ and TNZ-0.5B has been observed both in terms of morphology, and size scale of the α precipitates along with the in situ formation of TiB precipitates during laser processing. These contrasting microstructures are responsible for differences in mechanical hardness and sliding wear properties and mechanisms.

  20. Impacts of BDE209 addition on Pb uptake, subcellular partitioning and gene toxicity in earthworm (Eisenia fetida)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: wzhang@ecust.edu.cn [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Liu, Kou; Li, Jing; Liang, Jun; Lin, Kuangfei [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Environmental Risk Assessment and Control on Chemical Process, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Resource and Environmental Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • 10 or 100 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 addition caused histological changes in Pb-exposed earthworms’ body wall. • Strong histopathological effects with BDE209 addition confirmed the enhanced Pb bioavailability. • The presence of higher levels of BDE209 altered subcellular partitioning of Pb in earthworm. • Co-exposure to Pb and BDE209 declined SOD and CAT gene transcripts synergistically. • BDE209 addition elicited up-regulation of Hsp90 gene expression compared to Pb exposure alone. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the mainly co-existed contaminants at e-waste recycling sites. The potential toxicity of Pb (250 μg g{sup −1}) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 (1, 10 and 100 μg g{sup −1}) was determined during 14-d incubation period. Compared to Pb treatment alone, the co-exposure with 1 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 barely affected Pb uptake, subcellular partitioning and gene expression; however, histopathological changes in earthworms’ body wall (epidermal, circular and longitudinal muscles) demonstrated that 10 and 100 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 additions enhanced Pb uptake and altered its subcellular partitioning, indicating that Pb redistributed from fractions E (cell debris) and D (metal-rich granules) to fraction C (cytosols); Additionally, BDE209 supply significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) the induction of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) gene expressions (maximum down-regulation 59% for SOD gene at Pb + 100 μg g{sup −1} BDE209 and 89% for CAT gene at Pb + 10 μg g{sup −1} BDE209), while facilitated (p < 0.05) Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) gene expression with maximum induction rate of 120% after exposure to Pb + 10 μg g{sup −1} BDE209. These findings illustrate the importance of considering environmental BDE209 co-exposure when assessing Pb bioaccumulation and toxicity in multi-contaminated soil ecosystems.

  1. Impacts of BDE209 addition on Pb uptake, subcellular partitioning and gene toxicity in earthworm (Eisenia fetida)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Kou; Li, Jing; Liang, Jun; Lin, Kuangfei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 10 or 100 μg g −1 BDE209 addition caused histological changes in Pb-exposed earthworms’ body wall. • Strong histopathological effects with BDE209 addition confirmed the enhanced Pb bioavailability. • The presence of higher levels of BDE209 altered subcellular partitioning of Pb in earthworm. • Co-exposure to Pb and BDE209 declined SOD and CAT gene transcripts synergistically. • BDE209 addition elicited up-regulation of Hsp90 gene expression compared to Pb exposure alone. - Abstract: Lead (Pb) and decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) are the mainly co-existed contaminants at e-waste recycling sites. The potential toxicity of Pb (250 μg g −1 ) to earthworm Eisenia fetida in the presence of BDE209 (1, 10 and 100 μg g −1 ) was determined during 14-d incubation period. Compared to Pb treatment alone, the co-exposure with 1 μg g −1 BDE209 barely affected Pb uptake, subcellular partitioning and gene expression; however, histopathological changes in earthworms’ body wall (epidermal, circular and longitudinal muscles) demonstrated that 10 and 100 μg g −1 BDE209 additions enhanced Pb uptake and altered its subcellular partitioning, indicating that Pb redistributed from fractions E (cell debris) and D (metal-rich granules) to fraction C (cytosols); Additionally, BDE209 supply significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) the induction of SOD (superoxide dismutase) and CAT (catalase) gene expressions (maximum down-regulation 59% for SOD gene at Pb + 100 μg g −1 BDE209 and 89% for CAT gene at Pb + 10 μg g −1 BDE209), while facilitated (p < 0.05) Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) gene expression with maximum induction rate of 120% after exposure to Pb + 10 μg g −1 BDE209. These findings illustrate the importance of considering environmental BDE209 co-exposure when assessing Pb bioaccumulation and toxicity in multi-contaminated soil ecosystems.

  2. Effect of salt additives on concrete degradation : interim report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Many chemical additives designed to inhibit the corrosive effect of salt on rebars are being marketed. Their effect on Portland Cement Concrete is neither known nor understood. This study is an attempt to determine if there is an effect and to unders...

  3. Effect of additives on CuO/Al nanothermite properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordeev, V. V.; Kazutin, M. V.; Kozyrev, N. V.

    2017-10-01

    The effect of additives on CuO/Al nanothermite properties is reported. The incorporation of additives resulted in the decreased sensitivity. It had an adverse impact on gas dynamic characteristics of CuO/Al nanothermite, up to the loss of the unique capability of burning in narrow channels.

  4. Effects of various additives on sintering of aluminum nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeya, K.; Inoue, H.; Tsuge, A.

    1982-01-01

    Effects of thirty additives on sintering A/N were investigated. The addition of alkali earth oxides and rare earth oxides gave fully densified aluminum nitride. This is due to the formation of nitrogen-containing aluminate liquid in the system aluminum nitride-alkali earth oxides or rare earth oxides. Microstructural studies of the sintered specimens with the above two types of additives suggested that the densification was due to the liquid phase sintering. Additions of silicon compounds resulted in poor densification by the formation of highly refractory compounds such as A/N polytypes.

  5. Additive Main Effects and Multiplicative Interaction Analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis is a recently recommended effective method to study the genotype by environment (GxE) interaction pattern of multi-environment varietal trials. This work deals with modeling and examining the GxE interaction pattern of the multi-environment trials of 43 ...

  6. Direct and Maternal Additive Effects on Rabbit Growth and Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and linear body measurements of rabbits which consisted of 17 ew Zealand White (ZW), 19 Chinchilla (CH), 29 ZW x CH and 33 CH x ZW kittens were compared. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the crossbreeding effects (i.e direct and maternal additive effect) for growth (individual body weight, IBW) and ...

  7. The Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea Rhizobia Can Be Improved by Additional Copies of the clpB Chaperone Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paço

    Full Text Available The ClpB chaperone is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. Moreover, recent studies suggest that this protein has also a role in the chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. In order to improve both stress tolerance and symbiotic performance of a chickpea microsymbiont, the Mesorhizobium mediterraneum UPM-Ca36T strain was genetically transformed with pPHU231 containing an extra-copy of the clpB gene. To investigate if the clpB-transformed strain displays an improved stress tolerance, bacterial growth was evaluated under heat and acid stress conditions. In addition, the effect of the extra-copies of the clpB gene in the symbiotic performance was evaluated using plant growth assays (hydroponic and pot trials. The clpB-transformed strain is more tolerant to heat shock than the strain transformed with pPHU231, supporting the involvement of ClpB in rhizobia heat shock tolerance. Both plant growth assays showed that ClpB has an important role in chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. The nodulation kinetics analysis showed a higher rate of nodule appearance with the clpB-transformed strain. This strain also induced a greater number of nodules and, more notably, its symbiotic effectiveness increased ~60% at pH5 and 83% at pH7, compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, a higher frequency of root hair curling was also observed in plants inoculated with the clpB-transformed strain, compared to the wild-type strain. The superior root hair curling induction, nodulation ability and symbiotic effectiveness of the clpB-transformed strain may be explained by an increased expression of symbiosis genes. Indeed, higher transcript levels of the nodulation genes nodA and nodC (~3 folds were detected in the clpB-transformed strain. The improvement of rhizobia by addition of extra-copies of the clpB gene may be a promising strategy to obtain strains with enhanced stress tolerance and symbiotic effectiveness, thus contributing to their success as crop inoculants

  8. Properties of wood-plastic composites: effect of inorganic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, E. H.; Salman, N.

    2003-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites from Syrian tree species (white poplar, cypress tree, and white willow) were prepared using gamma-ray irradiation. Dry wood was impregnated with acrylamide or butylmethacrylate at various methanol compositions as the swelling solvent. Effect of inorganic additives and co-additives such as lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ), copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) and sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), used at a very low concentration (1%), on the polymer loading (PL) and the compression strength (CS) was also investigated. It has been found that all the additives and co-additives, except Cu 2+ , increase the PL values and only Li + has a positive effect on CS. (Author)

  9. Properties of wood-plastic composites: effect of inorganic additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakraji, Elias Hanna; Salman, Numan

    2003-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites from Syrian tree species (white poplar, cypress tree, and white willow) were prepared using gamma-ray irradiation. Dry wood was impregnated with acrylamide or butylmethacrylate at various methanol compositions as the swelling solvent. Effect of inorganic additives and co-additives such as lithium nitrate (LiNO 3 ), copper sulfate (CuSO 4 ) and sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ), used at a very low concentration (1%), on the polymer loading (PL) and the compression strength (CS) was also investigated. It has been found that all the additives and co-additives, except Cu 2+ , increase the PL values and only Li + has a positive effect on CS

  10. Arrays in rays: terminal addition in echinoderms and its correlation with gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooi, Rich; David, Bruno; Wray, Gregory A

    2005-01-01

    The echinoderms are deuterostomes that superimpose radial symmetry upon bilateral larval morphology. Consequently, they are not the first animals that come to mind when the concepts of segmentation and terminal addition are being discussed. However, it has long been recognized that echinoderms have serial elements along their radii formed in accordance with the ocular plate rule (OPR). The OPR is a special case of terminal growth, forming elements of the ambulacra that define the rays in echinoderms. New elements are added at the terminus of the ray, which may or may not be marked by a calcified element called the terminal plate (the "ocular" of sea urchins). The OPR operates in every echinoderm, from the occasionally bizarre fossils of the Cambrian to the most familiar extant taxa. Using the OPR and other criteria of recognition, echinoderm body wall can be divided into two main regions: extraxial components are associated with the somatocoels, axial components (formed in accordance with the OPR) with the hydrocoel. We compare patterns of development in axial regions of echinoderms with those found in the anterior-posterior axes of the earliest echinoderms as well as other invertebrates. Although axial and extraxial skeletons appear to be composed of the same biomineral matrix, the genes involved in patterning these two skeletal components are likely distinct. During development of the axial skeleton, for instance, the genes engrailed and orthodenticle are expressed in spatial and temporal patterns consistent with the OPR. Other genes such as distal-less seem to demarcate early ontogenetic boundaries between the axial rudiment and the extraxial larval body. There is a complex and pervasive reorganization of gene expression domains to produce the highly divergent morphologies seen in the Echinodermata. We integrate morphological and genetic information, particularly with respect to the origins of radial symmetry in the rudiment, and the concomitant development of

  11. An atomic view of additive mutational effects in a protein structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, M.M.; Terwilliger, T.C.

    1996-04-01

    Substitution of a single amino acid in a protein will often lead to substantial changes in properties. If these properties could be altered in a rational way then proteins could be readily generated with functions tailored to specific uses. When amino acid substitutions are made at well-separated locations in a single protein, their effects are generally additive. Additivity of effects of amino acid substitutions is very useful because the properties of proteins with any combination of substitutions can be inferred directly from those of the proteins with single changes. It would therefore be of considerable interest to have a means of knowing whether substitutions at a particular pair of sites in a protein are likely to lead to additive effects. The structural basis for additivity of effects of mutations on protein function was examined by determining crystal structures of single and double mutants in the hydrophobic core of gene V protein. Structural effects of mutations were found to be cumulative when two mutations were made in a single protein. Additivity occurs in this case because the regions structurally affected by mutations at the two sites do not overlap even though the sites are separated by only 9 {angstrom}. Structural distortions induced by mutations in gene V protein decrease rapidly, but not isotropically, with distance from the site of mutation. It is anticipated that cases where structural and functional effects of mutations will be additive could be identified simply by examining whether the regions structurally affected by each component mutation overlap.

  12. Promotional effects of new types of additives on fat crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Shinichi; Kida, Haruyasu; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2014-01-01

    We examined the promotional effects of additives on fat crystallization, such as inorganic (talc, carbon nanotube (CNT), and graphite) and organic (theobromine, ellagic acid dihydrate (EAD), and terephthalic acid) materials. The triacylglycerols (TAGs) of trilauroylglycerol (LLL), trimyristoylglycerol (MMM), and tripalmitoylglycerol (PPP) were employed as the fats. The additives (1 wt%) were added to the molten TAGs, and then the mixtures were cooled at a rate of 1°C/min followed by heating at a rate of 5°C/min. The crystallization and melting properties were observed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and polarized optical microscope (POM). Consequently, we found that the above six additives remarkably increased the initial temperatures of crystallization (Ti) on cooling without changing the melting temperatures. For example, in the case of LLL, the increases in Ti were 2.6°C (talc), 3.9°C (CNT), 8.1°C (graphite), 1.1°C (theobromine), 2.0°C (EAD), and 6.8°C (terephthalic acid). Very similar effects were observed for the crystallization of MMM and PPP with the six additives. Furthermore, the polymorphs of the first occurring crystals were changed from metastable to more stable forms by many of these additives. The POM observation revealed that the crystallization was initiated at the surfaces of additive particles. This study has shown for the first time that the heterogeneous nucleation of fat crystals can be greatly promoted by new types of additives. Such additives have great potential to promote fat crystallization by not only hydrophobic but also hydrophilic molecular interactions between the fats and additives.

  13. Effects of additives on glyphosate activity in purple nutsedge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rungsit Suwanketnikom

    1998-01-01

    Effects of additives on 14 C-glyphosate penetration into purple nutsedge leaves were examined in the laboratory and efficacy of glyphosate for purple nutsedge control was studied in the greenhouse and field. The addition of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at 1.0% (v/v) + diesel oil at 1,0% (v/v) + Tendal at 1.0% (v/v) increased 14 C-glyphosate penetration into nutsedge leaves more than the addition of either one alone. (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 at 1.0% + diesel oil at 1.0% + Tendal at 0.12 or 0.25% increased the phytotoxicity of glyphosate at 0.5 and 0.75 kg, a.e./ha on nutsedge plants in the greenhouse but not in the field. Additives did not enhance glyphosate activity by reducing the number of nutsedae tubers. (author)

  14. Additive effects of oral fluoropyrimidine derivative S-1 and radiation on human hypopharyngeal cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Takahiro; Otsuki, Naoki; Masai, Yohko; Sasaki, Ryohei; Tsukuda, Mamoru; Nibu, Ken-Ichi

    2008-08-01

    The results presented here provide evidence of the enhancing effect of oral fluoropyrimidine derivative S-1 in concomitant chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer and further insights into its biological mechanism. To investigate the additive effect of S-1 and radiation for human hypopharyngeal cancer. Nude mice bearing hypopharyngeal cancer cells (H891) were used for an in vivo model. S-1 was administered at a volume of 0.01 mg/g body weight per mouse for 14 days, and tumors were irradiated with 2.0 Gy on days 1 and 8. Mice treated with either radiation or S-1 alone were used as controls. The growth of tumors in each group was measured and, after completion of the treatment, a focused DNA array was used to determine mRNA expression levels in the tumors of 132 genes related to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), radiation or carcinogenesis. The additive antitumor effect of S-1 and radiation was statistically confirmed on day 14 (p=0.01). DNA array assay showed significant changes in expression of several genes, including DNA repair gene POLD, angiogenesis-related genes bFGF and TP, DNA topoisomerase TOP2A, and nucleoside transporter gene ENT1.

  15. Effect Of Formulating Additives On The Properties Of Ibuprofen Tablets

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of the comparative effects of different formulating additives and film coating on the properties of ibuprofen tablets was made. The tested properties were hardeness (H), friability (F), the disintegration time (D) and dissolution characteristics of ibuprofen tablets. The hardeness, friability, the hardeness friability ratio ...

  16. Additive Effects of Rhizophora Racemose (Red Mangrove) On Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt to determine the additive effect of pulverized Rhizophora racemosa (Red Mangrove) leaves on the hematology and bursa of Fabricus of broilers. Sixty (60) day-old, Anak broiler chicks ...

  17. Effect of micronized zeolite addition to lamb concentrate feeds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of micronized zeolite addition to lamb concentrate feeds on growth performance and some blood chemistry and metabolites. ... No differences were observed between the groups in terms of blood urea nitrogen, plasma glucose, serum creatinine, triglyceride, sodium, potassium and chlorine concentration. However ...

  18. Effect of fluoride additives on production and characterization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Temperature reduction of -Al2O3 formation has been achieved by introducing fluoride in the alumina precursor. The effects of ZnF2 additive and milling on the phase transformation as well as micrograph of the prepared -Al2O3 particles were investigated. The samples were characterized by different techniques such as ...

  19. Effect of fluoride additives on production and characterization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of fluoride additives on production and characterization of nano-α-Al2O3 particles. F MIRJALILI. Department of Material Engineering, Maybod Branch, Islamic Azad University, Maybod 89156–75164, Iran. MS received 1 December 2013; revised 30 January 2014. Abstract. Nano-α-Al2O3 particles were synthesized by ...

  20. Effect of aluminum addition on electrical properties, dielectric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of aluminum addition on electrical properties, dielectric characteristics, and its stability of (Pr, Co, Cr, Y)-added zinc oxide-based varistors. Choon-W Nahm. Electrical Properties Volume 33 Issue 3 June 2010 pp 239-245 ... Department of Electrical Engineering, Dongeui University, Busan 614-714, Republic of Korea ...

  1. Experimental analysis on the effect of addition of Rhizoma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of addition of Rhizoma gastrodiae on mycelia and exopolysaccharide production by submerged culture of Grifola frondosa was investigated. About 7% (v/v) of R. gastrodiae extract was added to the basal medium used for its biomass and exopolysaccharide productions. The biomass and exopolysaccharide ...

  2. Effects of various additives to enhance growth performance, blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of various additives to enhance growth performance, blood profiles, and reduce malodour emissions in growing pigs. W.G. Kwak, I.H. Park, W Yun, J.H. Lee, C.H. Lee, S.Y. Oh, H.J. Oh, Shudong Liu, Y.H. Kim, J.C. Park, G.S. Kim, J.H. Cho ...

  3. Effects of water and sawdust additives on thermal effusivity, thermal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of water and sawdust additives on the thermal effusivity (e), thermal conductivity (λ), and durability of cement-stabilized laterites were investigated. The thermal effusivity (e) and conductivity(λ) have direct influ-ence on heat transfer and thermal insulation in buildings, and the parameters were determined by hot ...

  4. Effects of sulphur addition on modification and mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of sulphur addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of sand cast Al-12wt%Si alloy have been investigated in this study. For this purpose, different amounts of sulphur were added to Al-12wt%Si alloy in an induction furnace to produce sand castings for micro-structural and mechanical properties ...

  5. Modelling time course gene expression data with finite mixtures of linear additive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Bettina; Scharl, Theresa; Leisch, Friedrich

    2012-01-15

    A model class of finite mixtures of linear additive models is presented. The component-specific parameters in the regression models are estimated using regularized likelihood methods. The advantages of the regularization are that (i) the pre-specified maximum degrees of freedom for the splines is less crucial than for unregularized estimation and that (ii) for each component individually a suitable degree of freedom is selected in an automatic way. The performance is evaluated in a simulation study with artificial data as well as on a yeast cell cycle dataset of gene expression levels over time. The latest release version of the R package flexmix is available from CRAN (http://cran.r-project.org/).

  6. The effect of one additional driver mutation on tumor progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Johannes G; Bozic, Ivana; Allen, Benjamin; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    Tumor growth is caused by the acquisition of driver mutations, which enhance the net reproductive rate of cells. Driver mutations may increase cell division, reduce cell death, or allow cells to overcome density-limiting effects. We study the dynamics of tumor growth as one additional driver mutation is acquired. Our models are based on two-type branching processes that terminate in either tumor disappearance or tumor detection. In our first model, both cell types grow exponentially, with a faster rate for cells carrying the additional driver. We find that the additional driver mutation does not affect the survival probability of the lesion, but can substantially reduce the time to reach the detectable size if the lesion is slow growing. In our second model, cells lacking the additional driver cannot exceed a fixed carrying capacity, due to density limitations. In this case, the time to detection depends strongly on this carrying capacity. Our model provides a quantitative framework for studying tumor dynamics during different stages of progression. We observe that early, small lesions need additional drivers, while late stage metastases are only marginally affected by them. These results help to explain why additional driver mutations are typically not detected in fast-growing metastases. PMID:23396615

  7. Effects of additional nanosilica of compressive strength on mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retno Setiati, N.

    2017-07-01

    The use of nanosilica as one of the innovations in concrete technology has developed very rapidly. Some research mentioned that nanosilica obtained from the synthesis process silica sand is a type of material that is as pozolan when added to the concrete mix, so as to accelerate the hydration process in concrete. With the addition of nanosilica into the concrete mix, the compressive strength of the concrete can be increased and it has a high durability. This study aims to determine the effect from the addition of nanosilica on mechanical properties of concrete. Laboratory testing is conducted by making the mortar test specimen size of 50 mm x 50 mm x 50 mm. The material used is composed of silica sand, nanosilica, gravel, superplasticizer, cement, and water. Nanosilica percentage amount is added as much as 5, 10, and 15% by weight of cement. Testing of mechanical properties such as compressive strength mortar done at age 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. Based on the analysis and discussion obtained that at 28 days, mortar with the addition of 5% and 15% nanosilica has the compressive strength of 23 MPa. Addition nanosilika into the mortar to improve the mechanical properties by increasing the compressive strength of mortar. The compressive strength of mortar with the addition of 10% nanosilica is 19 MPa. The increase in compressive strength of mortar with the addition of 5% and 15% nano silica is 21% larger than the mortar with the addition of 10% nanosilica and without nanosilica. Nanosilica addition of more than 10% can cause agglomeration when mixed into the mortar so that the impact on the compressive strength of mortar.

  8. Effect of trehalose addition on volatiles responsible for strawberry aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopjar, Mirela; Hribar, Janez; Simcic, Marjan; Zlatić, Emil; Pozrl, Tomaz; Pilizota, Vlasta

    2013-12-01

    Aroma is one of the most important quality properties of food products and has a great influence on quality and acceptability of foods. Since it is very difficult to control, in this study the effect of addition of trehalose (3, 5 and 10%) to freeze-dried strawberry cream fillings was investigated as a possible means for retention of some of the aroma compounds responsible for the strawberry aroma. In samples with added trehalose, higher amounts of fruity esters were determined. Increase of trehalose content did not cause a proportional increase in the amount of fruity esters. However, results of our research showed that trehalose addition did not have the same effect on both gamma-decalactone and furaneol.

  9. Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Harwell, M.A.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The authors summarize biological and ecosystem responses to enhanced UV-B, air pollutants, radiation, and fire. The concentrations and biological responses associated with these perturbations are based on current experience and experimentation. Additional research is needed to quantify probable post-nuclear war exposures and potential responses. A summary is provided of all the potential effects of nuclear war on the variety of the Earth's ecosystems, including perturbations from climatic alterations, radiation, pollutants, and UV-B

  10. Effect of additives on densification and deformation of tetragonal zirconia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutz, M.M.R.; Boutz, M.M.R.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Hartgers, F.; Burggraaf, A.J.; Burggraaf, Anthonie

    1994-01-01

    The effect of additives (Bi2O3, Fe2O3) on densification and creep rates of tetragonal ZrO2-Y2O3 has been investigated. In Bi2O3-doped Y-TZP, a reactive liquid forms at temperatures above 800–900DaggerC, which leads to a strong enhancement of densification for concentrations of 1–2 mol % Bi2O3.

  11. Transformation of brushite to hydroxyapatite and effects of alginate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, Seniz; Bjørnøy, Sindre H.; Bassett, David C.; Strand, Berit L.; Sikorski, Pawel; Andreassen, Jens-Petter

    2017-06-01

    Phase transformations are important processes during mineral formation in both in vivo and in vitro model systems and macromolecules are influential in regulating the mineralization processes. Calcium phosphate mineralized alginate hydrogels are potential candidates for hard tissue engineering applications and transformation of the resorbable calcium phosphate phases to apatitic bone mineral in vivo enhances the success of these composite materials. Here, the transformation of brushite to hydroxyapatite (HA) and the effects of alginate additives on this process are studied by the investigation of supersaturation profiles with HA-seeded and unseeded experiments. This experimental design allows for detailed kinetic interpretation of the transformation reactions and deduction of information on the nucleation stage of HA by evaluating the results of seeded and unseeded experiments together. In the experimental conditions of this work, transformation was controlled by HA growth until the point of near complete brushite dissolution where the growth and dissolution rates were balanced. The presence of alginate additives at low concentration were not highly influential on transformation rates during the growth dominated region but their retardant effect became more pronounced as the dissolution and growth rates reached an equilibrium where both reactions were effective on transformation kinetics. Decoupling of seeded and unseeded transformation experiments suggested that alginate additives retard HA nucleation and this was most evident in the presence of G-block oligomers.

  12. Effect of Urea Addition on Soda Pulping of Oak Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Nam-Seok; Matsumoto, Yuji; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Oga, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted to find a sulfur-free additive for alkaline pulping liquors that would have an effect similar to that of sulfide in kraft pulping. Some reagents that partially fulfill this role have been found, but they are too expensive to be used in the quantities required to make them effective. As an alternative method to solve air pollution problem and difficulty of pulp bleaching of kraft pulping process, NaOH-Urea pulping was applied. The properties of NaOH-Urea pul...

  13. Effects of small ionic amphiphilic additives on reverse microemulsion morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzopoulos, Marios Hopkins; James, Craig; Rogers, Sarah; Grillo, Isabelle; Dowding, Peter J; Eastoe, Julian

    2014-05-01

    Initial studies (Hopkins Hatzopoulos et al. (2013)) have shown that ionic hydrotropic additives can drive a sphere-to-cylinder (ellipsoid) transition in water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions stabilized by the anionic surfactant Aerosol-OT; however the origins of this behaviour remained unclear. Here systematic effects of chemical structure are explored with a new set of hydrotropes, in terms of an aromatic versus a saturated cyclic hydrophobic group, and linear chain length of alkyl carboxylates. It is proposed that hydrotrope-induced microemulsion sphere-to-cylinder (ellipsoid) transitions are linked to additive hydrophobicity, and so a correlation between the bulk aqueous phase critical aggregation concentration (cac) and perturbation of microemulsion structure is expected. Water-in-oil microemulsions were formulated as a function of water content w (= [water]/[AOT]) and concentration of different hydrotropes, being either cyclic (sodium benzoate or sodium cyclohexanoate), or linear chain systems (sodium hexanoate, sodium heptanoate and sodium octanoate). Phase behaviour studies were performed as a function of w, additive type and temperature at total surfactant concentration [ST]=0.10M and constant mole fraction x=0.10 (x=[hydrotrope]/[ST]). Microemulsion domain structures were investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and these data were fitted by structural models to yield information on the shapes (spheres, ellipsoids or cylinders) and sizes of the nanodroplets. Under the conditions of study hydrotrope chemical structure has a significant effect on microemulsion structure: sodium cyclohexanoate does not induce the formation of cylindrical/ellipsoidal nanodroplets, whereas the aromatic analogue sodium benzoate does. Furthermore, the short chain sodium hexanoate does not cause anisotropic microemulsions, but the more hydrophobic longer chain heptanoate and octanoate analogues do induce sphere-to-ellipsoid transitions. This study shows that underlying

  14. Additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Motoyuki; Katoh, Harumi; Komatsu, Akihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Okado, Kohta; Kakuta, Yusuke; Hirano, Katsumi

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that over 0.8 kg kg −1 of starch is consisted of amylopectin (AP). In this study, production of glucose for raw material of ethanol by hydrothermal reaction of AP as one of the model compound of food is discussed. Further, additive effects of acetic acid upon hydrothermal reactions of AP are also investigated. During hydrothermal reaction of AP, production of glucose occurred above 453 K, and the glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg −1 at 473 K. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K, prolongation of the holding time was not effective for the increase of the glucose yield. Upon hydrothermal reaction of AP at 473 K for 0 s, the glucose yield increased significantly by addition between 0.26 mol L −1 and 0.52 mol L −1 of acetic acid. However, the glucose yield decreased and the yield of the other constituents increased with the increases of concentration of acetic acid from 0.65 mol L −1 to 3.33 mol L −1 . It was considered that hydrolysis of AP to yield glucose was enhanced due to the increase of the amount of proton derived from acetic acid during hydrothermal reaction with 0.52 mol L −1 of acetic acid. -- Highlights: ► Glucose production by hydrothermal reaction of amylopectin (AP) at 473 K. ► Glucose yield increased to 0.48 kg kg -1 at 473 K. ► Prolongation of holding time was not effective for glucose yield. ► Glucose yield increased significantly by acetic acid (0.26–0.52 mol L-1) addition. ► Hydrolysis of AP to glucose was enhanced due to increase of proton from acetic acid.

  15. Priming effects in Haplic Luvisol after different substrate additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolova, I.; Blagodatskaya, E.; Blagodatsky, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Although soils contain considerable amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), most of it is not easily available for microorganisms. Addition of various substrates to soil (for example, plant residues, root exudates) may affect SOC mineralization. The addition of mineral nutrients, especially N, may also affect C turnover and so change the mineralization rate of SOC. Such short-term changes in mineralization of organic substance of soil were termed as "priming-effects" (Bingemann et al., 1953). Priming effect leads to additional mineralization of SOC (van Elsas and van Overbeek, 1993). It has been shown that not only plant residues induce priming effects (Sauerbeck, 1966; Stemmer et al., 1999; Bell et al., 2003), but also easily available substrates such as sugars or amino acids, which are present in soil solutions and root exudates (Vasconcellos, 1994; Shen and Bartha, 1997; Hamer and Marschner, 2002). Since easily available substrates may not only accelerate SOC mineralization, but also may retard it, Kuzyakov et al. (2000) differentiated between positive and negative priming effects. It is not clear until now, how long priming effects persists in soil after substrate addition, and if they are induced every time when a substrate becomes available in soil. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate effects of glucose and plant residues on SOM decomposition, and influence of glucose on plant residues decomposition in soil. The experimental layout was designed as two factor experiment: 1) plant residues and 2) available substrate amendment. Maize shoot residues (50 mg added to 5 g soil) were 14C labeled (9•104 DPM per 5 g soil). Soil without of any plant residues served as a control for this treatment. Two levels of D (+) glucose as easily available substrates were added after three months of pre-incubation of soil samples with maize residues: 0.009 mg glucose C g-1 soil and 0.225 mg glucose C g-1 soil. The glucose was uniformly labelled with 14C (2.37•104 DPM per 5

  16. PREDATOR IDENTITY AND ADDITIVE EFFECTS IN A TREEHOLE COMMUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, Marcus W.; Lounibos, L. Philip

    2007-01-01

    Multiple predator species can interact as well as strongly affect lower trophic levels, resulting in complex, nonadditive effects on prey populations and community structure. Studies of aquatic systems have shown that interactive effects of predators on prey are not necessarily predictable from the direct effects of each species alone. To test for complex interactions, the individual and combined effects of a top and intermediate predator on larvae of native and invasive mosquito prey were examined in artificial analogues of water-filled treeholes. The combined effects of the two predators were accurately predicted from single predator treatments by a multiplicative risk model, indicating additivity. Overall survivorship of both prey species decreased greatly in the presence of the top predator Toxorhynchites rutilus. By itself, the intermediate predator Corethrella appendiculata increased survivorship of the native prey species Ochlerotatus triseriatus and decreased survivorship of the invasive prey species Aedes albopictus relative to treatments without predators. Intraguild predation did not occur until alternative prey numbers had been reduced by approximately one-half. Owing to changes in size structure accompanying its growth, T. rutilus consumed more prey as time progressed, whereas C. appendiculata consumed less. The intermediate predator, C. appendiculata, changed species composition by preferentially consuming A. albopictus, while the top predator, T. rutilus, reduced prey density, regardless of species. Although species interactions were in most cases predicted from pairwise interactions, risk reduction from predator interference occurred when C. appendiculata densities were increased and when the predators were similarly sized. PMID:16676542

  17. The influence of oil additives on the effectiveness of herbicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Chwedoruk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to decrease herbicide doses without reducing their weed controlling effectiveness was investigated in two microplots and one field experiment. The following herbicides were used: atrazine, mixture of atrazine with terbutrine, MCPA + MCPP, MCPA + dikamba, desmedipham and phenmedipham (Betanal 31, 32 or 37. They were combined with one or several of the following adjuvants: parafinic oil, refuse product of rape oil rafination, oil mixture from the Institute of Organic Chemistry Industry (IPO-Warsaw, surfactant Rokafenol N-1O, mineral oil Nr 8 (Aviol. It was shown that the doses of herbicides could be lowered by 30-50% without loosing their phytotoxic effect on weeds due to addition of adjuvants. The mineral oil 8 was very active in a mixture with Betanal 37 and was completly non toxic toward sugar beets. The oil mixture from IPO and Rokafenol N-10 were very active in mixtures with atrazine or atraizine with terbutrine.

  18. EFFECT OF THE HERBAL ADDITIVE "YUCCA" ON RABBIT SPERMATOZOA CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Baláži

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to evaluate the effect of the plant additive “Yucca” on rabbit spermatozoa characteristics. Rabbit males of New Zealand White line were used in the experiments. Males in control group were fed with commercially available normal granular feed. In experimental group (E1 5 g of plant Yucca shidigera was added to the 100 kg of the normal feed. In the second experimental group (E2 20 g of Yucca shidigera was added to 100 kg of the normal feed. The males were fed from weaning until they reached the sexual maturity. Semen samples from 5 New Zealand White (NZW rabbit males in each group were collected using an artificial vagina and evaluated using the CASA system for concentration and motility. The males in E2 group had significantly higher sperm motility in comparison with the control group (91.54±1.84% vs. 74.08±5.97%. The males in E1 and E2 group had significantly higher progressive motility in comparison with the control group (72.56±4.75% and 82.84±2.55% vs. 53.98±6.49%, respectively. This preliminary study suggests that the addition of Yucca shidigera plant into the normal feed had positive effects on male’s spermatozoa parameters.

  19. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Tobias L; Deutsch, Aaron J; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W J; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P; Nöthen, Markus M; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E; Tsoi, Lam C; van Heel, David A; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T; Gregersen, Peter K; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-09-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer substantial risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen-binding repertoires between a heterozygote's two expressed HLA variants might result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested the non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (ncases = 5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D; ncases = 5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (ncases = 3,089), idiopathic achalasia (ncases = 727) and celiac disease (ncases = 11,115). In four of the five diseases, we observed highly significant, non-additive dominance effects (rheumatoid arthritis, P = 2.5 × 10(-12); T1D, P = 2.4 × 10(-10); psoriasis, P = 5.9 × 10(-6); celiac disease, P = 1.2 × 10(-87)). In three of these diseases, the non-additive dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (rheumatoid arthritis, P = 1.8 × 10(-3); T1D, P = 8.6 × 10(-27); celiac disease, P = 6.0 × 10(-100)). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (rheumatoid arthritis, 1.4%; T1D, 4.0%; celiac disease, 4.1%) beyond a simple additive model.

  20. Physiological effects of some synthetic food colouring additives on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboel-Zahab, H; el-Khyat, Z; Sidhom, G; Awadallah, R; Abdel-al, W; Mahdy, K

    1997-11-01

    Three different synthetic chocolate colourant agents (A, B and C) were administered to healthy adult male albino rats for 30 and 60 day periods to evaluate their effects on body weight, blood picture, liver and kidney functions, blood glucose, serum and liver lipids, liver nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and growth hormone. In addition, histopathological examinations of liver, kidney and stomach sections were studied. These parameters were also investigated 30 days after colourant stoppage (post effect). Ingestion of colourant C (brown HT and indigocarmine) significantly decreased rat body weight, serum cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol fraction, while, T4 hormone, liver RNA content, liver enzymes (S. GOT, S. GPT and alkaline phosphatase), total protein and globulin fractions were significantly elevated. Significant increases were observed in serum total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, globulin and serum transaminases in rats whose diets were supplemented with chocolate colours A and B (sunset yellow, tartrazine, carmoisine and brilliant blue in varying concentrations). Haematological investigations demonstrated selective neutropenia and lymphocytosis with no significant alterations of total white blood cell counts in all rat groups, while haemoglobin concentrations and red blood cell counts were significantly decreased in the rats who were administered food additives A and B. Eosinophilia was noted in rats fed on colourant A only. No changes were recorded for blood glucose, growth hormone and kidney function tests. Histopathological studies showed brown pigment deposition in the portal tracts and Van Küpffer cells of the liver as well as in the interstitial tissue and renal tubular cells of the kidney mainly induced by colourant A. Congested blood vessels and areas of haemorrhage in both liver and renal sections were revealed in those rats who were given colourants B and C. There were no-untoward-effects recorded in the

  1. Dissection of additive, dominance, and imprinting effects for production and reproduction traits in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jicai; Shen, Botong; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; VanRaden, Paul M; Cole, John B; Ma, Li

    2017-05-30

    Although genome-wide association and genomic selection studies have primarily focused on additive effects, dominance and imprinting effects play an important role in mammalian biology and development. The degree to which these non-additive genetic effects contribute to phenotypic variation and whether QTL acting in a non-additive manner can be detected in genetic association studies remain controversial. To empirically answer these questions, we analyzed a large cattle dataset that consisted of 42,701 genotyped Holstein cows with genotyped parents and phenotypic records for eight production and reproduction traits. SNP genotypes were phased in pedigree to determine the parent-of-origin of alleles, and a three-component GREML was applied to obtain variance decomposition for additive, dominance, and imprinting effects. The results showed a significant non-zero contribution from dominance to production traits but not to reproduction traits. Imprinting effects significantly contributed to both production and reproduction traits. Interestingly, imprinting effects contributed more to reproduction traits than to production traits. Using GWAS and imputation-based fine-mapping analyses, we identified and validated a dominance association signal with milk yield near RUNX2, a candidate gene that has been associated with milk production in mice. When adding non-additive effects into the prediction models, however, we observed little or no increase in prediction accuracy for the eight traits analyzed. Collectively, our results suggested that non-additive effects contributed a non-negligible amount (more for reproduction traits) to the total genetic variance of complex traits in cattle, and detection of QTLs with non-additive effect is possible in GWAS using a large dataset.

  2. Effect of Chemical Additives in Sump on Boric Acid Solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Hu; Kim, Young Soo; No, Hee Cheon

    2007-01-01

    Boric acid precipitation, which happens in the pressurized water reactor core during post-LOCA long-term cooling period, could adhere to fuel rod surfaces and, as a result, block the fuel assembly cooling channels. Deposition of boric acid and other impurities on the fuel rods will increase thermal resistance, and then induce fuel temperature to exceed its safety limit, finally causes reactor core damage or meltdown. Therefore, recently, the boric acid precipitation issue was raised by NRC when nuclear power plants in USA, for example, Waterford EPU, applied for power uprate licenses. NRC highlighted boric acid precipitation as a generic issue due to non-conservatism in vendor's model in 2005. Also the Westinghouse Owners Group held meetings to discuss the methodology to avoid boric acid precipitation in the current PWR nuclear power plants. Until now there is no database for evaluating the properties of a boric acid-water mixture, together with chemical additives, such as Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), Tri-sodium Phosphate (Na 3 PO 4 ) and fiberglass, being added from the containment sump, when the concentration is close to the solubility limit. Therefore, this study investigated boric acid solubility when boric acid is mixed with NaOH, Na 3 PO 4 and other chemical additives. Another purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between boric acid solubility and the effects of chemical additives, boric acid volatility, boiling phenomenon, etc. The empirical equation of boric acid solubility in the mixture solution is deduced from experiment results and chemical dynamics theories

  3. Effects of Ti addition on LFZ Bi-2212 thin rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angurel, L. A.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to reproduce previous results in Bi-2212 single crystals, the effects associated with the addition of Ti to the precursors of Laser Floating Zone textured Bi-2212 thin rods have been analyzed. It has been found that Ti induces a great number of nucleation centers in the molten zone and, in consequence, it reduces the grain size one order of magnitude. In addition, using the same growth conditions, the texture of the sample is strongly degraded. These microstructural changes strongly affect the superconducting properties showing that Ti addition destroys the network of low angle grain boundaries that are responsible for the high critical currents in these materials.

    Se ha analizado el efecto de la introducción de Ti en precursores de Bi-2212 para ser texturados mediante láser a través del método de zona flotante, todo ello debido a los resultados esperanzadores obtenidos en monocristales. Se ha encontrado que el Ti introduce un gran número de centros de nucleación en la zona fundida, por lo que se reducen las dimensiones de los granos en un orden de magnitud aproximadamente. Por otra parte, y utilizando las mismas condiciones de crecimiento, se observa que la textura de la muestra se degrada severamente, Estos cambios microestructurales afectan en gran medida a las propiedades superconductoras, demostrándose que la introducción de Ti destruye la red de fronteras de grano de bajo ángulo, que son las responsables en estos materiales de las altas corrientes criticas.

  4. The combined effect of smoking and radon - additive or multiplicative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work is to evaluate the risk of lung cancer when combined radon and smoking exposure. Methodologically the evaluation is based on case and control study nested in two cohort studies, including 11,000 miners and 12,000 residents exposed to high concentrations of radon in homes. Radon exposure in individuals is complemented by information on smoking gained personally from them or from their relatives. The study is based on 1,073 cases of lung cancer among miners and 372 cases in population study. Control subjects were randomly selected in each study based on gender, year of birth and age achieved. The combined effect of smoking and radon is evaluated using the so-called geometric mixed models, whose special case is an additive or multiplicative model. The resulting model of the risk is closer to additive interaction (parameter of mixed model 0.2). The consequences of the model in the study of population are illustrated by estimates of lifetime risk in a hypothetical population of smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to the multiplicative risk model, the lifetime risk significantly increased according to the best geometric mixed model, especially in the population of non-smokers. (author)

  5. Mortar cohesión. The effect of additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro, J. H.

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was concerned with the hydration of clinker compounds in the presence of different additives; it appeared that accelerating additives, such as calcium chloride and silicic acid, produce longer fibers of tobermorite, whereas inhibitors, such as sugar, produce shorter fibers of tobermorite. This same effect was observed in the hydration of anhydrite, in which large crystals of gypsum were produced in the presence of sodium sulphate. So the cohesion in mortars of cement and anhydrite is explained in terms of the role of fibers.Se estudia la hidratación del clínker en presencia de diferentes aditivos encontrándose que los aceleradores, como el cloruro cálcico y el ácido salicílico, producen tobermorita de fibra larga y los inhibidores, como el azúcar, tobermorita de fibra corta. Este mismo efecto se encuentra en la anhidrita, produciéndose cristales de yeso largo, en presencia del sulfato de sodio, y cristales cortos en ausencia del catalizador. La cohesión de un mortero depende luego del largo de sus fibras. Así la cohesión de los morteros de cemento y anhidrita se explican en función del rol de la fibra.

  6. Dolomite addition effects on the thermal expansion of ceramic tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Luis Fernando Bruno; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega

    1997-01-01

    The thermal expansion of ceramic tiles is of greater importance in engineering applications because the ceramics are relatively brittle and cannot tolerate large internal strain imposed by thermal expansion. When ceramic bodies are produced for glazed ties the compatibility of this property of the components should be considered to avoid damage in the final products. Carbonates are an important constituent of ceramic wall-title bodies and its presence in formulations and the reactions that occur between them and other components modify body properties. The influence in expansivity by additions of calcium magnesium carbonate in a composition of wall tile bodies has been investigated. The relative content of mineralogical components was determined by X-ray diffraction and thermal expansion by dilatometric measurements. The results was indicated that with the effect of calcium-magnesium phases and porosity on thermal expansion of wall tile bodies. (author)

  7. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E.; Tsoi, Lam C.; Van Heel, David A.; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M.; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer strong risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen binding repertoires between a heterozygote’s two expressed HLA variants may result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Ncases=5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D, Ncases=5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (Ncases=3,089), idiopathic achalasia (Ncases=727), and celiac disease (Ncases=11,115). In four out of five diseases, we observed highly significant non-additive dominance effects (RA: P=2.5×1012; T1D: P=2.4×10−10; psoriasis: P=5.9×10−6; celiac disease: P=1.2×10−87). In three of these diseases, the dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (RA: P=1.8×10−3; T1D: P=8.6×1027; celiac disease: P=6.0×10−100). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (RA: 1.4%, T1D: 4.0%, and celiac disease: 4.1%, beyond a simple additive model). PMID:26258845

  8. Narrow sense heritability and gene effects for late leaf spot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SM 03590, Valencia C × ICGV-SM 02501 and NuMex-M3 × ICGV-SM 02501 crosses, respectively. Both additive and dominance gene effects contributed significantly to the inheritance of LLS resistance in all the crosses, except in Redbeauty ...

  9. Dose additive effects of simvastatin and dipentyl phthalate on ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex differentiation of the mammalian reproductive tract is a highly regulated process that is driven, in part, by fetal testosterone (T) production. In utero exposure to phthalate esters (PE) during sex differentiation can cause reproductive tract malformations in rats. PE alter the expression of genes associated with steroid synthesis/transport and cholesterol biosynthesis. Simvastatin (SMV) is a cholesterol-lowering drug that inhibits HMG-CoA reductase. As cholesterol is a precursor for steroid biosynthesis, we proposed that maternal exposure to SMV during the critical period of sex differentiation would lower fetal T and result in corresponding alterations in cholesterol- and androgenmediated gene expression. Timed pregnant SD rats were dosed orally with SMV from GD14-GD18. T production on GD18 was measured by RIA, and changes in gene expression in maternal and fetal tissues were assessed by quantitative rt-PCR. Circulating lipids were also measured in dams and fetuses. SMV lowered fetal T production, altered several genes involved in cholesterol biosynthesis in the maternal liver, and lowered lipids in the fetus but not in the dam. Unlike PE, SMV did not alter genes associated with sex differentiation. In a second experiment, dams were dosed with SMV, dipentyl phthalate (DPeP, a PE), or both. SMV and DPeP alone reduced fetal T production to 44.3 and 37.5% of control values, respectively, but the mixture reduced T production to 19.9% of control. These studies

  10. Effect of Additives on the Physicochemical and Drug Release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To prepare and evaluate spherical agglomerates of pioglitazone hydrochloride (PGH) for direct compression with different additives. Method: Spherical agglomerates of pioglitazone hydrochloride were prepared by emulsion solvent diffusion method with and without additives (polyethylene glycol 6000, polyvinyl ...

  11. No additive effect of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Brian D; Dragovic, Milan; Badcock, Johanna C; Morgan, Vera A; Castle, David; Jablensky, Assen; Stefanis, Nikos C

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to examine the association between lifetime cannabis use and estimates of both premorbid and current cognitive function in psychotic disorders in an Australian cohort. In an Australian multicenter cohort, 1237 participants with an established ICD-10 diagnosis of psychotic disorder were categorised according to history of lifetime cannabis use (non-users, n=354; cannabis users, n=221; cannabis dependency, n=662). Groups were analyzed according to available indices of cognitive ability: the National Adult Reading Test - Revised (NART-R) for ability prior to illness onset; and the Digit Symbol Coding Test (DSCT) for current ability. Two-way analysis of variance was conducted without any covariate, followed by a two-way analysis of covariance (using age, age at onset of psychiatric illness, premorbid IQ and the Socio-Economic Index for Areas (SEIFA) rankings). Whilst there appeared to be a significant association between cannabis use and mean DSCT (higher DSCT scores in cannabis using groups) F(2,1080)=9.478, pcannabis use and cognitive function in psychotic disorders. Taken together, it would appear that cannabis use or dependence has no additive effect on cognitive dysfunction in these disorders. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Electrodeposition of Asphaltenes. 2. Effect of Resins and Additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khvostichenko, Daria S; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2010-01-01

    Electrodeposition of asphaltenes from oil/heptane, asphaltene/heptane, and asphaltene/heptane/additive mixtures has been investigated. Toluene, native petroleum resins, and a synthetic asphaltene dispersant, p-nonylphenol, were used as additives. The addition of these components led to partial...... of preparation of the mixture and the toluene content. Introduction of petroleum resins into asphaltene/heptane mixtures resulted in neutralization of the asphaltene particle charge. The addition of p-nonylphenol to asphaltene suspensions in heptane did not alter the charge of asphaltene particles. Current...

  13. An additional k-means clustering step improves the biological features of WGCNA gene co-expression networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botía, Juan A; Vandrovcova, Jana; Forabosco, Paola; Guelfi, Sebastian; D'Sa, Karishma; Hardy, John; Lewis, Cathryn M; Ryten, Mina; Weale, Michael E

    2017-04-12

    Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis (WGCNA) is a widely used R software package for the generation of gene co-expression networks (GCN). WGCNA generates both a GCN and a derived partitioning of clusters of genes (modules). We propose k-means clustering as an additional processing step to conventional WGCNA, which we have implemented in the R package km2gcn (k-means to gene co-expression network, https://github.com/juanbot/km2gcn ). We assessed our method on networks created from UKBEC data (10 different human brain tissues), on networks created from GTEx data (42 human tissues, including 13 brain tissues), and on simulated networks derived from GTEx data. We observed substantially improved module properties, including: (1) few or zero misplaced genes; (2) increased counts of replicable clusters in alternate tissues (x3.1 on average); (3) improved enrichment of Gene Ontology terms (seen in 48/52 GCNs) (4) improved cell type enrichment signals (seen in 21/23 brain GCNs); and (5) more accurate partitions in simulated data according to a range of similarity indices. The results obtained from our investigations indicate that our k-means method, applied as an adjunct to standard WGCNA, results in better network partitions. These improved partitions enable more fruitful downstream analyses, as gene modules are more biologically meaningful.

  14. Genetic variation at the TPH2 gene influences impulsivity in addition to eating disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof-Op't Landt, Margarita C. T.; Bartels, Meike; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catherina E. M.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Boomsma, Dorret I.; van Furth, Eric F.; Meulenbelt, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Genes are involved in eating disorders (EDs) and self-induced vomiting (SV), a key symptom of different types of EDs. Perfectionism and impulsivity are potential risk factors for EDs. TPH2 (tryptophan hydroxylase 2) SNP rs1473473 was previously associated with anorexia nervosa and EDs characterized

  15. Genetic Variation at the TPH2 Gene Influences Impulsivity in Addition to Eating Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slof-Op 't Landt, M.C.T.; Bartels, M.; Middeldorp, C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Slagboom, P.E.; Boomsma, D.I.; van Furth, E.F.; Meulenbelt, I.

    2013-01-01

    Genes are involved in eating disorders (EDs) and self-induced vomiting (SV), a key symptom of different types of EDs. Perfectionism and impulsivity are potential risk factors for EDs. TPH2 (tryptophan hydroxylase 2) SNP rs1473473 was previously associated with anorexia nervosa and EDs characterized

  16. Chemistry of Food Additives: Direct and Indirect Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, George H.

    1984-01-01

    The primary component(s), impurities, and degradation products of polysorbate 80, nitrate and nitrite salts, and diethylpyrocarbonate (DEPC) are discussed. Safety considerations related to these food additives are also noted. The chick-edema factor which results from an additive in poultry feed is also discussed. (JN)

  17. Additive genetic and maternal effects on litter traits in rabbits*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogmeier, D; Dzapo, V; Mao, I L

    1994-01-12

    Additive genetic and maternal effects were estimated for several litter traits in rabbits. A total of 457 litters of 3267 animals from a reciprocal crossbreeding experiment were analysed by an animal model using a derivate-free REML procedure. Heritability estimates for litter size at birth, weaning and slaughter ranged from 0.09 to 0.25, for litter-weight traits from 0.00 to 0.13 and for preweaning and postweaning mortality rates from 0.00 to 0.19. Additive genetic contribution to the variation in a litter trait was found to be higher at birth and during the postweaning period than during the suckling period. Maternal effects accounted for approximately 10 % of the variation in most of the preweaning litter traits. Live litter size at birth was found to be the main source of variation in preweaning traits, explaining between 2.3 % and 43.2 % of the total variation. Heritability estimates and genetic correlations indicated live litter size at birth to be a useful selection criterion for the improvement of litter traits in rabbits. Our results indicated that a litter size of approximately 11 would be optimal before litter size at weaning and litter weight at weaning began to decline. Genetic selection for live litter size at birth would result in significant improvement in litter size and litter weight at later ages. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Schätzung additiv-genetischer und maternaler Effekte auf Wurfmerkmale beim Kaninchen An insgesamt 457 Würfen mit 3267 Einzeltieren, die aus einem reziproken Kreuzungsversuch stammten, wurden additiv-genetische und maternale Effekte für zahlreiche Wurfmerkmale anhand eines Tiermodells (DFREML-Methode) geschätzt. Heritabilitätsschätzungen wurden für Wurfgröße und Wurfgewicht zu unterschiedlichen Zeitpunkten (Geburt, Absetzen und Erreichen des Schlachtgewichts) aurchgeführt. Der additiv-genetische Variationsanteil an der Gesamtvariation war dabei bei der Geburt und nach dem Absetzen höher als während der Säugezeit. Die Sch

  18. Effect of Additional Structure on Effective Stack Height of Gas Dispersion in Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu Michioka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind-tunnel experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of additional structure (building, sea wall and banking on the effective stack height, which is usually used in safety analyses of nuclear power facilities in Japan. The effective stack heights were estimated with and without the additional structure in addition to the reactor building while varying several conditions such as the source height, the height of additional structure and the distance between the source position and the additional structure. When the source height is equivalent to the reactor building height, the additional structure enhances both the vertical and horizontal gas dispersion widths and decreases the ground gas concentration, and it means that the additional structure does not decrease the effective stack height. When the source height is larger than the reactor height, the additional structures might affect the effective stack height. As the distance between the source and the additional structure decreases, or as the height of the additional structure increases, the structure has a larger effect on the effective stack height.

  19. Chromosomal Localization of Genes Conferring Desirable Agronomic Traits from Wheat-Agropyron cristatum Disomic Addition Line 5113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Cuili; Yao, Miaomiao; Zhang, Jinpeng; Yang, Xinming; Liu, Weihua; Li, Xiuquan; Xi, Yajun; Li, Lihui

    2016-01-01

    Creation of wheat-alien disomic addition lines and localization of desirable genes on alien chromosomes are important for utilization of these genes in genetic improvement of common wheat. In this study, wheat-Agropyron cristatum derivative line 5113 was characterized by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) and specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), and was demonstrated to be a novel wheat-A. cristatum disomic 6P addition line. Compared with its parent Fukuhokomugi (Fukuho), 5113 displayed multiple elite agronomic traits, including higher uppermost internode/plant height ratio, larger flag leaf, longer spike length, elevated grain number per spike and spikelet number per spike, more kernel number in the middle spikelet, more fertile tiller number per plant, and enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and leaf rust. Genes conferring these elite traits were localized on the A. cristatum 6P chromosome by using SLAF-seq markers and biparental populations (F1, BC1F1 and BC1F2 populations) produced from the crosses between Fukuho and 5113. Taken together, chromosomal localization of these desirable genes will facilitate transferring of high-yield and high-resistance genes from A. cristatum into common wheat, and serve as the foundation for the utilization of 5113 in wheat breeding. PMID:27824906

  20. Another face of the Treacher Collins syndrome (TCOF1) gene: identification of additional exons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Rolando B; Gonzales, Bianca; Henning, Dale; Dixon, Jill; Dixon, Michael J; Valdez, Benigno C

    2004-03-17

    Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is characterized by an abnormality in craniofacial development during early embryogenesis. TCS is caused by mutations in the gene TCOF1, which encodes the nucleolar phosphoprotein treacle. Genetic and proteomic characterizations of TCS/treacle are based on the previously reported 26 exons of TCOF1. Here, we report the identification of 231-nucleotide (nt) exon 6A (between exons 6 and 7) and 108-nt exon 16A (between exons 16 and 17). Isoforms with exon 6A are up to 3.7-fold more abundant than alternatively spliced variants without exon 6A, but only minor isoforms contain exon 16A. Exon 6A encodes a peptide sequence containing basic and acidic domains similar to 10 other exons of TCOF1. Unlike the other exons, exon 6A encodes a nuclear localization signal (NLS) which does not, however, alter the nucleolar localization of full-length treacle. The discovery of exons 6A and 16A is relevant to mutational analysis of the TCOF1 gene in TCS patients, and to functional analysis of its gene product.

  1. Supplementing High-Density SNP Microarrays for Additional Coverage of Disease-Related Genes: Addiction as a Paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SacconePhD, Scott F [Washington University, St. Louis; Chesler, Elissa J [ORNL; Bierut, Laura J [Washington University, St. Louis; Kalivas, Peter J [Medical College of South Carolina, Charleston; Lerman, Caryn [University of Pennsylvania; Saccone, Nancy L [Washington University, St. Louis; Uhl, George R [Johns Hopkins University; Li, Chuan-Yun [Peking University; Philip, Vivek M [ORNL; Edenberg, Howard [Indiana University; Sherry, Steven [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Feolo, Michael [National Center for Biotechnology Information; Moyzis, Robert K [Johns Hopkins University; Rutter, Joni L [National Institute of Drug Abuse

    2009-01-01

    Commercial SNP microarrays now provide comprehensive and affordable coverage of the human genome. However, some diseases have biologically relevant genomic regions that may require additional coverage. Addiction, for example, is thought to be influenced by complex interactions among many relevant genes and pathways. We have assembled a list of 486 biologically relevant genes nominated by a panel of experts on addiction. We then added 424 genes that showed evidence of association with addiction phenotypes through mouse QTL mappings and gene co-expression analysis. We demonstrate that there are a substantial number of SNPs in these genes that are not well represented by commercial SNP platforms. We address this problem by introducing a publicly available SNP database for addiction. The database is annotated using numeric prioritization scores indicating the extent of biological relevance. The scores incorporate a number of factors such as SNP/gene functional properties (including synonymy and promoter regions), data from mouse systems genetics and measures of human/mouse evolutionary conservation. We then used HapMap genotyping data to determine if a SNP is tagged by a commercial microarray through linkage disequilibrium. This combination of biological prioritization scores and LD tagging annotation will enable addiction researchers to supplement commercial SNP microarrays to ensure comprehensive coverage of biologically relevant regions.

  2. Effect of Ferrous Additives on Magnesia Stone Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimich, V.

    2017-11-01

    The article deals with the modification of the magnesia binder with additives containing two- and three-valent iron cations which could be embedded in the chloromagnesium stone structure and also increase the strength from 60 MPa in a non-additive stone to 80MPa, water resistance from 0.58 for clear stone to 0.8 and reduce the hygroscopicity from 8% in the non-additive stone to 2% in the modified chloromagnesium stone. It is proposed to use the iron hydroxide sol as an additive in the quantities of up to 1% of the weight of the binder. The studies were carried out using the modern analysis methods: the differentialthermal and X-ray phase analysis. The structure was studied with an electron microscope with an X-ray microanalyzer. A two-factor plan-experiment was designed which allowed constructing mathematical models characterizing the influence of variable factors, such as the density of the zatcher and the amount of sol in the binder, on the basic properties of the magnesian stone. The result of the research was the magnesia stone with the claimed properties and formed from minerals characteristic for magnesian materials as well as additionally formed from amachenite and goethite. It has been established that a highly active iron hydroxide sol the ion sizes of which are commensurate with magnesium ions is actively incorporated into the structure of pentahydroxychloride and magnesium hydroxide changing the habit of crystals compacting the structure of the stone and changing its hygroscopicity.

  3. Laser Beam Melting of Alumina: Effect of Absorber Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniz, Liliana; Colin, Christophe; Bartout, Jean-Dominique; Terki, Karim; Berger, Marie-Hélène

    2018-03-01

    Ceramic laser beam melting offers new manufacturing possibilities for complex refractory structures. Poor absorptivity in near infra-red wavelengths of oxide ceramics is overcome with absorber addition to ceramic powders. Absorbers affect powder bed densities and geometrical stability of melted tracks. Optimum absorber content is defined for Al2O3 by minimizing powder bed porosity, maximizing melting pool geometrical stability and limiting shrinkage. Widest stability fields are obtained with addition of 0.1 wt.% C and 0.5 wt.% β-SiC. Absorption coefficient values of Beer-Lambert law follow stability trends: they increase with C additions, whereas with β-SiC, a maximum is reached for 0.5 wt.%. Powder particle ejections are also identified. Compared to metallic materials, this ejection phenomenon can no longer be neglected when establishing a three-dimensional manufacturing strategy.

  4. The cosmological constant. A small addition with a great effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessner, G.

    1999-01-01

    The consequences of a cosmological constant Λ to cosmological models on the one hand and to Newton's gravitational law in the weak field expansion on the other hand are discussed. In case of a negative Λ with Λ∼10 -56 cm -2 the universe is open but does not expand forever. Furthermore, its age is compatible with the age of the oldest globular clusters. On the other hand, Newton's gravitational law is modified by an additional attractive force term linearly increasing woth the distance. This term acts only over very large distances. If one assumes a value Λ∼=-10 -56 cm -2 the additional term acts for stars over a characteristic scale of about 120 pc and for galaxies over a characteristic scale of about 0.8 Mpc. A positive cosmological constant Λ∼=-10 -56 cm -2 leads to an additional repulsive force which would have prevented the existence of galaxy clusters

  5. Effect of carbon nanofibre addition on the mechanical properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Carbon-epoxy (C-epoxy) laminated composites having different fibre volume fractions (40, 50, 60 and. 70) were fabricated with and without the addition of aminofunctionalized carbon nanofibres (A-CNF). Flexural strength, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and tensile strength of the composite laminates were ...

  6. Effect of micronized zeolite addition to lamb concentrate feeds on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OEM

    2016-09-21

    Sep 21, 2016 ... Natural zeolites are utilized in a number of industries such as pollution control ... the impact of zeolites on milk quality, an addition of 2.5% of clinoptilolite (zeolite) to goat feeds was demonstrated to ... triglyceride, calcium and phosphorus was carried out with spectrophotometry, and the tests for sodium,.

  7. Effects of organic additives on microstructure and mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Abstract. Green bodies of porous Si3N4 ceramics were shaped by extrusion technique using different organic additives as binder during extrusion molding. Different porosity, microstructures and mechanical properties after the extrusion, drying, debinding and sintering stages were investigated. The solid slurry content of 70 ...

  8. Supplemental effects of feed additives on the utilization of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and fifty 7-day old (hybro strain) broiler chicks were randomly distributed into five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Diet 1 which served as the control had 25% CPM, while diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 had the same composition as diet 1 but with the inclusion of feed additives, bakers' yeast, enzyme ...

  9. Softening effect of Ikpiru and Yanyanku, two traditional additives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ikpiru and Yanyanku are two additives used for the traditional alkaline fermentation of African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa. Benth) to produce food condiments in Benin. In this study, African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa. Benth) were fermented with or without Ikpiru and Yanyanku to assess the factors explaining the ...

  10. Effect of Additives on the Selectivity and Reactivity of Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yi-Ru; Wu, Qi; Lin, Xian-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Enzymes have been widely used as efficient, eco-friendly, and biodegradable catalysts in organic chemistry due to their mild reaction conditions and high selectivity and efficiency. In recent years, the catalytic promiscuity of many enzymes in unnatural reactions has been revealed and studied by chemists and biochemists, which has expanded the application potential of enzymes. To enhance the selectivity and activity of enzymes in their natural or promiscuous reactions, many methods have been recommended, such as protein engineering, process engineering, and media engineering. Among them, the additive approach is very attractive because of its simplicity to use and high efficiency. In this paper, we will review the recent developments about the applications of additives to improve the catalytic performances of enzymes in their natural and promiscuous reactions. These additives include water, organic bases, water mimics, cosolvents, crown ethers, salts, surfactants, and some particular molecular additives. © 2017 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effect of fluxing additive on sintering temperature, microstructure and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    doping have been described and discussed. Additionally, in situ Raman spectroscopy has been used for the first time to investigate and compare the phase transition temperatures of pure and Li2CO3-added BaTiO3. 2. Experimental. Batches (50g) of GPR grade TiO2 and BaCO3 (Aldrich. Chemicals Company Inc.) powder ...

  12. Effect of fluoride additives on production and characterization of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    was assigned to the SDBS burnout, the 800 and 1100. ◦. C peaks were associated with the phase transformation, and, finally, the endothermic peak was due to dehydration. (figure 7). However, by adding the ZnF2 additive, the exothermic peaks of phase transformation shifted to 404 and 744. ◦. C, as a result of the reduction ...

  13. Effects of organic additives on microstructure and mechanical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Y2O3 and Lu2O3 were used as sintering additives, CMC, MC, and HPMC as binder, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as plasticizer. Castor oil was selected as lubricant to reduce the friction force bet- ween Si3N4 particles, and glycerol as moisturizing agent. Figure 1 shows a flow diagram for fabricating porous silicon nitride ...

  14. EFFECTS OF PROPERTIES POLYMERIC ADDITIVES IN RHEOLOGIC AND DRILLING FLUIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Vieira de Lucena

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of carboxymethylcellulose, CMC (filtrate reducer and xanthan gum (viscosifier in plastic and apparent viscosity at yield strength and the volume of filtrate in the composition of drilling fluids based on water was investigated based on statistical design. Five formulations consist of a range of concentrations used commercially were utilized in the design of the experiment. The formulations were prepared in accordance with company standards Petrobras. Regression models were calculated and correlated with the properties of the compositions. The relevance and validation of the models were confirmed by statistical analysis. The design can be applied to statistically optimize the mud properties considering the addition of CMC and xanthan gum, and to provide a better understanding of the influence of additives on the properties of polymer-based fluid system water. From the study it was observed that the values of the rheological properties vary with the concentration of additives, increasing with increasing concentration of the same, and that the concentration of the additives caused a decline of parameter values filtration.

  15. Effects of Video Games as Reinforcers for Computerized Addition Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Saul; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four 2nd-grade students completed addition problems on a computer, using video games as reinforcers. Two variable ratio schedules of reinforcement failed to increase student accuracy or the rate of correct responses. In a no-games reinforcement condition, students had more opportunities to respond and had a greater number of correct answers.…

  16. Additive main effects and multiplicative interactions analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight cassava genotypes were evaluated for harvest index performance across four environments. Data analysis was performed using MATMODEL and GGEbiplot. AMMI analysis of variance showed that 10.02% of the total sum of squares was attributable to environmental effects, 3.99% to genotypic effects and 50.13% to ...

  17. Effect of zirconium addition on the recrystallization behaviour of a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well known that the second phase particles have an effect on recrystallization and grain growth behaviour of an alloy. Particularly the bimodal distribution of second phase particles has an effect which is opposite in sense where coarse second phase particles (> 1 m) stimulate nucleation while fine particles exhibit ...

  18. Effects Of Radiation On Electronics-Additional References

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Bibliography abstracts summarizing literature on effects of radiation on new electronic devices. This and second volume cover years 1984 and 1985. Third volume, covers 1982 and 1983 (previously published).

  19. Additional factors of nuclear war potential effect on ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatchinson, T.; Kharuehll, M.; Kropper, U.; Grover, G.

    1988-01-01

    Available information on response of organisms and ecosystems to increase of ultraviolet radiation, air borne pollutant concentrations, radiation and fires in case of nuclear war is generalized. The presented data are based on accumulated experience and experimental investigations. Potentiality of arising a great amount of stress effect localized regions is noted. Severe consequences for agriculture and population, particularly in sinergic stress effect, are not excluded. 169 refs.; 5 figs.; 25 tabs

  20. Effect of hydrogen addition on autoignited methane lifted flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choin, Byung Chul

    2012-01-01

    Autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets with hydrogen-enriched methane fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. The results showed that the autoignited lifted flame of the methane/hydrogen mixture, which had an initial temperature over 920 K, the threshold temperature for autoignition in methane jets, exhibited features typical of either a tribrachial edge or mild combustion depending on fuel mole fraction and the liftoff height increased with jet velocity. The liftoff height in the hydrogen-assisted autoignition regime was dependent on the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the addition of small amounts of hydrogen, as was the case for pure methane jets. When the initial temperature was below 920 K, where the methane fuel did not show autoignition behavior, the flame was autoignited by the addition of hydrogen, which is an ignition improver. The liftoff height demonstrated a unique feature in that it decreased nonlinearly as the jet velocity increased. The differential diffusion of hydrogen is expected to play a crucial role in the decrease in the liftoff height with increasing jet velocity.

  1. Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Hypertension, and Their Additive Effects on Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Francesco Damiani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims. It is widely accepted that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is independently associated with atherosclerosis. Similar to OSA, hypertension (HTN is a condition associated with atherosclerosis. However, to date, the impact of the simultaneous presence of OSA and HTN on the risk of atherosclerosis has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the consequences of the coexistence of OSA and HTN on carotid intima-media thickness (IMT and on inflammatory markers of atherosclerosis (such as interleukin- [IL-] 6 and pentraxin- [PTX-] 3. Methods. The study design allowed us to define 4 groups: (1 controls (n=30; (2 OSA patients without HTN (n=30; (3 HTN patients without OSA (n=30; (4 patients with OSA and HTN (n=30. In the morning after portable monitoring (between 7 am and 8 am, blood samples were collected, and carotid IMT was measured. Results. Carotid IMT, IL-6, and PTX-3 in OSA normotensive patients and in non-OSA HTN subjects were significantly higher compared to control subjects; in addition, in OSA hypertensive patients they were significantly increased compared to OSA normotensive, non-OSA HTN, or control subjects. Conclusions. OSA and HTN have an additive role in the progression of carotid atherosclerosis and in blood levels of inflammatory markers for atherosclerosis, such as interleukin-6 and pentraxin-3.

  2. Gene-environment effects on hippocampal neurodevelopment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenthal, Eva Helga

    factors. Hence, a deeper understanding is needed of how cortical neurodevelopmental deficiencies can arise from such gene-environment interactions. The convergence of genetic and environmental risk factors is a recent field of research. It is now clear that disease, infection and stress factors may...... disrupt the normal function of neurodevelopmental genes. Here, the transcriptional repressor Zbtb20, which we and others have shown is a master regulator of hippocampal neurodevelopment, deserves special interest. We study the possibility that environmental factors such as steroid hormones, cytokines......Mental disorders like schizophrenia and autism put a heavy load on today’s societies, creating a steady call for revealing underlying disease mechanisms and the development of effective treatments. The etiology of major psychiatric illnesses is complex involving gene by environment susceptibility...

  3. Effective face recognition using bag of features with additive kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shicai; Bebis, George; Chu, Yongjie; Zhao, Lindu

    2016-01-01

    In past decades, many techniques have been used to improve face recognition performance. The most common and well-studied ways are to use the whole face image to build a subspace based on the reduction of dimensionality. Differing from methods above, we consider face recognition as an image classification problem. The face images of the same person are considered to fall into the same category. Each category and each face image could be both represented by a simple pyramid histogram. Spatial dense scale-invariant feature transform features and bag of features method are used to build categories and face representations. In an effort to make the method more efficient, a linear support vector machine solver, Pegasos, is used for the classification in the kernel space with additive kernels instead of nonlinear SVMs. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve very high recognition accuracy on the ORL, YALE, and FERET databases.

  4. Effect of Additive Alloying Element on the Dezincification of Brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, S. R.; Lee, S. W.; Song, J. T.

    1979-01-01

    Dezincification phenomenon of 70% Cu-30% Zn brass containing small amounts of Sn (<1.7%) has been studied in 0.5M acidic chloride solutions. All the specimens used were prepared originally from electrolytic copper and zinc and chemical grade tin. Recording of potentiodynamic polarization curves and examination of the microstructure for the specimens in various conditions were main experimetal techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization curves thus obtained revealed that 7/3 brass could initially be dezincified either by selective dissolution of zinc or by copper redeposition mechanism depending on the electrode potential. Experimental results showed that addition of small amount of tin (from 0.74% up to 1.76%) to 7/3 brass could inhibit dezincification in case the copper redeposition mechanism holds. This was found to be possible through that the added tin promotes hydrogen evolution reaction on the brass and this h.e.r. competes with copper redeposition retarding the latter. In other words, dezincification in 7/3 brass is replaced to general corrosion by the addition of small amounts of tin. Microscopic examinations for the specimens which had been subjected to potentiostatic polarization at given potentials showed that the well-defined dizincified layer could only be developed at elevated temperature (90 .deg. C), and in case the dezincified copper layer had already formed on the electrode surface. It was found through the microscopic examination of the dezincified specimen that the dezincification front occurred in 7/3 brass was protruding along the grain boundaries in the brass matrix, indicating the latter was serving as a diffusion channel for the outgoing zinc atom to the electrode/solution interface

  5. Effect of ethanol fuel additive on diesel emissions.; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, R. L.; Poola, R. B.; Sekar, R.; Schaus, J. E.; McPartlin, P.

    2001-01-01

    Engine-out emissions from a Volkswagen model TDI engine were measured for three different fuels: neat diesel fuel, a blend of diesel fuel and additives containing 10% ethanol, and a blend of diesel fuel and additives containing 15% ethanol. The test matrix covered five speeds from 1,320 to 3,000 rpm, five torques from 15 Nm to maximum plus the 900-rpm idle condition, and most of the points in the FTP-75 and US-06 vehicle tests. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), nitrogen oxides (NO(sub x)), unburned hydrocarbons (HCs), and carbon monoxide (CO) were measured at each point, as were fuel consumption, exhaust oxygen, and carbon dioxide output. PM emissions were reduced up to 75% when ethanol-diesel blends were used instead of neat diesel fuel. Significant reductions in PM emissions occurred over one-half to two-thirds of the test matrix. NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 84%. Although the regions of reduced NO(sub x) emissions were much smaller than the regions of reduced PM emissions, there was considerable overlap between the two regions where PM emissions were reduced by up to 75% and NO(sub x) emissions were reduced by up to 84%. Such simultaneous reduction of both PM and NO(sub x) emissions would be difficult to achieve by any other means. HC and CO emissions were also reduced in the regions of reduced PM and NO(sub x) emissions that overlapped. Because the ethanol-diesel blends contain less energy on both a per-unit-mass basis and a per-unit-volume basis, there was a reduction in maximum torque of up to 10% and an increase in brake-specific fuel consumption of up to 7% when these blends were used

  6. Effects of various additives on antioxidant and antimicrobial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the effects of rosemary extract (RE), α-tocopherol (AT) and chitosan (CH) added individually or in combination as compared with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) on microbiological parameters [total viable count (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), enterobacteria (ENB), pseudomonas bacteria (PSY)], pH and ...

  7. Effect of Addition of Ficus exasperata and Spoudias mombin Leaves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peeled and unpeeled cassava tubers (TMS 30572) were soaked with the leaves of Ficus exasperata (Ipin) and Spondias mombin (Iyeye) and the effects were determined on functional and sensory properties. The cassava samples were soaked in water to ferment for 72 h, pressed, dried, milled and sieved to obtain lafun ...

  8. Effects of enzyme additive on haematological and serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (ROXAZYME G®) on blood parameters of calves fed fresh grass and grass hay-based diets. Chemical composition of concentrate, fresh grass and grass-hay were determined. Sixteen crossbred (N'dama × Muturu) calves were subjected to ...

  9. Effect of collector, frother and depressant addition on the copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, the acid insoluble copper (sulphides) losses on the scavenger banks are very high, from about 0.3 % TCu to 0.77 % TCu. Mineralogical tests carried out on the scavenger feed samples showed that the valuable minerals were liberated. This indicated that the chemical environment might have an effect on the ...

  10. Change in gene abundance in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle with temperature and nitrogen addition in Antarctic soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaejoon; Yeom, Jinki; Kim, Jisun; Han, Jiwon; Lim, Hyoun Soo; Park, Hyun; Hyun, Seunghun; Park, Woojun

    2011-12-01

    The microbial community (bacterial, archaeal, and fungi) and eight genes involved in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle (nifH, nitrogen fixation; bacterial and archaeal amoA, ammonia oxidation; narG, nitrate reduction; nirS, nirK, nitrite reduction; norB, nitric oxide reduction; and nosZ, nitrous oxide reduction) were quantitatively assessed in this study, via real-time PCR with DNA extracted from three Antarctic soils. Interestingly, AOB amoA was found to be more abundant than AOA amoA in Antarctic soils. The results of microcosm studies revealed that the fungal and archaeal communities were diminished in response to warming temperatures (10 °C) and that the archaeal community was less sensitive to nitrogen addition, which suggests that those two communities are well-adapted to colder temperatures. AOA amoA and norB genes were reduced with warming temperatures. The abundance of only the nifH and nirK genes increased with both warming and the addition of nitrogen. NirS-type denitrifying bacteria outnumbered NirK-type denitrifiers regardless of the treatment used. Interestingly, dramatic increases in both NirS and NirK-types denitrifiers were observed with nitrogen addition. NirK types increase with warming, but NirS-type denitrifiers tend to be less sensitive to warming. Our findings indicated that the Antarctic microbial nitrogen cycle could be dramatically altered by temperature and nitrogen, and that warming may be detrimental to the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal community. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to investigate genes associated with each process of the nitrogen biogeochemical cycle in an Antarctic terrestrial soil environment. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethers as gasoline additives : toxicokinetics and acute effects in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Nihlén, Annsofi

    1999-01-01

    Ethers or other oxygen-containing compounds are used as replacements for lead in gasoline and to ensure complete combustion. Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) is already in use world-wide and ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) may be used increasingly in the future. The aims of the present thesis were to study the uptake and disposition (toxicokinetics) of MTBE and ETBE in humans, to address the issue of biological monitoring and to measure acute effects (assessed by questio...

  12. ALE: Additive Latent Effect Models for Grade Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Zhiyun; Ning, Xia; Rangwala, Huzefa

    2018-01-01

    The past decade has seen a growth in the development and deployment of educational technologies for assisting college-going students in choosing majors, selecting courses and acquiring feedback based on past academic performance. Grade prediction methods seek to estimate a grade that a student may achieve in a course that she may take in the future (e.g., next term). Accurate and timely prediction of students' academic grades is important for developing effective degree planners and early war...

  13. Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation: can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, C; van Dijk, G; Smolders, A J P; Pancotto, V A; Elzenga, T J T M; Roelofs, J G M; Grootjans, A P

    2012-05-01

    Sphagnum-bog ecosystems have a limited capability to retain carbon and nutrients when subjected to increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Although it has been proposed that phosphorus (P) can dilute negative effects of nitrogen by increasing biomass production of Sphagnum mosses, it is still unclear whether P-addition can alleviate physiological N-stress in Sphagnum plants. A 3-year fertilisation experiment was conducted in lawns of a pristine Sphagnum magellanicum bog in Patagonia, where competing vascular plants were practically absent. Background wet deposition of nitrogen was low (≈ 0.1-0.2 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)). Nitrogen (4 g · N · m(-2) · year(-1)) and phosphorus (1 g · P · m(-2) · year(-1)) were applied, separately and in combination, six times during the growing season. P-addition substantially increased biomass production of Sphagnum. Nitrogen and phosphorus changed the morphology of Sphagnum mosses by enhancing height increment, but lowering moss stem density. In contrast to expectations, phosphorus failed to alleviate physiological stress imposed by excess nitrogen (e.g. amino acid accumulation, N-saturation and decline in photosynthetic rates). We conclude that despite improving growth conditions by P-addition, Sphagnum-bog ecosystems remain highly susceptible to nitrogen additions. Increased susceptibility to desiccation by nutrients may even worsen the negative effects of excess nitrogen especially in windy climates like in Patagonia. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. The effect of feed additives in pheasants fattening: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin GAŠPAROVIČ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fattening pheasants for the production of quality meat is a relatively recent development. With its high protein and low fat content, meat of pheasant is a highly nutritious food whose value exceeds that of broiler chickens meat. Despite the fact that the intensive rearing of pheasants has developed relatively quickly in recent years, information on the fattening capabilities and slaughter values of pheasants is often insufficient in the current literature. The length of the fattening period also differs in the literature and reported from 13 to 20 weeks while highest weight gains of pheasants to occur between 4 and 12 weeks of age. Growth of pheasants is also reflected in the weight and dimensions of internal organs, crop, oesophagus, gizzard and intestine grow up to 12 weeks of age, after which they develop their physiological ability. The structure, weight and length of the digestive tract and other internal organs of pheasants depend on housing system, gender and nutrition. Relatively few investigations were conducted to determine the influence of feed additives on fattening performance of pheasants. One of the possibilities is the use of humic acids in nutrition pheasant. Humic acids are organic compounds naturally present in soil and they positively affected growth ability, feed conversion and reducing mortality.

  15. Effects of Emdogain on osteoblast gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carinci, F; Piattelli, A; Guida, L; Perrotti, V; Laino, G; Oliva, A; Annunziata, M; Palmieri, A; Pezzetti, F

    2006-05-01

    Emdogain (EMD) is a protein extract purified from porcine enamel and has been introduced in clinical practice to obtain periodontal regeneration. EMD is composed mainly of amelogenins (90%), while the remaining 10% is composed of non-amelogenin enamel matrix proteins such as enamelins, tuftelin, amelin and ameloblastin. Enamel matrix proteins seem to be involved in root formation. EMD has been reported to promote proliferation, migration, adhesion and differentiation of cells associated with healing periodontal tissues in vivo. How this protein acts on osteoblasts is poorly understood. We therefore attempted to address this question by using a microarray technique to identify genes that are differently regulated in osteoblasts exposed to enamel matrix proteins. By using DNA microarrays containing 20,000 genes, we identified several upregulated and downregulated genes in the osteoblast-like cell line (MG-63) cultured with enamel matrix proteins (Emd). The differentially expressed genes cover a broad range of functional activities: (i) signaling transduction, (ii) transcription, (iii) translation, (iv) cell cycle regulation, proliferation and apoptosis, (v) immune system, (vi) vesicular transport and lysosome activity, and (vii) cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix production. The data reported are the first genome-wide scan of the effect of enamel matrix proteins on osteoblast-like cells. These results can contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of bone regeneration and as a model for comparing other materials with similar clinical effects.

  16. Expression QTL analysis of top loci from GWAS meta-analysis highlights additional schizophrenia candidate genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Jong, Simone; van Eijk, Kristel R; Zeegers, Dave W L H

    2012-01-01

    There is genetic evidence that schizophrenia is a polygenic disorder with a large number of loci of small effect on disease susceptibility. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of schizophrenia have had limited success, with the best finding at the MHC locus at chromosome 6p. A recent effort o...

  17. Gene effects and combining abilities for oil content in sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocković Milan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the worldwide importance of sunflower oil, objective of this study was to evaluate gene effects and combining abilities of six sunflower open pollinated varieties. Varieties were crossed according to incomplete diallel method and produced fifteen F1 progenies. Comparing the mean values of F1 progenies to parents mean in most cases superdominance was expressed as a mode of inheritance. Nonetheless, dominance of better parent and partial dominance of better parent were also recorded as a mode of inheritance. GCA/SCA ratio indicated greater importance of non-additive genetic component in oil content expression. The genetic variance analysis showed that dominant component was more important and dominant genes prevailed compared to recessive genes for oil content in sunflower.

  18. Additional therapeutic effect of balneotherapy in low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Murat; Sahin, Ozlem; Elden, Hasan; Hayta, Emrullah; Kaptanoglu, Ece

    2011-08-01

    Balneotherapy has been widely used for treatment of chronic low back pain recently. However there are only a few clinical controlled trials on balneotherapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of balneotherapy in patients with chronic low back pain. Sixty patients with lumbar spondylosis were included in the study. In Group 1, patients received both balneotherapy and physiotherapy and in Group 2, patients received only physiotherapy for three weeks. The intensity of the pain was evaluated by Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and functional disability was scored according to Revised Oswestry Index (ROI). Spinal mobility was assessed by the Schober and lateral flexion tests. Variables were evaluated before and after the three weeks of treatment. The groups were comparable regarding age (P = 0.970) and sex (P = 0.357). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for baseline VAS (P = 0.838), Schober test (P = 0.226), and right (P = 0.642) and left (P = 0.674) lateral flexion measurements, and ROI scores (P = 0.798). At the end of the therapy, all clinical parameters significantly improved in patients in both of the groups (P balneotherapy may be effective in the treatment of patients with chronic low back pain.

  19. Effects of Charcoal Addition on the Properties of Carbon Anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Hussein

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood charcoal is an attractive alternative to petroleum coke in production of carbon anodes for the aluminum smelting process. Calcined petroleum coke is the major component in the anode recipe and its consumption results in a direct greenhouse gas (GHG footprint for the industry. Charcoal, on the other hand, is considered as a green and abundant source of sulfur-free carbon. However, its amorphous carbon structure and high contents of alkali and alkaline earth metals (e.g., Na and Ca make charcoal highly reactive to air and CO2. Acid washing and heat treatment were employed in order to reduce the reactivity of charcoal. The pre-treated charcoal was used to substitute up to 10% of coke in the anode recipe in an attempt to investigate the effect of this substitution on final anode properties. The results showed deterioration in the anode properties by increasing the charcoal content. However, by adjusting the anode recipe, this negative effect can be considerably mitigated. Increasing the pitch content was found to be helpful to improve the physical properties of the anodes containing charcoal.

  20. The effect of yeast culture addition on utility of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, examined was the effect of a yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Strain 47 on performance (especially on daily gains, feed conversion and condition in an experiment with a group of Holstein calves within the period of plant nutrition. Animals received a diet consisting of 3 kg of good maize silage, 5.5 kg of grass haylage, 1 kg of meadow hay and 1.6 kg of supplementary starter feed mixture ČOT B. The yeast culture was added to the starter in the dose of 1 g.kg–1. This means that each experimental calf received 1.6 g of yeast culture per day. The supplement of yeast culture showed a positive effect on daily gains and on the final body weight of calves; however, the differences were statistically not significant (P>0.05. In control and experimental groups, the mean conversion rates of concentrate were 2.19 kg and 2.13 kg, respectively. There was no difference in feed intake and feed conversion efficiency. The difference in final live body weights of calves in the control and experimental groups was also not significant. However, the condition of calves in the experimental group was much better and the scours were in general less frequent.

  1. IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECT OF PHYTO-ADDITIVES IN BROILER CHICKENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA ŞTEF

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was been performed in the sector of Nutrition and Animal Feeding discipline from Timisoara Didactic Station, on a 6 week period, beginning with hatching and finishing with 42 days of age, on 120 broilers divided into four experimental variants, each of them with 30 individuals. In LEU group was incorporated essential oils of Satureja hortensis, Mentha piperita and Hyperici herba 250 mg in 1 kg combined fodder, in LEP group was included in combined fodder structure a plants premix in 2%, in LEUP group was incorporated plants premix 2% +250 mg essential oil of Satureja hortensis, Mentha piperita, Hyperici herba in 1 kg combined fodder. After seric lizozime quntification was observed an increase with 303.46% in LEPU group, followed by LEU with 200.14%, results who demonstrated the presence of an immunological stimulation in broiler chickens. Increased values of seric properdine were observed in LEPU group, with 210.45% more increased in comparison with LM group, followed by LEU group, demonstrating that the changing of unspecific immune effectors values took place like a result of a exogenous substance with immunomodulator effect. Was also observed an easy increase of limfocytes in LPU group, but not so important like in first two determinations, if the experiment will continue, these values maybe will be significant increased, taking into consideration that these increases become more evident after a period of time after stimulation.

  2. Two pathways act in an additive rather than obligatorily synergistic fashion to induce systemic acquired resistance and PR gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapiro Allan D

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Local infection with necrotizing pathogens induces whole plant immunity to secondary challenge. Pathogenesis-related genes are induced in parallel with this systemic acquired resistance response and thought to be co-regulated. The hypothesis of co-regulation has been challenged by induction of Arabidopsis PR-1 but not systemic acquired resistance in npr1 mutant plants responding to Pseudomonas syringae carrying the avirulence gene avrRpt2. However, experiments with ndr1 mutant plants have revealed major differences between avirulence genes. The ndr1-1 mutation prevents hypersensitive cell death, systemic acquired resistance and PR-1 induction elicited by bacteria carrying avrRpt2. This mutation does not prevent these responses to bacteria carrying avrB. Results Systemic acquired resistance, PR-1 induction and PR-5 induction were assessed in comparisons of npr1-2 and ndr1-1 mutant plants, double mutant plants, and wild-type plants. Systemic acquired resistance was displayed by all four plant lines in response to Pseudomonas syringae bacteria carrying avrB. PR-1 induction was partially impaired by either single mutation in response to either bacterial strain, but only fully impaired in the double mutant in response to avrRpt2. PR-5 induction was not fully impaired in any of the mutants in response to either avirulence gene. Conclusion Two pathways act additively, rather than in an obligatorily synergistic fashion, to induce systemic acquired resistance, PR-1 and PR-5. One of these pathways is NPR1-independent and depends on signals associated with hypersensitive cell death. The other pathway is dependent on salicylic acid accumulation and acts through NPR1. At least two other pathways also contribute additively to PR-5 induction.

  3. Effect of gene order in DNA constructs on gene expression upon integration into plant genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydın Akbudak, M; Srivastava, Vibha

    2017-06-01

    Several plant biotechnology applications are based on the expression of multiple genes located on a single transformation vector. The principles of stable expression of foreign genes in plant cells include integration of full-length gene fragments consisting of promoter and transcription terminator sequences, and avoiding converging orientation of the gene transcriptional direction. Therefore, investigators usually generate constructs in which genes are assembled in the same orientation. However, no specific information is available on the effect of the order in which genes should be assembled in the construct to support optimum expression of each gene upon integration in the genome. While many factors, including genomic position and the integration structure, could affect gene expression, the investigators judiciously design DNA constructs to avoid glitches. However, the gene order in a multigene assembly remains an open question. This study addressed the effect of gene order in the DNA construct on gene expression in rice using a simple design of two genes placed in two possible orders with respect to the genomic context. Transgenic rice lines containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and β-glucuronidase (GUS) genes in two distinct orders were developed by Cre-lox-mediated site-specific integration. Gene expression analysis of transgenic lines showed that both genes were expressed at similar levels in either orientation, and different transgenic lines expressed each gene within 1-2× range. Thus, no significant effect of the gene order on gene expression was found in the transformed rice lines containing precise site-specific integrations and stable gene expression in plant cells could be obtained with altered gene orders. Therefore, gene orientation and integration structures are more important factors governing gene expression than gene orders in the genomic context.

  4. Characterization of Asxl1, a murine homolog of Additional sex combs, and analysis of the Asx-like gene family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Cynthia L; Randazzo, Filippo; Humphries, R Keith; Brock, Hugh W

    2006-03-15

    The Additional sex combs (Asx) gene of Drosophila is required to maintain homeotic gene activation and silencing. Here we characterize the three murine homologs of Asx: Additional sex combs-like (Asxl1, Asxl2, and Asxl3) and identify conserved sequence features. The predicted amino acid sequence of Asxl1 has 16% identity and 40% similarity to Drosophila Asx, and 74% identity and 81% similarity to human ASXL1. Murine Asxl1 contains two regions highly conserved with Drosophila Asx: 1) a conserved amino terminal region of unknown function, termed the ASX homology domain (ASXH) which contains two nuclear receptor (NR) co-regulator binding motifs; and 2) a conserved C-terminal PHD domain. The mammalian Asx-like predicted proteins possess additional conserved sequence features of unknown function not present in Drosophila Asx, including three more NR co-regulator binding motifs. Asxl1and Asxl2 are expressed as multiple transcripts, at varying levels, in adult tissues and in embryonic stem cells analyzed by Northern blot, and exhibit similar expression patterns suggesting they may be co-regulated. Whole mount RNA in situ hybridization revealed that Asxl1 is also expressed in 10.5-11.0 dpc mouse embryos.

  5. Cloning of resistance gene analogs located on the alien chromosome in an addition line of wheat-Thinopyrum intermedium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shu-Mei; Hu, Jun; Yin, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Hong; Wang, Richard R-C; Hu, Zan-Min

    2005-09-01

    Homology-based gene/gene-analog cloning method has been extensively applied in isolation of RGAs (resistance gene analogs) in various plant species. However, serious interference of sequences on homoeologous chromosomes in polyploidy species usually occurred when cloning RGAs in a specific chromosome. In this research, the techniques of chromosome microdissection combined with homology-based cloning were used to clone RGAs from a specific chromosome of Wheat-Thinopyrum alien addition line TAi-27, which was derived from common wheat and Thinopyrum intermedium with a pair of chromosomes from Th. intermedium. The alien chromosomes carry genes for resistance to BYDV. The alien chromosome in TAi-27 was isolated by a glass needle and digested with proteinase K. The DNA of the alien chromosome was amplified by two rounds of Sau3A linker adaptor-mediated PCR. RGAs were amplified by PCR with the degenerated primers designed based on conserved domains of published resistance genes (R genes) by using the alien chromosome DNA, genomic DNA and cDNA of Th. intermedium, TAi-27 and 3B-2 (a parent of TAi-27) as templates. A total of seven RGAs were obtained and sequenced. Of which, a constitutively expressed single-copy NBS-LRR type RGA ACR 3 was amplified from the dissected alien chromosome of TAi-27, TcDR 2 and TcDR 3 were from cDNA of Th. intermedium, AcDR 3 was from cDNA of TAi-27, FcDR 2 was from cDNA of 3B-2, AR 2 was from genomic DNA of TAi-27 and TR 2 was from genomic DNA of Th. intermedium. Sequence homology analyses showed that the above RGAs were highly homologous with known resistance genes or resistance gene analogs and belonged to NBS-LRR type of R genes. ACR 3 was recovered by PCR from genomic DNA and cDNA of Th. intermedium and TAi-27, but not from 3B-2. Southern hybridization using the digested genomic DNA of Th. intermedium, TAi-27 and 3B-2 as the template and ACR 3 as the probe showed that there is only one copy of ACR 3 in the genome of Th. intermedium and TAi

  6. Individual and combined in vitro (anti)androgenic effects of certain food additives and cosmetic preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Anca; Drugan, Tudor; Gutleb, Arno C; Lupu, Diana; Cherfan, Julien; Loghin, Felicia; Kiss, Béla

    2016-04-01

    The individual and combined (binary mixtures) (anti)androgenic effect of butylparaben (BuPB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and propyl gallate (PG) was evaluated using the MDA-kb2 cell line. Exposing these cells to AR agonists results in the expression of the reporter gene (encoding for luciferase) and luminescence can be measured in order to monitor the activity of the reporter protein. In case of the evaluation of the anti-androgenic effect, the individual test compounds or binary mixtures were tested in the presence of a fixed concentration of a strong AR agonist (1000 pM 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone; DHT). Cell viability was assessed using a resazurin based assay. For PG, this is the first report in the literature concerning its (anti)androgenic activity. In case of both individual and mixture testing none of the compounds or binary combinations showed androgenic activity. When tested in the presence of DHT, BuPB, BHA and BHT proved to be weak anti-androgens and this was confirmed during the evaluation of binary mixtures (BuPB+BHA, BuPB+BHT and BHA+BHT). Besides performing the in vitro testing of the binary combinations, two mathematical models (dose addition and response addition) were evaluated in terms of accuracy of prediction of the anti-androgenic effect of the selected binary mixtures. The dose addition model guaranteed a good correlation between the experimental and predicted data. However, no estimation was possible in case of mixtures containing PG, due to the lack of effect of the compound in case of the individual testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Modeling additive and non-additive effects in a hybrid population using genome-wide genotyping: prediction accuracy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, J-M; Makouanzi, G; Cros, D; Vigneron, Ph

    2016-02-01

    Hybrids are broadly used in plant breeding and accurate estimation of variance components is crucial for optimizing genetic gain. Genome-wide information may be used to explore models designed to assess the extent of additive and non-additive variance and test their prediction accuracy for the genomic selection. Ten linear mixed models, involving pedigree- and marker-based relationship matrices among parents, were developed to estimate additive (A), dominance (D) and epistatic (AA, AD and DD) effects. Five complementary models, involving the gametic phase to estimate marker-based relationships among hybrid progenies, were developed to assess the same effects. The models were compared using tree height and 3303 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers from 1130 cloned individuals obtained via controlled crosses of 13 Eucalyptus urophylla females with 9 Eucalyptus grandis males. Akaike information criterion (AIC), variance ratios, asymptotic correlation matrices of estimates, goodness-of-fit, prediction accuracy and mean square error (MSE) were used for the comparisons. The variance components and variance ratios differed according to the model. Models with a parent marker-based relationship matrix performed better than those that were pedigree-based, that is, an absence of singularities, lower AIC, higher goodness-of-fit and accuracy and smaller MSE. However, AD and DD variances were estimated with high s.es. Using the same criteria, progeny gametic phase-based models performed better in fitting the observations and predicting genetic values. However, DD variance could not be separated from the dominance variance and null estimates were obtained for AA and AD effects. This study highlighted the advantages of progeny models using genome-wide information.

  8. Effects of Argonaute on Gene Expression in Thermus thermophilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan C Swarts

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic Argonaute proteins mediate RNA-guided RNA interference, allowing both regulation of host gene expression and defense against invading mobile genetic elements. Recently, it has become evident that prokaryotic Argonaute homologs mediate DNA-guided DNA interference, and play a role in host defense. Argonaute of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus (TtAgo targets invading plasmid DNA during and after transformation. Using small interfering DNA guides, TtAgo can cleave single and double stranded DNAs. Although TtAgo additionally has been demonstrated to cleave RNA targets complementary to its DNA guide in vitro, RNA targeting by TtAgo has not been demonstrated in vivo.To investigate if TtAgo also has the potential to control RNA levels, we analyzed RNA-seq data derived from cultures of four T. thermophilus strain HB27 variants: wild type, TtAgo knockout (Δago, and either strain transformed with a plasmid. Additionally we determined the effect of TtAgo on expression of plasmid-encoded RNA and plasmid DNA levels.In the absence of exogenous DNA (plasmid, TtAgo presence or absence had no effect on gene expression levels. When plasmid DNA is present, TtAgo reduces plasmid DNA levels 4-fold, and a corresponding reduction of plasmid gene transcript levels was observed. We therefore conclude that TtAgo interferes with plasmid DNA, but not with plasmid-encoded RNA. Interestingly, TtAgo presence stimulates expression of specific endogenous genes, but only when exogenous plasmid DNA was present. Specifically, the presence of TtAgo directly or indirectly stimulates expression of CRISPR loci and associated genes, some of which are involved in CRISPR adaptation. This suggests that TtAgo-mediated interference with plasmid DNA stimulates CRISPR adaptation.

  9. Glucose uptake and its effect on gene expression in prochlorococcus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Gómez-Baena

    Full Text Available The marine cyanobacteria Prochlorococcus have been considered photoautotrophic microorganisms, although the utilization of exogenous sugars has never been specifically addressed in them. We studied glucose uptake in different high irradiance- and low irradiance-adapted Prochlorococcus strains, as well as the effect of glucose addition on the expression of several glucose-related genes. Glucose uptake was measured by adding radiolabelled glucose to Prochlorococcus cultures, followed by flow cytometry coupled with cell sorting in order to separate Prochlorococcus cells from bacterial contaminants. Sorted cells were recovered by filtration and their radioactivity measured. The expression, after glucose addition, of several genes (involved in glucose metabolism, and in nitrogen assimilation and its regulation was determined in the low irradiance-adapted Prochlorococcus SS120 strain by semi-quantitative real time RT-PCR, using the rnpB gene as internal control. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the Prochlorococcus strains studied in this work take up glucose at significant rates even at concentrations close to those found in the oceans, and also exclude the possibility of this uptake being carried out by eventual bacterial contaminants, since only Prochlorococcus cells were used for radioactivity measurements. Besides, we show that the expression of a number of genes involved in glucose utilization (namely zwf, gnd and dld, encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively is strongly increased upon glucose addition to cultures of the SS120 strain. This fact, taken together with the magnitude of the glucose uptake, clearly indicates the physiological importance of the phenomenon. Given the significant contribution of Prochlorococcus to the global primary production, these findings have strong implications for the understanding of the phytoplankton role in the carbon

  10. The Additional sex combs gene of Drosophila encodes a chromatin protein that binds to shared and unique Polycomb group sites on polytene chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, D A; Milne, T A; Hodgson, J W; Shellard, J; Salinas, C A; Kyba, M; Randazzo, F; Brock, H W

    1998-04-01

    The Additional sex combs (Asx) gene of Drosophila is a member of the Polycomb group of genes, which are required for maintenance of stable repression of homeotic and other loci. Asx is unusual among the Polycomb group because: (1) one Asx allele exhibits both anterior and posterior transformations; (2) Asx mutations enhance anterior transformations of trx mutations; (3) Asx mutations exhibit segmentation phenotypes in addition to homeotic phenotypes; (4) Asx is an Enhancer of position-effect variegation and (5) Asx displays tissue-specific derepression of target genes. Asx was cloned by transposon tagging and encodes a protein of 1668 amino acids containing an unusual cysteine cluster at the carboxy terminus. The protein is ubiquitously expressed during development. We show that Asx is required in the central nervous system to regulate Ultrabithorax. ASX binds to multiple sites on polytene chromosomes, 70% of which overlap those of Polycomb, polyhomeotic and Polycomblike, and 30% of which are unique. The differences in target site recognition may account for some of the differences in Asx phenotypes relative to other members of the Polycomb group.

  11. The Effects of Hallucinogens on Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, David A; Nichols, Charles D

    2018-01-01

    The classic serotonergic hallucinogens, or psychedelics, have the ability to profoundly alter perception and behavior. These can include visual distortions, hallucinations, detachment from reality, and mystical experiences. Some psychedelics, like LSD, are able to produce these effects with remarkably low doses of drug. Others, like psilocybin, have recently been demonstrated to have significant clinical efficacy in the treatment of depression, anxiety, and addiction that persist for at least several months after only a single therapeutic session. How does this occur? Much work has recently been published from imaging studies showing that psychedelics alter brain network connectivity. They facilitate a disintegration of the default mode network, producing a hyperconnectivity between brain regions that allow centers that do not normally communicate with each other to do so. The immediate and acute effects on both behaviors and network connectivity are likely mediated by effector pathways downstream of serotonin 5-HT2A receptor activation. These acute molecular processes also influence gene expression changes, which likely influence synaptic plasticity and facilitate more long-term changes in brain neurochemistry ultimately underlying the therapeutic efficacy of a single administration to achieve long-lasting effects. In this review, we summarize what is currently known about the molecular genetic responses to psychedelics within the brain and discuss how gene expression changes may contribute to altered cellular physiology and behaviors.

  12. Effects of Acarbose Addition on Ruminal Bacterial Microbiota, Lipopolysaccharide Levels and Fermentation Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-yang Yin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of acarbose addition on changes in ruminal fermentation characteristics and the composition of the ruminal bacterial community in vitro using batch cultures. Rumen fluid was collected from the rumens of three cannulated Holstein cattle fed forage ad libitum that was supplemented with 6 kg of concentrate. The batch cultures consisted of 8 mL of strained rumen fluid in 40 mL of an anaerobic buffer containing 0.49 g of corn grain, 0.21 g of soybean meal, 0.15 g of alfalfa and 0.15g of Leymus chinensis. Acarbose was added to incubation bottles to achieve final concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mg/mL. After incubation for 24 h, the addition of acarbose linearly decreased (p<0.05 the total gas production and the concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids, lactate and lipopolysaccharide (LPS. It also linearly increased (p<0.05 the ratio of acetate to propionate, the concentrations of isovalerate, valerate and ammonia-nitrogen and the pH value compared with the control. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene showed that the addition of acarbose decreased (p<0.05 the proportion of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria and increased (p<0.05 the percentage of Bacteroidetes, Fibrobacteres, and Synergistetes compared with the control. A principal coordinates analysis plot based on unweighted UniFrac values and molecular variance analysis revealed that the structure of the ruminal bacterial communities in the control was different to that of the ruminal microbiota in the acarbose group. In conclusion, acarbose addition can affect the composition of the ruminal microbial community and may be potentially useful for preventing the occurrence of ruminal acidosis and the accumulation of LPS in the rumen.

  13. Effect Alpha Globlin Gene Deletion And Gamma Globin Gene -158 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... have been unable to find a molecular basis for the benign clinical course in all our patients. Other genetic or acquired factors must be hypothesized which ameliorate the clinical condition. Keywords: β- thalassemia, Xmn1 polymorphism, α-globin gene deletion. Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Vol.

  14. [Effects of dietary monosodium-glutamate on gene expression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurasek, Júlia Vanda; Raposa, László Bence; Gubicskóné Kisbenedek, Andrea; Varga, Veronika; Szabó, Zoltán; Varjas, Tímea

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, the food industry more often uses different type of additives during the food production. Our aim was to examine the monosodium-glutamate's effect (in animal experiment) on DNA-methyltransferases in gene expression patterns of mRNA levels. In the investigation we used 24 (n=24) CD1 type female mice. The animals were fed with different equivalent human doses of the tested substance. After autopsy, mRNA was isolated from different tissues (lung, liver, kidney, spleen). DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B levels were determined by Quantitative Real-Time PCR. DNMT1 significantly suppressed the gene expression in all the three treated groups (pmonosodium glutamate, suppressed the DNMT1 and DNMT3A gene expression - on mRNA levels of several organs - in mice. It can be a similar chemopreventive effect to epigallo-catechin-gallate's, curcumin's, genistein's, likopine's and rezveratrol's effects. In this case it can be possible that the MSG has anticarcinogenic effects. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(10), 380-385.

  15. Lethality of mice bearing a knockout of the Ngly1-gene is partially rescued by the additional deletion of the Engase gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Fujihira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The cytoplasmic peptide:N-glycanase (Ngly1 in mammals is a de-N-glycosylating enzyme that is highly conserved among eukaryotes. It was recently reported that subjects harboring mutations in the NGLY1 gene exhibited severe systemic symptoms (NGLY1-deficiency. While the enzyme obviously has a critical role in mammals, its precise function remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed Ngly1-deficient mice and found that they are embryonic lethal in C57BL/6 background. Surprisingly, the additional deletion of the gene encoding endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (Engase, which is another de-N-glycosylating enzyme but leaves a single GlcNAc at glycosylated Asn residues, resulted in the partial rescue of the lethality of the Ngly1-deficient mice. Additionally, we also found that a change in the genetic background of C57BL/6 mice, produced by crossing the mice with an outbred mouse strain (ICR could partially rescue the embryonic lethality of Ngly1-deficient mice. Viable Ngly1-deficient mice in a C57BL/6 and ICR mixed background, however, showed a very severe phenotype reminiscent of the symptoms of NGLY1-deficiency subjects. Again, many of those defects were strongly suppressed by the additional deletion of Engase in the C57BL/6 and ICR mixed background. The defects observed in Ngly1/Engase-deficient mice (C57BL/6 background and Ngly1-deficient mice (C57BL/6 and ICR mixed background closely resembled some of the symptoms of patients with an NGLY1-deficiency. These observations strongly suggest that the Ngly1- or Ngly1/Engase-deficient mice could serve as a valuable animal model for studies related to the pathogenesis of the NGLY1-deficiency, and that cytoplasmic ENGase represents one of the potential therapeutic targets for this genetic disorder.

  16. Potential Effects of Horizontal Gene Exchange in the Human Gut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Lerner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many essential functions of the human body are dependent on the symbiotic microbiota, which is present at especially high numbers and diversity in the gut. This intricate host–microbe relationship is a result of the long-term coevolution between the two. While the inheritance of mutational changes in the host evolution is almost exclusively vertical, the main mechanism of bacterial evolution is horizontal gene exchange. The gut conditions, with stable temperature, continuous food supply, constant physicochemical conditions, extremely high concentration of microbial cells and phages, and plenty of opportunities for conjugation on the surfaces of food particles and host tissues, represent one of the most favorable ecological niches for horizontal gene exchange. Thus, the gut microbial system genetically is very dynamic and capable of rapid response, at the genetic level, to selection, for example, by antibiotics. There are many other factors to which the microbiota may dynamically respond including lifestyle, therapy, diet, refined food, food additives, consumption of pre- and probiotics, and many others. The impact of the changing selective pressures on gut microbiota, however, is poorly understood. Presumably, the gut microbiome responds to these changes by genetic restructuring of gut populations, driven mainly via horizontal gene exchange. Thus, our main goal is to reveal the role played by horizontal gene exchange in the changing landscape of the gastrointestinal microbiome and potential effect of these changes on human health in general and autoimmune diseases in particular.

  17. Curcumin and Its Analogue Induce Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Have Additive Effects with Bortezomib in Cellular and Xenograft Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Nagy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination therapy of bortezomib with other chemotherapeutics is an emerging treatment strategy. Since both curcumin and bortezomib inhibit NF-κB, we tested the effects of their combination on leukemia cells. To improve potency, a novel Mannich-type curcumin derivative, C-150, was synthesized. Curcumin and its analogue showed potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on the human leukemia cell line, HL60, with different potency but similar additive properties with bortezomib. Additive antiproliferative effects were correlated well with LPS-induced NF-κB inhibition results. Gene expression data on cell cycle and apoptosis related genes, obtained by high-throughput QPCR, showed that curcumin and its analogue act through similar signaling pathways. In correlation with in vitro results similar additive effect could be obsereved in SCID mice inoculated systemically with HL60 cells. C-150 in a liposomal formulation given intravenously in combination with bortezomib was more efficient than either of the drugs alone. As our novel curcumin analogue exerted anticancer effects in leukemic cells at submicromolar concentration in vitro and at 3 mg/kg dose in vivo, which was potentiated by bortezomib, it holds a great promise as a future therapeutic agent in the treatment of leukemia alone or in combination.

  18. Effects of stress and MDMA on hippocampal gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Georg F; Johnson, Bethann N; Yamamoto, Bryan K; Gudelsky, Gary A

    2014-01-01

    MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) is a substituted amphetamine and popular drug of abuse. Its mood-enhancing short-term effects may prompt its consumption under stress. Clinical studies indicate that MDMA treatment may mitigate the symptoms of stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD). On the other hand, repeated administration of MDMA results in persistent deficits in markers of serotonergic (5-HT) nerve terminals that have been viewed as indicative of 5-HT neurotoxicity. Exposure to chronic stress has been shown to augment MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. Here, we examine the transcriptional responses in the hippocampus to MDMA treatment of control rats and rats exposed to chronic stress. MDMA altered the expression of genes that regulate unfolded protein binding, protein folding, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity, and neuropeptide signaling. In stressed rats, the gene expression profile in response to MDMA was altered to affect sensory processing and responses to tissue damage in nerve sheaths. Subsequent treatment with MDMA also markedly altered the genetic responses to stress such that the stress-induced downregulation of genes related to the circadian rhythm was reversed. The data support the view that MDMA-induced transcriptional responses accompany the persistent effects of this drug on neuronal structure/function. In addition, MDMA treatment alters the stress-induced transcriptional signature.

  19. Effects of Stress and MDMA on Hippocampal Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg F. Weber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine is a substituted amphetamine and popular drug of abuse. Its mood-enhancing short-term effects may prompt its consumption under stress. Clinical studies indicate that MDMA treatment may mitigate the symptoms of stress disorders such as posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD. On the other hand, repeated administration of MDMA results in persistent deficits in markers of serotonergic (5-HT nerve terminals that have been viewed as indicative of 5-HT neurotoxicity. Exposure to chronic stress has been shown to augment MDMA-induced 5-HT neurotoxicity. Here, we examine the transcriptional responses in the hippocampus to MDMA treatment of control rats and rats exposed to chronic stress. MDMA altered the expression of genes that regulate unfolded protein binding, protein folding, calmodulin-dependent protein kinase activity, and neuropeptide signaling. In stressed rats, the gene expression profile in response to MDMA was altered to affect sensory processing and responses to tissue damage in nerve sheaths. Subsequent treatment with MDMA also markedly altered the genetic responses to stress such that the stress-induced downregulation of genes related to the circadian rhythm was reversed. The data support the view that MDMA-induced transcriptional responses accompany the persistent effects of this drug on neuronal structure/function. In addition, MDMA treatment alters the stress-induced transcriptional signature.

  20. Stability of additive treatment effects in multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis: a simulation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristian Thorlund1, Edward Mills1,21Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, CanadaBackground: Many medical interventions are administered in the form of treatment combinations involving two or more individual drugs (eg, drug A + drug B. When the individual drugs and drug combinations have been compared in a number of randomized clinical trials, it is possible to quantify the comparative effectiveness of all drugs simultaneously in a multiple treatment comparison (MTC meta-analysis. However, current MTC models ignore the dependence between drug combinations (eg, A + B and the individual drugs that are part of the combination. In particular, current models ignore the possibility that drug effects may be additive, ie, the property that the effect of A and B combined is equal to the sum of the individual effects of A and B. Current MTC models may thus be suboptimal for analyzing data including drug combinations when their effects are additive or approximately additive. However, the extent to which the additivity assumption can be violated before the conventional model becomes the more optimal approach is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the comparative statistical performance of the conventional MTC model and the additive effects MTC model in MTC scenarios where additivity holds true, is mildly violated, or is strongly violated.Methods: We simulated MTC scenarios in which additivity held true, was mildly violated, or was strongly violated. For each scenario we simulated 500 MTC data sets and applied the conventional and additive effects MTC models in a Bayesian framework. Under each scenario we estimated the proportion of treatment effect estimates that were 20% larger than ‘the truth' (ie, % overestimates, the proportion that were 20% smaller than ‘the truth' (ie, % underestimates,The coverage of the 95% credible

  1. GeneLibrarian: an effective gene-information summarization and visualization system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Heng-Hui

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abundant information about gene products is stored in online searchable databases such as annotation or literature. To efficiently obtain and digest such information, there is a pressing need for automated information-summarization and functional-similarity clustering of genes. Results We have developed a novel method for semantic measurement of annotation and integrated it with a biomedical literature summarization system to establish a platform, GeneLibrarian, to provide users well-organized information about any specific group of genes (e.g. one cluster of genes from a microarray chip they might be interested in. The GeneLibrarian generates a summarized viewgraph of candidate genes for a user based on his/her preference and delivers the desired background information effectively to the user. The summarization technique involves optimizing the text mining algorithm and Gene Ontology-based clustering method to enable the discovery of gene relations. Conclusion GeneLibrarian is a Java-based web application that automates the process of retrieving critical information from the literature and expanding the number of potential genes for further analysis. This study concentrates on providing well organized information to users and we believe that will be useful in their researches. GeneLibrarian is available on http://gen.csie.ncku.edu.tw/GeneLibrarian/

  2. Metagenomic characterization of the effect of feed additives on the gut microbiome and antibiotic resistome of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Milton; Webb, Megan; Ghimire, Sudeep; Blair, Amanda; Olson, Kenneth; Fenske, Gavin John; Fonder, Alex Thomas; Christopher-Hennings, Jane; Brake, Derek; Scaria, Joy

    2017-09-25

    In North America, antibiotic feed additives such as monensin and tylosin are added to the finishing diets of feedlot cattle to counter the ill-effects of feeding diets with rapidly digestible carbohydrates. While these feed additives have been proven to improve feed efficiency and reduce liver abscess incidence, how these products impact the gastrointestinal microbiota is not completely understood. In this study, we analyzed the impact of providing antibiotic feed additives to feedlot cattle using metagenome sequencing of treated and control animals. Our results indicate that use of antibiotic feed additives does not produce discernable changes at the phylum level. However, treated cattle had reduced abundance of gram-positive bacteria at the genus level. The abundance of Ruminococcus, Erysipelotrichaceae and Lachnospiraceae in the gut of treated steers was reduced. Functional analysis of the data indicates that there was only minimal impact due to the treatment in the rumen. Genes involved in detoxification were significantly increased in the rumen of AB steers. But the relative abundance of these genes was additives.

  3. The Additional sex combs gene of Drosophila is required for activation and repression of homeotic loci, and interacts specifically with Polycomb and super sex combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, T A; Sinclair, D A; Brock, H W

    1999-06-01

    The protein products of Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (trxG) genes are required for the maintenance of the transcriptionally repressed and active states, respectively, of the homeotic genes. Mutations in PcG genes produce gain-of-function (posterior) homeotic transformations, while mutations in trxG genes produce loss-of-function (anterior) homeotic transformations. Double mutant combinations between a PcG gene and a trxG gene suppress the homeotic transformations seen with either mutation alone, suggesting that PcG and trxG genes act antagonistically. The PcG gene Additional sex combs (Asx) is interesting because one mutant allele, AsxP1, causes both anterior and posterior homeotic transformations. AsxP1 and other Asx mutations were crossed to mutations in the PcG gene Polycomb (Pc) and the trxG gene trithorax (trx). Asx alleles enhance both PcG and trxG homeotic transformations, showing that Asx is required for both the activation and the repression of homeotic loci. Asx also shows strong allele-specific interactions with the PcG genes Pc and super sex combs (sxc). Together, these data indicate that there are functional interactions between Asx, Pc and sxc in vivo. ASX may interact with a PcG complex containing PC and SXC and mediate activation versus repression at target loci, perhaps by interacting directly with the TRX protein.

  4. An investigation of the effect of pit latrine additives on VIP latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manufacturers of various commercial pit latrine additives claim that by addition of this product to pit content, accumulation rate and pit content volume can be reduced, thereby preventing the pit from ever reaching capacity. This paper presents a comprehensive study conducted to determine the effects of additives on pit ...

  5. GeneLibrarian: an effective gene-information summarization and visualization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jung-Hsien; Shin, Jyh-Wei; Liu, Heng-Hui; Chin, Chong-Liang

    2006-01-01

    Background Abundant information about gene products is stored in online searchable databases such as annotation or literature. To efficiently obtain and digest such information, there is a pressing need for automated information-summarization and functional-similarity clustering of genes. Results We have developed a novel method for semantic measurement of annotation and integrated it with a biomedical literature summarization system to establish a platform, GeneLibrarian, to provide users well-organized information about any specific group of genes (e.g. one cluster of genes from a microarray chip) they might be interested in. The GeneLibrarian generates a summarized viewgraph of candidate genes for a user based on his/her preference and delivers the desired background information effectively to the user. The summarization technique involves optimizing the text mining algorithm and Gene Ontology-based clustering method to enable the discovery of gene relations. Conclusion GeneLibrarian is a Java-based web application that automates the process of retrieving critical information from the literature and expanding the number of potential genes for further analysis. This study concentrates on providing well organized information to users and we believe that will be useful in their researches. GeneLibrarian is available on PMID:16939640

  6. Investigate The Effect of Additives on Mechanical Properties During Casting of 6351 Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Sanjeev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum is one of the significant and widely used metals in the manufacturing industries. The effectiveness of casting processes depends upon various process parameters like type of sand, moulding process and additive used. However, the additive in the sand plays important roles to make a perfect casting. Hence, in this research work the experiment were performed to investigate the effect of additives like Tamarind Powder, Starch Powder and Coal dust on the Mechanical Properties namely during casting of aluminium alloys.

  7. Concentration addition, independent action and generalized concentration addition models for mixture effect prediction of sex hormone synthesis in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Niels; Taxvig, Camilla; Pedersen, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    and compared to the experimental mixture data. Mixture 1 contained environmental chemicals adjusted in ratio according to human exposure levels. Mixture 2 was a potency adjusted mixture containing five pesticides. Prediction of testosterone effects coincided with the experimental Mixture 1 data. In contrast...... was the predominant but not sole driver of the mixtures, suggesting that one chemical alone was not responsible for the mixture effects. In conclusion, the GCA model seemed to be superior to the CA and IA models for the prediction of testosterone effects. A situation with chemicals exerting opposing effects...

  8. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomaeus Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula.

  9. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwinyi, Adina; Meyer, Achim; Bleidorn, Christoph; Lieb, Bernhard; Bartolomaeus, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2009-01-16

    Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula.

  10. Effect of potassium addition on YBa2Cu3O x superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, K.; Sakai, N.; Murakami, M.; Hirabayashi, I.

    2006-01-01

    Long period post-annealing in the oxygen atmosphere is necessary for YBa 2 Cu 3 O x (Y123) bulk superconductors to impart superconductivity. We have investigated whether Y123 shows good superconductivity without oxygen annealing by potassium addition. If K + ion substitutes on Ba 2+ site since the size of K + ion is close to that of Ba 2+ ion, we can expect hole doping effect without additional oxygen annealing. We confirmed that the sample without potassium addition exhibited no superconductivity, while the sample with potassium addition had the onset T c of above 90 K. This implies that the potassium addition certainly promotes the superconductivity of Y123

  11. Fermentation products as feed additives mitigate some ill-effects of heat stress in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S; Bass, B E; Bandrick, M; Loving, C L; Brockmeier, S L; Looft, T; Trachsel, J; Madson, D M; Thomas, M; Casey, T A; Frank, J W; Stanton, T B; Allen, H K

    2017-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) may result in economic losses to pig producers across the USA and worldwide. Despite significant advancements in management practices, HS continues to be a challenge. In this study, an in-feed antibiotic (carbadox, CBX) and antibiotic alternatives ( [XPC], and [SGX] fermentation products) were evaluated in a standard pig starter diet as mitigations against the negative effects of HS in pigs. A total of 100 gilts were obtained at weaning (6.87 ± 0.82 kg BW, 19.36 ± 0.72 d of age) and randomly assigned to dietary treatments (2 rooms/treatment, 2 pens/room, 6 to 7 pigs/pen). After 4 wk of dietary acclimation, half of the pigs in each dietary group (1 room/dietary treatment) were exposed to repeated heat stress conditions (RHS; daily cycles of 19 h at 25°C and 5 h at 40°C, repeated for 9 d), and the remaining pigs were housed at constant thermal neutral temperature (25°C, [NHS]). Pigs subjected to RHS had elevated skin surface temperature ( treatment. Independent of diet, RHS pigs had significantly shorter ( stress resulted in decreased villus height to crypt depth ratio (V:C) in pigs fed with control diet with no added feed additive (NON) and CBX diets at d 3, whereas the pigs fed diets containing XPC or SGX showed no decrease. Transcriptional expression of genes involved in cellular stress (, , , ), tight junction integrity (, , ), and immune response (, , and ) were measured in the ileum mucosa. Pigs in all dietary treatments subjected to RHS had significantly higher ( natural killer () cell numbers or NK cell lytic activity. In conclusion, pigs subjected to RHS had decreased performance, and supplementation with fermentation products in the feed (XPC and SGX) protected pigs from injury to the jejunum mucosa.

  12. Gene expression profile study on osteoinductive effect of natural hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Xiaoying; Wang, Jiandan; Li, Bin; Zhang, Zhiwei; Zhao, Lifeng

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the osteoinductive effect of natural hydroxyapatite (NHA). NHA was extracted from pig bones and prepared into disk-like samples. Then, proliferation of mouse bone mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on NHA was assessed by the methylthiazoltetrazolium (MTT) assay. Furthermore, microarray technology was applied to obtain the gene expression profiles of MSCs cultured on NHA at 24, 48, and 72 h. The gene expression profile was then comprehensively analyzed by clustering, Gene Ontology (GO), Gene Microarray Pathway Profiler (GenMAPP) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). According to the results of microarray experiment, 8992 differentially expressed genes were obtained. 90 differential expressed genes related to HA osteogenic differentiation were determined by GO analysis. These genes included not only 6 genes related to HA osteogenic differentiation as mentioned in the literatures but also newly discovered 84 genes. Some important signaling pathways (TGF-β, MAPK, Wnt, etc.) were influenced by these genes. Gene interaction networks were obtained by IPA software, in which the scoring values of two networks were highest, and their main functions were related to cell development. The comprehensive analysis of these results indicate that NHA regulate some crucial genes (e.g., Bmp2, Spp1) and then activate some pathways such as TGF-β signaling pathway, and ultimately osteogenic differentiation was induced. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Additivity of Feature-based and Symmetry-based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundi eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple object tracking (MOT is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the laws of perceptual organization proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. Additive effect refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The where and what pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  14. Variation of gene effects of six agronomic traits with water regimes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    yahia

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... This study was carried out to determine the relative importance of additive, dominance and epistatic effects of six agronomic traits evaluated in two crosses under irrigated and rainfed conditions. Separate generations mean analyses revealed that gene effects were dependent upon water regime. Under.

  15. Variation of gene effects of six agronomic traits with water regimes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Separate generations mean analyses revealed that gene effects were dependent upon water regime. Under irrigated regime, only additive and dominance effects were implicated in inheritance of all traits, except plant height in the two crosses and grains per spike in the cross Razzek × Chili. However, under rainfed ...

  16. Effect of EP additives in synthetic base oils. Goseiyu ni taisuru kyokuatsuzai no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, S.; Akiba, K.; Yokomori, Y. (National Defence Academy, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1994-07-01

    Accompanying the spread of applicability of synthetic base oils, the effects of various additives on them have been discussed. As a link of a study relating to additives for synthetic oils, the anti-seizure effects of sulfur-based extreme pressure additives (abbreviated S-additives), phosphates and zinc dithiophosphate (ZDP) on three kinds of synthetic base oil- poly-[alpha] olefin (PAO), dialkyl adipate (DA), trimethylol propane ester (TMP) - were investigated in this work. In addition, various additives in these oils were compared in adsorptivity to iron powder, and pyrolytic characteristic or hydrolytic characteristic on iron powder. The anti-seizure effects of extreme pressure additives on each kind of synthetic base oil were compared as shown in the following: DA>PAO, TMP, or PAO[ge]DA>TMP in S-additives; PAO>DA, TMP in phosphates; and PAO>TMP>DA in ZDP. These relations are controlled mainly by pyrolysis in S-additives, by adsorptivity in phosphates and by both of them in ZDP. 6 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Nutrient additions in pristine Patagonian Sphagnum bog vegetation : can phosphorus addition alleviate (the effects of) increased nitrogen loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritz, C.; Dijk, G. van; Smolders, A.J.P.; Pancotto, V.A.; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Roelofs, J.G.M.; Grootjans, A.P.

    Sphagnum-bog ecosystems have a limited capability to retain carbon and nutrients when subjected to increased nitrogen (N) deposition. Although it has been proposed that phosphorus (P) can dilute negative effects of nitrogen by increasing biomass production of Sphagnum mosses, it is still unclear

  18. Effectiveness of the Touch Math Technique in Teaching Basic Addition to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yikmis, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to reveal whether the touch math technique is effective in teaching basic addition to children with autism. The dependent variable of this study is the children's skills to solve addition problems correctly, whereas teaching with the touch math technique is the independent variable. Among the single-subject research models, a…

  19. Effect of Vitamin C Addition on some Quality Aspects of Wheat Bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The effect of vitamin C addition on some quality aspects of wheat bread was evaluated. Subjects/Materials and Methods: Wheat bread was produced using the straight dough method with addition of varying quantities of vitamin C (between 0.05 to 0.40g) as an improver, with the sample without vitamin C serving ...

  20. Effects of Some Chemical Food Additives on the Shelf-Life Stability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Some Chemical Food Additives on the Shelf-Life Stability of Plantain Chips Stored at Ambient Temperature. ... Conclusion: The chemical additives conferred antimicrobial, antioxidant and preservative properties on the plantain chips and therefore prolonged the shelf life up to four weeks. Keywords: Plantain chips ...

  1. Effect of dietary fiber (inulin) addition on phenolics and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato sauce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D.; Diez Simon, Carmen; Sagdic, Osman; Capanoglu, Esra

    2018-01-01

    The effect of the addition of inulin (5 and 10%) on the phenolic content and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of tomato sauces has been investigated. Results have shown that the addition of inulin to tomato sauce significantly decreased the total phenolic content (57–68%), total flavonoid content

  2. Effects of sample size on differential gene expression, rank order and prediction accuracy of a gene signature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Stretch

    Full Text Available Top differentially expressed gene lists are often inconsistent between studies and it has been suggested that small sample sizes contribute to lack of reproducibility and poor prediction accuracy in discriminative models. We considered sex differences (69♂, 65 ♀ in 134 human skeletal muscle biopsies using DNA microarray. The full dataset and subsamples (n = 10 (5 ♂, 5 ♀ to n = 120 (60 ♂, 60 ♀ thereof were used to assess the effect of sample size on the differential expression of single genes, gene rank order and prediction accuracy. Using our full dataset (n = 134, we identified 717 differentially expressed transcripts (p<0.0001 and we were able predict sex with ~90% accuracy, both within our dataset and on external datasets. Both p-values and rank order of top differentially expressed genes became more variable using smaller subsamples. For example, at n = 10 (5 ♂, 5 ♀, no gene was considered differentially expressed at p<0.0001 and prediction accuracy was ~50% (no better than chance. We found that sample size clearly affects microarray analysis results; small sample sizes result in unstable gene lists and poor prediction accuracy. We anticipate this will apply to other phenotypes, in addition to sex.

  3. Polyelectrolyte addition effect on the properties of setting hydraulic cements based on calcium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Luis A. dos; Oliveira, Luci C. de; Rigo, Eliana C.S.; Boschi, Anselmo Ortega; Carrodeguas, Raul Gracia

    1997-01-01

    In the present work the effects of the addition of some poly electrolytes (sodium alginate and poly acrylic acid) on the solubility, crystalline phases, pH and mechanical strength under compression of three calcium phosphate cements were studied. (author)

  4. High frequency of additional gene mutations in acute myeloid leukemia with MLL partial tandem duplication: DNMT3A mutation is associated with poor prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsiao-Wen; Liang, D Cherng; Kuo, Ming-Chung; Wu, Jin-Hou; Dunn, Po; Wang, Po-Nan; Lin, Tung-Liang; Shih, Yu-Shu; Liang, Sung-Tzu; Lin, Tung-Huei; Lai, Chen-Yu; Lin, Chun-Hui; Shih, Lee-Yung

    2015-10-20

    The mutational profiles of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with partial tandem duplication of mixed-lineage leukemia gene (MLL-PTD) have not been comprehensively studied. We studied 19 gene mutations for 98 patients with MLL-PTD AML to determine the mutation frequency and clinical correlations. MLL-PTD was screened by reverse-transcriptase PCR and confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR. The mutational analyses were performed with PCR-based assays followed by direct sequencing. Gene mutations of signaling pathways occurred in 63.3% of patients, with FLT3-ITD (44.9%) and FLT3-TKD (13.3%) being the most frequent. 66% of patients had gene mutations involving epigenetic regulation, and DNMT3A (32.7%), IDH2 (18.4%), TET2 (18.4%), and IDH1 (10.2%) mutations were most common. Genes of transcription pathways and tumor suppressors accounted for 23.5% and 10.2% of patients. RUNX1 mutation occurred in 23.5% of patients, while none had NPM1 or double CEBPA mutation. 90.8% of MLL-PTD AML patients had at least one additional gene mutation. Of 55 MLL-PTD AML patients who received standard chemotherapy, age older than 50 years and DNMT3A mutation were associated with inferior outcome. In conclusion, gene mutations involving DNA methylation and activated signaling pathway were common co-existed gene mutations. DNMT3A mutation was a poor prognostic factor in MLL-PTD AML.

  5. Isolation and characterization of 14 additional genes specifying the anaerobic biosynthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B12) in Propionibacterium freudenreichii (P. shermanii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessner, Charles A; Huang, Ke-Xue; Warren, Martin J; Raux, Evelyne; Scott, A Ian

    2002-06-01

    A search for genes encoding enzymes involved in cobalamin (vitamin B12) production in the commercially important organism Propionibacterium freudenreichii (P. shermanii) has resulted in the isolation of an additional 14 genes encoding enzymes responsible for 17 steps of the anaerobic B12 pathway in this organism. All of the genes believed to be necessary for the biosynthesis of adenosylcobinamide from uroporphyrinogen III have now been isolated except two (cbiA and an as yet unidentified gene encoding cobalt reductase). Most of the genes are contained in two divergent operons, one of which, in turn, is closely linked to the operon encoding the B12-dependent enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. The close linkage of the three genes encoding the subunits of transcarboxylase to the hemYHBXRL gene cluster is reported. The functions of the P. freudenreichii B12 pathway genes are discussed, and a mechanism for the regulation of cobalamin and propionic acid production by oxygen in this organism is proposed.

  6. Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt

    OpenAIRE

    Syamsuddin, Yanna; Meilina, Hesti; Septavia, Friday; Darmawan, Rahmad

    2013-01-01

    Research on Effect of Skimmed-Milk and Starter Addition on Lactic Acid Formation in Soyghurt has been done. Soyghurt is a probiotic drinking product made from soy-milk produced by fermentation process using lactic acid bacteria. The bacteria used as starter was Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of skimmed-milk and starter addition on the formation of lactic acid. Variables used in this research was skimmed-milk ...

  7. The additive effect of turn-taking cues in human and synthetic voice

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A previous line of research suggests that interlocutors identify appropriate places to speak by cues in the behaviour of the preceding speaker. If used in combination, these cues have an additive effect on listeners? turn-taking attempts. The present study further explores these findings by examining the effect of such turn-taking cues experimentally. The objective is to investigate the possibilities of generating turn-taking cues with a synthetic voice. Thus, in addition ...

  8. Estimation of direct effects for survival data by using the Aalen additive hazards model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Torben; Vansteelandt, Stijn; Gerster, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Aalen's additive regression for the event time, given exposure, intermediate variable and confounders. The second stage involves applying Aalen's additive model, given the exposure alone, to a modified stochastic process (i.e. a modification of the observed counting process based on the first......We extend the definition of the controlled direct effect of a point exposure on a survival outcome, other than through some given, time-fixed intermediate variable, to the additive hazard scale. We propose two-stage estimators for this effect when the exposure is dichotomous and randomly assigned...

  9. Effects of additives in α- and θ-alumina: an ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, Erik; Andersson, Jon M; Chirita, Valeriu; Helmersson, Ulf

    2004-01-01

    It is of high fundamental and practical importance to be able to control the formation and stability of the different crystalline phases of alumina (Al 2 O 3 ). In this study, we have used density functional theory methods to investigate the changes induced in the thermodynamically stable α phase and the metastable θ phase as one eighth of the Al atoms are substituted for different additives (Sc, W, Mo, Cr, Cu, Si, and B). The calculations predict that the additives strongly affect the relative stability between the two phases. Most tested additives are shown to shift the relative stability towards, and in some cases completely stabilize, the θ phase, while Cu doping is predicted to increase the relative stability of the α phase. The reasons for these effects are discussed, as are possible implications on the growth and use of doped aluminas in practical applications. In addition, the effects of the additives on bulk moduli and densities of states have been investigated

  10. Effect of antiwear additives in synthetic base oils. Goseiyu ni taisuru mamo boshizai no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, S.; Nakashima, T.; Yokomori, Y.; Nishi, S. (The National Defence Academy, Kanagawa (Japan))

    1994-01-01

    The antiwear effects of organic phosphates (tricresyl phosphate (TCP), trioctyl phosphate (TOP) and dioctyl phosphate (DOP)) and a commercial zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDP) admixed in three different types of synthetic base oils, poly [alpha] olefin (PAO), diester (DA) and trimethylol propane ester (TMP), were examined using a soda four-ball tester. As a result, effects of these antiwear additives were in the following order: PAO>DA[much gt] TMP. Adsorption of these additives on iron powder from the synthetic oil solutions, and hydrolysis or thermal decomposition in the synthetic oils, were also examined. As a result, these effects of the antiwear additives in synthetic base oils were highly affected by the relative intensity of adsorption between additives and synthetic oils on the rubbing surfaces. Furthermore, it was clarified that hydrolysis of phosphates and thermal decomposition of ZDP were affected by synthetic base oils. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Effects of minor alloying additions on the strength and swelling behavior of an austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gessel, G.R.

    1978-06-01

    A set of 32 alloys consisting of various additions of the elements Mo, W, Al, Ti, Nb, C and Si to an Fe-7.5 Cr-20 Ni alloy were made in order to investigate the effects of these solute additions on alloy swelling and strength. Both single and multiple additions were examined. The influence of various solute elements on the swelling behavior in the range 500 to 730 0 C was investigated using 4 MeV Ni ion bombardment to a dose 170 dpa. It was found that on an atomic percent basis, the elements may be arranged in order of decreasing effectiveness in reducing peak temperature swelling as follows: Ti, C, Nb, Si, and Mo. Small amounts of aluminum enhance swelling. Additions of Si, Ti, or Nb truncate the high temperature swelling regime of the ternary alloy. Mo, W, and C do not have a strong effect on the temperature dependence of swelling. The results may be interpreted in terms of the effect of point defect trapping on void growth rates, and it is suggested that the changes in peak temperature are the result of small changes in the free vacancy formation energy. A method for treating certain multiple additions is proposed. The effect of these alloying additions on short time high temperature strength properties was estimated using hot hardness measurements over the temperature range 22 to 850 0 C. On an atom percent basis Nb and Ti were most effective in conferring solid solution strengthening and Si the least effective. In the regime 22 to approximately 650 0 C, the hardness data was found to fit an equation of the form: H = H 0 + b/T; where H is the hardness, T is the temperature, and H 0 and b are constants for a given alloy. An empirical method was devised to estimate the hot hardness of alloys containing more than one solute addition

  12. The effect of various pozzolanic additives on the concrete strength index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitola, L.; Sahmenko, G.; Erdmane, D.; Bumanis, G.; Bajare, D.

    2017-10-01

    The concrete industry is searching continuously for new effective mineral additives to improve the concrete properties. Replacing cement with the pozzolanic additives in most cases has resulted not only in positive impact on the environment but also has improved strength and durability of the concrete. Effective pozzolanic additives can be obtained from natural resources such as volcanic ashes, kaolin and other sediments as well as from different production industries that create various by-products with high pozzolanic reactivity. Current research deals with effectiveness evaluation of various mineral additives/wastes, such as coal combustion bottom ash, barley bottom ash, waste glass and metakaolin containing waste as well as calcined illite clays as supplementary cementitious materials, to be used in concrete production as partial cement replacement. Most of the examined materials are used as waste stream materials with potential reactive effect on the concrete. Milling time and fineness of the tested supplementary material has been evaluated and effectiveness was detected. Results indicate that fineness of the tested materials has crucial effect on the concrete compressive strength index. Not in all cases the prolonged milling time can increase fineness and reactivity of the supplementary materials; however the optimal milling time and fineness of the pozolanic additives increased the strength index of concrete up to 1.16 comparing to reference, even in cases when cement was substituted by 20 w%.

  13. Effects of Different Addition Amounts of Superphosphate on Vegetable Waste Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different addition amounts of superphosphate on vegetable waste compost were studied. Results showed that, addition of superphosphate improved the temperature during the compost. It had the highest temperature of 64.33℃, when the addition quantity of superphosphate was 10.26% of dry matter weight. At the end of the composting, adding superphosphate had no significant effect on C/N, however, it decreased pH and improved the EC of the compost. The EC values were significantly higher than CK, when the addition amount was be tween 4.10%and 10.26%of dry matter weight. When the addition below 10.26%, the GI values were significantly higher than CK(P<0.01, and the highest value was 105.61%, when the addition was 2.05%(S5. Adding superphosphate significantly reduced the nitrogen loss rate of composting(P<0.05, and the lowest was 23.94%,when the addition was 2.05%, meanwhile, the input-output ratio was 3.93, which was the highest value. Under this experimental condition, adding superphosphate promoted the compost maturity significantly, reduced the nitrogen loss rate, and the optimal addition of superphosphate was 2.05%of dry matter weight.

  14. Effects of soil warming and nitrogen addition on soil respiration in a New Zealand tussock grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Scott L; Hunt, John E; Millard, Peter; McSeveny, Tony; Tylianakis, Jason M; Whitehead, David

    2014-01-01

    Soil respiration (RS) represents a large terrestrial source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Global change drivers such as climate warming and nitrogen deposition are expected to alter the terrestrial carbon cycle with likely consequences for RS and its components, autotrophic (RA) and heterotrophic respiration (RH). Here we investigate the impacts of a 3°C soil warming treatment and a 50 kg ha(-1) y(-1) nitrogen addition treatment on RS, RH and their respective seasonal temperature responses in an experimental tussock grassland. Average respiration in untreated soils was 0.96±0.09 μmol m(-2) s(-1) over the course of the experiment. Soil warming and nitrogen addition increased RS by 41% and 12% respectively. These treatment effects were additive under combined warming and nitrogen addition. Warming increased RH by 37% while nitrogen addition had no effect. Warming and nitrogen addition affected the seasonal temperature response of RS by increasing the basal rate of respiration (R10) by 14% and 20% respectively. There was no significant interaction between treatments for R10. The treatments had no impact on activation energy (E0). The seasonal temperature response of RH was not affected by either warming or nitrogen addition. These results suggest that the additional CO2 emissions from New Zealand tussock grassland soils as a result of warming-enhanced RS constitute a potential positive feedback to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration.

  15. Effects of WMA Additive on the Rheological Properties of Asphalt Binder and High Temperature Performance Grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiupeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasobit additives with different dosages were added into 70# and 90# virgin asphalt binders to prepare WMA binders. The rheological properties, including G∗ and δ, were measured by using DSR at the temperature ranging from 46°C to 70°C, and the effects of temperature, additive dosage and aging on G∗/sin⁡δ, critical temperature, and H-T PG were investigated. The results indicate that WMA additive improves G∗ but reduces δ, and the improvement on 70# virgin binder is more significant. G∗/sin⁡δ exponentially decreases with the increasing temperature but linearly increases with the increasing additive dosage. Aging effect weakens the interaction between binder and additive but significantly increases the binder’s viscosity; that is why G∗/sin⁡δ is higher after short-term aging. In addition, the critical temperature increases with the increasing additive dosage, and the additive dosage should be more than 3% and 5% to improve H-T PG by one grade for 70# and 90# virgin binder, respectively.

  16. Effect of CuO addition on structure and electrical properties of low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 36; Issue 5. Effect of CuO addition on structure and electrical properties of low temperature sintered quaternary piezoelectric ceramics. Jianhua Li ... Keywords. Sintering; microstructure-final; piezoelectric properties; perovskites; Jahn–Teller effect.

  17. A Comprehensive Review of Effect of Biodiesel Additives on Properties, Performance, and Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiwale, S.; Karthikeyan, A.; Bhojwani, V.

    2017-05-01

    Objectives:- To presents the literature review on effect of biodiesel additives on properties, performance and on emission. Method:-In the current paper reviews are taken from previous years paper which necessitates the need of addition of additives in the blends of biodiesel and studied the its effect on properties, performance and emissions. Emissions from the diesel powered vehicles mostly damaged the earth’s environment and also increased the overall earth’s temperature. This attracts the need of alternative fuels in the field of transportation sector. Past inventions and research showed that Biodiesel can be used as an alternative fuel for the diesel engine. Biodiesel have good combustion characteristics because of their long chain hydrocarbon structure. However biodiesel possesses few disadvantages such as lower heating value, higher flow ability, much high density and not able to flow at low temperature. Higher rate of fuel consumption is identified and higher level of NOx emissions when biodiesel used in an engine as an alternative fuels. Findings:-Different additives such as antioxidants, improvers for cetane number, cold flow properties improver, etc were investigated by the many researcher and scientists and added in the different feedstock of biodiesel or blends of biodiesel with diesel in different proportions. Directly or indirectly fuel additives can improve the reduction in the emissions, improve the fuel economy, and reduce the dependency of the one’s nation on other. Performances of biodiesel vehicles were drastically improved because of additioninthe blends of biodiesel with diesel fuel in specific percentages to meet the international emission standards. Addition of additives in the biodiesel or in the blends of biodiesel basically changes the high temperature and low temperature flow properties of blends of biodiesel. Current paper finds and compares properties of different additives and its effect on blends of biodiesel properties

  18. Effect of xylanase, urea, Tween and Triton additives on bioethanol production of corn stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiu; Lu, Jie; Yang, Rui-Feng; Song, Wen-jing; Li, Hai-ming; Wang, Hai-song; Zhou, Jing-hui

    2017-03-01

    Corn stover is a potential source of renewable biomass for conversion to bioethanol. Fed-batch semi-simultaneous saccharifcation and fermentation (S-SSF) of corn stover pretreated by liquid hot water (LHW) was investigated. The present study aimed to confirm the influence of xylanase, urea, Tween and Triton additives on bioethanol. Results show that the positive effect of xylanase, urea, Tween was observed. High ethanol concentration requires the addition of xylanase in the stage of saccharification. The optimal amount of xylanase was 0.2 g/g biomass and addition of Triton (Triton X-100) increases the effect of xylanase. Urea has a promotion effect on the whole fermentation process.When adding 0.1% urea in the fermentation stage,the best promoting rate is 24.2%. In the longitudinal comparison of the Tween series, under the same experimental conditions, the promoting effect of Tween series: Tween 40 > Tween 80 > Tween 20 > Tween 60.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of temporal regulation of carbon metabolism by CcpA in Bacillus subtilis reveals additional target genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lulko, Andrzej T.; Buist, Girbe; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2007-01-01

    The pleiotropic regulator of carbon metabolism in Grampositive bacteria, CcpA, regulates gene expression by binding to so-called cre elements, which are located either upstream or in promoter regions, or in open-reading frames. In this study we compared the transcriptomes of Bacillus subtilis 168

  20. Experimental Investigations on the Effects of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additives on Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sajith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of experimental investigations on the influence of the addition of cerium oxide in the nanoparticle form on the major physicochemical properties and the performance of biodiesel. The physicochemical properties of the base fuel and the modified fuel formed by dispersing the catalyst nanoparticles by ultrasonic agitation are measured using ASTM standard test methods. The effects of the additive nanoparticles on the individual fuel properties, the engine performance, and emissions are studied, and the dosing level of the additive is optimized. Comparisons of the performance of the fuel with and without the additive are also presented. The flash point and the viscosity of biodiesel were found to increase with the inclusion of the cerium oxide nanoparticles. The emission levels of hydrocarbon and NOx are appreciably reduced with the addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles.

  1. Effects of Ce, La and Ba addition on the electrochemical behavior of super duplex stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yun-Ha; Choi, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Jung-Gu; Park, Yong-Soo

    2010-01-01

    The effects of rare earth metal (REM: Ce, La) and Ba addition on aqueous corrosion properties of super duplex stainless steels (SDSS) were investigated by electrochemical tests and surface analyses. The results of potentiodynamic test indicated that the passive range increased by the addition of Ce, La, and Ba, indicating increased relative resistance to localized corrosion. The EIS measurements showed that the Ce-La-Ba-bearing alloys exhibited higher R ct and R p values than the Ce-La-Ba-free alloy at the passive and breakdown states. Furthermore, the additions of REMs and Ba together promoted the formation of dense chromium-enriched passive film.

  2. Effects of different additives on the performance of spray dryer system during incineration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, M Y; Peng, C Y; Wu, H Y; Chiang, B C; Liu, Z S

    2002-06-01

    The spray dryer system was conventionally employed to remove the SOx, NOx, and HCl in the flue gas. However, the removal efficiency of acid gas in the practical incineration flue gas, which contains dust, heavy metals, and acid gas itself, was seldom mentioned in the literature. The alkaline sorbents possess large specific surface that was a main factor on the adsorption of heavy metals and acid gas. Therefore, the primary objective of this study was focused on the effect of different additives on the removal efficiency of acid gas and heavy metals (Cr, Cd and Pb). The mass and element size distribution of heavy metals in fly ash under different additives were also investigated. The results indicated that the removal efficiency of HCl in the spray dryer system was higher than 97.8%. The effects of additives on the removal efficiency of HCl, however, were undistinguished. In the desulfurization process, the highest removal efficiency was 71.3% when the additive of amorphous SiO2 was added in the spray dryer system. The removal efficiency was 66.0% with the additive of CaCl2 and 63.1% without any additives, respectively. It was also found that the spray dryer system could decrease the concentration of metal in fly ash but increase the amount of fly ash. In addition, amorphous SiO2 in the alkaline sorbent tended to increase the adsorption of heavy metal on reactant, because it could enhance the dispersion of alkaline sorbent.

  3. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  4. Effects of Polymeric Additives on the Crystallization and Release Behavior of Amorphous Ibuprofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yang Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some polymeric additives were studied to understand their effects on the amorphous phase of ibuprofen (IBU, used as a poorly water soluble pharmaceutical model compound. The amorphous IBU in bulk, as well as in nanopores (diameter ~24 nm of anodic aluminum oxide, was examined with the addition of poly(acrylic acid, poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone, or poly(4-vinylphenol. Results of bulk crystallization showed that they were effective in limiting the crystal growth, while the nucleation of the crystalline phase in contact with water was nearly instantaneous in all cases. Poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone, the most effective additive, was in specific interaction with IBU, as revealed by IR spectroscopy. The addition of the polymers was combined with the nanoscopic confinement to further stabilize the amorphous phase. Still, the IBU with addition of polymeric additives showed sustained release behavior. The current study suggested that the inhibition of the crystal nucleation was probably the most important factor to stabilize the amorphous phase and fully harness its high solubility.

  5. The effects of Na/K additives and flyash on NO reduction in a SNCR process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jiangtao; Yu, Wei; Lu, Ping; Zhang, Yufei; Zhu, Xiuming

    2015-03-01

    An experimental study of Na/K additives and flyash on NO reduction during the selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process were carried out in an entrained flow reactor (EFR). The effects of reaction temperature (Tr), water vapor, Na/K additives (NaCl, KCl, Na2CO3) and flyash characteristics on NO reduction were analyzed. The results indicated that NO removal efficiency shows a pattern of increasing first and decreasing later with the increase of the temperature at Tr=850-1150°C. Water vapor can improve the performance of NO reduction, and the NO reduction of 70.5% was obtained while the flue gas containing 4% water vapor at 950°C. Na/K additives have a significant promoting effect on NO reduction and widen the SNCR temperature window, the promoting effect of the test additives is ordered as Na2CO3>KCl>NaCl. NO removal efficiency with 125ppm Na2CO3 and 4% water vapor can reach up to 84.9% at the optimal reaction temperature. The additive concentration has no significant effects on NO reduction while its concentration is above 50ppm. Addition of circulating fluidized combustion (CFB) flyash deteriorates NO reduction significantly. However, CFB flyash and Na/K additives will get a coupling effect on NO reduction during the SNCR process, and the best NO reduction can reach 72.3% while feeding Na2CO3-impregnated CFB flyash at 125ppm Na2CO3 and Tr=950°C. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Joint additive effects of temperature and UVB radiation on zoeae of the crab Taliepus dentatus

    KAUST Repository

    Carreja, B

    2016-04-06

    Warming and enhanced ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation are 2 global stressors acting across the ocean. We tested their effects on the survival and performance (consumption rates and activity) on the zoea I stage of the Chilean kelp crab Taliepus dentatus. Our goal was to resolve whether these stressors, when acting concurrently, had additive or interactive effects, either synergistic or antagonistic. A multifactorial experiment of 4 temperatures and 3 UVB irradiance levels was run. The larvae showed a significant increase in mortality with increasing temperature. Exposure to UVB reduced the thermal tolerance of the larvae by a significant increase of their mortality rate. Oxygen consumption increased as temperature increased. When exposed to UVB radiation, larval oxygen consumption increased significantly for all the temperatures tested. Two statistical models of joint effects confirmed that the combined effect of both stressors was additive, with no interaction, either synergistic or antagonistic. One of them, the independent action (IA) model, also revealed that concurrent effects on mortality remained additive when doubling the UVB dose. Additivity of the stressors improved the predictability of their effects on larval mortality. Exposure to UVB radiation increased mortality rates by 1.5 times at any temperature tested, independently of the dose. © The authors 2016.

  7. Mechanisms and modeling of the effects of additives on the nitrogen oxides emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Krishna P.; Nguyen, H. Lee; Kang, M. Paul

    1991-01-01

    A theoretical study on the emission of the oxides of nitrogen in the combustion of hydrocarbons is presented. The current understanding of the mechanisms and the rate parameters for gas phase reactions were used to calculate the NO(x) emission. The possible effects of different chemical species on thermal NO(x), on a long time scale were discussed. The mixing of these additives at various stages of combustion were considered and NO(x) concentrations were calculated; effects of temperatures were also considered. The chemicals such as hydrocarbons, H2, CH3OH, NH3, and other nitrogen species were chosen as additives in this discussion. Results of these calculations can be used to evaluate the effects of these additives on the NO(x) emission in the industrial combustion system.

  8. EFFECT OF THE Si POWDER ADDITIONS ON THE PROPERTIES OF SiC COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUOGANG XU

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of transient plastic phase process, the SiC silicon carbide kiln furniture materials were produced through adding Si powder to SiC materials. At the condition of the same additions of SiO2 powder, the effect of the Si powder additions on properties of silicon carbide materials after sintered at 1450°C for 3 h in air atmosphere was studied by means of SEM and other analysis methods. The results showed that silicon powder contributes to both sintering by liquid state and plastic phase combination to improve the strength of samples. When the Si powder additions is lower than 3.5 %, the density and strength of samples increase and porosity decrease with increasing Si powder additions. However when the Si powder additions is higher than 3.5 %, the density and strength of samples decrease and porosity increase with increasing Si powder additions. With increasing of Si additions, the residual strength of sample after thermal shocked increased and linear change rate decreased, and get to boundary value when Si additions is 4.5 %. The results also indicated that at the same sintering temperature, the sample with 3.5 % silicon powder has maximum strength.

  9. The effects of betahistine in addition to epley maneuver in posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guneri, Enis Alpin; Kustutan, Ozge

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of betahistine in addition to Epley maneuver on the quality of life of patients with posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) of the canalithiasis type. Double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Academic university hospital. Seventy-two patients were enrolled in the study. The first group was treated with Epley maneuver only. The second group received placebo drug 2 times daily for 1 week in addition to Epley maneuver, and the third group received 24 mg betahistine 2 times daily for 1 week in addition to Epley maneuver. The effectiveness of the treatments was assessed in each group as well as between them by analyzing and comparing data of 4 different vertigo symptom scales. Epley maneuver, alone or combined with betahistine or placebo, was found to be very effective with a primary success rate of 86.2%. The symptoms were significantly reduced in group 3 patients overall, and those patients younger or older than 50 years of age who had hypertension, with symptom onset <1 month, and with attack duration of less than a minute did significantly better with the combination of betahistine 48 mg daily. Betahistine in addition to Epley maneuver is more effective than Epley maneuver alone or combined with placebo with regard to improvement of symptoms in certain patients. However, future clinical studies covering more patients to investigate the benefit of medical treatments in addition to Epley maneuver are needed.

  10. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods.

  11. Effects of site substitution and metal ion addition on doped manganites

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, A K; Roul, B K; Sahu, D R; Muralidhar, M

    2002-01-01

    We report transport, magnetization and transmission electron microscopy studies of the effects of A-and B-site substitution, and the addition of metal ions such as Pt, Ag and Sr, on doped ABO sub 3 perovskites, where A = La, Pr etc and B = Mn. Disorder induced by such substitution changes the behaviour of the charge-ordered (CO) state significantly. A-and B-site substitution suppresses the CO phase due to size mismatch and disorder produced by inhomogeneity. On the other hand, addition of metal ions such as Pt and Ag improves several colossal-magnetoresistance properties significantly due to microstructural effects and enhanced current percolation through grain boundaries.

  12. Improvement of shape memory effect in Fe-Mn-Si alloy by slight tantalum addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Cheng-Hsiu; Lin, Hsin-Chih; Lin, Kun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    The effects of slight tantalum (Ta) addition on the microstructures, precipitates, martensitic transformation and shape memory performance of Fe-30Mn-6Si-based alloys were investigated. Experimental results show that the slight Ta addition will increase the c/a ratio of ε martensite, reduce the M s temperature and improve the alloy's shape recovery ability. After TMT at 650 deg. C, the alloy's M s temperature is reduced and lots of (Fe, Mn) 3 Si and TaC precipitates form. The effective nuclei and well-aligned precipitates within the grain interior after TMT will improve significantly the alloy's shape memory performance.

  13. Effects of nitrogen and water addition on trace element stoichiometry in five grassland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiangping; Weiner, Jacob; Wang, Ruzhen; Luo, Wentao; Zhang, Yongyong; Liu, Heyong; Xu, Zhuwen; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yuge; Jiang, Yong

    2017-07-01

    A 9-year manipulative experiment with nitrogen (N) and water addition, simulating increasing N deposition and changing precipitation regime, was conducted to investigate the bioavailability of trace elements, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in soil, and their uptake by plants under the two environmental change factors in a semi-arid grassland of Inner Mongolia. We measured concentrations of trace elements in soil and in foliage of five common herbaceous species including 3 forbs and 2 grasses. In addition, bioaccumulation factors (BAF, the ratio of the chemical concentration in the organism and the chemical concentration in the growth substrate) and foliar Fe:Mn ratio in each plant was calculated. Our results showed that soil available Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations increased under N addition and were negatively correlated with both soil pH and cation exchange capacity. Water addition partly counteracted the positive effects of N addition on available trace element concentrations in the soil. Foliar Mn, Cu and Zn concentrations increased but Fe concentration decreased with N addition, resulting in foliar elemental imbalances among Fe and other selected trace elements. Water addition alleviated the effect of N addition. Forbs are more likely to suffer from Mn toxicity and Fe deficiency than grass species, indicating more sensitivity to changing elemental bioavailability in soil. Our results suggested that soil acidification due to N deposition may accelerate trace element cycling and lead to elemental imbalance in soil-plant systems of semi-arid grasslands and these impacts of N deposition on semi-arid grasslands were affected by water addition. These findings indicate an important role for soil trace elements in maintaining ecosystem functions associated with atmospheric N deposition and changing precipitation regimes in the future.

  14. Effects of carbon additives on the performance of negative electrode of lead-carbon battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Xianping; Kang, Zongxuan; Shu, Dong; Liao, Yuqing; Gong, Yibin; He, Chun; Hao, Junnan; Zhong, Yayun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating manufacture condition of negative plates. • The effect of carbon additives on negative electrode sheets is studied by electrochemical method. • Carbon additives in NAM enhance electrochemical properties of the negative sheets. • The negative sheets with 0.5 wt% carbon additive exhibit better electrochemical performance. • The charge-discharge mechanism is discussed in detail according to the experimental results. - Abstract: In this study, carbon additives such as activated carbon (AC) and carbon black (CB) are introduced to the negative electrode to improve its electrochemical performance, the negative electrode sheets are prepared by simulating the negative plate manufacturing process of lead-acid battery, the types and contents of carbon additives in the negative electrode sheets are investigated in detail for the application of lead-carbon battery. The electrochemical performance of negative electrode sheets are measured by chronopotentiometry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, the crystal structure and morphology are characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The experimental results indicate that the appropriate addition of AC or CB can enhance the discharge capacity and prolong the cycle life of negative electrode sheets under high-rate partial-state-of-charge conditions, AC additive exerts more obvious effect than CB additive, the optimum contents for the best electrochemical performance of the negative electrode sheets are determined as 0.5wt% for both AC and CB. The reaction mechanism of the electrochemical process is also discussed in this paper, the appropriate addition of AC or CB in negative electrode can promote the conversion of PbSO 4 to Pb, suppress the sulfation of negative electrode sheets and reduce the electrochemical reaction resistance

  15. Evidence for Dose-Additive Effects of Pyrethroids on Motor Activity in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolansky, Marcelo J.; Gennings, Chris; DeVito, Michael J.; Crofton, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides used in a variety of indoor and outdoor applications. Previous research characterized the acute dose–effect functions for 11 pyrethroids administered orally in corn oil (1 mL/kg) based on assessment of motor activity. Objectives We used a mixture of these 11 pyrethroids and the same testing paradigm used in single-compound assays to test the hypothesis that cumulative neurotoxic effects of pyrethroid mixtures can be predicted using the default dose–addition theory. Methods Mixing ratios of the 11 pyrethroids in the tested mixture were based on the ED30 (effective dose that produces a 30% decrease in response) of the individual chemical (i.e., the mixture comprised equipotent amounts of each pyrethroid). The highest concentration of each individual chemical in the mixture was less than the threshold for inducing behavioral effects. Adult male rats received acute oral exposure to corn oil (control) or dilutions of the stock mixture solution. The mixture of 11 pyrethroids was administered either simultaneously (2 hr before testing) or after a sequence based on times of peak effect for the individual chemicals (4, 2, and 1 hr before testing). A threshold additivity model was fit to the single-chemical data to predict the theoretical dose–effect relationship for the mixture under the assumption of dose additivity. Results When subthreshold doses of individual chemicals were combined in the mixtures, we found significant dose-related decreases in motor activity. Further, we found no departure from the predicted dose-additive curve regardless of the mixture dosing protocol used. Conclusion In this article we present the first in vivo evidence on pyrethroid cumulative effects supporting the default assumption of dose addition. PMID:20019907

  16. Modifying effects of phenotypic plasticity on interactions among natural selection, adaptation and gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crispo, E

    2008-11-01

    Divergent natural selection, adaptive divergence and gene flow may interact in a number of ways. Recent studies have focused on the balance between selection and gene flow in natural populations, and empirical work has shown that gene flow can constrain adaptive divergence, and that divergent selection can constrain gene flow. A caveat is that phenotypic diversification may be under the direct influence of environmental factors (i.e. it may be due to phenotypic plasticity), in addition to partial genetic influence. In this case, phenotypic divergence may occur between populations despite high gene flow that imposes a constraint on genetic divergence. Plasticity may dampen the effects of natural selection by allowing individuals to rapidly adapt phenotypically to new conditions, thus slowing adaptive genetic divergence. On the other hand, plasticity may promote future adaptive divergence by allowing populations to persist in novel environments. Plasticity may promote gene flow between selective regimes by allowing dispersers to adapt to alternate conditions, or high gene flow may result in the selection for increased plasticity. Here I expand frameworks for understanding relationships among selection, adaptation and gene flow to include the effects of phenotypic plasticity in natural populations, and highlight its importance in evolutionary diversification.

  17. The role of number words: the phonological length effect in multidigit addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klessinger, Nicolai; Szczerbinski, Marcin; Varley, Rosemary

    2012-11-01

    We explored the role of phonological representations of number words in exact calculation. The reaction times and accuracy of responses in multidigit addition problems were compared across three groups of participants (young healthy, older healthy, and 3 patients with severe aphasia) and two types of addition problems: phonologically long in English (containing the bisyllabic number word "seven") and short in English (monosyllabic number words-e.g., "six"). Older healthy participants were significantly faster and more accurate in calculation than younger healthy participants. The older participants showed no evidence of a phonological length effect. However this effect was apparent in the younger adults, with longer reaction times on phonologically long problems. Furthermore, there was an association between the presence of a phonological length effect and the overall speed of response, suggesting that less proficient calculators were more reliant on phonological mediation of performance. The aphasic participants retained the ability to complete multidigit additions and were as accurate as the younger healthy group, although the response times of two of the 3 patients were slow. The aphasic participants varied with regard to the presence of a phonological length effect. Two participants showed no evidence of phonological mediation, while 1 displayed a phonological length effect. The results suggest that language resources are not mandatory for exact addition, although they may be used to scaffold math performance in less competent calculators. Evidence of phonological mediation of performance in aphasic participants may provide insight into the integrity or otherwise of inner speech in severe aphasia.

  18. Effects of arginine and phytogenic additive supplementation on performance and health of brown-egg layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Barbosa Fascina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was performed to evaluate the effects of the association of different digestible arginine and phytogenic additive dietary levels on performance and health status of brown-egg layers. In this study, a total of 504 33-week-old Hisex Brown layers were distributed into a completely randomized experimental design to a 4 × 3 factorial arrangement (dietary digestible arginine levels: 880, 968, 1056, or 1144 mg/kg of feed × phytogenic additive levels: 0, 100, and 200 mg/kg of feed with six replicate cages of seven birds per cage. The phytogenic additive was composed of extracts of Baccharis dracunculifolia (40%, Astragalus membranaceus lipopolysaccharides (20%, cinnamon, and grape seed (20%. Feed intake was reduced when diets containing 1056 mg of arginine were supplemented with 100 or 200 mg phytogenic additive per kg. Feed conversion ratio was improved when diets were supplemented with 100 mg of phytogenic additive or with 1056 mg of arginine per kg of feed. Egg mass was increased when diets were supplemented with 1056 mg arginine per kg of feed. Arginine supplementation quadratically increased albumen percentage and reduced yolk percentage. Higher arginine and phytogenic additive levels reduced heterophyl:lymphocyte ratio and blood uric acid, total cholesterol, very-low density lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels. Dietary supplementation of 100 mg of phytogenic additive associated with high arginine levels increased nitric oxide production by peritoneal macrophages and 1056 mg of arginine increased antibodies titers against Newcastle disease virus. Blood and intestinal malonaldehyde levels were reduced when 200 mg of the phytogenic additive was added. Dietary supplementation of 968 mg of arginine or 100 mg of a phytogenic additive (40% Baccharis dracunculifolia, 20% Astragalus membranaceus, 20% cinnamon, and 20% grape seed extracts per kilogram of diet improves the feed conversion ratio and associated inclusion of 1144 mg of

  19. Metabolic effect of alkaline additives and guanosine/gluconate in storage solutions for red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Reisz, Julie A; Culp-Hill, Rachel; Korsten, Herbert; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk

    2018-04-06

    Over a century of advancements in the field of additive solutions for red blood cell (RBC) storage has made transfusion therapy a safe and effective practice for millions of recipients worldwide. Still, storage in the blood bank results in the progressive accumulation of metabolic alterations, a phenomenon that is mitigated by storage in novel storage additives, such as alkaline additive solutions. While novel alkaline additive formulations have been proposed, no metabolomics characterization has been performed to date. We performed UHPLC-MS metabolomics analyses of red blood cells stored in SAGM (standard additive in Europe), (PAGGSM), or alkaline additives SOLX, E-SOL 5 and PAG3M for either 1, 21, 35 (end of shelf-life in the Netherlands), or 56 days. Alkaline additives (especially PAG3M) better preserved 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Deaminated purines such as hypoxanthine were predictive of hemolysis and morphological alterations. Guanosine supplementation in PAGGSM and PAG3M fueled ATP generation by feeding into the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway via phosphoribolysis. Decreased urate to hypoxanthine ratios were observed in alkaline additives, suggestive of decreased generation of urate and hydrogen peroxide. Despite the many benefits observed in purine and redox metabolism, alkaline additives did not prevent accumulation of free fatty acids and oxidized byproducts, opening a window for future alkaline formulations including (lipophilic) antioxidants. Alkalinization via different strategies (replacement of chloride anions with either high bicarbonate, high citrate/phosphate, or membrane impermeant gluconate) results in different metabolic outcomes, which are superior to current canonical additives in all cases. © 2018 AABB.

  20. The positive effects of waste leachate addition on methane fermentation from food waste in batch trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanli; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the effect of waste leachate (WL) addition on batch anaerobic digestion of food waste (FW), and to examine the influence of mixture ratio on the co-digestion process. The results showed that anaerobic digestion of FW was greatly enhanced by WL addition, as indicated by the higher methane yield, higher methane content, more volatile solids (VS) destruction, and higher stability. Although WL was rich in volatile fatty acids (VFA), its addition did not cause VFA inhibition. It was found that WL addition was beneficial to accelerate the start-up and shorten the long reaction time of the batch anaerobic process. The time to reach the peak methane yield was reduced by 1, 2, and 4 days with WL addition. The optimum FW to WL ratio was 77.9:22.1 with the highest methane yield (416 mL/g VS), the highest methane content (64.3%), the greatest VS removal (77.6%), and stable performance. These results confirmed the positive effects of WL addition on methane fermentation from FW.

  1. The effect of tailor-made additives on crystal growth of methyl paraben: Experiments and modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhihui; Liu, Yong; Song, Yang; Guan, Guoqiang; Jiang, Yanbin

    2017-03-01

    In this study, methyl paraben (MP) was selected as the model component, and acetaminophen (APAP), p-methyl acetanilide (PMAA) and acetanilide (ACET), which share the similar molecular structure as MP, were selected as the three tailor-made additives to study the effect of tailor-made additives on the crystal growth of MP. HPLC results indicated that the MP crystals induced by the three additives contained MP only. Photographs of the single crystals prepared indicated that the morphology of the MP crystals was greatly changed by the additives, but PXRD and single crystal diffraction results illustrated that the MP crystals were the same polymorph only with different crystal habits, and no new crystal form was found compared with other references. To investigate the effect of the additives on the crystal growth, the interaction between additives and facets was discussed in detail using the DFT methods and MD simulations. The results showed that APAP, PMAA and ACET would be selectively adsorbed on the growth surfaces of the crystal facets, which induced the change in MP crystal habits.

  2. Effect of GdL Addition on Physico-chemical Properties of Fermented Sausages during Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Jang, Kyoung-Hwan; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of glucono-δ-lactone (GdL) addition on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented sausages during ripening and drying. Five batches of sausages were produced under ripening conditions: without GdL and with 0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75% of GdL addition. Samples from each treatment were taken for physicochemical and microbiological analyses on the 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 25th day of ripening. Chemical analysis showed a significant decrease in moisture content of sausages with increasing amounts of GdL added (psausages showed the highest in T4 (psausages were increased on the 25th day compared to day 0 (psausages. The addition of 0.75% GdL was effective in controlling bacteria counts. Addition of GdL in sausages resulted in the physicochemical and microbiological attributes equal to or better than no addition of GdL without any harmful effect.

  3. The Blazhko Effect and Additional Excited Modes in RR Lyrae Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkő, J. M.; Szabó, R.

    2015-08-01

    Recent photometric space missions, such as CoRoT and Kepler, revealed that many RR Lyrae stars pulsate—beyond their main radial pulsation mode—in low-amplitude modes. Space data seem to indicate a clear trend that, namely, overtone (RRc) stars and modulated fundamental (RRab) RR Lyrae stars ubiquitously show additional modes, while non-Blazhko RRab stars never do. Two Kepler stars (V350 Lyr and KIC 7021124), however, apparently seemed to break this rule: they were classified as non-Blazhko RRab stars showing additional modes. We processed Kepler pixel photometric data of these stars. We detected a small amplitude (but significant) Blazhko effect for both stars by using the resulting light curves and O-C diagrams. This finding strengthens the apparent connection between the Blazhko effect and the excitation of additional modes. In addition, it yields a potential tool for detecting Blazhko stars through the additional frequency patterns, even if we have only short but accurate time series observations. V350 Lyr shows the smallest amplitude multiperiodic Blazhko effect ever detected.

  4. The effect of plastic addition on coal caking properties during carbonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiji Nomura; Kenji Kato; Tomoyuki Nakagawa; Ikuo Komaki [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment & Process Technology Center, Ironmaking R & D Division

    2003-10-01

    The recycling process of waste plastics using coke ovens is now being studied. The effect of plastic addition on coal caking property was investigated. It was revealed that thermal decomposition products of plastics interacted with bituminous coal during carbonization in coke ovens. The effect of plastic addition on coal caking property varied with types of plastics. The addition of aliphatic polymers such as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) had only a small effect on coal caking property and coke strength and in some cases PE addition increased coke strength. On the other hand, the addition of polystyrene (PS), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and terephtalic acid (TFA) inhibited coal expansion and fusion, decreased maximum fluidity and total dilatation, and deteriorated the coke strength. These differences were discussed from the viewpoint of the interaction between thermal decomposition products of plastics and hydrogen in coal. It was suggested that the radical formed as a result of PS or PET thermal decomposition abstracted hydrogen from coal, which resulted in the decrease in coal caking property. 13 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Effect of dispersing and stabilizing additives on rheological characteristics of the upgraded brown coal water mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Datin Fatia; Muta'alim; Usui, Hiromoto; Komoda, Yoshiyuki

    2009-01-01

    Upgraded brown coal water mixture (UBCWM) preparation by using an Indonesian upgraded coal produced by upgraded brown coal (UBC) process, was carried out to study the effect of dispersing and stabilizing additives on rheological behavior of the UBCWM. Three kinds of anionic dispersing additives, naphthalene sulfonic formaldehyde condensate (NSF), poly (meth) acrylate (PMA) and poly styrene sulfonic acid (PSS) and three kinds of stabilizing additives, carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), rhansam gum (S-194) and gellan gum (S-60) were used in this study. Results indicate that the addition of NSF 0.3 wt.% together with S-194 0.01 wt.% is effective in preparing UBCWM with good slurryability and stability, based on its rheological characteristics with the apparent viscosity at shear rate of 100 s - 1 and yield stress at zero point of shear rate. The rheological behavior of all of the UBCWM that prepared, exhibits non-Newtonian Bingham plastic. From the economical point of view, the price of S-194 is expensive. On the other hand, CMC is cheap and abundant. Therefore, the addition of CMC 0.01 wt.% together with NSF 0.3 wt.% is also effective in preparing UBCWM with good fluidity and stability. (author)

  6. Reference Gene Selection for qPCR Analysis in Tomato-Bipartite Begomovirus Interaction and Validation in Additional Tomato-Virus Pathosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L M Lacerda

    Full Text Available Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR is currently the most sensitive technique used for absolute and relative quantification of a target gene transcript, requiring the use of appropriated reference genes for data normalization. To accurately estimate the relative expression of target tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. genes responsive to several virus species in reverse transcription qPCR analysis, the identification of reliable reference genes is mandatory. In the present study, ten reference genes were analyzed across a set of eight samples: two tomato contrasting genotypes ('Santa Clara', susceptible, and its near-isogenic line 'LAM 157', resistant; subjected to two treatments (inoculation with Tomato chlorotic mottle virus (ToCMoV and its mock-inoculated control and in two distinct times after inoculation (early and late. Reference genes stability was estimated by three statistical programs (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. To validate the results over broader experimental conditions, a set of ten samples, corresponding to additional three tomato-virus pathosystems that included tospovirus, crinivirus and tymovirus + tobamovirus, was analyzed together with the tomato-ToCMoV pathosystem dataset, using the same algorithms. Taking into account the combined analyses of the ranking order outputs from the three algorithms, TIP41 and EF1 were identified as the most stable genes for tomato-ToCMoV pathosystem, and TIP41 and EXP for the four pathosystems together, and selected to be used as reference in the forthcoming expression qPCR analysis of target genes in experimental conditions involving the aforementioned tomato-virus pathosystems.

  7. Effect of H2 addition on combustion characteristics of dimethyl ether jet diffusion flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yinhu; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Gan, Lu; Ji, Xuanyu; Wang, Hu; Guo, Qiang; Song, Decai; Ji, Pengyu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DME- and H 2 -dominated combustion regimes were quantitatively characterized. • The flame structure changed significantly when H 2 addition was above 60 vol.%. • An empirical correlation for normalized flame entrainment rate was developed. • The optimal H 2 addition to DME was 60 vol.% in the practical engineering. - Abstract: In this paper, experiments and numerical calculations were conducted to investigate the effect of H 2 addition on dimethyl ether (DME) jet diffusion flame behaviors, in terms of thermal and chemical structures, reaction zone size, flame entrainment, and NOx and CO emission indices. A wide range of H 2 additions from pure DME to pure H 2 were involved herein, while maintaining the volumetric flow rate of fuel mixture constant. The results indicate that when H 2 mole fraction in the fuel mixture exceeded 60%, the blended fuel was converted to H 2 -dominated. Besides, the flames behaved rather distinctly at the DME- and H 2 -dominated regimes. With the increment in H 2 addition, flame temperature, H 2 , H, O, and OH concentrations increased gradually, but concentrations of the intermediate hydrocarbons (such as CO, CH 2 O, CH 2 , and CH 3 ) decreased on the contrary. Additionally, after the flame became H 2 -dominated, the species concentrations varied increasingly quickly with H 2 addition. The reaction zone length and width decreased nearly linearly with H 2 addition at the DME- and H 2 -dominated regimes. But the decreasing speed of reaction zone length became faster after the flame was converted to H 2 -dominated. At the DME-dominated regime, the dependence of flame entrainment coefficient (C e ) on H 2 addition was rather small. While at the H 2 -dominated regime, C e increased increasingly quickly with H 2 addition. Moreover, with the increment in H 2 addition, NOx emission index increased and CO emission index decreased gradually. In addition, at the DME-dominated regime, NOx emission index increased fairly slowly

  8. Occurrence and effects of plastic additives on marine environments and organisms: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermabessiere, Ludovic; Dehaut, Alexandre; Paul-Pont, Ika; Lacroix, Camille; Jezequel, Ronan; Soudant, Philippe; Duflos, Guillaume

    2017-09-01

    Plastics debris, especially microplastics, have been found worldwide in all marine compartments. Much research has been carried out on adsorbed pollutants on plastic pieces and hydrophobic organic compounds (HOC) associated with microplastics. However, only a few studies have focused on plastic additives. These chemicals are incorporated into plastics from which they can leach out as most of them are not chemically bound. As a consequence of plastic accumulation and fragmentation in oceans, plastic additives could represent an increasing ecotoxicological risk for marine organisms. The present work reviewed the main class of plastic additives identified in the literature, their occurrence in the marine environment, as well as their effects on and transfers to marine organisms. This work identified polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), phthalates, nonylphenols (NP), bisphenol A (BPA) and antioxidants as the most common plastic additives found in marine environments. Moreover, transfer of these plastic additives to marine organisms has been demonstrated both in laboratory and field studies. Upcoming research focusing on the toxicity of microplastics should include these plastic additives as potential hazards for marine organisms, and a greater focus on the transport and fate of plastic additives is now required considering that these chemicals may easily leach out from plastics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of continuous addition of nitrate to a thermophilic anaerobic digestion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivard, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    The biodegradation of complex organic matter is regulated partially by the ability to dump electrons which build up in the form of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). The effects of the continuous addition of the oxidant, nitrate, were investigated on a single-stage, thermophilic, anaerobic digester. The digester acclimated rapidly to nitrate addition. The continuous addition of nitrate resulted in a constant inhibition of total gas (30%) and methane production (36%). Reduction in total gas and methane production was accompanied by increases in sludge pH and acetate, propionate, and ammonium ion pools. Effluent particle size distribution revealed a shift to smaller particle sizes in the nitrate-pumped sludge. The continuous addition of nitrate resulted in lower numbers of methanogens and sulfate reducers in the sludge, with increases in nitrate-reducing and cellulose-degrading microorganisms. These findings indicate that added nitrate underwent dissimilatory reduction to ammonium ion, as determined from gas analysis, ammonium pools, and 15 N-nitrate-label experiments. Continuous nitrate addition to a single-phase digestion system was determined to inhibit methane production from biomass and wastes. Thus for the single-stage digestion system in which maximum methane production is desired, the addition of nitrate is not recommended. However, in a multistage digestion system, the continuous addition of nitrate in the primary stage to increase the rate and extent of degradation of organic matter to volatile fatty acids, which then would serve as feed to a second stage, may be advantageous

  10. Effect of SiO2 addition and gamma irradiation on the lithium borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, A. P.; Deshpande, V. K.

    2018-01-01

    The physical properties like density, glass transition temperature (Tg), and ionic conductivity of lithium borate (LB) glasses with SiO2 addition were measured before and after gamma irradiation. Remarkable changes in properties have been obtained in the physical properties of LB glasses with SiO2 addition and after gamma irradiation. The increase in density and glass transition temperature of LB glasses with SiO2 addition has been explained with the help of increase in density of cross linking due to SiO4 tetrahedra formation. The increase in ionic conductivity with SiO2 addition was explained with the help of ‘mixed glass former effect’. The increase in density and Tg of LB glasses with SiO2 addition after gamma irradiation has been attributed to fragmentation of bigger ring structure into smaller rings, which increases the density of cross linking and hence compaction. The exposure of gamma irradiation has lead to decrease in ionic conductivity of LB glasses with SiO2 addition. The atomic displacement caused by gamma irradiation resulted in filling of interstices and decrease in trapping sites. This explains the obtained decrease in ionic conductivity after gamma irradiation of glasses. The obtained results of effect of SiO2 addition and gamma irradiation on the density, Tg and ionic conductivity has been supported by FTIR results.

  11. The effect of additives on the radiation-induced coloration of photochromic dithienylethene derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Setsuko; Irie, Masahiro

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the addition of metal complexes and aromatic compounds on the radiation-induced coloration of poly-styrene films containing 1,2-bis (2-methyl-5-phenyl-3-thienyl) perfluorocyclopentene was examined to develop a sensitive reusable color plastic dosimeter. By the addition of metal complexes, the radiation sensitivity increased along with an increase in the atomic numbers. When aromatic compounds, such as naphthalene, biphenyl, and acenaphthene, were added to the polymer film, the coloration sensitivity increased, while the addition of anthracene and pyrene decreased the sensitivity. Excitation energy transfer from the sensitizers to the dithienylethene is considered to play an important role in the radiation-induced coloration in polystyrene films containing the additives. (author)

  12. Additive Effect on the Electrochemical Performance of Lithium–Sulfur Battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azimi, Nasim; Xue, Zheng; Hu, Libo; Takoudis, Christos; Zhang, Shengshui; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2015-02-01

    Lithium difluoro(oxalato) borate (LiDFOB) was investigated as an electrolyte additive for the Li-S battery. This additive was identified to be an efficient electrolyte additive to suppress the polysulfide shuttling effect existing in the conventional Li-S chemistry. To detect the positive impact of the new additive, oligo (ethylene glycol) functionalized silane was employed as the electrolyte solvent due to its high solvation capability with the lithium polysulfides. The electrochemical results and the SEM data of Li-S battery using the new electrolyte confirmed the role of the LiDFOB as a critical component to eliminate the shuttling of the dissolved polysulfides thus enabling a high coulombic efficiency. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of mineral additives on structure and properties of concrete for pavements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Khrystyna; Markiv, Taras; Hunyak, Oleksii

    2017-12-01

    Concrete pavements is an attractive alternative to asphalt pavements because of its lower cost and higher durability. Major contribution to sustainable development can be made by partial replacement of cement in concrete pavement with supplementary cementitious materials of different nature and origin. In this paper, the effect of natural zeolite and perlite additives in complex with chemical admixtures on the structure and properties of concrete for pavement was studied. Compressive and flexural strength test was used to study the mechanical behavior of designed concrete under load. Generally, the compressive strength of both control concrete and concrete containing mineral additives levels at the later ages of hardening. The microstructure analysis of concrete with mineral additives of different nature activity showed the formation of additional amount of hydration products such as tobermorite type calcium hydrosilicate which provide self-reinforcement of hardening concrete system.

  14. Effect of mineral additives on structure and properties of concrete for pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobol Khrystyna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete pavements is an attractive alternative to asphalt pavements because of its lower cost and higher durability. Major contribution to sustainable development can be made by partial replacement of cement in concrete pavement with supplementary cementitious materials of different nature and origin. In this paper, the effect of natural zeolite and perlite additives in complex with chemical admixtures on the structure and properties of concrete for pavement was studied. Compressive and flexural strength test was used to study the mechanical behavior of designed concrete under load. Generally, the compressive strength of both control concrete and concrete containing mineral additives levels at the later ages of hardening. The microstructure analysis of concrete with mineral additives of different nature activity showed the formation of additional amount of hydration products such as tobermorite type calcium hydrosilicate which provide self-reinforcement of hardening concrete system.

  15. The Effect of Some Additives on the Bioproductive Performances of SilkWorm Bombyx mori L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Benţea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays, worldwide in sericulture domain, researches are aimed to find new efficient alternatives for the feeding of mulberry silk worm through the use of some fodder additives which allow the improvement of bioproductive parameters and silk line quality. The present work represents a review of the use of such substances (mineral and vitamin additives and of the experiments carried out to point out their effects on silkworms (Bombyx mori L.. Research conducted worldwide revealed the fact that the use of mineral and vitamin additives in silkworm Bombyx mori L., improve the growth rate of larvae, protein and mineral content of haemolymph, the protein content, DNA and RNA content of the sericigen glands, and the quality parameters of cocoon and silk line. Researches showed that the use of these additives doesn’t affect the quality of the silk.

  16. Additive Neuroprotective Effect of Borneol with Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Ischemic Stroke in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous stem cell transplantation initiates neuroprotection related to the secretion of trophic factor. Borneol, a potential herbal neuroprotective agent, is a penetration enhancer. Here, we aimed to investigate whether they have additive neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia. Borneol was given to mice by gavage 3 days before middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO induction until the day when the mice were sacrificed. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs were intravenously injected at 24 h after MCAO induction. Neurological deficits, infarct volume, cell death, and neurogenesis were evaluated. Combined use of MSCs and borneol could more effectively reduce infarction volume and cell apoptosis, enhance neurogenesis, and improve the functional recovery than that of MSCs alone. The findings showed that combined use of borneol and stem cells provided additive neuroprotective effect on cerebral ischemia. However, the supposed effect of borneol on the improved MSC penetration still needs further direct evidence.

  17. Effect of the addition of mixture of plant components on the mechanical properties of wheat bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Monika; Dziki, Dariusz; Biernacka, Beata; Różyło, Renata; Miś, Antoni; Hassoon, Waleed H.

    2017-10-01

    Instrumental methods of measuring the mechanical properties of bread can be used to determine changes in the properties of it during storage, as well as to determine the effect of various additives on the bread texture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the mixture of plant components on the physical properties of wheat bread. In particular, the mechanical properties of the crumb and crust were studied. A sensory evaluation of the end product was also performed. The mixture of plant components included: carob fiber, milled grain red quinoa and black oat (1:2:2) - added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 % - into wheat flour. The results showed that the increase of the addition of the proposed additive significantly increased the water absorption of flour mixtures. Moreover, the use of the mixture of plant components above 5% resulted in the increase of bread volume and decrease of crumb density. Furthermore, the addition of the mixture of plant components significantly affected the mechanical properties of bread crumb. The hardness of crumb also decreased as a result of the mixture of plant components addition. The highest cohesiveness was obtained for bread with 10% of additive and the lowest for bread with 25% of mixture of plant components. Most importantly, the enrichment of wheat flour with the mixture of plant components significantly reduced the crust failure force and crust failure work. The results of sensory evaluation showed that the addition of the mixture of plant components of up to 10% had little effect on bread quality.

  18. Effects from additives on deacetylation of chitin; Efeito de aditivos na desacetilacao de quitina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campana Filho, Sergio P.; Signini, Roberta [Sao Paulo Univ., Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: scampana@iqsc.sc.usp.br

    2001-12-01

    Deacetylation reactions of commercial chitin were carried out in aqueous sodium hydroxide solution at 115 deg C for 6 hours. The effect from additives (sodium borohydride or anthraquinone) and of bubbling inert gas (nitrogen or argon) on the characteristics of deacetylated samples were evaluated. Average degrees of acetylation and intrinsic viscosity were determined by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and capillary viscometry, respectively. X-ray diffraction was employed to evaluate changes in crystallinity and infrared spectroscopy was used to monitor structural changes due to deacetylation. The bubbling of inert gas during the deacetylation reaction resulted in more crystalline samples of chitosan. Deacetylation carried out without any additive produced slightly more deacetylated chitosan but they were severely depolymerized. The depolymerization process was much less important when sodium borohydride was added to the reaction medium but the addition of anthraquinone and the bubbling of nitrogen, or argon, did not have any effect, this suggests that oxygen is not required for depolymerization. (author)

  19. Effect of Sr Additive Amount and Holding Time on Microstructure of A390 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J. H.; Xing, S. M.; Han, Q. Y.; Guo, Q.; Wang, R. F.

    2017-11-01

    The microstructure of A390 alloy under different Sr additive amounts and holding times was studied by means of direct reading spectrum analysis, energy spectrum analysis, optical microscope and electron microscope. The results show that Sr has a good modification to eutectic Si, while it has a negative effect on primary silicon. The Sr addition will increase the size of primary silicon. When the addition amount of Al-10Sr alloy is 0.6%, the modification of eutectic silicon is the optimum. The Sr has a short incubation period and a fine modification at 10min, but it is more serious burning rate in small furnace smelting, and the modification effect disappears basically after 100min.

  20. Effect of fluoride addition on the properties of dental alginate impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Kim, Cheol-We

    2004-03-01

    Fluoride-containing dental alginate impression materials can exert a considerable reduction in enamel solubility. The objective was to evaluate the effects of fluoride addition in the alginate impression materials on the properties and subsequent release of fluoride. Four experimental alginate impression materials were studied. Materials were mixed with distilled water (control) or 100-ppm fluoride solution. One or two percent NaF, or 1% SnF2 was added to the materials, which were mixed with distilled water. Fluoride release, flexibility, recovery from deformation, setting time, compressive strength and elastic modulus were determined in accordance with the ISO 1563 and ANSI/ADA Spec. 18. Fluoride release increased after addition of fluoride, and the released amount was 0.762-14.761 ppm. Addition of NaF or SnF2 resulted in higher fluoride release than the control group (p alginate impression material may result in effective release of fluoride without deteriorating the properties of material itself.

  1. EFFECT OF DELAYING ADDITION TIME OF SMF SUPERPLASTICIZER ON HYDRATION CHARACTERISTICS OF BLENDED CEMENT PASTES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. EL-DIDAMONY

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effect of delaying addition time of sulphonate melamine formaldehyde superplasticizer (SMF on the rheology and hydration characteristic of blended cement pastes up to 90 days. The optimum dosage of superplasticizer was chosen as 1.0 mass %, this dosage gives the higher compressive strength and bulk density as well as lower total porosity. The optimum delaying time of superplasticizer was 7.5 min which gives the highest fluidity, bulk density, compressive strength and chemically combined water contents of cement pastes, whereas, the delaying addition time of 15.0 min shows the lower values of bulk density, compressive strength and combined water contents. This is attributed to the reduction of hydration rate of cement, due to the formation of a polymer film around the cement particles and/or hydrated products. The superplasticizing effect improved with a delayed sulphonate melamine formaldehyde superplasticizer addition time.

  2. Synthetic Effect of Vivid Shark Skin and Polymer Additive on Drag Reduction Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huawei Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural shark skin has a well-demonstrated drag reduction function, which is mainly owing to its microscopic structure and mucus on the body surface. In order to improve drag reduction, it is necessary to integrate microscopic drag reduction structure and drag reduction agent. In this study, two hybrid approaches to synthetically combine vivid shark skin and polymer additive, namely, long-chain grafting and controllable polymer diffusion, were proposed and attempted to mimic such hierarchical topography of shark skin without waste of polymer additive. Grafting mechanism and optimization of diffusion port were investigated to improve the efficiency of the polymer additive. Superior drag reduction effects were validated, and the combined effect was also clarified through comparison between drag reduction experiments.

  3. Additional Interventions to Enhance the Effectiveness of Individual Placement and Support: A Rapid Evidence Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Boycott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic. Additional interventions used to enhance the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS. Aim. To establish whether additional interventions improve the vocational outcomes of IPS alone for people with severe mental illness. Method. A rapid evidence assessment of the literature was conducted for studies where behavioural or psychological interventions have been used to supplement standard IPS. Published and unpublished empirical studies of IPS with additional interventions were considered for inclusion. Conclusions. Six published studies were found which compared IPS alone to IPS plus a supplementary intervention. Of these, three used skills training and three used cognitive remediation. The contribution of each discrete intervention is difficult to establish. Some evidence suggests that work-related social skills and cognitive training are effective adjuncts, but this is an area where large RCTs are required to yield conclusive evidence.

  4. [The real-world effectiveness of personal protective equipment and additional risks for workers' health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, É I; Morozova, T V; Adeninskaia, E E; Kur'erov, N N

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of personal protective equipment (PPE) of hearing, respiratory organs and hands is considered. It is shown that real effect of PPE is twice lower than declared by supplier; this presumes some derating system. The aspects of discomfort and additional risks are analyzed. The hygienic and physiologic evaluation of PPE is required along with elaboration of an official document (OSH standard or sanitary regulation) on selection, personal fit, organization of use and individual training of workers and their motivation.

  5. The effect of Vdr gene ablation on global gene expression in the mouse placenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Buckberry

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of vitamin D are mediated through the vitamin D receptor (VDR, a predominantly nuclear receptor, expressed in numerous tissues including the placenta. VDR and the retinoid X receptor (RXR form a dimer complex which binds to genomic vitamin D responsive elements located primarily in promoter regions and recruit cell-specific transcription factor complexes which regulate the expression of numerous genes. To investigate the role of VDR on regulating placental gene expression, mice heterozygous (+/− for an ablated Vdr allele (C57Bl6 strain B6.129S4-VDRtm1Mbd/J, Jackson Laboratory were mated to generate Vdr+/+, Vdr+/− and Vdr −/− fetuses and placental samples were collected at day 18.5 of pregnancy. RNA was isolated from placental tissue with global gene expression measured using Affymetrix Mouse Gene 2.1 ST Arrays to assess the effects of VDR on global gene expression in the placenta. All raw array data are deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO under accession GSE61583.

  6. Ontogeny of additive and maternal genetic effects: lessons from domestic mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Alastair J; Reale, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Evolution of size and growth depends on heritable variation arising from additive and maternal genetic effects. Levels of heritable (and nonheritable) variation might change over ontogeny, increasing through "variance compounding" or decreasing through "compensatory growth." We test for these processes using a meta-analysis of age-specific weight traits in domestic ungulates. Generally, mean standardized variance components decrease with age, consistent with compensatory growth. Phenotypic convergence among adult sheep occurs through decreasing environmental and maternal genetic variation. Maternal variation similarly declines in cattle. Maternal genetic effects are thus reduced with age (both in absolute and relative terms). Significant trends in heritability (decreasing in cattle, increasing in sheep) result from declining maternal and environmental components rather than from changing additive variation. There was no evidence for increasing standardized variance components. Any compounding must therefore be masked by more important compensatory processes. While extrapolation of these patterns to processes in natural population is difficult, our results highlight the inadequacy of assuming constancy in genetic parameters over ontogeny. Negative covariance between direct and maternal genetic effects was common. Negative correlations with additive and maternal genetic variances indicate that antagonistic pleiotropy (between additive and maternal genetic effects) may maintain genetic variance and limit responses to selection.

  7. Effect of graded levels of Saccharum officinarum as an additive to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of graded levels of sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum) as an additive to Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) silage. A previously established guinea grass plot, totaling an area of 625m2 was cut back and fertilized with urea at the rate of 200 kgN/ha. The pasture was then ...

  8. Effect of chromium and aluminum addition on anisotropic and microstructural characteristics of ball milled nanocrystalline iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajiv, E-mail: rajiv06484met@gmail.com [IITB-Monash Research Academy, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 Australia (Australia); Joardar, Joydip [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Hyderabad (India); Singh Raman, R.K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 Australia (Australia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, VIC 3800 Australia (Australia); Raja, V.S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Joshi, S.V. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials, Hyderabad (India); Parida, S. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2016-06-25

    Prior studies on synthesis of nanocrystalline elements have discussed the effect of ball milling on lattice parameter, crystallite size, and micro-strain. For elemental milled powders, the anisotropic peak broadening does not change with increasing milling time. However, the effect of alloying addition on the anisotropic behavior of ball milled nanocrystalline powders remains an unexplored area. Here we report the effect of chromium and aluminum addition on the anisotropic behavior of iron in nanocrystalline Fe–20Cr–5Al (wt%) alloy powders synthesized by ball milling. The experimental results show that the anisotropic behavior of iron changes towards isotropic with milling. This change was also correlated to the theoretically calculated anisotropic factor from the change in elastic constant of iron due to milling. Addition of alloying elements exhibited a monotonic rise in the lattice parameter with crystallite size, which was attributed to the excess grain boundary interfacial energy and excess free volume at grain boundaries. Transmission electron microscopy image confirmed the crystallite size and nature of dislocation obtained using modified Williamson-Hall method. - Highlights: • Structural evolution in Fe–20Cr–5Al alloy during ball milling is reported. • Effect of alloying addition on the anisotropic behavior of iron was studied. • Agreement in anisotropic factor calculated theoretically and experimentally.

  9. Effect of addition of organic and inorganic combinations to soil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ComputerCity

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... Effect of addition of organic and inorganic combinations to soil on growing property of greenhouse cucumber. Ahmad Mohamadi Ghehsareh1*and Mahmoud Kalbasi2. 1Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, P.O.Box. 81595-158, Iran.

  10. Effect of Drilling Fluid Additives on the Niger Delta Environment: -A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of drilling fluid additives on the Soku oil fields environment has been examined. Soil and reserve pits in various locations were assessed for some physico-chemical characteristics and heavy metal content using standard methods for water and wastewater analysis. Plant growth and other biomass were also ...

  11. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  12. Effects of talc and clay addition on pressureless sintering of porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 32; Issue 2. Effects of talc and clay addition on pressureless sintering of porous Si3N4 ceramics. Yu Fangli Yang Jianfeng Xue Yaohui Du Jun Lu Yuan Gao Jiqiang. Ceramics and Glasses Volume 32 Issue 2 April 2009 pp 177-181 ...

  13. An investigation of the effect of pit latrine additives on VIP latrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... trials nor field trials provided any evidence that the use of pit additives has any beneficial effect on pit contents. .... diagram showing how measurements were taken using the infrared laser meter (Bakare, 2014). Laser Tape Measure. Pedestal Top. Wall Support to the pit. Cylindrical rings / concrete walls. P1.

  14. Additive and Interactive Effects of Stimulus Degradation: No Challenge for CDP+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Johannes C.; Perry, Conrad; Zorzi, Marco

    2009-01-01

    S. O'Malley and D. Besner (2008) showed that additive effects of stimulus degradation and word frequency in reading aloud occur in the presence of nonwords but not in pure word lists. They argued that this dissociation presents a major challenge to interactive computational models of reading aloud and claimed that no currently implemented model is…

  15. effects of zinc powder addition to villa gloss and silka lux marine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Effect of zinc powder addition to Villa Gloss and Silka Lux Marine Enamel paints on corrosion resistance of mild steel was studied. ... The corrosion rate stabilized at approximately 0.10 mmpy when zinc powder added was above 15 %, independent of the exposure time. ..... Alloy Reinforced With Steel Particles. Nigerian.

  16. Effect of filler addition on the compressive and impact properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Effect of filler addition on the compressive and impact properties of glass fibre reinforced epoxy. NIKHIL GUPTA*, BALRAJ SINGH BRAR† and EYASSU WOLDESENBET. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA. †Baba Banda Singh Engineering College, Fateh Garh ...

  17. Effects of novel feed additives in wheat based diets on performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of the supplementation of an antibiotic growth promoter or novel feed additives with or without a xylanase-based enzyme complex to wheat-based diets on the growth performance, carcass yields and quality and intestinal characteristics (length of the total and small ...

  18. Effect of CuO addition on structure and electrical properties of low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Sb2/3)0·06(Ni1/2W1/2)0·02-. (Zr0·49Ti0·51)0·92]O3. Effect of the addition on sintering temperature, structure and electrical properties of ceramics was investigated. The piezoelectric ceramics was prepared by solid-state reaction. Sintering ...

  19. A comprehensive study on the effect of Ru addition to Pt electrodes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A comprehensive study on the effect of Ru addition to Pt electrodes for direct ethanol fuel cell ... Catalysis Volume 32 Issue 6 December 2009 pp 643-652 ... Abstract. The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied over nanosized Pt and different compositions of PtRu catalysts synthesized by the borohydride reduction method.

  20. The cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in addition to screening : a Dutch perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Westra, Tjalke Arend; Wilschut, Jan C.; Suwantika, Auliya A.; Daemen, Toos; Atthobari, Jarir; Wilffert, Bob; Postma, Maarten J.

    2015-01-01

    Addition of the HPV vaccine to available cytological screening has been proposed to increase HPV-related cancer prevention. A comprehensive review on this combined strategy implemented in the Netherlands is lacking. For this review, we therefore analyzed all relevant studies on cost-effectiveness of

  1. Effects of addition of adipic acid to a limestone-gypsum FGD installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middlekamp, J.; Broek, S.; Kock, A.F.J.M. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1995-08-01

    Addition of organic buffers such as adipic acid to the scrubber liquor of limestone-sludge Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) installations is common practice in the USA. Major effects are an increased SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, better limestone utilization and improved operational performance of the FGD installations. For application of these organic buffers under Western European conditions, where lime stone-gypsum FGD systems are installed for desulphurization, the impact of these compounds on both the gypsum quality and the performance of the wastewater treatment systems is an important issue. From research work on pilot-plant scale performed at the laboratories of KEMA on behalf of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies, the addition of organic buffers also showed positive effects on the limestone-gypsum process. Adipic acid was found to be the most promising additive. At Hoogovens Technical Services (HTS E&E) adipic acid was considered to be a good additive in limestone-gypsum FGD installation of the 600 MWe coal fired Amer-9 power station of the Production Company EPZ was carried out to establish the following items: effect on SO{sub 2} absorption; effect on net power consumption of the FGD installation; influence on the gypsum quality; influence on the wastewater quality and performance of the wastewater treatment system; influence on process control of the FGD installation; loss of adipic acid through chemical degradation and wastewater discharge. This paper describes the highlights of this program. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Effects of carbohydrate addition on production in extensive shrimp culture systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hari, B.; Kurup, B.M.; Varghese, J.T.; Schrama, J.W.; Verdegem, M.C.J.

    2004-01-01

    One indoor and one on-farm trial were conducted to evaluate the effect of control of carbon/ nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) by addition of carbohydrate to the water column in extensive types of shrimp culture systems. In the indoor experiment, 25% and 40% dietary protein ('P25' and 'P40') with or

  3. Enhancing crude oil degradation in a sandy soil: Effects of addition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural restoration of crude oil polluted soils takes a long time, hence various soil treatments have been used to hasten the process. This study investigated the effects of the addition of poultry manure alone and in combination with surfactant (Goldcrew or Corexit) and/or alternate carbon substrate (glucose or starch) on ...

  4. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a

  5. Effect of fructose addition in skim milk based extender on semen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment is designed to study the effect of fructose addition as energy source in skim milk extender on the quality fertility of white leghorn's spermatozoa stored at 4 °C. The treatments (T) in semen quality experiment were Tl (0% fructose + Modified Ringers Solution (MRS), T2 (5mM fructose + 1 % (w/v) skim milk ...

  6. Effects of pH and additives on aqueous wetting films stabilized by a triblock copolymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eliseeva, O.V.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Koopal, L.K.; Stuart, M.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Effects of pH and additives (NaCl, Na2SO4, NaSCN and urea) on the adsorption of an ABA triblock copolymer (F127) with polyethylene oxide as the A blocks and polypropylene oxide as the B blocks, at the interfaces of wetting films, on film drainage and on the interaction forces in these films are

  7. Effects of whey and molasses as silage additives on potato hash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of whey or molasses on the fermentation quality when added to potato hash silage. In addition, lamb performance, digestibility and feed intake of diets containing potato hash silage were compared with a diet containing maize silage (MSd). Potato hash silage.

  8. Effects of zinc powder addition to Villa Gloss and Silka Lux marine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anti - corrosion properties of paints can be optimised when adequate proportion of the paint constituents are used. Effect of zinc powder addition to Villa Gloss and Silka Lux Marine Enamel paints on corrosion resistance of mild steel was studied. Quantitative Analysis and Potentiodynamic Polarisation Technique were ...

  9. [Effects of CD74 gene on IFNγR gene expression in MG TEC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian-Ru; Zang, Wen-Qiao; Gao, Feng; Du, Ying; Zhang, Qing-Yong

    2011-07-01

    To study the effects of CD74 gene on IFN-γR expression in myasthenia gravis thymic epithelial cell(TEC). PCMV-CD74 transiently transfect to primary cultured TEC mediated with lipofectamine, the result of transfection and some autoimmune related genes such as IFN-γR were detected by real-time RT-PCR. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR results show that the mRNA expression level of IL-4R, IL-32, IFN-γR, ECGF1, HLA-A, HLA-DR increased significantly, with the high express ion of CD74 gene in thymic epithelial cells. CD74 gene over-expression in TEC can increase IFN-γR mRNA expression.

  10. Low to No Effect: Application of tRNS During Two-Digit Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke M. Bieck

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial electric stimulation such as transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS have been used to investigate structure-function relationships in numerical cognition. Recently, tRNS was suggested to be more effective than tDCS. However, so far there is no evidence on the differential impact of tDCS and tRNS on numerical cognition using the same experimental paradigm. In the present study, we used a two-digit addition paradigm for which significant—albeit small—effects of tDCS were observed previously to evaluate the impact of parietal and frontal tRNS on specific numerical effects. While previous studies reported a modulation of numerical effects of this task through tDCS applied to parietal areas, we did not observe any effect of parietal tRNS on performance in two-digit addition. These findings suggest that tRNS seemed to influence concurrent mental arithmetic less than tDCS at least when applied over the IPS. These generally small to absent effects of tES on actual arithmetic performance in the current addition paradigm are in line with the results of a recent meta-analysis indicating that influences of tES may be more pronounced in training paradigms.

  11. [Transposon expression and potential effects on gene regulation of Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mei-Xia; Zhang, Biao; Liu, Sheng-Yi; Ma, Jian-Xin

    2013-08-01

    Transposons or transposable elements (TEs) are ubiquitous and most abundant DNA components in higher eukaryotes. Recent sequencing of the Brassica rapa and B. oleracea genomes revealed that the amplification of TEs is one of the main factors inducing the difference in genome size. However, the expressions of TEs and the TE effects on gene regulation and functions of these two Brassica diploid species were unclear. Here, we analyzed the RNA sequencing data of leaves, roots, and stems from B. rapa and B. oleracea. Our data showed that overall TEs in either genome expressed at very low levels, and the expression levels of different TE categories and families varied among different organs. Moreover, even for the same TE category or family, the expression activities were distinct between the two Brassica diploids. Forty-one and nine LTR retrotransposons with the transcripts that read into their adjacent sequences have the distances shorter than 2 kb and 100 bp compared to the downstream genes. These LTR retrotransposon readout transcriptions may produce sense or antisense transcripts of nearby genes, with the effects on activating or silencing corresponding genes. Meanwhile, intact LTRs were detected at stronger readout activities than solo LTRs. Of the TEs inserted into genes, the frequencies were ob-served at a higher level in B. rapa than in B. oleracea. In addition, DNA transposons were prone to insert or retain in the intronic regions of genes in either Brassica genomes. These results revealed that the TEs may have potential effects on regulating protein coding genes.

  12. The effect of additives on properties, performance and emission of biodiesel fuelled compression ignition engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashedul, H.K.; Masjuki, H.H.; Kalam, M.A.; Ashraful, A.M.; Ashrafur Rahman, S.M.; Shahir, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuel additives significantly improve the quality of biodiesel and its blends. • Fuel additives used to enhance biodiesel properties. • Fuel saving from optimized vehicle performance and economy with the use of additives. • Emission reduction from fuel system cleanliness and combustion optimization. - Abstract: With growing concern over greenhouse gases there is increasing emphasis on reducing CO 2 emissions. Despite engine efficiency improvements plus increased dieselization of the fleet, increasing vehicle numbers results in increasing CO 2 emissions. To reserve this trend the fuel source must be changed to renewable fuels which are CO 2 neutral. As a renewable, sustainable and alternative fuel for compression ignition engines, biodiesel is widely accepted as comparable fuel to diesel in diesel engines. This is due to several factors like decreasing the dependence on imported petroleum, reducing global warming, increasing lubricity, and reducing substantially the exhaust emissions from diesel engine. However, there is a major disadvantage in the use of biodiesel as it has lower heating value, higher density and higher viscosity, higher fuel consumption and higher NO X emission, which limits its application. Here fuel additives become essential and indispensable tools not only to minimize these drawbacks but also generate specified products to meet the regional and international standards. Fuel additives can contribute towards fuel economy and emission reduction either directly or indirectly. Their use enable vehicle performance to be maintained at, or near, optimum over the lifetime of the vehicle. A variety of additives are used in automotive biodiesel fuel to meet specification limits and to enhance quality. For example, metal based additives, oxygenated additives, antioxidants, cetane number improvers, lubricity improvers and cold flow improvers are used to meet specifications and quality. This article is a literature review of the effect

  13. Caffeine and opening the eyes have additive effects on resting arousal measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Robert J; Clarke, Adam R; Johnstone, Stuart J

    2011-10-01

    Studies indicate that the change from closed to open eyes in a resting condition results in an increase in skin conductance level (SCL) and a global decrease in EEG alpha activity, both indicative of increased arousal. Other studies show that ingestion of caffeine also produces SCL increase and alpha reduction. This study investigated the additivity of the effects of these two independent arousing variables. EEG activity and SCL were recorded from 22 university students during both eyes-closed and eyes-open resting conditions, under the action of both caffeine and placebo, in a counterbalanced randomised double-blind study. SCL increased significantly from eyes-closed to eyes-open conditions, and from placebo to caffeine, with no interaction. Global reductions in EEG alpha amplitude were apparent with opening of the eyes and caffeine ingestion; again, there was no interaction. Caffeine had a larger effect than opening the eyes on SCL, but their relative effect sizes were reversed in alpha. The two dependent measures showed the predicted negative correlation in both eyes-closed placebo and eyes-open caffeine conditions, with the latter substantially reduced relative to the former. Caffeine and opening the eyes have additive effects on two measures of arousal, increasing SCL and reducing global EEG alpha. However, the independent variable effects are not equivalent, suggesting that one or both measures reflect additional non-arousal processes. As caffeine is widely used by both children and adults, knowledge of the additivity of arousal effects of caffeine and opening the eyes is important in controlling participant state in EEG studies. The current results confirm the use of mean global alpha amplitude as a measure of resting-state arousal, but also point to non-arousal effects of visual input. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of steam and oil sludge ash additive on the products of oil sludge pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Shuo; Wang, Yuhua; Fumitake, Takahashi; Kouji, Tokimatsu; Li, Aimin; Kunio, Yoshikawa

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis of oil sludge with steam or/and oil sludge ash was carried out. • Oil product yield was increased by steam and oil sludge ash presence. • Steam injection and oil sludge ash addition improved the oil product quality. • Synergetic effect of steam and oil sludge ash on the oil product was reported. • A possible catalytic mechanism was proposed. - Abstract: In this study, a strategy of combining steam injection with oil sludge ash addition to improve the yield and quality of the oil products of oil sludge pyrolysis process is proposed. Oil sludge pyrolysis with the addition of different amounts of steam and oil sludge ash was conducted under inert conditions at 450 °C by employing a stirred tank reactor. This procedure was performed to investigate the effect of steam injection and oil sludge ash addition on the distribution and quality of the oil products. The possible catalytic mechanism occurring during the pyrolysis process was proposed. The quality of the oil product was determined based on the results of the boiling point distribution, the carbon residue, the ultimate analysis, the Saturates, Asphaltenes, Resins and Aromatics (SARA) composition and the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analysis. The results indicate that both steam injection and oil sludge ash addition caused the oil yield to increase. Steam injection increased the proportions of the heavy and middle fractions in the oil product and reduced the carbon residue by improving the stability of the oil system. Oil sludge ash addition reduced the carbon residue and lessened the decrease in the light oil/heavy oil ratio by converting the heavy fraction or coke precursors to lighter fractions. The synergetic effect of steam injection and oil sludge ash addition can further reduce the carbon residue of the oil product. The presence of oil sludge ash significantly reduced the S, N, and O mobilities from the oil sludge feedstock to the oil product. These performances can be

  15. Reduction of dioxin-like toxicity in effluents by additional wastewater treatment and related effects in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Diana; Benisek, Martin; Blaha, Ludek; Dondero, Francesco; Giesy, John P; Köhler, Heinz-R; Richter, Doreen; Scheurer, Marco; Triebskorn, Rita

    2016-10-01

    Efficiency of advanced wastewater treatment technologies to reduce micropollutants which mediate dioxin-like toxicity was investigated. Technologies compared included ozonation, powdered activated carbon and granular activated carbon. In addition to chemical analyses in samples of effluents, surface waters, sediments, and fish, (1) dioxin-like potentials were measured in paired samples of effluents, surface waters, and sediments by use of an in vitro biotest (reporter gene assay) and (2) dioxin-like effects were investigated in exposed fish by use of in vivo activity of the mixed-function, monooxygenase enzyme, ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) in liver. All advanced technologies studied, based on degradation or adsorption, significantly reduced dioxin-like potentials in samples and resulted in lesser EROD activity in livers of fish. Results of in vitro and in vivo biological responses were not clearly related to quantification of targeted analytes by use of instrumental analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The combined effects of vinclozolin and procymidone do not deviate from expected additivity in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, Christine Lydia; Dalgaard, Majken; Lam, Henrik Rye

    2003-01-01

    % inhibition (IC50) values of 0.1 and 0.6 muM, respectively. By applying the isobole method, the effect of combining the two pesticides in vitro was found to be additive. In castrated testosterone-treated rats the administration of vinclozolin starting at 10 mg/kg led to a decrease in organ weight of all......, reproductive organ weights were diminished at 10 mg/kg and LH was increased at a concentration of 25 mg/kg and above, compared to the testosterone-treated controls. FSH was significantly increased only at 25 mg/kg procymidone. The studied gene expressions were changed by 100 mg/kg procymidone. Dosing...

  17. Towards understanding the effects of additives on the vermicomposting of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Meiyan; Lv, Baoyi; Zhao, Chunhui; Yang, Jian

    2015-03-01

    This work evaluated the effects of additives on the chemical properties of the final products (vermicompost) from vermicomposting of sewage sludge and the adaptable characteristics of Eisenia fetida during the process. An experimental design with different ratios of sewage sludge and the additives (cattle dung or pig manure) was conducted. The results showed that the vermicomposting reduced total organic carbon and the quotient of total organic carbon to total nitrogen (C/N ratio) of the initial mixtures and enhanced the stability and agronomical value of the final products. Notably, principal component analysis indicated that the additives had significant effects on the characteristics of the vermicomposts. Moreover, the vermibeds containing cattle dung displayed a better earthworm growth and reproduction than those with pig manure. Additionally, redundancy analysis demonstrated that electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N ratio played crucial roles on earthworm growth and reproduction. In all, the additives with high C/N ratio, pH buffering capacity, and low EC are recommended to be used for vermicomposting of sewage sludge.

  18. Effect of the Addition of Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Jin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0% were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm. SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness and W (whiteness values, and higher b* (yellowness values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05. Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05. As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05. The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05 increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP (p<0.05. Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05. As expected, the observed changes in a*, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05. These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages.

  19. Categorical and continuous - disentangling the neural correlates of the carry effect in multi-digit addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dressel Katharina

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently it was suggested that the carry effect observed in addition involves both categorical and continuous processing characteristics. Methods In the present study, we aimed at identifying the specific neural correlates associated with processing either categorical or continuous aspects of the carry effect in an fMRI study on multi-digit addition. Results In line with our expectations, we observed two distinct parts of the fronto-parietal network subserving numerical cognition to be associated with either one of these two characteristics. On the one hand, the categorical aspect of the carry effect was associated with left-hemispheric language areas and the basal ganglia probably reflecting increased demands on procedural and problem solving processes. Complementarily, the continuous aspect of the carry effect was associated with increased intraparietal activation indicating increasing demands on magnitude processing as well as place-value integration with increasing unit sum. Conclusions In summary, the findings suggest representations and processes underlying the carry effect in multi-digit addition to be more complex and interactive than assumed previously.

  20. Effects of Bi Addition on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nanocrystalline Ag Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the effects of Bi addition on the microstructure and mechanical properties of an electrodeposited nanocrystalline Ag coating. Microstructural features were investigated with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results indicate that the addition of Bi introduced nanometer-scale Ag-Bi solid solution particles and more internal defects to the initial Ag microstructures. The anisotropic elastic-plastic properties of the Ag nanocrystalline coating with and without Bi addition were examined with nanoindentation experiments in conjunction with the recently-developed inverse method. The results indicate that the as-deposited nanocrystalline Ag coating contained high mechanical anisotropy. With the addition of 1 atomic percent (at% Bi, the anisotropy within Ag-Bi coating was very small, and yield strength of the nanocrystalline Ag-Bi alloy in both longitudinal and transverse directions were improved by over 100% compared to that of Ag. On the other hand, the strain-hardening exponent of Ag-Bi was reduced to 0.055 from the original 0.16 of the Ag coating. Furthermore, the addition of Bi only slightly increased the electrical resistivity of the Ag-Bi coating in comparison to Ag. Results of our study indicate that Bi addition is a promising method for improving the mechanical and physical performances of Ag coating for electrical contacts.

  1. Comparative Evaluation of Small Molecular Additives and Their Effects on Peptide/Protein Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jing; Zhong, Shaoyun; Zhou, Yanting; He, Han; Peng, Shuying; Zhu, Zhenyun; Liu, Xing; Zheng, Jing; Xu, Bin; Zhou, Hu

    2017-06-06

    Detergents and salts are widely used in lysis buffers to enhance protein extraction from biological samples, facilitating in-depth proteomic analysis. However, these detergents and salt additives must be efficiently removed from the digested samples prior to LC-MS/MS analysis to obtain high-quality mass spectra. Although filter-aided sample preparation (FASP), acetone precipitation (AP), followed by in-solution digestion, and strong cation exchange-based centrifugal proteomic reactors (CPRs) are commonly used for proteomic sample processing, little is known about their efficiencies at removing detergents and salt additives. In this study, we (i) developed an integrative workflow for the quantification of small molecular additives in proteomic samples, developing a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based LC-MS approach for the quantification of six additives (i.e., Tris, urea, CHAPS, SDS, SDC, and Triton X-100) and (ii) systematically evaluated the relationships between the level of additive remaining in samples following sample processing and the number of peptides/proteins identified by mass spectrometry. Although FASP outperformed the other two methods, the results were complementary in terms of peptide/protein identification, as well as the GRAVY index and amino acid distributions. This is the first systematic and quantitative study of the effect of detergents and salt additives on protein identification. This MRM-based approach can be used for an unbiased evaluation of the performance of new sample preparation methods. Data are available via ProteomeXchange under identifier PXD005405.

  2. Effect of Ingredient Loading on Surface Migration Kinetics of Additives in Vulcanized Natural Rubber Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan B. Pajarito

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Surface migration kinetics of chemical additives in vulcanized natural rubber compounds were studied as function of ingredient loading. Rubber sheets were compounded according to a 212-8 fractional factorial design of experiment, where ingredients were treated as factors varied at two levels of loading. Amount of migrated additives in surface of rubber sheets was monitored through time at ambient conditions. The maximum amount and estimated rate of additive migration were determined from weight loss kinetic curves. Attenuated total reflection–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy were used to characterize the chemical structure and surface morphology of sheet specimens during additive migration. ANOVA results showed that increased loading of reclaimed rubber, CaCO3, and paraffin wax signif icantly decreased the maximum amount of additive migration; by contrast, increased loading of used oil, asphalt, and mercaptobenzothiazole disulphide (MBTS increased the maximum amount. Increased loading of sulfur, diphenylguanidine (DPG, and paraffin wax significantly decreased the additive migration rate; increased loading of used oil, asphalt, and stearic acid elicited an opposite effect. Comparison of ATRFTIR spectra of migrated and cleaned rubber surfaces showed signif icant variation in intensity of specif ic absorbance bands that are also present in infrared spectra of migrating chemicals. Paraffin wax, used oil, stearic acid, MBTS, asphalt, and zinc stearate were identified to bloom and bleed in the rubber sheets. Optical micrographs of migrated rubber surfaces revealed formation of white precipitates due to blooming and of semi-transparent wet patches due to bleeding.

  3. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Wiencek, T.; O'Hare, E.; Fortner, J.; Wright, A.; Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (∼50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys was performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.

  4. Effect of indium addition in U-Zr metallic fuel on lanthanide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Wiencek, T.; O' Hare, E.; Fortner, J.; Wright, A.; Cheon, J. S.; Lee, B. O.

    2017-02-01

    Advanced fast reactor concepts to achieve ultra-high burnup (~50%) require prevention of fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Fission product lanthanide accumulation at high burnup is substantial and significantly contributes to FCCI upon migration to the cladding interface. Diffusion barriers are typically used to prevent interaction of the lanthanides with the cladding. A more active method has been proposed which immobilizes the lanthanides through formation of stable compounds with an additive. Theoretical analysis showed that indium, thallium, and antimony are good candidates. Indium was the strongest candidate because of its low reactivity with iron-based cladding alloys. Characterization of the as-fabricated alloys was performed to determine the effectiveness of the indium addition in forming compounds with lanthanides, represented by cerium. Tests to examine how effectively the dopant prevents lanthanide migration under a thermal gradient were also performed. The results showed that indium effectively prevented cerium migration.

  5. Effect of Addition of Cereal Based Beta-glucan on Technological and Functional Properties of Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihal Şimşekli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays usage of dietary fibers in foods has been increasing duo to revealing of health benefits. Beta-glucans found especially in oats and barley, are polysaccharide and source of water-soluble dietary fiber. Positive effects of beta-glucans like healing coronary-heart disease, lowering blood cholesterol level, balancing blood sugar level and preventing obesity, made beta-glucans widespread functional food components for producing various foods. In addition to beneficial physiological effects of beta-glucans, they texturize, gelatinize, emulsify and stabilize the foods. They increase viscosity, replace fat and enhance rheological properties in cereal, meat and dairy products. They are also used to produce packing material depending on their mechanical properties and molecular weights. In this review, effects of addition of cereal based beta-glucans on technological and functional properties of various foods are revealed based on previous studies.

  6. Fortune and hindsight: gene patents' muted effect on medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S; Abbott, Ryan

    2018-03-28

    Physicians have long worried about gene patents' potential to restrict their medical practices. Fortune and hindsight have proven these worries exaggerated both in the UK and elsewhere. Neither current nor future medical practices appear to be impinged by gene patents, although they may be subject to future intellectual property disputes. Qualitative and quantitative (survey) studies of gene patents' effects on medical practice; recent developments in patent law. Traditional gene patents do not appear to have restricted medical practice in the UK, although their effect elsewhere has been more nuanced. Whether patents will restrict the spread of newer medical technologies is unresolved. Continuing survey data on practitioners' views concerning patents' role in the distribution of newer technologies would be beneficial.

  7. Effects of water and nitrogen addition on species turnover in temperate grasslands in northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuwen Xu

    Full Text Available Global nitrogen (N deposition and climate change have been identified as two of the most important causes of current plant diversity loss. However, temporal patterns of species turnover underlying diversity changes in response to changing precipitation regimes and atmospheric N deposition have received inadequate attention. We carried out a manipulation experiment in a steppe and an old-field in North China from 2005 to 2009, to test the hypothesis that water addition enhances plant species richness through increase in the rate of species gain and decrease in the rate of species loss, while N addition has opposite effects on species changes. Our results showed that water addition increased the rate of species gain in both the steppe and the old field but decreased the rates of species loss and turnover in the old field. In contrast, N addition increased the rates of species loss and turnover in the steppe but decreased the rate of species gain in the old field. The rate of species change was greater in the old field than in the steppe. Water interacted with N to affect species richness and species turnover, indicating that the impacts of N on semi-arid grasslands were largely mediated by water availability. The temporal stability of communities was negatively correlated with rates of species loss and turnover, suggesting that water addition might enhance, but N addition would reduce the compositional stability of grasslands. Experimental results support our initial hypothesis and demonstrate that water and N availabilities differed in the effects on rate of species change in the temperate grasslands, and these effects also depend on grassland types and/or land-use history. Species gain and loss together contribute to the dynamic change of species richness in semi-arid grasslands under future climate change.

  8. Effects of Coal Combustion Additives on the Forms and Recovery of Uranium in Coal Bottom Ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ye; Li, Yilian

    2017-04-01

    Recovering uranium from uranium-rich coal ash is an important way to utilize unconventional uranium resource. Although it might be expected that the uranium in residual form would prevent uranium recovery from coal ash, raising the recovery rate in way of controlling residual uranium has not yet been studied. In this study, three different kinds of combustion promoting additives were investigated by coal combustion experiments, in order to decrease the proportion of residual-form uranium in ash and increase the acid leaching rate. Analytical procedures included Tessier sequential extraction, acidleaching, and characterization(ICP-MS, XRF, BET and SEM-EDS). It was showed that the effects of additives in reducing residual uranium were as the following order: alkaline earth metal compounds > transition metal compounds> alkali metal compounds. Adding alkali metal additives(KCl, NaCl, K2CO3, Na2CO3) raised the percentage of residual uranium largely. Additionally, one transition metal additive(Fe2O3) reached a decreasing amplitude of 5.15%, while the other two additives(MnO2 and Fe3O4)made the rates increased. However, coal combustion with alkaline earth metal compounds mixed had target effects. Among this kind of additives(Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, CaO, CaCl2), CaCO3displayed the best effect on restricting the rising proportion of residual uranium by 18%. Moreover, the leaching recovery research indicated that CaCO3 could raise the recovery rate by 10.8%. The XRF profiles supported that the CaCO3 could lower the concentration of SiO2 in the bottom ash from 79.76% to 49.69%. Besides, The BET and SEM revealed that the decomposition of CaCO3 brought about a variation of surface structures and area, which promoted the contact between the leaching agent and bottom ash. The uranium content increase was determined by ICP-MS and EDS. These findings suggest that CaCO3 could be a favorable additive for the controlling of residual uranium and improvement of uranium recovery rates. Key words

  9. Independent and additive effects of glutamic acid and methionine on yeast longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyun; Song, Lixia; Liu, Shao Quan; Huang, Dejian

    2013-01-01

    It is established that glucose restriction extends yeast chronological and replicative lifespan, but little is known about the influence of amino acids on yeast lifespan, although some amino acids were reported to delay aging in rodents. Here we show that amino acid composition greatly alters yeast chronological lifespan. We found that non-essential amino acids (to yeast) methionine and glutamic acid had the most significant impact on yeast chronological lifespan extension, restriction of methionine and/or increase of glutamic acid led to longevity that was not the result of low acetic acid production and acidification in aging media. Remarkably, low methionine, high glutamic acid and glucose restriction additively and independently extended yeast lifespan, which could not be further extended by buffering the medium (pH 6.0). Our preliminary findings using yeasts with gene deletion demonstrate that glutamic acid addition, methionine and glucose restriction prompt yeast longevity through distinct mechanisms. This study may help to fill a gap in yeast model for the fast developing view that nutrient balance is a critical factor to extend lifespan.

  10. THE ADDITION EFFECT OF SULPHANILIC ACID TO THE SYNTHESIS OF 3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYBENZALDEHYDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feti Fatimah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It was conducted a research about the addition effect of sulphanilic acid to the synthesis 3,4-methylenedioxybenzaldehyde from the isosafrole using reagents of sodium dichromate, sulphuric acid, and sulphanilic acid. The separation and purification of product were performed using the chromatography column. The purity of the result was tested using thin layer chromatography and determination of the melting point. Furthermore, it was identified its structure using infrared spectrophotometer, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. The experimental result showed that the percentage yield of 3,4-methylenedioxybenzaldehyde with addition sulphanilic acid was 79.54%.

  11. Solvent additive effects on small molecule crystallization in bulk heterojunction solar cells probed during spin casting

    KAUST Repository

    Pérez, Louis A.

    2013-09-04

    Solvent additive processing can lead to drastic improvements in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in solution processable small molecule (SPSM) bulk heterojunction solar cells. In situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the kinetics of crystallite formation during and shortly after spin casting. The additive is shown to have a complex effect on structural evolution invoking polymorphism and enhanced crystalline quality of the donor SPSM. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. The Effects of Various Additive Components on the Sound Absorption Performances of Polyurethane Foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuming Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flexible polyurethane (PU foams comprising various additive components were synthesized to improve their acoustic performances. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of various additive components of the PU foams on the resultant sound absorption, which was characterized by the impedance tube technique to obtain the incident sound absorption coefficient and transmission loss. The maximum enhancement in the acoustic properties of the foams was obtained by adding fluorine-dichloroethane (141b and triethanolamine. The results showed that the acoustic absorption properties of the PU foams were improved by adding 141b and triethanolamine and depended on the amount of the water, 141b, and triethanolamine.

  13. The effect of Y2O3 addition on thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pošarac Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of yttria additive on the thermal shock behavior of magnesium aluminate spinel has been investigated. As a starting material we used spinel (MgAl2O4 obtained by the modified glycine nitrate procedure (MGNP. Sintered products were characterized in terms of phase analysis, densities, thermal shock, monitoring the damaged surface area in the refractory specimen during thermal shock and ultrasonic determination of the Dynamic Young modulus of elasticity. It was found that a new phase between yttria and alumina is formed, which improved thermal shock properties of the spinel refractories. Also densification of samples is enhanced by yttria addition.

  14. EFFECT OF METALLOID COMPOUND AND BIO-SOLUTION ADDITIVES ON BIODIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Karoon Fangsuwannarak; Kittichai Triratanasirichai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to perform comparative analysis of the effect of the different fuel additives as polymer based-bio-solution, natural organic based-bio-solution and nano-titanium metalloid (TiO2) compound on the performance parameters and exhuast emissions of a pickup Diesel engine, operating on commercial Diesel fuel (D) and B5 palm biodiesel (95% D+5% palm oil). The basic properties of the fuel blended with TiO2 metalloid compound and bio-solution based additives were measured a...

  15. Effect of additional speed endurance training on performance and muscle adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Thomas; Christensen, Peter Møller; Holse, Kris

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study examined the effect of additional speed-endurance training during the season on muscle adaptations and performance of trained soccer players. METHODS: Eighteen sub-elite soccer players performed one session with 6-9 30-s intervals at an intensity of 90-95 % ofmaximal...... intensity (speed endurance training; SET) a week for 5 weeks (SET-intervention). Before and after the SET-intervention the players carried out the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo- Yo IR2) test, a sprint test (10- and 30-m) and an agility test. In addition, seven of the players had a resting muscle...

  16. Excluded Volume Effects in Gene Stretching

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Pui-Man

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effects excluded volume on the stretching of a single DNA in solution. We find that for small force F, the extension h is not linear in F but proportion to F^{\\chi}, with \\chi=(1-\

  17. Classification of suppressor additives based on synergistic and antagonistic ensemble effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekmann, P.; Fluegel, A.; Emnet, C.; Arnold, M.; Roeger-Goepfert, C.; Wagner, A.; Hai, N.T.M.; Mayer, D.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Three fundamental types of suppressor additives for copper electroplating could be identified by means of potential transient measurements. → These suppressor additives differ in their synergistic and antagonistic interplay with anions that are chemisorbed on the metallic copper surface during electrodeposition. → In addition these suppressor chemistries reveal different barrier properties with respect to cupric ions and plating additives (Cl, SPS). - Abstract: Three fundamental types of suppressor additives for copper electroplating could be identified by means of potential transient measurements. These suppressor additives differ in their synergistic and antagonistic interplay with anions that are chemisorbed on the metallic copper surface during electrodeposition. In addition these suppressor chemistries reveal different barrier properties with respect to cupric ions and plating additives (Cl, SPS). While the type-I suppressor selectively forms efficient barriers for copper inter-diffusion on chloride-terminated electrode surfaces we identified a type-II suppressor that interacts non-selectively with any kind of anions chemisorbed on copper (chloride, sulfate, sulfonate). Type-I suppressors are vital for the superconformal copper growth mode in Damascene processing and show an antagonistic interaction with SPS (Bis-Sodium-Sulfopropyl-Disulfide) which involves the deactivation of this suppressor chemistry. This suppressor deactivation is rationalized in terms of compositional changes in the layer of the chemisorbed anions due to the competition of chloride and MPS (Mercaptopropane Sulfonic Acid) for adsorption sites on the metallic copper surface. MPS is the product of the dissociative SPS adsorption within the preexisting chloride matrix on the copper surface. The non-selectivity in the adsorption behavior of the type-II suppressor is rationalized in terms of anion/cation pairing effects of the poly-cationic suppressor and the anion

  18. Aflatoxin effect on erythrocyte profile and histopathology of broilers given different additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimy, M. F.; Sutrisno, B.; Agus, A.; Suryani, A. E.; Istiqomah, L.; Damayanti, E.

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate erythrocyte profile and microscopic changes effect of AF induces by low level (57.18 ppb) and chronic exposure (34 days) with administration of additive (Lactobacillus plantarum G7 and methionine). Aflatoxin-contaminated corn was prepared by inoculate Aspergillus flavus FNCC 6002 on corn. Total number of 576 broiler Lohman strain (MB202) unsexed DOC were allocated completely randomized into four treatments and 12 replicates, with 12 broiler chicks each. The treatments as follows: T1 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet, T2 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 1% of LAB (w/w), T3 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 0.8% of methionine (w/w), and T4 = aflatoxin-contaminated diet + 1% of LAB + 0.8% of methionine (w/w). The effect of treatments was evaluated using ANOVA and the difference among mean treatments were analyzed using DMRT. The result showed that administration of additives had no significant effect (P>0.05) on erythrocyte profile, liver, and bursa of Fabricius. The dose of additive in each treatment (T2, T3, T4) were insufficient to reduce adverse effect of chronic aflatoxicosis. It was concluded that the LAB dose for binding AF (57.18%) should be evaluated and the dose for methionine should be reduced for chronic treatment of aflatoxicosis.

  19. Increased Walking's Additive and No Substitution Effect on Total Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bumjoon; Moudon, Anne V; Hurvitz, Philip M; Saelens, Brian E

    2018-03-01

    We assessed the associations between a change in time spent walking and a change in total physical activity (PA) time within an urban living adult sample to test for additive or substitution effects. Participants living in the greater Seattle area were assessed in 2008-2009 and again 1-2 yr later (2010-2011). At each time point, they wore accelerometers and GPS units and recorded trips and locations in a travel diary for seven consecutive days. These data streams were combined to derive a more objective estimate of walking and total PA. Participants also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to provide self-reported estimates of walking and total PA. Regression analyses assessed the associations between within-participant changes in objective and self-reported walking and total PA. Data came from 437 participants. On average, a 1-min increase in total walking was associated with an increase in total PA of 1 min, measured by objective data, and 1.2-min, measured by self-reported data. A similar additive effect was consistently found with utilitarian, transportation, or job-related walking, measured by both objective and self-reported data. For recreational walking, the effect of change was mixed between objective and self-reported results. Both objective and self-reported data confirmed an additive effect of utilitarian and total walking on PA.

  20. Effect of additives in the shelflife extension of chilled and frozen stored Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, Uthaman; Shakila, Robinson Jeya; Shalini, Rajendran; Sivaraman, Balasubramanian; Sumathi, Ganesan; Selvaganapathi, Rajendran; Jeyasekaran, Geevarathnam

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the effect of commercial additives viz. cafodos and altesa employed to treat Indian octopus (Cistopus indicus) was examined during chilled and frozen storage. Shelf lives of treated and untreated octopus in ice were 6 and 8 days, respectively in ice. Treated and untreated frozen octopus had a shelf life of 40 days. Autolytic and microbiological changes were not controlled by the additives, as evidenced through rapid reduction in non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and α-amino nitrogen (α-AN) compounds; as well as accumulation of water soluble ammoniacal nitrogen and total volatile base- nitrogen (TVB-N) compounds. Loss of texture and colour were the major quality defects noticed in treated octopus as a result of enhanced protein solubility. Therefore, the additives approved for use in octopus neither enhanced the shelf life nor improved the sensory quality.

  1. Effect of Manganese Additions and Wear Parameter on the Tribological Behaviour of NFGrey (8 Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Olatunji

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of manganese and wear parameter on the abrasive wear behaviour of NFGREY8 cast iron composition under dry lubrication conditions was investigated. The wear parameters studied are sliding speed, applied load, time and percentage of ferro-manganese additions. The experimental data were taken in a controlled way. Scanning electron microscope was used to examine the morphology of the samples. The results from linear regression equation and analysis of variances (ANOVA shows that manganese additions, load and speed variable are more pronounced on the wear behaviour of the NFGrey (8 cast iron. The result showed that the additions of the 75 % ferro manganese grade decreases the carbon equivalent CE and fortify the matrix with the formation of tough (FeMn3C inter-metallic leading to increased wear resistance of the examined composition.

  2. Effects of different additives on bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles electrodeposited onto indium tin oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballarin, Barbara, E-mail: ballarin@ms.fci.unibo.i [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica, Universita di Bologna, V.le Risorgimento, 4, 40136-Bologna (Italy)] [INSTM, UdR Bologna (Italy); Gazzano, Massimo [ISOF-CNR, V. Selmi, 40126-Bologna (Italy); Tonelli, Domenica [Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica ed Inorganica, Universita di Bologna, V.le Risorgimento, 4, 40136-Bologna (Italy)] [INSTM, UdR Bologna (Italy)

    2010-09-01

    Bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles (Au-Pt{sub NPs}) have been synthesized using an electrochemical reduction approach. The effects of the addition of different additives in the electrodeposition bath namely KI, 1-nonanesulfonic acid sodium salt and Triton X-100 have been investigated. The structural characterization of the bimetallic nanoparticles has been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Au-Pt{sub NPs} prepared in the presence of KI and Triton X-100 characterized by a relatively narrow size distribution as well as a higher particle density and surface coverage whereas no changes in the morphology were observed. These results suggest a dependence of the size and distribution of the bimetallic nanoparticles from the type and concentration of the additives employed.

  3. Effects of nitrogen and water addition on trace element stoichiometry in five grassland species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Jiangping; Weiner, Jacob; Wang, Ruzhen

    2017-01-01

    A 9-year manipulative experiment with nitrogen (N) and water addition, simulating increasing N deposition and changing precipitation regime, was conducted to investigate the bioavailability of trace elements, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in soil, and their uptake by plants...... alleviated the effect of N addition. Forbs are more likely to suffer from Mn toxicity and Fe deficiency than grass species, indicating more sensitivity to changing elemental bioavailability in soil. Our results suggested that soil acidification due to N deposition may accelerate trace element cycling...... and lead to elemental imbalance in soil–plant systems of semi-arid grasslands and these impacts of N deposition on semi-arid grasslands were affected by water addition. These findings indicate an important role for soil trace elements in maintaining ecosystem functions associated with atmospheric N...

  4. Effect of hot pressing additives on the leachability of hot pressed sodium hydrous titanium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, T.M.; Sambell, R.A.J.

    1980-01-01

    Sodium hydrous titanium oxide is an ion exchange resin which can be used for immobilizing medium level waste (MLW) liquors. When hot pressed, it undergoes conversion to a ceramic. Three low melting point materials (borax, bismuth trioxide, and a mixture of PbO/CuO) were added to the (Na)HTiO and the effect that each of these had on aiding densification was assessed. Hot pressing temperature, applied pressure, and percentage addition of hot pressing aid were varied. Percentage open porosity, flexural strength, and leachability were measured. There was a linear relationship between the percentage open porosity and the logarithm of the leach rate for a constant percentage addition of each additive

  5. Effect of additives on the antiknock properties and Reid vapor pressure of gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosangela da Silva; Renato Cataluna; Eliana Weber de. Menezes; Dimitrios Samios; Clarisse M. Sartori Piatnicki [Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre (Brazil). Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry

    2005-05-01

    An evaluation was made of the effect produced by the addition of oxygenates such as ethanol, ETBE and MTBE and nonoxygenates such as isooctane and toluene on the Reid vapor pressure (RVP) and octane number of two types of gasoline with different chemical compositions. Locally produced gasoline was blended with five different percentages (v/v) of the additives, i.e. 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%. Ethanol and MTBE increased significantly the RVP of the mixtures, but ETBE, and particularly toluene and isooctane, decreased the RVP of the original fractions when mixed with gasoline. The octane rating of gasoline was found to increase continuously and linearly with the addition of the oxygenated compounds toluene and isooctane. Moreover, the mixture octane number of the oxygenated compounds was superior to the octane number of the same compounds of high purity grade. 37 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Effect of heater material and coolant additives on CHF for a downward facing curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hae Min; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Heo, Sun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Critical heat flux experiment for a downward facing curved surface was conducted. • We investigate the effect of heater material and coolant additives. • Critical heat flux is affected by the steel oxidation. - Abstract: The critical heat flux (CHF) in the vicinity of an inclination angle of 90° for the reactor vessel lower head external wall was measured on a downward facing curved surface. Two test sections having radii of curvature 0.15 m and 0.5 m were used. The objective was to investigate the effect of heater material and the combined effect of the heater material and additives on flow boiling CHF to assess the CHF enhancement under accident conditions. The heater material SA508 (low alloy steel) and the additive solutions of boric acid and tri-sodium phosphate (TSP, Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O) were used. An enhancement of CHF with the SA508 heater was confirmed in comparison with stainless steel reference heaters, which have negligible steel oxidation. As a result of the combined effect tests, the CHF with a TSP solution was reduced and the CHFs with a boric acid and a mixed solution (boric acid and TSP) were enhanced in comparison with the deionized water reference case. The CHF results are discussed in terms of steel oxidation according to the pH of the working fluid. Steel oxidation is also affected by local flow conditions as shown in the R = 0.5 m tests in which the boric acid and mixed solution had negligible effects on CHF enhancement. Under a relatively high concentration of boric acid (2.5 wt%), additive deposition as well as steel oxidation were observed and resulted in CHF enhancement

  7. Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy with AFP driving Apoptin gene shows potent antitumor effect in hepatocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Kang-Jian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene therapy and viral therapy are used for cancer therapy for many years, but the results are less than satisfactory. Our aim was to construct a new recombinant adenovirus which is more efficient to kill hepatocarcinoma cells but more safe to normal cells. Methods By using the Cancer Targeting Gene-Viro-Therapy strategy, Apoptin, a promising cancer therapeutic gene was inserted into the double-regulated oncolytic adenovirus AD55 in which E1A gene was driven by alpha fetoprotein promoter along with a 55 kDa deletion in E1B gene to form AD55-Apoptin. The anti-tumor effects and safety were examined by western blotting, virus yield assay, real time polymerase chain reaction, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Hoechst33342 staining, Fluorescence-activated cell sorting, xenograft tumor model, Immunohistochemical assay, liver function analysis and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling assay. Results The recombinant virus AD55-Apoptin has more significant antitumor effect for hepatocelluar carcinoma cell lines (in vitro than that of AD55 and even ONYX-015 but no or little impair on normal cell lines. Furthermore, it also shows an obvious in vivo antitumor effect on the Huh-7 liver carcinoma xenograft in nude mice with bigger beginning tumor volume till about 425 mm3 but has no any damage on the function of liver. The induction of apoptosis is involved in AD55-Apoptin induced antitumor effects. Conclusion The AD55-Apoptin can be a potential anti-hepatoma agent with remarkable antitumor efficacy as well as higher safety in cancer targeting gene-viro-therapy system.

  8. Effect of rhenium addition on tungsten fuzz formation in helium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Aneeqa; De Temmerman, Gregory; Morgan, Thomas W.; Ward, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the addition of rhenium to tungsten on the formation of a nanostructure referred to as ‘fuzz’ when exposed to helium plasmas at fusion relevant ion fluxes was investigated in the Magnum and Pilot PSI devices at the FOM Institute DIFFER. The effect rhenium had on fuzz growth was seen to be dependent on time, temperature and flux. Initial fuzz growth was seen to be highly dependent on grain orientation, with rhenium having little effect. Once the fuzz was fully developed, the effect of grain orientation disappeared and the rhenium had an inhibiting effect on growth. This could be beneficial for inhibiting fuzz growth in a future fusion reactor, where transmutation of tungsten to rhenium is expected. It also appears that erosion or annealing of the fuzz is limiting growth of fuzz at higher temperatures in the range of ∼1340 °C.

  9. Effect of para-chlorophenoxyacetic acid on acid invertase gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Your User Name

    2011-07-04

    Jul 4, 2011 ... enzymes and the effects of PCPA treatment on gene expression of soluble acid invertase (AI) during tomato fruit development were .... with DIG high prime DNA labelling and detection starter kit II. (Roche). RESULTS. Effect of ... during this time, sucrose content of fruit from the treated plants was slightly ...

  10. Effect of the addition of glycosaminoglycans on bone and cartilaginous development of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgavioli, Sarah; Santos, Elaine T; Borges, Liliana L; Andrade-Garcia, Giuliana M; Castiblanco, Diana M C; Almeida, Vitor R; Garcia, Rodrigo G; Shimano, Antônio C; Nääs, Irenilza A; Baraldi-Artoni, Silvana M

    2017-09-01

    Locomotion issues in broiler production may decrease performance (carcass yield and traits) and lead to high financial losses. This study evaluates the addition of glucosaminoglycans in broiler diets to minimize the lack of proper bone development and joint weakening. The experiment was conducted using 2,160 broilers randomly distributed in a factorial pattern (3 × 3) using 3 levels of glucosamine sulfate (0, 0.12, and 0.24%) and 3 levels of chondroitin sulfate addition (0, 0.08, and 0.16%). Eight repetitions were used for each treatment, distributed in 72 pens with 30 broilers each. There was a quadratic effect on feed conversion for broilers from 1 to 42 d old (P = 0.0123) for the addition of chondroitin, and better feed conversion was obtained by adding 0.08% of chondroitin. The relative tibia weight, the width of the proximal epiphysis and diaphysis presented a linear increased effect in broilers at 42 d old. An interaction was found between the amount of chondroitin × glucosamine and the number of chondrocytes in the proximal cartilage of the tibia (P = 0.0072). There was a quadratic effect of glucosamine levels (P = 0.0107) in the birds that had received the 0.16% addition of chondroitin, and the presence of 0.18% glucosamine increased the number chondrocytes in the cartilage of broilers. These results provide the first evidence that broilers may benefit from increased dietary chondroitin sulfate. These results indicate that the addition of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfates in broiler feed rations might alleviate leg conditions and decrease financial losses in the broiler industry. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  11. Effects of titanium addition to the niobium core on the composite-processed Nb3Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Toshihisa; Iijima, Yasuo; Itoh, Kikuo; Tachikawa, Kyoji

    1986-01-01

    Effects of titanium addition to the niobium core on the composite-processed Nb 3 Sn superconductor have been investigated. Composites consisting of a Nb-0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 at% Ti alloy core and a Cu-7 at% Sn alloy matrix were fabricated into single-core and 16-core multifilamentary wires, and then heattreated to form Nb 3 Sn layers. An enhanced formation rate of Nb 3 Sn layer with increasing titanium content has been observed, while the Nb 3 Sn grain size slightly increases with the titanium addition. The titanium addition of 1 - 2 at% to the niobium core produces a small increase in T c , and further titanium addition decreases it. The addition of titanium to the core increases H c2 by 4 T in accordance with the increase in the normal state resistivity. H c2 of about 25 T has been obtained at 4.2 K by the titanium addition. J c 's of Nb 3 Sn at high fields (H > 13 T) are remarkably increased by the titanium addition, which is mainly attributed to the enhancement in H c2 . J c of 1.1 x 10 9 A/m 2 and overall J c of 2.0 x 10 8 A/m 2 have been obtained at 4.2 K and 16 T for a single core wire and a 160-core multifilamentary wire, respectively. The Nb-Ti/Cu-Sn composite wire seems to be quite promising for applications in high magnetic fields ranging from 12 to 16 T. (author)

  12. Effect of Nb addition on the terminal solid solubility of hydrogen for Zr and Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Masato; Ko, Kazuhira; Muta, Hiroaki; Uno, Masayoshi; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2007-01-01

    The terminal solid solubility of hydrogen (TSS) for pure Zr, Zr-Nb binary alloys with different Nb concentrations, and Nb added Zircaloy-4 was examined from the view point of the integrity of new-type nuclear fuel cladding. These alloys were hydrogenated by a modified UHV Sieverts' apparatus at 973 K. The hydrogen concentration and the hydride dissolution temperature of specimen were measured by using a hydrogen analyzer and a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), respectively, and then the terminal solid solubility of hydrogen was determined. The TSS of the α single-phase Zr-0.3Nb (Zr-0.3 wt.% Nb) specimen appeared to be almost same as that of pure Zr. On the contrary, the TSS of the Zr-1.0Nb and Zr-2.5Nb alloys, which were α + β biphasic specimens, were larger than that of pure Zr and slightly increased with Nb concentration. The increment of TSS by Nb addition was slightly larger than that by the traditional additive elements of Sn, Ni, and Cr in Zircaloys. The Nb added Zircaloy-4 had higher TSS than the Zircaloy-2 and -4, which was attributed to the further additive effect by βZr precipitation in Zircaloy besides the traditional additive element effects

  13. Effect of Pro-Degradation Additive on Photo-Oxidative Aging of Polypropylene Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Zalikha Mohamed Islam; Nadras Othman; Zulkifli Ahmad; Hanafi Ismail

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the effect of pro-degradation additives (PDA) on photo-oxidative aging of polypropylene (PP) films after being time accelerated in UV-weathering chamber. Thin films (0.12 mm) containing these additives were prepared by sheeting process. The effect of UV on PP films in the presence of these additives was investigated. Changes in the PP films appearance, tensile properties and carbonyl index (CI) were used to investigate the degradation behavior. The films became completely pulverised after 100 h of photo-oxidative treatment and could not be tested further. Films containing PDA showed rapid loss in tensile properties within 100 h of photo-oxidative aging. In addition, the CI results of photo-oxidative films increased with increasing PDA amount within the time interval of aging and the activity was due to the mechanism reaction of PP with PDA particles. During the aging process the material becomes denser due to tighter packing and incorporation of oxygen into the amorphous regions of the polymer. The results indicated that the presence of PDA contributed to the photo degradation and the activity was very much influenced by the amount PDA. (author)

  14. The Effect of Tannins and Additional Peg on In Vitro Gas Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan Sugoro

    2004-01-01

    Agro-wastes such as sugar cane straw are potential sources as feed. Sugar cane straw contains tannins, an anti-nutrient, which could effect feed quality. The effect of tannins by in vitro gas production was compared to maize straw which has low tannins. Tannin concentration was measured by using PEG which is labelled by 14 C. The result showed that the tannins concentration of sugar cane straw is 10.88 % dry matter. The others are digestibility of dry matter and organic matter, VFA, ammonia and pH. The gas production is 48.83 ml/500 mg after 24 h incubation. It is lower than the control i.e. 100.64 ml/500 mg. Additional PEG increase the gas production i.e. 30.5 %, because tannins is bounded by it. The concentration of ammonia, VFA, dry matter and organic matter digestibility on sugar cane straw with additional PEG is higher than without PEG, i.e 28.29 mg/100 ml, 15.56 nmol/100 ml, 52.18 % and 47.54 %. pH of sugar cane without PEG i.e. 6.62 is higher than additional PEG, i.e. 6.54. It could be concluded, tannins decrease of gas production, ammonia, VFA, dry matter, and organic matter digestibility and additional PEG increase gas production of sugar cane. (author)

  15. Effect of additional holes on transient thermal fatigue life of gas turbine casing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bazvandi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbines casings are susceptible to cracking at the edge of eccentric pin hole, which is the most likely position for crack initiation and propagation. This paper describes the improvement of transient thermal fatigue crack propagation life of gas turbines casings through the application of additional holes. The crack position and direction was determined using non-destructive tests. A series of finite element patterns were developed and tested in ASTM-A395 elastic perfectly-plastic ductile cast iron. The effect of arrangement of additional holes on transient thermal fatigue behavior of gas turbines casings containing hole edge cracks was investigated. ABAQUS finite element package and Zencrack fracture mechanics code were used for modeling. The effect of the reduction of transient thermal stress distribution around the eccentric pin hole on the transient thermal fatigue crack propagation life of the gas turbines casings was discussed. The result shows that transient thermal fatigue crack propagation life could be extended by applying additional holes of larger diameter and decreased by increasing the vertical distance, angle, and distance between the eccentric pin hole and the additional holes. The results from the numerical predictions were compared with experimental data.

  16. Effect of cerium addition on the corrosion behaviour of carbon-alloyed iron aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriram, S.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Mungole, M.N.; Bharagava, S.; Baligidad, R.G.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of Ce addition on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of carbon-alloyed iron aluminides Fe-20.0Al-2.0C, Fe-18.5Al-3.6C and Fe-19.2Al-3.3C-0.07Ce (in at.%) has been studied. The potentiodynamic polarization behaviour of the alloys was evaluated in freely aerated 0.25 mol/l H 2 SO 4 . A 0.05% C steel was used for comparison purposes. All the alloys exhibited active-passive behaviour in the acidic solution. The addition of Ce destroyed passivity as indicated by lower breakdown potentials in polarization studies. This has been related to the finer distribution of the carbides in the microstructure. Corrosion rates were evaluated by immersion testing. The iron aluminide with Ce addition exhibited a lower corrosion rate compared to the aluminides without Ce addition. This has been attributed to modifications in surface film with Ce addition. Scanning electron microscopy of corroded surfaces indicated that the carbon-alloyed intermetallics were susceptible to localized galvanic corrosion due to the presence of carbides in the microstructure

  17. Effect of Incubation Time and Sucrose Addition on the Characteristics of Cheese Whey Yoghurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhartadi, E.; Utami, R.; Nursiwi, A.; Sari, A. M.; Widowati, E.; Sanjaya, A. P.; Esnadewi, E. A.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of incubation time and concentration of sucrose addition on the characteristics of cheese whey yogurt (lactic acid content, pH, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, viscosity) and sensory characteristics (color, odor, flavor, consistency, and overalls) were investigated. The cheese whey yogurt fermentation process was carried out for 24h and 36h with the addition of sucrose 8, 10, and 12% (w/w) of total solid, respectively. The results showed that the lactic acid content, total lactic acid bacteria, antioxidant activity, and viscosity of cheese whey yogurt were affected by the incubation time and sucrose addition. The level of pH of yogurt which was incubated at 24h and 36h were relatively in the same levels, which were 4.51 up to 4.63. Due the sensory characteristic of cheese whey yogurt the panellists gave the high score for the cheese whey yogurt which was incubated at 24h and sucrose addition 12% (w/w) of total solid. The cheese whey yogurt has 0.41% lactic acid content; pH 4.51; 7.09 log total lactic acid bacteria cells / ml; 5.78% antioxidant activity; and 5.97 cP viscosity. The best sensory and physico-chemical characteristic of cheese whey yogurt was achieved by 24h incubation time and 12% concentration of sucrose addition.

  18. Effects of Water and Nitrogen Addition on Ecosystem Carbon Exchange in a Meadow Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunbo; Jiang, Qi; Yang, Zhiming; Sun, Wei; Wang, Deli

    2015-01-01

    A changing precipitation regime and increasing nitrogen deposition are likely to have profound impacts on arid and semiarid ecosystem C cycling, which is often constrained by the timing and availability of water and nitrogen. However, little is known about the effects of altered precipitation and nitrogen addition on grassland ecosystem C exchange. We conducted a 3-year field experiment to assess the responses of vegetation composition, ecosystem productivity, and ecosystem C exchange to manipulative water and nitrogen addition in a meadow steppe. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated aboveground biomass and net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE), which suggests that nitrogen availability is a primary limiting factor for ecosystem C cycling in the meadow steppe. Water addition had no significant impacts on either ecosystem C exchange or plant biomass, but ecosystem C fluxes showed a strong correlation with early growing season precipitation, rather than whole growing season precipitation, across the 3 experimental years. After we incorporated water addition into the calculation of precipitation regimes, we found that monthly average ecosystem C fluxes correlated more strongly with precipitation frequency than with precipitation amount. These results highlight the importance of precipitation distribution in regulating ecosystem C cycling. Overall, ecosystem C fluxes in the studied ecosystem are highly sensitive to nitrogen deposition, but less sensitive to increased precipitation. PMID:26010888

  19. Effect of organic additives on positive electrolyte for vanadium redox battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Sha [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Huang Kelong, E-mail: lisha_csu@163.com [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Suqin; Fang Dong; Wu Xiongwei; Lu Dan; Wu Tao [Department of Functional Materials and Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-06-30

    Highlights: > Four organics as electrolyte additives of vanadium redox battery. > Changes are examined in the electrochemical properties of vanadium redox battery. > D-sorbitol is a suitable additive to the electrolyte for the vanadium redox battery. > The mechanism of improvement is discussed in detail. - Abstract: Fructose, mannitol, glucose, D-sorbitol are explored as additives in electrolyte for vanadium redox battery (VRB), respectively. The effects of additives on electrolyte are studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), charge-discharge technique, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that the vanadium redox cell using the electrolyte with the additive of D-sorbitol exhibits the best electrochemical performance (the energy efficiency 81.8%). The EIS results indicate that the electrochemical activity of the electrolyte is improved by adding D-sorbitol, which can be interpreted as the increase of available (-OH) groups providing active sites for electron transfer. The Raman spectra show that VO{sup 2+} ions take part in forming a complex with the D-sorbitol, which not only improve solubility of V(V) electrolyte, but also provide more activity sites for the V(IV)/V(V) redox reaction.

  20. Effect of conductive carbon additives on electrochemical performance of LiCoPO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeyoshi, Yuta; Miyamoto, Shohei; Munakata, Hirokazu; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2018-02-01

    The effect of conductive carbon additives (acetylene black with various specific surface areas and ketjen black) on the electrochemical performance of LiCoPO4 is investigated to develop 5 V-class lithium-ion batteries with good cyclability. The irreversible reactions between electrolyte and LiCoPO4 electrode can be kept small in addition to realizing reversible and a small amount of intercalation/deintercalation of PF6- into/from the graphite structure of carbon when using acetylene black with a low surface area as a conductive additive. However, the low surface area reduces the utilization of LiCoPO4, and degrades its cycle performance owing to the decrease of contact area between LiCoPO4 and carbon during charge and discharge cycles. On the other hand, ketjen black with a high surface area enhances the capacity of LiCoPO4, while it induces a large amount of irreversible reactions and the anion intercalation, leading to the rapid capacity fading. By using acetylene black with a moderate surface area as a conductive additive for LiCoPO4 electrode, the superior cycle performance can be achieved, which is attributed to the formation of good conductive network among LiCoPO4 particles by the carbon additive with an appropriate surface area to minimize the irreversible decompose reactions of electrolyte and the anion intercalation.

  1. Effect of additives on enhanced sintering and grain growth in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, L.

    1992-06-01

    The use of sintering additives has been the most effective way of promoting grain growth of uranium dioxide. We have established a same mechanism for additives which belongs to corundum structure: chromium, aluminium, vanadium and titanium sesquioxides. Study of thermodynamical stabilities of dopants has lead to define suitable sintering atmospheres in order to enhance grain growth. Low solubility limits have been defined at T=1700 deg C for four additives, from variations of final grain size versus initial dopant concentration Identification of second phase after cooling has been done from electronic diffraction patterns. It appears that these solubilities decrease sharply as positive deviation from stoichiometry of uranium dioxide increases. Dilatometric analysis of sintering of doped uranium dioxide has shown in certain cases some enhancement in densification rates, at the point of onset of abnormal grain growth, which is believed to be the source. Nevertheless, the following growth is accompanied with pores coalescence mechanisms and pores entrapment inside grains. Increased thermal stability, during standard annealing, is expected, limiting thereby redensification of nuclear fuel in reactors. Finally, from investigations of additives vaporizations, Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 , oxygen exchanges between additives and matrix are believed to occur, which should lead to enhance pore mobility. (Author)., refs., figs., tabs

  2. The effects of additives on the crystal habit of monosodium L-glutamate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Chiaki; Nagashima, Nobuya; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Iitaka, Yoichi

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various amino acids and organic acids on the habit of MSG crystals have been investigated. The addition of L-alanine (L-Ala) and L-lysine (L-Lys) made the MSG crystals short and thick, but D-glutamic acid (D-Glu), γ-amino butylic acid (γ-ABA) and L-pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (L-PCA) made the crystals long and thin. HPLC analysis of the end and the side faces of the MSG crystals grown with the additives revealed that the concentrations of L-Lys and L-Ala were higher at the end faces than at the side faces; but those of D-Glu, γ-ABA and L-PCA were higher at the side faces than at the end faces. The facts indicate that habit modifications of the MSG crystals, brought about in the presence of these additives, are due to stereo-selective adsorption of the additives on the crystal faces. Finally, the cause leading to the differences in adsorption of the additives on the crystal faces of MSG is discussed in relation to the stacking density of L-Glu molecules and Na ions on each face using the results of the X-ray structure analysis.

  3. Targeted gene addition in human CD34(+) hematopoietic cells for correction of X-linked chronic granulomatous disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ravin, Suk See; Reik, Andreas; Liu, Pei-Qi; Li, Linhong; Wu, Xiaolin; Su, Ling; Raley, Castle; Theobald, Narda; Choi, Uimook; Song, Alexander H; Chan, Andy; Pearl, Jocelynn R; Paschon, David E; Lee, Janet; Newcombe, Hannah; Koontz, Sherry; Sweeney, Colin; Shivak, David A; Zarember, Kol A; Peshwa, Madhusudan V; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Malech, Harry L

    2016-04-01

    Gene therapy with genetically modified human CD34(+) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) may be safer using targeted integration (TI) of transgenes into a genomic 'safe harbor' site rather than random viral integration. We demonstrate that temporally optimized delivery of zinc finger nuclease mRNA via electroporation and adeno-associated virus (AAV) 6 delivery of donor constructs in human HSPCs approaches clinically relevant levels of TI into the AAVS1 safe harbor locus. Up to 58% Venus(+) HSPCs with 6-16% human cell marking were observed following engraftment into mice. In HSPCs from patients with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X-CGD), caused by mutations in the gp91phox subunit of the NADPH oxidase, TI of a gp91phox transgene into AAVS1 resulted in ∼15% gp91phox expression and increased NADPH oxidase activity in ex vivo-derived neutrophils. In mice transplanted with corrected HSPCs, 4-11% of human cells in the bone marrow expressed gp91phox. This method for TI into AAVS1 may be broadly applicable to correction of other monogenic diseases.

  4. Additive effects of repetition and predictability during comprehension: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing-Yee Chow

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that neural responses to words during sentence comprehension are sensitive to both lexical repetition and a word's predictability in context. While previous research has often contrasted the effects of these variables (e.g. by looking at cases in which word repetition violates sentence-level constraints, little is known about how they work in tandem. In the current study we examine how recent exposure to a word and its predictability in context combine to impact lexical semantic processing. We devise a novel paradigm that combines reading comprehension with a recognition memory task, allowing for an orthogonal manipulation of a word's predictability and its repetition status. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs, we show that word repetition and predictability have qualitatively similar and additive effects on the N400 amplitude. We propose that prior exposure to a word and predictability impact lexical semantic processing in an additive and independent fashion.

  5. Reduction of the oestrogenic effect of zearalenone in pigs by a feed additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endre Brydl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone is phenolic resorcyclic acid lactone produced by a number of Fusarium species grown on grains, predominantly on maize, in high moisture environment. Due to its oestrogenic effects, feeds contaminated with zearalenone can cause striking negative effects on reproduction primarily in pigs. The aim of the study was to test the efficiency of a feed additive developed for enzymatic decomposition of mycotoxins. A total of sixty 6-week-old conventional Dutch Landrace × Hungarian Large White F1 female pigs weaned at 30 ± 2 days of age were divided into 6 groups of 10 animals. Between 50 and 70 days of age, 4 groups of pigs (experimental were treated with zearalenone (8 or 16 mg/pig dose administered every other day via an oesophageal tube; pigs from the other two groups were not treated with zearalenone and served as controls. Throughout the experiment, the diet of two experimental groups and one control group was supplemented with a feed additive (named: Detoxa Plus at a concentration of 1 kg/tonne; pigs from the other control group received neither zearalenone treatment, nor the feed additive. Pigs’ live weight, weight of ovaries and uterus, histological characteristics of the ovaries, uterus, vagina, spleen and lymph nodes, liver concentrations of zearalenone and its metabolites (α- and β-zearalenol were studied. This study showed the preventive capacity of the feed additive against zearalenone. Positive effects included the prevention of uterine enlargement, beneficial effects on the histopathological scores of ovaries, uterus and vagina and reduced concentration of zearalenone and metabolites in the liver. This study demonstrates for the first time that due to its enzymatic activity Detoxa Plus renders zearalenone contaminated feeds less toxic.

  6. Effect of Fruit Addition on the Quality Characteristics of Tahini Halva

    OpenAIRE

    SOYDİNÇ, Hülya; BAŞYİĞİT, Bülent; HAYOĞLU, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to make Tahini Halva which incorporated with 10, 15 and 20% fruits (raisins and apricots) and to investigate effect on sensory and chemical properties of Tahini halva of addition of fruit during storage. Moreover, tahini halva produced plain compared with halva that added fruits.  Dry matter, ash, crude fiber, protein, sugar, fat, acidity in oil which was extracted, peroxide and refractive index determinations were analyzed in Halva.  According to statistical eva...

  7. Effect of vitamin D therapy in addition to amitriptyline on migraine attacks in pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cayir,A.; Turan,M.I.; Tan,H.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of supplementary vitamin D therapy in addition to amitriptyline on the frequency of migraine attacks in pediatric migraine patients. Fifty-three children 8-16 years of age and diagnosed with migraine following the International Headache Society 2005 definition, which includes childhood criteria, were enrolled. Patients were classified into four groups on the basis of their 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. Group 1 had normal 25(OH)D ...

  8. Academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement : mediating and additive effects

    OpenAIRE

    Guay, Frédéric; Ratelle, Catherine; Roy, Amélie; Litalien, David

    2010-01-01

    Three conceptual models were tested to examine the relationships among academic self-concept, autonomous academic motivation, and academic achievement. This allowed us to determine whether 1) autonomous academic motivation mediates the relation between academic self-concept and achievement, 2) academic self-concept mediates the relation between autonomous academic motivation and achievement, or 3) both motivational constructs have an additive effect on academic achievement. A total of 925 hig...

  9. The Effect of Sawdust Addition to Physical Body of Kidul Clay Based Earthware Ceramic

    OpenAIRE

    Sundari, Komang Nelly

    2016-01-01

    The research on "The Effect of the addition of sawdust on the physical properties of ceramic body of Kidul clay-based Earthenware " has been performed with different percentages. The sawdust used is wood shavings waste ofbuilding materials. Based on the results ofehemical analysis, sawdust is known to have a tendency as a fuser, whereas Kidul clay contain enough clay substance / loam, feldspar and quartz minerals. This study aims to determine the physical properties of the composite body peri...

  10. Filtration of harmonics in traction transformer substations, positive side effects on the additional harmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Kolář, Václav; Kocman, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    The article deals with harmonics filtration in railway traction transformer substations. In traction transforms substations in the Czech Republic there are filters of 3rd and 5th harmonics. The article discuses side effect of these filters – suppression of additional harmonics. The article is based on measurement and simulation results. Przedstawiono metodę filtracji harmonicznych w trakcyjnej podstacji transformatorowej. Przedfstawiono wyniki symulacji i pomiarów. Web of Science ...

  11. Effect of Ternary Addition of Iron on Shape Memory Characteristics of Cu-Al Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, T. N.; Sampath, V.

    2011-07-01

    The effect of alloying Cu-Al alloys with Fe on their transformation temperatures and shape memory properties was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and bend test. It was found that the minor additions of iron resulted in change of transformation temperatures and led to excellent shape memory properties of the alloys. Since the transformation temperatures are high, they are an ideal choice for high-temperature applications.

  12. Effect of the chlortetracycline addition method on methane production from the anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lu; Wen, Xin; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yongde; Ma, Baohua; Liao, Xindi; Liang, Juanboo; Wu, Yinbao

    2014-10-01

    Effects of antibiotic residues on methane production in anaerobic digestion are commonly studied using the following two antibiotic addition methods: (1) adding manure from animals that consume a diet containing antibiotics, and (2) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics. This study used chlortetracycline (CTC) as a model antibiotic to examine the effects of the antibiotic addition method on methane production in anaerobic digestion under two different swine wastewater concentrations (0.55 and 0.22mg CTC/g dry manure). The results showed that CTC degradation rate in which manure was directly added at 0.55mg CTC/g (HSPIKE treatment) was lower than the control values and the rest of the treatment groups. Methane production from the HSPIKE treatment was reduced (pproduction under different antibiotic addition methods might be explained by the microbial activity and the concentrations of antibiotic intermediate products and metabolites. Because the primary entry route of veterinary antibiotics into an anaerobic digester is by contaminated animal manure, the most appropriate method for studying antibiotic residue effects on methane production may be using manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than adding the antibiotic directly to the anaerobic digester. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effect of Addition of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. on the Quality of Protein Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed-Ahmad Bouchra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare L. is an aromatic plant belonging to Apiaceae family widely cultivated elsewhere for its strongly flavoured leaves and seeds. Fennel seeds are of particular interest as a rich source of both vegetable and essential oils with high amounts of valuable components. However, residual cakes after oil extraction were typically considered as byproducts, in the present framework, the potential added value of these cakes was studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of addition of fennel cake and seeds to protein bread quality. In the current research, a single-screw extruder, which is a solvent-free technique, was used for fennel seed oil extraction. For the protein bread making, fennel seed and cake flour in concentrations from 1 to 6% were used. Moisture, colour L*a*b*, hardness, total phenolic concentration, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and nutritional value of protein bread were determined. The addition of fennel cake and seeds had significant (p < 0.05 effect on bread crumb colour and hardness attribute, whereby the bread became darker and harder in texture than the control. Moreover, higher antioxidant activity and total phenolic concentration were observed for both protein breads enriched with fennel cake and seed flour. The overall results showed that addition of fennel cake and seed had beneficial effects on phenolic concentration, antioxidant activity and quality of protein bread. This result suggests also that added value of fennel seeds oil by-products could be increased by their utilisation in bread production.

  14. Combined effects of additive elements on the magnetic properties of Fe-Nd-B sintered magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowicz, M.; Kaszuwara, W.

    1996-01-01

    Combined effects of additional elements on the magnetic properties of sintered Fe-Nd-B magnets were studied for two systems: containing both Al or Co and Al and Mo, respectively. It was found that the magnets containing Al and Co exhibit substantially higher coercivities than those with additions of only Al or Co. The improved coercivity for the alloys containing Al and Co, when compared with the quaternary alloys, we attribute to a reduced proportion of the soft magnetic inclusions in the grain boundary area. The investigation of combined effects of Al and Mo additions on the magnetic properties revealed that although both Al and Mo when added separately enhance the properties, their combined effect brought about deterioration of the coercivity. X-ray microanalysis detected Mo, Fe, Nd and Al rich inclusions, existence of which was considered to be the reason for a poor magnetic decoupling of the hard magnetic grains and drop of the coercivity. The magnetic, properties were discussed in the light of phase constitution and their possible influence on the magnetization reversal. Three dimensional diagrams of the magnetic properties versus composition were composed. (author)

  15. Effect of the addition of fibreglass waste on the properties of dried and fired clay bricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzlena, S.; Sakale, G.; Certoks, S.; Grase, L.

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the addition of fibreglass waste on the properties of the dried and fired clay bricks. Different amounts of waste glass (0 – 10 wt %) were added to the original brick clay and fired at 1000 °C. The effects on the technological properties of the bricks such as compressive strength, water absorption and density after firing were investigated. Also cracks and fibreglass influence in dried and fired samples were analysed by digital camera and SEM-EDX analysis.

  16. Pleiotropic Effects of Variants in Dementia Genes in Parkinson Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ibanez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of dementia in Parkinson disease (PD increases dramatically with advancing age, approaching 80% in patients who survive 20 years with the disease. Increasing evidence suggests clinical, pathological and genetic overlap between Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia with PD. However, the contribution of the dementia-causing genes to PD risk, cognitive impairment and dementia in PD is not fully established.Objective: To assess the contribution of coding variants in Mendelian dementia-causing genes on the risk of developing PD and the effect on cognitive performance of PD patients.Methods: We analyzed the coding regions of the amyloid-beta precursor protein (APP, Presenilin 1 and 2 (PSEN1, PSEN2, and Granulin (GRN genes from 1,374 PD cases and 973 controls using pooled-DNA targeted sequence, human exome-chip and whole-exome sequencing (WES data by single variant and gene base (SKAT-O and burden tests analyses. Global cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE or the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA. The effect of coding variants in dementia-causing genes on cognitive performance was tested by multiple regression analysis adjusting for gender, disease duration, age at dementia assessment, study site and APOE carrier status.Results: Known AD pathogenic mutations in the PSEN1 (p.A79V and PSEN2 (p.V148I genes were found in 0.3% of all PD patients. There was a significant burden of rare, likely damaging variants in the GRN and PSEN1 genes in PD patients when compared with frequencies in the European population from the ExAC database. Multiple regression analysis revealed that PD patients carrying rare variants in the APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, and GRN genes exhibit lower cognitive tests scores than non-carrier PD patients (p = 2.0 × 10−4, independent of age at PD diagnosis, age at evaluation, APOE status or recruitment site.Conclusions: Pathogenic mutations in

  17. Effects of V addition on recrystallization resistance of 7150 aluminum alloy after simulative hot deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jing; Shi, Cangji; Chen, X.-Grant, E-mail: xgrant_chen@uqac.ca

    2014-10-15

    The effects of different V contents (0.01 to 0.19 wt.%) on the recrystallization resistance of 7150 aluminum alloys during post-deformation heat treatment were investigated. The microstructural evolutions at as-cast, as-homogenized conditions and after post-deformation annealing were studied using optical, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopes and using the electron backscattered diffraction technique. The precipitation of Al{sub 21}V{sub 2} dispersoids was observed in alloys containing 0.11 to 0.19 wt.% V after homogenization. The dispersoids were mainly distributed in the dendrite cells, and the precipitate-free zones occurred in the interdendritic regions and near grain boundaries. V addition could significantly enhance the recrystallization resistance during post-deformation annealing, particularly in the presence of a great number of Al{sub 21}V{sub 2} dispersoids. Recrystallized grain growth was effectively restricted because of the dispersoid pinning effect. The alloy containing 0.15 wt.% V exhibited the highest recrystallization resistance amongst all V-containing alloys studied. - Highlights: • Investigated the effect of V level on microstructure and flow stress of 7150 alloys • Characterized microstructures using optical microscopy, SEM, TEM and EBSD • Described the precipitation behavior of V-dispersoids in the dendritic structure • Studied the V effect on recrystallization resistance during post heat treatment • V addition greatly enhanced the recrystallization resistance during annealing.

  18. Additive effect of calcium depletion and low resource quality on Gammarus fossarum (Crustacea, Amphipoda) life history traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Marc; Coulaud, Romain; Danger, Michael; Sohm, Bénédicte; Flayac, Justine; Bec, Alexandre; Chaumot, Arnaud; Geffard, Olivier; Felten, Vincent

    2017-06-17

    Gammarus fossarum is an often-abundant crustacean detritivore that contributes importantly to leaf litter breakdown in oligotrophic, mainly heterotrophic, headwater streams. This species requires large amounts of Ca to moult, thus allowing growth and reproduction. Because resource quality is tightly coupled to the organism's growth and physiological status, we hypothesised that low Ca concentration [Ca] and low food resource quality (low phosphorus [P] and/or reduced highly unsaturated fatty acid [HUFA] contents) would interactively impair molecular responses (gene expression) and reproduction of G. fossarum. To investigate the effects of food resources quality, we experimentally manipulated the P content of sycamore leaves and also used diatoms because they contain high amounts of HUFAs. Three resource quality treatments were tested: low quality (LQ, unmanipulated leaves: low P content), high quality 1 (HQ1; P-manipulated leaves: high P content), and high quality 2 (unmanipulated leaves supplemented with a pellet containing diatoms: high P and HUFA content). Naturally, demineralised stream water was supplemented with CaSO 4 to obtain three Ca concentrations (2, 3.5, and 10.5 mg Ca L -1 ). For 21 days, pairs of G. fossarum were individually exposed to one of the nine treatments (3 [Ca] × 3 resource qualities). At the individual level, strong and significant delays in moult stage were observed in gammarids exposed to lower [Ca] and to lower resource quality, with additive effects lengthening the duration of the reproductive cycle. Effects at the molecular level were investigated by measuring expression of 12 genes involved in energy production, translation, or Ca or P homeostasis. Expression of ATP synthase beta (higher in HQ2), calcified cuticle protein (higher in HQ1 and HQ2), and tropomyosin (higher in HQ2 compared to HQ1) was significantly affected by resource quality, and significant additive effects on Ca transporting ATPase expression were induced by

  19. Gene expression suggests double-segmental and single-segmental patterning mechanisms during posterior segment addition in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In the model arthropod Drosophila, all segments are patterned simultaneously in the blastoderm. In most other arthropods, however, posterior segments are added sequentially from a posterior segment addition zone. Posterior addition of single segments likely represents the ancestral mode of arthropod segmentation, although in Drosophila, segments are patterned in pairs by the pair-rule genes. It has been shown that in the new model insect, the beetle Tribolium, a segmentation clock operates that apparently patterns all segments in pairs as well. Here, I report on the expression of the segment polarity gene H15/midline in Tribolium. In the anterior embryo, segmental stripes of H15 appear in pairs, but in the posterior of the embryo stripes appear in a single-segmental periodicity. This implies that either two completely different segmentation-mechanisms may act in the germ band of Tribolium, that the segmentation clock changes its periodicity during development, or that the speed in which posterior segments are patterned changes. In any case, the data suggest the presence of another (or modified), yet undiscovered, mechanism of posterior segment addition in one of the best-understood arthropod models. The finding of a hitherto unrecognized segmentation mechanism in Tribolium may have major implications for the understanding of the origin of segmentation mechanisms, including the origin of pair rule patterning. It also calls for (re)-investigation of posterior segment addition in Tribolium and other previously studied arthropod models.

  20. Systematic Search for Gene-Gene Interaction Effect on Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    interact to have stronger effects on PCa risk. 3 4) (Months 3-12) Bayesian epistasis association mapping (BEAM) to identify pairs of SNPs that...in the signaling network that is crucial for the well-being of prostatic cells whereas the genetic variants located within these two genes may...implicated in the top hits of interactions in Type 1 Diabetes and Type 2 Diabetes displayed weak main effects [44,45]. Culverhouse et al. also

  1. The Additive Effects of Core Muscle Strengthening and Trunk NMES on Trunk Balance in Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eun Jae; Chun, Min Ho; Kim, Dae Yul; Yi, Jin Hwa; Kim, Won; Hong, Jayoung

    2016-02-01

    To investigate an additive effect of core muscle strengthening (CMS) and trunk neuromuscular electrical stimulation (tNEMS) on trunk balance in stroke patients. Thirty patients with acute or subacute stroke who were unable to maintain static sitting balance for >5 minutes were enrolled and randomly assigned to 3 groups, i.e., patients in the CMS (n=10) group received additional CMS program; the tNMES group (n=10) received additional tNMES over the posterior back muscles; and the combination (CMS and tNMES) group (n=10) received both treatments. Each additional treatment was performed 3 times per week for 20 minutes per day over 3 weeks. Korean version of Berg Balance Scale (K-BBS), total score of postural assessment scale for stroke patients (PASS), Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), and Korean version of Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI) were evaluated before and after 3 weeks of therapeutic intervention. All 3 groups showed improvements in K-BBS, PASS, TIS, and K-MBI after therapeutic interventions, with some differences. The combination group showed more improvements in K-BBS and the dynamic sitting balance of TIS, as compared to the CMS group; and more improvement in K-BBS, as compared to the tNMES group. The results indicated an additive effect of CMS and tNMES on the recovery of trunk balance in patients with acute or subacute stroke who have poor sitting balance. Simultaneous application of CMS and tNMES should be considered when designing a rehabilitation program to improve trunk balance in stroke patients.

  2. The effect of additional physiotherapy to hospital inpatients outside of regular business hours: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusco, Natasha K; Paratz, Jennifer

    2006-12-01

    Provision of out of regular business hours (OBH) physiotherapy to hospital inpatients is widespread in the hospital setting. This systematic review evaluated the effect of additional OBH physiotherapy services on patient length of stay (LOS), pulmonary complications, discharge destination, discharge mobility status, quality of life, cost saving, adverse events, and mortality compared with physiotherapy only within regular business hours. A literature search was completed on databases with citation tracking using key words. Two reviewers completed data extraction and quality assessment independently by using modified scales for historical cohorts and case control studies as well as the PEDro scale for randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials. This search identified nine articles of low to medium quality. Four reported a significant reduction in LOS associated with additional OBH physiotherapy, with two articles reporting overall significance and two reporting only for specific subgroups. Two studies reported significant reduction in pulmonary complications for two different patient groups in an intensive care unit (ICU) with additional OBH physiotherapy. Three studies accounted for discharge destination and/or discharge mobility status with no significant difference reported. Quality of life, adverse events, and mortality were not reported in any studies. Cost savings were considered in three studies, with two reporting a cost saving. This systematic review was unable to conclude that the provision of additional OBH physiotherapy made significant improvement to patient outcomes for all subgroups of inpatients. One study in critical care reported that overnight physiotherapy decreased LOS and reduced pulmonary complications of patients in the ICU. However, the studies in the area of orthopaedics, neurology, postcardiac surgery, and rheumatology, which all considered additional daytime weekend physiotherapy intervention, did not provide

  3. Assessing the effect, on animal model, of mixture of food additives, on the water balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Mariola; Kuchlewska, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, on the animal model, the effect of modification of diet composition and administration of selected food additives on water balance in the body. The study was conducted with 48 males and 48 females (separately for each sex) of Wistar strain rats divided into four groups. For drinking, the animals from groups I and III were receiving water, whereas the animals from groups II and IV were administered 5 ml of a solution of selected food additives (potassium nitrate - E 252, sodium nitrite - E 250, benzoic acid - E 210, sorbic acid - E 200, and monosodium glutamate - E 621). Doses of the administered food additives were computed taking into account the average intake by men, expressed per body mass unit. Having drunk the solution, the animals were provided water for drinking. The mixture of selected food additives applied in the experiment was found to facilitate water retention in the body both in the case of both male and female rats, and differences observed between the volume of ingested fluids and the volume of excreted urine were statistically significant in the animals fed the basal diet. The type of feed mixture provided to the animals affected the site of water retention - in the case of animals receiving the basal diet analyses demonstrated a significant increase in water content in the liver tissue, whereas in the animals fed the modified diet water was observed to accumulate in the vascular bed. Taking into account the fact of water retention in the vascular bed, the effects of food additives intake may be more adverse in the case of females.

  4. Liraglutide, leptin and their combined effects on feeding: additive intake reduction through common intracellular signalling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoski, S E; Ong, Z Y; Fortin, S M; Schlessinger, E S; Grill, H J

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the behavioural and intracellular mechanisms by which the glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, liraglutide, and leptin in combination enhance the food intake inhibitory and weight loss effects of either treatment alone. We examined the effects of liraglutide (a long-acting GLP-1 analogue) and leptin co-treatment, delivered in low or moderate doses subcutaneously (s.c.) or to the third ventricle, respectively, on cumulative intake, meal patterns and hypothalamic expression of intracellular signalling proteins [phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (pSTAT3) and protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B)] in lean rats. A low-dose combination of liraglutide (25 µg/kg) and leptin (0.75 µg) additively reduced cumulative food intake and body weight, a result mediated predominantly through a significant reduction in meal frequency that was not present with either drug alone. Liraglutide treatment alone also reduced meal size; an effect not enhanced with leptin co-administration. Moderate doses of liraglutide (75 µg/kg) and leptin (4 µg), examined separately, each reduced meal frequency, cumulative food intake and body weight; only liraglutide reduced meal size. In combination these doses did not further enhance the anorexigenic effects of either treatment alone. Ex vivo immunoblot analysis showed elevated pSTAT3 in the hypothalamic tissue after liraglutide-leptin co-treatment, an effect which was greater than that of leptin treatment alone. In addition, s.c. liraglutide reduced the expression of PTP1B (a negative regulator of leptin receptor signalling), revealing a potential mechanism for the enhanced pSTAT3 response after liraglutide-leptin co-administration. Collectively, these results show novel behavioural and molecular mechanisms underlying the additive reduction in food intake and body weight after liraglutide-leptin combination treatment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Synergistic effect between nano-ceramic lubricating additives and electroless deposited Ni-W-P coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Cheng, Wushan; Zhao, Zuxin; Huang, Xiaobo

    2013-01-01

    The major solving ways for the material wear are surface modification and lubrication. Currently, the researches at home and abroad are all limited to the single study of either nano-lubricating oil additive or electroless deposited coating. The surface coating has high hardness and high wear resistance, however, the friction reduction performance of the coating with high hardness is not good, the thickness of the coating is limited, and the coating can not regenerate after wearing. The nano-lubricating additives have good tribological performance and self-repair function, but under heavy load, the self-repair rate to the worn surface with the nano-additives is smaller than the wearing rate of the friction pair. To solve the above problems, the Ni-W-P alloy coating and deposition process with excellent anti-wear, and suitable for industrial application were developed, the optimum bath composition and process can be obtained by studying the influence of the bath composition, temperature and PH value to the deposition rate and the plating solution stability. The tribological properties as well as anti-wear and friction reduction mechanism of wear self-repair nano-ceramic lubricating additives are also studied. The ring-block abrasion testing machine and energy dispersive spectrometer are used to explore the internal relation between the coating and the nano-lubricating oil additives, and the tribology mechanism, to seek the synergetic effect between the two. The test results show that the wear resistance of Ni-W-P alloy coating (with heat treatment and in oil with nano-ceramic additives) has increased hundreds times than 45 steel as the metal substrate in basic oil, the friction reduction performance is improved. This research breaks through the bottleneck of previous separate research of the above-mentioned two methods, and explores the combination use of the two methods in industrial field.

  6. The effect of the humic acid and herbal additive supplement on production parameters of broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Pistová

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of humic acids and dietary herbal additive (clove (Syzygium aromaticum, lavender (Lavendula angustifolia and black pepper (Piper nigrum L. on production parameters of broiler chicken were studied.  A total of 60 Ross 308 broiler chicken were divided into 3 treatments (n=20. The control group of chickens was fed with complete feed mixtures without any additives. Chicken in treatment T1 were fed a diet containing 1% of humic acid and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. Chicken in treatment T2 were fed with complete feed mixture without any additives and drank a water containing 150 mg/l of herbal additive. The body weight, feed intake and feed conversion were evaluated. The results shout that the body weight was significantly higher (P≤0.05 in treatments groups compared to the control group (the order of the groups: 1796.4±188.1; 2052.9±197.9 and 2140.4±300.4 g±SD. The feed intake was in the control group 3.11 kg, in the treatment T1 3.00 kg and in the treatment T2 3.12 kg. Feed conversion for the entire fattening period was in control group 2.19 kg/kg complete feed mixture, in the treatment T1 1.83 kg/kg complete feed mixture and in the treatment T2 1.84 kg/kg complete feed mixture with no significant different (P≥0.05 compared to control group. In conclusion, supplement by humic acid and herbal additive can improve production parameters of broiler chicken.

  7. Additive effects of physical exercise and environmental enrichment on adult hippocampal neurogenesis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Fabel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary physical exercise (wheel running, RUN and environmental enrichment (ENR both stimulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis but do so by different mechanisms. RUN induces precursor cell proliferation, whereas ENR exerts a survival-promoting effect on newborn cells. In addition, continued RUN prevented the physiologically occurring age-related decline in precursor cell in the dentate gyrus but did not lead to a corresponding increase in net neurogenesis. We hypothesized that in the absence of appropriate cognitive stimuli the potential for neurogenesis could not be realized but that an increased potential by proliferating precursor cells due to RUN could actually lead to more adult neurogenesis if an appropriate survival-promoting stimulus follows the exercise. We thus asked whether a sequential combination of RUN and ENR (RUNENR would show additive effects that are distinct from the application of either paradigm alone. We found that the effects of 10 days of RUN followed by 35 days of ENR were additive in that the combined stimulation yielded an approximately 30% greater increase in new neurons than either stimulus alone, which also increased neurogenesis. Surprisingly, this result indicates that although overall the amount of proliferating cells in the dentate gyrus is poorly predictive of net adult neurogenesis, an increased neurogenic potential nevertheless provides the basis for a greater efficiency of the same survival-promoting stimulus. We thus propose that physical activity can “prime” the neurogenic region of the dentate gyrus for increased neurogenesis in the case the animal is exposed to an additional cognitive stimulus, here represented by the enrichment paradigm.

  8. Impacts of addition of natural zeolite or a nitrification inhibitor on antibiotic resistance genes during sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junya; Chen, Meixue; Sui, Qianwen; Tong, Juan; Jiang, Chao; Lu, Xueting; Zhang, Yuxiu; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-03-15

    Composting is commonly used for the treatment and resource utilization of sewage sludge, and natural zeolite and nitrification inhibitors can be used for nitrogen conservation during sludge composting, while their impacts on ARGs control are still unclear. Therefore, three lab-scale composting reactors, A (the control), B (natural zeolite addition) and C (nitrification inhibitor addition of 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate, DMPP), were established. The impacts of natural zeolite and DMPP on the levels of ARGs were investigated, as were the roles that heavy metals, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and the bacterial community play in ARGs evolution. The results showed that total ARGs copies were enriched 2.04 and 1.95 times in reactors A and C, respectively, but were reduced by 1.5% in reactor B due to the reduction of conjugation and co-selection of heavy metals caused by natural zeolite. Although some ARGs (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, ermB, ereA and tetW) were reduced by 0.3-2 logs, others (ermF, sulI, sulII, tetG, tetX, mefA and aac(6')-Ib-cr) increased by 0.3-1.3 logs after sludge composting. Although the contributors for the ARGs profiles in different stages were quite different, the results of a partial redundancy analysis, Mantel test and Procrustes analysis showed that the bacterial community was the main contributor to the changes in ARGs compared to MGEs and heavy metals. Network analysis determined the potential host bacteria for various ARGs and further confirmed our results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. GENES, IN ADDITION TO TOLL-LIKE RECEPTOR 2, PLAY A ROLE IN ANTIBACTERIAL DEFENSE TO STREPTOCOCCAL PNEUMONIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streptococcus infection in human populations continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality. To evaluate the effect of genetic background and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) on antibacterial defense to streptococcal infection, eight genetically diverse strains of mic...

  10. Beyond the single gene: How epistasis and gene-by-environment effects influence crop domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doust, Andrew N; Lukens, Lewis; Olsen, Kenneth M; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Meyer, Ann; Rogers, Kimberly

    2014-04-29

    Domestication is a multifaceted evolutionary process, involving changes in individual genes, genetic interactions, and emergent phenotypes. There has been extensive discussion of the phenotypic characteristics of plant domestication, and recent research has started to identify the specific genes and mutational mechanisms that control domestication traits. However, there is an apparent disconnect between the simple genetic architecture described for many crop domestication traits, which should facilitate rapid phenotypic change under selection, and the slow rate of change reported from the archeobotanical record. A possible explanation involves the middle ground between individual genetic changes and their expression during development, where gene-by-gene (epistatic) and gene-by-environment interactions can modify the expression of phenotypes and opportunities for selection. These aspects of genetic architecture have the potential to significantly slow the speed of phenotypic evolution during crop domestication and improvement. Here we examine whether epistatic and gene-by-environment interactions have shaped how domestication traits have evolved. We review available evidence from the literature, and we analyze two domestication-related traits, shattering and flowering time, in a mapping population derived from a cross between domesticated foxtail millet and its wild progenitor. We find that compared with wild progenitor alleles, those favored during domestication often have large phenotypic effects and are relatively insensitive to genetic background and environmental effects. Consistent selection should thus be able to rapidly change traits during domestication. We conclude that if phenotypic evolution was slow during crop domestication, this is more likely due to cultural or historical factors than epistatic or environmental constraints.

  11. Effects of Ag addition on the microstructures and properties of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Li-zi; Cao, Yi-heng; Zhou, Yi-zhou; Cui, Jian-zhong

    2018-01-01

    Effects of Ag addition on the microstructures, aging characteristics, tensile properties, electrochemical properties, and intergranular corrosion (IGC) properties of Al-1.1Mg-0.8Si-0.9Cu-0.35Mn-0.02Ti alloy were investigated using scanning electronic microscopy and transmission electronic microscopy. The aging process of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys was accelerated by the addition of Ag. The strength of peak-aged Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys was enhanced by Ag addition because of the high density of β″- and L-phase age-hardening precipitates. The corrosion performance of the Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloy is closely related to the aging conditions and is independent of the Ag content. The IGC susceptibility is serious in the peak-aged alloy because of the continuous distribution of Cu-rich Q-phase precipitates along grain boundaries. Ag addition reduces the size of the grain-boundary-precipitate Q phase and the width of the precipitate-free zone and thus results in decreased IGC susceptibility of Al-Mg-Si-Cu alloys.

  12. Effects of beta-glucan addition to a probiotic containing yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiljevic, T; Kealy, T; Mishra, V K

    2007-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of addition of beta-glucan from 2 different cereal sources (oat and barley) on growth and metabolic activity of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis (Bb-12) as determined by plating on a selective medium in yogurt during prolonged cold storage. These yogurt batches were compared to unsupplemented and inulin supplemented controls. All batches were also assessed for syneresis. Oat beta-glucan addition resulted in improved probiotic viability and stability comparable to that of inulin. It also enhanced lactic and propionic acid production. The barley beta-glucan addition suppressed proteolytic activity more than that from oat. These improvements were hindered by greater syneresis caused likely by thermodynamic incompatibility. Small amplitude oscillatory measurements of acidified model mixture of beta-glucan/skim milk solids showed formation of casein gel within the beta-glucan network. Binary mixtures of beta-glucan and skim milk solids had apparent pseudoplastic and non-Newtonian behavior governed mainly by beta-glucan contribution. Above critical concentrations, the mixtures underwent phase separation with the lower phase rich in protein. The phase diagram also showed that the addition of beta-glucan may be possible at or below 0.24 w/w%.

  13. Effects of emulsifier addition on the crystallization and melting behavior of palm olein and coconut oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Jessica Mayumi; Soares, Fabiana Andreia Schafer De Martini; D'Agostinho, Natalia Roque; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Almeida; Gioielli, Luiz Antonio; da Silva, Roberta Claro

    2014-03-12

    Two commercial emulsifiers (EM1 and EM2), containing predominantly monoacylglycerols (MAGs), were added in proportiond of 1.0 and 3.0% (w/w) to coconut oil and palm olein. EM1 consisted of approximately 90% MAGs, whereas EM2 consisted of approximately 50% MAGs. The crystallization behavior of these systems was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and microscopy under polarized light. On the basis of DSC results, it was clear that the addition of EM2 accelerated the crystallization of coconut oil and delayed the crystallization of palm olein. In both oils EM2 addition led to the formation of smaller spherulites, and these effects improved the possibilities for using these fats as ingredients. In coconut oil the spherulites were maintained even at higher temperatures (20 °C). The addition of EM1 to coconut oil changed the crystallization pattern. In palm olein, the addition of 3.0% (w/w) of this emulsifier altered the pattern of crystallization of this fat.

  14. Effect of some addition agents on the electrodeposition of cadmium from acidic chloride baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Halim, A.M.; Baghlaf, A.O.; Sobahi, M.I.

    1984-01-01

    A further development of a chloride-based cadmium plating bath containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 and 2.0 M NH 4 Cl (bath I) is described. The influences of the individual addition agents thiourea, coumarin Ni 2+ ions and I - ions on the characteristics of cadmium electrodeposition from acidic chloride electrolytes containing 0.3 M CdCl 2 .(5/2)H 2 O, 0.1 M HCl, 0.4 M H 3 BO 3 , 2.0 M NH 4 Cl, 0.5 M sodium potassium tartrate and 5 g gelatin l -1 (bath II) were studied. Bath II including a combination of the four above-mentioned additives was denoted bath III. The additive-containing bath III produced a brighter but less hard cadmium deposit than the additive-free bath II. The individual effects of melamine, 3-methyl-4-p-methoxyphenylazopyrazol-5-one, dimethylformamide (DMF) and DMF with biacetyl-bis-(benzoylhydrazone) on the cathodic polarization and current efficiency of cadmium electrodeposition from baths II and III, as well as on the morphology and microhardness of the as-plated cadmium deposits, were investigated and discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Effect of fructo-oligosaccharide and isomalto-oligosaccharide addition on baking quality of frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Young; Jang, Sung-Bum; Lim, Seung-Taik

    2016-12-15

    The baking quality of frozen doughs containing different levels of fructo-oligosaccharides (FO) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) (3-9%, w/w flour), and stored for 0-8weeks at -18°C, was examined. The addition of FO or IMO increased the proof volume of the dough and the loaf volume of bread prepared from frozen dough. A 6% addition of FO or IMO was optimum, giving the highest proof volume and bread loaf volume, but a higher concentration than 6% induced low baking quality including lower proof volume and bread loaf volume. The bread crumb was moister and softer after the addition of FO or IMO before, and even after, frozen storage. Darker crumb colour was observed in the bread after the addition of FO or IMO. The oligosaccharides added to the frozen dough were effective in improving the quality of bread made from frozen dough, except for resulting in a darker bread crumb. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Effect of Refiner Addition Level on Zirconium-Containing Aluminium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaradeh, M M R; Carlberg, T

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that in aluminium alloys containing Zr, grain refiner additions do not function as desired, producing an effect often referred to as nuclei poisoning. This paper investigates the structure of direct chill-cast ingots of commercial AA3003 aluminium alloys, with and without Zr, at various addition levels of Al5Ti1B master alloy. In Bridgman experiments simulating ingot solidification, Zr-containing alloys were studied after the addition of various amounts of Ti. It could be demonstrated, in both ingot casting and simulation experiments, that Zr poisoning can be compensated for by adding more Ti and/or Al5Ti1B. The results confirm better refinement behaviour with the addition of Ti + B than of only Ti. The various combinations of Zr and Ti also influenced the formation of AlFeMn phases, and the precipitation of large Al 6 (Mn,Fe) particles was revealed. AlZrTiSi intermetallic compounds were also detected.

  17. Effect of Refiner Addition Level on Zirconium-Containing Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaradeh, M. M. R.; Carlberg, T.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that in aluminium alloys containing Zr, grain refiner additions do not function as desired, producing an effect often referred to as nuclei poisoning. This paper investigates the structure of direct chill-cast ingots of commercial AA3003 aluminium alloys, with and without Zr, at various addition levels of Al5Ti1B master alloy. In Bridgman experiments simulating ingot solidification, Zr-containing alloys were studied after the addition of various amounts of Ti. It could be demonstrated, in both ingot casting and simulation experiments, that Zr poisoning can be compensated for by adding more Ti and/or Al5Ti1B. The results confirm better refinement behaviour with the addition of Ti + B than of only Ti. The various combinations of Zr and Ti also influenced the formation of AlFeMn phases, and the precipitation of large Al6(Mn,Fe) particles was revealed. AlZrTiSi intermetallic compounds were also detected.

  18. Soluble organic additive effects on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedin, Pär; Lewis, Jennifer A; Bergström, Lennart

    2005-10-01

    The effect of polymer, plasticizer, and surfactant additives on stress development during drying of calcium carbonate particulate coatings was studied using a controlled-environment apparatus that simultaneously monitors drying stress, weight loss, and relative humidity. We found that the calcium carbonate coatings display a drying stress evolution typical of granular films, which is characterized by a sharp capillary-induced stress rise followed by a rapid stress relaxation. The addition of a soluble polymer to the CaCO3 suspension resulted in a two-stage stress evolution process. The initial stress rise stems from capillary-pressure-induced stresses within the film, while the second, larger stress rise occurs due to solidification and shrinkage of the polymeric species. Measurements on the corresponding pure polymer solutions established a clear correlation between the magnitude of residual stress in both the polymer and CaCO3-polymer films to the physical properties of the polymer phase, i.e. its glass transition temperature, T(g), and Young's modulus. The addition of small organic molecules can reduce the residual stress observed in the CaCO3-polymer films; e.g., glycerol, which acts as a plasticizer, reduces the drying stress by lowering T(g), while surfactant additions reduce the surface tension of the liquid phase, and, hence, the magnitude of the capillary pressure within the film.

  19. Experimental Investigations on the effect of Additive on the Tensile Properties of Fiber Glass Fabric Lamina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava Sai Divya, A.; Raghu Kumar, B., Dr; Lakshmi Narayana, G., Dr

    2017-09-01

    The main objective of this work is to investigate the effect of additives on tensile behaviour of fiber glass fabric at lamina level to explore an alternative skin material for the outer body of aerospace applications and machines. This experimental work investigates the effect of silica concentration in epoxy resin lapox L-12 on the tensile properties of glass fabric lamina of 4H-satin weave having 3.6 mm thickness. The lamina was prepared by using hand lay-up method and tests were conducted on it. Various tensile properties values obtained from experimentation were compared for four glass fiber lamina composites fabricated by adding the silica powder to resin bath. The effect of variations in silica concentration (0% SiO2, 5% SiO2, 10% SiO2 and 15% SiO2) on the tensile properties of prepared material revealed that maximum stiffness was obtained at 15% and yield strength at 10% SiO2 concentration in glass fiber lamina. Increasing the silica concentration beyond 10% had led to deterioration in the material properties. The experimentation that was carried out on test specimen was reasonably successful as the effect of silica powder as an additive in glass fiber lamina enhanced the mechanical properties up to certain limit. The underpinning microscopic behaviour at the source of these observations will be investigated in a follow up work.

  20. Additive effect of cysteinyl leukotriene or thromboxane modifiers to inhaled corticosteroids in asthmatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeharu Myou

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the conducting airways. Current asthma treatment guidelines recommend inhaled corticosteroids (ICS as the first-line maintenance therapy for mild to severe persistent asthma, because ICS are the most efficacious anti-inflammatory medication. Despite treatment with ICS, suppression of inflammation is often incomplete and blockade by ICS of cysteinyl leukotriene (CysLT and thromboxane (TX A2 biosynthesis is limited. The addition of a CysLT1 receptor antagonist to an ICS represents a reasonable alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of asthma patients whose symptoms remain uncontrolled on ICS alone. Indeed, CysLT1 receptor antagonists are demonstrated both to have an additive effect to ICS therapy and to allow the reduction of ICS dosage. Thromboxane modifiers also have an additive effect with low- to moderate-dose ICS. Although the long-term usefulness of add-on therapy of CysLT or TX modifiers (vs long-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonists to ICS is unclear, these alternatives are worthy of further consideration.

  1. Effects of boron addition on tensile and Charpy impact properties in high-phosphorous steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokmin; Lee, Junghoon [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyong Su [Next Generation Products Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-785 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sunghak, E-mail: shlee@postech.ac.kr [Center for Advanced Aerospace Materials, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-01

    In order to provide a new possibility for improving the steel-making productivity by fabricating plain carbon steels containing high phosphorous (P), effects of microstructures on tensile and Charpy impact properties were investigated in this study. Nine plain carbon steels were fabricated by controlling the addition of P and boron (B), and isothermal or quench heat-treatments were conducted on these steels to make ferrite–bainite-based or martensite-based microstructures. The addition of B positively influenced the grain refinement and the formation of bainites, thereby leading to the increase in strength. The upper shelf energy (USE) decreased with increasing P content, while the energy transition temperature (ETT) increased, in all the steels. The B addition beneficially affected both the USE and ETT as the dimpled ductile fracture mode prevailed in the B-added steels. This was because B preferentially covered grain boundaries, which reduced the grain boundary segregation of P. Thus, it effectively suppressed the intergranular fracture due to the segregation of P. According to the fractographic results, the increased tendency of intergranular fracture mode was observable in the 20-ppm-B-added steels rather than in the 10-ppm-B-added steels. When an excess amount of B, e.g., 20 ppm of B, was added, the severe segregation of B on grain boundaries occurred, and led to the precipitation of boro-carbides, which could act as intergranular crack initiation sites.

  2. Effects of maternally exposed food coloring additives on laryngeal histology in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başak, Kayhan; Doguç, Duygu Kumbul; Aylak, Firdevs; Karadayi, Nimet; Gültekin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Experimental reports showed carcinogenic effects of artificial food colors and additives (AFCAs) on many organs, including the head and neck region. We aimed to investigate the effect of AFCAs on laryngeal histomorphology and immunohistochemical expression in maternally exposed rats. "No observable adverse effect levels" of commonly used AFCAs as a mixture were given to female rats before and during gestation. Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings were evaluated in their offspring. Significant decreasing in goblet cell count and cilia loss were observed with AFCAs in maternally exposed rats (p<0.05). Immunohistochemically, the Ki67 index was significantly increased and villin expression was significantly reduced in laryngeal epithelium in the study group (p<0.05), whereas expression of cyclooxygenase type 2, Muc-2, Muc-5AC, p53, and epidermal growth factor receptors did not differ between the groups. This study demonstrated that maternal exposure of AFCAs plays a role in the mucosal defense system and possibly in carcinogenesis.

  3. Peripheral blood RNA gene expression profiling in illicit methcathinone users reveals effect on immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eSikk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Methcathinone (ephedrone is relatively easily accessible for abuse. Its users develop an extrapyramidal syndrome and it is not known if this is caused by methcathinone itself, by side-ingredients (manganese, or both. In the present study we aimed to clarify molecular mechanisms underlying this condition. We analyzed whole genome gene expression patterns of peripheral blood from 20 methcathinone users and 20 matched controls. Gene expression profile data was analyzed by Bayesian modelling and functional annotation. In order to verify the genechip results we performed quantitative real-time (RT PCR in selected genes. 326 out of analyzed 28,869 genes showed statistically significant differential expression with FDR adjusted p-values below 0.05. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed differential expression for the most of selected genes. Functional annotation and network analysis indicated that most of the genes were related to activation immunological disease, cellular movement and cardiovascular disease gene network (enrichment score 42. As HIV and HCV infections were confounding factors, we performed additional stratification of patients. A similar functional activation of the immunological disease pathway was evident when we compared patients according to the injection status (past versus current users, balanced for HIV and HCV infection. However, this difference was not large therefore the major effect was related to the HIV status of the patients. Mn-methcathinone abusers have blood transcriptional patterns mostly caused by their HIV and HCV infections.

  4. Ecotoxicological effects of a veterinary food additive, copper sulphate, on antioxidant enzymes and mRNA expression in earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wenguang; Ding, Xueyao; Zhang, Yiming; Sun, Yongxue

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of the veterinary food additive copper sulphate (CuSO₄) on the eco-toxicological responses of earthworms Eisenia fetida (E. fetida). The following biomarkers were measured: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Gene expression analyses such as metallothionein (MT) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were also examined. A time-dependent increase of CAT activity was found at 400 mg/kg and SOD activity at 200 and 400 mg/kg. The highest expression of Hsp70 (4.4-fold) was observed at day 15 at 400 mg/kg. Our results indicated that the measured antioxidant enzymes (except GST) had the ability to provide antioxidant defenses against the stressor; and compared to expression of MT, expression of Hsp70 could be more reliable molecular tools with predictive possibilities to monitor the eco-toxicity of stressors such as feed additive CuSO₄. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chromosomal position effects on AAV-mediated gene targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornea, Anda M; Russell, David W

    2010-06-01

    The effects of chromosomal position and neighboring genomic elements on gene targeting in human cells remain largely unexplored. To study these, we used a shuttle vector system in which murine leukemia virus (MLV)-based proviral targets present at different chromosomal locations and containing mutations in the neomycin phosphotransferase (neo) gene were corrected by adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene targeting. Sixteen identical target loci present in HT-1080 human sarcoma cells were all successfully corrected by gene targeting. The gene targeting frequencies varied by as much as 10-fold, and there was a clear bias for correction of one of the targets in clones containing two target sites. The targeting frequency at each site was correlated to the proximity and density of various genomic elements, and we found a significant association of higher targeting frequencies at loci near a subset of dinucleotide microsatellite repeats (r = -0.55, P targeting frequencies at the target loci (r = 0.52, P targeting frequencies. Our results indicate that certain chromosomal positions are preferred sites for gene targeting in human cells.

  6. The delayed effect of mustard gas on housekeeping gene expression in lung biopsy of chemical injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghtedardoost, Marzieh; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Askari, Nayereh; Sadeghipour, Alireza; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghafarpour, Sara; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2017-09-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) was used as a chemical weapon in Iraq-Iran war. Exposed people have major complications in important organs such as pulmonary system. Some studies have shown that SM could affect the expression of endogenous genes and non-housekeeping genes, time dependently. To understand the accurate molecular mechanism of the delayed effect of SM, the identification of the gene expression pattern in these patients is essential. Hence, we have evaluated mRNA expression of four common housekeeping genes (ACTIN, PGK1, β2m, GAPDH) in SM-exposed and non-exposed (control) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human lung tissues. Paraffin block of lung biopsy of SM-exposed people (11 cases) and people without exposure to SM as control group (9 cases) have been selected. The mRNA expression of four endogenous control genes has been evaluated by qRT-PCR. The stability value of each gene was calculated by different methods. It was found that ACTIN mRNA has the highest expression (30.26±2.87) and PGK1 has the lowest standard deviation (SD) (30.885±2.215) between pooled groups. The best correlation was between ACTIN and PGK1 expressions. The M value has shown that ACTIN and then PGK1 are the most stable housekeeping genes among. The results obtained from the GeNorm and NormFinder have indicated that the pair ACTIN- PGK1 is the most suitable choice for endogenous control genes. ACTIN and PGK1 genes are stable in studied lung tissues and are the better than two other housekeeping genes. In addition, mustard gas does not affect their expression in long term.

  7. Time-Delay Effects on Constitutive Gene Expression*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yan-Ling; Wang Dan; Tang Xu-Lei; Dong Jian-Min

    2017-01-01

    The dynamics of constitutive gene expression with delayed mRNA degradation is investigated, where the intrinsic noise caused by the small number of reactant molecules is introduced. It is found that the oscillatory behavior claimed in previous investigations does not appear in the approximation of small time delay, and the steady state distribution still follows the Poisson law. Furthermore, we introduce the extrinsic noise induced by surrounding environment to explore the effects of this noise and time delay on the Fano factor. Based on a delay Langevin equation and the corresponding Fokker–Planck equation, the distribution of mRNA copy-number is achieved analytically. The time delay and extrinsic noise play similar roles in the gene expression system, that is, they are able to result in the deviation of the Fano factor from 1 evidently. The measured Fano factor for constitutive gene expression is slightly larger than 1, which is perhaps attributed to the time-delay effect. (paper)

  8. The effects of addition of citric acid on the morphologies of ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Zao; Liu Quanhui; Yang Lei

    2007-01-01

    ZnO nanorods of 25-100 nm in diameter and 0.2-1 μm in length were fabricated through citric acid assisted annealing process. The microstructure of ZnO nanorods was characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. As a result, it was found that ZnO nanorods were single crystalline and pure. The effects of the growth conditions such as addition of citric acid, annealing temperature on the morphologies of ZnO nanostructures have also been investigated. At the given temperature the length decreased but the diameter increased with addition of the mass of citric acid. With the rising of the calcining heat, the shape of ZnO changed from rod to granule for a given amount of citric acid. Finally, the mechanism for citric acid assisted annealing synthesis of the ZnO nanostructure is discussed

  9. Effect of degassing addition on the solidification segregation of nickel aluminum bronze

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, F.; Kavinjr, M.; Maghribi, S.; Ashraf, N.; Hadi, A.; Shayfull, Z.; Rashidi, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of degassing agent addition on the solidification segregation of Nickel Aluminum Bronze was investigated. The complex relationship between the development of the solidification microstructures and buildup of microsegregation in Nickel Aluminum Bronze was obtained by using microstructure analysis and EDS analysis. This experiment describes the characterization of microsegregation in Nickel Aluminum Bronze which was made using point to count microanalysis along the microstructure. With this method, the differences of elements distribution in alloys solidified in the microstructure were clearly evidenced. The results show a microstructure directly affected by segregation of elements in Nickel Aluminum Bronze matrix. There is segregation of elements in the Late To Freeze (LTF) region after solidification from melting. As for degassing treatment, higher degassing addition on the Nickel Aluminum Bronze increased the elements segregation.

  10. The Effectiveness of the Additional Vocational Education and Staff Development for Industrial Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. S. Kalabina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the Russian economy modernization, developing the effec- tive system of vocational training and further professional training appears to be the main condition for the dynamic competitive advantage of industrial enterprises. The paper inves- tigates the urgent issue of developing the system of additional vocational training and staff development with the reference to the ever-changing institutional logic controlling the em- ployee – employer relations. The paper presents the review of theoretic approaches to the system of additional vocational training, as well as the economic analysis and estimates of return on investment in different forms of vocational training. The methodological approach to the system efficiency estimation is given along with the factors determining the forma- tion and development of vocational training system. Based on the research findings, the recommendations integrating the staff development policy are given aimed at promoting the effectiveness of the employee – employer relations. 

  11. Effects of phosphourus addition on the physical properties and surface condition of tungsten-copper composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyoshi, N.; Nakada, K.; Nakayama, M.; Kohda, K.

    2001-01-01

    Tungsten-copper composites containing a small amount of phosphorus prepared using conventional P/M method. Cu 3 P powder was used as phosphorous source. The effects of phosphorus addition on the physical properties and the surface condition were investigated and the existing form of phosphorus was specified on the tungsten-copper composites The results are summarized as follows. The tungsten-copper composite containing 10 % copper, for example, demonstrated optimum thermal conductivity at the phosphorus addition of 0.02 %. The density of the composites was almost 100 % and the surface of the sintered body was flat and smooth after sintering at a temperature between 1100 and 1150 o C. It was shown that phosphorus exists as Co 2 P. (author)

  12. Effect of lysine addition on growth of black iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Juan José Ortiz; Luis, Arcos-García José; Martínez, Germán D Mendoza; Pérez, Fernando Xicoténcatl Plata; Mascorro, Gisela Fuentes; Inzunza, Gabriela Ruelas

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the addition of lysine to commercial feed given to captive black iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata) were evaluated in terms of growth and feed digestibility. Twenty-eight-day-old black iguana with an initial weight of 5.5 ± 0.3 g were housed individually in cages measuring 45 × 45 × 45 cm. The experiment lasted 150 days. The ambient temperature ranged from 28 to 35°C with a relative humidity of 60 to 95%. Treatments consisted of the addition of different percentages of lysine to the feed (0.0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3%, dry matter [DM] base). There was a linear response (P iguana diet in the first months of life is important to stimulate growth and intake. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Effects of Addition of Al on Electrical Degradation of ZnO Varistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoi, Yohei; Yoshikado, Shinzo

    The effects of addition of Al on the electrical degradation of the Bi, Mn, and Al added ZnO varistors and the Bi, Co, and Al added ZnO varistors were investigated by V-I, C-V, ICTS, and XPS methods. The optimum quantity of Al additive to prevent the electrical degradation is approximately 5ppm in the case of Bi-Mn-Al added ZnO varistor and approximately 10ppm in the case of Bi-Co-Al added ZnO varistor. For each optimum quantity of Al content for Bi-Mn-Al or Bi-Co-Al added varistor, the distribution of values of the energies of the trap levels became narrowest. On the other hand, values of the full width at half maximum of Mn-2p and Co-2p orbits became largest.

  14. Effect of red mud addition on the corrosion parameters of reinforced concrete evaluated by electrochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud, the main waste generated in aluminum and alumina production from bauxite ore by the Bayer process, is considered "hazardous" due to its high pH. The high pH also provides greater protection of rebars, which is reflected in the low corrosion potential and high electrical resistivity (filler effect of concrete. The corrosion potential was monitored by electrochemical measurements and the electrical resistivity was evaluated using sensors embedded in concrete test specimens. The results showed that the addition of red mud is beneficial to concrete, reducing its corrosion potential and increasing its electrical resistivity. Red mud proved to be a promising additive for concrete to inhibit the corrosion process.

  15. The Additive Risk Model for Estimation of Effect of Haplotype Match in BMT Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Martinussen, T; Zhang, MJ

    2011-01-01

    leads to a missing data problem. We show how Aalen's additive risk model can be applied in this setting with the benefit that the time-varying haplomatch effect can be easily studied. This problem has not been considered before, and the standard approach where one would use the expected-maximization (EM......) algorithm cannot be applied for this model because the likelihood is hard to evaluate without additional assumptions. We suggest an approach based on multivariate estimating equations that are solved using a recursive structure. This approach leads to an estimator where the large sample properties can...... be developed using product-integration theory. Small sample properties are investigated using simulations in a setting that mimics the motivating haplomatch problem....

  16. Addition of niobia in alumina and its effects at its sintered microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomes, L.B.; Lima, M.M.O.; Pereira, A.S.; Bergmann, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, niobia was used as sintering additive of alumina in concentrations of 0.15, 0.5, 2 and 4 wt%. Homogenized powders was uniaxially pressed (200MPa) forming ceramic pellets with 10 mm diameter. The green bodies were sintered at 1400, 1500 and 1600°C for 60 minutes using a heating rate of 2,5°C.min -1 . After sintering, the specimens were polished using diamond paste with different particle sizes. The specimen's microstructure was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and crystalline phases were determined by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). Results indicate that when niobia and alumina react they form AlNbO4 by liquid phase sintering. This phase is located among alumina grain. It was also verified that niobia addition promotes grain growth, acting as sintering agent, and this effect grows as niobia content and sintering temperature increase. (author)

  17. Effects on stress rupture life and tensile strength of tin additions to Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Johnson, W.

    1982-01-01

    Because Inconel 718 represents a major use of columbium and a large potential source of columbium for aerospace alloys could be that of columbium derived from tin slags, the effects of tin additions to Inconel 718 at levels which might be typical of or exceed those anticipated if tin slag derived columbium were used as a melting stock were investigated. Tin was added to 15 pound Inconel 718 heats at levels varying from none added to approximately 10,000 ppm (1 wt%). Limited 1200 F stress rupture testing was performed at stresses from 68,000 to 115,000 psi and a few tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 800 and 1200 F. Additions of tin in excess of 800 ppm were detrimental to ductility and stress rupture life.

  18. Macro-economic effects of additional energy conservation in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sips, H.W.; Bakker, L.; Muizelaar, J.; Velthuijsen, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the title study is to evaluate the environmental and economic consequences of additional energy conservation in five Western European countries: the Netherlands, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, France and Italy. In the first part of the study the economic effects of a policy, in which additional energy conservation is realized only for the Netherlands, is calculated. In this report the results are presented. The calculated results of the economic effects of a coordinated energy conservation policy in the abovementioned countries will be published in a separate report. The effects of three policy variants will be evaluated: the non-financial policy variant, the shift of the financial burden variant, and the variant in which the levies are not compensated.The starting point for the first variant is an autonomous realization of the energy conservation. The basis of the second variant is that an equal amount of energy can be saved by means of a substantial energy levy. The profits of this levy can be used to reduce the financial burden of labour. For the economic calculations use has been made of the HERMES-model. Every member of the European Community has developed such a macro-economic model. In chapter two the different starting points for the calculations are outlined, with special attention to descriptions of the policy variants, the model-input and the basic projection. In chapter three the economic effects of the policy variants are presented and discussed. In chapter four the energy conservation and the environmental effects of the variants are dealt with. The most important conclusion of this study is that a considerable amount of energy can be saved, which will have positive effects on the economy and the environment. 8 figs., 20 tabs., 6 apps., 32 refs

  19. Additive effects of physical stress and herbivores on intertidal seaweed biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan L; Bracken, Matthew E S; Jones, Emily

    2013-05-01

    Patterns in rocky intertidal seaweed biodiversity influence the resilience and functioning of these important primary producer communities. In turn, seaweed biodiversity patterns are the result of many ecological factors. We determined the influences of thermal and desiccation stress, herbivory, and nutrients on seaweed biodiversity on a northern California rocky shoreline. In a fully crossed design at two tidal heights at wave-protected and exposed sites, we deployed screens to reduce stress, removed herbivores, and added nutrients for 18 months. The treatments reduced temperature, increased relative humidity, decreased herbivore abundances, and increased nitrogen in both seawater and seaweeds. Seaweed abundance and biodiversity (cover, biomass, species richness, diversity, evenness, and community composition) were influenced by tidal height, physical stress, and herbivores. Wave exposure affected all response variables except biomass and evenness. Stress and herbivores had independent additive effects on seaweed abundance and diversity. Physical stress did not make the community as a whole more susceptible to herbivores, and screens had overarching positive effects on seaweed biodiversity even though they also had positive effects on herbivore abundance. Nutrients had virtually no effect on seaweed biodiversity, and we observed no bottom-up effects of nutrient addition on herbivore density or biomass. Small green algae and diatoms were important contributors to overall algal cover and to changes in composition across treatments, but larger macroalgae dominated the species richness response. The striking absence of interactions between stress and herbivory highlights how seaweed communities can respond independently to important drivers of biodiversity. Thus, nonadditive, potentially synergistic effects do not necessarily complicate the understanding of how seaweed biodiversity responds to environmental change.

  20. The effect of dexamethasone/cell-penetrating peptide nanoparticles on gene delivery for inner ear therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon JY

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ji Young Yoon,1 Keum-Jin Yang,2 Shi-Nae Park,3 Dong-Kee Kim,3 Jong-Duk Kim1 1Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, BK 21 Plus Program, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Guseong-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, 2Clinical Research Institute, St Mary’s Hospital, Daejeon, 3Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea Abstract: Dexamethasone (Dex-loaded PHEA-g-C18-Arg8 (PCA nanoparticles (PCA/Dex were developed for the delivery of genes to determine the synergistic effect of Dex on gene expression. The cationic PCA nanoparticles were self-assembled to create cationic micelles containing an octadecylamine (C18 core with Dex and an arginine 8 (Arg8 peptide shell for electrostatic complexation with nucleic acids (connexin 26 [Cx26] siRNA, green fluorescent protein [GFP] DNA or brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF] pDNA. The PCA/Dex nanoparticles conjugated with Arg8, a cell-penetrating peptide that enhances permeability through a round window membrane in the inner ear for gene delivery, exhibited high uptake efficiency in HEI-OC1 cells. This potential carrier co-delivering Dex and the gene into inner ear cells has a diameter of 120–140 nm and a zeta potential of 20–25 mV. Different types of genes were complexed with the Dex-loaded PCA nanoparticle (PCA/Dex/gene for gene expression to induce additional anti-inflammatory effects. PCA/Dex showed mildly increased expression of GFP and lower mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL1b, IL12, and INFr than did Dex-free PCA nanoparticles and Lipofectamine® reagent in HEI-OC1 cells. In addition, after loading Cx26 siRNA onto the surface of PCA/Dex, Cx26 gene expression was downregulated according to real-time polymerase chain reaction for 24 h, compared with that using Lipofectamine reagent. After loading BDNF DNA into PCA/Dex, increased expression of BDNF was observed for 30

  1. Experimental Study of Hydrogen Addition Effects on a Swirl-Stabilized Methane-Air Flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of H2 addition on a premixed methane-air flame was studied experimentally with a swirl-stabilized gas turbine model combustor. Experiments with 0%, 25%, and 50% H2 molar fraction in the fuel mixture were conducted under atmospheric pressure. The primary objectives are to study the impacts of H2 addition on flame lean blowout (LBO limits, flame shapes and anchored locations, flow field characteristics, precessing vortex core (PVC instability, as well as the CO emission performance. The flame LBO limits were identified by gradually reducing the equivalence ratio until the condition where the flame physically disappeared. The time-averaged CH chemiluminescence was used to reveal the characteristics of flame stabilization, e.g., flame structure and stabilized locations. In addition, the inverse Abel transform was applied to the time-averaged CH results so that the distribution of CH signal on the symmetric plane of the flame was obtained. The particle image velocimetry (PIV was used to detect the characteristics of the flow field with a frequency of 2 kHz. The snapshot method of POD (proper orthogonal decomposition and fast Fourier transform (FFT were adopted to capture the most prominent coherent structures in the turbulent flow field. CO emission was monitored with an exhaust probe that was installed close to the combustor exit. The experimental results indicated that the H2 addition extended the flame LBO limits and the operation range of low CO emission. The influence of H2 addition on the flame shape, location, and flow field was observed. With the assistance of POD and FFT, the combustion suppression impacts on PVC was found.

  2. Effect of phosphate additive on the nitrogen transformation during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; He, Shengzhou; Liang, Ying; Li, Guoxue; Li, Song; Chen, Shili; Nadeem, Faisal; Hu, Jingwei

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies revealed that phosphate, as an additive to composting, could significantly reduce NH 3 emission and nitrogen loss through change of pH and nitrogen fixation to form ammonium phosphate. However, few studies have explored the influence of pH change and phosphate additive on NO x - -N, NH 4 + -N, NH 3 , and N 2 O, which are dominate forms of nitrogen in composting. In this study, the equimolar H 3 PO 4 , H 2 SO 4 , and K 2 HPO 4 were added into pig manure composting to evaluate the effect of H + and PO 4 3- on nitrogen transformation. As a result, we reached the conclusion that pH displays significant influence on adsorption from PO 4 3- to NH 4 + . The NH 4 + -N concentration in H 3 PO 4 treatment kept over 3 g kg -1 DM (dry matter) which is obviously higher than that in H 2 SO 4 treatment, and NH 4 + -N concentration in K 2 HPO 4 treatment (pH>8.5) is lower than 0.5 g kg -1 DM because adsorption capacity of PO 4 3- is greatly weakened and NH 4 + -N rapidly transformed to NH 3 -N influenced by high pH value. The N 2 O emission of composting is significantly correlated with incomplete denitrification of NO x - -N, and PO 4 3- addition could raise NO x - -N contents to restrict denitrification and further to promote N 2 O emission. The study reveals the influence mechanism of phosphate additive to nitrogen transformation during composting, presents theoretical basis for additive selection in nitrogen fixation, and lays foundation for study about nitrogen circulation mechanism during composting.

  3. The effect of tectosilicates micronized additives on physical and mechanical properties improvements of Cob (Kahgel plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Bater

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kahgel (Cob is one of the oldest traditional mortars in Iran. Kahgel plaster consists of high clay content, dried mud and a portion of straw fibers to defend the mortar against shrinkage cracks. The ancient waterproof covering is very efficient at protecting the building dry during the heavy rain showers, but low durability and the need for renewal of plaster due to erosion of rainfall suggest that Kahgel plaster is weak and unstable. So, it is very essential and necessary in finding appropriate scientific methods to enhance the durability and lifespan of Kahgel plaster. Studies on the stabilization and improvement of Kahgel plaster properties indicated that using some special tectosilicatesadditives can be improved significantly the physical and mechanical properties of earth and earthen materials such as Kahgel plaster. The effect of different micronized tectosilicatesadditives used to build the different samples of Kahgel plaster on physical and mechanical properties to enhance the durability of Kahgel plaster showed that Microsilica at 6% (by weight of Khahgel, reduced hydraulic conductivity of the Kahgel plaster at 33% level and micronizedZeolite at 3% (by weight of Khahgel, is increased by 85%.  In addition Microsilica and micronizedZeolite at 3% (by weight of Khahgel, increased compression strength of the Kahgel plaster at 73% and 36%, respectively. In addition micronized Kaolin and Bentonite, increased uniaxial compression strength of the Kahgel plaster at 39 % and 33 %, respectively. In addition evaluation of water erosion of  the samples during rainfall by rainfall simulator showed that use of Microsilica, Feldspar, Zeolite and Kaolin 3% (by weight of Khahgel, the minimum sample’s total dry material loss of the Kahgel plaster reduced to 10/5% and the maximum decrease to 37/7%  and increase durability of the Kahgel plaster against water erosion. Experimental results indicated that in addition to the type and percentage of additives

  4. Spatial interpolation of hourly rainfall – effect of additional information, variogram inference and storm properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verworn

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological modelling of floods relies on precipitation data with a high resolution in space and time. A reliable spatial representation of short time step rainfall is often difficult to achieve due to a low network density. In this study hourly precipitation was spatially interpolated with the multivariate geostatistical method kriging with external drift (KED using additional information from topography, rainfall data from the denser daily networks and weather radar data. Investigations were carried out for several flood events in the time period between 2000 and 2005 caused by different meteorological conditions. The 125 km radius around the radar station Ummendorf in northern Germany covered the overall study region. One objective was to assess the effect of different approaches for estimation of semivariograms on the interpolation performance of short time step rainfall. Another objective was the refined application of the method kriging with external drift. Special attention was not only given to find the most relevant additional information, but also to combine the additional information in the best possible way. A multi-step interpolation procedure was applied to better consider sub-regions without rainfall.

    The impact of different semivariogram types on the interpolation performance was low. While it varied over the events, an averaged semivariogram was sufficient overall. Weather radar data were the most valuable additional information for KED for convective summer events. For interpolation of stratiform winter events using daily rainfall as additional information was sufficient. The application of the multi-step procedure significantly helped to improve the representation of fractional precipitation coverage.

  5. Phylogenetic analysis of a gene cluster encoding an additional, rhizobial-like type III secretion system that is narrowly distributed among Pseudomonas syringae strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The central role of Type III secretion systems (T3SS) in bacteria-plant interactions is well established, yet unexpected findings are being uncovered through bacterial genome sequencing. Some Pseudomonas syringae strains possess an uncharacterized cluster of genes encoding putative components of a second T3SS (T3SS-2) in addition to the well characterized Hrc1 T3SS which is associated with disease lesions in host plants and with the triggering of hypersensitive response in non-host plants. The aim of this study is to perform an in silico analysis of T3SS-2, and to compare it with other known T3SSs. Results Based on phylogenetic analysis and gene organization comparisons, the T3SS-2 cluster of the P. syringae pv. phaseolicola strain is grouped with a second T3SS found in the pNGR234b plasmid of Rhizobium sp. These additional T3SS gene clusters define a subgroup within the Rhizobium T3SS family. Although, T3SS-2 is not distributed as widely as the Hrc1 T3SS in P. syringae strains, it was found to be constitutively expressed in P. syringae pv phaseolicola through RT-PCR experiments. Conclusions The relatedness of the P. syringae T3SS-2 to a second T3SS from the pNGR234b plasmid of Rhizobium sp., member of subgroup II of the rhizobial T3SS family, indicates common ancestry and/or possible horizontal transfer events between these species. Functional analysis and genome sequencing of more rhizobia and P. syringae pathovars may shed light into why these bacteria maintain a second T3SS gene cluster in their genome. PMID:22937899

  6. Effect of additives on mineral trioxide aggregate setting reaction product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapf, Angela M; Chedella, Sharath C V; Berzins, David W

    2015-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) sets via hydration of calcium silicates to yield calcium silicate hydrates and calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2). However, a drawback of MTA is its long setting time. Therefore, many additives have been suggested to reduce the setting time. The effect those additives have on setting reaction product formation has been ignored. The objective was to examine the effect additives have on MTA's setting time and setting reaction using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). MTA powder was prepared with distilled water (control), phosphate buffered saline, 5% calcium chloride (CaCl2), 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), or lidocaine in a 3:1 mixture and placed in crucibles for DSC evaluation. The setting exothermic reactions were evaluated at 37°C for 8 hours to determine the setting time. Separate samples were stored and evaluated using dynamic DSC scans (37°C→640°C at10°C/min) at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months (n = 9/group/time). Dynamic DSC quantifies the reaction product formed from the amount of heat required to decompose it. Thermographic peaks were integrated to determine enthalpy, which was analyzed with analysis of variance/Tukey test (α = 0.05). Isothermal DSC identified 2 main exothermal peaks occurring at 44 ± 12 and 343 ± 57 minutes for the control. Only the CaCl2 additive was an accelerant, which was observed by a greater exothermic peak at 101 ± 11 minutes, indicating a decreased setting time. The dynamic DSC scans produced an endothermic peak around 450°C-550°C attributed to Ca(OH)2 decomposition. The use of a few additives (NaOCl and lidocaine) resulted in significantly less Ca(OH)2 product formation. DSC was used to discriminate calcium hydroxide formation in MTA mixed with various additives and showed NaOCl and lidocaine are detrimental to MTA reaction product formation, whereas CaCl2 accelerated the reaction. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Additive effects of vertebrate predators on insects in a Puerto Rican coffee plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkhataria, Rena R; Collazo, Jaime A; Groom, Martha J

    2006-04-01

    A variety of studies have established the value of shaded coffee plantations as habitat for birds. While the value of birds as biological controls in coffee has received some attention, the interactions between birds and other predators of insects have not been tested. We used exclosures to examine the effects of vertebrate predators on the arthropods associated with coffee, in particular the coffee leafminer (Leucoptera coffeella) and the flatid planthopper Petrusa epilepsis, in a shaded coffee plantation in Puerto Rico. We used a 2 x 2 factorial design with four treatments: exclusion of birds, lizards, birds and lizards, and control (no exclusion). Abundance of insects > 5 mm increased when birds or both birds and lizards were removed. Birds and lizards had an additive effect for insects Coffee leafminers showed a weak response to removal of predators while planthopper abundance increased significantly in the absence of avian predators. Arthropod predators and parasitoids did not differ significantly between treatments. Our findings suggest that vertebrate insectivores have an additive effect on insects in coffee and may help control abundances of some coffee pests. Equally important, we present evidence suggesting that they do not interfere with other known natural enemies of coffee pests.

  8. Effects of boron addition and austempering time on microstructure, hardness and tensile properties of ductile irons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerra L, F.V. [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico); Bedolla-Jacuinde, A., E-mail: abedollj@icloud.com [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico); Mejía, I. [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico); Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica UAEH, México (Mexico); Zuno, J. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica UAEH, México (Mexico); Maldonado, C. [Instituto de Inv. En Metalurgia y Materiales UMSNH, México (Mexico)

    2015-11-11

    The present work analyzes the effect of boron addition to an Austempered Ductile Iron, in amounts from zero to 120 ppm. It has been found that boron has a strong effect on the equivalent carbon content, resulting in an increase on the precipitated graphite volume and a decrease in the dissolved carbon content in the matrix. This in turn, increases the ferrite volume fraction in the as-cast conditions from 0.24 in the base alloy to 0.78 for the iron with 120 ppm of boron. Furthermore, a decrease in the nodularity from 100% in the base alloy to 83% with 120 ppm of boron has been observed. During austempering, the transformation to ausferrite was faster and lower volumes of martensite and unstable austenite were detected when boron increased; this promoted lower hardness values, 239 HV for the base iron and 189 HV for the 120 ppm boron alloy. The increase in hardness and strength, typical for the start of bainite formation, were not observed in the boron added irons, but just in the base alloy. Under this basis, it is assumed that at least the addition of 60 ppm of boron extended the optimal processing window. The higher values of strength and ductility were obtained for the alloy with 60 ppm of boron; these results are discussed in terms of the graphitizing effect of boron in these irons and the reduced amount of carbon dissolved in austenite.

  9. Effect of Eu addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties of A356 aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Feng; Yan, Guangyuan; Xuan, Zhenjing [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Cao, Zhiqiang, E-mail: caozq@dlut.edu.cn [Laboratory of Special Processing of Raw Materials, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Tongmin, E-mail: tmwang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-11-25

    The effect of Eu additions (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1 wt.%) and T6 heat treatment on the microstructures and mechanical properties of A356 alloy have been investigated in the present work. Microstructures of the as-cast and T6 heat treated samples were examined by optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was found that 0.1%Eu modified the eutectic Si from a coarse plate-like form to a fully modified and fine fibrous one with a better uniform distribution. T6 treatment encouraged the spheroidization of eutectic Si particles. Correlating with the as-cast samples, the 0.1%Eu modified A356 alloy achieved likewise full modification of eutectic Si particles with lowest mean area and aspect ratio. In addition, the coarse and small Eu-rich intermetallics were both found in the 0.1%Eu modified A356 alloy. The cooling curves of A356 alloys showed that increasing Eu addition resulted in increasing nucleation undercooling and increasing growth undercooling. However, the recalescence (T{sub G} − T{sub Min}) increased by the initial addition of Eu, while it remained relatively stable for increasing additions (above 0.06%). The quenching experiment indicated that a large number of eutectic grains were located at or close to the tips of the aluminum dendrites with a jagged solid–liquid interface in unmodified alloy, while very few eutectic grains were formed in the interdendritic region with a smooth solid–liquid interface in 0.1%Eu modified alloy. An optimal combination of UTS (265 MPa) and EI (14.7%) of A356 alloy was achieved by the 0.1%Eu addition combined with T6 heat treatment. - Highlights: • The rare earth Eu is firstly used to improve the mechanical property of A356 alloy. • A fully modified and fine fibrous eutectic Si is observed by addition of 0.1 wt% Eu. • A complete spheroidization of 0.1wt%Eu modified eutectic Si is observed after T6. • Three kinds of Eu-rich intermetallics are found in the 0.1%Eu modified A356 alloy

  10. Effect of additives and steaming on quality of air dried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatade, Abhijeet Arun; Sahoo, Akshaya Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Texture is the most important property for consumer acceptance in cooked noodles. The air dried noodles are known to have higher cooking loss and cooking time, to that of instant fried noodles. But the fat content of instant fried noodles is more. In the present work attempts were made to optimize the moisture content so as to obtain a smooth dough for extruded noodle preparation and develop air dried noodles of low fat content with lesser cooking loss and cooking time. To meet the objectives, the effect of various additives and steaming treatment on cooking quality, sensory attributes, textural properties and microstructure of noodles were studied. Dough prepared by addition of 40 ml water to 100 g flour resulted into formation of a soft dough, leading to production of noodles of improved surface smoothness and maximum yield. The use of additives (5 g oil, 0.2 g guar gum, 2 g gluten and 1 ml of 1 % kansui solution for 100 g of flour) and steaming treatment showed significant effect on noodles quality, with respect to cooking characteristics, sensory attributes and textural properties. The microstructure images justified the positive correlation between the effects of ingredients with steaming and quality parameters of noodles. Air dried noodles with reduced cooking loss (~50 % reduction) with marginal reduction in cooking time was developed, which were having similar characteristics to that of instant fried noodles. Compared to the instant fried noodle, the prepared air dried noodle was having substantially reduced fat content (~70 % reduction). Thus the present study will be useful for guiding extrusion processes for production of air dried noodles having less cooking time and low fat content.

  11. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A.I.O.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum and its alloys solidify in large grains columnar structure which tends to reduce their mechanical behaviour and surface quality. Therefore, they are industrially grain refined by titanium or titanium + boron. Furthermore, aluminum oxidizes in ordinary atmosphere which makes its weldability difficult and weak. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight percentages of 0.1% (which proved to be an effective grain refiner on the weldability of aluminum grain refined by Ti) is worthwhile investigating. This formed the objective of this research work. In this paper, the effect of zirconium addition at a weight percentage of 0.1%, which corresponds to the peritctic limit on the aluminum-zirconium phase diagram, on the weldability of aluminum grain refined by Ti is investigated. Rolled sheets of commercially pure aluminum, Al grain refined Ti of 3 mm thickness were welded together using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding method (GTAW), formerly known as TIG. A constant air gap was maintained at a constant current level, 30 ampere AC, was used because it removes the oxides of the welding process under the same process parameters. Metallographic examination of weldments of the different combinations of aluminum and its microalloys at the heat affected zone, HAZ, and base metal was carried out and examined for width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining of commercially pure aluminum by Ti resulted in enhancement of its weldability. Similarly, addition of zirconium to Al grain refined by Ti resulted in further enhancement of the weldment. Photomicrographs of the HAZ regions are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Generalized Concentration Addition Modeling Predicts Mixture Effects of Environmental PPARγ Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, James; Webster, Thomas F; Schlezinger, Jennifer J

    2016-09-01

    The vast array of potential environmental toxicant combinations necessitates the development of efficient strategies for predicting toxic effects of mixtures. Current practices emphasize the use of concentration addition to predict joint effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals in coexposures. Generalized concentration addition (GCA) is one such method for predicting joint effects of coexposures to chemicals and has the advantage of allowing for mixture components to have differences in efficacy (ie, dose-response curve maxima). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor that plays a central role in regulating lipid homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and bone quality and is the target of an increasing number of environmental toxicants. Here, we tested the applicability of GCA in predicting mixture effects of therapeutic (rosiglitazone and nonthiazolidinedione partial agonist) and environmental PPARγ ligands (phthalate compounds identified using EPA's ToxCast database). Transcriptional activation of human PPARγ1 by individual compounds and mixtures was assessed using a peroxisome proliferator response element-driven luciferase reporter. Using individual dose-response parameters and GCA, we generated predictions of PPARγ activation by the mixtures, and we compared these predictions with the empirical data. At high concentrations, GCA provided a better estimation of the experimental response compared with 3 alternative models: toxic equivalency factor, effect summation and independent action. These alternatives provided reasonable fits to the data at low concentrations in this system. These experiments support the implementation of GCA in mixtures analysis with endocrine disrupting compounds and establish PPARγ as an important target for further studies of chemical mixtures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  13. Academic and social achievement goals: Their additive, interactive, and specialized effects on school functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D

    2016-03-01

    Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and social achievement goals in outcome variables relevant to academic (achievement, effort/persistence), social (peer relationship satisfaction, loneliness), and socio-academic (cooperative learning, competitive learning, socially regulated, and self-regulated learning) functioning. A total of 356 Indonesian high-school students (mean age = 16 years; 36% girls) participated in the study. A self-report survey comprising items drawn from pre-existing instruments was administered to measure distinct dimensions of achievement goals and outcomes under focus. Regression analysis was performed to examine additive, interactive, and specialized effects of achievement goals on outcomes. Aligned with the hierarchical model of goal relationships (Wentzel, 2000, Contemp. Educ. Psychol., 25, 105), academic and social achievement goals bore additive effects on most outcomes. Findings also revealed a specialized effect on academic achievement and notable interactive effects on cooperative learning. In general, mastery-approach and performance-approach goals were more adaptive than their avoidance counterparts. The effects of social development goals were positive, whereas those of social demonstration-approach goals were mixed. Contrary to prior findings, social demonstration-avoidance goals did not appear to be inimical for school functioning. Findings underscore the importance of both academic and social achievement goals in day-to-day school functioning and the need to consider the meaning of goals and the coordination of multiple goals from cultural lenses. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  14. Effect of glass microfibre addition on the mechanical performances of fly ash-based geopolymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamer Alomayri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, various amounts of glass microfibres were introduced into a geopolymer for reinforcement purposes. The influence of these microfibres on the performance of the geopolymer composites was investigated. Results show that the appropriate addition of glass microfibres can improve the mechanical properties of geopolymer composites. In particular, the flexural strength, flexural modulus and impact strength increase at an optimum fibre content of 2 wt%. Further, adding glass microfibres to a plain geopolymer matrix has a significant effect on the pre-cracking behaviour. It substantially enhances the post-cracking response.

  15. Thermodynamic network model for predicting effects of substrate addition and other perturbations on subsurface microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack Istok; Melora Park; James McKinley; Chongxuan Liu; Lee Krumholz; Anne Spain; Aaron Peacock; Brett Baldwin

    2007-04-19

    The overall goal of this project is to develop and test a thermodynamic network model for predicting the effects of substrate additions and environmental perturbations on microbial growth, community composition and system geochemistry. The hypothesis is that a thermodynamic analysis of the energy-yielding growth reactions performed by defined groups of microorganisms can be used to make quantitative and testable predictions of the change in microbial community composition that will occur when a substrate is added to the subsurface or when environmental conditions change.

  16. The Effects of Bottom Ash from MSWI Used as Mineral Additions in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Amat Roshazita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI produce by products which can be classified as bottom and fly ashes. The bottom ash accounts for 85–90 % of the solid product resulting from MSW combustion. The aimed of the present work is to study the effect of replacing partial of bottom ash were manufactured. Fresh and hardened properties of the concrete were compared in order to study the suitable cement-bottom ash replacement. Bottom ash was found to have some reactivity, but without greatly affecting the hydration process of OPC at 10 % replacement. However at more than 10 % replacement, the addition of bottom ash greatly affected strength.

  17. Na Reactivity toward Carbonate-Based Electrolytes: The Effect of FEC as Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Dugas, R.; Ponrouch, Alexandre; Gachot, G; David, R.; Palacín, M. Rosa; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Na-ion batteries have regained attention because they offer sustainability advantages over the Li-ion technology, hence their interest for massive electrochemical storage. Although the Na-ion electrochemistry is analogous to that of the Li-ion concept, there are a few notable differences such as the stability of carbonated-based electrolytes toward the Li or Na metal anodes. Herein we report on the positive effect of FEC as electrolyte additive on the efficiency of Na-half cells which unfortu...

  18. Contributions of Work-Related Stress and Emotional Intelligence to Teacher Engagement: Additive and Interactive Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérida-López, Sergio; Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    2017-09-29

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of role stress and emotional intelligence for predicting engagement among 288 teachers. Emotional intelligence and engagement were positively associated. Role ambiguity and role conflict showed negative associations with vigor and dedication scores. The interaction of role ambiguity and emotional intelligence was significant in explaining engagement dimensions. Similar results were found considering overall teacher engagement. Emotional intelligence boosted engagement when the levels of role ambiguity were higher. Our findings suggest the need for future research examining the impact of job hindrances on the links between emotional intelligence and teachers' occupational well-being indicators. Finally, the implications for emotional intelligence training in education are discussed.

  19. Effects of salmon calcitonin and calcitonin gene related peptide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this investigation was to examine and compare the effects of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and salmon calcitonin (sCT) on gastric lesions and mucosal barrier components such as mucus and phospholipids in rats exposed to cold + restraint stress (CRS). Twenty-eight Wistar albino rats (150 – 200 g) ...

  20. The effect of functional compensation among duplicate genes can ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gene duplicates have the inherent property of initially being functionally redundant. This means that they can compensate for the effect of deleterious variation occurring at one or more sister sites. Here, I present data bearing on evolutionary theory that illustrates the manner in which any functional adaptation in duplicate ...

  1. Effects of Phytosterol in Feed on Growth and Related Gene ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of phytosterol in a feed on growth and gene expression of broiler chickens. Methods: Seven isonitrogenous diets with graded levels of polyhydroxy phytosterol(Castastesrone) (15, 20, and 25 g/kg diet) and hydroxyphytosterol (â-sitosterol) (25, 50, and 75 g/kg diet) were used to feed broiler ...

  2. The effect of functional compensation among duplicate genes can ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Gene duplicates have the inherent property of initially being functionally redundant. This means that they can compensate for the effect of deleterious variation occurring at one or more sister sites. Here, I present data bearing on evolutionary theory that illustrates the manner in which any functional adaptation in ...

  3. gene effects for resistance to groundnut rossette disease in exotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2016-02-25

    Feb 25, 2016 ... Opposite and significant signs of dominance [d] and dominance × dominance [l] components indicated the importance of duplicate epitasis in the latter crosses in the control of GRD resistance, which revealed a complex nature of inheritance of GRD resistance. Key Words: Arachis hypogaea, gene effects, ...

  4. Effects of La and Ce Addition on the Modification of Al-Si Based Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Elgallad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effects of the addition of rare earth metals (mainly lanthanum and cerium on the eutectic Si characteristics in Al-Si based alloys. Based on the solidification curves and microstructural examination of the corresponding alloys, it was found that addition of La or Ce increases the alloy melting temperature and the Al-Si eutectic temperature, with an Al-Si recalescence of 2-3°C, and the appearance of post-α-Al peaks attributed to precipitation of rare earth intermetallics. Addition of La or Ce to Al-(7–13% Si causes only partial modification of the eutectic Si particles. Lanthanum has a high affinity to react with Sr, which weakens the modification efficiency of the latter. Cerium, however, has a high affinity for Ti, forming a large amount of sludge. Due to the large difference in the length of the eutectic Si particles in the same sample, the normal use of standard deviation in this case is meaningless.

  5. Effects of Zr Addition on Strengthening Mechanisms of Al-Alloyed High-Cr ODS Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jian; Yu, Liming; Liu, Yongchang; Liu, Chenxi; Li, Huijun; Wu, Jiefeng

    2018-01-12

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels with different contents of zirconium (denoted as 16Cr ODS, 16Cr-0.3Zr ODS and 16Cr-0.6Zr ODS) were fabricated to investigate the effects of Zr on strengthening mechanism of Al-alloyed 16Cr ODS steel. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) results show that the mean grain size of ODS steels could be decreased by Zr addition. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results indicate that Zr addition could increase the number density but decrease the mean diameter and inter-particle spacing of oxide particles. Furthermore, it is also found that in addition to Y-Al-O nanoparticles, Y-Zr-O oxides with finer size were observed in 16Cr-0.3Zr ODS and 16Cr-0.6Zr ODS steels. These changes in microstructure significantly increase the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of ODS steels through mechanisms of grain boundary strengthening and dispersion strengthening.

  6. Effect of reinforcement nanoparticles addition on mechanical properties of SBS/curaua fiber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borba, Patricia M. [Servico Nacional de Aprendizagem Industrial (CETEPO/SENAI/RS), Sao Leopoldo, RS (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico de Polimeros; Tedesco, Adriana [Braskem S. A., III Polo Petroquimico, Triunfo, RS (Brazil); Lenz, Denise M., E-mail: denise.lenz@gmail.com [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (ULBRA), Canoas, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Materiais e Processos Sustentaveis

    2014-03-15

    Composites of styrene-butadiene-styrene triblock copolymer (SBS) matrix with curauá fiber and/or a nanoparticulated mineral (montmorillonite clay - MMT) used as reinforcing agents were prepared by melt-mixing. The influence of clay addition on properties like tensile and tear strength, rebound resilience, flex fatigue life, abrasion loss, hardness and water absorption of composites with 5, 10 and 20 wt% of curauá fiber was evaluated in presence of maleic anhydride grafted styrene-(ethylene-co-butylene)-styrene triblock copolymer (MA-g-SEBS) coupling agent. Furthermore, the effect of mineral plasticizer loading on tensile strength of selected composites was investigated. The hybrid SBS composite that showed the best overall mechanical performance was composed by 2 wt% of MMT and 5 wt% of curauá fiber. Increasing fiber content up to 20 wt% resulted in a general decrease in all mechanical properties as well as incorporation of 5 wt% MMT caused a decrease in the tensile strength in all fiber contents. The hybrid composites showed clay agglomerates (tactoids) poorly dispersed that could explain the poor mechanical performance of composites at higher concentrations of curauá fiber and MMT nanoparticles. The addition of plasticizer further decreased the tensile strength while the addition of MMT nanoparticles decreased water absorption for all SBS composites. (author)

  7. Effect of commercial mineral-based additives on composting and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanen, M; Hänninen, K

    2009-08-01

    The effectiveness of two commercial additives meant to improve the composting process was studied in a laboratory-scale experiment. Improver A (sulphates and oxides of iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc mixed with clay) and B (mixture of calcium hydroxide, peroxide, and oxide) were added to source-separated biowaste:peat mixture (1:1, v/v) in proportions recommended by the producers. The composting process (T, emissions of CO(2), NH(3), and CH(4)) and the quality of the compost (pH, conductivity, C/N ratio, water-soluble NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, water- and NaOH-soluble low-weight carboxylic acids, nutrients, heavy metals and phytotoxicity to Lepidium sarivum) were monitored during one year. Compared with the control, the addition of improver B increased pH by two units, led to an earlier elimination of water-soluble ammonia, an increase in nitrates, a 10-fold increase in concentrations of acetic acid, and shortened phytotoxicity period by half; as negative aspect it led to volatilization of ammonia. The addition of improver A led to a longer thermophilic stage by one week and lower concentrations of low-weight carboxylic acids (both water- and NaOH-extractable) with formic and acetic of similar amounts, however, most of the aspects claimed by the improver's producer were not confirmed in this trial.

  8. Effect of Fruit Pomace Addition on Shortbread Cookies to Improve Their Physical and Nutritional Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Roszkowska, Beata; Czaplicki, Sylwester; Borowska, Eulalia Julitta; Bojarska, Justyna; Dąbrowska, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Fruit pomace remaining after juice extraction is still a source of bioactive compounds. Especially rich in these compounds is the pomace from blackcurrant fruit and from fruits of little-known horticultural plants, like: rowan, rosehip and elderberry. The addition of fruit pomace to bakery and confectionery products, especially to those made of white flour, may significantly enrich their composition with dietary fiber, vitamins and phenolic compounds. This study was aimed at determining the effect of 20 % addition of fruit pomace from rosehip, rowan, blackcurrant and elderberry on the properties of shortbread cookies. The pomace-containing cookies, compared to those without additives, were characterized by a darker color with a higher contribution of yellowness, and by higher hardness. The overall organoleptic assessment was comparable for all types of cookies, however the cookies with pomace were characterized by more perceptible taste and aroma, and were sourer. The extracts from pomace-supplemented cookies had a significantly stronger antioxidant capacity than that from the cookies without pomace, but they were ineffective in inhibiting lipid oxidation. The study showed that fruit pomace could improve the nutritional value of shortbread cookies. Furthermore, non-typical color of such a new product may be attractive to consumers.

  9. Effect of Nd2O3 addition on structure and characterization of lead bismuth borate glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kashif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different contents of Nd2O3 on the thermal transition temperature, density and structure of 25 Bi2O3 – 25 PbO – 50 B2O3 has been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, differential thermal analysis (DTA, infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR and optical absorption. The amorphous phase has been identified based on X-ray diffraction analysis. The neodymium oxide plays the role as a glass-modifier and influences on BO3 ↔ BO4 conversion. The observed increase in Tg with Nd2O3 reflects an increase in bond strength. The decrease of the density and the increase of the molar volume with the addition of Nd2O3 contents attributed to an increase in the number of Non-bridging oxygen (NBOS. The optical absorption results are indicating the higher covalency of the Nd–O bond for glass containing 2 mol% of Nd2O3. In addition, a lowest covalency is observed in glass with 1 mol% Nd2O3. In addition, it is considered necessary in the construction of compact and efficient laser source.

  10. The effectiveness of Additional Literacy Support (ALS) in Years 3 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Tim

    2008-08-01

    This study compared the progress in reading and spelling of 256 children in 11 classes in 9 English primary schools in Years 3 and 4, and a partially overlapping sample of 126 children who received additional help with literacy during 1 year. Teachers and teaching assistants used either Additional Literacy Support (ALS), a highly structured set of small group teaching materials devised by the English National Literacy Strategy, or a wide variety of other materials including other published intervention programmes, reading scheme-based, computer-based and individually designed interventions, or a combination of ALS and other interventions. The influence of a broad range of contextual factors were investigated, especially whether children's qualities, school factors such as socio-economic status and class size, and delivery differences made significant differences to the outcomes of the different interventions. The study used a naturalistic quasi-experimental design, in which teachers were asked to record details of their children and interventions without altering their professional decisions, which has not been used before in investigating literacy difficulties in context. ALS was marginally more effective than other interventions in the majority of classes, but was clearly superior in value for money terms. Children's qualities did not appear to affect outcomes. Although children receiving additional help made better than average progress, overall catch-up was limited, especially in spelling. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effect of Spirulina addition on the physicochemical and structural properties of extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Franco LUCAS

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays the demand for practical food like snacks increases worldwide, however the nutritional value in most these formulations is reduced. Due to its chemical composition with high protein concentration, the microalga Spirulina has been used on the production of enriched foods. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 addition on snacks formulations and extrusion conditions on the physicochemical and structural properties of snacks. Protein concentration and physical properties such as expansion index, bulk density, hardness, water absorption index, water solubility index and color were determined. The results showed that the addition of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, temperature in the last zone of the extruder and feed moisture influenced the product responses. The increase in feed moisture increased the hardness, bulk density and water absorption index of the snacks. Higher concentrations of microalga produced snacks with higher protein content, total color difference (ΔE and compact structure. The addition of 2.6% Spirulina produced snacks with up to 11.3% protein and with adequate physical and structural properties for consumption. Thus, snacks containing Spirulina are an alternative to the demand for healthy food of practical consumption.

  12. Effect of petroleum coke addition into coal charge on coke qualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment & Process Technology Center

    2005-07-01

    The effect of petroleum coke addition to coal charge on the resultant coke qualities was investigated using a coke test oven. Addition of the petroleum cokes into coal charge, in the range from 1 to 5 mass%, deteriorated coke qualities, especially coke strength evaluated by the drum index regulated in K2151 in JIS, DI{sup 150}{sub 15}, and the coke strength after the reaction with carbon dioxide, CSR. However, further crushing of the petroleum cokes was found to lead to suppression of the drop in DI{sup 150}{sub 15} and CSR. On the other hand, the petroleum coke addition had benefit to increase the coke yield due to the low volatile matter content of the petroleum cokes. The sulfur content of the petroleum cokes was found to remain mainly in the resultant cokes after carbonization. Therefore, the increase in sulfur content of the resultant cokes must be taken into consideration when the coke is used in a blast furnace. 7 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Effect of the Noble Metals Addition on the Oxidation Behavior of Ni3Al

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Ramos-Hernandez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effect of the addition of noble metals on the microstructure, mechanism, and oxidation kinetics of the Ni3Al intermetallic alloy. Ni3Al was doped with 1% (atomic percent of Au, Ag, Pd, and Pt. Oxidation behavior of the alloys was evaluated at 900, 1000, and 1100°C in O2 for 24 hours. XRD analysis showed that the addition of noble metals favored the oxide growth on preferential crystallographic planes. In addition, the preferential substitution of the noble metals in the Ni3Al structure modifies the surface composition by increasing the Al/Ni ratio. It was observed that most of the alloys showed a subparabolic behavior, and only the intermetallic base and the alloy doped with Ag show a parabolic behavior at 900°C. The developed oxides were analyzed both superficially and in cross section by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA. It was evident that only the intermetallic base showed the formation of a duplex oxide scale (Al2O3/NiO. The alloys doped with noble metals showed the oxide growth practically of pure Al2O3. This was due to a decrease in the diffusion of the Ni cations because of the presence of the noble metals in the crystalline structure.

  14. Effects of Sm addition on electromagnetic interference shielding property of Mg-Zn-Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chubin [Chongqing University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Chongqing (China); Gannan Normal University, Jiangxi Provincial Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Ganzhou (China); Pan, Fusheng; Chen, Xianhua [Chongqing University, College of Materials Science and Engineering, National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Chongqing (China); Luo, Ning [Gannan Normal University, Jiangxi Provincial Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloy, Ganzhou (China)

    2017-06-15

    The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding of Sm-containing magnesium alloys in the 30-1500 MHz testing frequency range was investigated by coaxial cable method. The results demonstrated that Mg-3Zn alloys displayed the best electromagnetic shielding property. When 0.5 wt% of Zr was added for crystal grain refinement, the shielding effectiveness (SE) was apparently reduced. The addition of the rare earth element Sm in ZK magnesium alloys can improve the electromagnetic interference shielding of magnesium alloys. The main reason for the differences in electromagnetic interference shielding of magnesium alloys was the change in conductivity. The addition of Zr in Mg-Zn alloys can refine the grains and consequently improve the grain boundary area significantly. Therefore, the number of irregularly arranged atoms at the grain boundaries increased, decreasing the conductivity of magnesium alloys and leading to a decrease in the electromagnetic interference shielding. Following the Sm addition, the Mg-Zn-Sm phase was precipitated at the grain boundaries and in cores. The precipitation of Sm-containing rare earth phases could consume the solid-soluted Zn atoms within the Mg, resulting in an increase in electrical conductivity and electromagnetic interference shielding improvement. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Using Additive to Microbiology Activities of Mozzarella Cheese Storage at Refrigerator Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildan Yudha Prasetyo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine the best preservative between potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and chitosan on the microbiological quality of Mozzarella cheese stored at refrigerator temperature. The results showed that the addition of preservatives potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and chitosan did not give a significantly different effect (P> 0.05 on the TPC, total number of molds, and total number of yeasts of Mozzarella cheese. Storage time of Mozzarella cheese that nested on the type of added preservatives did not give a significantly different effect (P>0.05 on the TPC and total number of yeasts but gave a significantly different effect (P<0.05 on the number of molds of Mozzarella cheese. Based on the research data, it can be concluded that the utilization of preservative potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, and chitosan were effective in suppressing the growth of microorganisms. Potassium sorbate tends to be more effective in suppressing the growth of microorganisms in Mozzarella cheese stored at refrigerator temperature. Key words: whey, texture, fat, organoleptic, nata de milko

  16. Morphology tuning of CoMo catalysts: Effect of La and Fe as an additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Pei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Three catalysts CoMo/γ-Al2O3, CoMo-La/γ-Al2O3, CoMo-Fe/γ-Al2O3 with different morphologies were prepared for study the effect of introduction of La and Fe on morphology properties and hydrodesulfurization (HDS activity. The morphology properties of catalysts were characterized by BET, XPS and HRTEM. In addition, the catalytic performances of catalysts were investigated. The results indicated that the introduction of La and Fe promoted the sulfidation of Mo species and made the average length and stacking layer numbers of MoS2 slabs longer and higher. These effects could improve the activity of catalysts for HDS. The present results indicated that the catalyst modified by Fe had the best HDS activity with the optimal morphology among three catalysts

  17. REBOUNDx: A library for adding additional effects to N-body simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamayo, Daniel; Rein, Hanno; Shi, Pengshuai

    2016-05-01

    Many astrophysical applications involve additional perturbations beyond point-source gravity. We have recently developed REBOUNDx, a library for adding such effects in numerical simulations with the open-source N-body package REBOUND. Various implementations have different numerical properties that in general depend on the underlying integrator employed. In particular, I will discuss adding velocity-dependent/dissipative effects to widely used symplectic integrators, and how one can estimate the introduced numerical errors using the operator-splitting formalism traditionally applied to symplectic integrators. Finally, I will demonstrate how to use the code, and how the Python wrapper we have developed for REBOUND/REBOUNDx makes it easy to interactively leverage powerful analysis, visualization and parallelization libraries.

  18. Study of effect of addition of fly ash on radon exhalation rate in cement samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj Kumari; Kant, Krishan; Garg, Maneesha

    2013-01-01

    Most of the building materials like cement and fly ash contain naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Increased interest in measuring radon exhalation rate in building products is due to the concern about health hazards of NORM. This paper focuses on studying the effect of addition of fly ash on radon exhalation rate in cement samples. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) and coal fly ash were used for finding the exhalation rate of cement in this paper. To study the effect on exhalation rate of cement, fly ash is added in different proportions to cement samples. The measurement was conducted by CAN Technique using SSNTDs. A gradual increase has been observed in radon exhalation rate up to certain proportion and then start to decrease. (author)

  19. Addition effect of erbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate in the homopolymerization kinetics of a DGEBA resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, S.J.; Ramis, X.; Serra, A.; Suay, J.

    2006-01-01

    Solid bisphenol-A epoxy resin of medium molecular weight was cured using a Lewis acid initiator (erbium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate) in three different proportions (0.5, 1 and 2 phr). A kinetic study was performed in a differential scanning calorimeter. The complete kinetic triplet was determined (activation energy, pre-exponential factor, and integral function of the deg.ree of conversion) for each system. A kinetic analysis was performed with an integral isoconversional procedure (model-free), and the kinetic model was determined both with the Coats-Redfern method (the obtained isoconversional E value being accepted as the effective activation energy) and through the compensation effect. All the systems followed the same isothermal curing model simulated from non-isothermal ones. The 'nucleation and growth' Avrami kinetic model A 3/2 has been proposed as the polymerization kinetic model. The addition of initiator accelerated the reaction having higher influence when low temperatures were applied

  20. Fatigue performance of additively manufactured meta-biomaterials: The effects of topology and material type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, S M; Hedayati, R; Li, Y; Lietaert, K; Tümer, N; Fatemi, A; Rans, C D; Pouran, B; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2018-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques enable fabrication of bone-mimicking meta-biomaterials with unprecedented combinations of topological, mechanical, and mass transport properties. The mechanical performance of AM meta-biomaterials is a direct function of their topological design. It is, however, not clear to what extent the material type is important in determining the fatigue behavior of such biomaterials. We therefore aimed to determine the isolated and modulated effects of topological design and material type on the fatigue response of metallic meta-biomaterials fabricated with selective laser melting. Towards that end, we designed and additively manufactured Co-Cr meta-biomaterials with three types of repeating unit cells and three to four porosities per type of repeating unit cell. The AM meta-biomaterials were then mechanically tested to obtain their normalized S-N curves. The obtained S-N curves of Co-Cr meta-biomaterials were compared to those of meta-biomaterials with same topological designs but made from other materials, i.e. Ti-6Al-4V, tantalum, and pure titanium, available from our previous studies. We found the material type to be far more important than the topological design in determining the normalized fatigue strength of our AM metallic meta-biomaterials. This is the opposite of what we have found for the quasi-static mechanical properties of the same meta-biomaterials. The effects of material type, manufacturing imperfections, and topological design were different in the high and low cycle fatigue regions. That is likely because the cyclic response of meta-biomaterials depends not only on the static and fatigue strengths of the bulk material but also on other factors that may include strut roughness, distribution of the micro-pores created inside the struts during the AM process, and plasticity. Meta-biomaterials are a special class of metamaterials with unusual or unprecedented combinations of mechanical, physical (e.g. mass transport

  1. Additive effect of TAp63 deficiency on the adrenocortical dysplasia (acd) phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Bridget C; Macke, Erica L; Keegan, Catherine E

    2011-12-01

    Adrenocortical dysplasia (acd) is a spontaneous autosomal recessive mouse mutation exhibiting caudal truncation, vertebral segmentation defects, hydronephrosis, limb hypoplasia, and perinatal lethality. Acd encodes TPP1, a component of the shelterin complex that maintains telomere integrity, and consequently acd mutant mice have telomere dysfunction and genomic instability. We previously showed that apoptosis is the primary mechanism causing the acd skeletal phenotype, and that p53 deficiency rescues the skeletal defects of the acd phenotype but has no effect on the perinatal lethality. The Trp63 gene encodes multiple isoforms, which play a role in proliferation, apoptosis, and stem/progenitor cell maintenance. Different p63 isoforms exhibit both proapoptotic (TAp63) and antiapoptotic (ΔNp63) functions. We hypothesized that deficiency of proapoptotic TAp63 isoforms might rescue the acd skeletal phenotype, similar to our previous observations with deficiency of p53. Mice heterozygous for a null allele of TAp63 were crossed to heterozygous acd mice to determine the effect of TAp63 deficiency on the acd mutant phenotype. In contrast to our results with the acd × p53 cross, skeletal anomalies were not rescued by deficiency of TAp63. In fact, the limb and vertebral anomalies observed in double-mutant embryos were more severe than those of embryos with the acd mutation alone, demonstrating a dose-dependent effect. These studies suggest that TAp63 isoforms do not facilitate p53-like apoptosis during development in response to acd-mediated telomere dysfunction and are consistent with the proposed roles of TAp63 in maintaining genomic stability.

  2. Litter Decomposition in a Semiarid Dune Grassland: Neutral Effect of Water Supply and Inhibitory Effect of Nitrogen Addition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Li

    Full Text Available The decomposition of plant material in arid ecosystems is considered to be substantially controlled by water and N availability. The responses of litter decomposition to external N and water, however, remain controversial, and the interactive effects of supplementary N and water also have been largely unexamined.A 3.5-year field experiment with supplementary nitrogen and water was conducted to assess the effects of N and water addition on mass loss and nitrogen release in leaves and fine roots of three dominant plant species (i.e., Artemisia halondendron, Setaria viridis, and Phragmites australis with contrasting substrate chemistry (e.g. N concentration, lignin content in this study in a desertified dune grassland of Inner Mongolia, China. The treatments included N addition, water addition, combination of N and water, and an untreated control. The decomposition rate in both leaves and roots was related to the initial litter N and lignin concentrations of the three species. However, litter quality did not explain the slower mass loss in roots than in leaves in the present study, and thus warrant further research. Nitrogen addition, either alone or in combination with water, significantly inhibited dry mass loss and N release in the leaves and roots of the three species, whereas water input had little effect on the decomposition of leaf litter and fine roots, suggesting that there was no interactive effect of supplementary N and water on litter decomposition in this system. Furthermore, our results clearly indicate that the inhibitory effects of external N on dry mass loss and nitrogen release are relatively strong in high-lignin litter compared with low-lignin litter.These findings suggest that increasing precipitation hardly facilitates ecosystem carbon turnover but atmospheric N deposition can enhance carbon sequestration and nitrogen retention in desertified dune grasslands of northern China. Additionally, litter quality of plant species

  3. Effect of Sn addition on hot tearing susceptibility of AXJ530 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai-kuo, Dong; Feng, Wang; Zhi, Wang; Jin-kun, Liu; Zheng, Liu; Ping-li, Mao

    2018-03-01

    The effects of different Sn additions (0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 wt%) on hot tearing susceptibility (HTS) of AXJ530 alloy were studied using ‘T-shaped’ hot tearing mold at a pouring temperature of 700 °C and a mold temperature of 200 °C and paraffin permeation method. The dendrite coherency temperature was obtained by means of differential thermal analysis (DTA), and phases evolution, microstructures and morphology of the crack zone of AXJ530-xSn alloys were also investigated by using x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The experimental results show that the HTS of AXJ530-xSn alloys increases with Sn additions up to 1.0 wt%, and then exhibits a slight decrease with further Sn additions up to 2.0 wt%. The Sn additions into AXJ530 alloy can first form CaMgSn phase with high melting point, reduce amount of α-Mg+(Mg,Al)2Ca eutectic phase, increase the dendrite coherency temperature, decrease the thickness of liquid film and the feeding ability at the end of solidification, resulting in the rise of the HTS. However, the improvement in hot tearing resistance for AXJ530-2.0Sn alloy can be attributed to the grain refinement, lower dendrite coherency temperature and formation of the Mg17Al12 phase with a low melting point to feed more readily at the end of solidification, which improves the state of dendrite and the feeding channel.

  4. Toxic effects of some synthetic food colorants and/or flavor additives on male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Wahab, Hanan Mohamed Fathy Abd; Moram, Gehan Salah El-Deen

    2013-03-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the broadest toxic effect of some synthetic additives of colorants and/or flavors on different body organs and metabolic aspects in rats. A number of chemical food color and flavor additives are routinely added during processing to improve the aesthetic appearance of the dietary items. However, many of them are toxic after prolonged use. In this experiment, a total of 100 male albino rats of Spargue Dawley strain were divided into 10 groups: G(1) was fed basal diet and served as control, G(2): basal diet + Brilliant blue (blue dye, No. 2, 124 mg/kg diet), G(3): basal diet + carmoisine (red dye, No. 3, 70 mg/kg diet), G(4): basal diet + tartrazine (yellow dye, FD & C yellow No. 5, 75 mg/kg diet), G(5): basal diet + trans-anethole (4.5 g/kg diet) G(6): basal diet + propylene glycol (0.25 g/kg diet), G(7): basal diet + vanillin(1.25 g/kg diet), G(8): basal diet + Brilliant blue + propylene glycol, G(9): basal diet + carmoisine + trans-anethole, G(10): basal diet + tartrazine + vanillin for 42 successive days. All food colorants mixed with or without flavor additives induced a significant decrease in body weight, hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count. Also there was a significant decrease in reduced glutathione content; glutathione-S-transferase and superoxide dismutase activities in both blood and liver compared to control group. On the other hand, a significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase activities, bilirubin, urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin were observed in all test groups when compared to control group. Finally, it is advisable to limit the uses of these food colorants and/or food flavor additives especially those used by children.

  5. Effect of methylene methanedisulfonate as an additive on the cycling performance of spinel lithium titanate electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Renheng; Li, Xinhai; Zhang, Bao, E-mail: 123501032@csu.edu.cn; Wang, Zhixing; Guo, Huajun

    2015-11-05

    In order to overcome the poor cyclability of lithium-ion batteries with spinel lithium titanate (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}), methylene methanedisulfonate (MMDS) is evaluated as electrolyte additive. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) indicate that MMDS participates in the formation process of the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film above 1 V, which is due to the interfacial reaction between the electrode and electrolyte: Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anodes are previously considered free from SEI films when cycled between 1 and 3 V. The stable SEI film around Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} is seen most effective as a barrier layer in suppressing the interfacial reaction and resulting gassing from the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} surface. In addition, the results of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrate that a thin and good conductive film can be formed on the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} surface ascribed to MMDS additive, which resulting the improvement of conductivity and a good ability of Li{sup +} migration. - Highlights: • MMDS used as additive to improve cycling performance of the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Li cells. • A SEI film can be formed using MMDS in the electrolyte above 1 V. • Sulfur-containing species is the main component of the SEI formed by MMDS.

  6. Radiation processing of thermoplastic starch by blending aromatic additives: Effect of blend composition and radiation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandal, Dhriti; Mikus, Pierre-Yves; Dole, Patrice; Coqueret, Xavier

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports on the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on poly α-1,4-glucose oligomers (maltodextrins) in the presence of water and of various aromatic additives, as model blends for gaining a better understanding at a molecular level the modifications occurring in amorphous starch-lignin blends submitted to ionizing irradiation for improving the properties of this type of bio-based thermoplastic material. A series of aromatic compounds, namely p-methoxy benzyl alcohol, benzene dimethanol, cinnamyl alcohol and some related carboxylic acids namely cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, and ferulic acid, was thus studied for assessing the ability of each additive to counteract chain scission of the polysaccharide and induce interchain covalent linkages. Gel formation in EB-irradiated blends comprising of maltodextrin was shown to be dependent on three main factors: the type of aromatic additive, presence of glycerol, and irradiation dose. The chain scission versus grafting phenomenon as a function of blend composition and dose were studied using Size Exclusion Chromatography by determining the changes in molecular weight distribution (MWD) from Refractive Index (RI) chromatograms and the presence of aromatic grafts onto the maltodextrin chains from UV chromatograms. The occurrence of crosslinking was quantified by gel fraction measurements allowing for ranking the cross-linking efficiency of the additives. When applying the method to destructurized starch blends, gel formation was also shown to be strongly affected by the moisture content of the sample submitted to irradiation. The results demonstrate the possibility to tune the reactivity of tailored blend for minimizing chain degradation and control the degree of cross-linking.

  7. Effects of wilting and molasses addition on fermentation and bacterial community in guinea grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, N; Li, Y; Wang, C; Parvin, S

    2012-03-01

    Acetic acid is considered an important preservative in tropical grass ensiling. The objective of the current experiments was to follow the ensiling fermentation of low dry matter (DM) tropical grass as a model to study changes in bacterial communities during acetic acid fermentation. Direct-cut and wilted guinea grass silage was prepared with and without molasses. A high acetic acid level was observed during the fermentation of direct-cut silage, and long storage increased the butyric acid and ethanol content if molasses was not added. The lactic acid production in wilted silage was greater than the acetic acid production, but prolonged ensiling decreased the lactic to acetic acid ratio regardless of molasses addition. Adding molasses enhanced the lactic acid content in both direct-cut and wilted silage. The bacterial community, identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, was affected by wilting and molasses addition. Bands for Pantoea sp. and Morganella sp. became faint when acetic acid fermentation was suppressed, and those for Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactococcus garvieae were detected when lactic acid fermentation was enhanced by wilting and molasses addition. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis were found throughout the ensiling process in all silage types. Distinct changes occurred in the bacterial community in guinea grass silage because of wilting and molasses addition. These changes could explain how lactic acid fermentation was enhanced but could not help determine which bacteria were associated with enhanced acetic acid fermentation. The study reveals the effects of wilting and molasses during ensiling of low DM tropical grasses and the associated bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Obstructive sleep apnea combined dyslipidemia render additive effect on increasing atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Ping; He, Zhiqing; Yang, Jing; Liang, Chun; Ren, Yusheng; Wu, Zonggui

    2016-05-26

    Current study was designed to investigate the effects of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) combined dyslipidemia on the prevalence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). This was a cross-sectional study and subjects with documented dyslipidemia and without previous diagnosis of OSA were enrolled. Polysomnography was applied to evaluate apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Based on AHI value, subjects were classified into four groups: without OSA, mild, moderate and severe OSA groups. Clinical characteristics and laboratory examination data were recorded. Relationship between AHI event and lipid profiles was analyzed, and logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of OSA combined dyslipidemia on ASCVD prevalence. Totally 248 subjects with dyslipidemia were enrolled. Compared to the other 3 groups, subjects with severe OSA were older, male predominant and had higher smoking rate. In addition, subjects with severe OSA had higher body mass index, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, and higher rates of overweight and obesity. Serum levels of fasting plasma glucose, glycated hemoglobin, LDL-C and CRP were all significantly higher. ASCVD prevalence was considerably higher in subjects with severe OSA. AHI event in the severe OSA group was up to 35.4 ± 5.1 events per hour which was significantly higher than the other groups (P dyslipidemia plus no-OSA group (reference group), OSA enhanced ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia, regardless of OSA severity. After extensively adjusted for confounding variables, the odds of dyslipidemia plus mild-OSA was reduced to insignificance. While the effects of moderate- and severe-OSA on promoting ASCVD risk in subjects with dyslipidemia remained significant, with severe-OSA most prominent (odds ratio: 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.13-2.02). OSA combined dyslipidemia conferred additive adverse effects on cardiovascular system, with severe-OSA most prominent.

  9. Effect of barley chromosome addition on the susceptibility of wheat to feeding by a gall-inducing leafhopper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumashiro, Shun; Matsukura, Keiichiro; Kawaura, Kanako; Matsumura, Masaya; Ogihara, Yasunari; Tokuda, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    The maize orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata is distributed widely in tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World and feeds on various Poaceae. The leafhopper is recognized as an important pest of maize in several countries. Adults as well as nymphs of C. bipunctata induce growth stunting and galls characterized by the severe swelling of leaf veins on many cereal crops including wheat, rice, and maize, but do not on barley. To clarify the mechanism of growth stunting and gall induction by C. bipunctata, we used six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H-7H) and investigated the effect of barley (cv. Betzes) chromosome addition on the susceptibility of wheat (cv. Chinese Spring) to feeding by the leafhopper. Feeding by C. bipunctata significantly stunted the growth in 2H, 3H, 4H, and 5H, but did not in 6H and 7H. The degree of gall induction was significantly weaker and severer in 3H and 5H than in Chinese Spring, respectively. These results suggest that barley genes resistant to growth stunting and gall induction exist in 6H and 7H, and 3H, respectively. 5H is considered to be useful for future assays investigating the mechanism of gall induction by this leafhopper because of the high susceptibility to the feeding by C. bipunctata. Significant correlation between the degrees of growth stunting and gall induction was not detected in the six chromosome addition lines and Chinese spring. This implies that these two symptoms are independent phenomena although both are initiated by the feeding of C. bipunctata.

  10. Effect of Dy additions on microstructure and magnetic properties of Fe-Nd-B magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, R.; Thomas, G.; Ma, B.M.

    1987-05-01

    It is shown that increasing additions of Dy causes the remanence B/sub r/ to decrease linearly. The intrinsic coercivity, iHc, increases sharply for small additions of Dy, but the increase is not proportional for higher Dy contents. The iHc increases almost linearly with the effective anisotropy field of the RE 2 Fe 14 B phase until the Dy content is about 10% of the total rare earth content. Above this concentration, there is strong deviation from linearity. Various types of possible concentration profiles of the substituted rare earth are suggested. It is also argued that preferential segregation of Dy to the interfaces could be beneficial in increasing the nucleation field. Morphologically there is no apparent effect of Dy on the microstructure. However, in the 5 atomic % Dy sample, Dy rich oxides were observed. It is shown through Energy Dispersive Xray Spectroscopy (EDXS) line profiling that Dy partitions preferentially into the RE 2 Fe 14 B phase in all the cases. No segregation of Dy to the interphase interfaces has been detected

  11. Effect of Co addition on crystallization and magnetic properties of FeSiBPCu alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Co addition on the microstructure, crystallization processes and soft magnetic properties of (Fe1−xCox83Si4B8P4Cu1 (x=0.35, 0.5, 0.65 alloys were investigated. The experimental results demonstrated that the addition of Co decreased the thermal stability against crystallization of the amorphous phase, and thus improved the heat treatment temperature of this alloy. FeCoSiBPCu nanocrystalline alloys with a dispersed α′-FeCo phase were obtained by appropriately annealing the as-quenched ribbons at 763 K for 10 min. The α′-FeCo with grains size ranging from 9 to 28 nm was identified in primary crystallization. The coercivity (Hc markedly increased with increasing x and exhibited a minimum value at x=0.35, while the saturation magnetic flux density (Bs shows a slight decrease. The (Fe0.65Co0.3583Si4B8P4Cu1 nanocrystalline alloy exhibited a high saturation magnetic flux density Bs of 1.68 T, a low coercivity, Hc of 5.4 A/m and a high effective permeability µe of 29,000 at 1 kHz.

  12. Effects of heat treatment and pectin addition on beta-lactoglobulin allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyron, Stéphane; Mouécoucou, Justine; Frémont, Sophie; Sanchez, Christian; Gontard, Nathalie

    2006-07-26

    The specific effects of heat treatment and/or addition of low/high-methylated pectin (LMP/HMP) on the allergenicity of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-Lg) and its hydrolysis products were investigated through a two-step in vitro digestion approach. beta-Lg was first hydrolyzed by pepsin and then by a trypsin/chymotrypsin (T/C) mixture done in a dialysis bag with a molecular weight cutoff of 1000. The protein digestion was followed by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis performed on each digestion product, and their in vitro allergenicity was analyzed by immunoblotting. Such procedure was applied on beta-Lg samples mixed with the two kinds of pectin before or after heating (80 degrees C, 25 min) to determine the respective impact of heat treatment and pectin addition. Heat denaturation improved significantly the susceptibility of beta-Lg against the pepsin and the T/C. This effect, which was coupled to a reduction in immunoreactivity of the digested beta-Lg, appeared to be distinctively modulated by LMP and HMP. Through nonspecific interaction with the beta-Lg, pectin could reduce the accessibility of cleavage sites and/or epitope sequences. This mechanism of action is discussed in relation to the intra- and intermolecular interactions between beta-Lg and pectin initiated under the experimental conditions.

  13. EFFECT OF THYME ESSENTIAL OIL ADDITION ON PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TABLE EGGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Essentialoils areintensivefragrant, oilyliquidsubstances containedindifferent parts of theplant. Their function is based on organoleptic effect and stimulation of organism to the production of digestive juices. Result is ahigherdigestibilityandabsorption of nutirents. Besides antibacterial properties, essential oils or their components have been shown to exhibit antiviral,antimycotic, antitoxigenic, antiparasitic, and insecticidal properties. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with thyme essential oils on physical and microbiological egg parameters were studied.Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=30 were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=10 and fed for 23 weeks on diets with thyme essential oil supplemented. In the first experimental group the feed mixture was supplemented with thyme essential oil addition in a dose 0.5 g/kg, in the second one some essential oil in a dose 1g/kg. The results suggest that all of qualitative parameters of egg internal content (yolk weight (g, yolk index, percentage portion egg yolk (%, yolk index, yolk colour (°HLR, albumen weight (g, percentage portion of albumen (%, Haugh Units (HU, albumen index were with thyme essential oil addition insignificantly influenced (P>0.05. The number of coliforms, enterococci, fungi and yeasts decreased with increasing dose of oil. The number of lactobacilli was zero in all groups.

  14. The effect of nano-TiC addition on sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mural, Zorjana; Kollo, Lauri; Xia, Manlong; Bahl, Christian R.H.; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Bez, Henrique Neves; Link, Joosep; Veinthal, Renno

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the effect of nano-TiC addition on sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. TiC nanoparticles were added to sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with a specific aim to improve the Curie temperature and thermal stability. A standard powder metallurgy route was adopted to prepare the magnets. It was found that introducing nano-TiC prior to jet milling was effective as the nanoparticles dispersed in the final alloy, concentcalcrating in the neodymium-rich phase of the magnets. Magnets with optimal properties were obtained with the addition of 1 wt% TiC nanoparticles. The hysteresis loop for such magnets showed an improved shape and VSM analysis a coercivity value of 1188 kA/m, a remanence value of 0.96 T and a maximum energy product of 132 kJ/m 3 . The maximum working point and the Curie temperature of the developed magnets were 373 K and 623 K respectively. - Highlights: • Improvement of thermal stability of Nd-Fe-B magnets by introducing nano-TiC prior sintering is proposed. • The mechanism relies on nano-TiC particles behaving as grain growth inhibitors between thin RE-rich phase regions. • The concentration of up to 1 wt% of nano-TiC appears to increase coercivity without a significant decrease in remanence. • The maximum working point and the Curie temperature of the developed magnets are 373 K and 623 K respectively.

  15. Additive toxic effect of deltamethrin and cadmium on hepatic, hematological, and immunological parameters in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Hasibur; Aziz, Al Thbiani; Saggu, Shalini; VanWert, Adam L; Zidan, Nahla; Saggu, Sundeep

    2017-06-01

    Exposure to natural and man-made environmental toxins concurrently can pose a greater threat to multiple organs. In the present work, we investigated interactions between deltamethrin (DM) and cadmium (Cd), whose mechanisms of action in humans are poorly understood. Albino mice were randomly divided into four groups, each containing six mice: saline as control, DM-treated, cadmium chloride (CdCl 2 )-treated, and CdCl 2 plus DM treated. After 2 weeks of treatment biochemical and hematological effects, total leukocyte count (TLC), differential leukocyte count, humoral-mediated immune responses, and histopathological studies were conducted. Mice exposed to DM and Cd showed a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Also, DM and Cd administration resulted in suppression of humoral immunity, erythrocyte count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and TLC. Histopathological evidence revealed hepatic damage, supporting the AST and ALT findings. Cd and DM exhibited an additive type of toxicity. It could be concluded that these toxins either target different cellular pathways, or the individual amounts used in this study were not enough to saturate the toxicological target, thus producing additive effects.

  16. The effect of nano-TiC addition on sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mural, Zorjana, E-mail: zorjana.mural@ttu.ee [Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Kollo, Lauri [Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia); Xia, Manlong; Bahl, Christian R.H. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Abrahamsen, Asger Bech [Department of Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bez, Henrique Neves [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Link, Joosep [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Veinthal, Renno [Department of Materials Engineering, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2017-05-01

    This paper addresses the effect of nano-TiC addition on sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. TiC nanoparticles were added to sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with a specific aim to improve the Curie temperature and thermal stability. A standard powder metallurgy route was adopted to prepare the magnets. It was found that introducing nano-TiC prior to jet milling was effective as the nanoparticles dispersed in the final alloy, concentcalcrating in the neodymium-rich phase of the magnets. Magnets with optimal properties were obtained with the addition of 1 wt% TiC nanoparticles. The hysteresis loop for such magnets showed an improved shape and VSM analysis a coercivity value of 1188 kA/m, a remanence value of 0.96 T and a maximum energy product of 132 kJ/m{sup 3}. The maximum working point and the Curie temperature of the developed magnets were 373 K and 623 K respectively. - Highlights: • Improvement of thermal stability of Nd-Fe-B magnets by introducing nano-TiC prior sintering is proposed. • The mechanism relies on nano-TiC particles behaving as grain growth inhibitors between thin RE-rich phase regions. • The concentration of up to 1 wt% of nano-TiC appears to increase coercivity without a significant decrease in remanence. • The maximum working point and the Curie temperature of the developed magnets are 373 K and 623 K respectively.

  17. Characterizations of milkfish (Chanos chanos) meatballs as effect of nanoencapsulation liquid smoke addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swastawati, Fronthea; Ambaryanto; Cahyono, Bambang; Wijayanti, Ima; Chilmawati, Diana

    2018-02-01

    Milkfish meatballs are one of the value-added product that is potential to be developed because this product is favored by consumers. The aims of this study were mainly to evaluate the effect of nano encapsulation liquid smoke addition to the properties of milkfish meatballs. The different concentration (0%, 1%, 3% and 5%) of nano encapsulation liquid smoke was treated into milkfish meatballs with three replications. Test parameters used include texture (hardness, deformation and gel strength); proximate (moisture, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrates content); sensory (organoleptic and hedonic). Parametric data were analysis using ANOVA and non-parametric parameters using Kruskal Wallis test. Analysis of variant shows that nanoencapsulation gave significant effect on the hardness, deformation, and gel strength; protein, lipid, ash and water content(P0.05). The best texture characteristic was obtained by milkfish meatball added with 1% of nanoencapsulation liquid smoke indicated by the moisture water; protein; fat; ash and carbohydrate content: 66,35%; 12,69%; 6,75%; 2,42% and 5,93% respectively. The best organoleptic and hedonic value of milkfish meatballs was achieved by a panelist at the sample with the addition of 1% liquid smoke, but this sample found gave no significance different to control in terms of sensory valle.

  18. Cell size dependence of additive versus synergetic effects of UV radiation and PAHs on oceanic phytoplankton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeveste, Pedro; Agusti, Susana; Dachs, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons' (PAHs) toxicity is enhanced by the presence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which levels have arisen due to the thinning of the ozone layer. In this study, PAHs' phototoxicity for natural marine phytoplankton was tested. Different concentrations of a mixture of 16 PAHs were added to natural phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Oceans and exposed to natural sunlight received in situ, including treatments where the UVR bands were removed. PAHs' toxicity was observed for all the phytoplankton groups studied in all the waters and treatments tested, but only for the pico-sized group a synergetic effect of the mixture and UVR was observed (p = 0.009). When comparing phototoxicity in phytoplankton from oligotrophic and eutrophic waters, synergy was only observed at the oligotrophic communities (p = 0.02) where pico-sized phytoplankton dominated. The degree of sensitivity was related to the trophic degree, decreasing as Chlorophyll a concentration increased. - Highlights: → The smallest picocyanobacteria were the most sensitive to PAHs and UVR. → PAHs-UVR synergism for the picophytoplankton and the oligotrophic communities. → PAHs-UVR additivity for the nanophytoplankton and the eutrophic communities. → An irradiance threshold is suggested to determine the joint action of UVR and PAHs. - Cell size and UVR levels determine additive/synergetic effects of PAHs and UVR to oceanic phytoplankton.

  19. Effect of Grape Pomace Powder Addition on TBARS and Color of Cooked Pork Sausages during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Kyeong Seon; Shim, Kwan Seob; Shin, Daekeun

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of grape skin and seed pomace (GSP) additions on the lipid oxidation susceptibility and the color change of cooked pork sausages, the chemical characteristics of GSP itself and the addition for two different levels of GSP (0.5 and 1.0% GSP, respectively) to sausages were examined. Both the redness and blueness of the GSP were significantly reduced as the pH level was increased from 5 to 7, but a reverse result was determined in the color tint and yellowness (pGSP polyphenol and flavonoid contents were influenced by the percentages of methanol solvents, and more flavonoids were established when 100% of methanol was applied as a solvent to the GSP. But, similar results were not observed in the polyphenol of GSP. In cooked pork sausages, significant decreases in the lightness and redness were found in both the 0.5% and 1.0% of GSP sausages during the storage period (pGSP decreased the levels of TBARS (pGSP to minimize lipid oxidation was not dose dependent. Therefore, the results indicated that the GSP is an efficient suppressor of lipid oxidation and has latent effects as a natural antioxidant when 0.5% of GSP is added to the cooked pork sausages.

  20. Effect of Sn addition on the microstructure and superelasticity in Ti-Nb-Mo-Sn alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D C; Yang, S; Wei, M; Mao, Y F; Tan, C G; Lin, J G

    2012-09-01

    Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-xSn (x=0-4at%) alloys were developed as the biomedical materials. The effect of the Sn content on the microstructure and superelasticity of the alloys was investigated. It is found that Sn is a strong stabilizer of the β phase, which is effective in suppressing the formation of α″ and ω phases in the alloys. Moreover, the Sn addition has a significant impact on the mechanical properties of the alloys. With the increase of Sn addition, the yield stress of the alloys increase, but their elastic modulus, the fracture strength and the ductility decrease, and the deformation mode of the alloys changes from (322) twining to α″ transformation and then to slip. The Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-1Sn and Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-3Sn alloys exhibit a good superelasticity with a high σ(SIM) due to the relatively high athermal ω phases containing or the solution hardening at room temperature. Under the maximum strain of 5%, Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-3Sn (at%) alloy exhibits higher super elastic stability than that of Ti-7.5Nb-4Mo-1Sn alloy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of zirconium addition on welding of aluminum grain refined by titanium plus boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaid, A. I. O.

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum oxidizes freely in ordinary atmosphere which makes its welding difficult and weak, particularly it solidifies in columnar structure with large grains. Therefore, it is anticipated that the effect of addition of some grain refiners to its melt before solidification is worth while investigating as it may enhance its weldabilty and improve its mechanical strength. In this paper, the effect of addition of zirconium at a weight of 0.1 percentage (which corresponds to the peretictic limit on the aluminum-zirconium base phase diagram) to commercially pure aluminum, grain refined by Tau i+Beta on its weldability, using gas tungsten arc welding, GTAW, method which was formerly known as TIG. A constant current level of 30 AC Ampere was used because it removes the oxides during the welding process. Metallographic examination of the weldments of the different combinations of Al with Al and Al with its microalloys: in the heat affected zone, HAZ, and away from it was carried out and examined for HAZ width, porosity, cracks and microhardness. It was found that grain refining by Tau i+Beta or Zr resulted in enhancement of the weldment. (author)

  2. A critical review on the spray drying of fruit extract: effect of additives on physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Nithyanandam, Rajesh; Sarbatly, Rosalam

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form.

  3. Cell size dependence of additive versus synergetic effects of UV radiation and PAHs on oceanic phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echeveste, Pedro, E-mail: pecheveste@imedea.uib-csic.es [Department of Global Change Research, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB) Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados, Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles, Illes Balears (Spain); Agusti, Susana [Department of Global Change Research, IMEDEA (CSIC-UIB) Instituto Mediterraneo de Estudios Avanzados, Miquel Marques 21, 07190 Esporles, Illes Balears (Spain); Dachs, Jordi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research, IDAEA-CSIC, Barcelona, Catalunya (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons' (PAHs) toxicity is enhanced by the presence of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), which levels have arisen due to the thinning of the ozone layer. In this study, PAHs' phototoxicity for natural marine phytoplankton was tested. Different concentrations of a mixture of 16 PAHs were added to natural phytoplankton communities from the Mediterranean Sea, Atlantic, Arctic and Southern Oceans and exposed to natural sunlight received in situ, including treatments where the UVR bands were removed. PAHs' toxicity was observed for all the phytoplankton groups studied in all the waters and treatments tested, but only for the pico-sized group a synergetic effect of the mixture and UVR was observed (p = 0.009). When comparing phototoxicity in phytoplankton from oligotrophic and eutrophic waters, synergy was only observed at the oligotrophic communities (p = 0.02) where pico-sized phytoplankton dominated. The degree of sensitivity was related to the trophic degree, decreasing as Chlorophyll a concentration increased. - Highlights: > The smallest picocyanobacteria were the most sensitive to PAHs and UVR. > PAHs-UVR synergism for the picophytoplankton and the oligotrophic communities. > PAHs-UVR additivity for the nanophytoplankton and the eutrophic communities. > An irradiance threshold is suggested to determine the joint action of UVR and PAHs. - Cell size and UVR levels determine additive/synergetic effects of PAHs and UVR to oceanic phytoplankton.

  4. Effect of dietary fiber (inulin) addition on phenolics and in vitro bioaccessibility of tomato sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Merve; Beekwilder, Jules; Hall, Robert D; Diez Simon, Carmen; Sagdic, Osman; Capanoglu, Esra

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the addition of inulin (5 and 10%) on the phenolic content and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of tomato sauces has been investigated. Results have shown that the addition of inulin to tomato sauce significantly decreased the total phenolic content (57-68%), total flavonoid content (48-60%), and total antioxidant capacity (49-61%). Similarly, all assays of the sauce containing both 5% and 10% inulin, showed a slight decrease during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of tomato sauces. Higher levels of inulin added to tomato sauce resulted in the greatest decrease in phenolic content, probably because of the interaction between inulin and phenolic compounds. To address the effects of inulin on the global metabolite profile of tomato sauce, an untargeted metabolomics approach was followed. Changes related to the presence of inulin suggest that inulin quenches a subset of unidentified compounds which are present in sauce but not in fruit, suggesting that inulin can contribute to the conservation of fruit properties in tomato sauce. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nematodes, exotic earthworms and nitrogen addition: interactions between global change factors lead to cancellation effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Long, Jonathan R

    2017-07-01

    Photos from the experiment described in Shao et al. (): (a) the endogeic (i.e. earthworms that typically live in the soil, burrowing horizontally to acquire nutrients) earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus that was added to the plots; (b) P. corethrurus in a quiescence state in response to drought; (c) set-up of the control plots (i.e. no earthworms, ambient nitrogen) used in this experiment. [Colour figure can be viewed at wileyonlinelibrary.com] In Focus: Shao, Y., Zhang, W., Eisenhauer, N., Liu, T., Xiong, Y., Liang, C. & Fu, S. (2017) Nitrogen deposition cancels out exotic earthworm effects on plant-feeding nematode communities. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86, 708-717. In this issue of Journal of Animal Ecology, Shao et al. () explored how N addition and exotic earthworms interacted to impact on the plant-feeding nematode community. They demonstrate that exotic earthworm presence alone increased the abundance of less harmful plant-feeding nematodes and decreased the abundance of the more harmful plant-feeding nematodes. However, in plots receiving both exotic earthworms and N addition, such earthworm effects on the nematode community were negated. These findings pull focus on the need to simultaneously consider multiple global change factors (e.g. exotic species invasions and N deposition) when making predictions about how such factors might affect above- and below-ground interactions and thereby alter ecosystem function. © 2017 The Author. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  6. Evaluation of additive effects of hydrolyzed jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) esters and glycerol: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jaimi; Marshall, Brooke; Gacula, Maximo; Rheins, Lawrence

    2008-12-01

    Glycerol has long served the topical prescriptive and personal care industry as a versatile and functional active and inactive ingredient. In skin care products, it acts primarily as an emollient, softening the skin through robust humectant hydration action. Hydrolyzed Jojoba Esters K-20W (K-20W) have been shown to increase skin hydration and improve sensory skin "feel" when included in a variety of skin, hair, and nail care cosmetic/personal care formulations. The addition of glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters provides a substantial long-acting 24 h (moisturizing) skin hydration effect for topical products. A small pilot study was conducted to support the "proof of concept" that an enhanced, additive role exists between these two ingredients resulting in a long-term (24 h) skin moisturization effect. Topical treatments were applied to the skin (lower leg) of subjects, and evaluations were made at baseline and 8- to 24-h post-application. Skin hydration data were obtained via bio-instrumental transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements and expert clinical skin grading, including standardized digital clinical photography. Clinical skin grading evaluations and TEWL measurements found that significantly lower evaporative (P skin care lotion at 8 and 24 h posttreatment. This preliminary data "proof of concept" supports the position that glycerol and hydrolyzed jojoba esters work in tandem to enhance skin moisturization for at least 24 h. This unique moisturizing potential may prove valuable in the future development of cosmetic and over-the-counter/prescriptive topical products, including new medicaments containing botanicals. This fact is further reinforced with the recent greater commercial use and demand for defined safe botanicals in cosmetic as well as pharmaceutical topical formulations. Additional mechanistic studies are underway.

  7. Effects of Cutting Time, Ensiling Duration and Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Delavar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of daytime cutting management (p.m. vs. a.m. cut, ensiling duration and adding microbial inoculants on chemical composition of alfalfa silage. For this, Second growth Alfalfa harvested at the early bud stage of development after a sunny day at sundown (about 1900 h; PM alfalfa, whereas the second half was cut next day at sunup (about 0800 h; AM alfalfa. After cutting, alfalfa Forage was chopped by using a chopper to a length of 8 to10 cm, and then ensiled without or with microbial additive as factorial experiment (2×2 with repeated measurement design. Silages were provided in laboratory silos (6 repeats in every treatment lined with two layers of plastic, after air exclusion. Silos were opened at 3, 10 and 30 day for determination of pH and other chemical analysis. The numerically lower pH of PM vs. AM silages indicates that the former forage was more extensively fermented possibly because of its increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC concentration. Shifting alfalfa harvesting from sun up to sundown significantly decreased NDF% and ADF%, because of the dilution effect associated with increased concentrations of TNC in the former forage. The NPN content and N-NH3 concentration of the silages treated in the afternoon was lower compared with AM group. CP content decreased, but NDF, ADF, NPN and N-NH3 concentration increased during ensiling time. Silage pH decreased by using of microbial additive and ensiling time. Dry matter and nitrogen losses were lower in silages treated by microbial inoculants, and, increased with increasing fermentation time. It can be concluded that microbial additives and time of cutting can be used as proper way to improve fermentation situation and silage quality.

  8. Self-Assembly of Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow and Effects of Ionic Additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Heung-Shik; Kang, Shin-Woong; Tortora, Luana; Nastishin, Yuriy; Finotello, Daniele; Kumar, Satyendra; Lavrentovich, Oleg D. (NSF); (Institute of Physical Optics, Ukraine); (Kent)

    2008-12-22

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) are formed by molecules with ionic groups at the periphery that associate into stacks through noncovalent self-assembly while in water. The very existence of the nematic (N) phase in the typical LCLC, the dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) is a puzzle, as the correlation length associated with the stacking, as measured in the X-ray experiments, is too short to explain the orientational order by the Onsager model. We propose that the aggregates can be more complex than simple rods and contain 'stacking faults' such as junctions with a shift of neighboring molecules, 3-fold junctions, etc. We study how ionic additives, such as salts of different valency and pH-altering agents, alter the N phase of SSY purified by recrystallization. The additives induce two general trends: (a) stabilization of the N phase, caused by the mono and divalent salts (such as NaCl), and evidenced by the increase of the N-to-I transition temperature and the correlation length; (b) suppression of the N phase manifested in the decrease of the N-to-I transition temperature and in separation of the N phase into a more densely packed N phase or the columnar (C) phase, coexisting with a less condensed I phase. The scenario (b) can be triggered by simply increasing pH (adding NaOH). The effects produced by tetravalent spermine fall mostly into the category (b), but the detail depends on whether this additive is in its salt form or a free base form. The base form causes changes through changes in pH and possible excluded volume effects whereas the salt form might disrupt the structure of SSY aggregates.

  9. Effect of highly dispersed yttria addition on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parente, P., E-mail: pparente@icv.csic.es [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Savoini, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Ferrari, B. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, Leganes 28911 (Spain); Sanchez-Herencia, A.J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/Kelsen 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain)

    2013-03-01

    The capability of the colloidal method to produce yttria (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) has been investigated as an alternative method to the conventional method of mechanical mixing and sintering for developing HA-based materials that could exhibit controllable and enhanced functional properties. A water based colloidal route to produce HA materials with highly dispersed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been applied, and the effect of 10 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition to HA investigated by thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These measurements evidence a remarkable effect of this Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on decomposition mechanisms of synthetic HA. Results show that incorporation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as dispersed second phase is beneficial because it hinders the decomposition mechanisms of HA into calcium phosphates. This retardation will allow the control of the sintering conditions for developing HA implants with improved properties. Besides, substitution of Ca{sup 2+} with Y{sup 3+} ions appears to promote the formation of OH{sup -} vacancies, which could improve the conductive properties of HA favorable to osseointegration. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reveal the influence of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} on thermal stability of hydroxyapatite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incorporation of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} delays decomposition of hydroxyapatite to calcium phosphates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Addition of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} enables sintering conditions more favorable to the densification.

  10. Effects of dietary inulin, Bacillus subtilis and microalgae on intestinal gene expression in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezuela, Rebeca; Meseguer, José; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2013-03-01

    The present work describes effects of dietary inulin, two microalgae (Tetraselmis chuii and Phaeodactylum tricornutum) and Bacillus subtilis (solely or combined with inulin or microalgae) on the expression of different genes in the intestine of the gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) following four weeks of a feeding trial. Selected genes were grouped into five categories: genes involved in inflammation (genes encoding proinflammatory proteins), genes related to the cytoskeleton, genes encoding proteins of junction complexes, genes implicated in digestion processes and genes related to transport proteins. Regarding proinflammatory genes, interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression showed a significant increase in the fish fed all the assayed diets, except the B. subtilis + inulin diet, whereas the expression of caspase-1 (CASP-1) was also increased by the B. subtilis and B. subtilis + T. chuii diets. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression only increased in fish fed the B. subtilis diet. Among cytoskeletal and junctional genes, only β-actin and occludin were significantly affected by the assayed diets. β-actin expression was up-regulated by the inulin-containing diets (inulin and B. subtilis + inulin diets), whereas occludin expression increased in the fish fed all the assayed diets, except the P. tricornutum diet. Finally, the expression of transport protein genes demonstrated that the inulin diet and all the experimental diets containing B. subtilis significantly increased transferrin expression, whereas digestive enzymes were not affected by the experimental diets. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that inulin, B. subtilis and microalgae can modulate intestinal gene expression in the gilthead seabream. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the effects of some food additives on the intestinal expression of different genes in this species. More studies are needed to understand the role of these genes in maintaining the integrity and

  11. Sunlight Effects on Immune System: Is There Something Else in addition to UV-Induced Immunosuppression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. González Maglio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sunlight, composed of different types of radiation, including ultraviolet wavelengths, is an essential source of light and warmth for life on earth but has strong negative effects on human health, such as promoting the malignant transformation of skin cells and suppressing the ability of the human immune system to efficiently detect and attack malignant cells. UV-induced immunosuppression has been extensively studied since it was first described by Dr. Kripke and Dr. Fisher in the late 1970s. However, skin exposure to sunlight has not only this and other unfavorable effects, for example, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis, but also a positive one: the induction of Vitamin D synthesis, which performs several roles within the immune system in addition to favoring bone homeostasis. The impact of low levels of UV exposure on the immune system has not been fully reported yet, but it bears interesting differences with the suppressive effect of high levels of UV radiation, as shown by some recent studies. The aim of this article is to put some ideas in perspective and pose some questions within the field of photoimmunology based on established and new information, which may lead to new experimental approaches and, eventually, to a better understanding of the effects of sunlight on the human immune system.

  12. Effect of surgical procedures on prostate tumor gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Yin, Chang-Jun; Pavlovich, Christian; Luo, Jun; Getzenberg, Robert; Zhang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    Current surgical treatment of prostate cancer is typically accomplished by either open radical prostatectomy (ORP) or robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RALRP). Intra-operative procedural differences between the two surgical approaches may alter the molecular composition of resected surgical specimens, which are indispensable for molecular analysis and biomarker evaluation. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of different surgical procedures on RNA quality and genome-wide expression signature. RNA integrity number (RIN) values were compared between total RNA samples extracted from consecutive LRP (n=11) and ORP (n=24) prostate specimens. Expression profiling was performed using the Agilent human whole-genome expression microarrays. Expression differences by surgical type were analyzed by Volcano plot analysis and gene ontology analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR was used for expression validation in an independent set of LRP (n=8) and ORP (n=8) samples. The LRP procedure did not compromise RNA integrity. Differential gene expression by surgery types was limited to a small subset of genes, the number of which was smaller than that expected by chance. Unexpectedly, this small subset of differentially expressed genes was enriched for those encoding transcription factors, oxygen transporters and other previously reported surgery-induced stress-response genes, and demonstrated unidirectional reduction in LRP specimens in comparison to ORP specimens. The effect of the LRP procedure on RNA quality and genome-wide transcript levels is negligible, supporting the suitability of LRP surgical specimens for routine molecular analysis. Blunted in vivo stress response in LRP specimens, likely mediated by CO(2) insufflation but not by longer ischemia time, is manifested in the reduced expression of stress-response genes in these specimens.

  13. Effects of feed additives on rumen and blood profiles during a starch and fructose challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, H M; Celi, P; Rabiee, A R; Lean, I J

    2014-02-01

    We evaluated the effect of feed additives on the risk of ruminal acidosis in Holstein heifers (n = 40) fed starch and fructose in a challenge study. Heifers were randomly allocated to feed additive groups (n = 8 heifers/group): (1) control (no additives); (2) virginiamycin (VM); (3) monensin + tylosin (MT); (4) monensin + live yeast (MLY); and (5) sodium bicarbonate + magnesium oxide (BUF). Heifers were fed 2.5% of body weight (BW) dry matter intake (DMI) per day of a total mixed ration (62:38 forage:concentrate) and feed additives for a 20-d adaptation period. Fructose (0.1% of BW/d) was included for the last 10d of the adaptation period. On d 21, heifers were fed to target a DMI of 1.0% of BW of wheat, fructose at 0.2% of BW, and their feed additives. Rumen fluid samples obtained by stomach tube and blood samples were collected weekly as well as during a 3.6-h period on challenge day (d 21). Virginiamycin and BUF groups maintained a consistently high DMI across the 20-d adaptation period. The MLY heifers had low DMI of the challenge ration. Average daily gain and feed conversion ratio were not affected by feed additives. All rumen and plasma measures changed weekly over adaptation and over the challenge sampling period with the exception of rumen total lactate and histamine concentrations, plasma oxidative stress index, and ceruloplasmin. Substantial within- and between-group variation was observed in rumen and plasma profiles at challenge sampling. No significant group changes were observed in rumen total volatile fatty acids, propionate, acetate-to-propionate ratio, isobutyrate, caproate, isovalerate, total lactate, d- and l-lactate, and pH measures on challenge day. Acetate concentration was increased in the BUF and control groups on challenge day. Butyrate concentration was lower in the MLY and MT groups compared with other groups at challenge. Valerate concentrations were lowest in the control, VM, and BUF groups and lactate concentrations were numerically

  14. EFFECT OF ACTIVATED CHARCOAL ADDITION ON FORMALDEHYDE EMISSION OF MEDIUM DENSITY FIBERBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptadi Darmawan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing of medium density fiberboard (MDF using dry forming process for interior purpose requires extensive amount of thermo-setting urea formaldehyde (UF adhesive. Unfortunately, this adhesive brings about formaldehyde emission from the resulting MDF, which was potentially harmful to human beings. The use of activated charcoal can be effective to reduce such emission. As the relevance, this research aimed to investigate the effect of activated charcoal addition to the MDF pulp on formaldehyde emission from the MDF. The fibers for the MDF-mat forming were the pulp procured from the MDF factory, resulting from the thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP conducted on the mixed mangium wood (Acacia mangium and rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis in 3:1 (w/w proportion, respectively.  Such mixed TMP pulping was also done in the factor y.  The bonding between TMP pulp fiber during mat forming was assisted by the use of UF adhesive.  Prior to the MDF mat forming , was added to the resulting TMP pulp-fibers activated charcoal in  various amount, 2%, 4% and 6% based on fiber mass as well as based on UF adhesive mass. The activated charcoal was prepared by carbonizing candle nut shell into charcoal followed by activation process using phosphate solution.  Meanwhile the forming of MDF mat employed air-dr y process. As the control, MDF forming with UF adhesive was performed without addition of activated charcoal. It turned out that the activated charcoal-added MDF exhibited effective reduction in formaldehyde emission and significant improvement in physical and mechanical properties, i.e. lower thickness swelling , and greater MOR , MOE and internal bond, compared to the control MDF. The use of activated charcoal at 4% based on the adhesive mass seemed to be the optimum amount.  Physical and mechanical properties of the activated charcoal added MDF could mostly meet the JIS specification.

  15. Additive effects of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate on upper-body intermittent performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Gabriel; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Artioli, Guilherme Gianinni

    2013-08-01

    We examined the isolated and combined effects of beta-alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (SB) on high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in judo and jiu-jitsu competitors. 37 athletes were assigned to one of four groups: (1) placebo (PL)+PL; (2) BA+PL; (3) PL+SB or (4) BA+SB. BA or dextrose (placebo) (6.4 g day⁻¹) was ingested for 4 weeks and 500 mg kg⁻¹ BM of SB or calcium carbonate (placebo) was ingested for 7 days during the 4th week. Before and after 4 weeks of supplementation, the athletes completed four 30-s upper-body Wingate tests, separated by 3 min. Blood lactate was determined at rest, immediately after and 5 min after the 4th exercise bout, with perceived exertion reported immediately after the 4th bout. BA and SB alone increased the total work done in +7 and 8 %, respectively. The co-ingestion resulted in an additive effect (+14 %, p < 0.05 vs. BA and SB alone). BA alone significantly improved mean power in the 2nd and 3rd bouts and tended to improve the 4th bout. SB alone significantly improved mean power in the 4th bout and tended to improve in the 2nd and 3rd bouts. BA+SB enhanced mean power in all four bouts. PL+PL did not elicit any alteration on mean and peak power. Post-exercise blood lactate increased with all treatments except with PL+PL. Only BA+SB resulted in lower ratings of perceived exertion (p = 0.05). Chronic BA and SB supplementation alone equally enhanced high-intensity intermittent upper-body performance in well-trained athletes. Combined BA and SB promoted a clear additive ergogenic effect.

  16. Seasonal variation exceeds effects of salmon carcass additions on benthic food webs in the Elwha River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, S.A.; Coe, H.J.; Duda, J.J.; Dunphy, L.S.; McHenry, M.L.; Beckman, B.R.; Elofson, M.; Sampson, E. M.; Ward, L.

    2016-01-01

    Dam removal and other fish barrier removal projects in western North America are assumed to boost freshwater productivity via the transport of marine-derived nutrients from recolonizing Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.). In anticipation of the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River in Washington State, we tested this hypothesis with a salmon carcass addition experiment. Our study was designed to examine how background nutrient dynamics and benthic food webs vary seasonally, and how these features respond to salmon subsidies. We conducted our experiment in six side channels of the Elwha River, each with a spatially paired reference and treatment reach. Each reach was sampled on multiple occasions from October 2007 to August 2008, before and after carcass placement. We evaluated nutrient limitation status; measured water chemistry, periphyton, benthic invertebrates, and juvenile rainbow trout (O. mykiss) response; and traced salmon-derived nutrient uptake using stable isotopes. Outside of winter, algal accrual was limited by both nitrogen and phosphorous and remained so even in the presence of salmon carcasses. One month after salmon addition, dissolved inorganic nitrogen levels doubled in treatment reaches. Two months after addition, benthic algal accrual was significantly elevated. We detected no changes in invertebrate or fish metrics, with the exception of 15N enrichment. Natural seasonal variability was greater than salmon effects for the majority of our response metrics. Yet seasonality and synchronicity of nutrient supply and demand are often overlooked in nutrient enhancement studies. Timing and magnitude of salmon-derived nitrogen utilization suggest that uptake of dissolved nutrients was favored over direct consumption of carcasses. The highest proportion of salmon-derived nitrogen was incorporated by herbivores (18–30%) and peaked 1–2 months after carcass addition. Peak nitrogen enrichment in predators (11–16%) occurred 2–3

  17. Effects of Experimental Nitrogen and Phosphorus Addition on Litter Decomposition in an Old-Growth Tropical Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Hao; Dong, Shaofeng; Liu, Lei; Ma, Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Xiaomin; Mo, Jiangming

    2013-01-01

    The responses of litter decomposition to nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions were examined in an old-growth tropical forest in southern China to test the following hypotheses: (1) N addition would decrease litter decomposition; (2) P addition would increase litter decomposition, and (3) P addition would mitigate the inhibitive effect of N addition. Two kinds of leaf litter, Schima superba Chardn. & Champ. (S.S.) and Castanopsis chinensis Hance (C.C.), were studied using the litterbag te...

  18. Effects of Gold Nanorods on Imprinted Genes Expression in TM-4 Sertoli Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beilei Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanorods (GNRs are among the most commonly used nanomaterials. However, thus far, little is known about their harmful effects on male reproduction. Studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that GNRs could decrease glycine synthesis, membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential and disrupt blood-testis barrier factors in TM-4 Sertoli cells. Imprinted genes play important roles in male reproduction and have been identified as susceptible loci to environmental insults by chemicals because they are functionally haploid. In this original study, we investigated the extent to which imprinted genes become deregulated in TM-4 Sertoli cells when treated with low dose of GNRs. The expression levels of 44 imprinted genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR in TM-4 Sertoli cells after a low dose of (10 nM GNRs treatment for 24 h. We found significantly diminished expression of Kcnq1, Ntm, Peg10, Slc22a2, Pwcr1, Gtl2, Nap1l5, Peg3 and Slc22a2, while Plagl1 was significantly overexpressed. Additionally, four (Kcnq1, Slc22a18, Pwcr1 and Peg3 of 10 abnormally expressed imprinted genes were found to be located on chromosome 7. However, no significant difference of imprinted miRNA genes was observed between the GNRs treated group and controls. Our study suggested that aberrant expression of imprinted genes might be an underlying mechanism for the GNRs-induced reproductive toxicity in TM-4 Sertoli cells.

  19. Additive effect of linseed oil supplementation on the lipid profiles of older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelino APA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ana Paula A Avelino,1 Gláucia MM Oliveira,1 Célia CD Ferreira,2 Ronir R Luiz,3 Glorimar Rosa1,4 1Post-Graduate Program of Medicine-Cardiology, 2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, 3Institute of Public Health Studies, 4Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Josué de Castro Nutrition Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: Linseed oil has been investigated as a rich source of n-3 series polyunsaturated fatty acids, which mainly produce a non-atherogenic lipid profile. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of linseed oil supplementation associated with nutritional guidelines on the lipid profiles of older adults, according to the intake of saturated fatty acids (SFA.Methods: We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with 110 older adults randomized in two groups: placebo and linseed oil. The linseed oil group received supplementation with 3 g of linseed oil. Both groups received nutritional guidance and were supplemented for 90 days with monthly blood collection for biochemical analysis. The dietary intake of saturated fat was subdivided into low (<7% SFA/day of the total energy value and high consumption groups (>7% SFA/day of the total energy value.Results: Low SFA (<7% SFA/day of total energy value consumption was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations. However, we observed that the linseed oil group, including older adults who consumed >7% SFA/day, had a greater reduction in total cholesterol than the placebo group (P=0.020. The same was observed for low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol (P<0.050, suggesting an additive effect of linseed oil and diet. High-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol concentrations were increased significantly in only the linseed group, suggesting that the nutritional intervention alone did not improve HDL cholesterol.Conclusion: The results suggest that the nutritional intervention was effective, but linseed

  20. Combined treatment of xenon and hypothermia in newborn rats--additive or synergistic effect?

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    Hemmen Sabir

    Full Text Available Breathing the inert gas Xenon (Xe enhances hypothermic (HT neuroprotection after hypoxia-ischemia (HI in small and large newborn animal models. The underlying mechanism of the enhancement is not yet fully understood, but the combined effect of Xe and HT could either be synergistic (larger than the two effects added or simply additive. A previously published study, using unilateral carotid ligation followed by hypoxia in seven day old (P7 rats, showed that the combination of mild HT (35°C and low Xe concentration (20%, both not being neuroprotective alone, had a synergistic effect and was neuroprotective when both were started with a 4 h delay after a moderate HI insult. To examine whether another laboratory could confirm this finding, we repeated key aspects of the study.After the HI-insult 120 pups were exposed to different post-insult treatments: three temperatures (normothermia (NT NT37°C, HT35°C, HT32°C or Xe concentrations (0%, 20% or 50% starting either immediately or with a 4 h delay. To assess the synergistic potency of Xe-HT, a second set (n = 101 of P7 pups were exposed to either HT35°C+Xe0%, NT+Xe20% or a combination of HT35°C+Xe20% starting with a 4 h delay after the insult. Brain damage was analyzed using relative hemispheric (ligated side/unligated side brain tissue area loss after seven day survival.Immediate HT32°C (p = 0.042, but not HT35°C significantly reduced brain injury compared to NT37°C. As previously shown, adding immediate Xe50% to HT32°C increased protection. Neither 4 h-delayed Xe20%, nor Xe50% at 37°C significantly reduced brain injury (p>0.050. In addition, neither 4 h-delayed HT35°C alone, nor HT35°C+Xe20% reduced brain injury. We found no synergistic effect of the combined treatments in this experimental model.Combining two treatments that individually were ineffective (delayed HT35°C and delayed Xe20% did not exert neuroprotection when combined, and therefore did not show a synergistic

  1. Effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to soil on nitrate leaching in calcaric soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, K.; Miyamoto, T.; Shinogi, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrate leaching in soils is often an important aspect in agriculture. Nitrate is leached from the root zone, where plants can utilize them, by surplus rainfall because little nitrate is absorbed by soil colloids. Miyako Island (target area) is located in the subtropical zone and comprised of coral limestone with high permeability. Land surface is covered with calcaric dark red soil that is called “Shimajiri-Maji”. Since the soil has low water- and fertilizer-retaining capacity, fertilizer-derived nitrogen easily leaches from the root zone during surplus rainfall and the nitrogen utilization efficiency of crops is relatively low. Biochars, charcoal produced from pyrolysis of biomass, are known to adsorb dissolved nitrate. Sugarcane bagasse is the main biomass resource on the island because agriculture is the main industry on the island and sugarcane is cultivated in approximately 70% of the farmland. However, the adsorption characteristics of bagasse-charcoals for nitrate have not yet been clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the dependency of carbonization temperatures on the nitrate adsorption properties of bagasse-charcoals and the effects of bagasse-charcoal addition to the soil on NO3-N transport in the soil for optimal use of bagasse-charcoal as a soil amendment in Miyako Island. Sugarcane bagasse were air-dried and heated in a batch-type carbonization furnace at five different carbonization temperatures (400, 500, 600, 700 and 800°C) with a holding time of 2 h. Nitrate adsorption by soil and bagasse-charcoals at each carbonization temperature was measured by the batch equilibrium technique. NO3-N transport behavior in charcoal-amended soils (rates of charcoal addition: 0, 5 and 10 wt %) was evaluated in the column experiments. The breakthrough curves of NO3-N concentrations in the effluents from the bottom of the columns were analyzed with a convective-dispersion model. The model described one-dimensional transport of a sorbing solute

  2. Effect of ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel colorant additives and acrylamide formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongxing; Gu, Zhengbiao

    2014-09-01

    Ammonia caramels are among the most widely used colorant additives in the food industry. They are commonly prepared through the Maillard reaction and caramelization of mixtures of reducing sugars with ammonia or ammonium salts. Antioxidants are known to inhibit acrylamide formation during the Maillard reaction, and they may affect the properties of the ammonia caramel products. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of the antioxidant ascorbic acid on the properties of ammonia caramel. A mixture of glucose and ammonia was allowed to react at 120 °C for 60 min in the presence of ascorbic acid at final concentrations of 0 to 0.08 M. The ammonia caramels obtained from these reactions were all positively charged. As the concentration of ascorbic acid increased, the color intensity of the ammonia caramel showed a decreasing trend, while the intensity of the fluorescence and total amount of pyrazines in the volatiles showed a tendency to increase. The addition of ascorbic acid did not result in obvious changes in the UV-visible spectra of the ammonia caramels and the types of pyrazines in the volatiles were also unchanged. It is noteworthy that the addition of 0.02 to 0.08 M ascorbic acid did reduce the formation of the by-product acrylamide, a harmful substance in food. When the concentration of ascorbic acid added reached 0.04 M, the content of acrylamide in the ammonia caramel was 20.53 μg/L, which was approximately 44% lower than that without ascorbic acid. As a result, ascorbic acid can be considered to improve the quality and safety of ammonia caramels. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. An Experimental Study on Effect of Palm – Shell Waste Additive to Cement Strenght Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Novriansyah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing the cement strength through attaching chemical additive has been popular to meet the required condition for a particular well-cementing job. However, due to a low oil-price phenomenon, pouring and additive should be reconsidered because it can raise the cost and make the project become uneconomic. Another additive material in nanocomposite form will be introduced through this experimental study. The nanocomposite material consist of silica nanoparticle, known as “Nanosilica” and a palm-shell-waste, which is abundant in Indonesia. Before making a nanocomposite, the palm-shell should be burned to obtain a charcoal form, ground and sieved to attain a uniform size.   The study focuses on the two parameters, compressive strength and shear bond strength, which can reflect the strength of the cement. These values are obtained by performing a biaxial loading test to the cement sample. Various samples with different concentration of nanocomposite should be prepared and following the mixing, drying, and hardening process before the loading test is carried out. The result from the test shows a positive indication for compressive strength and shear bond strength values, according to the representative well cementing standards. Increasing the nanocomposite concentration on the cement will increase these values. Furthermore, an investigation on the temperature effect confirms that the sample with 700oC burning temperature have highest compressive-strength and shear-bond-strength values. This is a potential opportunity utilizing a waste-based material to produce another product with higher economic value.

  4. Effects of Sm addition on microstructure and mechanical properties of a Mg-10Y alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Quanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To further increase the mechanical properties, 0.5wt.% Sm was introduced to a Mg-10Y alloy in this study. The effects of Sm addition on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the Mg-10Y alloy, especially the aged Mg-10Y alloy, were investigated. The microstructure observation and tensile tests were performed by using an optical microscopy, a scanning electron microscopy and a universal material testing machine, respectively. The phase analysis was performed using X-ray diffractometer. The results show that the 0.5wt.% Sm addition can not only promote the formation of fine and dispersed Mg24Y5 phases, but also improve their morphology and distribution; it also increases the thermal stability of Mg24Y5 phases. Sm addition is seen to increase the ultimate tensile strength of Mg-10Y alloy at elevated temperatures (200, 250, 300 and 350 ℃, while decrease the elongation. But the elongation is still up to 7.5% even at 350 ℃. In the range of 250 ℃ to 300℃, the ultimate tensile strength of the alloy reaches its maximum (with a range average of 235 MPa and is not sensitive to the temperature change, which is very useful to the application of heat-resistant magnesium alloys. Even at 350 ℃, the ultimate tensile strength of Mg-10Y-0.5Sm is still up to 155 MPa. Considering both of the ultimate tensile strength and elongation, the maximum application temperature of the Mg-10Y-0.5Sm alloy can be up to 300 ℃. The strengthening mechanisms of Mg-10Y-0.5Sm alloy are mainly attributed to dispersion strengthening of Mg24Y5 phase particles with a certain solubility of Sm and grain refinement strengthening of α-Mg matrix.

  5. Oral domperidone has no additional effect on chronic functional constipation in children: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Askarian, Mehrdad; Kaffashan, Heidar Ali

    2014-03-01

    Chronic constipation represents a common problem in children. The treatment of functional constipation is challenging. Some studies have investigated the effect of prokinetic agents as potential therapies for motility disorders of the lower gastrointestinal tract with paradoxical results. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of oral domperidone in the treatment of chronic functional constipation in children. A total of 105 children with chronic functional constipation (according to Rome III criteria) who were referred to the Pediatric Gastroenterology Clinic were recruited in this double-blind randomized clinical trial. The study subjects were randomly divided into two groups, the first of which received polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution 0.6 g/kg/day two times a day for 6 months and domperidone syrup 0.15 mL/kg three times a day for 3 months (case group) while the second one received PEG with the same dose for 6 months and placebo for 3 months with the same dose (control group). The two groups were compared regarding their symptoms and Rome III criteria through 1, 3, and 6 months following therapy. Primary outcome was response to treatment, and a response was defined as decrease in signs and symptoms that did not fulfill Rome III criteria. Secondary outcome measures were side effects during the course of treatment. A significant difference was observed both before and after PEG and domperidone treatment and before and after PEG and placebo treatment regarding Rome III criteria. There was no significant difference in response to treatment between the two study groups during 1 (p = 1), 3 (p = 0.799), and 6 (p = 0.403) month follow up periods. Also, the two groups were not significantly different regarding the Rome III criteria during the mentioned follow up periods. There were no side effects during the course of treatment. There was no additional effect of domperidone as adjunct to PEG in the treatment of children with constipation.

  6. Effect of hydrophobic additive on oxygen transport in catalyst layer of proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunzhong; Li, Xiaohui; Wan, Zhaohui; Chen, Yanan; Tan, Jinting; Pan, Mu

    2018-03-01

    Oxygen transport resistance (OTR) is a critical factor influencing the performance of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this paper, an effective method to reduce the OTR of catalyst layers (CLs) by introducing a hydrophobic additive into traditional CLs is proposed. A low-molecular-weight polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is selected for its feasibility to prepare an emulsion, which is mixed with a traditional catalyst ink to successfully fabricate the CL with PTFE of 10 wt%. The PTFE film exists in the mesopores between the carbon particles. The limiting current of the hydrophobic CL was almost 4000 mA/cm2, which is 500 mA/cm2 higher than that of the traditional CL. PTFE reduces the OTR of the CL in the dry region by as much as 24 s/m compared to the traditional CL and expands the dry region from 2000 mA/cm2 in the traditional CL to 2500 mA/cm2. Furthermore, the CL with the hydrophobic agent can improve the oxygen transport in the wet region (>2000 mA/cm2) more effectively than that in the dry region. All these results indicate that the CL with the hydrophobic agent shows a superior performance in terms of optimizing water management and effectively reduces the OTR in PEMFCs.

  7. Effect of crystals and fibrous network polymer additives on cellular morphology of microcellular foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ryoma; Utano, Tatsumi; Yasuhara, Shunya; Ishihara, Shota; Ohshima, Masahiro

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the core-back foam injection molding was used for preparing microcelluar polypropylene (PP) foam with either a 1,3:2,4 bis-O-(4-methylbenzylidene)-D-sorbitol gelling agent (Gel-all MD) or a fibros network polymer additive (Metablen 3000). Both agent and addiive could effectively control the celluar morphology in foams but somehow different ways. In course of cooling the polymer with Gel-all MD in the mold caity, the agent enhanced the crystal nucleation and resulted in the large number of small crystals. The crystals acted as effective bubble nucleation agent in foaming process. Thus, the agent reduced the cell size and increased the cell density, drastically. Furthermore, the small crystals provided an inhomogenuity to the expanding cell wall and produced the high open cell content with nano-scale fibril structure. Gell-all as well as Metablene 3000 formed a gel-like fibrous network in melt. The network increased the elongational viscosity and tended to prevent the cell wall from breaking up. The foaming temperature window was widened by the presence of the network. Especially, the temperature window where the macro-fibrous structure was formed was expanded to the higher temperature. The effects of crystal nucleating agent and PTFE on crystals' size and number, viscoelsticity, rheological propreties of PP and cellular morphology were compared and thorougly investigated.

  8. Effect of interface reflection in pseudophakic eyes with an additional refractive intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Jens; Zoric, Katja; Meßner, Arthur; Eppig, Timo

    2012-09-01

    To compare the surface reflections in a pseudophakic model eye with and without a monofocal additional refractive intraocular lens (add-on IOL). Department of Ophthalmology, Rudolf-Virchow-Klinikum Glauchau, Glauchau, and Experimental Ophthalmology, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany. Experimental study. The Liou and Brennan model eye was used to determine the retinal surface reflections in a pseudophakic model eye with and without an add-on IOL. The crystalline lens of the model eye was replaced by (1) a standard posterior chamber IOL (PC IOL) with a refractive power of 22.0 diopters (D) and (2) a PC IOL and an add-on IOL with refractive powers of 19.0 D and 2.5 D, respectively. To theoretically estimate the impact of the reflected images to visual impression, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated under 2 conditions: without and with straylight and double reflection effects. Compared with the pseudophakic model eye without an add-on IOL, the pseudophakic model eye with an add-on IOL showed no relevant differences in the SNR under both conditions. Findings indicate that implantation of monofocal add-on IOLs will not induce relevant additional disturbing glare compared with conventional pseudophakia. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of Graphene Addition on Shape Memory Behavior of Epoxy Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tiffany; Meador, Michael; Miller, Sandi; Scheiman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Shape memory polymers (SMPs) and composites are a special class of smart materials known for their ability to change size and shape upon exposure to an external stimulus (e.g. light, heat, pH, or magnetic field). These materials are commonly used for biomedical applications; however, recent attempts have been made towards developing SMPs and composites for use in aircraft and space applications. Implementing SMPs and composites to create a shape change effect in some aircraft structures could potentially reduce drag, decrease fuel consumption, and improve engine performance. This paper discusses the development of suitable materials to use in morphing aircraft structures. Thermally responsive epoxy SMPs and nanocomposites were developed and the shape memory behavior and thermo-mechanical properties were studied. Overall, preliminary results from dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) showed that thermally actuated shape memory epoxies and nanocomposites possessed Tgs near approximately 168 C. When graphene nanofiller was added, the storage modulus and crosslinking density decreased. On the other hand, the addition of graphene enhanced the recovery behavior of the shape memory nanocomposites. It was assumed that the addition of graphene improved shape memory recovery by reducing the crosslinking density and increasing the elasticity of the nanocomposites.

  10. Effect of Salt and Ethanol Addition on Zein-Starch Dough and Bread Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brennan M; Bean, Scott R; Selling, Gordon; Sessa, David; Aramouni, Fadi M

    2017-03-01

    Development of viscoelastic doughs from non-wheat proteins allows for a wider range of gluten-free products. Little work has been completed to describe mechanisms of zein functionality in food systems. To identify factors responsible for dough development in zein-starch mixtures and their influence on zein bread quality, a mixture of 20% zein-80% maize starch was mixed with water and various reagents. Salts, NaSCN, NaCl, and Na 2 SO 4 were evaluated at concentrations from 0 to 2M for their influence on the properties of zein-starch dough systems. NaSCN at low concentrations produced softer dough. Ethanol treatments produced softer more workable dough in the absence of salts. Increasing concentrations of NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 resulted in coalescing of the proteins and no dough formation. The addition of β-ME had minimal softening effects on zein-starch dough. Specific volumes of zein-starch bread increased with decreasing NaCl addition in bread formulations. Likewise, including 5% ethanol (v/v) in the bread formula increased bread quality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Effect of hydroxy (HHO gas addition on gasoline engine performance and emiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. EL-Kassaby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to construct a simple innovative HHO generation system and evaluate the effect of hydroxyl gas HHO addition, as an engine performance improver, into gasoline fuel on engine performance and emissions. HHO cell was designed, fabricated and optimized for maximum HHO gas productivity per input power. The optimized parameters were the number of neutral plates, distance between them and type and quantity of two catalysts of Potassium Hydroxide (KOH and sodium hydroxide (NaOH. The performance of a Skoda Felicia 1.3 GLXi gasoline engine was evaluated with and without the optimized HHO cell. In addition, the CO, HC and NOx emissions were measured using TECNO TEST exhaust gas analyzer TE488. The results showed that the HHO gas maximum productivity of the cell was 18 L/h when using 2 neutrals plates with 1 mm distance and 6 g/L of KOH. The results also showed 10% increment in the gasoline engine thermal efficiency, 34% reduction in fuel consumption, 18% reduction in CO, 14% reduction in HC and 15% reduction in NOx.

  12. Lung cancer risk from radon and smoking - additive or multiplicative effect?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work is to evaluate the risk of lung cancer when combined radon and smoking exposure. Methodologically the evaluation is based on case and control study nested in two cohort studies, including 11,000 miners and 12,000 residents exposed to high concentrations of radon in homes. Radon exposure in individuals is complemented by information on smoking gained personally from them or from their relatives. The study is based on 1,073 cases of lung cancer among miners and 372 cases in population study. Control subjects were randomly selected in each study based on gender, year of birth and age achieved. The combined effect of smoking and radon is evaluated using the so-called geometric mixed models, whose special case is an additive or multiplicative model. The resulting model of the risk is closer to additive interaction (parameter of mixed model 0.2). The consequences of the model in the study of population are illustrated by estimates of lifetime risk in a hypothetical population of smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to the multiplicative risk model, the lifetime risk significantly increased according to the best geometric mixed model, especially in the population of non-smokers. (author)

  13. LOX/GOX sensitivity of fluoroelastomers. [effect of formulation components and addition of fire retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshen, N.; Mill, T.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of formulation components and the addition of fire retardants on the impact sensitivity of Viton B fluoroelastomer in liquid oxygen was studied with the objective of developing a procedure for reliably reducing this sensitivity. Component evaluation, carried out on more than 40 combinations of components and cure cycles, showed that almost all the standard formulation agents, including carbon, MgO, Diak-3, and PbO2, will sensitize the Viton stock either singly or in combinations, some combinations being much more sensitive than others. Cure and postcure treatments usually reduced the sensitivity of a given formulation, often dramatically, but no formulated Viton was as insensitive as the pure Viton B stock. Coating formulated Viton with a thin layer of pure Viton gave some indication of reduced sensitivity, but additional tests are needed. It is concluded that sensitivity in formulated Viton arises from a variety of sources, some physical and some chemical in origin. Elemental analyses for all the formulated Vitons are reported as are the results of a literature search on the subject of LOX impact sensitivity.

  14. Effect of zinc addition on the performance of aluminium alloy sacrificial anode for marine application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Bharvez; Rosli, M. U.; Jahidi, H.; Ishak, Muhammad Ikman; Zakaria, M. S.; Jamalludin, Mohd Riduan; Khor, C. Y.; Faizal, W. M.; Rahim, W. M.; Nawi, M. A. M.

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the effect of zinc addition on the performance of aluminum-based sacrificial anode in seawater was investigated. The parameters used in assessing the performance of the cast anodes are anodic efficiency, protection efficiency and polarized potential. The content of zinc in the anodes was varied after die casting. The alloys produced were tested as sacrificial anode for the protection of mild steel for marine application at room temperature. Factors such as reactivity of zinc particles in the seawater, corrosion activity during the period of experiment, pH of seawater and the electronegativity potential of zinc were collected for analysis. Overall findings shows addition of zinc increases rate of corrosion to the sacrificial anode and the protection offered by the sacrificial anodes measured and collected in PIT shows the seawater react to sacrificial anode and no porosity reaction between the anodes. The microstructure showed the intermetallic structures of β-phase which breakdown the alumina passive film, thus enhancing the anode efficiency.

  15. Effect of Additional Information on Consumer Acceptance: An Example with Pomegranate Juice and Green Tea Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Higa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pomegranate Juice (PJ and Green Tea (GT products have increased in popularity because of their beneficial health properties. Consumers look for healthier beverages, and rely on labels, claims, and product packaging when choosing a product. The objectives of this study were to determine (1 the sensory profiles and acceptance of PJ and GT blends; (2 whether additional information would have an effect on consumer acceptance; and (3 the total phenolic content (TPC of the samples. Six PJ and GT blends were evaluated by a descriptive panel in order to explore sensory differences in flavor characteristics. A consumer panel (n = 100 evaluated the samples before and after beneficial health information about the samples was provided to them. The blends that were higher in tea concentration were higher in Green and GT-like flavors, and lower in berry, beet, floral, sweetness, and cherry flavors. The overall liking scores of all of the samples increased after the information was provided to the consumers. The sample highest in PJ and lowest in GT blend was liked the most. In addition, as the samples increased in PJ, the TPC content increased. These results may be of interest to the beverage industry, providing information of consumer liking of beverage blends, and how information on health related claims affects consumer acceptance.

  16. The Effects of Si Addition on Electrical Degradation of ZnO Varistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoi, Yohei; Hirai, Hideki; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Yoshikado, Shinzo

    The effects of Si addition on the electrical degradation of the ZnO varistors were investigated by voltage-current (V-I ), capacitance-voltage (C-V ) methods, and Isothermal Capacitance Transient Spectroscopy (ICTS). The nonlinearity index α for the Bi-Mn-Si-added ZnO varistors didn’t show the remarkable change but that for the Bi-Co-Si-added ZnO varistors decreased by Si addition. Values of α after electrical degradation showed the local maximum at approximately 700molppm for Bi-Mn-added ZnO varistors and at approximately 500molppm for Bi-Co-added ZnO varistors. It is found that the electrical degradation can be hindered at these optimum Si contents. EC-ET showed the local maximum at the optimum Si content similar to α for the Bi-Mn-Al-added ZnO varistors but those for Bi-Co-Si-added ZnO varistors showed the local minimum at the optimum Si content contrary to α for Bi-Co-Al-added ZnO varistors. The density Nis of the interface trap levels obtained by C-V characteristics and ICTS for both kinds of ZnO varistor showed the local minimum at the optimum Si content similar to Al added Bi-Mn-added and Bi-Co-added ZnO varistors.

  17. Effects of addition of different fibers on rheological characteristics of cake batter and quality of cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Ayca; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of dietary fibers on rheological properties of batter and cake quality. Wheat flour was replaced by 5 and 10% (wt%) oat, pea, apple and lemon fibers. All cake batters showed shear thinning behavior. Incorporation of fibers increased consistency index (k), storage modulus (G') and loss modulus (G″). As quality parameters, specific volume, hardness, weight loss, color and microstructure of cakes were investigated. Cakes containing oat and pea fibers (5%) had similar specific volume and texture with control cakes which contained no fiber. As fiber concentration increased, specific volume decreased but hardness increased. No significant difference was found between weight loss of control cake and cakes with oat, pea and apple fibers. Lemon fiber enriched cakes had the lowest specific volume, weight loss and color difference. When microstructural images were examined, it was seen that control cake had more porous structure than fiber enriched cakes. In addition, lemon and apple fiber containing cakes had less porous crumb structure as compared to oat and pea containing ones. Oat and pea fiber (5%) enriched cakes had similar physical properties (volume, texture and color) with control cakes.

  18. Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) meat: characterization and the effects of protein additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakpetch, P; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

    2008-03-01

    Autolytic activity of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mince in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl was investigated. Pacific white shrimp mince exhibited the maximum autolytic activity at 35 and 40 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl, respectively, as evidenced by the highest TCA-soluble peptide content and the greatest disappearance of myosin heavy chain (MHC). The autolysis was more pronounced in the acidic pH values, followed by alkaline pH ranges. Pepstatin A showed the highest inhibition toward autolysis in the acidic condition, revealing that aspartic proteinase was dominant in shrimp muscle. Nevertheless, soybean trypsin inhibitor effectively inhibited the autolysis at neutral and alkaline pH values, suggesting that serine proteinase was present in shrimp mince but contributed to autolysis at a lower extent in shrimp meat. Autolysis in shrimp meat could be inhibited partially by all protein additives, including bovine plasma protein (BPP), egg white (EW), and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The inhibition of autolysis increased when the level of protein additives increased with the concomitant increase in band intensity of MHC retained. WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince.

  19. Effect of additional carbon source on naphthalene biodegradation by Pseudomonas putida G7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kangtaek; Park, Jin-Won; Ahn, Ik-Sung

    2003-01-01

    Addition of a carbon source as a nutrient into soil is believed to enhance in situ bioremediation by stimulating the growth of microorganisms that are indigenous to the subsurface and are capable of degrading contaminants. However, it may inhibit the biodegradation of organic contaminants and result in diauxic growth. The objective of this work is to study the effect of pyruvate as another carbon source on the biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, naphthalene was used as a model PAH, ammonium sulfate as a nitrogen source, and oxygen as an electron acceptor. Pseudomonas putida G7 was used as a model naphthalene-degrading microorganism. From a chemostat culture, the growth kinetics of P. putida G7 on pyruvate was determined. At concentrations of naphthalene and pyruvate giving similar growth rates of P. putida G7, diauxic growth of P. putida G7 was not observed. It is suggested that pyruvate does not inhibit naphthalene biodegradation and can be used as an additional carbon source to stimulate the growth of P. putida G7 that can degrade polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

  20. Effect of different oxytetracycline addition methods on its degradation behavior in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gui-Xiu; He, Wei-Wei; Wang, Yan; Zou, Yong-De; Liang, Juan-Boo; Liao, Xin-Di; Wu, Yin-Bao

    2014-05-01

    The degradation behavior of veterinary antibiotics in soil is commonly studied using the following methods of adding antibiotics to the soil: (i) adding manure collected from animals fed with a diet containing antibiotics, (ii) adding antibiotic-free animal manure spiked with antibiotics and (iii) directly adding antibiotics. No research simultaneously comparing different antibiotic addition methods was found. Oxytetracycline (OTC) was used as a model antibiotic to compare the effect of the three commonly used antibiotic addition methods on OTC degradation behavior in soil. The three treatment methods have similar trends, though OTC degradation half-lives show the following significant differences (Pantibiotic-free manure+OTC (treatment B)soil. Because the main entry route for veterinary antibiotics into soil is via the manure of animals given with antibiotics, the most appropriate method to study the degradation and ecotoxicity of antibiotic residues in soil may be to use manure from animals that are given a particular antibiotic, rather than by adding it directly to the soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of thermal treatments on the characterisation and utilisation of red mud with sawdust additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi; Ming, Hui; Dharmarajan, Rajarathnam; Du, Jianhua

    2016-06-01

    Extremely large amounts of red mud (bauxite residue) are generated globally every year from alumina refining industries, which are being disposed of on engineered landfills. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of thermal treatments on red mud for development of utilisation strategies. Thermal treatments of red mud samples and their characterisations were investigated under inert (N2) and oxidative (air) conditions with and without sawdust addition at 200-600°C. After calcination, the resulting samples were analysed using thermogravimetric-infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR) for functional group transformations, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal loss profiles and X-ray diffraction (XRD) for mineral transformations. The characterisation results showed that in N2 environment, boehmite in red mud was transferred to transition alumina at around 400°C while losing water from structural components. The addition of sawdust for incubation and calcination of red mud in air increased the surface area, whereas that in nitrogen atmosphere lead to reduction of hematite to magnetite at around 500°C. The incorporated carbon materials played a major role in increasing the surface area especially for pore size less than 2.5 nm. This treated red mud with altered mineral composition and improved properties for binding contaminants can be used for environmental remediation and in the process of metal recovery such as iron. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Direct Numerical Simulations of Microstructure Effects During High-Rate Loading of Additively Manufactured Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaile, Corbett; Owen, Steven; Moore, Nathan

    2017-06-01

    The properties of most engineering materials depend on the characteristics of internal microstructures and defects. In additively manufactured (AM) metals, these can include polycrystalline grains, impurities, phases, and significant porosity that qualitatively differ from conventional engineering materials. The microscopic details of the interactions between these internal defects, and the propagation of applied loads through the body, act in concert to dictate macro-observable properties like strength and compressibility. In this work, we used Sandia's ALEGRA finite element software to simulate the high-strain-rate loading of AM metals from laser engineered net shaping (LENS) and thermal spraying. The microstructural details of the material were represented explicitly, such that internal features like second phases and pores are captured and meshed as individual entities in the computational domain. We will discuss the dependence of the high-strain-rate mechanical properties on microstructural characteristics such as the shapes, sizes, and volume fractions of second phases and pores. In addition, we will examine how the details of the microstructural representation affect the microscopic material response to dynamic loads, and the effects of using ``stair-step'' versus conformal interfaces smoothed via the SCULPT tool in Sandia's CUBIT software. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the US DOE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  3. Effects of additives and impurities on the properties of CR-39 neutron dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarle, G.

    1982-01-01

    Several problems have plagued users of commercial CR-39 for neutron dosimetry work. Large variations in sensitivity have been observed in samples received from different manufacturers, from different batches from the same manufacturer and even within a given sheet. The latter variations have taken several forms. Clear etching regions of lower sensitivity near the gasket and sometimes extending well away from the gasket in drip-like patterns have been observed. Large demarcated patches of differing sensitivity and sensitivity variations with depth have been found in many commercial samples of CR-39. In addition, we have observed a general roughening of the post-etch surface and a patchiness of bulk etching associated with contact patterns of adjacent sheets, which have been stored for extended (greater than or equal to 6 mos) periods of time. All of these problems combine to make commercially available CR-39 unreliable as a neutron dosimeter. In an attempt to identify and correct the causes of these problems, a systematic study of the effects of additives, impurities and manufacturing conditions on the uniformity of CR-39 track detectors has been undertaken, and is reported in this paper

  4. Heat resistance of Bacillus cereus spores: effects of milk constituents and stabilizing additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazas, M; López, M; Martínez, S; Bernardo, A; Martin, R

    1999-04-01

    Heat resistance of Bacillus cereus spores (ATCC 7004, 4342, and 9818) heated in different types of milk (skim, whole, and concentrated skim milk), skim milk containing stabilizing additives (sodium citrate, monopotassium phosphate, or disodium phosphate, 0.1%), and cream was investigated. Thermal resistance experiments were performed at temperatures within the range of 92 to 115 degrees C under continuous monitoring of pH. For strain 4342 no significant differences (P < 0.05) in D values were detected in any case. For strains 7004 and 9818 higher D values of about 20% were obtained in whole and concentrated skim milk than those calculated in skim milk. From all stabilizing additives tested, only sodium citrate and sodium phosphate increased the heat resistance for strain 9818. However, when the menstruum pH was measured at the treatment temperature, different pH values were found between the heating media. The differences in heat resistance observed could be due to a pH effect rather than to the difference in the substrates in which spores were heated. In contrast, when cream (fat content 20%) was used, lower D values were obtained, especially for strains 7004 and 9818. z values were not significantly modified by the milk composition, with an average z value of 7.95+/-0.20 degrees C for strain 7004, 7.88+/-0.10 degrees C for strain 4342, and 9.13+/-0.16 degrees C for strain 9818.

  5. Effects of Increased Summer Precipitation and Nitrogen Addition on Root Decomposition in a Temperate Desert.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongmei Zhao

    Full Text Available Climate change scenarios that include precipitation shifts and nitrogen (N deposition are impacting carbon (C budgets in arid ecosystems. Roots constitute an important part of the C cycle, but it is still unclear which factors control root mass loss and nutrient release in arid lands.Litterbags were used to investigate the decomposition rate and nutrient dynamics in root litter with water and N-addition treatments in the Gurbantunggut Desert in China. Water and N addition had no significant effect on root mass loss and the N and phosphorus content of litter residue. The loss of root litter and nutrient releases were strongly controlled by the initial lignin content and the lignin:N ratio, as evidenced by the negative correlations between decomposition rate and litter lignin content and the lignin:N ratio. Fine roots of Seriphidium santolinum (with higher initial lignin content had a slower decomposition rate in comparison to coarse roots.Results from this study indicate that small and temporary changes in rainfall and N deposition do not affect root decomposition patterns in the Gurbantunggut Desert. Root decomposition rates were significantly different between species, and also between fine and coarse roots, and were determined by carbon components, especially lignin content, suggesting that root litter quality may be the primary driver of belowground carbon turnover.

  6. The prediction of interferon treatment effects based on time series microarray gene expression profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Chao-Chun

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The status of a disease can be reflected by specific transcriptional profiles resulting from the induction or repression activity of a number of genes. Here, we proposed a time-dependent diagnostic model to predict the treatment effects of interferon and ribavirin to HCV infected patients by using time series microarray gene expression profiles of a published study. Methods In the published study, 33 African-American (AA and 36 Caucasian American (CA patients with chronic HCV genotype 1 infection received pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy for 28 days. HG-U133A GeneChip containing 22283 probes was used to analyze the global gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of all the patients on day 0 (pretreatment, 1, 2, 7, 14, and 28. According to the decrease of HCV RNA levels on day 28, two categories of responses were defined: good and poor. A voting method based on Student's t test, Wilcoxon test, empirical Bayes test and significance analysis of microarray was used to identify differentially expressed genes. A time-dependent diagnostic model based on C4.5 decision tree was constructed to predict the treatment outcome. This model not only utilized the gene expression profiles before the treatment, but also during the treatment. Leave-one-out cross validation was used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results The model could correctly predict all Caucasian American patients' treatment effects at very early time point. The prediction accuracy of African-American patients achieved 85.7%. In addition, thirty potential biomarkers which may play important roles in response to interferon and ribavirin were identified. Conclusion Our method provides a way of using time series gene expression profiling to predict the treatment effect of pegylated interferon and ribavirin therapy on HCV infected patients. Similar experimental and bioinformatical strategies may be used to improve treatment decisions for

  7. Effect of chitosan addition and gamma radiation on polymeric blends of PVP and PVAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terence, M.C.; Castro, P.J.; Miranda, L.F.; Faldini, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this project is the study of the effect of chitosan addition and the radiation with gamma rays. The polymeric blend usage is a recent development that expanded the applications of the polymers, due to the improvement of the properties of a single polymer. The PVP and PVAL were chosen because they present the main required characteristics to the formation of a hydrogel, such as water absorption and crosslinking, and the chitosan to improve the interaction between the hydrogel and the organism. The flexibility of the PVP was added with the mechanical resistance of the PVAL and the chitosan biocompatibility. With a defined concentration of PVP and PVAL, films of this blend was irradiated and also solutions with different concentrations of chitosan was prepared to obtain new films of this blend. After obtaining the films, some assays were realized to evaluate the mechanical properties. (author)

  8. Effect of small additions of niobium on the welding behavior of an austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, A.J.; Sikka, V.K.; Reed, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    To systematically study the effect of niobium on the behavior of Type 304 stainless steel, a low-niobium commercial heat was remelted with varying niobium additions - up to 1000 ppM. A standardized weldability test, the Spot Varestraint, was used to compare the propensity of various heats for hot cracking. The fusion and heat-affected zone cracking behavior of the experimental heats was similar to that of a heat of commercial Type 304, and much superior to that of a commercial heat of Type 347 stainless steel. The superior resistance to fusion zone cracking was attributed to the presence of a small amount of delta ferrite in the microstructure of the weld nugget in the experimental materials. The outstanding heat-affected zone cracking behavior was at least partly attributable to backfilling of grain boundary separations in the experimental heats, as well as in the commercial Type 304

  9. Food additives, contaminants and other minor components: effects on human gut microbiota-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Mendez-Vilabrille, Veronica; Miranda, Jose Manuel; Nebot, Carolina; Cardelle-Cobas, Alejandra; Franco, Carlos M; Cepeda, Alberto

    2018-02-01

    Gut bacteria play an important role in several metabolic processes and human diseases, such as obesity and accompanying co-morbidities, such as fatty liver disease, insulin resistance/diabetes, and cardiovascular events. Among other factors, dietary patterns, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, antibiotics, and non-dietary factors, such as stress, age, exercise, and climatic conditions, can dramatically impact the human gut microbiota equilibrium and diversity. However, the effect of minor food constituents, including food additives and trace contaminants, on human gut microbiota has received less attention. Consequently, the present review aimed to provide an objective perspective of the current knowledge regarding the impacts of minor food constituents on human gut microbiota and consequently, on human health.

  10. Effect of acid additives on sugarcane bagasse pyrolysis: Production of high yields of sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Geraldo Ferreira; Perez, Victor Haber; Rodriguez Justo, Oselys; Garcia-Perez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to improve sugarcane bagasse thermochemical conversion to pyrolytic sugars production, particularly to levoglucosan. The experiments were carried out evaluating the effect of acid washing with HNO 3 (0.1wt.%) followed by H 2 SO 4 addition (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3wt.%) at pyrolysis temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600°C was studied by Py-GC/MS. The experimental results showed that HNO 3 washing, followed by H 2 SO 4 concentration of 0.2wt.% at 350°C resulted in an increase in levoglucosan yield between 5 and 7 times the yield obtained when the raw bagasse was processed. Thus, these results are very attractive to improve pyrolytic sugars production in sugarcane bagasse by previously acid treatment to pyrolysis technology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of processing parameters on the structure of fermented milk products with transglutaminase addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličić Mirela D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the effect of concentration of transglutaminase (TG, content of milk fat and starter culture type (probiotic and kombucha on the structure of fermented milk products. The application of TG significantly improved textural characteristics of the fermented milk products. The firmness of the samples produced from milk with 0.1g100g-1 and 0.9g100g-1 fat content with probiotic starter were by 33% and 17.6% higher, respectively, compared to the control samples. During ten days of storage, the value of the hysteresis loop area of all samples produced from milk with 0.9g100g-1 fat content with TG addition, decreased by 14%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  12. Spurious Additional Warming Reconstructed From Borehole Temperatures Corrected for the Effect of the Last Glacial Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šafanda, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Reconstructions of past ground surface temperature changes from temperature logs conducted in several hundred meter deep boreholes have proved to be a valuable independent source of information on climate variations over the last millennium. The reconstruction techniques have been evolving for more than two decades to extract optimally the climate signal of the last millennium contained in the temperature logs of different length performed in sites with different histories of the Last Glacial Cycle. This paper analyzes the method of the Last Glacial Cycle thermal effect removal from such borehole temperature profiles used by Beltrami et al. (2017, https://doi.org/10.1002/2016GL071317) in reconstructing the last 500 year history. I show that the reported results of additional warming in this period reconstructed from the corrected borehole data for North America are an artifact generated by the correction.

  13. The Effect of Nano-TiC Addition on Sintered Nd-Fe-B Permanent Magnets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mural, Zorjana; Kollo, Lauri; Xia, Manlong

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the effect of nano-TiC addition on sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets. TiC nanoparticles were added to sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with a specific aim to improve the Curie temperature and thermal stability. A standard powder metallurgy route was adopted to prepare the magnets. I...... for such magnets showed an improved shape and VSM analysis a coercivity value of 1188 kA/m, a remanence value of 0.96 T and a maximum energy product of 132 kJ/m3. The maximum working point and the Curie temperature of the developed magnets were 373 K and 623 K respectively....

  14. Effects of Nano Additives in engine emission Characteristics using Blends of Lemon Balm oil with Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil kumar, J.; Ganesan, S.; Sivasaravanan, S.; Padmanabhan, S.; Krishnan, L.; Aniruthan, V. C.

    2017-05-01

    Economic growth in developing countries has led to enormous increase in energy demand. In India the energy demand is increasing at a rate of 6.5% every year. The crude oil demand of country is meet by bring in of about 70%. Thus the energy safety measures have become key issue for our country. Bio diesel an eco-friendly and renewable fuel alternate for diesel has been getting the consideration of researcher’s entire world. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the engine parameters using blend of pure lemon balm oil with diesel. Also nano Additives is used as a catalyst with blends of bio fuel to enhance the Emission Characteristics of various effective gases like CO2, NOx, CO and UHC with various levels of engine process parameters.

  15. Thermoplastic starch/polyester films: effects of extrusion process and poly (lactic acid) addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Marianne Ayumi; Olivato, Juliana Bonametti; Garcia, Patrícia Salomão; Müller, Carmen Maria Olivera; Grossmann, Maria Victória Eiras; Yamashita, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    Biodegradable films were produced using the blown extrusion method from blends that contained cassava thermoplastic starch (TPS), poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with two different extrusion processes. The choice of extrusion process did not have a significant effect on the mechanical properties, water vapor permeability (WVP) or viscoelasticity of the films, but the addition of PLA decreased the elongation, blow-up ratio (BUR) and opacity and increased the elastic modulus, tensile strength and viscoelastic parameters of the films. The films with 20% PLA exhibited a lower WVP due to the hydrophobic nature of this polymer. Morphological analyses revealed the incompatibility between the polymers used. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of the addition of CMC on the aggregation behaviour of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, H.; Sabato, S.F.; D'Aprano, G.; Lacroix, M.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) on the aggregation of formulation based on calcium caseinate, commercial whey protein (WPC), and a 1:1 mixture of soy protein isolate (SPI) and whey protein isolate (WPI) was investigated. Protein aggregation could be observed upon addition of CMC, as demonstrated by size-exclusion chromatography. This aggregation behaviour was enhanced by means of physical treatments, such as heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min or gamma-irradiation at 32 kGy. A synergy resulted from the combination of CMC to gamma-irradiation in Caseinate/CMC and SPI/WPI/CMC formulations. Furthermore, CMC prevented precipitation in irradiated protein solutions for a period of more than 3 months at 4 deg. C

  17. Exploring the effects of ZVI addition on resource recovery in the anaerobic digestion process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puyol, D.; Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Segura, Y.

    2018-01-01

    not compensate the costs of ZVI purchase, and (b) ZVI dramatically decreases the P recovery potential in the digestate of the AD systems. This is the first study to experimentally and mathematically describe the effect of ZVI on biogas production/composition and on the fate of phosphorus compounds, and its......The influence of Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) addition on the potential resource recovery during the anaerobic digestion (AD) of domestic waste sludge is assessed. Potentially recoverable resources analyzed were nutrients such as struvite to recover P, and energy as biogas to recover C. Short term...... (biochemical methane potential tests, BMP) and long term (AD1, AD2) experiments are conducted using two types of set-up (batch, continuous). Process data (influent, effluent and biogas) is continuously collected and the dry digested sludge is analyzed by XPS. A mathematical model is developed based...

  18. Effect of crushed mussel shell addition on bacterial growth in acid polluted soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Calviño, David; Garrido-Rodríguez, B.; Arias-Estévez, M.

    2015-01-01

    We applied three different doses of crushed mussel shell (CMS) on two Cu-polluted acid soils to study the effect of these amendments on the growth of the bacterial community during 730 days. Soil pH increased in the short and medium term due to CMS addition. In a first stage, bacterial growth...... was lower in the CMS-amended than in the un-amended samples. Thereafter, bacterial growth increased slowly. The soil having the highest initial pH value (4.5) showed the first significant increase in bacterial growth 95 days after the CMS amendment. However, in the soil with the lowest initial pH value (3...... as an agronomic sound practice for strongly acid soils (pH

  19. Effects of REM and Ba Additions on the Characteristics of the Third Generation Duplex Stainless Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Soo; Kim, Soon Tae

    2006-01-01

    The third generation super duplex stainless steel having excellent corrosion resistance, embrittlement resistance, castability, weldability and hot workability has been developed. REM and Ba added to the alloy, with larger atomic radius than those of Cr, Mo and W, seem to fill vacancies inside the matrix and around the grain boundaries, retarding formation of brittle σ and χ phases. In addition, fine oxides/ oxy-sulfides of REM and Ba (1∼3 μm in diameter) seem to enhance the retardation effects. The alloys have also shown higher strength and ductility resulting from phase and grain refinements caused by those oxides and oxy-sulfides. Accordingly it is judged that the core technology can provide the method for remarkably suppressing formation of intermetallic phases by adding new alloy elements, and improving a applied to sea water and flue gas desulfurization facility

  20. Effect of the chemical pressure by the addition of interstitials in CePd3:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the 'chemical pressure' on the intermediate valence compound CePd 3 , is studied by means of specific heat measurements with and without magnetic field. The addition of interstitials in the cubic structure on the alloys CePd 3 A H (A = B, Be, Si) is analyzed. At low interstitial concentration the thermal and magnetic properties that characterize the evolution of the Ce valence show a universal behaviour with the volume displaced by the interstitial. For higher concentrations two different behaviours were found in the trivalent state: a) With the larger interstitials, Be and Si, the system evolves toward a long range antiferromagnetic order; b) With the smaller interstitial, B, the system evolves toward a concentrated Kondo state. (Author) [es