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Sample records for additional intraocular pressure

  1. Additive Effect of Brinzolamide on Diurnal Changes in Intraocular Pressure in Latanoprost-treated Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Abe, Keitetsu; Kashiwagi, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of brinzolamide on diurnal fluctuations in the intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients on latanoprost ophthalmic solution prospectively was aimed. Eleven patients with primary open angle glaucoma were enrolled in this study. The subjects were admitted to the hospital and had their IOPs measured over 24 hours (10 AM, noon, 2 PM, 4 PM, 6 PM, 8 PM, 10 PM, midnight, 3 AM, 6 AM, and 8AM). After topical administration of brinzolamide twice daily for 4-8 weeks for one eye, t...

  2. Predictors of additional intraocular pressure reduction in patients changed to latanoprost/timolol fixed combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordmann Jean-Philippe

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the growing number of ocular hypotensive medications available, it is important to be able to predict a positive response to therapy. The purpose of the present study was to identify predictors of an additional 10% intraocular pressure (IOP reduction after 12 weeks of treatment with latanoprost/timolol fixed combination (FC in patients requiring a change in their previous ocular hypotensive medication. Methods This multicenter, open-label, prospective, phase IIIb study included subjects ≥18 years of age with open-angle glaucoma (OAG or ocular hypertension (OHT. Eligible subjects had baseline IOP ≥21 mmHg and insufficient response to current beta-blocker monotherapy. The primary efficacy analysis (logistic regression identified predictors of a positive response after 12 weeks of latanoprost/timolol FC. Results The intent-to-treat (ITT population included 383 subjects treated with ≥1 drop of FC and having ≥1 follow-up IOP assessment. Mean IOP was 22.19 ± 2.16 mmHg at baseline and was reduced by 5.42 ± 2.71 mmHg at study end. In all, 325 (84.9% subjects had a positive response to latanoprost/timolol FC; the response rate was similar across groups: OAG (n = 208; 82.7%; OHT (n = 161; 87.6%; OAG+OHT (n = 14; 85.7%. Higher baseline IOP (odds ratio: 1.284; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.101, 1.497; p = 0.0014 and absence of adverse events (odds ratio: 0.318; 95% CI: 0.161, 0.629; p = 0.0010 were significant predictors of positive response. Age, gender, ethnic origin, diagnosis, family history of OAG/OHT, corneal thickness, and concomitant systemic beta-blocker were not significant predictors of a positive response in the ITT analysis. The FC was well tolerated. The most common adverse events were related to the eye and were consistent with known adverse events associated with latanoprost and timolol. Conclusions These results support the use of latanoprost/timolol FC in patients whose IOP is insufficiently controlled

  3. Associations with intraocular pressure across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Springelkamp, Henriët; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine;

    2016-01-01

    Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for developing glaucoma, the second commonest cause of blindness globally. Understanding associations with IOP and variations in IOP between countries may teach us about mechanisms underlying glaucoma. We examined cross-sectional...

  4. Intraocular pressure in Japanese diabetic patients

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuoka M; Ogata N.; Matsuyama K; Yoshikawa T.; Takahashi K.

    2012-01-01

    Masato Matsuoka,1 Nahoko Ogata,2 Kayako Matsuyama,1 Tadanobu Yoshikawa,1 Kanji Takahashi31Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital, Osaka, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata Hospital, Osaka, JapanBackground: To determine whether the intraocular pressure (IOP) in diabetic patients is significantly different from that in nondiabetic patients.Methods: The medical records of a...

  5. Effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Božić Marija; Hentova-Senćanin Paraskeva; Branković Aleksandra; Marjanović Ivan; Jocić Đorđević Jasmina; Senćanin Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Any factor causing constriction of the neck may lead to an increase in intraocular pressure. A tight necktie may result in increasing intraocular pressure, which could lead to an erroneous diagnosis and treatment of ocular hypertension or even glaucoma. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure measurement using Goldmann applanation tonometry. Material and Methods. This study included forty eyes of 20 patients with primary ope...

  6. How to measure intraocular pressure: applanation tonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Astbury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unless there is a contraindication (e.g. trauma or corneal ulcer, all adults attending an eye unit should have their intraocular pressure (IOP measured. Many people with glaucoma have no symptoms and do not know they have the condition. All children who have had cataract surgery should also have their IOP measured at every follow-up visit, if possible. Finding glaucoma early allows treatment to be given which will preserve sight. Although elevated IOP is not the only sign of glaucoma, measuring it is simple and quick to do. Applanation tonometry, using a Goldmann tonometer at a slit lamp, is the preferred method (the ‘gold standard’.

  7. Implantable intraocular pressure monitoring systems: Design considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Design considerations and limitations of implantable Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) systems are presented in this paper. Detailed comparison with the state of the art is performed to highlight the benefits and challenges of the proposed design. The system-on-chip, presented here, is battery free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. This low-cost design, in standard CMOS process, does not require any external components or bond wires to function. This paper provides useful insights to the designers of implantable wireless sensors in terms of design choices and associated tradeoffs. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Intraocular pressure in Japanese diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Masato Matsuoka,1 Nahoko Ogata,2 Kayako Matsuyama,1 Tadanobu Yoshikawa,1 Kanji Takahashi31Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital, Osaka, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata Hospital, Osaka, JapanBackground: To determine whether the intraocular pressure (IOP in diabetic patients is significantly different from that in nondiabetic patients.Methods: The medical records of all patients who were initially examined in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital were reviewed. At the initial examination, patients had a detailed interview and underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. All patients were over 20 years of age and did not have glaucoma.Results: A total of 703 patients were evaluated. The mean (±standard error IOP of the diabetic patients was 15.5 ± 0.2 mmHg (n = 206, and was significantly higher than the 14.0 ± 0.1 mmHg (n = 497 in the nondiabetic patients (P < 0.0001. The IOP was negatively correlated with age (r = –0.202; P = 0.024 in the diabetic patients and was weakly but significantly correlated with the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c level (r = 0.240; P = 0.015 in the group with diabetic retinopathy.Conclusion: The significantly higher IOP in diabetic patients and positive correlation of IOP with HbA1c levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy indicate that IOP in diabetic patients is higher, especially in those with poor control of diabetes.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy, intraocular pressure, open-angle glaucoma

  9. Effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Marija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Any factor causing constriction of the neck may lead to an increase in intraocular pressure. A tight necktie may result in increasing intraocular pressure, which could lead to an erroneous diagnosis and treatment of ocular hypertension or even glaucoma. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a tight necktie on intraocular pressure measurement using Goldmann applanation tonometry. Material and Methods. This study included forty eyes of 20 patients with primary open angle glaucoma and 20 healthy controls (all male. Intraocular pressure was measured without a necktie, 3 minutes after placing a tight necktie and 3 minutes after loosening it. Student’s t-test was used to analyze the data between two groups. The intraocular pressure measurements were subjected to paired t - test. The value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. A possible correlation between the age of subjects and intraocular pressure values was analyzed using linear regression (Pearson′. Results. A statistically significant difference was found in intraocular pressure readings in all three measurements between two tested groups (p<0.05. When analyzed within groups, statistical significance in intraocular pressure readings was found after loosening the necktie (<0.05. No correlation between the age of subjects and increased intraocular pressure was found in either tested group of subjects after the necktie had been tightened (r2=0.006, p=0.70 for primary open angle patients, r2=0.07, p=0.22 for healthy controls. Conclusion. Wearing a tight necktie for a limited period of time during the day could be considered as a possible risk factor for glaucoma development.

  10. Metabolic Syndrome as a Risk Factor for Elevated Intraocular Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sahinoglu-Keskek, Nedime; Keskek, Sakir Ozgur; Cevher, Selim; Kirim, Sinan; Kayiklik, Asim; Ortoglu, Gulay; Saler, Tayyibe

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between intraocular pressure and metabolic syndrome by comparing central corneal thicknesses. Methods: One hundred sixty-two subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, with 89 subjects in a metabolic syndrome group and 73 subjects in a control group. Ophthalmological examinations, including intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness measurements, were performed on each subject. Serum fasting glucose, trigly...

  11. Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Dane, Senol; Gumustekin, Kenan; Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Okur, Adnan; Aslankurt, Murat; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan

    2005-01-01

    There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean+/-SD; 19.72+/-0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. PMID:15647949

  12. Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Okur, Adnan [Atatuerk University, Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Dane, Senol; Gumustekin, Kenan [Atatuerk University, Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Aslankurt, Murat [Atatuerk University, Department of Ophtalmatology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Yazici, Ahmet Taylan [Beyoglu Goez Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-01-01

    There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean{+-}SD; 19.72{+-}0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. (orig.)

  13. [Intraocular Pressure Sensor Based on a Contact Lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuhong; Pet, Weihua; Yao, Zhaolin; Chen, Yuanfang; Hu, Xiaohui; Chen, Hongda; Zhu, Jingyuan; Wu, Huijuan

    2016-02-01

    Intraocular pressure detection has a great significance for understanding the status of eye health, prevention and treatment of diseases such as glaucoma. Traditional intraocular pressure detection needs to be held in the hospital. It is not only time-consuming to doctors and patients, but also difficult to achieve 24 hour-continuous detection. Microminiaturization of the intraocular pressure sensor and wearing it as a contact lens, which is convenient, comfortable and noninvasive, can solve this problem because the soft contact lens with an embedded micro fabricated strain gauge allows the measurement of changes in corneal curvature to correlate to variations of intraocular pressure. We fabricated a strain gauge using micro-electron mechanical systems, and integrated with the contact lens made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using injection molding. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity was 100. 7 µV/µm. When attached to the corneal surface, the average sensitivity of sensor response of intraocular pressure can be 125.8 µV/mm Hg under the ideal condition. PMID:27382734

  14. Effects of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives on intraocular pressure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Ohnuma, Shin-ya; Uemoto, Kazuhiro; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Endo, Kazuki; Hosokawa, Tomokazu; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2004-02-23

    We evaluated the activities of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives, relatively selective adenosine A2 receptor agonists, in the intraocular pressure regulation in rabbits. An adenosine A2 receptor agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS-21680) decreased intraocular pressure, while another A2 receptor agonist 2-(phenylamino)adenosine transiently increased it. The first group of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives (1-hexyn-1-yl derivatives) caused a transient increase followed by decrease in intraocular pressure, while the second group (1-octyn-1-yl and 6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl derivatives) only decreased it. The second group is also effective in the ocular hypertensive models induced by water-loading and alpha-chymotrypsin. The outflow facility was increased by a 1-octyn-1-yl derivative. Both increase and decrease in intraocular pressure induced by 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives were inhibited by an adenosine A2 receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, but not by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropyl xanthine. These findings suggest that 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives may affect intraocular pressure via adenosine A2 receptor, and 2-alkynyladenosine derivative-induced ocular hypotension is due to the increase of outflow facility.

  15. Effects of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives on intraocular pressure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Ohnuma, Shin-ya; Uemoto, Kazuhiro; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Endo, Kazuki; Hosokawa, Tomokazu; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2004-02-23

    We evaluated the activities of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives, relatively selective adenosine A2 receptor agonists, in the intraocular pressure regulation in rabbits. An adenosine A2 receptor agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS-21680) decreased intraocular pressure, while another A2 receptor agonist 2-(phenylamino)adenosine transiently increased it. The first group of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives (1-hexyn-1-yl derivatives) caused a transient increase followed by decrease in intraocular pressure, while the second group (1-octyn-1-yl and 6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl derivatives) only decreased it. The second group is also effective in the ocular hypertensive models induced by water-loading and alpha-chymotrypsin. The outflow facility was increased by a 1-octyn-1-yl derivative. Both increase and decrease in intraocular pressure induced by 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives were inhibited by an adenosine A2 receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, but not by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropyl xanthine. These findings suggest that 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives may affect intraocular pressure via adenosine A2 receptor, and 2-alkynyladenosine derivative-induced ocular hypotension is due to the increase of outflow facility. PMID:14985053

  16. [Intraocular Pressure Sensor Based on a Contact Lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuhong; Pet, Weihua; Yao, Zhaolin; Chen, Yuanfang; Hu, Xiaohui; Chen, Hongda; Zhu, Jingyuan; Wu, Huijuan

    2016-02-01

    Intraocular pressure detection has a great significance for understanding the status of eye health, prevention and treatment of diseases such as glaucoma. Traditional intraocular pressure detection needs to be held in the hospital. It is not only time-consuming to doctors and patients, but also difficult to achieve 24 hour-continuous detection. Microminiaturization of the intraocular pressure sensor and wearing it as a contact lens, which is convenient, comfortable and noninvasive, can solve this problem because the soft contact lens with an embedded micro fabricated strain gauge allows the measurement of changes in corneal curvature to correlate to variations of intraocular pressure. We fabricated a strain gauge using micro-electron mechanical systems, and integrated with the contact lens made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using injection molding. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity was 100. 7 µV/µm. When attached to the corneal surface, the average sensitivity of sensor response of intraocular pressure can be 125.8 µV/mm Hg under the ideal condition.

  17. Polyvinylidene Flouride Polymer Applied in an Intraocular Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Morán, Carlos Omar; González Ballesteros, Rubén; Rodríguez Guzmán, Maria Dolores Alicia; Suaste Gómez, Ernesto

    2005-06-01

    An indentation intraocular pressure sensor (IIOPS) was designed and manufactured. It is based on piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films. This sensor will help in the detection and diagnosis of intraocular pressure (IOP) in eye diseases like glaucoma. The pressure in the normal aqueous and vitreous phases is, on average, 15.5 mmHg and up of 21 mmHg when glaucoma exists. The proposed IIOPS offers a measurement range from 10-29 mmHg with a resolution of 1 mmHg and an accuracy of ± 0.025.

  18. Effect of chymase on intraocular pressure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Maruichi, Midori; Takai, Shinji; Oku, Hidehiro; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Miyazaki, Mizuo

    2005-11-01

    Chymase is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease that is stored exclusively in the secretory granules of mast cells and converts big endothelins to endothelin-1 (1-31). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chymase on intraocular pressure in rabbits. Chymase injection (3 and 10 mU) resulted in a trend toward increased intraocular pressure and a significant increase in intraocular pressure at a dose of 10 mU compared with the control. A specific chymase inhibitor, Suc-Val-Pro-Phe(P)(OPh)(2), attenuated the ocular hypertension induced by chymase. Endothelin-1 (1-31) also caused ocular hypertension, which was inhibited by a selective endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonist, cyclo(D-Asp-Pro-D-Val-Leu-D-Trp) (BQ-123). Moreover, chymase-induced ocular hypertension was inhibited by BQ-123. These results suggest that chymase influences the regulation of intraocular pressure, and it is likely that the formation of endothelin-1 (1-31) and subsequent activation of endothelin ET(A) receptors are involved in the development of ocular hypertension induced by chymase.

  19. Effect of chymase on intraocular pressure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Maruichi, Midori; Takai, Shinji; Oku, Hidehiro; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Miyazaki, Mizuo

    2005-11-01

    Chymase is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease that is stored exclusively in the secretory granules of mast cells and converts big endothelins to endothelin-1 (1-31). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chymase on intraocular pressure in rabbits. Chymase injection (3 and 10 mU) resulted in a trend toward increased intraocular pressure and a significant increase in intraocular pressure at a dose of 10 mU compared with the control. A specific chymase inhibitor, Suc-Val-Pro-Phe(P)(OPh)(2), attenuated the ocular hypertension induced by chymase. Endothelin-1 (1-31) also caused ocular hypertension, which was inhibited by a selective endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonist, cyclo(D-Asp-Pro-D-Val-Leu-D-Trp) (BQ-123). Moreover, chymase-induced ocular hypertension was inhibited by BQ-123. These results suggest that chymase influences the regulation of intraocular pressure, and it is likely that the formation of endothelin-1 (1-31) and subsequent activation of endothelin ET(A) receptors are involved in the development of ocular hypertension induced by chymase. PMID:16253233

  20. Impact factors on intraocular pressure measurements in healthy subjects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, T.; Meulendijks, C.F.M.; Geurts, D.; Leeuwen, A.M. van; Voet, N.B.; Deutman, A.F.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether intraocular pressure (IOP) calculation by applanation tonometry is determined more essentially by the subject's neck position or by neck constriction. METHODS: 23 right eyes of 23 healthy subjects (12 male, 11 female) were included. IOP was measured by applanation tonometry

  1. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  2. Foldable micro coils for a transponder system measuring intraocular pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullerich, S.; Schnakenberg, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Materials in Electrical Engineering 1; Mokwa, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Materials in Electrical Engineering 1]|[Fraunhofer Inst. of Microelectronic Circuits and Systems, Duisburg (Germany); Boegel, G. vom [Fraunhofer Inst. of Microelectronic Circuits and Systems, Duisburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A foldable transponder system consisting of a chip and a micro coil for measuring intraocular pressure continuously is presented. The system will be integrated in the haptic of a soft artificial intraocular lens. Calculations of planar micro coils with 6 mm and 10.3 mm in diameter show the limits for planar coils with an outer diameter of 6 mm. For the realisation of the transponder system a 20 {mu}m thick coil with an outer diameter of 10.3 mm, an inner diameter of 7.7 mm, 16 turns and a gap of 20 {mu}m between the windings was selected. Measurements show a good agreement between calculated and measured values. Wireless pressure measurements were carried out showing a linear behaviour of the output signal with respect to the applied pressure. (orig.)

  3. Computerized invasive measurement of time-dependent intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V.O. Campos

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Several methods have been described to measure intraocular pressure (IOP in clinical and research situations. However, the measurement of time varying IOP with high accuracy, mainly in situations that alter corneal properties, has not been reported until now. The present report describes a computerized system capable of recording the transitory variability of IOP, which is sufficiently sensitive to reliably measure ocular pulse peak-to-peak values. We also describe its characteristics and discuss its applicability to research and clinical studies. The device consists of a pressure transducer, a signal conditioning unit and an analog-to-digital converter coupled to a video acquisition board. A modified Cairns trabeculectomy was performed in 9 Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbits to obtain changes in IOP decay parameters and to evaluate the utility and sensitivity of the recording system. The device was effective for the study of kinetic parameters of IOP, such as decay pattern and ocular pulse waves due to cardiac and respiratory cycle rhythm. In addition, there was a significant increase of IOP versus time curve derivative when pre- and post-trabeculectomy recordings were compared. The present procedure excludes corneal thickness and error related to individual operator ability. Clinical complications due to saline infusion and pressure overload were not observed during biomicroscopic evaluation. Among the disadvantages of the procedure are the requirement of anesthesia and the use in acute recordings rather than chronic protocols. Finally, the method described may provide a reliable alternative for the study of ocular pressure dynamic alterations in man and may facilitate the investigation of the pathogenesis of glaucoma.

  4. Intraocular Pressure Following Intravitreal Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide§

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Ejaz A; Ali, N

    2008-01-01

    Background: To investigate the intraocular pressure (IOP) response following intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide. Methods: This retrospective consecutive non-comparative case series study included 41 patients (52 eyes) (19 male, 22 female, mean age 64.1 ± 13.44; range 22 – 85 years) with progressive exudative ARMD (n = 10 eyes) or diffuse diabetic macular oedema (42 eyes), who received one or more intravitreal injection(s) of 4 mg triamcinolone acetonide. Results: IOP increased ...

  5. Intraocular Pressure And Its Determinants In Tehran Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kashi AH; Fotouhil A; Hashemi H.; Mohammadl K

    2005-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to provide data, on the distribution or intraocular pressure (IOP) in Tehran population. Materials and Methods: Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 4565 Tehran citizens were studied in the Tehran Eye Study. The findings of the participants (n=3834) 10 years and older free of glaucoma diagnosis or suspicion who had undergone applanation tonometry examination are presented. All participants received a standardized protocol included...

  6. Increased Intraocular Pressure after Extensive Conjunctival Removal: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Young Rok; Na, Jung Hwa; Kim, Jae Yong; Sung, Kyung Rim

    2013-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman, who had undergone extensive removal of conjunctiva on the right eye for cosmetic purposes at a local clinic 8 months prior to presentation, was referred for uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation (up to 38 mmHg) despite maximal medical treatment. The superior and inferior conjunctival and episcleral vessels were severely engorged and the nasal and temporal bulbar conjunctival areas were covered with an avascular epithelium. Gonioscopic examination revealed an o...

  7. Visual functional changes during acute elevation of intraocular pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-De SHOU

    2006-01-01

    Glaucoma is closely related to elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Many studies have done on the effect of chronic elevation of IOP on the retina and optic nerve, but less attention was paid to the effect of acute elevated IOP. Here we briefly review experimental studies on functional changes of the visual system from the retina to the visual cortex under acute elevated IOP condition, which is similar to that of acute primary angle-closure glaucoma.

  8. Comparison of a new-generation sectorial addition multifocal intraocular lens and a diffractive apodized multifocal intraocular lens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Velthoven, M. van; Meulen, I. van der; Nieuwendaal, C.; Mourits, M.; Lapid-Gortzak, R.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare visual, refractive, and satisfactory outcomes between a new-generation sectorial addition multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) (Lentis Mplus LS-312; study group) and a diffractive apodized multifocal IOL (Restor SN6AD1; control group). SETTING: Private practice, Driebergen, and Depa

  9. A CLINICAL STUDY OF INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE CHANGES WITH VECURONIUM BROMIDE AND PANCURONIUM BROMIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The maintenance of intraocular pressure forms the mainstay of anesthetic management of intraocular surgery. It is desirable to achieve a normal or reduced intraocular pressure before the eye is opened to avoid expulsive hemorrhage and ocular disruption at the time of incision. Therefore the ideal anesthetic technique for intraocular surgery should produce a moderate reduction in intraocular pressure, or maintain intraocular pressure at near normal values and avoid marked fluctuations during surgery (George et al, 1979. The use of suxamethonium is associated with significant rise in intraocular pressure with a peak increase between 2 and 4 minutes following administration and return to base line value after 6 minutes. The outcome of eye surgery, particularly when there is globe injury depends to a large extent on good control of intraocular pressure not only during maintenance, but also at induction of anesthesia. This is usually achieved by use of non-depolarizing muscle relaxant. Pancuronium when used in relatively larger doses is known to have a faster onset of action and also the block may be prolonged. Vecuronium is intermediate acting and free of cardiovascular and other side effects even when used in larger doses. ABACKGROUND: The maintenance of intraocular pressure forms the mainstay of anesthetic management of intraocular surgery. It is desirable to achieve a normal or reduced intraocular pressure before the eye is opened to avoid expulsive hemorrhage and ocular disruption at the time of incision. Therefore the ideal anesthetic technique for intraocular surgery should produce a moderate reduction in intraocular pressure, or maintain intraocular pressure at near normal values and avoid marked fluctuations during surgery (George et al, 1979. The use of suxamethonium is associated with significant rise in intraocular pressure with a peak increase between 2 and 4 minutes following administration and return to base line value

  10. Effect of osteotomies during rhinoplasty on intraocular pressure

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    Amr N. Rabie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether rhinoplasty with osteotomies for the treatment of deformed nose induces changes in intraocular pressure (IOP. Design: Prospective, nonrandomized study. Setting: University-affiliated medical center. Patients: Thirty patients who underwent rhinoplasty with osteotomies for the nose were prospectively enrolled in this study. Fifteen patients had lateral osteotomies with the external perforating technique, and fifteen with an internal continuous technique with periosteal elevation. We excluded patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, glaucoma, previous ocular trauma, history of ocular surgery, and previous use of topical corticosteroid eye drops. Main outcome measures: The intraocular pressure (IOP in each patient was measured by Goldmann tonometry preoperatively and postoperatively on days 1, 2, and 7. Results: 23 women and 7 men with a mean age of 27 years were enrolled in the study. The mean ± SD IOP of the eye was 15.69 ± 2.37 mmHg preoperatively. Postoperatively, the mean ± SD IOPs were 15.96 ± 1.92 mmHg on day 1, 15.45 ± 2.55 mmHg on day 2, and 15.72 ± 2.86 mmHg on day 7 (P = .863. Conclusions: Although osteotomes during rhinoplasty caused variations in the IOP compartment, the changes in IOP were not statistically significant. Therefore, rhinoplasty should be a safe surgical procedure with respect to ocular physiological function, however monitoring IOP peri-operatively is advised. To our best knowledge, this is the first clinical trial to determine the effect of rhinoplasty with osteotomy on intraocular pressure.

  11. Prostaglandin E2-Glyceryl Ester: In Vivo Evidence for a Distinct Pharmacological Identity from Intraocular Pressure Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, David F; Poloso, Neil J; Wang, Jenny W

    2016-08-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-2-glyceryl ester is a cyclo-oxygenase 2 product of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonyl glycerol. It is claimed as pharmacologically novel, but this is complicated by rapid and irreversible isomerization to the 1(3) ester. For ocular studies, enzymatic hydrolysis of the ester moiety creates an additional complication. PG-glyceryl esters were stabilized to isomerization and hydrolysis by replacing the noncarbonyl O with NH, to form the serinolamide and propanediolamide as stable analogs of PG-2-glyceryl and PG-2-1(3) glyceryl esters, respectively. Intraocular pressure was measured in conscious dogs and conscious laser-induced ocular hypertensive monkeys. Pharmacological studies involved stable transfectants for each of the human recombinant prostanoid receptors and the isolated feline iris for prostamide activity. PGE2-serinolamide and PGE2- propanediolamide were essentially inactive at all receptors except the EP3 receptor (EC50, ∼500 nM). This obliged elucidation of EP3 receptor involvement in the intraocular pressure response to these PGE2-glycyerl ester analogs. Since the EP3 receptor agonists sulprostone and GR 63799 did not lower monkey intraocular pressure, a role for EP3 receptors in mediating the effects of PGE2-serinolamide and PGE2-propanediolamide is not indicated. PGE2-glyceryl ester (0.01% and 0.1%) substantially lowered intraocular pressure in monkeys. PGE2-propanediolamide was more efficacious than PGE2-serinolamide in lowering intraocular pressure in monkey eyes, but both appeared equieffective in dog eyes. PGE2-serinolamide dose-dependently (0.01- 0.1%) lowered intraocular pressure in both species, but PGF2 α-serinolamide was inactive. In conclusion, stable PGE2-glyceryl ester analogs lowered intraocular pressure. These findings are consistent with the presence of a PGE2-glyceryl ester-specific recognition site in the eye. PMID:27217589

  12. A new device to noninvasively estimate the intraocular pressure produced during ocular compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korenfeld MS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd., 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University, Washington, MO, USA; 3Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: To describe a noninvasive instrument that estimates intraocular pressure during episodes of external globe compression and to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this device by comparing it to the intraocular pressures simultaneously and manometrically measured in cannulated eyes. Methods: A thin fluid-filled bladder was constructed from flexible and inelastic plastic sheeting and was connected to a pressure transducer with high pressure tubing. The output of the pressure transducer was sent to an amplifier and recorded. This device was validated by measuring induced pressure in the fluid-filled bladder while digital pressure was applied to one surface, and the other surface was placed directly against a human cadaver eye or in vivo pig eye. The human cadaver and in vivo pig eyes were each cannulated to provide a manometric intraocular pressure control. Results: The measurements obtained with the newly described device were within ~5% of simultaneously measured manometric intraocular pressures in both a human cadaver and in vivo pig eye model for a pressure range of ~15–100 mmHg. Conclusion: This novel noninvasive device is useful for estimating the intraocular pressure transients induced during any form of external globe compression; this is a clinical setting where no other devices can be used to estimate intraocular pressure. Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, tonometer, ocular compression

  13. Intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and its association with postconceptional age

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    Rodrigo L. Lindenmeyer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight <1,500 g and gestational age <32 weeks admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre , Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7 ± 1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7 ± 222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: -0.58 to -0.0035. The mean intraocular pressure (P10-P90 decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.5222.16 at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28-18.92 at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9 ± 4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased.

  14. Change in Intraocular Pressure During Point-of-Care Ultrasound

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    Berg, Cameron

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Point-of-care ocular ultrasound (US is a valuable tool for the evaluation of traumatic ocular injuries. Conventionally, any maneuver that may increase intraocular pressure (IOP is relatively contraindicated in the setting of globe rupture. Some authors have cautioned against the use of US in these scenarios because of a theoretical concern that an US examination may cause or exacerbate the extrusion of intraocular contents. This study set out to investigate whether ocular US affects IOP. The secondary objective was to validate the intraocular pressure measurements obtained with the Diaton® as compared with standard applanation techniques (the Tono-Pen®.   Methods: We enrolled a convenience sample of healthy adult volunteers. We obtained the baseline IOP for each patient by using a transpalpebral tonometer. Ocular US was then performed on each subject using a high-frequency linear array transducer, and a second IOP was obtained during the US examination. A third IOP measurement was obtained following the completion of the US examination. To validate transpalpebral measurement, a subset of subjects also underwent traditional transcorneal applanation tonometry prior to the US examination as a baseline measurement. In a subset of 10 patients, we obtained baseline pre-ultrasound IOP measurements with the Diaton® and Tono-Pen®, and then compared them.   Results: The study included 40 subjects. IOP values during ocular US examination were slightly greater than baseline (average +1.8mmHg, p=0.01. Post-US examination IOP values were not significantly different than baseline (average -0.15mmHg, p=0.42. In a subset of 10 subjects, IOP values were not significantly different between transpalpebral and transcorneal tonometry (average +0.03mmHg, p=0.07.   Conclusion: In healthy volunteer subjects, point-of-care ocular US causes a small and transient increase in IOP. We also showed no difference between the Diaton® and Tono-Pen® methods

  15. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekeroglu, Mehmet Ali; Hekimoglu, Emre; Petricli, İkbal Seza; Karakaya, Jale; Ozcan, Beyza; Yucel, Husniye; Kavurt, Aysen Sumru; Bas, Ahmet Yagmur

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) of premature infants and to document correlation of them with gestational age, chronological age, and birth weight of infants. Using a hand-held applanation tonometer and a portable pachymeter, IOP and CCT of 170 premature infants were measured just before initial retinopathy of prematurity screening examination and re-measured 4 weeks after the first visit. The CCT and IOP were positively correlated during the first (r = 0.616, p premature infants with a smaller gestational age were found to be higher (p Premature infants with smaller gestational age have higher CCT and IOP values when compared to older infants. These values tend to become lower 4 weeks after the first examination as infants become older. The CCT and IOP were positively correlated with each other and both were negatively correlated with gestational age, chronological age, and birth weight during first and second visits. PMID:26286757

  16. The accute effects of resistance exercise on intraocular pressure

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    Vieira Geraldo Magela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study intraocular pressure (IOP variations in healthy volunteers after weight lifting, in the supine position. METHODS: A descriptive study was designed. Thirty-four individuals were preselected for this study, and a group of 25 volunteers fulfilled the inclusion criteria for joining the initial phase of this research. All of them were healthy without glaucoma. They were asked to lift an 85% top load in the supine position for 8 times. IOP was measured before and after the exercise. Student's t test was used to analyze the IOP variations. RESULTS: A small, but significant IOP decrease (1.61 mmHg was obtained after exposing 25 individuals (49 eyes to a specific physical effort. CONCLUSIONS: After a session of weight lifting in the supine position with 85% top load for 8 repetitions, there is a small, but significant IOP decrease.

  17. Intraocular pressure variations during zygomatic fracture reduction and fixation: a clinical study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Dylan J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The reduction of midface fractures has been associated with the rare but devastating complication of blindness. An increase in intraocular pressure is important in the mechanism of blindness in this setting. In this study, the authors assessed the intraocular pressure in patients who underwent zygomatic fracture reduction (with or without fixation). METHODS: Using applanation tonometry, 29 patients underwent intraocular pressure measurements before, during, and after fracture fixation. The contralateral pressures were measured and used as the control. RESULTS: There were 29 patients with a mean age of 35 years, and the mean time to surgery was 5 days. Preoperatively, all patients had normal intraocular pressures and normal visual acuity. All patients underwent a Gillies lift and 18 patients required open reduction and fixation of the frontozygomatic suture (n = 4) or the infraorbital margin (n = 2), and the remainder (n = 12) required fixation of both points. There was no statistically significant increase in the intraocular pressures following the reduction of uncomplicated zygomatic fractures. Statistically significant pressure reductions were noted immediately after reduction and fixation. CONCLUSIONS: The surgical reduction of uncomplicated zygomatic fractures has no adverse effect on the intraocular pressure. It is the authors\\' opinion that adjunctive measures to reduce the pressures are unnecessary.

  18. Correlation of the intraocular pressure with increased intracranial pressure in rabbits

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    Eskandari H

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Although measurement of intracranial pressure by noninvasive methods has been suggested, but mainly invasive methods are used for this purpose-Increase in episcleral venous pressure can be expected to result in a linear increase in intraocular pressure. Congested oculat veins with capillary leakage and hemorrhage are seen when the ICP is increased, thus theoretically measurement of intraocular pressure can be a procedure for estimation of the ICP. This study was performed to find whether there is andy relationship between intraocular pressure and ICP, so we used 12 albino rabbits in two divided groups. Our study was not designed to elucidate the mechanism of change but merely to record any changes observed. All measures except an increase in ICP were applied on the test group as well as on the control group. After general anesthesia with the combination of ketamin, rampune, and pentobarbital a burr hole was made in the lambda region of the skull and a cannula was placed in the subdural space. The ICP in the test group increased up to 15 mmHg and was constant throughout the experiment. Intraocular pressure was measured by Schiotz tonometers afte general anesthesia, after cannulation of the skull, and immediately after increasing the ICP which was repated in 15 minutes interval for 4 hours. There was no statistical difference between the two groups (P:0.997 . results show that neither cannulation nor general anesthesia for 4 hours produce alteration in IOP in the control group nor increasing of the ICP to level of 15 mmHg produces any alteration in IOP on the test group.

  19. A Circadian and Cardiac Intraocular Pressure Sensor for Smart Implantable Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donida, Achille; Di Dato, Giuseppe; Cunzolo, Paolo; Sala, Marco; Piffaretti, Filippo; Orsatti, Paolo; Barrettino, Diego

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a new system to measure the Intraocular Pressure (IOP) with very high accuracy (0.036 mbar) used for monitoring glaucoma. The system not only monitors the daily variation of the IOP (circadian IOP), but also allows to perform an spectral analysis of the pressure signal generated by the heartbeat (cardiac IOP). The system comprises a piezoresistive pressure sensor, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read out the sensor data and an external reader installed on customized glasses. The ASIC readout electronics combines chopping modulation with correlated double sampling (CDS) in order to eliminate both the amplifier offset and the chopper ripple at the sampling frequency. In addition, programmable current sources are used to compensate for the atmospheric pressure ( 800-1200 mbar ) and the circadian component (± 7 mbar) thus allowing to read out the very weak cardiac signals (± 1.6 mbar) with a maximum accuracy of 0.036 mbar.

  20. Reliable intraocular pressure measurement using automated radio-wave telemetry

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    Paschalis EI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleftherios I Paschalis,* Fabiano Cade,* Samir Melki, Louis R Pasquale, Claes H Dohlman, Joseph B CiolinoMassachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To present an autonomous intraocular pressure (IOP measurement technique using a wireless implantable transducer (WIT and a motion sensor.Methods: The WIT optical aid was implanted within the ciliary sulcus of a normotensive rabbit eye after extracapsular clear lens extraction. An autonomous wireless data system (AWDS comprising of a WIT and an external antenna aided by a motion sensor provided continuous IOP readings. The sensitivity of the technique was determined by the ability to detect IOP changes resulting from the administration of latanoprost 0.005% or dorzolamide 2%, while the reliability was determined by the agreement between baseline and vehicle (saline IOP.Results: On average, 12 diurnal and 205 nocturnal IOP measurements were performed with latanoprost, and 26 diurnal and 205 nocturnal measurements with dorzolamide. No difference was found between mean baseline IOP (13.08±2.2 mmHg and mean vehicle IOP (13.27±2.1 mmHg (P=0.45, suggesting good measurement reliability. Both antiglaucoma medications caused significant IOP reduction compared to baseline; latanoprost reduced mean IOP by 10% (1.3±3.54 mmHg; P<0.001, and dorzolamide by 5% (0.62±2.22 mmHg; P<0.001. Use of latanoprost resulted in an overall twofold higher IOP reduction compared to dorzolamide (P<0.001. Repeatability was ±1.8 mmHg, assessed by the variability of consecutive IOP measurements performed in a short period of time (≤1 minute, during which the IOP is not expected to change.Conclusion: IOP measurements in conscious rabbits obtained without the need for human interactions using the AWDS are feasible and provide reproducible results.Keywords: IOP, pressure transducer, wireless, MEMS, implant, intraocular

  1. Intraocular pressure-lowering effect of oral paracetamol and its in vitro corneal penetration properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed N; Meyer D

    2013-01-01

    Nabiel Mohamed, David MeyerDivision of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: Several studies have confirmed the ability of cannabinoids to reduce intraocular pressure. Experimental data recently demonstrated unequivocally that the analgesic effect of paracetamol is due to its indirect action on cannabinoid receptors. The question then arises as to whether paracetamol can reduce intraocular pressure via its effect...

  2. Short-term intraocular pressure changes after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in diabetic retinopathy patients

    OpenAIRE

    Farhood, Qasim

    2014-01-01

    Qasim Kadhim Farhood,1 Sinan Mohammad Twfeeq21College of Medicine, Babylon University, Babylon; 2Al-Jumhori teaching hospital, Mosul, IraqBackground: This study examined the changes in short-term intraocular pressure (IOP) in a prospective series of patients undergoing intravitreal bevacizumab injection. The aim was to evaluate the frequency and predictive factors related to intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in patients receiving intravitreal bevacizumab.Patients and methods: This study in...

  3. A new device to noninvasively estimate the intraocular pressure produced during ocular compression

    OpenAIRE

    Korenfeld MS; Dueker DK

    2016-01-01

    Michael S Korenfeld,1,2 David K Dueker3 1Comprehensive Eye Care, Ltd., 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Washington University, Washington, MO, USA; 3Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar Purpose: To describe a noninvasive instrument that estimates intraocular pressure during episodes of external globe compression and to demonstrate the accuracy and reliability of this device by comparing it to the intraocular pressures simultaneously and manometrically measured in cannulat...

  4. Aerobic exercise and intraocular pressure in normotensive and glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzibalis Theodosios

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing number of people participating in physical aerobic exercise, jogging in particular, we considered that it would be worth knowing if there are should be limits to the exercise with regard to the intraocular pressure (IOP of the eyes. The purpose of this study is to check IOP in healthy and primary glaucoma patients after aerobic exercise. Methods 145 individuals were subdivided into seven groups: normotensives who exercised regularly (Group A; normotensives in whose right eye (RE timolol maleate 0.5% (Group B, latanoprost 0.005% (Group C, or brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Group D was instilled; and primary glaucoma patients under monotherapy with β-blockers (Group E, prostaglandin analogues (Group F or combined antiglaucoma treatment (Group G instilled in both eyes. The IOP of both eyes was measured before and after exercise. Results A statistically significant decrease was found in IOP during jogging. The aerobic exercise reduces the IOP in those eyes where a b-blocker, a prostaglandin analogue or an α-agonist was previously instilled. The IOP is also decreased in glaucoma patients who are already under antiglaucoma treatment. Conclusion There is no ocular restriction for simple glaucoma patients in performing aerobic physical activity.

  5. Stem Cells in the Trabecular Meshwork for Regulating Intraocular Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hongmin; Zhou, Yi; Wills, Andrew; Du, Yiqin

    2016-06-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is still the main treatment target for glaucoma. Outflow resistance mainly exists at the trabecular meshwork (TM) outflow pathway, which is responsible for IOP regulation. Changes of TM cellularity and TM extracellular matrix turnover may play important roles in IOP regulation. In this article, we review basic anatomy and physiology of the outflow pathway and TM stem cell characteristics regarding the location, isolation, identification and function. TM stem cells are localized at the insert region of the TM and are label-retaining in vivo. They can be isolated by side-population cell sorting, cloning culture, or sphere culture. TM stem cells are multipotent with the ability to home to the TM region and differentiate into TM cells in vivo. Other stem cell types, such as adipose-derived stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells have been discovered for TM cell differentiation and TM regeneration. We also review glaucomatous animal models, which are suitable to study stem cell-based therapies for TM regeneration. PMID:27183473

  6. Soft wearable contact lens sensor for continuous intraocular pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Zhen; Chan, Ion-Seng; Leung, Leo K K; Lam, David C C

    2014-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a primary indicator of glaucoma, but measurements from a single visit to the clinic miss the peak IOP that may occur at night during sleep. A soft chipless contact lens sensor that allows the IOP to be monitored throughout the day and at night is developed in this study. A resonance circuit composed of a thin film capacitor coupled with a sensing coil that can sense corneal curvature deformation is designed, fabricated and embedded into a soft contact lens. The resonance frequency of the sensor is designed to vary with the lens curvature as it changes with the IOP. The frequency responses and the ability of the sensor to track IOP cycles were tested using a silicone rubber model eye. The results showed that the sensor has excellent linearity with a frequency response of ∼8 kHz/mmHg, and the sensor can accurately track fluctuating IOP. These results showed that the chipless contact lens sensor can potentially be used to monitor IOP to improve diagnosis accuracy and treatment of glaucoma.

  7. Measurement of Intraocular Pressure after LASIK by Dynamic Contour Tonometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lei; LEI Cheng; LI Xinyu; Dong Jieyu

    2006-01-01

    Changes of corneal properties induced by laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) results in low inaccurate intraocular pressure (IOP) readings by Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT).Before and after LASIK, the applied value of IOP, measured by dynamic contour tonometry (DCT)in comparison to GAT, was evaluated. Before and 1, 4 weeks after LASIK, the IOP in 30 cases (60 eyes) was measured by GAT and DCT respectively. The obtained results were statistically processed by SPSS11. 5 statistical software. The results showed that central corneal thickness (CCT)could affect GAT measurements but not DCT measurements. The comparison of IOP one and 4 weeks after LASIK revealed that the readings from GAT was separately decreased by 5.00±1.12 and 5.45±1. 13 mmHg as compared with those before LASIK, while those from DCT had no significant difference. It was concluded that LASIK-induced changes of CCT could influence the accuracy of GAT measurements, but had no influence on those from DCT. DCT was more beneficial to the measurements of IOP in normal eyes and those subject to LASIK surgery.

  8. Hypobaric Hypoxia: Effects on Intraocular Pressure and Corneal Thickness

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    Marcella Nebbioso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying ocular hydrodynamics and the changes which occur in the eyes of subjects exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (HH to permit the achievement of more detailed knowledge in glaucomatous disease. Methods. Twenty male subjects, aged 32±5 years, attending the Italian Air Force, were enrolled for this study. The research derived from hypobaric chamber, using helmet and mask supplied to jet pilotes connected to oxygen cylinder and equipped with a preset automatic mixer. Results. The baseline values of intraocular pressure (IOP, recorded at T1, showed a mean of 16±2.23 mmHg, while climbing up to 18,000 feet the mean value was 13.7±4.17 mmHg, recorded at T2. The last assessment was performed returning to sea level (T4 where the mean IOP value was 12.8±2.57 mmHg, with a significant change (P<0.05 compared to T1. Pachymetry values related to corneal thickness in conditions of hypobarism revealed a statistically significant increase (P<0.05. Conclusions. The data collected in this research seem to confirm the increasing outflow of aqueous humor (AH in the trabecular meshwork (TM under conditions of HH.

  9. Mechanisms for vasopressin effects on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, C. D.; Palm, D. E.; Shikher, V.; Searles, R. V.; Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous intracameral infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter min-1) have been reported to raise intraocular pressure (IOP) in anesthetized rats. Palm et al. (1995) previously reported that this effect was attenuated significantly by inclusion of arginine-vasopressin (AVP, 10 ng 0.175 microliter-1) in the infusate. This study used experimental and computer simulation methods to investigate factors underlying these changes in IOP. First, constant intracameral infusions of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) at different fixed rates (0.049-0.35 microliter min-1) were used to estimate the outflow resistance. Secondly, IOP responses were measured during an 2 hr intracameral infusion of either aCSF or AVP that was the sum of a small constant component (0.05 microliter min-1) and a larger periodic component (0.25 microliter min-1, cycling for 4 min on, then 4 min off); the mean infusion rate was 0.175 microliter min-1. As shown previously for 0.175 microliter min-1 constant infusions, the periodic aCSF infusion induced a significant rise in IOP that was attenuated by AVP administration. Complex demodulation analysis and the estimated gain parameter of a second order transfer function fit to the periodic responses indicated that outflow resistance increased significantly during the infusions in both aCSF and AVP groups, but that the indices of resistance did not differ significantly between aCSF and AVP infused eyes. This finding implies that changes in outflow resistance do not explain the difference in IOP responses to intracameral aCSF and AVP. The two responses differed significantly, though, in damping factors, such that the aCSF responses were considerably more underdamped than the AVP responses. It is hypothesized that aCSF-induced increase in IOP reflects both (1) a small component reflecting increased outflow resistance and (2) a larger non-resistive component. Since the non-resistive component is insensitive to pretreatment with acetazolamide

  10. The Effect of Phacoemulsification with Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation on Intraocular Pressure and Anterior Chamber Depth

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    Mohammad Javad Mohamadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP and anterior chamber depth (ACD change after phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 84 patients with senile cataract were included. All patients had normal IOP. Patients with traumatic and complicated cataract, any history of uveitis, glaucoma, or other ocular disease or surgery were excluded. Patients underwent phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation by the same surgeon. IOP, ACD, and lens thickness were measured and recorded before surgery. IOP was measured at 4, 8 and 12 postoperative weeks and ACD was measured 12 weeks after surgery. Results: The mean preoperative ACD significantly increased from 2.93 mm to 3.54 mm postoperatively (p<0.0001. Mean preoperative IOP was 16.06 mmHg which decreased to 12.01 IOP mmHg, 12.57 mmHg and 12.90 mmHg at 4 weeks, 8 weeks and 12 weeks postoperatively, respectively (all p-values<0.0001. There was a correlation between lens thickness and changes of and ACD after the surgery. There was also a positive correlation between preoperative IOP and IOP reduction after the surgery. Conclusion: Phacoemulsification decreases IOP specially in eyes with higher preoperative IOP and thicker lenses.

  11. Driving time modulates accommodative response and intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jesús; Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Jiménez, Raimundo; Morales, José M; Catena, Andrés; Cardenas, David; Di Stasi, Leandro L

    2016-10-01

    Driving is a task mainly reliant on the visual system. Most of the time, while driving, our eyes are constantly focusing and refocusing between the road and the dashboard or near and far traffic. Thus, prolonged driving time should produce visual fatigue. Here, for the first time, we investigated the effects of driving time, a common inducer of driver fatigue, on two ocular parameters: the accommodative response (AR) and the intraocular pressure (IOP). A pre/post-test design has been used to assess the impact of driving time on both indices. Twelve participants (out of 17 recruited) completed the study (5 women, 24.42±2.84years old). The participants were healthy and active drivers with no visual impairment or pathology. They drove for 2h in a virtual driving environment. We assessed AR and IOP before and after the driving session, and also collected subjective measures of arousal and fatigue. We found that IOP and AR decreased (i.e., the accommodative lag increased) after the driving session (p=0.03 and p<0.001, respectively). Moreover, the nearest distances tested (20cm, 25cm, and 33cm) induced the highest decreases in AR (corrected p-values<0.05). Consistent with these findings, the subjective levels of arousal decreased and levels of fatigue increased after the driving session (all p-values<0.001). These results represent an innovative step towards an objective, valid, and reliable assessment of fatigue-impaired driving based on visual fatigue signs. PMID:27235337

  12. Intraocular/Intracranial pressure mismatch hypothesis for visual impairment syndrome in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Fan; Hargens, Alan R

    2014-01-01

    Visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome (VIIP) is considered a major risk for future human spaceflight. Loss of hydrostatic pressure gradients in vascular and cerebrospinal fluid systems due to the removal of gravity associated with subsequent intracranial and intraocular fluid shifts and the resulting intraocular/intracranial pressure mismatch might be important etiology factors causingVIIP syndrome. Acclimation changes in the ocular and cerebral circulation and the two fluid systems during chronic microgravity exposure and their underlying mechanisms need further elucidation. Relevant findings may help to validate the pressure differential hypothesis for VlIP syndrome and to evaluate whether a gravity based countermeasure is needed. PMID:24479265

  13. Evaluation of Different Power of Near Addition in Two Different Multifocal Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Unsal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare near, intermediate, and distance vision and quality of vision, when refractive rotational multifocal intraocular lenses with 3.0 diopters or diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses with 2.5 diopters near addition are implanted. Methods. 41 eyes of 41 patients in whom rotational +3.0 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted and 30 eyes of 30 patients in whom diffractive +2.5 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted after cataract surgery were reviewed. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, intermediate visual acuity, near visual acuity, and patient satisfaction were evaluated 6 months later. Results. The corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity were the same between both groups (p=0.50 and p=0.509, resp.. The uncorrected intermediate and corrected intermediate and near vision acuities were better in the +2.5 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p=0.049, p=0.005, and p=0.001, resp. and the uncorrected near vision acuity was better in the +3.0 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p=0.001. The patient satisfactions of both groups were similar. Conclusion. The +2.5 diopters near addition could be a better choice in younger patients with more distance and intermediate visual requirements (driving, outdoor activities, whereas the + 3.0 diopters should be considered for patients with more near vision correction (reading.

  14. Clinical Analysis of Early and Mid-late Elevated Intraocular Pressure after Silicone Oil Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifei Wang; Jingjiang Liu; Tianxiang Lu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:To discuss the incidence and clinical features of early and mid-late elevated intraocular pressure after pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection, and to evaluate the clinical management of eyes with secondary glaucoma. Methods:.This was an observational consecutive case series of 691 eyes in 679 patients who were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and silicone injection...The diagnostic criteria of early elevated intraocular pressure after silicone oil injection was ≥21 mmHg two weeks after surgery, while mid-late ele-vated intraocular pressure was ≥21 mmHg after two weeks. The incidence and clinical management of elevated intraocular pressure were analyzed. Results: In total, 211 of 691 eyes (30.54%) developed ele-vated intraocular pressure two weeks after pars plana vitrecto my and silicone injection. Of the 211 eyes, 101 eyes (47.87%) had ocular inflammation, 64 eyes (30.33%) showed hyphema, 35 eyes(16.59%) had silicone oil in the anterior chamber, 6 eyes. (2.84% ).had excess silicone oil injected,.and 5 eyes (2.37%).had rubeosis irides. Eighty three of 691 eyes (12.01%). developed elevated intraocular pressure after two weeks..Of these 83 eyes, 25 eyes (30.12%) had rubeosis irides,.16 eyes (19.27%) had issues related to topic steroid therapy,.13 eyes . (15.66%).had a papillary block,.silicone oil in the anterior chamber,10 eyes (12.05%) had a silicone emulsion,.10 eyes (12.05% ).had peripheral anterior synchiae,.and 9 eyes (10.84%).had silicone oil in the anterior chamber..All eyes with elevated intraocular pressure were treated with antiglau-coma medications and surgeries. Conclusion:.The reasons for elevated intraocular pressure dif-fered between early and mid-late after pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection. The elevated intraocular pressure can be controlled effectively by immediate diagnosis and proper treatment with medicine and operation.

  15. Comparative evaluation of intraocular pressure changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghai B

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 adult patients. A standard general anaesthesia was administered to all the patients. After 3 minutes of induction of anaesthesia baseline measurements of heart rate, non-invasive blood pressure and intraocular pressure were taken following which patients were divided into two groups: laryngeal mask airway was inserted in group 1 and tracheal tube in group 2. These measurements were repeated at 15-30 second, every minute thereafter up to 5 minutes after airway instrumentation. RESULTS: A statistically significant rise in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and intraocular pressure was seen in both the groups subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube. Mean maximum increase was statistically more after endotracheal intubation than after laryngeal mask airway insertion. The duration of statistically significant pressure responses was also longer after endotracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Laryngeal mask airway is an acceptable alternative technique for ocular surgeries, offering advantages in terms of intraocular pressure and cardiovascular stability compared to tracheal intubation.

  16. The new factors defining variability of circadian’s rhythms of intraocular and perfusion pressure of glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Baranova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the most scientifically based local risk and progressive factors are elevated levels of intraocular pressure and its instability during the day, caused by local hydromechanical disturbances. However, the other factors affecting the circadian changes of intraocular pressure levels are still evaluated. It was found that light is one of the most important factors affecting the intensity of the cyclical fluctuations of various biological processes, including, and fluctuations of intraocular pressure. At the same time, glaucoma can lead to a variety of sleep disorders, due to a mismatch between cycles «sleep-wake». One if this reason is the death of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Such damage indirectly lead to a decrease in production of the pigment melanopsin, which is located in the retina. It is not involved in the visual process, but ensures the implementation of circadian rhythms «sleep-wake» and mediated suppression of epiphyseal melatonin. Most likely, melatonin plays a protective role in the occurrence and progression of glaucoma, protecting retinal cells against free radicals and has a direct impact on the intraocular pressure level. Several studies have shown that the circadian change in intraocular pressure levels, and in particular, its substantial reduction, is influenced by melatonin. In this regard, glaucoma is a disease in which the death of retinal cells, including producing melanopsin, a unique opportunity to study violations of cyclic rhythms. Melatonin acts on such established risk factors and progression of glaucoma as hypertension and diabetes. There are published results of the use of melatonin agonists in the experiment and clinical practice. So, in addition to local and systemic hypotensive action, normalizes sleep patients. Data about the melatonin’s effects on the direct and indirect reduction of intraocular pressure, neuroprotective effects and reducing symptoms of depression can

  17. Wireless Intraocular Pressure Sensing Using Microfabricated Minimally Invasive Flexible-Coiled LC Sensor Implant

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Po-Jui; Saati, Saloomeh; Varma, Rohit; Humayun, Mark S.; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an implant-based wireless pressure sensing paradigm for long-range continuous intraocular pressure (IOP) monitoring of glaucoma patients. An implantable parylene-based pressure sensor has been developed, featuring an electrical LC-tank resonant circuit for passive wireless sensing without power consumption on the implanted site. The sensor is microfabricated with the use of parylene C (poly-chlorop- xylylene) to create a flexible coil substrate that ca...

  18. Latanoprost ophthalmic solution in the treatment of open angle glaucoma or raised intraocular pressure: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Russo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Russo, Ivano Riva, Teodoro Pizzolante, Federico Noto, Luciano QuarantaCattedra di Malattie dell’Apparato Visivo, Università degli studi di Brescia, USVD “Centro per lo studio del Glaucoma” Spedali Civili di BresciaAbstract: Latanoprost is a prostaglandin F2-alpha isopropyl ester prodrug which is rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to the biologically active latanoprost acid. When latanoprost is topically administered into the eye, the cornea seems to act like as a slow-release depot to the anterior segment. One hour after administration maximum concentration is found in the iris, followed by the anterior chamber and the ciliary body. Despite extensive research, controversy remains about the real mechanism of action of this drug. Immunohistochemical data have shown that the intraocular pressure (IOP reduction with topical prostaglandin F2-alpha is associated with a reduction of collagens within the uveoscleral outflow pathway. Evidence from several experimental and clinical studies suggests that latanoprost is a valuable addition first-line treatment alternatives for glaucoma, ocular hypertension and even angle-closure glaucoma. Strong points are its efficacy, which is demonstrated to be higher than that of brimonidine, dorzolamide and timolol with fewer systemic adverse effects; a convenient administration schedule; and the IOP-controlling pattern, which is relatively flat compared with timolol and dorzolamide, and enables better control in glaucoma progression, since large fluctuations may be associated with the risk of developing glaucoma in untreated ocular hypertensive subjects.Keywords: latanoprost, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, ocular hypertension

  19. Intraocular pressure-lowering effect of oral paracetamol and its in vitro corneal penetration properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nabiel Mohamed, David MeyerDivision of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: Several studies have confirmed the ability of cannabinoids to reduce intraocular pressure. Experimental data recently demonstrated unequivocally that the analgesic effect of paracetamol is due to its indirect action on cannabinoid receptors. The question then arises as to whether paracetamol can reduce intraocular pressure via its effect on intraocular cannabinoid receptors.Methods: A 2-week, prospective, randomized, controlled, single-center, parallel-group pilot study was carried out to determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol 1 g orally administered every 6 hours in adult patients with primary or secondary open angle glaucoma as compared with topical levobunolol 0.5% twice a day. Patient well-being was closely monitored throughout the study and focused on hepatic safety in accordance with Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network criteria. The in vitro diffusion kinetics of acetaminophen in a phosphate-buffered solution in rabbit and human corneas was also investigated, with the view to a topical application.Results: Eighteen adult patients were enrolled in the study, with nine in the topical levobunolol group and nine in the oral paracetamol group. In the levobunolol group, the mean reduction in intraocular pressure at day 7 was 7.5 mmHg (P < 0.008 and at day 14 was 9.1 mmHg (P < 0.005, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.6 mmHg. The corresponding figures for the paracetamol group were 8.8 mmHg (P < 0.0004 at day 7 and 6.5 mmHg (P < 0.004 at day 14, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.4 mmHg. Both study regimens were well tolerated. No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in either of the treatment groups. Liver function tests, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, or heart rate remained unchanged in both groups during the 2 weeks of the study. In

  20. A capacitor-based sensor and a contact lens sensing system for intraocular pressure monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Yeh, Guan-Ting

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes a capacitor-based sensor on a soft contact lens for the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP). The sensor was designed and fabricated via microelectromechanical system fabrication technologies. The soft contact lens is designed to be worn on a cornea such that the curvature of the contact lens corresponds substantially to that of the cornea. In addition, the contact lens was fabricated via a cast-molding method using poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate to achieve a lens with high oxygen permeability, which can be worn comfortably for a long time. An IOP sensor prototype was implemented, which exhibited 1.2239 pF mmHg-1 (13,171 ppm mmHg-1) sensitivity during measurements of an artificial anterior chamber at pressures between 18 and 30 mmHg. The results indicate that the developed capacitor-based IOP sensor exhibited high stability and reproducibility in a series of measurements performed under various pressures. The capacitance of the proposed IOP sensor can successfully be converted into a digital value via a capacitor-to-digital converter and be transmitted via a commercial wireless telemetry system in this study.

  1. Meta-analysis of timolol on diurnal and nighttime intraocular pressure and blood pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Princeton Wen-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the nighttime intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure (BP) response to timolol treatment in patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of previously published studies that must have been randomized, prospective, crossover or parallel, single or double-masked trials. The treatment period must have been >\\/=2 weeks with >\\/=19 patients per treatment arm for a crossover, and >\\/=50 patients for a parallel designed trial. Studies must have included both baseline and treated 24-hour curves. RESULTS: For the IOP analysis, we included 8 articles with 340 patients. A reduction from baseline was observed for timolol at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.009). When 2 studies, in which timolol was used adjunctively, were removed, a similar difference was observed as above at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.003). In 2 studies, there were small reductions from baseline for the mean diastolic and systolic BPs at most time points and for the 24-hour curve (3.9 and 4.2 mmHg, respectively) with timolol treatment. The ocular perfusion pressure did not show any difference between baseline and timolol treatment at any time point or for the 24-hour curve (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that topical timolol therapy provides an ocular hypotensive effect over the 24-hour curve, including the nighttime hours, and while small reductions in the systolic and diastolic pressures occur, the ocular perfusion pressure is not altered over 24 hours.

  2. Intraocular pressure dynamics with prostaglandin analogs: a clinical application of water-drinking test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özyol P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pelin Özyol,1 Erhan Özyol,1 Ercan Baldemir2 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Biostatistics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla, Turkey Aim: To evaluate the clinical applicability of the water-drinking test in treatment-naive primary open-angle glaucoma patients. Methods: Twenty newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this prospective study. The water-drinking test was performed at baseline and 6 weeks and 3 months after prostaglandin analog treatment. Peak and fluctuation of intraocular pressure (IOP measurements obtained with the water-drinking test during follow-up were analyzed. Analysis of variance for repeated measures and paired and unpaired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean baseline IOP values in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were 25.1±4.6 mmHg before prostaglandin analog treatment, 19.8±3.7 mmHg at week 6, and 17.9±2.2 mmHg at month 3 after treatment. The difference in mean baseline IOP of the water-drinking tests was statistically significant (P<0.001. At 6 weeks of prostaglandin analog treatment, two patients had high peak and fluctuation of IOP measurements despite a reduction in baseline IOP. After modifying treatment, patients had lower peak and fluctuation of IOP values at month 3 of the study. Conclusion: Peak and fluctuation of IOP in response to the water-drinking test were lower with prostaglandin analogs compared with before medication. The water-drinking test can represent an additional benefit in the management of glaucoma patients, especially by detecting higher peak and fluctuation of IOP values despite a reduced mean IOP. Therefore, it could be helpful as a supplementary method in monitoring IOP in the clinical practice. Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, water-drinking test, prostaglandin analog, intra­ocular pressure fluctuation

  3. [The effect of crystalline lens extraction on intraocular pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarie, S; Macarie, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This issue presents the results of a study on patients with cataract and primary open angle glaucoma who suffered lens extraction for cataract. We analise the effects of the lens extraction on the level of intraocular pressure at this patients.

  4. Intraocular Pressure in Eyes Receiving Intravitreal Antivascular Endothelial Growth Factor Injections

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, V; Cabugueira, A; de Noronha, M; Abegão Pinto, L; Reina, M.; Branco, J; Gomes, T

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the this study was to determine the effect of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor injections on intraocular pressure (IOP) and identify possible risk factors for the development of increased IOP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study included a total of 106 eyes receiving intravitreal injection of bevacizumab as treatment for macular edema or active choroidal neovascularization. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry immediately be...

  5. Effects of glaucoma medications on the cardiorespiratory and intraocular pressure status of newly diagnosed glaucoma patients

    OpenAIRE

    WALDOCK, A; Snape, J; Graham, C

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To evaluate the short term cardiovascular, respiratory, and intraocular pressure (IOP) effects of four glaucoma medications in newly diagnosed glaucoma patients.
METHODS—141 newly diagnosed glaucoma patients were recruited and underwent a full ocular, cardiovascular, and respiratory examination, including an electrocardiogram (ECG) and spirometry. They were prescribed one of four topical glaucoma medications and reviewed 3 months later. One eye of each patient was randomly chosen for ana...

  6. Assessment of the central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in premature and full-term newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Muslubas, Isil Bahar Sayman; Oral, Ayse Yesim Aydın; Cabi, Cemalettin; Caliskan, Sinan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the central corneal thickness (CCT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) in premature and full-term newborns. Materials and Methods: In this study, we evaluated measurements of CCT and IOP in 45 premature and 45 full-term newborns. IOP was determined with topical anesthesia using a Tono-Pen AVIA, applanation tonometer and a wire lid retractor in premature newborns undergoing screening for retinopathy. Full-term newborns were used as a control group. CCT was determined with a port...

  7. Intraocular pressure and influencing systemic health parameters in a Korean population

    OpenAIRE

    Young Sang Han; Ji Woong Lee; Jong Soo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and systemic health parameters such as age, gender, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglyceride (TG) in a Korean population. Materials and Methods: A total of 30,893 healthy subjects underwent automated multiphasic tests, including non-contact tonometry, automated perimetry, fundus photography, and blood samplings for total cholesterol, HDL, and TG. Seven age groups were divided...

  8. Impact of the Topical Ophthalmic Corticosteroid Loteprednol Etabonate on Intraocular Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, John D.; Timothy L Comstock; Cavet, Megan E.

    2016-01-01

    Corticosteroids are a mainstay therapeutic option for the treatment of ocular inflammation. However, safety remains a concern for clinicians, particularly with long-term use. Though highly effective at suppressing inflammatory and allergic responses, topical ophthalmic corticosteroids carry an inherent risk of side effects, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), a risk factor for the development of glaucoma. The corticosteroid loteprednol etabonate (LE) contains an ester rather than a...

  9. Common genetic determinants of intraocular pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koolwijk, Leonieke M E; Ramdas, Wishal D; Ikram, M Kamran; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Pasutto, Francesca; Hysi, Pirro G; Macgregor, Stuart; Janssen, Sarah F; Hewitt, Alex W; Viswanathan, Ananth C; ten Brink, Jacoline B; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Amin, Najaf; Despriet, Dominiek D G; Willemse-Assink, Jacqueline J M; Kramer, Rogier; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Struchalin, Maksim; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Weisschuh, Nicole; Zenkel, Matthias; Mardin, Christian Y; Gramer, Eugen; Welge-Lüssen, Ulrich; Montgomery, Grant W; Carbonaro, Francis; Young, Terri L; Bellenguez, Céline; McGuffin, Peter; Foster, Paul J; Topouzis, Fotis; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Y; Czudowska, Monika A; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wolfs, Roger C W; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Oostra, Ben A; Paterson, Andrew D; Mackey, David A; Bergen, Arthur A B; Reis, André; Hammond, Christopher J; Vingerling, Johannes R; Lemij, Hans G; Klaver, Caroline C W; van Duijn, Cornelia M

    2012-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independent population-based studies in The Netherlands. We replicated our findings in 7,482 participants from 4 additional cohorts from the UK, Australia, Canada, and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2/Blue Mountains Eye Study. IOP was significantly associated with rs11656696, located in GAS7 at 17p13.1 (p=1.4×10(-8)), and with rs7555523, located in TMCO1 at 1q24.1 (p=1.6×10(-8)). In a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies (total N = 1,432 glaucoma cases), both variants also showed evidence for association with glaucoma (p=2.4×10(-2) for rs11656696 and p=9.1×10(-4) for rs7555523). GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina. Both genes functionally interact with known glaucoma disease genes. These data suggest that we have identified two clinically relevant genes involved in IOP regulation.

  10. Common genetic determinants of intraocular pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonieke M E van Koolwijk

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independent population-based studies in The Netherlands. We replicated our findings in 7,482 participants from 4 additional cohorts from the UK, Australia, Canada, and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2/Blue Mountains Eye Study. IOP was significantly associated with rs11656696, located in GAS7 at 17p13.1 (p=1.4×10(-8, and with rs7555523, located in TMCO1 at 1q24.1 (p=1.6×10(-8. In a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies (total N = 1,432 glaucoma cases, both variants also showed evidence for association with glaucoma (p=2.4×10(-2 for rs11656696 and p=9.1×10(-4 for rs7555523. GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina. Both genes functionally interact with known glaucoma disease genes. These data suggest that we have identified two clinically relevant genes involved in IOP regulation.

  11. Managing elevated intraocular pressure in a patient with optic nerve hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Marcovitch

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Karina Marcovitch, Joseph SowkaNova Southeastern University, College of Optometry, Davie, FL, USABackground: Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital optic disc anomaly, often manifesting with visual deficits.Case: A 51-year-old woman with a history of bilateral amblyopia was referred for glaucoma evaluation due to elevated intraocular pressure. The patient demonstrated the classic nerve head appearance of bilateral ONH with “double ring sign” and indistinguishable cupping. Despite demonstrating functional and structural measurements consistent with glaucomatous optic neuropathy, it was felt that these deficits were more likely longstanding and secondary to ONH. Additionally, in the absence of any amblyogenic factors, it was also concluded that the patient’s bilateral “amblyopia” was the result of ONH. In that the patient presented with a significant and modifiable risk factor for glaucomatous development and pre-existing retinal nerve fiber layer and visual field defects, the patient was treated with topical glaucoma medications. Conclusion: Diagnosing glaucoma in patients with concurrent anomalies is a clinical conundrum. This report provides a review of ONH with emphasis on the common misdiagnosis of amblyopia in these patients as well as presenting a strategy for diagnosing and managing glaucoma in patients with preexisting, confounding conditions. Keywords: optic nerve hypoplasia, glaucoma, visual field loss, scanning laser polarimetry, threshold automated perimetry

  12. Intraocular pressure reduction of fixed combination timolol maleate 0.5% and dorzolamide 2% (Cosopt administered three times a day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moisseiev E, Lazar M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Gabi Shemesh*, Elad Moisseiev*, Moshe Lazar1, Shimon Kurtz Department of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel; Affiliated to the Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel*The first two authors contributed equallyPurpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy in intraocular pressure (IOP reduction of increasing Cosopt dosage from twice to three times a day.Methods: The study included patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. After a washout period, IOP was measured at baseline, after 4 weeks of treatment with Cosopt twice a day, and after another 4 weeks of treatment with Cosopt three times a day. Blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation levels were also recorded.Results: Twenty-nine eyes of 29 patients were included. Increasing Cosopt dosage resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.001 additional reduction in IOP of 2.2 ± 1.58 mmHg (10.69% ± 7.49% of the baseline IOP values. There were no local or systemic adverse effects.Conclusion: Treatment with Cosopt three times a day was more effective in reducing IOP than twice a day, with no effect on safety.Keywords: Cosopt, timolol, dorzolamide, glaucoma, intraocular pressure, dosage

  13. Using the Electroretinogram to Understand How Intraocular Pressure Elevation Affects the Rat Retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang V. Bui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP elevation is a key risk factor for glaucoma. Our understanding of the effect that IOP elevation has on the eye has been greatly enhanced by the application of the electroretinogram (ERG. In this paper, we describe how the ERG in the rodent eye is affected by changes in IOP magnitude, duration, and number of spikes. We consider how the variables of blood pressure and age can modify the effect of IOP elevation on the ERG. Finally, we contrast the effects that acute and chronic IOP elevation can have on the rodent ERG.

  14. A time-delay calibrated method for cornea hysteresis and intraocular pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Jen; Tsai, Che-Liang; Wang, Wai; Hsu, Long; Hsu, Ken-Yuh

    2016-04-01

    The presence of cornea hysteresis (CH) in characterizing the intraocular pressure (IOP) of a human eye deteriorates the accuracy of IOP. To suppress CH, the pressure gauge of a tonometer must be located as close as possible to the cornea. However, this arrangement is unpractical because appropriate working distance to the cornea is required. In this paper, a time-delay calibrated (TDC) method is proposed to counteract the undesired effect of CH in characterizing the IOP. Employing this TDC method, the CH approaches to zero for most eyes measured.

  15. Intraocular pressure and estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. The Beijing Eye Study 2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Xing Wang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine a potential association between intraocular pressure (IOP and cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP in a population-based setting. METHODS: The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50-93 years. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed. Based on a previous study with lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP measurements, CSFP was calculated as CSFP [mm Hg] = 0.44×Body Mass Index [kg/m2]+0.16×Diastolic Blood Pressure [mm Hg]-0.18×Age [Years]. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, IOP was associated with higher estimated CSFP (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta: 0.27; regression coefficient B: 0.20; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.16, 0.24, after adjusting for thinner central corneal thickness (P<0.001; beta: 0.45; B: 0.04;95%CI: 0.04,0.04, smaller corneal curvature radius (P<0.001; beta:-0.11; B:-1.13;95%CI:-1.61,-0.64, shallower anterior chamber depth (P = 0.01; beta:-0.05; B:-0.33;95%CI:-0.59,-0.08 and longer axial length (P = 0.002; beta: 0.08; B: 0.20;95%CI: 0.08,0.32, and after adjusting for the systemic parameters of higher pulse rate (P<0.001; beta: 0.08; B: 0.02;95%CI: 0.01,0.03, higher prevalence of arterial hypertension (P = 0.002; beta: 0.06; B: 0.32;95%CI: 0.12,0.53, frequency of drinking alcohol (P = 0.02; beta: 0.04; B: 0.09;95%CI: 0.01,0.17, higher blood concentration of triglycerides (P = 0.001; beta: 0.06; B: 0.06;95%CI: 0.02,0.10 and cholesterol (P = 0.049; beta: 0.04; B: 0.08;95%CI: 0.00,0.17, and body mass index (P<0.001; beta:-0.13; B:-0.09;95%CI:-0.13,-0.06. In a parallel manner, estimated CSFP (mean: 10.8±3.7 mm Hg was significantly associated with higher IOP (P<0.001; beta: 0.13; B: 0.18;95%CI: 0.13,0.23 after adjusting for rural region of habitation (P<0.001; beta:-0.37; B:-2.78;95%CI:-3.07,-2.48, higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.001; beta: 0.34; B: 0.06;95%CI: 0.05,0.07, higher

  16. Influence of various anesthetic drugs on the intraocular pressure of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnenberger, R W

    1976-04-14

    Cats with one normal eye and one eye with experimental glaucoma were trained to tolerate tonometry while conscious. They were then given the general anesthetic agents pentobarbital, ketamine, and CI-744 in the lowest and twice the lowest dosages which permitted tonometry in untrained cats. Pentobarbital lowered intraocular pressure (IOP) by 20-50%. Ketamine raised IOP by about 10%. CI-744 had essentially no effect on IOP. The two conpoments of CI-744, tiletamine (CI-634) and zolazepam (CI-716) were given individually in the doses in which they had been given as part of CI-744. Tiletamine had no effect on IOP, while zolazepam lowered IOP by about 10%. PMID:1083696

  17. Twenty-four-hour intraocular pressure patterns in a symptomatic patient after ab interno trabeculotomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaweh Mansouri,1 Felipe A Medeiros,2 Robert N Weinreb2 1Glaucoma Sector, Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Hamilton Glaucoma Center and Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: We report the results of repeated ambulatory continuous 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP monitoring with a contact lens sensor (CLS in a glaucoma patient with ocular pain after ab interno trabeculotomy (Trabectome™ surgery. Our findings show that a combined prostaglandin–pilocarpine treatment reduced nighttime IOP peaks and relieved the patient’s symptoms. Keywords: 24-hour, Trabectome contact lens sensor, prostaglandin–pilocarpine treatment

  18. Effect of pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg intravitreal injections (Macugen) in intraocular pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, David S; Goldbaum, Mauro; Leys, Anita M;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the rate of pegaptanib-associated sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. METHODS: A posthoc analysis was conducted on all IOP measurements, except the immediate 30-min postinjection, from all subjects randomised to pegaptanib 0.3 mg or sham injections continuously in...... lowering medication added during the course of the study. No subject required glaucoma surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In V.I.S.I.O.N., after 2 years, there was no evidence of sustained IOP elevation associated with pegaptanib 0.3 mg use. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT00321997....

  19. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of NO-donor containing carbonic anhydrase inhibitors to lower intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinhua; Rui, Eugene Y; Cobbs, Morena; Dinh, Dac M; Gukasyan, Hovhannes J; Lafontaine, Jennifer A; Mehta, Saurabh; Patterson, Brian D; Rewolinski, David A; Richardson, Paul F; Edwards, Martin P

    2015-03-26

    The antiglaucoma drugs dorzolamide (1) and brinzolamide (2) lower intraocular pressure (IOP) by inhibiting the carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme to reduce aqueous humor production. The introduction of a nitric oxide (NO) donor into the alkyl side chain of dorzolamide (1) and brinzolamide (2) has led to the discovery of NO-dorzolamide 3a and NO-brinzolamide 4a, which could lower IOP through two mechanisms: CA inhibition to decrease aqueous humor secretion (reduce inflow) and NO release to increase aqueous humor drainage (increase outflow). Compounds 3a and 4a have shown improved efficacy of lowering IOP in both rabbits and monkeys compared to brinzolamide (2). PMID:25728019

  20. Activation of autophagy in a rat model of retinal ischemia following high intraocular pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Piras

    Full Text Available Acute primary open angle glaucoma is an optic neuropathy characterized by the elevation of intraocular pressure, which causes retinal ischemia and neuronal death. Rat ischemia/reperfusion enhances endocytosis of both horseradish peroxidase (HRP or fluorescent dextran into ganglion cell layer (GCL neurons 24 h after the insult. We investigated the activation of autophagy in GCL-neurons following ischemia/reperfusion, using acid phosphatase (AP histochemistry and immunofluorescence against LC3 and LAMP1. Retinal I/R lead to the appearance of AP-positive granules and LAMP1-positive vesicles 12 and 24 h after the insult, and LC3 labelling at 24 h, and induced a consistent retinal neuron death. At 48 h the retina was negative for autophagic markers. In addition, Western Blot analysis revealed an increase of LC3 levels after damage: the increase in the conjugated, LC3-II isoform is suggestive of autophagic activity. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine partially prevented death of neurons and reduces apoptotic markers, 24 h post-lesion. The number of neurons in the GCL decreased significantly following I/R (I/R 12.21±1.13 vs controls 19.23±1.12 cells/500 µm; this decrease was partially prevented by 3-methyladenine (17.08±1.42 cells/500 µm, which potently inhibits maturation of autophagosomes. Treatment also prevented the increase in glial fibrillary acid protein immunoreactivity elicited by I/R. Therefore, targeting autophagy could represent a novel and promising treatment for glaucoma and retinal ischemia.

  1. Abnormal increase of intraocular pressure in fellow eye after severe ocular trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaajanen, Anu; Tuulonen, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: An ocular injury can lead to secondary glaucoma in the traumatized eye in 3% to 20% of cases. Literature on the risk of developing elevated intraocular pressure in the nontraumatized fellow eye is scant. Clinicians treating ocular traumas should also bear in mind sympathetic ophthalmia, a rare bilateral granulomatous panuveitis following accidental or surgical trauma to 1 eye. Case report: We report a case of high-pressure glaucoma of the fellow eye without any signs of uveitis. The left eye of a 24-year-old man was injured in an inadvertent movement during a free-time table-tennis match. The eye was severely crushed, leading to blindness. His right eye developed medically uncontrolled high-pressure glaucoma only 1 month after the injury. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, there are no previous reports of post-traumatic glaucoma in the nontraumatized eye after open-globe injury. PMID:27495058

  2. The Effect of a Diving Mask on Intraocular Pressure in a Healthy Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goenadi, Catherina Josephine; Law, David Zhiwei; Lee, Jia Wen; Ong, Ee Lin; Chee, Wai Kitt; Cheng, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Swimming goggles increase the intraocular pressure (IOP) via the periorbital frame pressure and suction effect. In comparison, diving masks have a larger frame rim and incorporate the nose. The exact effect(s) of diving masks on IOP is unknown. This study evaluates the influence of diving masks on IOP in normal, healthy subjects. Methods Tonometry was performed in both eyes of all subjects with an AVIA®Tono-Pen by a single investigator. Measurements were taken at baseline without the diving mask and with the subjects wearing a small-volume, double-window diving mask, but with the mask lenses removed. Two IOP readings in each eye were measured, and an additional reading was measured if the difference between the initial 2 was ≥2 mm Hg. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was also measured in each eye, using a contact pachymeter (OcuScan®Alcon). Results Forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (age 29.7 ± 9.3 years; range 21–52) were included. The mean CCT was 544.4 ± 43.5 µm. The mean IOP before the diving mask was worn had been 17.23 ± 2.18 mm Hg (n = 40). The IOP decreased by 0.43 mm Hg (p $1003c; 0.05) to 16.80 ± 2.57 mm Hg after the diving mask had been put on. There was no correlation between IOP change and age (r = 0.143, p = 0.337), gender (r = −0.174, p = 0.283) or CCT (r = −0.123, p = 0.445). Conclusion There was no increase in IOP after the diving mask had been worn. A small but statistically significant decrease in IOP was observed. This study demonstrates that unlike swimming goggles, the strap tension and frame pressure on the periorbital tissue from a diving mask does not increase IOP. Diving masks may be a suitable alternative to swimming goggles for patients with advanced glaucoma or glaucoma filtration surgery. PMID:27462262

  3. The Effect of a Diving Mask on Intraocular Pressure in a Healthy Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherina Josephine Goenadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Swimming goggles increase the intraocular pressure (IOP via the periorbital frame pressure and suction effect. In comparison, diving masks have a larger frame rim and incorporate the nose. The exact effect(s of diving masks on IOP is unknown. This study evaluates the influence of diving masks on IOP in normal, healthy subjects. Methods: Tonometry was performed in both eyes of all subjects with an AVIA®Tono-Pen by a single investigator. Measurements were taken at baseline without the diving mask and with the subjects wearing a small-volume, double-window diving mask, but with the mask lenses removed. Two IOP readings in each eye were measured, and an additional reading was measured if the difference between the initial 2 was ≥2 mm Hg. Central corneal thickness (CCT was also measured in each eye, using a contact pachymeter (OcuScan®Alcon. Results: Forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (age 29.7 ± 9.3 years; range 21–52 were included. The mean CCT was 544.4 ± 43.5 µm. The mean IOP before the diving mask was worn had been 17.23 ± 2.18 mm Hg (n = 40. The IOP decreased by 0.43 mm Hg (p < 0.05 to 16.80 ± 2.57 mm Hg after the diving mask had been put on. There was no correlation between IOP change and age (r = 0.143, p = 0.337, gender (r = –0.174, p = 0.283 or CCT (r = –0.123, p = 0.445. Conclusion: There was no increase in IOP after the diving mask had been worn. A small but statistically significant decrease in IOP was observed. This study demonstrates that unlike swimming goggles, the strap tension and frame pressure on the periorbital tissue from a diving mask does not increase IOP. Diving masks may be a suitable alternative to swimming goggles for patients with advanced glaucoma or glaucoma filtration surgery.

  4. Intraocular pressure determination in clinically normal red-footed tortoise (Geochelone carbonaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selmi, André L; Mendes, Guilherme M; McManus, Concepta; Arrais, Patrícia

    2002-03-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) reflects a balance between aqueous humor production and outflow and is often an essential ophthalmic diagnostic procedure in animals. The objective of this study was to estimate IOP in clinically normal red-footed tortoises (Geochelone carbonaria) of various sizes by using applanation tonometry. Intraocular pressures were estimated for 25 captive red-footed tortoises (10 males, 10 females, and 5 animals of unknown sex) by using an applanation tonometer after topical anesthesia. Body length ranged from 5.1 to 54.9 cm, measured from nuchal to anal scutes. Five measurements from each eye were obtained by a single observer in an ambient temperature of approximately 30 degrees C. Observer's reliability was good (intraclass r = 0.75), and IOP did not change over the ordered sequence of five replicate measurements. For individual tortoises the correlation for IOP between the left and right eyes was low (r = 0.20). The paired t-test did not show any statistical effect (P = 0.426) for the difference in IOP between the left and right eyes. Mean IOP determined for 10 confirmed males and 10 confirmed females did not differ between sexes (P = 0.244). The mean IOP of five small tortoises ( 10 cm long). In red-footed tortoises there does not appear to be any relation between carapace length and IOP. PMID:12216794

  5. Genome-wide association study of intraocular pressure identifies the GLCCI1/ICA1 region as a glaucoma susceptibility locus.

    OpenAIRE

    Blue Mountains Eye Study (BMES); Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium; Strange, A; Bellenguez, C; Freeman, C.; Pirinen, M.; Su, Z.; Band, G.; Pearson, R; Vukcevic, D.; Rautanen, A; Spencer, CC; Donnelly, P

    2013-01-01

    To discover quantitative trait loci for intraocular pressure, a major risk factor for glaucoma and the only modifiable one, we performed a genome-wide association study on a discovery cohort of 2175 individuals from Sydney, Australia. We found a novel association between intraocular pressure and a common variant at 7p21 near to GLCCI1 and ICA1. The findings in this region were confirmed through two UK replication cohorts totalling 4866 individuals (rs59072263, P(combined) = 1.10 × 10(-8)). A ...

  6. A randomised comparative study of the effect of Airtraq optical laryngoscope vs. Macintosh laryngoscope on intraocular pressure in non-ophthalmic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Bikramjit Das; Rajiv Kumar Samal; Arup Ghosh; Ratul Kundu

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We compared intraocular pressure changes following laryngoscopy and intubation with conventional Macintosh blade and Airtraq optical laryngoscope. METHODS: Ninety adult patients were randomly assigned to study group or control group. Study group (n = 45) - Airtraq laryngoscope was used for laryngoscopy. Control group (n = 45) - conventional Macintosh laryngoscope was used for laryngoscopy. Preoperative baseline intraocular pressure was measured with Schiotz tonometer. Laryngosc...

  7. Genome-wide analysis of multi-ancestry cohorts identifies new loci influencing intraocular pressure and susceptibility to glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. Hysi (Pirro); C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); H. Springelkamp (Henriët); S. MacGregor (Stuart); J.N.C. Bailey (Jessica N. Cooke); R. Wojciechowski (Robert); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Nag (Abhishek); A.W. Hewit (Alex); R. Höhn (René); C. Venturini (Cristina); A. Mirshahi (Alireza); W.D. Ramdas (Wishal); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); E.N. Vithana (Eranga); C.C. Khor; A.B. Stefansson (Arni B.); J. Liao (Jie); J.L. Haines (Jonathan); N. Amin (Najaf); Y. Wang (Ying); P.S. Wild (Philipp S.); A.B. Ozel (Ayse B.); J. Li; B.W. Fleck (Brian W.); T. Zeller (Tanja); S.E. Staffieri (Sandra E.); Y.Y. Teo (Yik Ying); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); X. Luo (Xiaoyan); R.R. Allingham (R Rand); J.E. Richards (Julia); A. Senft (Andrea); L.C. Karssen (Lennart); Y. Zheng (Yingfeng); C. Bellenguez (Céline); L. Xu (Liang); O. Iglesias (Oriol); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.H. Kang (Jae H.); E.M. van Leeuwen (Elisa); V. Jonsson (Vesteinn); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); D.D.G. Despriet (Dominique); S. Ennis (Sarah); S.E. Moroi (Sayoko); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); N.M. Jansonius (Nomdo); S. Yazar (Seyhan); E.S. Tai (Shyong); P. Amouyel (Philippe); J. Kirwan (James); L.M.E. van Koolwijk (Leonieke); M.A. Hauser (Michael); F. Jonasson (Fridbert); P.J. Leo (Paul); S.J. Loomis (Stephanie J.); R. Fogarty (Rhys); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); L.S. Kearns (Lisa S.); K.J. Lackner (Karl); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); C.L. Simpson (Claire); C.E. Pennell (Craig); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); A.J. Lotery (Andrew); J.E. Bailey-Wilson (Joan E.); A. Hofman (Albert); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); C. Maubaret (Cécilia); A.F.H. Pfeiffer (Andreas); R.C.W. Wolfs (Roger); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T.L. Young (Terri); L.R. Pasquale (Louis); C. Delcourt (Cécile); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); K.S. Small (Kerrin); K.P. Burdon (Kathryn); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); T.Y. Wong (Tien); A.C. Viswanathan (Ananth); D.A. Mackey (David); J.E. Craig (Jamie); J.L. Wiggs (Janey); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); C.J. Hammond (Christopher); T. Aung (Tin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractElevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor in developing glaucoma, and variability in IOP might herald glaucomatous development or progression. We report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 18 population cohorts from the International Glau

  8. Effect of altered eating habits and periods during Ramadan fasting on intraocular pressure, tear secretion, corneal and anterior chamber parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerimoglu, H.; Ozturk, B.; Gunduz, K.; Bozkurt, B.; Kamis, U.; Okka, M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether altered eating habits and periods, especially the pre-dawn meal, during Ramadan fasting have any significant effect on intraocular pressure (IOP), tear secretion, corneal and anterior chamber parameters. Methods IOP, basal tear secretion (BTS), reflex tear secretion (RTS

  9. Travoprost with sofZia® preservative system lowered intraocular pressure of Japanese normal tension glaucoma with minimal side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Mizoue, Shiro; Nakano, Tadashi; Fuse, Nobuo; Iwase, Aiko; Matsumoto, Shun; Yoshikawa, Keiji

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the effect of travoprost with sofZia® preservative system for lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP) of Japanese normal tension glaucoma (NTG) patients. Methods In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study, Japanese NTG patients with baseline IOPs

  10. The Management of a Patient with Elevated Intraocular Pressure Resistant to Medical Treatment: Anterior Chamber Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Beyoğlu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old male patient was medically treated in another center for hyphema which occurred after blunt trauma to his right eye. He was admitted to our clinic when his visual acuity decreased after being discharged. Biomicroscopic examination revealed total hyphema. Intraocular pressure (IOP was 48 mm Hg in the right eye with Goldmann applanation tonometry. Since IOP could not be managed by medical therapy and there was no regression in hyphema, anterior chamber was irrigated. As in our case, it should not be forgotten that re-hemorrhage may occur in the first week of hyphema during childhood. Moreover, surgical treatment should be considered when hemorrhage does not regress with medical treatment, increased IOP persists, and when there is a risk of corneal endothelial staining (corneal blood staining. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 400-2

  11. Respiratory complications associated with ketamine anesthesia for ophthalmic procedures following intraocular pressure measurement in children

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    Lei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We compared respiratory complications (RCs in children who received intramuscular (IM versus intravenous (IV or no ketamine for intraocular pressure (IOP measurement to test our observation that IM ketamine is associated with higher incidence of RCs. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 149 eye examinations under anesthesia with ketamine in 27 patients and 263 non-ketamine examinations under anesthesia in 81 patients using a mixed effects logistic regression model. Results: IM ketamine was strongly associated with increased odds of RCs compared to no ketamine (odds ratio (OR: 20.23, P < 0.0001 and to IV ketamine (OR: 6.78, P = 0.02, as were higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA classification (OR: 2.60, P = 0.04, and the use of volatile agents (OR: 3.32, P = 0.02. Conclusion: Further studies should be conducted to confirm our observation of increased RCs with IM ketamine.

  12. Raised intraocular pressure as a potential risk factor for visual loss in Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

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    Anais Thouin

    Full Text Available Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON is an important cause of inherited mitochondrial blindness among young adults. The majority of patients carry one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA point mutations: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C, all of which affect critical complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. LHON is characterised by marked incomplete penetrance, clearly implying that the mtDNA mutation is insufficient on its own to trigger retinal ganglion cell dysfunction and visual loss. In this case series of three affected patients harbouring the m.11778G>A mutation, we provide evidence suggesting that raised intraocular pressure could be a risk factor triggering visual loss in at-risk LHON carriers.

  13. Brinzolamide nanocrystal formulations for ophthalmic delivery: reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomela, Annika; Liu, Peng; Puranen, Jooseppi; Rönkkö, Seppo; Laaksonen, Timo; Kalesnykas, Giedrius; Oksala, Olli; Ilkka, Jukka; Laru, Johanna; Järvinen, Kristiina; Hirvonen, Jouni; Peltonen, Leena

    2014-06-01

    Nanocrystal-based drug delivery systems provide important tools for ocular formulation development, especially when considering poorly soluble drugs. The objective of the study was to formulate ophthalmic, intraocular pressure (IOP) reducing, nanocrystal suspensions from a poorly soluble drug, brinzolamide (BRA), using a rapid wet milling technique, and to investigate their IOP reducing effect in vivo. Different stabilizers for the nanocrystals were screened (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), poloxamer F127 and F68, polysorbate 80) and HPMC was found to be the only successful stabilizer. In order to investigate both the effect of an added absorption enhancer (polysorbate 80) and the impact of the free drug in the nanocrystal suspension, formulations in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) at pH 7.4 and pH 4.5 were prepared. Particle size, polydispersity (PI), solid state (DSC), morphology (SEM) as well as dissolution behavior and the uniformity of the formulations were characterized. There was rapid dissolution of BRA (in PBS pH 7.4) from all the nanocrystal formulations; after 1 min 100% of the drug was fully dissolved. The effect was significantly pronounced at pH 4.5, where the dissolved fraction of drug was the highest. The cytotoxicity of nanocrystal formulations to human corneal epithelial cell (HCE-T) viability was tested. The effects of the nanocrystal formulations and the commercial product on the cell viability were comparable. The intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effect was investigated in vivo using a modern rat ocular hypertensive model and elevated IOP reduction was seen in vivo with all the formulations. Notably, the reduction achieved in experimentally elevated IOP was comparable to that obtained with a marketed product. In conclusion, various BRA nanocrystal formulations, which all showed advantageous dissolution and absorption behavior, were successfully formulated. PMID:24680962

  14. Effect of intravenous metoclopramide on intraocular pressure: A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudheera K

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of rise in intraocular pressure (IOP is essential in patients undergoing surgery for perforated eye injuries. Metoclopramide, a prokinetic agent, is commonly used to hasten gastric emptying in emergency surgeries. Aim: To study the change in IOP after intravenous metoclopramide and to study the influence of metoclopramide on change in IOP after succinylcholine and tracheal intubation. Settings and Design: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 60 patients undergoing non-ophthalmic elective surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA I adult patients were randomly assigned to receive normal saline (Group C or metoclopramide 10 mg (Group M 30 min before the induction of anesthesia. Thiopentone was used for induction and succinylcholine for tracheal intubation. Intraocular pressure was measured in both the eyes pre and post drug treatment and succinylcholine and tracheal intubation using Perkins applanation tonometer. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test and repeated measures ANOVA were used. A P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Intraocular pressure was consistently lower in Group M than in Group C after the test drug, though the difference was not statistically significant. Intraocular pressure decreased significantly after administration of thiopentone and increased significantly in Groups C and M after tracheal intubation ( P < 0.01. Intraocular pressure was comparable between the groups at all the times. Conclusions: Metoclopramide does not cause a clinically significant change in IOP nor does it influence the changes in IOP during anesthesia and tracheal intubation. Metoclopramide shows a trend towards decrease in IOP, though clinically insignificant. Therefore metoclopramide can be used to promote gastric emptying in patients with perforated eye injury.

  15. Development of a wireless intra-ocular pressure monitoring system for incorporation into a therapeutic glaucoma drainage implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaday, Tarun; Plunkett, Malcolm; McInnes, Steven; Li, Jim S. Jimmy; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Craig, Jamie E.

    2008-12-01

    Glaucoma is a common cause of blindness. Wireless, continuous monitoring of intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important, unsolved goal in managing glaucoma. An IOP monitoring system incorporated into a glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) overcomes the design complexity associated with incorporating a similar system in a more confined space within the eye. The device consists of a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based capacitive pressure sensor integrated with an inductor printed directly onto a polyimide printed circuit board (PCB). The device is designed to be incorporated onto the external plate of a therapeutic GDI. The resonance frequency changes as a function of IOP, and is tracked remotely using a spectrum analyzer. A theoretical model for the reader antenna was developed to enable maximal inductive coupling with the IOP sensor implant. Pressure chamber tests indicate that the sensor implant has adequate sensitivity in the IOP range with excellent reproducibility over time. Additionally, we show that sensor sensitivity does not change significantly after encapsulation with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to protect the device from fluid environment. In vitro experiments showed that the signal measured wirelessly through sheep corneal and scleral tissue was adequate indicating potential for using the system in human subjects.

  16. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Si Hyung Lee; Seung Woo Kwak; Eun Min Kang; Gyu Ah Kim; Sang Yeop Lee; Hyoung Won Bae; Gong Je Seong; Chan Yun Kim

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) using a population-based study design. Methods A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age) who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (C...

  17. Remifentanil-Ketamine versus Fentanyl-Ketamine sedation in patients undergoing phacoemulsification with topical anesthesia: comparison of intraocular pressure changes and sedation quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Soleymani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcotics and sedatives can reduce intraocular pressure. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of remifentanil plus ketamine on intraocular pressure and sedation quality in comparison with fentanyl plus ketamine during and after operation in patients undergoing phacoemulsification with topical anesthesia.METHODS: Forty four patients were randomized into two groups to receive either a continuous infusion of remifentanil (0.2 µg/kg/min for 4 min and then 0.1 µg/kg/min: Group R, n=22 or bolus intravenous fentanyl (1.5 µg/kg: Group F, n=22 for sedation. Patients in both groups received low dose ketamine (0.15 mg/kg intravenously. Topical anesthesia was performed using tetracaine 0.5% eye drop in both eyes. Intraocular pressure was measured in non-operative eye before sedation (baseline, 2 minutes after sedation, before intraocular lens insertion, at the end of operation and 15 minutes after the end of operation using Schiötz tonometer. Sedation, cooperation, satisfaction and pain scores and also postoperative nausea and vomiting were recorded in all patients. Surgeon satisfaction scores were evaluated at the end of operation.RESULTS: The intraocular pressure did not differ significantly between the two groups throughout the study. The mean (SD intraocular pressures 2 minutes after sedation, before intraocular lens insertion, at the end of operation and 15 minutes after the end of operation in recovery room were all less than that of baseline in both groups, but the baseline value was decreased only significantly (P CONCLUSIONS: Combination of remifentanil infusion and intravenous ketamine did not offer any advantages over the combination of intravenous fentanyl and ketamine in order to prevent intraocular pressure rising during phacoemulsification. The lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and higher rate of appropriate sedation in fentanyl group suggested fentanyl as a more suitable medication for systemic

  18. Selectively bonded polymeric glaucoma drainage device for reliable regulation of intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seunghwan; Im, Seongmin; An, Jaeyong; Park, Chang Ju; Kim, Hwang Gyun; Park, Sang Woo; Kim, Hyoung Ihl; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2012-04-01

    A novel glaucoma drainage device (GDD) using a polymeric micro check valve with no reverse flow is presented for the effective regulation of intraocular pressure (IOP). A significant functional improvement was achieved by reducing the possible incidence of hypotony, as the proposed GDD only drains aqueous humor at a certain cracking pressure or higher. The device consists of three biocompatible polymer layers: a top layer (cover), an intermediate layer (membrane), and a bottom layer (base plate with a cannula). All three layers, made of soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), were bonded together to realize the thin GDDs. The bottom layer was selectively coated with chromium (Cr)/gold (Au) to prevent stiction between the valve seat and the valve orifice so that the device could show enhanced reliability in operation and high yield in production. Two types of polymeric devices were fabricated; one was a glaucoma drainage device for humans (GDDH) and the other was a glaucoma drainage device for animals (GDDA). From subsequent in vitro tests, the cracking pressures were 18.33 ± 0.66 mmHg (mean ± standard deviation) for GDDH and 12.42 mmHg for GDDA, both of which were very close to the corresponding normal IOPs. From in vivo tests of GDDA, the IOP of all implanted devices was properly regulated within the target pressure (10-15 mmHg). The experimental results showed that the proposed polymeric GDD has high potential for use in the treatment of glaucoma disease in terms of its repeatability of the cracking pressure and patients' relief from post-operative discomfort. PMID:22094823

  19. Effect of alpha-2-agonist premedication on intraocular pressure after selective laser trabeculoplasty

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    Julius T Oatts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effect of alpha-2-agonist (AA premedication (PM on intraocular pressure (IOP following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing 360° SLT at an institution with two prevalent practice patterns consisting of SLT performed with PM and without premedication (NPM with AA. The association between pre- and post-operative IOP was evaluated using a linear regression model in 49 (59% PM and 34 (41% NPM eyes. Results: The prevalence of IOP elevations up to 5 mmHg 1 h postoperatively was similar in both groups, occurring in 18% of PM and in 15% of NPM. Elevations above 5 mmHg were seen in 4% of PM and 8% of NPM (P = 0.732. After correcting for age, gender, diagnosis, number of medications, and preoperative IOP, the presence or absence of AA PM had no significant association with any postoperative IOP (P > 0.5. Conclusion: The practice of using AAs before SLT and measuring IOP at 1 h has not been validated yet adds to expenses and workflow burden. Our retrospective study showed no significant correlation between PM and postoperative or longer-term IOP. IOP at 1 h should be measured in patients who cannot tolerate transient pressure elevations. Further studies are needed to elucidate this relationship.

  20. Metabolic syndrome: a risk factor for high intraocular pressure in the Israeli population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamara; Wygnanski-Jaffe; Itzhak; Bieran; Dorit; Tekes-Manova; Yair; Morad; Isaac; Ashkenazi; Eedy; Mezer

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association among elevated intraocular pressure(IOP), the metabolic syndrome(Met S), body mass index(BMI), and some of their components in the Israeli population.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of12 747 soldiers of the Israeli Defense Forces, aged 35 y or older, who underwent a routine periodical medical examination between 1991 and 2004. None of the subjects received medical treatment for either glaucoma or ocular hypertension. High IOP(>21 mm Hg) was correlated with age, sex, arterial blood pressure, total blood cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI and Met S.RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was found between the IOP of subjects with a low risk and higher risk for the development of Met S(P <0.0001 for males, P =0.0026 for females). A statistically significant positive correlation was found in male subjects between high BMI and elevated IOP(r =0.11677, P <0.0001).CONCLUSION: Met S and BMI were significantly more prevalent in subjects with increased IOP levels. We suggest that both should be taken into consideration in the assessment of glaucoma suspects.

  1. Clinical Analysis of 106 Cases with Elevated Intraocular Pressure in Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng He; Zhongyao Wu; Jianhua Yan; Huasheng Yang; Yuxiang Mao; Siming Ai; Zhicong Chen

    2004-01-01

    Purpose :To summarize the clinical manifestation of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), and to analyze the contributing factors.Methods: One hundred and six cases(188 eyes) of ocular hypertension in 339 cases(597eyes) with TAO were collected from 1994 to 2001 and their clinic manifestations were summarized and analyzed.Results:It was demonstrated that the incidence of ocular hypertension in TAO was 31.3%, and was more frequently found in the male than in the female. The elevated IOP in TAO was found to be partially related to compression of the eyeball by enlarged extraocular muscles, the elevated intraorbital pressure as result of the proliferation of intraorbital connective tissue and the enlargement as well as swelling of extraocular muscles. It was also related to the severity of TAO other than the course of TAO. The ocular hypertension in most cases can be controlled with reduction of IOP by methylprednisolone or orbital decompression.Conclusion: Specific clinical features were found in TAO patients with ocular hypertension. It should be differentiated with primary glaucoma. The IOP in most cases can be controlled by prompt and effective treatment of TAO. Eye Science 2004;20:10-14.

  2. A Miniature-Implantable RF-Wireless Active Glaucoma Intraocular Pressure Monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric Y; Chlebowski, Arthur L; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2010-12-01

    Glaucoma is a detrimental disease that causes blindness in millions of people worldwide. There are numerous treatments to slow the condition but none are totally effective and all have significant side effects. Currently, a continuous monitoring device is not available, but its development may open up new avenues for treatment. This work focuses on the design and fabrication of an active glaucoma intraocular pressure (IOP) monitor that is fully wireless and implantable. Major benefits of an active IOP monitoring device include the potential to operate independently from an external device for extended periods of time and the possibility of developing a closed-loop monitoring and treatment system. The fully wireless operation is based off using gigahertz-frequency electromagnetic wave propagation, which allows for an orientation independent transfer of power and data over reasonable distances. Our system is comprised of a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor, a capacitive power storage array, an application-specific integrated circuit designed on the Texas Instruments (TI) 130 nm process, and a monopole antenna all assembled into a biocompatible liquid-crystal polymer-based tadpole-shaped package. PMID:23850751

  3. Pattern of intraocular pressure reduction following laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma patients: comparison between selective and nonselective treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Jr ED

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eglailson Dantas Almeida Júnior1, Luciano Moreira Pinto1,2, Rodrigo Antonio Brant Fernandes1,2, Tiago Santos Prata1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Cerpo Oftalmologia, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Hospital Medicina dos Olhos, São Paulo, BrazilObjective: To compare the pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP reduction following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT in open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients, and to investigate the ability of initial IOP reduction to predict mid-term success.Methods: A prospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series was carried out. Consecutive uncontrolled OAG glaucoma patients underwent SLT or ALT; the same preoperative medical regimen was maintained during follow-up. Data collected included age, type of OAG, pre- and postoperative IOP, number of glaucoma medications, and surgical complications. Post-treatment assessments were scheduled at day 1 and 7 and months 1, 3, and 6.Results: A total of 45 patients (45 eyes were enrolled [SLT group (n = 25; ALT group (n = 20]. Groups were similar for age, baseline IOP, and number of glaucoma medications (P ≥ 0.12. We found no significant differences in mean IOP reduction between SLT (5.1 ± 2.5 mmHg; 26.6% and ALT (4.4 ± 2.8 mmHg; 22.8% groups at month 6 (P = 0.38. Success rates (IOP ≤ 16 mmHg and IOP reduction ≥25% at last follow-up visit were similar for SLT (72% and ALT (65% groups (P = 0.36. Comparing the pattern of IOP reduction (% of IOP reduction at each visit between groups, we found a greater effect following SLT compared with ALT at day 7 (23.7% ± 13.7% vs 8.1% ± 9.5%; P < 0.001. No significant differences were observed at other time points (P ≥ 0.32. Additionally, the percentage of IOP reduction at day 7 and at month 6 were significantly correlated in the SLT group (R2 = 0.36; P < 0.01, but not in the ALT group (P = 0.89. Early postoperative success predicted late

  4. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Godefroy Koki2, Augustin Ellong2, Didier Owono2, Emilienne Epée2, Lucienne Assumpta Bella2, Côme Ebana Mvogo1, Jeanne Mayouego Kouam21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceuticals Sciences, University of Douala; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé, CameroonAim: We performed a prospective, analytical study from 01 January to 31 March 2009 in the Ophthalmology Unit of the Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yaounde, aiming to determine the profile of central corneal thickness (CCT in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous black population and its relationship with intraocular pressure (IOP.Results and discussion: Four hundred and eighty-five patients (970 eyes meeting our ­inclusion criteria were selected for this study. The average CCT was 529.29 ± 35.9 µm in the right eye (95% confidence interval [CI]: 526.09–532.49, 528.19 ± 35.9 µm in the left eye (95% CI: 524.99–531.40 and 528.74 ± 35.89 µm in both eyes (95% CI: 526.48–531.00, range 440 to 670 µm. The average IOP was 13.01 ± 2.97 mmHg in both eyes (95% CI: 12.82–13.19. A rise in CCT by 100 µm was followed by an increase in IOP of about 2.8 mmHg (95% CI: 2.3–3.6 for both eyes taken together. Linear regression analysis showed that corneal thickness was negatively correlated with age and IOP was positively related with age.Conclusion: CCT in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous black population was found to be lower compared with CCT values in Caucasian and Asian populations. On the basis of reference values ranging between 527 and 560 µm, an adjustment of IOP values by a correction factor is required for many Cameroonian patients. This will improve the diagnosis and follow-up of glaucoma by helping to detect true ocular hypertension.Keywords: central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, Cameroon

  5. A Comparative and Interrelationship Study between Blood Pressure and Intraocular Pressure in Young Healthy Male Adults after Water Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja S. Patil

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral water ingestion increases blood volume, and hence blood pressure (BP which in turn increases intraocular pressure (IOP. The aim of the present study was to know the interrelationship between BP and IOP of both the sides, before and after water ingestion, in young healthy male subjects.Methods: This is a comparative and interrelationship study for which thirty six male subjects aged 17- 20 years were selected. BP of both arms was recorded every 15 minutes and IOP was recorded every 30 minutes for two hours in both control and study trials (before and after water ingestion respectively. Statistical analysis was done using Student’s t test and regression analysis.Results: Water ingestion led to a significant increase in BP and IOP of both eyes. Significant correlation was present between mean arterial pressure (MAP and IOP on right side in both trials. But, there was no correlation between MAP and IOP on left side in both trials.Conclusion: It can be concluded that correlation between BP and IOP, before and after water ingestion is not uniform on both sides, whose cause cannot be clearly explained and therefore, needs further in depth study of the underlying anatomical and physiological processes.

  6. Effects of inner materials on the sensitivity and phase depth of wireless inductive pressure sensors for monitoring intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheol-In; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Kim, Mi Jeung; Yun, Kwang-Seok; Park, Ki Ho; Kang, Ji Yoon; Lee, Soo Hyun

    2016-03-01

    In this research, we developed wireless, inductive, pressure sensors with high sensitivity and investigated the effects of the inner materials (copper or ferrite) on the performance of the sensors. The proposed sensor is comprised of two parts, i.e., the top and the bottom parts. The top part includes a micro coil and a capacitor for the wireless transfer of data, and the bottom part includes the inner materials and a thick or thin flexible membrane to induce changes in the inductance. An anchor is used to assemble the top and bottom parts. The behavior of the sensor with copper was based on the eddy current effect, and, as the pressure increased, its resonance frequency increased, while its phase depth decreased exponentially. The principle of the sensor with ferrite was related to the effective permeability between a ferrite and a coil, and its response was the opposite of that with copper, i.e., as the pressure increased, the resonance frequency decreased linearly, and the phase depth increased linearly. These different operational mechanisms can be explained by the changes in the equations of inductance presented in this paper. After characterizing four different types of inductive pressure sensors in ambient air, one type of inductive pressure sensor was used to monitor the intraocular pressure (IOP) of a rabbit's eye as a biomedical application. The results showed that, in the animal tests, the measured responsivity and sensitivity were 16.7 kHz/mmHg and 1340 ppm/mmHg, respectively. These data indicate that the proposed sensor is a good candidate for monitoring IOP.

  7. The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness and Corneal Curvature and Axial Length on the Measurement of Intraocular Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Li; Minru Li; Zhigang Fan; Ningli Wang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal curvature (CC), and axial length (AL) on intraocular pressure (IOP).Methods: Eighty-one clinically normal eyes were included in our study. The IOP, CCT, CC, AL were measured using a Goldmann applanation tonometer, optical pachymeter, keratometer and A-scan ultrasound biometer respectively in all subjects.Results: A highly significant positive correlation was identified between IOP and CCT. Linear regression analysis suggests that an increase in CCT of 0. 010 mm is associated with a 4. 946 mmHg increment in IOP. No significant positive correlation was identified between IOP and CC. P values are 0. 724 and 0.414 respectively for vertical and horizontal readings. A paradoxically reversed correlation was present between IOP and axial length.Conclusion: Corneal thickness is a very important confounding factor in the measurement of intraocular pressure, which warrants further attention in our clinical practice.

  8. The Path to Open-Angle Glaucoma Gene Discovery: Endophenotypic Status of Intraocular Pressure, Cup-to-Disc Ratio, and Central Corneal Thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Charlesworth, Jac; Kramer, Patricia L.; Dyer, Tom; Diego, Victor; Samples, John R.; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A.; Hewitt, Alex W; Blangero, John; Wirtz, Mary K.

    2010-01-01

    The primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) risk factors intraocular pressure, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, and central corneal thickness are shown to be highly heritable in 22 large POAG families from Australia and the Northwest Pacific region of the United States. Furthermore, bivariate genetic analysis reveals that both intraocular pressure and vertical cup-to-disc ratio represent potentially useful endophenotypes for the genetic dissection of POAG risk.

  9. Effects of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin on HIF-1α expression in the retina in a rabbit model of acute high intraocular pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the retina of rabbits with acute high intraocular pressure and to investigate the mechanism of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) protecting the retina from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods First,control group and model group were established in rabbit eyes. The acute high intraocular pressure model was established by saline perfusion into anterior chamber,and then hypodermic injection of domestic rhEP...

  10. Investigation of postoperative intraocular pressure in cases of silicone oil removal using 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy with oblique incisions

    OpenAIRE

    Takashina H; Watanabe A; Tsuneoka H

    2015-01-01

    Hirotsugu Takashina,1,2 Akira Watanabe,2 Hiroshi Tsuneoka2 1Department of Ophthalmology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) in cases of silicone oil (SO) removal when using 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV) with oblique incisions.Methods: ...

  11. 24-hour intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients randomized to receive dorzolamide or brinzolamide in combination with latanoprost

    OpenAIRE

    Oishi, Yoshimi

    2009-01-01

    Yoshimi Nakamura, Shusaku Ishikawa, Yuko Nakamura, Hiroshi Sakai, Ichiko Henzan, Shoichi SawaguchiDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of the Ryukyus Faculty of Medicine, Okinawa, JapanPurpose: To investigate the efficacy of dorzolamide 1% (bid or tid) or brinzolamide 1% bid on 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) control as well as patients’ preference for either drug when added in combination with latanoprost against glaucoma (IOP, ≥18 mmHg).Methods: In this randomized cro...

  12. Safety and tolerability of tafluprost in treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Dorota Pozarowska

    2010-01-01

    Dorota PozarowskaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Medical University, Lublin, PolandAbstract: Glaucoma is one of the most common neuropathies of the optic nerve. An elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a well documented risk factor for the development and progression of this disease. Until now, IOP reduction is the only well documented successful method of glaucoma treatment. Among the many hypotensive drugs, prostaglandin analogs are proved to be the most potent antiglaucoma agents, with very ...

  13. Mirtogenol® potentiates latanoprost in lowering intraocular pressure and improves ocular blood flow in asymptomatic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Schonlau, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Robert D Steigerwalt Jr1, Gianni Belcaro1, Paolo Morazzoni2, Ezio Bombardelli2, Carolina Burki3, Frank Schönlau4 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, San Valentino, Italy; 2Indena S.p.A. Scientific Department, Milan, Italy; 3Horphag Research (UK) Ltd., Geneva, Switzerland; 4Horphag Research (UK) Ltd. South Kensington, London UKPurpose: The dietary supplement Mirtogenol® was previously shown to lower elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). We here pre...

  14. Nucleoside-Derived Antagonists to A3 Adenosine Receptors Lower Mouse Intraocular Pressure and Act across Species

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhao; Do, Chi Wai; Avila, Marcel Y.; Peterson-Yantorno, Kim; Stone, Richard A.; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Joshi, Bhalchandra; Besada, Pedro; Jeong, Lak Shin; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Civan, Mortimer M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether novel, selective antagonists of human A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) derived from the A3-selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and act across species. IOP was measured invasively with a micropipette by the Servo-Null Micropipette System (SNMS) and by non-invasive pneumotonometry during topical drug application. Antagonist efficacy was also assayed by measuring inhibition of adenosine-triggered shrinkage of native bovine n...

  15. 24-hour intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients randomized to receive dorzolamide or brinzolamide in combination with latanoprost

    OpenAIRE

    Nakamura, Yoshimi; Ishikawa, Shusaku; Nakamura, Yuko; Sakai, Hiroshi; Henzan, Ichiko; Sawaguchi, Shoichi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of dorzolamide 1% (bid or tid) or brinzolamide 1% bid on 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) control as well as patients’ preference for either drug when added in combination with latanoprost against glaucoma (IOP, ≥18 mmHg). Methods: In this randomized crossover study patients were assigned to receive latanoprost plus either dorzolamide or brinzolamide for four weeks. Thereafter, patients underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring while continuing to receive dorzola...

  16. Distribution of intraocular pressure and its determinants in an Iranian adult population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Hassan; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Yekta, Abbasali; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the distribution of intraocular pressure (IOP) and its determinants in an Iranian population. METHODS In a cross-sectional survey, random cluster sampling was conducted from the 40-64 years old population of Shahroud, in the north of Iran. All participants had optometry and ophthalmic exams. IOP was determined using the Goldmann tonometry method and biometric components were measured. RESULTS Of the 6311 people selected for the study, 5190 (82.2%) participated. The mean age of the participants was 50.9±6.2y and 58.7% of them were female. Mean IOP was 12.87±2.27 mm Hg. In this study 0.3% of the participants had an IOP higher than 21 mm Hg. The multiple linear regression model revealed that sex (Coef=-0.30; 95% CI: -0.43 to -0.17), diabetes (Coef=0.43; 95% CI: 0.19 to 0.67), high systolic blood pressure (Coef=0.02; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), high body mass index (BMI) (Coef=0.03; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), higher education (Coef=0.02, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.04), thicker central corneal thickness (Coef=0.01; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.02), and myopic shift in spherical equivalent (Coef=-0.14; 95% CI: -0.18 to -0.10) significantly correlated with high IOP. CONCLUSION The IOP in this 40-64 years old population is low overall. In the north of Iran, average IOP is statistically significantly correlated with female sex, diabetes, higher BMI, systolic blood pressure, higher education, thicker cornea, and myopic refractive error. PMID:27588277

  17. Influence of GlideScope assisted endotracheal intubation on intraocular pressure in ophthalmic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauman Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Macintoch laryngoscopy is known to cause a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP, tachycardia and hypertension. These changes are not desirable in patients with glaucoma and open globe injury. GlideScope is a video laryngoscope that functions independent of the line of sight, reduces upward lifting forces for glottic exposure and requires less cervical neck movement for intubation, making it less stimulating than Macintosh laryngoscopy. Aim: The aim was to assess the variations in IOP and hemodynamic changes after GlideScope assisted intubation. Materials and Methods: After approval of the local Institutional Research and Ethical Board and informed patient consent, 50 adult American Society of Anesthesiologist I and II patients with normal IOP were enrolled in a prospective, randomized study for ophthalmic surgery requiring tracheal intubation. In all patients, trachea was intubated using either GlideScope or Macintoch laryngoscope. IOP of nonoperated eye, heart rate and blood pressure were measured as baseline, 1 min after induction, 1 min and 5 min after tracheal intubation. Results: IOP was not significantly different between groups before and after anesthetic induction and 5 min after tracheal intubation (P = 0.217, 0.726, and 0.110 respectively. The only significant difference in IOP was at 1 min after intubation (P = 0.041. No significant difference noted between groups in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.899, 0.62, 0.47, 0.82 respectively and heart rate (P = 0.21, 0.72, 0.07, 0.29, respectively at all measurements. Conclusion: GlideScope assisted tracheal intubation shown lesser rise in IOP at 1 min after intubation in comparison to Macintoch laryngoscope, suggesting that GlideScope may be preferable to Macintosh laryngoscope.

  18. A randomised comparative study of the effect of Airtraq optical laryngoscope vs. Macintosh laryngoscope on intraocular pressure in non-ophthalmic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikramjit Das

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We compared intraocular pressure changes following laryngoscopy and intubation with conventional Macintosh blade and Airtraq optical laryngoscope. METHODS: Ninety adult patients were randomly assigned to study group or control group. Study group (n = 45 - Airtraq laryngoscope was used for laryngoscopy. Control group (n = 45 - conventional Macintosh laryngoscope was used for laryngoscopy. Preoperative baseline intraocular pressure was measured with Schiotz tonometer. Laryngoscopy was done as per group protocol. Intraocular pressure and haemodynamic parameters were recorded just before insertion of the device and subsequently three times at an interval of one minute after insertion of the device. RESULTS: Patient characteristics, baseline haemodynamic parameters and baseline intraocular pressure were comparable in the two groups. Following insertion of the endotracheal tube with Macintosh laryngoscope, there was statistically significant rise in heart rate and intraocular pressure compared to Airtraq group. There was no significant change in MAP. Eight patients in Macintosh group had tongue-lip-dental trauma during intubation, while only 2 patients received upper airway trauma in Airtraq group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that Airtraq laryngoscope in comparison to Macintosh laryngoscope results in significantly fewer rises in intraocular pressure and clinically less marked increase in haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation.

  19. INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN SOUTHERN ROCKHOPPER (EUDYPTES CHRYSOCOME) AND MACARONI PENGUINS (EUDYPTES CHRYSOLOPHUS): EVALUATION OF INFLUENCING FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Peterson, Edward L; Schmitt, Todd; Aquino, Susette

    2016-03-01

    Ophthalmic examinations were performed on 160 macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and 90 southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) at eight North American zoos and aquaria. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using rebound tonometry while penguins were held in two different body positions. Correlations between IOP and factors including age, body position, eye pathology, and housing parameters were evaluated. Normal macaroni penguins had a mean IOP of 42.0 ± 9.7 mm Hg. Normal rockhopper penguins had a mean IOP of 32.9 ± 6.2 mm Hg. Neither species had significantly different IOP between sexes or between left and right eyes of the same penguin. In both species, there was a negative linear correlation between age and IOP. In the macaroni population, IOP was significantly higher when IOP measurement was performed before ophthalmic exam; this was not true in rockhoppers. In both species, IOP measured in a horizontal body position was significantly higher than IOP measured in a vertical body position. In both species, eyes with corneal lesions had significantly lower IOP than normal eyes. In the macaroni penguin, eyes with rubeosis iridis had significantly lower IOP than normal eyes. In macaroni penguins, eyes with cataracts had significantly lower mean IOP than normal eyes; this was not true for rockhoppers.

  20. TRPV4 regulates calcium homeostasis, cytoskeletal remodeling, conventional outflow and intraocular pressure in the mammalian eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryskamp, Daniel A.; Frye, Amber M.; Phuong, Tam T. T.; Yarishkin, Oleg; Jo, Andrew O.; Xu, Yong; Lakk, Monika; Iuso, Anthony; Redmon, Sarah N.; Ambati, Balamurali; Hageman, Gregory; Prestwich, Glenn D.; Torrejon, Karen Y.; Križaj, David

    2016-01-01

    An intractable challenge in glaucoma treatment has been to identify druggable targets within the conventional aqueous humor outflow pathway, which is thought to be regulated/dysregulated by elusive mechanosensitive protein(s). Here, biochemical and functional analyses localized the putative mechanosensitive cation channel TRPV4 to the plasma membrane of primary and immortalized human TM (hTM) cells, and to human and mouse TM tissue. Selective TRPV4 agonists and substrate stretch evoked TRPV4-dependent cation/Ca2+ influx, thickening of F-actin stress fibers and reinforcement of focal adhesion contacts. TRPV4 inhibition enhanced the outflow facility and lowered perfusate pressure in biomimetic TM scaffolds populated with primary hTM cells. Systemic delivery, intraocular injection or topical application of putative TRPV4 antagonist prodrug analogs lowered IOP in glaucomatous mouse eyes and protected retinal neurons from IOP-induced death. Together, these findings indicate that TRPV4 channels function as a critical component of mechanosensitive, Ca2+-signaling machinery within the TM, and that TRPV4-dependent cytoskeletal remodeling regulates TM stiffness and outflow. Thus, TRPV4 is a potential IOP sensor within the conventional outflow pathway and a novel target for treating ocular hypertension. PMID:27510430

  1. Application of Cornelian Cherry Iridoid-Polyphenolic Fraction and Loganic Acid to Reduce Intraocular Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumny, Dorota; Sozański, Tomasz; Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Piórecki, Narcyz; Magdalan, Jan; Chlebda-Sieragowska, Ewa; Kupczynski, Robert; Szeląg, Adam; Szumny, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common diseases of old age in modern societies is glaucoma. It is strongly connected with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and could permanently damage vision in the affected eye. As there are only a limited number of chemical compounds that can decrease IOP as well as blood flow in eye vessels, the up-to-date investigation of new molecules is important. The chemical composition of the dried Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) polar, iridoid-polyphenol-rich fraction was investigated. Loganic acid (50%) and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (7%) were found as the main components. Among the other constituents, iridoid compound cornuside and the anthocyans cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-robinobioside, and pelargonidin 3-O-robinobioside were quantified in the fraction. In an animal model (New Zealand rabbits), the influence of loganic acid and the polyphenolic fraction isolated from Cornelian cherry fruit was investigated. We found a strong IOP-hypotensive effect for a 0.7% solution of loganic acid, which could be compared with the widely ophthalmologically used timolol. About a 25% decrease in IOP was observed within the first 3 hours of use. PMID:26124854

  2. A biodegradable ocular implant for long-term suppression of intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Xu Wen; Liu, Kerh Lin; Veluchamy, Amutha Barathi; Lwin, Nyein Chan; Wong, Tina T; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2015-10-01

    Timolol maleate (TM) has been used for many years for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients. However, the topical mode of administration (eyedrops) is far from optimal because of the issues of low bioavailability, high drug wastage, and lack of patient compliance. Suboptimal control of the IOP leads to disease progression and eventually to blindness. Ideally, TM is delivered to the patient so that its action is both localized and sustained for 3 months or more. In this work, we developed a subconjunctival TM microfilm for sustained, long-term delivery of TM to the eyes, using the biodegradable elastomer poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLC). The copolymer is biocompatible and has flexibility and mechanical characteristics suitable for a patient-acceptable implant. Controlling the release of TM for 3 months is challenging, and this work describes how, by using a combination of multilayering and blending with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) copolymers, we were able to develop a TM-incorporated biodegradable film that can deliver TM at a therapeutic dose for 90 days in vitro. The data was further confirmed in a diseased primate model, with sustained IOP-lowering effects for 5 months with a single implant, with acceptable biocompatibility and partial degradation.

  3. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  4. Toward a Wirelessly Powered On-Lens Intraocular Pressure Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Liao, Yu-Te; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Yeh, Guan-Ting; Kuei, Cheng-Kai; Dai, Kai-Shiun

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a wireless on-lens intraocular pressure monitoring system, comprising a capacitance-to-digital converter and a wirelessly powered radio-frequency identification (RFID)-compatible communication system, for sensor control and data communication. The capacitive sensor was embedded on a soft contact lens of 200 μm thickness using commercially available biocompatible lens material, to improve compliance and reduce user discomfort. The sensor chip was shown to achieve effective number of bits greater than 10 over a capacitance range up to 50 pF while consuming only 64-μW power. The on-lens capacitive sensor could detect dielectric variation caused by changes in water content from a distance of 2 cm by using incident power from an RFID reader at 20 dBm. The maximum detectable distance was 11 cm with 30-dBm incident RF power. The rise in eye tissue temperature under 30-dBm RF exposure over an interval of 1 s was simulated and found to be less than 0.01°C.

  5. Toward a Wirelessly Powered On-Lens Intraocular Pressure Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Liao, Yu-Te; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Yeh, Guan-Ting; Kuei, Cheng-Kai; Dai, Kai-Shiun

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a wireless on-lens intraocular pressure monitoring system, comprising a capacitance-to-digital converter and a wirelessly powered radio-frequency identification (RFID)-compatible communication system, for sensor control and data communication. The capacitive sensor was embedded on a soft contact lens of 200 μm thickness using commercially available biocompatible lens material, to improve compliance and reduce user discomfort. The sensor chip was shown to achieve effective number of bits greater than 10 over a capacitance range up to 50 pF while consuming only 64-μW power. The on-lens capacitive sensor could detect dielectric variation caused by changes in water content from a distance of 2 cm by using incident power from an RFID reader at 20 dBm. The maximum detectable distance was 11 cm with 30-dBm incident RF power. The rise in eye tissue temperature under 30-dBm RF exposure over an interval of 1 s was simulated and found to be less than 0.01°C. PMID:27479980

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND CLONIDINE AS PREMEDICANT ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AND HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES IN NON-OPHTHALMIC SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are associated with hypertension, tachycardia, increased circulating catecholamines and increase in intraocular pressure. Aim of this study is to compare the effect of IV Dexmedetomidine and IV Clonidine premedication on the intraocular pressure changes, haemodynamic responses after succinylcholine injection and intubation. METHODS Sixty cases both male and female patients ranging between the age group 18 to 60 years belonging to ASA 1 or ASA 2 grades, undergoing elective non-ophthalmic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied. All patients were randomized into 3 groups of 20 patients each. Each group consists of 20 patients. Dexmedetomidine Group (Group 1 patients received intravenous Dexmedetomidine 1 micro/kg in 100 mL normal saline, Clonidine Group (Group 2 patients received intravenous Clonidine 1 micro/kg in 100 mL normal saline, Control Group (Group 3 patients received intravenous 100 mL saline infused over 10 minutes. Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP, Heart Rate (HR and IOP were recorded at before premedication 5 min. after premedication, 30 s after succinylcholine, 1 min. after intubation, 5 mins. after intubation. RESULT Fall in Pulse rate, Systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure, Mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure were observed following administration of dexmedetomidine and clonidine groups after suxamethonium injection and endotracheal intubation. Pulse rate, blood pressure (Systolic, Diastolic and Mean and IOP differences were statistically significant (p value between 0.000 and 0.5 in dexmedetomidine and clonidine group compared to control groups 1 min. and 5 minutes after intubation, but it was statistically not significant between dexmedetomidine and clonidine group. CONCLUSION Dexmedetomidine (1 micro/kg given 10 minutes before induction is much more effective in controlling both the tachycardia, hypertension and IOP following laryngoscopy and intubation

  7. Correlation of intraocular pressure with blood pressure and body mass index in offsprings of diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Shailaja Patil, Anita Herur, Shashikala GV, Surekharani Chinagudi, Manjula R, Roopa Ankad, Sukanya Badami, Brid SV

    2014-01-01

    Background: Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) has been associated with risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM), obesity, body mass index (BMI) and sex, increasing the risk of glaucoma causing visual impairment and blindness. Since familial inheritance is known with glaucoma and DM, the aim was to study the IOP and its correlation with BMI and blood pressure (BP) in offsprings of DM and also to predict the future/early onset of glaucoma in them. Methods: This was an observation...

  8. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, E.F.S. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, C.T. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís, MA (Brazil); Rodrigues, B. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moraes-Silva, I.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Feriani, D.J. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg{sup 2}), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg{sup 2}). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement.

  9. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg2), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg2). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement

  10. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, E F S; Mostarda, C T; Rodrigues, B; Moraes-Silva, I C; Feriani, D J; De Angelis, K; Irigoyen, M C

    2015-04-01

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg2), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg2). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement. PMID:25714884

  11. Comparison of the effects of remifentanil and alfentanil on intraocular pressure in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godrat Akhavanakbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anesthesia for ophthalmic surgery requires management of intraocular pressure (IOP during perioperative period. In an open eye, in conditions such as after traumatic injury or during cataract surgery, IOP increase can lead to permanent vision loss. Administration of narcotics concomitant with anesthetics has the ability to reduce this increase of IOP. This clinical trial aims to compare the efficacy of remifentanil and alfentanil in preventing an increase in IOP after administration of succinylcholine, intubation and during anesthesia. Methods: This double-blind clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients undergoing elective general surgery for cataracts. Patients were randomly divided into two groups. Alfentanil (20 μg/kg in 30 s for group 1 and remifentanil (1 μg/kg in 30 s for group 2 were injected before induction of anesthesia, and 0.5 μg/kg/min alfentanil for group 1 and 0.1 μg/kg/min remifentanil for group 2 were infused during the anesthesia. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and IOP from normal eye were measured before the induction, after administration of thiopental and succinylcholine, after tracheal intubation, and 2 min later, and were repeated in 2-min intervals until the end of operation. Results: IOP decreased after injection of anesthetics and remained lower all through the operation in both groups, but IOP decreased after injection of succinylcholine in remifentanil group while it increased in alfentanil group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Results of this study indicate benefits of both remifentanil and alfentanil in managing IOP after induction and during anesthesia. It seems that remifentanil is better than alfentanil in controlling the IOP after injection of succinylcholine.

  12. Intraocular pressure following 18 hours of systemic dehydration in ocular normotensive healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustina K. Idu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of dehydration on intraocular pressure (IOP. Subjects: The study population comprised 50 subjects (27 men and 23 women with a mean age of 42.84 ± 2.64 years.Method: The subjects dehydrated for 18 hours. IOP was assessed in both eyes using the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer. Baseline measurement of IOP was taken before the subjects dehydrated for 18 hours and repeated after dehydration. Blood samples were taken before and after dehydration for the determination of plasma osmolality and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH concentrations.Results: A statistically significant (p < 0.001 reduction in the mean weight of subjects occurred after dehydration. There was a significant reduction in IOP from 16.68 mmHg ± 0.32 mmHg to 13.08 mmHg ± 0.31 mmHg after dehydration (p < 0.001. Mean plasma osmolality showed a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05 from baseline of 290.02 mOsmol/kg ± 1.25 mOsmol/kg to 294.96 mOsmol/kg ± 1.33 mOsmol/kg after dehydration. There was also a significant increase (p < 0.05 in mean plasma ADH concentration from 5.36 pg/mL ± 0.21 pg/mL to 6.40 pg/mL ± 0.20 pg/mL after dehydration. There were no significant differences in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures before and after dehydration.Conclusion: Dehydration decreases IOP in healthy humans; this decrease probably results from an increase in plasma osmolality and plasma ADH concentrations.

  13. Association between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure in type 2 diabetic patients without renal impairment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin A Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure (IOP in type 2 diabetes patients without renal impairment. METHODS: We explored the effects of albuminuria on high IOP in 402 non-glaucomatous type 2 diabetes without renal impairment who participated in the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between log-transformed albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR tertiles and an IOP of ≥ 18 mmHg after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, body mass index, triglycerides, area of residence, and education level. RESULTS: Subjects with a high IOP ≥ 18 mmHg were more likely to be current smokers (P = 0.038, heavy drinkers (P = 0.006, and to have high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.016, triglycerides (P = 0.008, and a higher log-transformed ACR (P = 0.022.In multivariate regression analysis, ACR tertile was associated with the prevalence of high IOP significantly (P = 0.022. The associations between ACR tertiles and high IOP were significant in overweight patients and those with abdominal obesity (P = 0.003 and 0.003, respectively. In contrast, there were no associations in the subgroup of patients who were not overweight and those without abdominal obesity (P = 0.291 and 0.561, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary albumin excretion is associated with high IOP in the type 2 diabetes population without renal insufficiency. The effect of the albuminuria on IOP was evident in a subgroup of patients with components of metabolic syndrome.

  14. Evaulation of Incidence and Risk Factors for Intraocular Pressure Elevation After Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection

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    Didar Uçar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA used for the macular edema on intraocular pressure (IOP and to determine the risk factors for IOP elevation. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 93 eyes of 85 patients who had 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone injection. Of the 85 patients, 56 (65.8% had diabetic macular edema, 22 (25.8% had branch retinal, and 7 (8.2% had central retinal vein occlusion. IOP changes after injection as well as the relation between IOP elevation and age, sex, lens status, etiology of macular edema, baseline IOP were evaluated. Results: Fourty-six male and 39 female patients with mean age 61.58±9.5 years were evaluated. IOP was recorded to be >24 mmHg in 30 eyes (32.2% at follow-up visit after an average of 7.5 weeks. Normalization of IOP with medication was achieved in all IOP elevated eyes. Fifteen of 29 eyes (51.7% with vein occlusion and 15 of 64 eyes (23.3% with diabetic macula edema had IOP elevation (p=0.01. Twenty-six of 73 phakic (35.6% and 4 of 20 pseudophakic eyes (20% had IOP >24 mmHg (p=0.16. There was no association between IOP elevation and sex (p=0.33. Baseline IOP was 16.47±2.8 mmHg in eyes which had elevated IOP and 14.78±2.4 mmHg in the remaining. There was significant relation between IOP elevation and baseline IOP level (p=0.01. Conclusion: Elevated IOP is common side effect after IVTA, but normalization is usually achieved by topical medication. Patients with baseline IOP ≥15 mmHg and vein occlusion have higher risk for IOP elevation. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 86-91

  15. Safety and efficacy of travoprost solution for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure

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    Quaranta L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Luciano Quaranta,1,* Ivano Riva,1,* Andreas Katsanos,2 Irene Floriani,3 Marco Centofanti,4,† Anastasios G P Konstas51Centre for the Study of Glaucoma, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; 2Ophthalmology Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 3Laboratory of Clinical Research, IRCCS, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy; 4DSCMT, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 5Glaucoma Unit, 1st University Department of Ophthalmology, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece*These authors contributed equally to this work; †Dr Centofanti passed away on 1 March 2015Abstract: Travoprost is a prostaglandin analogue widely used for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP in patients affected with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. It exerts its ocular hypotensive effect through the prostaglandin FP receptors, located in the ciliary muscle and the trabecular meshwork. Several studies have shown that topical administration of travoprost induces a mean IOP reduction ranging from 25% to 32%, and sustained throughout the 24-hour cycle. When compared with timolol, travoprost is more effective at reducing IOP, while generally no difference has been found in the head-to-head comparison with other prostaglandin analogues. The fixed combination of travoprost and timolol has demonstrated a hypotensive efficacy comparable to the concomitant administration of the two drugs. Recently, a new preservative-free formulation of travoprost 0.004% has been marketed for reducing tolerability-related problems in subjects affected with ocular surface disease. Low rates of topical and systemic adverse reactions, strong ocular hypotensive efficacy, and once-a-day dosing make travoprost a first-line treatment for patients affected with elevated IOP.Keywords: prostaglandin analogue, glaucoma, ocular hypertension

  16. Assessment of Corneal Biomechanical Properties and Intraocular Pressure in Myopic Spanish Healthy Population

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    María A. del Buey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine biomechanical parameters of the cornea in myopic eyes and their relationship with the degree of myopia in a western healthy population. Methods. Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOP, and corneal compensated IOP (IOPcc were measured using the ocular response analyzer (ORA in 312 eyes of 177 Spanish subjects aged between 20 and 56 years. Refraction was expressed as spherical equivalent (SE, which ranged from 0 to −16.50 diopters (D (mean: −3.88±2.90 D. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their refractive status: group 1 or control group: emmetropia (-0.50≤SE0.05; nevertheless, IOPcc was significantly higher in the moderately myopic (15.47±2.47 mmHg and highly myopic (16.14±2.59 mmHg groups than in the emmetropia (15.15±2.06 mmHg and low myopia groups (14.53±2.37 mmHg. No correlation between age and the measured parameters was found. CH and IOPcc were weakly but significantly correlated with SE (r=0.171, P=0.002 and r=-0.131, P=0.021, resp.. Conclusions. Present study showed only a very weak, but significant, correlation between CH and refractive error, with CH being lower in both moderately and highly myopic eyes than that in the emmetropic and low myopic eyes. These changes in biomechanical properties of the cornea may have an impact on IOP measurement, increasing the risk of glaucoma.

  17. Effects of submaximal exercise with water ingestion on intraocular pressure in healthy human males

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    Moura M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise and water replacement on intraocular pressure (IOP have not been well established. Furthermore, it is not known whether the temperature of the fluid ingested influences the IOP response. In the present study we determined the effect of water ingestion at three temperatures (10, 24 and 38ºC; 600 ml 15 min before and 240 ml 15, 30 and 45 min after the beginning of each experimental session on the IOP of six healthy male volunteers (age = 24.0 ± 3.5 years, weight = 67.0 ± 4.8 kg, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak = 47.8 ± 9.1 ml kg-1 min-1. The subjects exercised until exhaustion on a cycle ergometer at a 60% VO2peak in a thermoneutral environment. IOP was measured before and after exercise and during recovery (15, 30 and 45 min using the applanation tonometry method. Skin and rectal temperatures, heart rate and oxygen uptake were measured continuously. IOP was similar for the right eye and the left eye and increased post-water ingestion under both exercising and resting conditions (P<0.05 but did not differ between resting and exercising situations, or between the three water temperatures. Time to exhaustion was not affected by the different water temperatures. Rectal temperature, hydration status, heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide extraction and lactate concentration were increased by exercise but were not affected by water temperature. We conclude that IOP was not affected by exercise and that water ingestion increased IOP as expected, regardless of water temperature.

  18. Intraocular pressure in genetically distinct mice: an update and strain survey

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    Tomarev Stanislav I

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about genetic factors affecting intraocular pressure (IOP in mice and other mammals. The purpose of this study was to determine the IOPs of genetically distinct mouse strains, assess the effects of factors such as age, sex and time of day on IOP in specific strain backgrounds, and to assess the effects of specific candidate gene mutations on IOP. Results Based on over 30 studied mouse strains, average IOP ranges from approximately 10 to 20 mmHg. Gender does not typically affect IOP and aging results in an IOP decrease in some strains. Most tested strains exhibit a diurnal rhythm with IOP being the highest during the dark period of the day. Homozygosity for a null allele of the carbonic anhydrase II gene (Car2n does not alter IOP while homozygosity for a mutation in the leptin receptor gene (Leprdb that causes obesity and diabetes results in increased IOP. Albino C57BL/6J mice homozygous for a tyrosinase mutation (Tyrc-2J have higher IOPs than their pigmented counterparts. Conclusions Genetically distinct mouse strains housed in the same environment have a broad range of IOPs. These IOP differences are likely due to interstrain genetic differences that create a powerful resource for studying the regulation of IOP. Age, time of day, obesity and diabetes have effects on mouse IOP similar to those in humans and other species. Mutations in two of the assessed candidate genes (Lepr and Tyr result in increased IOP. These studies demonstrate that mice are a practical and powerful experimental system to study the genetics of IOP regulation and disease processes that raise IOP to harmful levels.

  19. Intraocular pressure measurement over soft contact lens by rebound tonometer: a comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senay; Asik; Nacaroglu; Emine; Seker; Un; Mehmet; Giray; Ersoz; Yelda; Tasci

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the intraocular pressure(IOP)measurements by Icare rebound tonometer over a contact lens in comparison with Goldmann applanation tonometry(GAT). METHODS: Fifty patients using contact lens were included in this study. One of the eyes of the patients was selected randomly and their IOP were measured by rebound tonometer with and without contact lens(RTCL,RT respectively) and by GAT, as well as their central corneal thickness(CCT) by optical pachymeter. The results of both methods were compared by correlation analysis, general linear method repeated measure and Bland-Altman analysis.RESULTS: Mean IOP values measured by RTCL, RT and GAT were 15.68 ±3.7, 14.50 ±3.4 and 14.16 ±2.8(P <0.001), respectively. Mean IOP by RTCL was significantly higher than the measurements implemented by RT and GAT(P <0.001), while there was no difference between the measurements by GAT and RT(P =0.629). There was a good level of positive correlation between GAT and RTCL as well as RT(r =0.786 P <0.001, r =0.833 P <0.001, respectively). We have observed that CCT increase did not show any correlation with the differences of the measurements between RTCL and RT(P =0.329), RTCL and GAT(P =0.07) as well as RT and GAT(P =0.189) in linear regression model.CONCLUSION: The average of the measurements over contact lens by rebound tonometer was found to be higher than what was measured by GAT. Although this difference is statistically significant, it may be clinically negligible in the normal population.

  20. Surface modification of acrylate intraocular lenses with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yao; LIU ZhenMei; XU ZhiKang; YAO Ke

    2009-01-01

    Surface modification with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was carried out at atmospheric pressure (argon as the discharge gas) to improve the biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylate intraocular lens (IOL). Changes of the plasma-treated IOL surface in chemical composition,morphology and hydrophilicity were comprehensively evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM),atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The surface biocompatibility of the untreated and plasma-treated IOLs was compared with the adhesion behavior of platelets,macrophages and lens epithelial cells (LECs) in vitro. After DBD plasma treatment,the hydrophilicity of the IOL surface was obviously improved. The changes in WCA with treatment extension may be attributed to both the introduction of oxygen or/and nitrogen-containing polar groups and the increase of surface roughness induced by plasma etching effect. The existence of low molecular weight oxidized material (LMWOM) was proved on the plasma treated IOL which was caused by the chain scission effect of the plasma treatment. The plasma-treated lOLs resisted the adhesion of platelets and macrophages significantly. The LECs spreading and proliferation were postponed on the lOLs plasma-treated for more than 180 s,with a well maintained epithelial phenotype of LECs. The IOL biocompatibility was improved after the DBD plasma treatment. We speculate that slighter foreign-body reaction and later incidence of anterior capsule opacification (ACO) may be expected after implantation of the argon DBD plasma-treated IOL.

  1. Surface modification of acrylate intraocular lenses with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Surface modification with dielectric barrier discharge(DBD) plasma was carried out at atmospheric pressure(argon as the discharge gas) to improve the biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylate intraocular lens(IOL).Changes of the plasma-treated IOL surface in chemical composition,morphology and hydrophilicity were comprehensively evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM),atomic force microscopy(AFM) and water contact angle(WCA) measurements.The surface biocompatibility of the untreated and plasma-treated IOLs was compared with the adhesion behavior of platelets,macrophages and lens epithelial cells(LECs) in vitro.After DBD plasma treatment,the hydrophilicity of the IOL surface was obviously improved.The changes in WCA with treatment extension may be attributed to both the introduction of oxygen or/and nitrogen-containing polar groups and the increase of surface roughness induced by plasma etching effect.The existence of low molecular weight oxidized material(LMWOM) was proved on the plasma-treated IOL which was caused by the chain scission effect of the plasma treatment.The plasma-treated IOLs resisted the adhesion of platelets and macrophages significantly.The LECs spreading and proliferation were postponed on the IOLs plasma-treated for more than 180 s,with a well maintained epithelial phenotype of LECs.The IOL biocompatibility was improved after the DBD plasma treatment.We speculate that slighter foreign-body reaction and later incidence of anterior capsule opacification(ACO) may be expected after implantation of the argon DBD plasma-treated IOL.

  2. Changes in intraocular pressure and anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, I

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To study changes in anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery, and to investigate whether there is a relationship between any observed changes and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after the procedure. METHODS: The anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOP were measured in 101 non-glaucomatous eyes before and after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery. RESULTS: After cataract surgery, the mean ACD, ACV, and ACA values increased by 1.08 mm, 54.4 mm(3), and 13.1 degrees , respectively, and the mean IOP (corrected for CCT) decreased by 3.2 mm Hg. The predictive value of a previously described index (preoperative ACD\\/preoperative IOP (corrected for CCT) or CPD ratio) for IOP (corrected for CCT) reduction after cataract surgery was confirmed, reflected in an r(2) value of 23.3% between these two parameters (P<0.001). Other indices predictive of IOP reduction after cataract surgery were also identified, including preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACV and preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACA, reflected in r(2) values of 13.7 and 13.7%, respectively (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the predictive value of the CPD ratio for IOP reduction after cataract surgery, and may contribute to the decision-making process in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Furthermore, two novel indices of preoperative parameters that are predictive for IOP reduction after cataract surgery were identified, and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying IOP changes after this procedure.

  3. Impact of the Topical Ophthalmic Corticosteroid Loteprednol Etabonate on Intraocular Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, John D; Comstock, Timothy L; Cavet, Megan E

    2016-04-01

    Corticosteroids are a mainstay therapeutic option for the treatment of ocular inflammation. However, safety remains a concern for clinicians, particularly with long-term use. Though highly effective at suppressing inflammatory and allergic responses, topical ophthalmic corticosteroids carry an inherent risk of side effects, including elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), a risk factor for the development of glaucoma. The corticosteroid loteprednol etabonate (LE) contains an ester rather than a ketone at the C-20 position, minimizing the potential for side effects, including IOP elevation. In early pivotal clinical trials of LE ophthalmic suspension for conjunctivitis (allergic, giant papillary), anterior uveitis, and post-operative inflammation, LE had minimal impact on IOP over short-term (gel, an ointment, and a suspension of LE in combination with tobramycin-have become commercially available. Multiple studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of LE for inflammatory conditions have been reported, including those requiring longer-term treatment such as photorefractive keratectomy, corneal transplantation, and dry eye disease. We review the available published data on the effect of LE on IOP and report on the cumulative incidence of clinically significant IOP elevations (≥10 mm Hg from baseline) with short-term and long-term LE use. In all studies, LE consistently demonstrated a low propensity to elevate IOP, regardless of formulation, dosage regimen, or treatment duration, including in known steroid responders. The cumulative proportion of patients exhibiting clinically significant IOP increases was 0.8% (14/1725 subjects) in studies evaluating short-term LE treatment and 1.5% (21/1386 subjects) in long-term studies. Furthermore, use of LE was associated with significantly lower rates of IOP elevation ≥10 mm Hg as compared to prednisolone acetate or dexamethasone (when used in combination with tobramycin). The cumulative data to date substantiates a

  4. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockslager, Max A; Samuels, Brian C; Allingham, R Rand; Klesmith, Zoe A; Schwaner, Stephen A; Forest, Craig R; Ethier, C Ross

    2016-01-01

    Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP) and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri) while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation.

  5. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max A Stockslager

    Full Text Available Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with <0.1 mmHg resolution and settling times less than 2 seconds. In vitro tests were carried out to characterize system performance. Then, as a proof of concept, we used the system to manipulate IOP in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation.

  6. Intraocular pressure and associations in children. The Gobi Desert Children Eye Study.

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    Da Yong Yang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the intraocular pressure (IOP and its association in children in a population living in an oasis in the Gobi Desert. METHODS: The cross-sectional school-based study included all schools in the Ejina region. The children underwent an ophthalmic examination, non-contact tonometry and measurement of blood pressure and body height and weight. RESULTS: Out of eligible 1911 children, 1565 (81.9% children with a mean age of 11.9±3.5 years (range: 6-21 years participated. Mean spherical refractive error was -1.58±2.00 diopters. In multivariate analysis, higher IOP (right eye was associated with younger age (P<0.001; standardized coefficient beta: -0.13; regression coefficient B: -0.13; 95% Confidence interval (CI:-0.18, -0.07, higher diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001;beta:0.13;B:0.05;95%CI:0.03,0.07, higher corneal refractive power (P<0.001;beta:0.11;B:0.23;95%CI:0.12,0.34, more myopic refractive error (P = 0.035;beta: -0.06;B: -0.10;95%CI: -0.19, -0.001, and Han Chinese ethnicity of the father (P = 0.03;beta:0.06;B:0.42;95%CI:0.04,0.89. If age and diastolic blood pressure were dropped, higher IOP was associated with higher estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP (P<0.001;beta:0.09; B:0.13;95%CI:0.06,0.21 after adjusting for higher corneal refractive power (P<0.001 and Han Chinese ethnicity of the father (P = 0.04. Correspondingly, higher IOP of the left eye was associated with younger age (P<0.001;beta: -0.15;B: -0.16;95%CI: -0.21, -0.10, female gender (P<0.001;beta:0.09;B:0.65;95%CI:0.30,1.01, higher corneal refractive power (P<0.001;beta:0.08;B:0.19;95%CI:0.06,0.32, more myopic refractive error (P = 0.03;beta: -0.06;B: -0.12;95%CI: -0.22, -0.01, and higher estimated CSFP (P<0.001;beta:0.11;B:0.17;95%CI:0.09,0.24. CONCLUSIONS: In school children, higher IOP was associated with steeper corneal curvature and with younger age and higher blood pressure, or alternatively, with higher estimated CSFP. Corneal

  7. Effect of persistent high intraocular pressure on microstructure and hydraulic permeability of trabecular meshwork

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    Mei, Xi; Ren, Lin; Xu, Qiang; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Zhi-Cheng

    2015-05-01

    As the aqueous humor leaves the eye, it first passes through the trabecular meshwork (TM). Increased flow resistance in this region causes elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP), which leads to the occurrence of glaucoma. To quantitatively evaluate the effect of high IOP on the configuration and hydraulic permeability of the TM, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy was used to image the microstructures of the TM and adjacent tissues in control (normal) and high IOP conditions. Enucleated rabbit eyes were perfused at a pressure of 60 mmHg to achieve the high IOP. Through the anterior chamber of the eye, in situ images were obtained from different depths beneath the surface of the TM. Porosity and specific surface area of the TM in control and high IOP conditions were then calculated to estimate the effect of the high pressure on the permeability of tissue in different depths. We further photographed the histological sections of the TM and compared the in situ images. The following results were obtained in the control condition, where the region of depth was less than 55 μm with crossed branching beams and large pores in the superficial TM. The deeper meshwork is a silk-like tissue with abundant fluorescence separating the small size of pores. The total thickness of pathway tissues composed of TM and juxtacanalicular (JCT) is more than 100 μm. After putting a high pressure on the inner wall of the eye, the TM region progressively collapses and decreases to be less than 40 μm. Fibers of the TM became dense, and the porosity at 34 μm in the high IOP condition is comparable to that at 105 μm in the control condition. As a consequent result, the permeability of the superficial TM decreases rapidly from 120 μm2 to 49.6 μm2 and that of deeper TM decreases from 1.66 μm2 to 0.57 μm2. Heterogeneity reflected by descent in permeability reduces from 12.4 μm of the control condition to 3.74 μm of the high IOP condition. The persistently high IOP makes the TM

  8. Monothiocarbamates Strongly Inhibit Carbonic Anhydrases in Vitro and Possess Intraocular Pressure Lowering Activity in an Animal Model of Glaucoma.

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    Vullo, Daniela; Durante, Mariaconcetta; Di Leva, Francesco Saverio; Cosconati, Sandro; Masini, Emanuela; Scozzafava, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Supuran, Claudiu T; Carta, Fabrizio

    2016-06-23

    A series of monothiocarbamates (MTCs) were prepared from primary/secondary amines and COS as potential carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) inhibitors, using the dithiocarbamates, the xanthates, and the trithiocarbonates as lead compounds. The MTCs effectively inhibited the pharmacologically relevant human (h) hCAs isoforms I, II, IX, and XII in vitro and showed KIs spanning between the low and medium nanomolar range. By means of a computational study, the MTC moiety binding mode on the CAs was explained. Furthermore, a selection of MTCs were evaluated in a normotensive glaucoma rabbit model for their intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effects and showed interesting activity. PMID:27253845

  9. CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF LENS INDUCED GLAUCOMA: STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, DURATION OF SYMPTOMS, INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AND VISUAL ACUITY

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    Venkataratnam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lens Induced Glaucoma is a common cause of ocular morbidity. OBJECTIVES: Our study was to know the Epidemiological factors, Duration of Symptoms, Visual Acuity and Intraocular Pressure in the clinical Presentation of Lens Induced Glaucoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This w as a tertiary hospital based prospective study in the department of Glaucoma, Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital and Regional Institute of Ophthalmology (RIO, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad over a period from March 2015 to August 2015. 50 Patients clinically diagnosed as Lens Induced Glaucoma (LIG were studied with the data of Age, Sex, literacy, Laterality and Rural / Urban status with the duration of symptoms, Intraocular pressure and Visual Acuity. The data was analyzed by simple statistical methods. RESULT S: 50 patients, clinically diagnosed as Lens Induced Glaucoma (LIG were studied. Age group distribution was 1(2.0% in 40 - 50yrs, 13 ( 26.0% in >50 - 60yrs, 26(52.0% in >60 - 70yrs and 10(20.0% in > 70 yrs. Sex distribution was 23(46.0% of Males and 27(54.0% of Females. Urban / Rural status was 15(30.0% of Urban and 35(70.0% of Rural. Literacy status was 7(14.0% of Literate and 43(86.0% of Illiterate. Laterality was RE in 24(48.0% and LE in 26(52.0%. Duration of the presenting symptoms before re porting to the Hospital was 12.0% in 2wks. Intraocular pressure (IOP in mm of Hg showed no case (0.0% in 20 – 40, 27(54.0% in >40 - 60 and 5(10.0% >60 wit h the Mean IOP of 42.12 mm of Hg. Visual Acuity (VA was PL +ve in 24(48.0 and HM - 3/60. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing age, female gender, rural, illiterate, and delayed reporting to the hospital after the pre senting symptoms were the common risk factors with increased Intraocular pressure and poor visual acuity in the clinical presentation of Lens induced Glaucoma.

  10. The Association of Central corneal thickness with Intra-ocular Pressure and Refractive Error in a Nigerian Population

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    Eghosasere Iyamu; Misan Memeh

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the variation of central corneal thickness (CCT) with intraocular pressure (IOP) and spherical equivalent refractive error. A total of thirty-nine (N=39) subjects within 20-75 years with mean age 45.2 ± 15.4 years were used for this study. The central corneal thickness was assessed with the Corneo-Gage plus ultrasonic Pachymeter, the IOP with slit-lamp mounted Goldmann applanation tonometer and refractive status by Protec 2000 autorefractor, phoropte...

  11. Effect of Melatonin and 5-Methoxycarbonylamino-N-Acetyltryptamine on the Intraocular Pressure of Normal and Glaucomatous Mice.

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    Martínez-Águila, Alejandro; Fonseca, Begoña; Pérez de Lara, María J; Pintor, Jesús

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin is a neurohormone that is produced not only by the pineal gland but also by several ocular structures. One of the main physiologic roles of melatonin is the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP). Using both control C57BL/6J and glaucomatous DBA/2J mice as well as TonoLab tonometry, this study evaluated the effect of melatonin and 5-methoxycarbonylamino-N-acetyltryptamine (5-MCA-NAT) when glaucomatous pathology was fully established and compared pharmacological behavior in treated mice versus control mice. In addition, 5-MCA-NAT was tested to determine its effects on ameliorating increased IOP in a glaucoma model. The results demonstrate that melatonin and 5-MCA-NAT can reduce IOP in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50values for melatonin in control and glaucomatous animals were 34µM and 50µM, respectively. Interestingly, melatonin decreased IOP in 19.4% ± 3.7% and 32.6% ± 6.0% of control and glaucomatous mice, respectively, when the animals were studied at age 12 months. 5-MCA-NAT reduced IOP in the same manner and was able to stop IOP progression in glaucomatous mice. Use of melatonin receptor antagonists showed that hypotensive effects were blocked by the MT2receptor antagonists luzindole and 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin in the case of melatonin and by only 4-phenyl-2-propionamidotetralin in the case of 5-MCA-NAT. In conclusion, melatonin and 5-MCA-NAT can effectively reduce IOP in a glaucoma model, and their hypotensive effects are more profound in the glaucoma model than in control animals. PMID:26941171

  12. Genetic context determines susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation in a mouse pigmentary glaucoma

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    Cosma Ioan M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DBA/2J (D2 mice develop an age-related form of glaucoma. Their eyes progressively develop iris pigment dispersion and iris atrophy followed by increased intraocular pressure (IOP and glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Mutant alleles of the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 genes are necessary for the iris disease, but it is unknown whether alleles of other D2 gene(s are necessary for the distinct later stages of disease. We initiated a study of congenic strains to further define the genetic requirements and disease mechanisms of the D2 glaucoma. Results To further understand D2 glaucoma, we created congenic strains of mice on the C57BL/6J (B6 genetic background. B6 double-congenic mice carrying D2-derived Gpnmb and Tyrp1 mutations develop a D2-like iris disease. B6 single-congenics with only the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 mutations develop milder forms of iris disease. Genetic epistasis experiments introducing a B6 tyrosinase mutation into the congenic strains demonstrated that both the single and double-congenic iris diseases are rescued by interruption of melanin synthesis. Importantly, our experiments analyzing mice at ages up to 27 months indicate that the B6 double-congenic mice are much less prone to IOP elevation and glaucoma than are D2 mice. Conclusion As demonstrated here, the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 iris phenotypes are both individually dependent on tyrosinase function. These results support involvement of abnormal melanosomal events in the diseases caused by each gene. In the context of the inbred D2 mouse strain, the glaucoma phenotype is clearly influenced by more genes than just Gpnmb and Tyrp1. Despite the outward similarity of pigment-dispersing iris disease between D2 and the B6 double-congenic mice, the congenic mice are much less susceptible to developing high IOP and glaucoma. These new congenic strains provide a valuable new resource for further studying the genetic and mechanistic complexity of this form of glaucoma.

  13. Evaluation of intraocular pressure and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in patients with Helicobacter pylori

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    Baran Gencer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (HP in the glaucoma patients was shown in recent studies. In our prospective study we aimed to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP and the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT in patients with HP positive and negative. Methods: In 91 patients with gastritis HP was investigated by urea breath test (UBT and biopsy sample culture Following the full ophthalmologic examination the patients’ IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry and RNFLT was measured by spectral optic coherence tomography. The patients' demographic and clinical characteristics were compared with the χ² test for categorical variables and with the Mann Whitney U test for continuous variables. Results: Of the 90 patients who meet the including criteria, HP was detected in 74 patients (27 male, 47 female positive, and in 16 patients (7 male, 9 female negative. Median (minimum-maximum age values were 46 (18-79 in HP positive group and 51 (18-67 in HP negative group. One hundred forty seven eyes in 74 HP positive patients and 31 eyes in 16 HP negative patients included in the study. Median IOP values were determined 14 (7-21 mmHg in HP positive group and 14 (8-18 mmHg in HP negative group. The measurements of RNFLT in superior, temporal, inferior and nasal quadrants found to be respectively 122(98-165, 68(50-101, 135(93-188, 79(51-120 micron in HP positive group and 120(94-161, 67(43-104, 129(94-166, 76(50-97 micron in HP negative group. No statistically significant difference was found when compared IOP and RNFLT measurements between the two groups (p<0.05. Conclusion: In this study found that the IOP and RNFLT measurements of HP positive group was not show statistically significant difference compared with HP negative group. In a large case series, randomized, case-controlled, histologic and serologic studies should be done to show the relationship between HP and glaucoma.

  14. Intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude using dynamic contour tonometry and contact lens tonometry

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    Grus Franz-H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Ocular Dynamic Contour Tonometer (DCT, investigational device supplied by SMT (Swiss Microtechnology AG, Switzerland allows simultaneous recording of intraocular pressure (IOP and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA. It was the aim of this study to compare the IOP results of this new device with Goldmann tonometry. Furthermore, IOP and OPA measured with the new slitlamp-mounted DCT were compared to the IOP and OPA measured with the hand-held SmartLens®, a gonioscopic contact lens tonometer (ODC Ophthalmic Development Company AG, Switzerland. Methods Nineteen healthy subjects were included in this study. IOP was determined by three consecutive measurements with each of the DCT, SmartLens®, and Goldmann tonometer. Furthermore, OPA was measured three times consecutively by DCT and SmartLens®. Results No difference (P = 0.09 was found between the IOP values by means of DCT (mean: 16.6 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.04 mm Hg and Goldmann tonometry (mean: 16.17 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.03 mm Hg. The IOP values of SmartLens® (mean: 20.25 mm Hg, median: 19.00 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.96 mm Hg were significantly higher (P = 0.0008 both from Goldmann tonometry and DCT. The OPA values of the DCT (mean: 3.08 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.92 mm Hg were significantly lower (P = 0.0003 than those obtained by SmartLens® (mean: 3.92 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.83 mm Hg. Conclusions DCT was equivalent to Goldmann applanation tonometry in measurement of IOP in a small group of normal subjects. In contrast, SmartLens® (contact lens tonometry gave IOP readings that were significantly higher compared with Goldmann applanation tonometer readings. Both devices, DCT and SmartLens® provide the measurement of OPA which could be helpful e.g. for the management of glaucoma.

  15. Combined ab interno trabeculotomy and lens extraction: a novel management option for combined uveitic and chronic narrow angle raised intraocular pressure.

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    Lin, Siying; Gupta, Bhaskar; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery is a developing area that has the potential to replace traditional glaucoma surgery, with its known risk profile, but at present there are no randomised controlled data to validate its use. We report on a case where sequential bilateral combined ab interno trabeculotomy and lens extraction surgery was performed on a 45-year-old woman with combined uveitic and chronic narrow angle raised intraocular pressure. Maximal medical management alone could not control the intraocular pressure. At 12-month follow-up, the patient had achieved stable intraocular pressure in both eyes on a combination of topical ocular antiglaucomatous and steroid therapies. This case demonstrates the effectiveness of trabecular meshwork ablation via ab interno trabeculotomy in a case of complex mixed mechanism glaucoma.

  16. "Effect of topical timolol on intraocular pressure in the presence of systemic indomethacin in normal subjects"

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    Sud R

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study on 60 normal subjects, the effect of 0.5% timolol eye drops on intraocular tension was assessed in the presence of oral indomethacin. The subjects were categorized in four groups for comparing the results. Also the side effects of timolol maleate were noted. The following conclusions were made:- 1. In cases in whom indomethacin was given along with timolol drops, average fall in intraocular tension was almost identical with those in whom timolol alone was used. 2. The ocular hypotensive effect of timolol maleate eve drops is not attenuated by indomethacin given orally; but before we can conclude that the simultaneous administration of timolol maleate eye drops and indomethacin is entirely without risk of attenuation. We must study the effect of combined administration in patients with glaucoma.

  17. Study of the Effect of Distance and Misalignment between Magnetically Coupled Coils for Wireless Power Transfer in Intraocular Pressure Measurement

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    Adrian E. Rendon-Nava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the effect of distance and alignment between two magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement is presented. For measurement purposes, a system was fabricated consisting of an external device, which is a Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit variation, in charge of transferring energy to a biomedical implant and reading data from it. The biomedical implant is an RLC tank circuit, encapsulated by a polyimide coating. Power transfer was done by magnetic induction coupling method, by placing one of the inductors of the Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit and the inductor of the implant in close proximity. The Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit was biased with a 10 MHz sinusoidal signal. The analysis presented in this paper proves that wireless transmission of power for intraocular pressure measurement is feasible with the measurement system proposed. In order to have a proper inductive coupling link, special care must be taken when placing the two coils in proximity to avoid misalignment between them.

  18. Nucleoside-derived antagonists to A3 adenosine receptors lower mouse intraocular pressure and act across species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Do, Chi Wai; Avila, Marcel Y; Peterson-Yantorno, Kim; Stone, Richard A; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Joshi, Bhalchandra; Besada, Pedro; Jeong, Lak Shin; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Civan, Mortimer M

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether novel, selective antagonists of human A3 adenosine receptors (ARs) derived from the A3-selective agonist Cl-IB-MECA lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and act across species. IOP was measured invasively with a micropipette by the Servo-Null Micropipette System (SNMS) and by non-invasive pneumotonometry during topical drug application. Antagonist efficacy was also assayed by measuring inhibition of adenosine-triggered shrinkage of native bovine nonpigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE) cells. Five agonist-based A3AR antagonists lowered mouse IOP measured with SNMS tonometry by 3-5 mm Hg within minutes of topical application. Of the five agonist derivatives, LJ 1251 was the only antagonist to lower IOP measured by pneumotonometry. No effect was detected pneumotonometrically over 30 min following application of the other four compounds, consonant with slower, smaller responses previously measured non-invasively following topical application of A3AR agonists and the dihydropyridine A3AR antagonist MRS 1191. Latanoprost similarly lowered SNMS-measured IOP, but not IOP measured non-invasively over 30 min. Like MRS 1191, agonist-based A3AR antagonists applied to native bovine NPE cells inhibited adenosine-triggered shrinkage. In summary, the results indicate that antagonists of human A3ARs derived from the potent, selective A3 agonist Cl-IB-MECA display efficacy in mouse and bovine cells, as well. When intraocular delivery was enhanced by measuring mouse IOP invasively, five derivatives of the A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA lowered IOP but only one rapidly reduced IOP measured non-invasively after topical application. We conclude that derivatives of the highly-selective A3AR agonist Cl-IB-MECA can reduce IOP upon reaching their intraocular target, and that nucleoside-based derivatives are promising A3 antagonists for study in multiple animal models. PMID:19878673

  19. The reduction of intraocular pressure after instillation of travoprost compared with timolol in chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma

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    Edi S. Affandi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to compare the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP after instillation of Travoprost compared with timolol in chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma. A prospective randomized, crossover study was conducted from April 2005 to July 2005 at Department of Ophthalmology, National Central General Hospital (RSCM Jakarta on subjects with chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma. Subjects were randomly divided into 2 groups: those taking Travoprost once daily and those taking timolol twice daily. Two weeks after treatment with the first drug, the second drug was substituted. Intraocular pressure was recorded before therapy, at day 1, day 7, and day 14. There was a wash out period of three weeks prior to initial treatment and after the cross over. Sixteen subjects (32 eyes met the inclusion criteria and were included in this study. The mean baseline IOP in the Travoprost group was 25.38 ± 3.01 mmHg, while in the timolol group it was 25.88 ± 2.55 mmHg (p=0.354. At day 7, the IOP were consecutively 16.75 + 1.92 mmHg and 21.25 + 3.09 mmHg (p=0.001 and at day 14 IOP were 13.94 + 2.02 mmHg and 19.25 + 2.18 mmHg (p=000. This showed that Travoprost decreased the IOP faster and greater than timolol. The mean baseline IOP was 25.38 ± 3.01 mmHg was decreased to 11.44 ± 1.90 mmHg with Travoprost. In the timolol group, the mean baseline IOP of 25.88 ± 2.55 mmHg was decreased to 6.63 ± 2.25 mmHg. Statistically, Travoprost significantly reduced the IOP faster and greater than timolol (p<0.05. Travoprost eye drops reduced the IOP faster and greater than timolol. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:242-5Keywords: chronic primary angle closure glaucoma, intraocular pressure, Travoprost, timolol.

  20. Mirtogenol® potentiates latanoprost in lowering intraocular pressure and improves ocular blood flow in asymptomatic subjects

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    Robert D Steigerwalt Jr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert D Steigerwalt Jr1, Gianni Belcaro1, Paolo Morazzoni2, Ezio Bombardelli2, Carolina Burki3, Frank Schönlau4 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, San Valentino, Italy; 2Indena S.p.A. Scientific Department, Milan, Italy; 3Horphag Research (UK Ltd., Geneva, Switzerland; 4Horphag Research (UK Ltd. South Kensington, London UKPurpose: The dietary supplement Mirtogenol® was previously shown to lower elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. We here present the effects of this supplement on IOP in comparison as well as in combination with latanoprost eye drops. Methods: Seventy-nine patients with asymptomatic ocular hypertension were randomly assigned to three groups receiving either the supplement, or latanoprost eye drops, or both in combination. Intraocular pressure and retinal blood flow were investigated in monthly intervals over 24 weeks.Results: Mirtogenol alone lowered IOP from baseline 38.1 to 29.0 mmHg after 16 weeks, with little further improvement during the following eight weeks. Latanoprost rapidly lowered IOP from baseline 37.7 to 27.2 mmHg within four weeks, without further effects thereafter. The combination of the supplement and latanoprost lowered IOP from 38.0 to 27.3 mmHg after four weeks, and further decreased IOP to 24.2 mmHg after six weeks. After 24 weeks IOP with the combination treatment (23.0 mmHg was significantly lower than with latanoprost alone (27.2 mmHg. Mirtogenol and latanoprost individually showed comparable effects for gradually increasing central artery blood flow with treatment duration. Combination treatment showed higher systolic blood flow velocity throughout the trial period. The diastolic blood flow velocity gradually increased with treatment duration in all three groups. From twelve weeks onwards, the diastolic component with combination treatment was higher than with individual treatments.Conclusions: Mirtogenol lowered elevated IOP in patients almost as effectively as

  1. Clinical Evaluation of Functional Vision of +1.5 Diopters near Addition, Aspheric, Rotational Asymmetric Multifocal Intraocular Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramnia, Rahmin; Attia, Mary Safwat; Koss, Michael Janusz; Linz, Katharina; Auffarth, Gerd Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative outcomes and visual performance in intermediate distance after implantation of a +1.5 diopters (D) addition, aspheric, rotational asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL). Methods Patients underwent bilateral cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, asymmetric MIOL with +1.5 D near addition. A complete ophthalmological examination was performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. The main outcome measures were monocular and binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected intermediate visual acuity (UIVA), distance corrected intermediate visual acuity (DCIVA), uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) and distance corrected keratometry, and manifest refraction. The Salzburg Reading Desk was used to analyze unilateral and bilateral functional vision with uncorrected and corrected reading acuity, reading distance, reading speed, and the smallest log-scaled print size that could be read effectively at near and intermediate distances. Results The study comprised 60 eyes of 30 patients (mean age, 68.30 ± 9.26 years; range, 34 to 80 years). There was significant improvement in UDVA and CDVA. Mean UIVA was 0.01 ± 0.09 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and mean DCIVA was -0.02 ± 0.11 logMAR. In Salzburg Reading Desk analysis for UIVA, the mean subjective intermediate distance was 67.58 ± 8.59 cm with mean UIVA of -0.02 ± 0.09 logMAR and mean word count of 96.38 ± 28.32 words/min. Conclusions The new aspheric, asymmetric, +1.5 D near addition MIOL offers good results for distance visual function in combination with good performance for intermediate distances and functional results for near distance. PMID:27729759

  2. Correlation of intraocular pressure with blood pressure and body mass index in offsprings of diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study

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    Shailaja Patil, Anita Herur, Shashikala GV, Surekharani Chinagudi, Manjula R, Roopa Ankad, Sukanya Badami, Brid SV

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Raised intraocular pressure (IOP has been associated with risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, obesity, body mass index (BMI and sex, increasing the risk of glaucoma causing visual impairment and blindness. Since familial inheritance is known with glaucoma and DM, the aim was to study the IOP and its correlation with BMI and blood pressure (BP in offsprings of DM and also to predict the future/early onset of glaucoma in them. Methods: This was an observational study done in medical undergraduate students. 25 students were included in the study group (offsprings of diabetic parents-cases and 23 students in the control group (offsprings without diabetic history in parents. Height, weight, blood pressure and intraocular pressure were recorded in both the groups and these were compared. Statistical analysis was done by student’s t test and Pearson’s correlation. Results: Cases exhibited a lower IOP, BMI, mean arterial pressure (MAP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, but not SBP, as compared to controls. These differences, however, were not statistically significant except DBP. There was a negative correlation found between IOP and BMI and also between IOP and MAP in cases, whereas in controls, there was a positive correlation found between BMI and IOP and no correlation between IOP and MAP. Conclusion: Offsprings of diabetic patients may be less prone for primary open angle glaucoma. Limitations: The limitations of the present study include a smaller sample size, study of the results in relation to paternal or maternal diabetic status and also of grandparents, so that the inheritance of diabetes and also of IOP can be studied.

  3. 24-hour intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients randomized to receive dorzolamide or brinzolamide in combination with latanoprost

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    Yoshimi Nakamura

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Yoshimi Nakamura, Shusaku Ishikawa, Yuko Nakamura, Hiroshi Sakai, Ichiko Henzan, Shoichi SawaguchiDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of the Ryukyus Faculty of Medicine, Okinawa, JapanPurpose: To investigate the efficacy of dorzolamide 1% (bid or tid or brinzolamide 1% bid on 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP control as well as patients’ preference for either drug when added in combination with latanoprost against glaucoma (IOP, ≥18 mmHg.Methods: In this randomized crossover study patients were assigned to receive latanoprost plus either dorzolamide or brinzolamide for four weeks. Thereafter, patients underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring while continuing to receive dorzolamide (for two successive days/nights: at first bid then tid or brinzolamide bid (once overnight. They were then switched over to receive the other test medication for a further four weeks and subsequently reexamined for 24-hour IOP. A questionnaire survey on treatment satisfaction was performed.Results: In 20 patients dorzolamide bid or tid or brinzolamide bid exerted significant (p < 0.001 reductions of IOP from baseline at all time-points over 24 hours; no difference was detected among the treatment regimens. Significantly (p < 0.05 more patients preferred dorzolamide (n = 9 over brinzolamide (n = 2, whereas nine patients gave a neutral answer. Conclusion: Dorzolamide bid or tid and brinzolamide bid when combined with latanoprost therapy elicited significant IOP reduction for 24 hours. It is rational to consider patients’ preference of therapeutic regimen especially long-term users such as those with glaucoma.Keywords: glaucoma, brinzolamide, dorzolamide, latanoprost combination therapy, 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP, questionnaire survey

  4. 玻璃体手术后高眼压及其处理%High intraocular pressure after vitreous surgery and its treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨铮; 陈彬川; 周瑞雅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the incidence and treatment of high intraocular pressure after single vitrectomy or vitrectomy with silicon oil implantation. Methods A total of 217 patients(221 eyes) with high intraocular pressure after single vitrectomy or vitrectomy with silicone oil implantation from January, 2008 to January,2011 were collected, and the incidence, time, chamber angle, treatment and its effect of high intraocular pressure were reviewed and analyzed. Results The incidence of high intraocular pressure after single vitrectomy (2. 9% ) was lower than that after vitrectomy with silicone oil implantation(23.5% ),there was significant difference(P<0.01). High intraocular pressure after single vitrectomy occurred within 1 week, and after vitrectomy with silicone oil implantation,75. 0% of high intraocular pressure occurred within 1 week, 19.4% was from 1 week to 4 weeks,and 5. 6% was more than 12 months. Medications effectiveness achieved 78. 9% ,in which high intraocular pressure after vitrectomy could simply through drug control, but that after vitrectomy with silicone oil implantation drugs were difficult to control and operation treatment needed. Conclusion High intraocular pressure is a common complication after vitrectomy, medical and surgical treatment can be effectively controlled intraocular pressure. Early prevention, timely detection and proper treatment will reduce the damage of visual function.%目的 探讨单纯玻璃体切割术及玻璃体切割硅油填充术后高眼压的发生率及处理方法.方法 收集2008年1月至2011年1月于我院行玻璃体切割手术或玻璃体切割硅油填充术患者共217例(221眼),对其术后高压发生率、发生时间、房角情况、处理方法及治疗效果进行分析.结果 单纯玻璃体切割术后高眼压发生率(2.9%)较玻璃体切割硅油填充术后高眼压发生率(23.5%)低,差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01).单纯玻璃体切割术后高眼压均发生于1周以内,

  5. The effects of melatonin on anxiety and pain scores of patients, intraocular pressure, and operating conditions during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Beigom Khezri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To evaluate the effects of melatonin premedication on anxiety and pain scores of patients, operating conditions, and intraocular pressure during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients were randomly assigned to receive either sublingual melatonin 3 mg or placebo 60 min before surgery. Verbal anxiety scores and verbal pain scores, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, intraocular pressure, and quality of operating conditions were recorded. Results: Melatonin significantly reduced the anxiety scores (median, interquartile range from 5 and 5-3 to 3 and 2-4 after premedication and to 3 and 2-3 during surgery and to 0 and 0-1 postoperatively before discharge from the recovery room. There were significant differences between two groups in anxiety scores after premedication (95% CI 3-3.5; P = 0.023, intraoperatively (95% CI 2.5-3.5; P = 0.007, and postoperatively (95% CI 0.5-1; P = 0.007. The surgeon reported better quality of operating conditions in the melatonin group (P = 0.001. No significant difference in intraoperative and postoperative pain scores, intraocular pressure, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between two groups was recorded. Conclusion: Sublingual melatonin premedication for patients undergoing cataract surgery under topical anesthesia reduced the anxiety scores in patients and provided excellent operating conditions.

  6. Influence of head flexion on intraocular pressure, cardiovascular, and respiratory responses in patients undergoing cataract surgery after endotracheal intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Safavi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In cataract surgery, the periorbital area is prepared anddraped after induction of general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation (ETI.For this purpose, the patient’s head and neck is usually flexed 30 to 45degrees. Neck flexion causes displacement of the endotracheal tube tip towardthe carina. Stimulation of the tracheal mucosa may cause bucking, increasedintraocular pressure (IOP, laryngospasm and/or bronchospasm, during lightanesthesia. Laryngeal constriction and all components of the tracheal responsemay affect end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2 and peripheral arterialhemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpaO2. Thus, in the current study, weinvestigated the influence of head and neck flexion on heart rate (HR, systolicand diastolic blood pressure (SAP and DAP, SpaO2, PETCO2, and IOP in patientsundergoing cataract surgery with endotracheal intubation during generalanesthesia.Patients and Methods: The present prospective study comprised patientsaged from 40 to 80 year with 106 American Society of Anesthesia (ASA physicalstatus I and II. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium, lidocaine andfentanyl. Atracurium 0.5 mg/kg was administered to facilitate trachealintubation. HR, SAP, DAP, SpaO2, PETCO2, and IOP were measured at 1, 2, and 5minutes after head flexion.Results: Mean SAP, DAP, IOP, and HR was increased after ETI and headflexion compared with baseline values. PETCO2 and SpaO2 were decreased after ETIand at 1, 2 minutes after head flexion compared with baseline values.Conclusion: In patients undergoing cataract surgery during generalanesthesia, endotracheal tube movement caused changes in head and neck positionresulting in significant effects on heart rate, systolic and diastolic bloodpressures, laryngeal reflexes, SpaO2, PETCO2, and intraocular pressure.

  7. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% lowered intraocular pressure of normal-tension glaucoma with minimal adverse events

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    Tsumura T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Toyoaki Tsumura,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Hirotaka Suzumura,3 Tairo Kimura,4 Satoshi Sasaki,5 Itaru Kimura,6 Ryuji Takeda71Department of Ophthalmology, Fussa Hospital, Fussa, Tokyo, Japan; 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Machida, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Nakano General Hospital, Nakano, Tokyo, Japan; 4Ueno Eye Clinic, Ueno, Tokyo, Japan; 5Sasaki Eye Clinic, Ueno, Tokyo, Japan; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Chiba, Japan; 7Department of Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Nara, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% (bimatoprost in Japanese normal-tension glaucoma (NTG patients with an intraocular pressure (IOP of 18 mmHg or less.Methods: Bimatoprost was instilled into the unilateral conjunctival sac of Japanese NTG patients with a baseline IOP of 18 mmHg or less. The time courses of IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratitis, and adverse events were examined at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post bimatoprost instillation.Results: Thirty-two of the 38 enrolled NTG patients (mean age, 64.1 ± 12.6 years; 19 males and 19 females completed the study, with six patients unable to complete the study (two patients discontinued because of side effects and four patients withdrew. The levels of IOP in the treated eyes were significantly reduced (P < 0.0001 from the baseline IOP levels. No significant change in IOP was observed in the fellow eyes. There were significant increases in conjunctival hyperemia. No significant superficial punctate keratitis scores were noted between the baseline and each point examined. Eyelash disorder, eyelid pigmentation, and deepening of the upper eyelid sulcus were observed in 28, six, and three eyes, respectively.Conclusion: Bimatoprost effectively lowered the IOP. It was well tolerated in Japanese NTG patients, with few patients having to discontinue

  8. Effect of hemodialysis on visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and macular thickness in patients with chronic kidney disease

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    Chelala E

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elias Chelala,1,2,* Ali Dirani,1,2,* Ali Fadlallah,1,2 Elise Slim,1,2 Youssef Abdelmassih,1,2 Henry Fakhoury,3 Patrick Baz,1,2 Riad Bejjani1,2 1Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, 2Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, 3Eye and Ear Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon *These two authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hemodialysis (HD on visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP, and central foveal thickness (CFT in patients with chronic kidney disease.Materials and methods: Forty-nine eyes from 49 chronic kidney-disease patients were analyzed. Causes of chronic kidney disease included diabetes mellitus (n=9 patients, hypertensive nephrosclerosis (n=15 patients, and other causes (n=25 patients. All patients underwent HD in the Dialysis Unit of Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital. Best-corrected visual acuity, CFT, and IOP were evaluated before and after HD. CFT was measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and IOP was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometry.Results: Neither decimal best-corrected visual acuity (pre-HD 0.71±0.32, post-HD 0.72±0.31; P=0.877 nor CFT (pre-HD 251.39±39.29, post-HD 253.09±39.26; P=0.272 significantly changed after HD. However, mean IOP significantly decreased from 13.99±2.48 before HD to 12.65±2.41 mmHg after HD (P=0.001. IOP change was significantly correlated with serum albumin levels (P=0.008 and weight changes (P=0.047.Conclusion: HD can affect various ocular parameters. This is particularly true of IOP, which decreases significantly following HD. Keywords: chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, visual acuity, central macular thickness, intraocular pressure

  9. Measurement of treatment compliance using a medical device for glaucoma patients associated with intraocular pressure control: a survey

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    Jean-Philippe Nordmann

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Philippe Nordmann1, Christophe Baudouin1, Jean-Paul Renard2, Philippe Denis3, Antoine Lafuma4, Caroline Laurendeau4, Viviane Jeanbat4, Gilles Berdeaux5,61Hôpital des Quinzes-Vingt, Paris, France; 2Hôpital du Val de Grâce, Paris, France; 3Hôpital Edouard Herriot, Lyon, France; 4Cemka, Bourg-la-Reine, France; 5Alcon France, Rueil-Malmaison, France; 6Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris, FranceObjective: To identify and characterize treatment compliance profiles of glaucoma patients and evaluate the association with intraocular pressure (IOP.Methods: A computerized device (Travalert® that recorded daily instillation times and eye-drop counts was given for 3 months. Patients were declared compliant when at least 2 drops were instilled per day. Compliance rates were calculated for weekdays and weekends, separately, over 8 consecutive weeks. A principal components analysis (PCA was followed by an ascendant hierarchical classification (AHC to identify compliance groups.Results: 140 patients were recruited (mean age 65.5 years; 51.8% female of whom 83.6% had primary open-angle glaucoma with mean IOP 23.9 mmHg before Travalert® use. 60.7% were treated with DuoTrav® (travoprost timolol fixed combination and 39.3% with ­travoprost. The PCA identified two axes (compliance and treatment weeks. The AHC identified 3 ­compliance groups: ‘high’ (56.6%, approx. 80% compliance, ‘medium’ (21.2%, approx. 50% compliance, and ‘low’ (22.1%, approx. 20% compliance. Demographics and glaucoma parameters did not predict low compliance. Final mean IOP was 16.1 mmHg, but higher in the low compliance group (17.7 mmHg, P = 0.02.Conclusions: Compliance measurement by a medical device showed compliance rates <80% by 50% (approx. of patients, significantly impacting IOP control. No demographic or glaucoma variable was associated with low compliance.Keywords: glaucoma, compliance, efficacy, intraocular pressure control

  10. Intraocular pressure reduction using a fixed combination of timolol maleate 0.5% and brimonidine tartrate 0.2% administered three times daily

    OpenAIRE

    Moisseiev E; Kurtz S; Lazar M.; Shemesh G

    2013-01-01

    Elad Moisseiev, Shimon Kurtz, Moshe Lazar, Gabi ShemeshDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv, IsraelBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a fixed combination of timolol maleate 0.5% + brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Combigan®) for reduction for intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with glaucoma when the dose frequency is increased from twice to three times daily.Methods: The patients included had either primary ...

  11. Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Effects of Commonly Used Fixed-Combination Drugs with Timolol: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Jin-Wei; Cheng, Shi-Wei; Gao, Lian-Di; Lu, Guo-Cai; Wei, Rui-Li

    2012-01-01

    Background The first goal of medical therapy in glaucoma is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP), and the fixed-combination medications are needed to achieve sufficiently low target IOP. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate IOP-lowering effect of the commonly used fixed-combination drugs containing 0.5% timolol. Methods Pertinent publications were identified through systematic searches. Over 85% of the patients had to be diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma...

  12. Effects of brinzolamide vs timolol as an adjunctive medication to latanoprost on circadian intraocular pressure control in primary open-angle glaucoma Japanese patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ishikawa, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Makoto Ishikawa1,2, Takeshi Yoshitomi11Department of Ophthalmology, Akita University Faculty of Medicine, Akita, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Ogachi Central Hospital, Akita, JapanPurpose: To study the effect of the concomitant use of brinzolamide and latanoprost on the 24-hour variation in intraocular pressure (IOP) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients first treated with timolol and latanoprost.Methods: We studied 30 eyes from 30 POAG patients previously treated with latanop...

  13. Role of fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Beckers, Henny

    2009-01-01

    Henny JM Beckers, Jan SAG Schouten, Carroll AB WebersUniversity Eye Clinic, Maastricht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% is a new fixed-combination for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Brinzolamide/timolol has a favorable safety profile, with an incidence of ocular burning and stinging <5%. Published data show that brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% and dorzolamide 2%/timolol 0.5% have similar efficacies for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP)...

  14. Comparison between 0.5% timolol maleate and 0.2% brimonidine tartrate in controlling increase in intraocular pressure after neodymium: yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser capsulotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the effectiveness of prophylactically given 0.5% Timolol maleate and 0.2% Brimonidine tartrate in controlling increase in intraocular pressure after neodymium (Nd) : yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) laser capsulotomy. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Ophthalmology Department, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from 15-05-2009 to 14-05-2010 for a duration of 12 months. Material and Methods: In this study, 90 consecutive patients were referred from outpatient department for Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy. Hospital ethical committee's approval for this research proposal and the informed consent was taken. These patients were equally divided into two groups A and B, comprising of 45 patients in each group. Group A was control group which received 0.5% Timolol maleate. Group B was experimental group which received 0.2% Brimonidine tartrate. Intraocular pressure was measured using Goldmann tonometer before instilling these topical medications. These medications were administered topically 1 hour before the laser procedure. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was recorded 1 and 3 hours after laser capsulotomy. Results: In patients belonging to group A, 42 (93.3%) patients had effective control of IOP (raise of less than or equal to 5 mmHg from the baseline) after 3 hours of Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy whereas 28 (62.2%) patients had effective control of IOP after the same period of time in group-B with significant difference (p<0.001). Conclusion: Use of prophylactic topical antiglaucoma medications before doing Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy is a effective way to reduce post laser spike of intraocular pressure. Present study showed that the use of 0.5% timolol maleate was safe and more effective than 0.2% brimonidine tartrate when given 1 hour before laser capsulotomy. (author)

  15. To evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine on intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes in response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation

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    Tanuja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important prerequisites for neurosurgeries are brain relaxation, need of stable haemodynamics with less fluctuation in intracranial pressure and speedy recovery from anaesthesia. Endotracheal intubation is the major stressful stimuli that can elicit a marked pressor response. Various drugs have been used to attenuate these reflexes. Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, have neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and sedative effects so it is potentially useful during neuroanaesthesia. This is a prospective randomised control trial carried out to see whether administration of Dexmedetomidine prior to intubation can attenuate the various haemodynamic responses, intraocular pressure (IOP and the requirement of induction dose of propofol in control and study group. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (ASA grade 1, 2 scheduled for intracranial tumour surgeries were divided into two groups (25 each. Group D received Dexmedetomidine 0.8 μg/kg i.v. over 10 mins and group C received 20 ml saline. Anaesthesia induced with Propofol, dose adjusted using bispectral index monitor. The groups were compared with IOP, Heart rate (HR, Mean arterial pressure (MAP, and dose of Propofol required for induction. Results : Groups were well matched for their demographic data and pre-operative. IOP in both the eyes decreases significantly after premedication and remained below baseline even after 10 th min of intubation in group D while in Group C; it increased significantly after intubation and remained above baseline. The difference between groups was also statistically significant. HR and MAP decreased significantly in patients of group D compared to group C (P < 0.05. Patients were more haemodynamicaly stable at all time points after premedication in group D (P < 0.05. Propofol requirements for induction was lesser in group D (P < 0.05. Bradycardia and hypotension incidences were higher in group D. Conclusion

  16. Changes in intraocular pressures during laparoscopy: a comparison of propofol total intravenous anesthesia to desflurane-thiopental anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuman, Arslan Onuk; Baris, Arslan; Bilge, Karsli; Bozkurt, Selen; Nurullah, Bülbüler; Meliha, Kahraman; Umit, Celik

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine intraocular pressure (IOP) changes during laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed under either desflurane-thiopental anesthesia or propofol total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA). 36 patients who will undergo elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in the study. The patients were randomly divided into one of two groups: desflurane (Group D, n=18) or propofol (Group P, n=18). All patients received fentanyl 2 micro/kg IV, and then breathed 100% oxygen for 3 minutes prior to induction of anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced by using thiopental 5 mg/kg IV in Group D and 2 mg/kg IV propofol in group P. Neuromuscular block was achieved with rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg IV. Anesthesia was maintained with desflurane 3-6% in group D and propofol infusion 5-10 mg/kg/h in group P. Desflurane and propofol concentrations were adjusted to maintain mean arterial pressure witihin 20% of the preinduction value. During anaesthesia, fractionated doses of fentanyl 0.5-1 micro g /kg IV and maintenance doses of muscle relaxants were used. In both groups, the the mixture 60% nitrous oxide and 40% oxygen was administered used. Arterial pressure, heart rate, ETCO2, SpO2 and IOP were recorded at the predefined time points. Creation of pneumoperitoneum resulted in a significant increase in IOP which remained elevated throughout the operation in both groups. Also, we recorded a similar IOP changes with both techniques except at five minutes after pneumoperitoneum in 15 degrees reverse Trendelenburg position during desflurane-thiopental anesthesia. In c6nclusion, desflurane-thiopental anesthesia maintains the IOP at least at similar levels compared to propofol TIVA anesthesia.

  17. Effects of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin on HIF-1α expression in the retina in a rabbit model of acute high intraocular pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ping Song; Jian-ming Wang; Mei Zhang; Na Hui; Shi-ping Zhao; Kai Hu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of hypoxia inducible faetor-1α (HIF-1α) in the retina of rabbits with acute high intraocular pressure and to investigate the mechanism of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) protecting the retina from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods First, control group and model group were established in rabbit eyes. The acute high intraocular pressure model was established by saline perfusion into anterior chamber, and then hypodermic injection of domestic rhEPO was made. HIF-1α protein in the retina was observed by immunohistochemical staining method on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 after retinal ischemla-reperfusion, respectively. Results No cells with HIF-la positive expression were observed in the retina of the control group. Ceils with HIF-1α positive expression in the model group outnumbered those in the control group (P < 0. 01). The resemblance pattern occurred in EPO group but its degree was slightly greater than that in the model group from day 3 after ischemia-reperfusion (P<0.05). Conclusion Domestic rhEPO can down-regulate the expression of HIF-1α in the retina with acute high intraocular pressure, which may be one of the mechanisms that rhEPO protects the retina from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  18. Effect on Intraocular Pressure of Switching from Latanoprost and Travoprost Monotherapy to Timolol Fixed Combinations in Patients with Normal-Tension Glaucoma

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    Ryoko Igarashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in Japanese patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG. Methods. 27 NTG patients (54 eyes were compared IOP, superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK scores, and conjunctival injection scores in eyes treated with prostaglandin (PG or PG analog/beta-blocker (PG/b fixed-combination 6 months after the change in therapy. Results. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was 17.4±1.59 mmHg in eyes receiving PG therapy only and 17.4±1.69 mmHg in eyes switched to PG/b. Switching to fixed combination therapy from PG monotherapy, the mean IOP was 13.1±1.79 mmHg (P<0.001  (-24.71% reduction from baseline at 6 months. The mean conjunctival injection score was 0.69 for eyes on PG monotherapy and 0.56 for eyes on fixed combination therapy (P=0.028. The mean SPK scores were 0.46 and 0.53. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.463. Conclusions. Switching from PG monotherapy to PG/b fixed combination therapy for NTG resulted in a greater intraocular pressure reduction than PG alone without increasing the number of instillations.

  19. Effect on intraocular pressure of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in patients with normal-tension glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Ryoko; Togano, Tetsuya; Sakaue, Yuta; Yoshino, Takaiko; Ueda, Jun; Fukuchi, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in Japanese patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods. 27 NTG patients (54 eyes) were compared IOP, superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK) scores, and conjunctival injection scores in eyes treated with prostaglandin (PG) or PG analog/beta-blocker (PG/b) fixed-combination 6 months after the change in therapy. Results. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was 17.4 ± 1.59 mmHg in eyes receiving PG therapy only and 17.4 ± 1.69 mmHg in eyes switched to PG/b. Switching to fixed combination therapy from PG monotherapy, the mean IOP was 13.1 ± 1.79 mmHg (P < 0.001)  (-24.71% reduction from baseline) at 6 months. The mean conjunctival injection score was 0.69 for eyes on PG monotherapy and 0.56 for eyes on fixed combination therapy (P = 0.028). The mean SPK scores were 0.46 and 0.53. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.463). Conclusions. Switching from PG monotherapy to PG/b fixed combination therapy for NTG resulted in a greater intraocular pressure reduction than PG alone without increasing the number of instillations.

  20. Effect on intraocular pressure of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in patients with normal-tension glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Ryoko; Togano, Tetsuya; Sakaue, Yuta; Yoshino, Takaiko; Ueda, Jun; Fukuchi, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in Japanese patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods. 27 NTG patients (54 eyes) were compared IOP, superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK) scores, and conjunctival injection scores in eyes treated with prostaglandin (PG) or PG analog/beta-blocker (PG/b) fixed-combination 6 months after the change in therapy. Results. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was 17.4 ± 1.59 mmHg in eyes receiving PG therapy only and 17.4 ± 1.69 mmHg in eyes switched to PG/b. Switching to fixed combination therapy from PG monotherapy, the mean IOP was 13.1 ± 1.79 mmHg (P < 0.001)  (-24.71% reduction from baseline) at 6 months. The mean conjunctival injection score was 0.69 for eyes on PG monotherapy and 0.56 for eyes on fixed combination therapy (P = 0.028). The mean SPK scores were 0.46 and 0.53. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.463). Conclusions. Switching from PG monotherapy to PG/b fixed combination therapy for NTG resulted in a greater intraocular pressure reduction than PG alone without increasing the number of instillations. PMID:25505978

  1. Time Course of Age-dependent Changes in Intraocular Pressure and Retinal Ganglion Cell Death in DBA/2J Mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiulan Zhang; Mei Zhang; Marcel Y. Avila; Jian Ge; Alan M. Laties

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To characterizes the progression of glaucoma in DBA/2J mice by measuring intraocular pressure (IOP) and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) numbers in mice of various ages.Methods: A quantitative assessment of the pathophysiology of the DBA/2J mice was performed and the C57/BL6 mice was used as control. The IOP was measured by the servo-null micropipette system; the regional patterns of the loss of RGCs were determined by cell count of retrogradely-labeled RGCs.Results: The baseline IOP for DBA/2J mice at 7 weeks was (16.6 ± 1.2)mm Hg.Then IOP increased extend to 12 months, with the peak of (25.2 ± 1.2)mm Hg at 6 months of age. Retinal ganglion cell numbers did not decrease relative to control until 12 months of age (P=0.006), when the loss was proportionally higher in peripheral regions (P<0.05).Conclusion: The elevation in IOP precedes the loss of RGCs by several months.RGCs cell loss occurs particularly in peripheral regions of the retina. These findings expand our understanding of the changes in DBA/2J mice and provide information for experiments design when they are used as a glaucoma model for future studies of RGCs degeneration in glaucoma.

  2. Investigation of postoperative intraocular pressure in cases of silicone oil removal using 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy with oblique incisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashina H

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Hirotsugu Takashina,1,2 Akira Watanabe,2 Hiroshi Tsuneoka2 1Department of Ophthalmology, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara Hospital, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP in cases of silicone oil (SO removal when using 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV with oblique incisions.Methods: We enrolled ten consecutive eyes with SO removal (SO group and eleven consecutive eyes with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM as the initial vitrectomy (ERM group in cases using 25-gauge TSV with oblique incisions. Postoperative IOPs were compared between the two groups at each of the four examination periods.Results: No significant differences were identified in any of the periods examined.Conclusion: The use of 25-gauge TSV with oblique incisions resulted in almost equivalent postoperative IOPs between cases with SO removal and idiopathic ERM as the initial operation. Self-sealing sclerotomy in 25-gauge TSV with oblique incisions may primarily involve the valve architecture, and be complemented by vitreous incarceration. Keywords: sclerotomy leakage, self-sealing, silicone oil tamponade, remnant vitreous, hypotony, idiopathic epiretinal membrane

  3. Goldmann applanation tonometry compared with corneal-compensated intraocular pressure in the evaluation of primary open-angle Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrlich Joshua R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To better understand the role of corneal properties and intraocular pressure (IOP in the evaluation of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; and to determine the feasibility of identifying glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON using IOP corrected and uncorrected for corneal biomechanics. Methods Records from 1,875 eyes of consecutively evaluated new patients were reviewed. Eyes were excluded if central corneal thickness (CCT or Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA measurements were unavailable. Presence or absence of GON was determined based on morphology of the optic disc, rim and retinal nerve fiber layer at the time of clinical examination, fundus photography and Heidelberg Retinal Tomography. Goldmann-applanation tonometry (GAT in the untreated state was recorded and Goldmann-correlated (IOPg and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc were obtained using the ORA. Glaucomatous eyes were classified as normal or high-tension (NTG, HTG using the conventional cutoff of 21 mm Hg. One eligible eye was randomly selected from each patient for inclusion. Results A total of 357 normal, 155 HTG and 102 NTG eyes were included. Among NTG eyes, IOPcc was greater than GAT (19.8 and 14.4 mm Hg; p  Conclusions IOPcc may account for measurement error induced by corneal biomechanics. Compared to GAT, IOPcc may be a superior test in the evaluation of glaucoma but is unlikely to represent an effective diagnostic test.

  4. Factors Influencing Intraocular Pressure Changes after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis with Flaps Created by Femtosecond Laser or Mechanical Microkeratome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yin Lin

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe factors that influence the measured intraocular pressure (IOP change and to develop a predictive model after myopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK with a femtosecond (FS laser or a microkeratome (MK. We retrospectively reviewed preoperative, intraoperative, and 12-month postoperative medical records in 2485 eyes of 1309 patients who underwent LASIK with an FS laser or an MK for myopia and myopic astigmatism. Data were extracted, such as preoperative age, sex, IOP, manifest spherical equivalent (MSE, central corneal keratometry (CCK, central corneal thickness (CCT, and intended flap thickness and postoperative IOP (postIOP at 1, 6 and 12 months. Linear mixed model (LMM and multivariate linear regression (MLR method were used for data analysis. In both models, the preoperative CCT and ablation depth had significant effects on predicting IOP changes in the FS and MK groups. The intended flap thickness was a significant predictor only in the FS laser group (P < .0001 in both models. In the FS group, LMM and MLR could respectively explain 47.00% and 18.91% of the variation of postoperative IOP underestimation (R2 = 0.47 and R(2 = 0.1891. In the MK group, LMM and MLR could explain 37.79% and 19.13% of the variation of IOP underestimation (R(2 = 0.3779 and 0.1913 respectively. The best-fit model for prediction of IOP changes was the LMM in LASIK with an FS laser.

  5. Interface Fluid Syndrome Induced by Uncontrolled Intraocular Pressure Without Triggering Factors After LASIK in a Glaucoma Patient: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Nobuyuki; Ishida, Akira; Haruki, Takahiro; Matsumura, Kazuhiro; Kasahara, Masayuki; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-09-01

    This study sought to describe a glaucoma patient with interface fluid syndrome (IFS) induced by uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP) without triggering factors after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). Case report and review of the literature. A 23-year-old man with open-angle glaucoma underwent bilateral LASIK for myopia in 2009. Two years later, the patient reported sudden vision loss. The IOP in the right eye was not measurable using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT), but was determined to be 33.7 mm Hg using a noncontact tonometer. IFS was diagnosed based on the presence of space-occupying interface fluid on anterior segment optical coherence tomography images. After a trabeculectomy was performed, the IOP decreased to 10 mm Hg, and GAT measurement became possible. However, the corneal fold remained visible in the flap interface. Six months later, the IOP in the left eye increased, and a trabeculectomy was performed during the early stages of this increase in IOP. Following this procedure, the IOP decreased, and visual acuity remained stable. In glaucoma cases that involve a prior increase in IOP, IOP can continue to increase during the disease course even if temporary control of IOP has been achieved. If LASIK is performed in such cases, the treatment of glaucoma becomes insufficient because of underestimation of the typical IOP. In fact, the measurement of IOP can become difficult because of high-IOP levels. Therefore, LASIK should not be performed on patients with glaucoma who are at high risk of elevated IOP. PMID:26426645

  6. A novel method to predict visual field progression more accurately, using intraocular pressure measurements in glaucoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaoka, Ryo; Fujino, Yuri; Murata, Hiroshi; Miki, Atsuya; Tanito, Masaki; Mizoue, Shiro; Mori, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Yamashita, Takehiro; Kashiwagi, Kenji; Shoji, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Visual field (VF) data were retrospectively obtained from 491 eyes in 317 patients with open angle glaucoma who had undergone ten VF tests (Humphrey Field Analyzer, 24-2, SITA standard). First, mean of total deviation values (mTD) in the tenth VF was predicted using standard linear regression of the first five VFs (VF1-5) through to using all nine preceding VFs (VF1-9). Then an ‘intraocular pressure (IOP)-integrated VF trend analysis’ was carried out by simply using time multiplied by IOP as the independent term in the linear regression model. Prediction errors (absolute prediction error or root mean squared error: RMSE) for predicting mTD and also point wise TD values of the tenth VF were obtained from both approaches. The mTD absolute prediction errors associated with the IOP-integrated VF trend analysis were significantly smaller than those from the standard trend analysis when VF1-6 through to VF1-8 were used (p < 0.05). The point wise RMSEs from the IOP-integrated trend analysis were significantly smaller than those from the standard trend analysis when VF1-5 through to VF1-9 were used (p < 0.05). This was especially the case when IOP was measured more frequently. Thus a significantly more accurate prediction of VF progression is possible using a simple trend analysis that incorporates IOP measurements. PMID:27562553

  7. Modification of hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens with poly(ethylene glycol) by atmospheric pressure glow discharge: A facile approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To improve the anterior surface biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) in a convenient and continuous way, poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) were immobilized by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) treatment using argon as the discharge gas. The hydrophilicity and chemical changes on the IOL surface were characterized by static water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm the covalent binding of PEG. The morphology of the IOL surface was observed under field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The surface biocompatibility was evaluated by adhesion experiments with platelets, macrophages, and lens epithelial cells (LECs) in vitro. The results revealed that the anterior surface of the PEG-grafted IOL displayed significantly and permanently improved hydrophilicity. Cell repellency was observed, especially in the PEG-modified IOL group, which resisted the attachment of platelets, macrophages and LECs. Moreover, the spread and growth of cells were suppressed, which may be attributed to the steric stabilization force and chain mobility effect of the modified PEG. All of these results indicated that hydrophobic acrylic IOLs can be hydrophilic modified by PEG through APGD treatment in a convenient and continuous manner which will provide advantages for further industrial applications.

  8. Modification of hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens with poly(ethylene glycol) by atmospheric pressure glow discharge: A facile approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Lin; Wang Yao; Huang Xiaodan [Eye Center, Affiliated Second Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Xu Zhikang [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization (Ministry of Education), Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yao Ke, E-mail: xlren@zju.edu.cn [Eye Center, Affiliated Second Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China)

    2010-10-01

    To improve the anterior surface biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) in a convenient and continuous way, poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) were immobilized by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) treatment using argon as the discharge gas. The hydrophilicity and chemical changes on the IOL surface were characterized by static water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm the covalent binding of PEG. The morphology of the IOL surface was observed under field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The surface biocompatibility was evaluated by adhesion experiments with platelets, macrophages, and lens epithelial cells (LECs) in vitro. The results revealed that the anterior surface of the PEG-grafted IOL displayed significantly and permanently improved hydrophilicity. Cell repellency was observed, especially in the PEG-modified IOL group, which resisted the attachment of platelets, macrophages and LECs. Moreover, the spread and growth of cells were suppressed, which may be attributed to the steric stabilization force and chain mobility effect of the modified PEG. All of these results indicated that hydrophobic acrylic IOLs can be hydrophilic modified by PEG through APGD treatment in a convenient and continuous manner which will provide advantages for further industrial applications.

  9. Effects of HepⅡ domain peptides Ⅴ of fibronectin on corneal permeability, endothelial cells, intraocular pressure and morphology of trabecular meshwork in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing-wei; WANG Ning-li; LIU Xu-yang; CHEN Feng-hua; LI Ping-yu; WANG Xiao-zhen

    2011-01-01

    Background Trabecular meshwork (TM) cell volume may be an important determinant of aqueous humor outflow in the eye. This study aimed to evaluate the role of HepⅡ domain peptides Ⅴ on corneal permeability, corneal endothelial cells, intraocular pressure (IOP) and morphology of trabecular meshwork in rats.Methods The IOP of rat eyes was measured before and 3, 5, 7 and 8 hours after topical delivery of HepⅡ domain peptides Ⅴ through intracameral injections. The peptide's concentration in aqueous humor was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The shape and density of endothelial cells were observed by laser confocal microscopy 8 hours, 3 and 14 days after intracameral injections of HepⅡ domain peptides Ⅴ. The morphological changes in TM of rat eyes were assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).Results Intracameral injection of HepⅡ domain peptides Ⅴ significantly (P <0.001) decreased IOP by (5.71 ±2.10) mmHg in rats at 5 hours after injection. There were no obvious changes of the shape and the density of corneal endothelial cells. In addition, morphological changes in the TM of rats were observed including the expansion of intercellular spaces in the juxtacanalicular meshwork, removal of extracellular material, cellular relaxation, and cytoskeleton reorganization.Conclusions HepⅡ domain peptides Ⅴ could not penetrate cornea and was safe to corneal endothelial cells. HepⅡ domain peptides Ⅴ could significantly decrease IOP in rat probably by disorganizing actin cytoskeleton and cell-junction in the TM.

  10. Changes of Anterior Chamber Angle and Intraocular Pressure after Implantation of Intraocular Lens through Small Incision in a Non-phacoemulsification Way%小切口非超声乳化人工晶状体植入术后房角及眼压变化的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉青; 冀向宁; 李坤; 戴冬姝

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the correlation between the anterior chamber angle and intraocular pressure after the implantation of intraocular lens ( iol) through small incision in a non - phacoemulsification way. Methods Totally 110 senile cataract patients admitted to our hospital in 2010 underwent implantation of iol with superficial anaesthesia through small incision. Among whom we chose 101 senile cataract patients ( 104 eyes ) as the research subjects whose operation process was smooth and the posterior capsulars remained complete and iol successfully being implanted into capsular bag. Relevant parameters of anterior chamber including anterior open distance at 500μm ( AOD500 ), trabeculum - tunica coerulea included angle ( TIA ), anterior chamber depth ( ACD ) were measured by ultrasonic biomicroscope ( UBM ) preoperatively. Intraocular pressures were measured by Goldmann ophthalmotonometer. All these parameters were re - measured by the same technician 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Morphouses of the anterior chambers were recorded preoperatively and re - recorded 1 month postopera-tively through microgonioscope. Results Compared with the normal eyes, the intraocular pressure showed significant difference in these diseased eyes before surgery ( P < 0. 05 ). ACD, AOD 500, TIA, and intraocular pressure before surgery were also significantly different from thoese 2 weeks, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery ( P < 0. 05 ). In addition, AOD 500 and TIA had a negative correlation with intraocular pressure. Conclusion Small incision of non - phacoemulsification and intraocular lens ( iol) implantation might result in an enlargement of ACD and width of anterior chamber and a significant decrease of intraocular pressure. AOD500 and TIA are important factors that influence the intraocular pressure in the elderly.%目的 研究小切口非超声乳化人工晶状体植入术后前房角宽度及眼压变化的相关性.方法 选取2010年在我院就

  11. 麻醉与眼内压的研究进展%Advance in anesthesia and intraocular pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雪芳; 徐树华

    2013-01-01

    Background Perioperative fluctuation of intraocular pressure (IOP) can cause serious ocular complications,resulting in visual field defects or even blindness.Studies have shown that,the perioperative procedures and anesthetic can lead to IOP changes,which affects the blood supply of the eyes.Objective This review systematically elaborates the research status and progress on the effects of perioperative physiological function and common anesthetics on IOP and will provide a reference for clinical work,and inspire new research ideas.Content To review the physiological and drug factors during anesthesia which affect the IOP.Trend It can be seen form the recent studies,that the researchers have conducted more indepth discussions about the mechanisms of perioperative physiology and drugs on IOP.%背景 围术期眼内压(intraoeular pressure,IOP)剧烈波动可以引起严重的眼部并发症,导致视野缺损甚至失明.有研究表明,围术期麻醉、手术操作及药物的使用均可导致IOP发生改变,影响眼内血供. 目的 系统地阐述围术期生理及麻醉常用药物对IOP影响的研究现状以及进展,为临床工作提供参考,并启发新的研究思路. 内容 对麻醉期间影响IOP的生理和药物因素进行综述. 趋向 从近期的研究可见,研究者对围术期生理及药物对IOP的影响机制进行了更为深入的探讨.

  12. Clinical utility and differential effects of prostaglandin analogs in the management of raised intraocular pressure and ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne J Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anne J Lee1,2, Peter McCluskey2,31Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 3Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Prostaglandin analogs (PGA are powerful topical ocular hypotensive agents available for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. Latanoprost 0.005% and travoprost 0.004% are prodrugs and analogs of prostaglandin F2a. Bimatoprost 0.03% is regarded as a prostamide, and debate continues as to whether it is a prodrug. The free acids of all 3 PGAs reduce IOP by enhancing uveoscleral and trabecular outflow via direct effects on ciliary muscle relaxation and remodeling of extracellular matrix. The vast majority of clinical trials demonstrate IOP-lowering superiority of latanoprost, bimatoprost and travoprost compared with timolol 0.5%, brimonidine 0.2%, or dorzolamide 2% monotherapy. Bimatoprost appears to be more efficacious in IOP-lowering compared with latanoprost, with weighted mean difference in IOP reduction documented in one meta-analysis of 2.59% to 5.60% from 1- to 6-months study duration. PGAs reduce IOP further when used as adjunctive therapy. Fixed combinations of latanoprost, bimatoprost or travoprost formulated with timolol 0.5% and administered once daily are superior to monotherapy of its constituent parts. PGA have near absence of systemic side effects, although do have other commonly encountered ocular adverse effects. The adverse effects of PGA, and also those found more frequently with bimatoprost use include ocular hyperemia, eyelash growth, and peri-ocular pigmentary changes. Iris pigmentary change is unique to PGA treatment. Once daily administration and near absence of systemic side effects enhances tolerance and compliance. PGAs are often prescribed as first-line treatment for ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: prostaglandin analog, glaucoma, ocular hypertension, latanoprost, bimatoprost, travoprost

  13. Comparing acromegalic patients to healthy controls with respect to intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness, and optic disc topography findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness (CCT, and optic disc topography findings of biochemically controlled acromegalic patients and the control group and to evaluate the effect of the duration of acromegaly and serum growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 levels on these ocular parameters. Materials and Methods: IOP measurement with Goldmann applanation tonometry, CCT measurement with ultrasonic pachymetry, and topographic analysis with Heidelberg retinal tomograph III were performed on 35 biochemically controlled acromegalic patients and 36 age- and gender-matched controls. Results: Mean IOP and CCT were 14.7 ± 2.9 mmHg and 559.5 ± 44.9 μm in the acromegaly patients and 13.0 ± 1.6 mmHg and 547.1 ± 26.7 μm in controls (P = 0.006 and P = 0.15, respectively. A significant moderate correlation was found between the duration of acromegaly and CCT (r = 0.391 and IOP (r = 0.367. Mean retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness was significantly lower in the acromegalic patients (0.25 ± 0.05 mm as compared to controls (0.31 ± 0.09 mm (P = 0.01. A significant moderate correlation was detected between IGF-1 level and disc area (r = 0.362, cup area (r = 0.389 and cup volume (r = 0.491. Conclusion: Biochemically controlled acromegalic patients showed significantly higher CCT and IOP levels and lower RNFL thickness compared to healthy controls and the duration of disease was correlated with CCT and IOP levels.

  14. Role of prostaglandins and specific place in therapy of bimatoprost in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure and ocular hypertension: A closer look at the agonist properties of bimatoprost and the prostamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott D Smid

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Scott D SmidDiscipline of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Bimatoprost is the only representative of a novel class of prostaglandin ethanolamide (prostamide compounds used therapeutically as an efficacious treatment for glaucoma. The pathways through which bimatoprost works to improve uveoscleral outflow to relieve elevated intraocular pressure are similar to those of the conventional prostaglandins used in glaucoma therapy, with some evidence of a preferential action at the trabecular meshwork. The pharmacology of bimatoprost is however, unclear. Pharmacological evidence supports a specific and distinct receptor-mediated agonist activity of bimatoprost at ‘prostamide’ receptors, which is selective to the prostamides as a class. However, other studies have reported either activity of bimatoprost at additional prostanoid and nonprostanoid receptors, or a conversion of bimatoprost to metabolites with agonist activity at prostaglandin FP receptors in the human eye. The formation of endogenous prostamides has been demonstrated in vivo, by a novel pathway involving the cyclooxygenase-2-mediated conversion of endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid substrates. Irrespective of the pharmacology of bimatoprost and the prostamides in general, further studies are needed to determine the biological role and biochemical pathology of prostamides in the human eye, particularly in glaucoma. Such studies may improve our understanding of uveoscleral flow and may offer new treatments for controlling intraocular pressure.Keywords: bimatoprost, endocannabinoid, glaucoma, prostamides, trabecular meshwork

  15. Estudo da correlação entre pressão intra-ocular e espessura corneana central (projeto glaucoma Intraocular pressure vs central corneal thickness:a comparative study (glaucoma project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Sakata

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Avaliar a distribuição da espessura corneana central (ECC e sua relação com a pressão intra-ocular (PIO em um grupo de pacientes e demonstrar a utilidade da paquimetria para avaliar a PIO em casos selecionados. Métodos: A espessura corneana central foi determinada em 167 pacientes com mais de 40 anos de idade (319 olhos por meio de paquimetria ultra-sônica. A pressão intra-ocular foi medida com tonômetro de aplanação de Goldmann. Resultados: A ECC média dos 319 olhos foi 0,5173 + 0,0377 mm, sendo o valor máximo 0,656 mm e o mínimo 0,430 mm. A PIO média foi 16,44 + 3,88 mmHg, a pressão máxima 30 mmHg e a pressão mínima 8 mmHg. Foi observada uma regressão linear de 0,13677 nas variáveis analisadas (p=0,0145, não havendo diferença entre sexo e idade. Dividiu-se as observações em dois grupos: grupo I -- PIO £ 21 mmHg -- com 285 olhos que apresentaram uma ECC média de 0,517 + 0,0376; e o grupo II -- PIO > 21 mmHg -- com 34 olhos que apresentaram uma ECC média de 0,519 + 0,0393. Conclusão: Observou-se uma regressão linear entre PIO e ECC, ou seja, quanto maior a ECC maior será a PIO. Demonstrou-se a utilidade da paquimetria corneana na avaliação da PIO daqueles pacientes em que esta estava falsamente aumentada ou diminuída na tonometria de aplanação, direcionando a terapêutica a pacientes realmente portadores de glaucoma.Purpose: To evaluate the distribution of the central corneal thickness (CCT and its relationship with the intraocular pressure (IOP in a group of patients and to demonstrate the usefulness of the pachymeter to evaluate IOP in selected cases. Methods: The central cornea thickness of 167 patients over 40 years old (319 eyes was determined using ultrasonic pachymetry. The intraocular pressure was measured by the "Goldmann" applanation tonometer.Results: The CCT average of the 319 eyes was 0.5173 + 0.0377mm, the maximum value being 0.656mm and the minimum value 0.430mm. The IOP average was

  16. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure, Blood Pressure, Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Blood Flow Fluctuations During Dorzolamide Versus Timolol Add-On Therapy in Prostaglandin Analogue Treated Glaucoma Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Barsauskaite

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effects of dorzolamide and timolol add-on therapy in open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients previously treated with prostaglandin analogue (Pg, by evaluating fluctuations in the intraocular (IOP, blood (BP, ocular perfusion pressures (OPP and retrobulbar blood flow (RBF parameters. Methods: 35 OAG patients (35 eyes, 31 women (88.6% age 63.3 (8.9 years were evaluated in a 3 month randomized, cross-over, single-masked study. During the experiments BP, heart rate, IOP and OPP were assessed 4 times per day (8–12–16–20 h. RBF was measured twice per day (8–20 h using Color Doppler imaging in the ophthalmic (OA, central retinal (CRA, nasal (nSPCA and temporal (tSPCA posterior ciliary arteries. In each vessel, peak systolic velocity (PSV and end-diastolic velocity (EDV were assessed and vascular resistance (RI calculated. Results: Both add-on therapies lowered IOP in a statistically significant manner from 15.7 ± 2.4 mmHg at latanoprost baseline to 14.9 ± 2.2 mmHg using dorzolamide (p < 0.001 and 14.2 ± 1.9 mmHg using timolol (p < 0.001. The IOP lowering effect was statistically significant at 20 h, favoring timolol as compared to dorzolamide (1.4 ± 2.4 vs. 0.2 ± 2.1 mmHg, (p < 0.05. Dorzolamide add-on therapy showed smaller IOP (2.0 ± 1.4, SPP (13.3 ± 7.9, systolic BP (13.5 ± 8.7 and diastolic BP (8.4 ± 5.4 fluctuations as compared to both latanoprost baseline or timolol add-on therapies. Higher difference between morning and evening BP was correlated to decreased evening CRA EDV in the timolol group (c = −0.41; p = 0.01. With increased MAP in the morning or evening hours, we found increased evening OA RI in timolol add-on group (c = 0.400, p = 0.02; c = 0.513, p = 0.002 accordingly. Higher MAP fluctuations were related to impaired RBF parameters during evening hours-decreased CRA EDV (c = −0.408; p = 0.01, increased CRA RI (c = 0.576; p < 0.001 and tSPCA RI (c = 0.356; p = 0.04 in the dorzolamide group and

  17. Medium-term visual outcomes of apodized diffractive multifocal intraocular lens with +3.00 d addition power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaohong; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Bowen; Zheng, Danying

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate 2-year visual acuities and questionnaire after bilateral implantation of SN6AD1 multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL) or SN60WF IOL. Methods. Patients randomly scheduled for bilateral implantation of SN6AD1 MIOL and SN60WF IOL with 2-year follow-up were enrolled. Uncorrected/corrected distance and near visual acuity, uncorrected intermediate visual acuity at 63 cm under high and low contrast, reading activity, the defocus curve, and a quality-of-life questionnaire were evaluated. Results. Each group comprised 20 patients. Uncorrected intermediate visual acuities and uncorrected near visual acuity were better in SN6AD1 group than in SN60WF group (P = 0.005, P = 0.011, and P reading newspaper duration than SN60WF group (P = 0.036). When using mobile phone, SN6AD1 group had a more comfortable distance than SN60WF group (P reading fixed text message (P < 0.001). Conclusion. SN6AD1 MIOL provided a satisfactory full range of visual acuities and questionnaire performance 2 years postoperatively. One-year and 2-year uncorrected near and intermediate visual acuities of SN6AD1 MIOL were lower than those 3 months postoperatively. PMID:24724014

  18. Influence of low-density polyethylene addition on coking pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Melendi, Sonia; Barriocanal, C.; R. Alvarez; M.A. Diez

    2014-01-01

    Different amounts of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were added to a bituminous coal used to produce metallurgical coke. The effect of the plastic waste on the carbonization process and more exactly, on the coking pressure were investigated. A movable wall oven at semi-pilot scale was used for measuring coking pressure generated. It was found that coking pressure increases for low LDPE addition levels (1-3 wt.%); however higher amounts of LDPE reduce coking pressure. To explain this behavior ...

  19. Comparing two acromegalic patients with respect to central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and tear insulin-like growth factor levels before and after treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kan Emrah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the central corneal thickness (CCT, intraocular pressure (IOP, and tear insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 levels of 2 patients with acromegaly before and after the surgical treatment of the disease. CCTs, IOP levels, and tear IGF-1 values showed a decrease after the treatment in 2 patients. As we found higher CCT, IOP, and tear IGF-1 levels in the active phase of the disease in two acromegaly patients, detailed information about the activity of the disease may be important before the examination of these patients.

  20. Eye rubbing-induced changes in intraocular pressure and corneal thickness measured at five locations, in subjects with ocular allergy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Uchechukwu; L.Osuagwu; Saud; A.Alanazi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of eye rubbing on corneal thickness(CT) and intraocular pressure(IOP)measurements obtained 0-30 min after habitual eye rubbing in symptomatic patients.METHODS: Measurements of IOP and CT were obtained at five locations(central, temporal, superior,nasal and inferior) before, and every 5min for 30 min interval after 30 s of eye rubbing, for 25 randomly selected eyes of 14 subjects with ocular allergy and 11age-matched normals. Differences in measurements were calculated in each group [Baseline measurements minus measurements recorded at each time interval after eye rubbing(for IOP), and for each corneal location(for CT)]and comparison were then made between groups(allergic versus control) for differences in any observed effects.RESULTS: Within groups, baseline mean IOPs in the allergic patient-group(14.2 ±3.0 mm Hg) and in the control group(13.1±1.9 mm Hg) were similar at all times,after eye rubbing(P >0.05, for all). The maximum reduction in IOP was 0.8 mm Hg in the control subjects and the maximum increase was also 0.8 mm Hg in the allergic subjects. Between groups(allergic versus control), the changes in IOP remained under 1 mm Hg at all times(P =0.2) after 30 min of eye rubbing. Between 0and 30 min of CT measurements after eye rubbing, the mean central CT(CCT), inferior CT(ICT), superior CT(SCT), temporal CT(TCT) and nasal CT(NCT) did not vary significantly from baseline values in the control and allergic-subject groups(P >0.05, for both). Between both groups, changes in CT were similar at all locations(P >0.05)except for the TC which was minimally thinner by about4.4 μm(P =0.001) in the allergic subjects than in the control subjects, 30 min following 30 s of eye rubbing.CONCLUSION: IOP measured in allergic subjects after30 s of habitual eye rubbing was comparable with that obtained in normal subjects at all times between 0 and30 min. Although, CT in the allergic subjects were similar to those of the control subjects at all times, it

  1. Effect of high myopia on 24-hour intraocular pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying-xin; WANG Ning-li; WU Lie; ZHEN Yi; WANG Tao; REN Cai-xia; PENG Xiao-xia; HAO Jie; XIA Yan-ting

    2012-01-01

    Background As intraocular pressure (lOP) and lOP fluctuation are known risk factors for glaucoma,it is important to understand the effects of high myopia on these ocular parameters.The aim of this study was to investigate if primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with high myopia exhibit higher lOP and greater lOP fluctuations at resting conditions over 24 hours.@@Methods We designed a prospective control clinical study.Eighty-two eyes of 82 high-tension Chinese POAG patients only on prostaglandin analogue locally were divided into 3 groups according to various myopic grades (<-6.0 D,n=27 and between -0.76 and -5.99 D,n=33) or without myopia (-0.75 to 0.75 D,n=22).Single time lOP at 10 am,mean corrected 24-hour lOP,mean corrected night lOP,24-hour lOP fluctuation and lOPs of 10 am,2 pm,6 pm,10 pm,2 am,6 am and 8 am were measured.@@Results The lOP was higher in POAG patients with high myopia over those POAG alone in three ways:the elevated lOP value was 0.65 mmHg measured in single time lOP at 10 am,0.84 mmHg in mean corrected 24-hour lOP,0.97 mmHg in mean corrected night lOP.The 24-hour lOP fluctuation was lower in the two myopia groups than in non-myopia group.Further,using repeated measurement analysis of variance,there was no statistical significance among groups regarding the lOPs at the seven time points (P=0.77) and there was no interaction between groups and time points (P=0.71),but the difference of lOPs at the seven time points in same group was statistically significant (P=0.01).@@Conclusion High-tension POAG patients with high myopia,even on pharmacological glaucoma therapy,still have higher lOp,but 24-hour lOP fluctuation at resting conditions was lower in these patients.

  2. Travoprost with sofZia® preservative system lowered intraocular pressure of Japanese normal tension glaucoma with minimal side effects

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    Mizoue S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiro Mizoue,1 Tadashi Nakano,2 Nobuo Fuse,3 Aiko Iwase,4 Shun Matsumoto,5 Keiji Yoshikawa6 On behalf of the IOP CHANGE Study Group7 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Integrative Genomics, Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Miyagi, Japan; 4Tajimi Iwase Eye Clinic, Gifu, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Teishin Hospital, 6Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 7IOP CHecked and Assessed in Normal tension Glaucoma by Exceptional Glaucomatologists Study Group, Japan Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of travoprost with sofZia® preservative system for lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP of Japanese normal tension glaucoma (NTG patients. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study, Japanese NTG patients with baseline IOPs <20 mmHg were enrolled after three consecutive time measurements taken at screening and baseline visits. Travoprost with sofZia® was instilled once daily. Lowering effect on IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy, and adverse events were examined at week 4, 8, and 12 after drug instillation. Results: One-hundred and three of the 107 enrolled patients (baseline IOP =15.2±2.0 mmHg [mean ± standard deviation] completed the study. The mean IOP value as well as percent reduction was significantly reduced at each visit after travoprost with sofZia® initiation (P<0.0001. The conjunctival hyperemia score was 1 or less throughout the study, though it increased significantly over time. No significant change was observed in superficial punctate keratopathy. The cumulative incidence of side effects such as eyelash changes, eyelid pigmentation, and deepening of the upper lid was 47.6%, 27.2%, and 16.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Travoprost preserved with sofZia® effectively lowered the IOP of Japanese NTG patients. It was

  3. A new measure of patient satisfaction with ocular hypotensive medications: The Treatment Satisfaction Survey for Intraocular Pressure (TSS-IOP

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    Stewart Jeanette A

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To validate the treatment-specific Treatment Satisfaction Survey for Intraocular Pressure (TSS-IOP. Methods Item content was developed by 4 heterogeneous patient focus groups (n = 32. Instrument validation involved 250 patients on ocular hypotensive medications recruited from ophthalmology practices in the Southern USA. Participants responded to demographic and test questions during a clinic visit. Standard psychometric analyses were performed on the resulting data. Sample Of the 412 patients screened, 253 consented to participate, and 250 provided complete datasets. The sample included 44% male (n = 109, 44% Black (n = 109 and 57% brown eyed (n = 142 participants, with a mean age of 64.6 years (SD 13.1 and a history of elevated IOP for an average of 8.4 yrs (SD 7.8. A majority was receiving monotherapy (60%, n = 151. Results A PC Factor analysis (w/ varimax rotation of the 31 items yielded 5 factors (Eigenvalues > 1.0 explaining 70% of the total variance. Weaker and conceptually redundant items were removed and the remaining 15 items reanalyzed. The satisfaction factors were; Eye Irritation (EI; 4 items, Convenience of Use (CofU; 3 items, Ease of Use (EofU; 3 items, Hyperemia (HYP; 3 items, and Medication Effectiveness (EFF; 2 items. Chronbach's Alphas ranged from .80 to .86. Greater distributional skew was found for less common experiences (i.e., HYP & EI with 65% & 48.4% ceilings than for more common experiences (i.e., EofU, CofU, EFF with 10.8%, 20.8% & 15.9% ceilings. TSS-IOP scales converged with conceptually related scales on a previously validated measure of treatment satisfaction, the TSQM (r = .36 to .77. Evidence of concurrent criterion-related validity was found. Patients' symptomatic ratings of eye irritation, hyperemia and difficulties using the medication correlated with satisfaction on these dimensions (r = .30-.56, all p Conclusions This study provides initial evidence that the TSS-IOP is a reliable and valid

  4. Medium-Term Visual Outcomes of Apodized Diffractive Multifocal Intraocular Lens with +3.00 D Addition Power

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    Xiaohong Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate 2-year visual acuities and questionnaire after bilateral implantation of SN6AD1 multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL or SN60WF IOL. Methods. Patients randomly scheduled for bilateral implantation of SN6AD1 MIOL and SN60WF IOL with 2-year follow-up were enrolled. Uncorrected/corrected distance and near visual acuity, uncorrected intermediate visual acuity at 63 cm under high and low contrast, reading activity, the defocus curve, and a quality-of-life questionnaire were evaluated. Results. Each group comprised 20 patients. Uncorrected intermediate visual acuities and uncorrected near visual acuity were better in SN6AD1 group than in SN60WF group (P=0.005, P=0.011, and P<0.001. In SN6AD1 group, the uncorrected intermediate and near visual acuities 1 year and 2 years postoperatively were reduced than postoperative 3-month outcomes, respectively. SN6AD1 group reported superior overall spectacle independence and inferior satisfaction. SN6AD1 group had a longer reading newspaper duration than SN60WF group (P=0.036. When using mobile phone, SN6AD1 group had a more comfortable distance than SN60WF group (P<0.001 and higher speed of reading fixed text message (P<0.001. Conclusion. SN6AD1 MIOL provided a satisfactory full range of visual acuities and questionnaire performance 2 years postoperatively. One-year and 2-year uncorrected near and intermediate visual acuities of SN6AD1 MIOL were lower than those 3 months postoperatively.

  5. An observational study of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients on prior intraocular pressure-lowering therapy: the Canadian Lumigan® RC Early Analysis Review (CLEAR trial

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    Crichton AC

    2014-05-01

    improvement. The mean percentage change from baseline IOP at week 12 following the switch to bimatoprost 0.01% monotherapy ranged from –2.3%±17.3% to –26.3%±12.4%. Furthermore, the decreased mean percentage change from baseline IOP was statistically significant across all prior IOP-lowering medications, except for bimatoprost 0.03% at the 6- and 12-week visits and travoprost 0.004% at the 6-week visit. Conclusion: This observational study demonstrates that bimatoprost 0.01% was well tolerated among POAG and OHT subjects who switched from prior IOP-lowering medication. Furthermore, a switch in ocular hypertensive treatment to bimatoprost 0.01% was associated with an additional 10%–15% reduction in IOP. Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, hyperemia, bimatoprost

  6. Estimated Trans-Lamina Cribrosa Pressure Differences in Low-Teen and High-Teen Intraocular Pressure Normal Tension Glaucoma: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

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    Si Hyung Lee

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between estimated trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD and prevalence of normal tension glaucoma (NTG with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP using a population-based study design.A total of 12,743 adults (≥ 40 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES from 2009 to 2012 were included. Using a previously developed formula, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP in mmHg was estimated as 0.55 × body mass index (kg/m2 + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mmHg-0.18 × age (years-1.91. TLCPD was calculated as IOP-CSFP. The NTG subjects were divided into two groups according to IOP level: low-teen NTG (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg and high-teen NTG (15 mmHg < IOP ≤ 21 mmHg groups. The association between TLCPD and the prevalence of NTG was assessed in the low- and high-teen IOP groups.In the normal population (n = 12,069, the weighted mean estimated CSFP was 11.69 ± 0.04 mmHg and the weighted mean TLCPD 2.31 ± 0.06 mmHg. Significantly higher TLCPD (p < 0.001; 6.48 ± 0.27 mmHg was found in the high-teen NTG compared with the normal group. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in TLCPD between normal and low-teen NTG subjects (p = 0.395; 2.31 ± 0.06 vs. 2.11 ± 0.24 mmHg. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the high-teen IOP group (p = 0.006; OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.15, but not the low-teen IOP group (p = 0.636. Instead, the presence of hypertension was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in the low-teen IOP group (p < 0.001; OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.26, 2.16.TLCPD was significantly associated with the prevalence of NTG in high-teen IOP subjects, but not low-teen IOP subjects, in whom hypertension may be more closely associated. This study suggests that the underlying mechanisms may differ between low-teen and high-teen NTG patients.

  7. Reversible changes in aqueous outflow facility, hydrodynamics,and morphology following acute intraocular pressure variation in bovine eyes

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    ZHU Jing-ying; YE Wen; WANG Ti; GONG Hai-yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated intraocular pressure (lOP) is primarily due to increased aqueous outflow resistance,but how aqueous outflow resistance is generated and regulated are still not fully understood.The aim of this study is to determine whether changes in outflow facility,outflow pattern,and morphology following acute lOP elevation were reversible when the lOP was returned to a normal level in bovine eyes using a two-color tracer technique to label outflow patterns within the same eye.Methods Twelve fresh enucleated bovine eyes were perfused with Dulbecco's phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing 5.5 mmol/L glucose (DBG) at 30 mmHg first to establish the baseline outflow facility followed by a fixed volume of red fluorescent microspheres (0.5 μm,0.002% v/v).After the red tracer being replaced with DBG in the anterior chamber,perfusion was continued at 7 mmHg with the same volume of green tracer,followed by a fixative.In two control groups,the eyes were constantly perfused at either 30 mmHg (n=6) or 7 mmHg (n=6) using the same methods.The outflow facility (C,μl·min·-1 mmHg-1),was continuously recorded.Confocal images were taken along the inner wall (IW) of the aqueous plexus (AP) in frontal sections.The percent of the effective filtration length (PEFL,PEFL=IW length exhibiting tracer labelingltotal length of (W) was measured.Sections with AP were processed and examined by light microscopy.The total length of IW and the length exhibiting separation (SL) in the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) were measured.A minimum of eight collector channel (CC) ostia per eye were analyzed for herniations.Results In the experimental (30-7 mmHg) group,the outflow facility was significantly higher at 7 mmHg ((4.81±1.33)μl·min·-1 mmHg-1) than that at 30 mmHg ((0.99±0.15) μl·min·-1 mmH9-1,P=0.002),corresponding to a significant increase in the PEFL (P=0.0003).The percent of CC ostia exhibiting herniations in the experimental group ((67.40±8.90)μl·min·-1 mmHg-1

  8. Effects of Latanoprost 0.005%/Timolol Maleate 0.5% and Dorzolamide 2%/Timolol Maleate 0.5% Fixed Combinations on 24-hour Intraocular Pressure in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

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    Berna Yüce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of latanoprost/timolol maleate and dorzolamid/timolol maleate fixed combinations on-24 hours intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma. Ma te ri als and Met hod: Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients with open-angle glaucoma were enrolled in the study. They were randomized to receive fixed combinations of either latanoprost/timolol maleate (Group 1 - 24 eyes of 12 patients or dorzolamid/timolol maleate (Group 2 - 24 eyes of 12 patients. Patients who achieved intraocular pressure of ≤ 21 mmHg 3 weeks after combined therapy were hospitalized and intraocular pressure was monitored at hour 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, 22:00 and 02:00 for 24 hours. Diurnal and nocturnal fluctuations were determined by measurements done between 06:00 and 18:00 hours and between 22:00 and 02:00, respectively. Mean intraocular pressure and fluctuations of intraocular pressure between the two groups were compared. Re sults: There was no difference between the groups in terms of age, sex, visual acuity and cup/disc ratio (p>0.05. Three weeks after combined therapy, all patients achieved target intraocular pressure of ≤ 21 mmHg. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to mean intraocular pressure over 24 hours (17.1±2.3 mmHg and 17.27±2.3 mmHg for Group 1 and Group 2, respectively; p>0.05. Diurnal fluctuations were 3.6 mmHg for Group 1 and 4.7 mmHg for Group 2; nocturnal fluctuations were 4.3 mmHg for Group 1 and 2.3 mmHg for Group 2. Diurnal fluctuations in Group 1 were lower than in Group 2, while nocturnal fluctuations were lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p<0.05. Dis cus si on: Both latanoprost/timolol maleate and dorzolamid/timolol maleate fixed combinations are effective for 24-hour intraocular pressure control. Latanoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination is superior to dorzolamid/timolol maleate in controlling diurnal fluctuations, while dorzolamid/timolol maleate is

  9. 眼压磁力连续测量原理与方法%Principle and method of continuous measurement of intraocular pressure based on magnetic force

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康宜华; 周雪芬; 张虹; 陈威

    2011-01-01

    为解决青光眼患者的24h眼压连续测量问题,提出了一种眼压磁力连续测量原理,采用2个永久磁铁同极靠近产生的排斥力对眼球施加压力,通过求解排斥力-距离曲线上波动点处的压力或波动点后的斜率计算得到眼压值.给出了测量系统结构及其磁排斥力仿真计算结果,对猪眼的实验结果显示,眼内压的大小和排斥力-距离曲线波动点处的压力值存在对应关系,该方法可以作为眼压24h连续测量的有效途径.%To solve the problem of the 24h continuous measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) of the glaucoma patients, a new principle and method based on magnetic force is presented. The pressure to eyeball is produced using the repulsive force generated by two permanent magnets when they are closed by facing the same magnetic pole. The lOP is obtained by calculating the pressure of the fluctuating dot or the rake ratio after the fluctuating dot of the repulsive force-distance curve. The structure of the detecting system and the result of the magnetic simulation of two permanent magnets are given. The results of the pig eye experiments indicate that IOP is relative to the pressure of the fluctuating dot of the repulsive force-distance curve. As a result, the principle and method proposed is feasible for the 24h continuous measurement of intraocular pressure.

  10. Comportamento da pressão intra-ocular segundo os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e hemodinâmicos induzidos pela anestesia com desflurano, em cães submetidos à hipovolemia experimental Behavior of intraocular pressure according to cardiorespiratory and hemodynamic effects induced by desflurane in dogs subjected to experimental hypovolemia

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    Ivia Carmem Talieri

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Observar o comportamento da pressão intra-ocular, segundo os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e hemodinâmicos induzidos pela anestesia geral com desflurano, em cães submetidos à hipovolemia experimental. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 cães, machos e fêmeas, com peso entre 10 e 15 kg. A hipovolemia foi realizada retirando-se 40 ml de sangue/kg de peso. A seguir, a anestesia foi induzida com desflurano através de máscara facial, até que a intubação orotraqueal fosse permitida. A pressão intra-ocular foi medida por tonometria de aplanação. Valores para freqüência cardíaca, débito cardíaco, pressão arterial média, pressão venosa central e pressão parcial de CO2 ao final da expiração e freqüência respiratória foram mensurados. Os parâmetros da avaliação foram registrados após a instrumentalização e antes de qualquer outro procedimento (T0, quinze minutos depois da indução da hipovolemia experimental (T45 e após 30 minutos da indução anestésica (T75. RESULTADOS: A pressão intra-ocular apresentou relação direta somente com a pressão parcial de CO2 no final da expiração. CONCLUSÕES: Não foi possível estabelecer correlação entre alterações da pressão arterial média e da pressão venosa central com a pressão intra-ocular e houve relação direta entre os valores da pressão intra-ocular e os de ETCO2.PURPOSE: To observe the behavior of intraocular pressure according to the cardiopulmonary and hemodynamic effects induced by desflurane in dogs subjected to experimental hypovolemia. METHODS: Eighteen healthy male and female mongrel dogs, weighing between 10 and 15 kg were used. Hypovolemia was induced by withdrawal of 40 ml blood/kg body weight. Then anesthesia was induced with desflurane by mask until tracheal intubation was permitted. Intraocular pressure was measured with applanation tonometry. Heart rate, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, end-tidal concentration

  11. Estudo do comportamento da pressão intra-ocular em pacientes diabéticos, hipertensos e normais (Projeto Glaucoma Analysis of the intraocular pressure in diabetics, hypertensive and normal patients (Glaucoma Project

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    Kenji Sakata

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar os valores da pressão intra-ocular (PIO entre diferentes grupos de pacientes (diabéticos, hipertensos com ou sem retinopatia e a população normal. Métodos: Realizou-se a aferição da pressão intra-ocular (PIO em um total de 924 olhos de 482 pacientes com idade igual ou maior que 40 anos (x=56,70; dp=11,89 examinados segundo um protocolo de estudo que incluiu medida da PIO, pressão arterial e glicemia, além da fundoscopia. A determinação da PIO foi obtida pelo tonômetro de aplanação de "Goldmann" e a glicemia foi aferida por meio de tiras reativas (Dextrostix -- Bayer. Em seguida, os pacientes foram divididos em 7 (sete grupos: hipertensos, hipertensos com retinopatia, diabéticos, diabéticos com retinopatia, hipertensos e diabéticos, hipertensos e diabéticos com retinopatia e a população controle. Resultados: Pelo teste de ANOVA-uma via, numa distribuição normal no nível de significância de 5%, observou-se que o valor médio da PIO é significativamente maior no grupo de pacientes hipertensos sem retinopatia (média PIO=16,10, no grupo dos hipertensos com retinopatia (média PIO=16,33 e no grupo de diabéticos e hipertensos com retinopatia retinopatia (média PIO=16,95. Conclusões: Observou-se que o valor médio da PIO é progressivamente mais elevado conforme o tempo de evolução da doença hipertensiva e também quando esta se encontra associada à diabetes mellitus.Purpose: To correlate the values of intraocular pressure (IOP obtained by applanation tonometer (Haag-Streit, Bern, Switzerland in patients with diabetes mellitus (with or without diabetic retinopathy, hypertension (with or without hyper-tensive diabetic retinopathy and the normal population. Patients and Methods: Subjects participating in the Glau-coma Project (n = 924, 40 or more years old were examined according to standard protocols including IOP measu-rement, fundoscopy, blood pressure and glucose deter-mination. Patients were

  12. Avaliação da acuidade visual e da pressão intraocular no tratamento do edema macular diabético com triancinolona intravítrea Study of visual acuity and intraocular pressure in the treatment of macular diabetic edema with intravitreous triamcinolone

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    Marcussi Palata Rezende

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos do acetato de triancinolona intravítreo em pacientes com edema macular diabético difuso na acuidade visual e pressão intraocular. Relatar os possíveis efeitos adversos e analisar a possível relação da idade dos pacientes com as variações da acuidade visual e pressão intraocular. MÉTODOS: O ensaio clínico controlado incluiu 14 pacientes (28 olhos, sendo que 14 olhos receberam injeção de 4 mg de acetato de triancinolona intravítreo para o tratamento de edema macular diabético difuso. O grupo tratado foi comparado a um grupo controle de 14 olhos sem edema macular diabético difuso. O tempo de seguimento foi de três meses. RESULTADOS: Os picos de pressão intraocular >21 mmHg ocorreram em 28,57%, com diferença significante entre a pressão intraocular do grupo tratado com o grupo controle na primeira semana após o tratamento. A acuidade visual mostrou uma significativa melhora quando comparada com o grupo controle desde o segundo dia após o tratamento. Não houve associação entre a idade com as variações da acuidade visual e a pressão intraocular. CONCLUSÃO: O acetato de triancinolona intravítreo mostrou-se ser eficiente para melhorar a acuidade visual em pacientes com edema macular diabético difuso, nos primeiros três meses de tratamento. A incidência de hipertensão intraocular foi de 28,57%, podendo ser caracterizada como de fácil controle.PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in patients with diffuse diabetic macular edema on the visual acuity and intraocular pressure. To report the potential adverse events and to analyze the potential relationship between age and visual acuity and intraocular pressure variability. METHODS: This clinical controlled study included 14 patients (28 eyes, 14 of the eyes received an intravitreal injection of 4 mg triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. The study group was compared to a control

  13. Involvement of adenosine A2a receptor in intraocular pressure decrease induced by 2-(1-octyn-1-yl)adenosine or 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Murakami, Akira; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the mechanism for the decrease in intraocular pressure by 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives in rabbits. The receptor binding analysis revealed that 2-(1-octyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-O-Ado) and 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-CN-Ado) selectively bound to the A(2a) receptor with a high affinity. Ocular hypotensive responses to 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado were inhibited by the adenosine A(2a)-receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine (CSC), but not by the adenosine A(1)-receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) or the adenosine A(2b)-receptor antagonist alloxazine. In addition, 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado caused an increase in outflow facility, which was inhibited by CSC, but not by DPCPX or alloxazine. Moreover, 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado increased cAMP in the aqueous humor, and the 2-O-Ado-induced an increase in cAMP was inhibited by CSC. These results suggest that 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado reduced intraocular pressure via an increase in outflow facility. The ocular hypotension may be mainly mediated through the activation of adenosine A(2a) receptor, although a possible involvement of adenosine A(1) receptor cannot be completely ruled out. 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado are useful lead compounds for the treatment of glaucoma.

  14. Involvement of adenosine A2a receptor in intraocular pressure decrease induced by 2-(1-octyn-1-yl)adenosine or 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Murakami, Akira; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the mechanism for the decrease in intraocular pressure by 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives in rabbits. The receptor binding analysis revealed that 2-(1-octyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-O-Ado) and 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-CN-Ado) selectively bound to the A(2a) receptor with a high affinity. Ocular hypotensive responses to 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado were inhibited by the adenosine A(2a)-receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine (CSC), but not by the adenosine A(1)-receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) or the adenosine A(2b)-receptor antagonist alloxazine. In addition, 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado caused an increase in outflow facility, which was inhibited by CSC, but not by DPCPX or alloxazine. Moreover, 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado increased cAMP in the aqueous humor, and the 2-O-Ado-induced an increase in cAMP was inhibited by CSC. These results suggest that 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado reduced intraocular pressure via an increase in outflow facility. The ocular hypotension may be mainly mediated through the activation of adenosine A(2a) receptor, although a possible involvement of adenosine A(1) receptor cannot be completely ruled out. 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado are useful lead compounds for the treatment of glaucoma. PMID:15821340

  15. The study on the changes of NCT measured intraocular pressure before and after LASIK%LASIK术后非接触式眼压计测量值的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭萌; 陈剑; 刘珏

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors affecting noncontact tonometer measurement of intraocular pres-sure after laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIK). Methods The intraocular pressure readings of 159 cases were measured with noncontact tonometer(NCT) before and six months after LASIK was performed. Results The intraocular pressure readings after LASIK were much lower than that before LASIK with statistically significant difference. Conclusion The intraocular pressure readings are lower after LASIK, whcich may be caused by the changes in corneal thickness because of laser treatment.%目的 探讨准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术(LASIK)后影响眼压测量值的因素.方法 对实施准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术(LAISK)的159例患者,于术前和术后6个月分别以非接触式眼压计测量眼压,分析眼压变化的原因.结果 LASIK术后眼压测量值明显低于术前,差异有统计学意义.结论 LASIK术后眼压明显下降,这与激光切削角膜变薄有关.

  16. Roles of PI3K and JAK pathways in viability of retinal ganglion cells after acute elevation of intraocular pressure in rats with different autoimmune backgrounds

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    Wang Ningli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently showed that whereas inhibition of PI3K/akt or JAK/STAT pathway promoted retinal ganglion cell (RGC survival after optic nerve (ON injury in Fischer 344 (F344 rats, the same inhibition resulted in aggravated RGC loss after acute intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in Sprague Dawley (SPD rats. In addition, the responses of macrophages to ON injury and acute IOP elevation were different between F344 and Lewis rats, i.e., different autoimmune profiles. Using an acute IOP elevation paradigm in this study, we investigated 1 whether autoimmune background influences PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT functions by examining the effect of PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT pathway inhibition on RGC survival in F344 and Lewis rats, and 2 whether differential actions of macrophages occur in PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT pathways-dependent modulation of RGC survival. IOP elevation was performed at 110 mmHg for 2 hours. PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT pathway inhibitors were applied intravitreally to block their respective pathway signaling transduction. Because macrophage invasion was seen in the eye after the pathway inhibition, to examine the role of these pathways independent of macrophages, macrophages in the retina were removed by intravitreal application of clodronate liposomes. Viable RGCs were retrogradely labelled by FluoroGold 40 hours before animal sacrifice. Results Similar to what was previously observed, significantly more RGCs were lost in Lewis than F344 rats 3 weeks after acute IOP elevation. As in SPD rats, inhibition of the PI3K/akt or JAK/STAT pathway increased the loss of RGCs in both F344 and Lewis rats. Removal of macrophages in the eye by clodronate liposomes reduced RGC loss due to pathway inhibition in both strains. Conclusion This study demonstrates that following acute IOP elevation 1 PI3K/akt and JAK/STAT pathways mediate RGC survival in both F344 and Lewis rats, 2 autoimmune responses do not influence the functions of these two pathways

  17. Corneal thickness and daily curve of intraocular pressure in suspected and glaucomatous patients Espessura corneana e curva diária de pressão intra-ocular em pacientes suspeitos e glaucomatosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Cronemberger

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate in suspected and glaucomatous patients the correlation between central corneal thickness (CCT and intraocular pressure (IOP, measured during the daily curve of intraocular pressure (DCPo, including CCT and IOP measurements in bed at 6 am. The ocular axial length was also compared. METHODS: 114 eyes from 73 patients, 30 eyes suspected of glaucoma (group I and 84 eyes with chronic open-angle glaucoma (group II were prospectively studied. Both groups were subjected to DCPo with measurements of IOP at 9 am, 12 pm, 6 pm, 10:30 pm and on the next day at 6 am in bed and in darkness before the patient gets up. Using the ultrasonic DGH 5100® device, CCT measurements were performed at 9 am, 6 pm, 10:30 pm and the next day at 6 am in bed before the patient gets up. The ocular axial length was also measured. RESULTS: In the total sample and, separately in each group, the mean IOP was more elevated in bed at 6 am. There were no significant CCT changes during the day within each group or between both groups. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean ocular axial length of both groups. CONCLUSIONS: In suspected and glaucomatous patients, there were no statistically significant CCT variations during the day; therefore, only one CCT measurement is sufficient. Also, there was no statistically significant difference between ocular axial length of both groups.OBJETIVO: Verificar em pacientes suspeitos de glaucoma e glaucomatosos se existe correlação entre a espessura corneana central (ECC e a pressão intra-ocular (Po, medidos durante a curva diária de pressão intra-ocular (CDPo, incluindo-se as medidas da ECC e da Po às 6:00 horas da manhã no leito. Avaliar também comparativamente o diâmetro axial ântero-posterior (Diâm. axial em ambos os grupos. MÉTODOS: 114 olhos de 73 pacientes selecionados no Serviço de Glaucoma do Hospital São Geraldo, foram divididos em dois grupos: grupo I - pacientes suspeitos de

  18. Role of fixed-combination brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny JM Beckers

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Henny JM Beckers, Jan SAG Schouten, Carroll AB WebersUniversity Eye Clinic, Maastricht, The NetherlandsAbstract: Brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% is a new fixed-combination for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Brinzolamide/timolol has a favorable safety profile, with an incidence of ocular burning and stinging <5%. Published data show that brinzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% and dorzolamide 2%/timolol 0.5% have similar efficacies for lowering intraocular pressure (IOP. There is some evidence that brinzolamide/timolol may be more comfortable. Although patients receiving brinzolamide/timolol may experience more blurred vision on instillation, some data show a preference for brinzolamide/timolol over dorzolamide/timolol. Although available data to assess the role of brinzolamide/timolol in daily clinical practice are still limited, these first results suggest the agent to be a reasonable alternative for patients who do not reach target IOP with monotherapy.

  19. Effect of preservative removal from fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol on intraocular pressure lowering: a potential timolol dose–response phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jie Shen,1 Marina Bejanian2 1Department of Translational Sciences, 2Department of Ophthalmology Clinical Development, Allergan plc, Irvine, CA, USA Purpose: Many patients with glaucoma require combination therapies to achieve target intraocular pressure (IOP and preserve visual function. Ocular hypotensives often contain a preservative (eg, benzalkonium chloride [BAK], but preservative-free (PF formulations have been developed for patients with sensitivity. A Phase III study found the efficacy of bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% (bim/tim, Ganfort® PF to be equivalent to that of preserved bim/tim, although a trend favoring bim/tim PF was observed. As BAK is a corneal penetration enhancer, this literature review aims to explain these findings by exploring the relationship between timolol concentration and its IOP-lowering effect. Methods: Systematic searches were performed in Scopus and PubMed for clinical trials published in English between 1960 and July 2014 using the keywords “timolol”, “intraocular pressure”, and the concentrations “1%, 0.5%, OR 0.25%”. Articles that directly compared IOP-lowering effects of ≥2 concentrations of timolol were identified by manual screening, and cross-checked for duplication. Results: Seventeen studies that included 10–371 patients were evaluated; the majority were randomized (16/17, double-masked (14/17, and enrolled patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (12/17. All studies investigated timolol in preserved formulations. Timolol concentrations tested ranged from 0.008% to 1.5%. Of 13 studies comparing timolol 0.25% versus 0.5%, two found the 0.25% dose to have greater IOP-lowering effects, and three reported the opposite; eight reported similar IOP lowering. Results also indicate that timolol 0.5% may be more effective than higher concentrations. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that timolol may have an inverted U-shaped dose–response curve, and that its optimal IOP

  20. Changes in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure in men and women with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An altered perfusion of the optic nerve head has been proposed as a pathogenic factor of glaucoma. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of the hemodynamic parameters in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in women and men with primary open angle glaucoma. Methods. The study included 60 patients (33 males and 27 females older than 50 years, with diagnosed and treated primary open angle glaucoma (77 eyes of 39 patients had increased IOP, >25 mm Hg. They were examined at the Clinic of Eye Diseases (complete ophthalmologic exam and Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from December 2009 to December 2010. Imaging of hemodynamic parameters of three retrobulbar arterial vessels: ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries with color Doppler was performed. Results. Among women, hemodynamic arterial parameter of the peak-systolic velocity was increased in the central retinal artery and decreased in the ophthalmic artery and posterior ciliary arteries; end- diastolic velocity was increased in all three retrobulbar vascular levels; Pourcelot resistivity index was increased, but pulsatility index was decreased in all three vessels. Among men, peak-systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and pulsatility index were decreased in all three vessels; resistivity index was increased in the ophthalmic artery, but decreased in the central retinal artery and posterior ciliary arteries. There was a significant change of the ophthalmic artery pulsatility index in women, and the end-diastolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery in men. Conclusion. There was a difference of the retrobulbar arterial circulation between women and men with primary open angle glaucoma after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure. The role of vascular factors in the supply of the optic disc neuroretinal rim is important.

  1. Effects of brinzolamide vs timolol as an adjunctive medication to latanoprost on circadian intraocular pressure control in primary open-angle glaucoma Japanese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ishikawa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Makoto Ishikawa1,2, Takeshi Yoshitomi11Department of Ophthalmology, Akita University Faculty of Medicine, Akita, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Ogachi Central Hospital, Akita, JapanPurpose: To study the effect of the concomitant use of brinzolamide and latanoprost on the 24-hour variation in intraocular pressure (IOP in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients first treated with timolol and latanoprost.Methods: We studied 30 eyes from 30 POAG patients previously treated with latanoprost monotherapy. After a washout of four weeks in both eyes, all patients were treated with 0.5% timolol and latanoprost. Three months after the initiation of treatment with timolol and latanoprost, the 24-hour IOP variation was measured. Thereafter, all patients were treated with concomitant 1% brinzolamide and latanoprost. Three months after changing the therapeutic regimen, the 24-hour IOP variation was measured a second time. Latanoprost was administered once a day, and timolol and brinzolamide were twice a day. IOP was measured with a noncontact tomometer.Results: On treatment with brinzolamide and latanoprost, a significant decrease in IOP compared to timolol and latanoprost was observed at all time points except at 3 PM and 6 PM. As a group, the patients had a significantly lower diurnal mean IOP and nocturnal mean IOP during treatment with brinzolamide and latanoprost than with timolol and latanoprost.Conclusions: Treatment of POAG with a combination of brinzolamide and latanoprost demonstrated improved hypotensive effects compared with timolol and latanoprost during a 24-hour period.Keywords: circadian intraocular pressure, adverse effects, timolol, brinzolamide

  2. Variação da pressão intraocular após teste submáximo de força no treinamento resistido Intraocular pressure variation after submaximal strength test in resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a variação da pressão intraocular (PIO decorrente da aplicação do teste de predição para uma repetição máxima (1RM. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados em estudo observacional 145 calouros (22,04 ± 4,17 anos; de ambos os sexos do curso de Educação Física da Escola Superior de Educação Física de Jundiaí (ESEFJ. Os critérios de exclusão foram: opacidade de meios, alteração de globo ocular ou ausência de globo ocular. Todos os participantes assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. A avaliação da PIO foi determinada por duas medidas consecutivas com o tonômetro de Perkins: i pré-teste: antes do teste de 1RM e ii pós-teste: logo após a realização do teste. O teste de 1RM consistiu em predizer o valor de uma repetição máxima através de repetições até a fadiga. Foram utilizados os seguintes exercícios resistidos: supino, pulley dorsal, desenvolvimento, rosca direta e leg press 45º. Como procedimento estatístico foi empregado o teste "t" de Student pareado. RESULTADOS: Ocorreu redução da PIO após a realização do teste de predição de 1RM: 13,48 ± 3,32 vs.10,20 ± 3,72 mmHg (pPURPOSE: To verify the intraocular pressure (IOP after sub-maximal strength test. METHODS: 145 Physical Education freshmen (22.04 ± 4.17 years old; female and male from Superior Physical Education School of Jundiaí (ESEFJ were evaluated in an observacional study. The exclusion criteria were: media opacity and eyeball absence or changes. All subjects agreed to take part in this research and signed up the Informed Consent. IOP was measured by Perkins tonometer: i pretest: just before the submaximal strength test performance and ii post-test: immediately after the strength test. The strength test consisted in the one-repetition-maximum-assessment through repetition until fatigue. Resistance training exercises such as bench press, pulley dorsal high, shoulder press, arm curl and leg press 45º were performed

  3. Effect of phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation combined with vitrectomy on the dynamic changes of intraocular pressure%超声乳化人工晶体植入术联合玻璃体切除术对眼内压动态变化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓鹏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation combined with vitrectomy on the dynamic changes of intraocular pressure.Methods A sample of 73 eyes of 70 patients was divided into two groups according to the operation method.Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens combined with vitrectomy implantation performed on 38 eyes of 37 patients (study group) were compared with vitrectomy alone performed on 35 eyes of 33 patients (control group).The dynamic changes of intraocular pressure 1,2,3 days,1,3 weeks,1,2,3 months after surgery were observed.Results The intraocular pressure was peaked on the 1st day after surgery in control group from ( 13.7 ± 2.2)mm Hg ( 1 mm Hg =0.133 kPa) preoperatively to ( 18.5 ± 6.9) mm Hg postoperatively,and recovered the preoperative level on the 3rd day after surgery.The intraocular pressure was peaked on the 1st day after surgery in study group from ( 12.9 ± 2.4) mm Hg preoperatively to (23.4 ± 8.0) mm Hg postoperatively,and recovered the preoperative level on the 3rd week after surgery.The intraocular pressure in both groups displayed an significant elevation on postoperative days,although degree of intraocular pressure elevation in study group was higher than that in control group (P <0.05).The correlation analysis showed:diabetic retinopathy,and combined with cataract extraction and lens implantation were independent risk factors of intraocular pressure surge (the intraocular pressure ≥10 mm Hg) after vitrectomy. Conclusions Phacovitrectomy and intraocular lens implantation increases the risk of transient intraocular pressure elevation in early postoperative stage than vitrectomy alone.The patients who are vulnerable to intraocular pressure fluctuations when performed a combined surgery should be paid more attention.%目的 探讨超声乳化人工晶体植入术联合玻璃体切除术(PPV)对患者眼内压动态变化的影响.方法 选择需行PPV治疗患者70例(73眼)为研

  4. A 5.2GHz, 0.5mW RF powered wireless sensor with dual on-chip antennas for implantable intraocular pressure monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-06-01

    For the first time a single chip implantable wireless sensor system for Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) is presented. This system-on-chip (SoC) is battery-free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. The chip is self-contained and does not require external components or bond wires to function. This 1.4mm3 SoC has separate 2.4GHz-transmit and 5.2GHz-receive antennas, an energy harvesting module, a temperature sensor, a 7-bit TIQ Flash ADC, a 4-bit RFID, a power management and control unit, and a VCO transmitter. The chip is fabricated in a standard 6-metal 0.18μm CMOS process and is designed to work with a post-processed MEMS pressure sensor. It consumes 513μW of peak power and when implanted inside the eye, it is designed to communicate with an external reader using on-off keying (OOK). © 2013 IEEE.

  5. Efficacy of one drop of 2% pilocarpine to reverse the intraocular pressure peak at 6:00 a.m. in early glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Cronemberger

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess the efficacy of one drop of 2% pilocarpine (2% Pi at night to reverse the intraocular pressure (IOP peak at 6:00 a.m. in the daily curve of intraocular pressure (DCPo of pre-perimetric open-angle glaucoma.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the charts of patients with early glaucoma. We compared the IOP values at 6:00 a.m. in the same eye of two DCPos. In the first DCPo the patients were without medication, and in the second they were using one drop of 2% Pi between 10:00 and 10:30 p.m. for at least six months. Each DCPo had five IOP measurements taken at 9:00 a.m., 12:00, 6:00 and 10:00 p.m. (Goldmann applanation tonometer and in the morning of the following day at 06:00 a.m. (Perkins tonometer in a supine position in bed and in darkness before the patient had stood up. The pre-perimetric glaucoma patients, without medication, presented an IOP peak at 6:00 a.m. in the DCPo. This peak represents a difference ≥7 mmHg between the IOP value at 6:00 a.m. and that lesser IOP at any other time in the DCPo. An IOP peak reversion at 6:00 a.m under 2% Pi occurred when the difference between the IOP at 6:00 a.m. and the lesser IOP was ≤5 mmHg in the DCPo. Patients with secondary glaucoma were excluded. We set the significance level at 5% (P<0.05.Results: Sixty-one eyes of 35 patients with average age of 56.1 years were included. Under 2% Pi the IOP peak at 6:00 a.m. reversed significantly (X2=7.96; P=0.005 in 44 (72.1% eyes. The mean IOP dropped from 22.1±2.3 mmHg in the DCPo without medication to 16.8±2.7 mmHg in the DCPo under 2% Pi (t=7.9; P<0.001.Conclusion: One drop of 2% Pi at night is effective to reverse the IOP peak at 6:00 a.m. in pre-perimetric glaucoma.

  6. Efficacy of trabeculectomy with persistent high intraocular pressure%持续高眼压状态下小梁切除术的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧霞; 高平; 张康玉; 金伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨急性闭角型青光眼持续高眼压状态下行小梁切除术的临床疗效.方法 对33例33眼眼压控制不良(大于30 mmHg)的急性闭角型青光眼患者进行小梁切除术,观察术后视力、眼压,术中、术后并发症.结果 1例术中出现爆发性脉络膜上腔出血,1例术后第2d出现局部脉络膜浅脱离,经扩瞳、激素治疗后恢复,其他所有患者手术均顺利完成,未出现眼内出血、恶性青光眼等并发症.术后随访3~12个月,所有患者无需任何药物,眼压均控制在正常范围(8~17 mmHg).术后视力提高31眼,视力不变1眼,视力下降1眼.结论 对急性闭角型青光眼持续高眼压患者,为避免视功能进一步损害,应尽早行手术治疗,小梁切除术是安全有效的措施.%Objective To assess the efficacy of trabeculectomy for primary acute angle-closure glaucome (PACG) with persistent high intraocular pressure(IOP).Methods A retrospective analysis of post-operative visual acuity,intraocular pressure,intra-operative and postoperative complications was performed after trabeculectomy in 33 eyes of 33 patients with PACG and whose IOP was more than 30 mmHg.Results Massive choroidal hemorrhage was observed in one patient (1eye) during surgery.One patient(1 eye)encountered mild choroidal detachment in day 2 post-surgery.Completely cure was achieved after mydriasis and administration of corticoid.All patients did not suffer other severe complications,such as intraocular hemorrhage and malignant glaucoma.Satisfactory IOP control in normal range 8-17 mmHg (1kpa=7.5mmHg)was achieved in all patients without anti-glaucoma medications during 3-12 months of follow-up evaluation.The postoperative visual acuity improved in 31 eyes,remained unchanged in 1 eye,and decreased in 1 eye.Conclusion Trabeculectomy for primary acute angleclosure glaucoma with persistent high IOP is safe and effective.To prevent further damage to visual function,trabeculectomy should be

  7. Myopic Eyeballs Morphological Structure Changes and Its Impact on Intraocular Pressure%近视眼眼球形态结构的改变及其对眼内压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田荣华; 杨丽

    2012-01-01

    了解近视眼的成因对近视眼的治疗具有重要意义.近视眼可导致眼球形态结构的改变,包括眼轴、角膜厚度、眼前房、晶状体及玻璃体均有不同程度的改变,眼轴延长可直接导致屈光度的近视化.近视眼的平均眼压较正常人眼压增高,影响眼压的主要因素为眼轴长度、屈光度及角膜厚度.近视眼、眼轴延长、眼压增高三者关系密切,现就近视眼眼球形态的改变及其对眼压的影响进行综述.%To understand the causes of myopia is of great significance in myopia treatment. Myopia can lead to eye shape and structure changes, including different degrees of changes of axial length and corneal thickness, anterior chamber,lens and vitreous; axial extension can directly lead to diopters of myopia. Average intraocular pressure of myopia is higher than that of the normal people, major factors affecting intraocular pressure are axial length, diopter and corneal thickness. Axial extenion, increased intraocular pressure and myopia are closely related. Here is to make a review on myopia influence on morphological changes and intraocular pressure.

  8. A combined analysis of four observational studies evaluating the intraocular pressure-lowering ability and tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens A; Iliev ME; de Jong L; Grobeiu I; Hommer A

    2016-01-01

    Annemie Stevens,1 Milko E Iliev,2 Leo de Jong,3 Ioana Grobeiu,4 Anton Hommer5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 4Allergan Holdings Ltd, Marlow, UK; 5Private Office, Vienna, Austria Objective: Combine and evaluate data from four clinical practice studies investigating the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lower...

  9. Estudo do comportamento da pressão intra-ocular em pacientes diabéticos, hipertensos e normais (Projeto Glaucoma) Analysis of the intraocular pressure in diabetics, hypertensive and normal patients (Glaucoma Project)

    OpenAIRE

    Kenji Sakata; Maurício Maia; Leonardo Matsumoto; Emerson K. Oyamaguchi; Ana Cristina A. Carvalho; Northon Knoblauch; Adilson Gil Oliveira Filho

    2000-01-01

    Objetivo: Analisar os valores da pressão intra-ocular (PIO) entre diferentes grupos de pacientes (diabéticos, hipertensos com ou sem retinopatia) e a população normal. Métodos: Realizou-se a aferição da pressão intra-ocular (PIO) em um total de 924 olhos de 482 pacientes com idade igual ou maior que 40 anos (x=56,70; dp=11,89) examinados segundo um protocolo de estudo que incluiu medida da PIO, pressão arterial e glicemia, além da fundoscopia. A determinação da PIO foi obtida pelo tonômetro d...

  10. 5.2-GHz RF Power Harvester in 0.18-/spl mu/m CMOS for Implantable Intraocular Pressure Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud H.

    2013-04-17

    A first fully integrated 5.2-GHz CMOS-based RF power harvester with an on-chip antenna is presented in this paper. The design is optimized for sensors implanted inside the eye to wirelessly monitor the intraocular pressure of glaucoma patients. It includes a five-stage RF rectifier with an on-chip antenna, a dc voltage limiter, two voltage sensors, a low dropout voltage regulator, and MOSCAP based on-chip storage. The chip has been designed and fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS technology. To emulate the eye environment in measurements, a custom test setup is developed that comprises Plexiglass cavities filled with saline solution. Measurements in this setup show that the proposed chip can be charged to 1 V wirelessly from a 5-W transmitter 3 cm away from the harvester chip. The energy that is stored on the 5-nF on-chip MOSCAP when charged to 1 V is 2.5 nJ, which is sufficient to drive an arbitrary 100-μW load for 9 μs at regulated 0.8 V. Simulated efficiency of the rectifier is 42% at -7 dBm of input power.

  11. First-line latanoprost therapy in ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma patients: a 3-month efficacy analysis stratified by initial intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouland Jean

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-masked trials have shown latanoprost instilled once daily to be at least as effective as and generally superior to timolol administered twice daily and to be as effective as other frequently prescribed prostaglandin analogues. This study prospectively assessed the efficacy of latanoprost monotherapy in a large cohort of treatment-naive patients with a broad range of baseline intraocular pressure (IOP levels treated in actual clinical practice settings. Methods This prospective, open-label, multicenter, uncontrolled, phase IV study included treatment-naive ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma subjects initiating latanoprost once daily (evening. IOP levels were measured at baseline and after 1 and 3 months. The primary efficacy outcome was mean change in IOP from baseline to month 3. Analyses were stratified by baseline IOP: ≥ 20 and vs ≥ 24 mmHg. Results Efficacy analyses (intent to treat included 572 subjects: 20 to vs -9.2 ± 3.7 mmHg, respectively; -28.0 ± 10.6% vs -34.1 ± 11.9%, respectively. An IOP reduction of ≥ 30% from baseline to month 3 was noted in 48.4% and 65.6% of subjects, respectively (p Conclusions This "real world" study found once-daily latanoprost to be effective and safe in treatment-naive ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma patients. Patients with baseline IOP levels of 20 to Trial Registration Trial Registration Number: NCT00647101

  12. Relationship between Corneal Thickness,Corneal Curva-ture,and Intraocular Pressure before and after Laser Treat-ment for Simple Myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad MA; Edrees MH; Jafarzadehpur E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:To determine the relationship of central corneal thickness (CCT), curvature (CC), and intraocular pressure (IOP) as determinative factors for corneal biomechanics and in refractive surgery. Methods:.The study investigated 48 eyes from subjects who visited the Excimer Laser Surgery Clinic at the Department of Ophthalmology. The refractive error, IOP, CCT, and CC were measured in all participants. After 3 months, all exami-nations were repeated. Results:.Linear regression demonstrated a significant positive relationship between pre- and postoperative CCT,.CC,.and IOP values..The IOP showed a significant correlation with CCT (P=0.033) for pre-PRK, but no significant relationship was seen post-PRK. The CCT also correlated significantly with CC both pre-and post-PRK (P<0.05). Conclusion:.The IOP was significantly correlated with CCT before PRK, but its behavior differed after surgery. Nearly the same correlation was seen between CCT and CC before and after the PRK;.nevertheless,.IOP measurements should be calculated or estimated more precisely after PRK based on CCT corrections.

  13. Effect of preservative removal from fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol on intraocular pressure lowering: a potential timolol dose–response phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Bejanian, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients with glaucoma require combination therapies to achieve target intraocular pressure (IOP) and preserve visual function. Ocular hypotensives often contain a preservative (eg, benzalkonium chloride [BAK]), but preservative-free (PF) formulations have been developed for patients with sensitivity. A Phase III study found the efficacy of bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% (bim/tim, Ganfort®) PF to be equivalent to that of preserved bim/tim, although a trend favoring bim/tim PF was observed. As BAK is a corneal penetration enhancer, this literature review aims to explain these findings by exploring the relationship between timolol concentration and its IOP-lowering effect. Methods Systematic searches were performed in Scopus and PubMed for clinical trials published in English between 1960 and July 2014 using the keywords “timolol”, “intraocular pressure”, and the concentrations “1%, 0.5%, OR 0.25%”. Articles that directly compared IOP-lowering effects of ≥2 concentrations of timolol were identified by manual screening, and cross-checked for duplication. Results Seventeen studies that included 10–371 patients were evaluated; the majority were randomized (16/17), double-masked (14/17), and enrolled patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (12/17). All studies investigated timolol in preserved formulations. Timolol concentrations tested ranged from 0.008% to 1.5%. Of 13 studies comparing timolol 0.25% versus 0.5%, two found the 0.25% dose to have greater IOP-lowering effects, and three reported the opposite; eight reported similar IOP lowering. Results also indicate that timolol 0.5% may be more effective than higher concentrations. Conclusion The evidence suggests that timolol may have an inverted U-shaped dose–response curve, and that its optimal IOP-lowering concentration is between 0.25% and 0.5%. Compared with bim/tim, removal of the permeability enhancer BAK in bim/tim PF could have resulted in a lower timolol

  14. Influência da idade no comportamento da pressão intraocular em uma população da região Sul-brasileira Influence of age on intraocular pressure in a South brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Mayumi Sakata

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar influência da idade no comportamento da pressão intraocular (PIO em população acima de 40 anos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo observacional transversal realizado no município de Piraquara - PR, a PIO foi aferida através da tonometria de Goldmann. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a exame de triagem, sendo os suspeitos de glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular encaminhados ao atendimento de retorno para realização de exame oftalmológico completo. Para fins de análise estatística, os pacientes foram divididos em grupos etários (40-49; 50-59; 60-69 e acima de 70 anos. Posteriormente todos os pacientes portadores de glaucoma ou suspeita, hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS ou Diabetes mellitus (DM foram excluídos. RESULTADOS: Avaliaram-se 3360 indivíduos com média de idade de 54,04 ± 10,52 anos, sendo 59,79% do sexo feminino. Não se observou diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a média da PIO nos diferentes grupos etários (p=0,19; teste ANOVA. Da mesma forma, não foi observada correlação significativa entre a PIO e a idade (p = 0,11; correlação linear de Pearson. Após exclusão dos indivíduos portadores de HAS (1671, DM (n=360, glaucoma ou suspeita de glaucoma (n=161 não se observou diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a média da PIO e a idade (p=0,17; teste ANOVA. No entanto, uma fraca correlação negativa, porém significativa, foi encontrada entre PIO e idade (p=0,03; R=-0,055, correlação linear Pearson. CONCLUSÃO: Na presente amostra, não foi observada influência significativa da idade na PIO, entretanto, após a exclusão de indivíduos com glaucoma, HAS e DM, observou-se uma fraca correlação linear negativa e significativa entre as duas variáveis.PURPOSE: To assess the influence of age on intra-ocular pressure (IOP in subjects aged over 40 years old. METHODS: This transversal and observational study realized at Piraquara city (PR measured the IOP using Goldmann applanation

  15. Bioinformatics analysis of potential essential genes that response to the high intraocular pressure on astrocyte due to glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Yang; Jing-Zhu; Duan; Yu; Di; Dong-Mei; Gui; Dian-Wen; Gao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the gene expression response and predict the network in cell due to pressure effects on optic nerve injury of glaucoma.METHODS: We used glaucoma related microarray data in public database [Gene Expression Omnibus(GEO)] to explore the potential gene expression changes as well as correspondent biological process alterations due to increased pressure in astrocytes during glaucoma development.RESULTS: A total of six genes were identified to be related with pressure increasing. Through the annotation and network analysis, we found these genes might be involved in cell morphological remodeling, angiogenesis,mismatch repair.CONCLUSION: Increasing pressure in glaucoma on astrocytes might cause gene expression alterations,which might induce some cellular responses changes.

  16. Influência da idade no comportamento da pressão intraocular em uma população da região Sul-brasileira Influence of age on intraocular pressure in a South brazilian population

    OpenAIRE

    Viviane Mayumi Sakata; Lisandro Massanori Sakata; Mariann Yabiku; Newton Parreira Duarte Filho; Ana Tereza Ramos Moreira; Kenji Sakata

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Verificar influência da idade no comportamento da pressão intraocular (PIO) em população acima de 40 anos. MÉTODOS: Neste estudo observacional transversal realizado no município de Piraquara - PR, a PIO foi aferida através da tonometria de Goldmann. Todos os indivíduos foram submetidos a exame de triagem, sendo os suspeitos de glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular encaminhados ao atendimento de retorno para realização de exame oftalmológico completo. Para fins de análise estatística, os pa...

  17. Effects of preservative-free tafluprost on tear film osmolarity, tolerability, and intraocular pressure in previously treated patients with open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janulevičienė I

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingrida Januleviciene, Irmante Derkac, Lina Grybauskiene, Ruta Paulauskaite, Ruta Gromnickaite, Loreta KuzmieneEye Clinic of Kaunas Medical Academy of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, LithuaniaPurpose: To compare the effects on tolerability, tear osmolarity, and intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect of switching from benzalkonium chloride (BAK containing prostaglandin analog (PGA latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost.Patients and methods: Thirty patients with open-angle glaucoma (N = 60 eyes, 26 women (87% and four men (13% aged 64.1 (SD 14.1 years, showing abnormal values of tear osmolarity, corneal fluorescein staining, tear film break-up time (TBUT, or subjective discomfort with current latanoprost treatment were included. After tear osmolarity (TearLab™ Osmolarity System, TBUT, corneal fluorescein staining, and baseline IOP (Goldmann tonometer measurements and the completion of Ocular Surface Disease Index and Ocular Surface Symptoms in Glaucoma Scale questionnaires, patients were assigned to preservative-free tafluprost treatment. Measurements were repeated 2, 6 and 12 weeks after change of medication.Results: No statistically significant differences in IOP were observed 2, 6, and 12 weeks after switching to preservative-free tafluprost. Mean IOP at baseline was 16.4 mmHg (SD 2.9, after 2 weeks 16.2 mmHg (2.8, after 6 weeks 16.2 (2.6, and after 12 weeks 16.3 mmHg (2.3. Mean tear osmolarity decreased significantly from 315.7 mOsm/L (SD 15.1 at baseline to 308.0 ± 14.4 mOsm/L (P = 0.002, 301.7 ± 14.5 mOsm/L (P < 0.001, and 302.0 ± 9.9 mOsm/L (P < 0.001 2, 6, and 12 weeks after changing medication to preservative-free tafluprost, respectively. Tear osmolarity was lower in 37 eyes (61.7% after 2 weeks, in 46 eyes (76.7% after 6 weeks, and in 49 eyes (81.7% after 12 weeks (P < 0.005; t-test. At baseline corneal fluorescein staining was observed in 43 eyes (71.7%, after 2 weeks in 34 eyes (56.7%, after 6 weeks

  18. Intraocular pressure lowering efficacy and safety of travoprost 0.004% as a replacement therapy in patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; SUN Xing-huai; WANG Ning-li; ZHAO Jia-liang; WU Ling-ling; CHEN Xiao-ming; WANG Zhi-xin; Benny Li

    2010-01-01

    Background Travoprost has been widely used for the treatment of patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy of travoprost 0.004% monotherapy in patients previously treated with other topical hypotensive medications, and in previously untreated patients.Methods This open-label, 12-week study in 1651 adult patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma who were untreated or required a change in therapy (due to either inadequate efficacy or safety issues) as judged by the investigator was conducted at 6 sites in China. Previously treated patients were instructed to discontinue their prior medications at the first visit. All the patients were dosed with travoprost 0.004% once-daily at 8 p.m. In both eyes for 12 weeks. Efficacy and safety evaluations were conducted at week 4 and 12. IOP measurements were performed at the same time of day at the follow-up visits.Results For patients transitioned to travoprost, mean IOP reductions from baseline in untreated and treated patients with different prior medications at week 12 were: latanoprost, (4.3±4.6) mmHg; β-blocker, (6.3±4.0) mmHg; a-agonist, (7.5±4.3) mmHg; topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, (8.0±4.9) mmHg. All mean IOP changes from baseline were statistically significant (P <0.001). No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in this study.Conclusions In patients treated with other hypotensive medications or untreated, the IOP reduction with travoprost was significant. The results of this study demonstrated the potential benefit of using travoprost as a replacement therapy in order to ensure adequate IOP control. Travoprost administered once daily was safe and well tolerated in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

  19. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Measurements Using a NT-530P Noncontact Tono/Pachymeter and Correlation of Central Corneal Thickness with Intraocular Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kazutaka; Fujiwara, Kazuko; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements using a noncontact tono/pachymeter (NT-530P) and to assess the correlation of CCT with IOP. Methods. Forty-six eyes of healthy volunteers were measured by two examiners. Three consecutive measurements per eye were performed. Repeatability was assessed using the coefficient of variation, and reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Linear correlations were used to determine agreement between CCT and noncorrected IOP and CCT and corrected IOP, which was calculated using a formula built into the NT-530P. Results. The coefficient of variation for IOP was 6.4% and for CCT was 0.4%. The 95% limits of agreement between examiners were −0.17 ± 1.42 mmHg (range: −2.95 to 2.61 mmHg) for IOP, −0.93 ± 4.37 μm (range: −9.50 to 7.64 μm) for CCT. The corrected IOP was significantly higher than the noncorrected IOP (P = 0.010.3). The noncorrected IOP significantly correlated with CCT (r = −0.4883, P = 0.0006). The corrected IOP showed no significant correlation with CCT (r = −0.0285, P = 0.8509). Conclusions. NT-530P offered repeatability and reproducibility in both IOP and CCT measurements. The corrected IOP calculated using the NT-530P was independent of the CCT, suggesting that this IOP may be less influenced by the central corneal thickness. PMID:24222904

  20. Repeatability and Reproducibility of Measurements Using a NT-530P Noncontact Tono/Pachymeter and Correlation of Central Corneal Thickness with Intraocular Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusako Fujimura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the repeatability and reproducibility of intraocular pressure (IOP and central corneal thickness (CCT measurements using a noncontact tono/pachymeter (NT-530P and to assess the correlation of CCT with IOP. Methods. Forty-six eyes of healthy volunteers were measured by two examiners. Three consecutive measurements per eye were performed. Repeatability was assessed using the coefficient of variation, and reproducibility was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Linear correlations were used to determine agreement between CCT and noncorrected IOP and CCT and corrected IOP, which was calculated using a formula built into the NT-530P. Results. The coefficient of variation for IOP was 6.4% and for CCT was 0.4%. The 95% limits of agreement between examiners were −0.17±1.42 mmHg (range: −2.95 to 2.61 mmHg for IOP, −0.93±4.37 μm (range: −9.50 to 7.64 μm for CCT. The corrected IOP was significantly higher than the noncorrected IOP (P=0.010.3. The noncorrected IOP significantly correlated with CCT (r=−0.4883, P=0.0006. The corrected IOP showed no significant correlation with CCT (r=−0.0285, P=0.8509. Conclusions. NT-530P offered repeatability and reproducibility in both IOP and CCT measurements. The corrected IOP calculated using the NT-530P was independent of the CCT, suggesting that this IOP may be less influenced by the central corneal thickness.

  1. Efficacy of bimatoprost 0.03% in reducing intraocular pressure in patients with 360° synechial angle-closure glaucoma: A preliminary study

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    Vyas Prateep

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS; synechiae anterior to functional trabecular meshwork formation in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG hampers access to uveoscleral outflow. Thus, the role of bimatoprost in such patients with 360° synechiae was evaluated. Aims: To assess efficacy and safety profile of bimatoprost 0.03% in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP in 360° synechial angle-closure glaucoma patients. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, non-randomized, non-comparative, selective analysis, single-center pilot study. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 eyes of 20 Indian chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG patients with IOP greater than 21 mmHg, 360° PAS and no visual potential in the study eye underwent detailed eye examination. Baseline IOP was measured and YAG peripheral iridotomy was performed for complete angle-closure reconfirmation. Bimatoprost 0.03% was administered for 8 weeks as once-daily evening dose. IOP reduction within treatment group was determined with "paired t-test." Results: The mean reduction in IOP from baseline to 8 weeks of bimatoprost therapy was 15.3 ± 9.5 mmHg (P < 0.001. The most commonly observed adverse event was conjunctival hyperemia (35%. Bimatoprost was well tolerated in the study. Conclusions: In this study, exclusively involving patients with 360° synechial angle-closure glaucoma and no visual potential, bimatoprost 0.03% treatment demonstrated a statistically significant IOP reduction. Hence, it can be inferred that bimatoprost 0.03% is an efficacious treatment modality in this subgroup of patients for reducing IOP.

  2. Relationship between the magnitude of intraocular pressure during an episode of acute elevation and retinal damage four weeks later in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang V Bui

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine relationship between the magnitude of intraocular pressure (IOP during a fixed-duration episode of acute elevation and the loss of retinal function and structure 4 weeks later in rats. METHODS: Unilateral elevation of IOP (105 minutes was achieved manometrically in adult Brown Norway rats (9 groups; n = 4 to 8 each, 10-100 mm Hg and sham control. Full-field ERGs were recorded simultaneously from treated and control eyes 4 weeks after IOP elevation. Scotopic ERG stimuli were white flashes (-6.04 to 2.72 log cd.s.m(-2. Photopic ERGs were recorded (1.22 to 2.72 log cd.s.m(-2 after 15 min of light adaptation (150 cd/m(2. Relative amplitude (treated/control, % of ERG components versus IOP was described with a cummulative normal function. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC layer density was determined post mortem by histology. RESULTS: All ERG components failed to recover completely normal amplitudes by 4 weeks after the insult if IOP was 70 mmHg or greater during the episode. There was no ERG recovery at all if IOP was 100 mmHg. Outer retinal (photoreceptor function demonstrated the least sensitivity to prior acute IOP elevation. ERG components reflecting inner retinal function were correlated with post mortem RGC layer density. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal function recovers after IOP normalization, such that it requires a level of acute IOP elevation approximately 10 mmHg higher to cause a pattern of permanent dysfunction similar to that observed during the acute event. There is a 'threshold' for permanent retinal functional loss in the rat at an IOP between 60 and 70 mmHg if sustained for 105 minutes or more.

  3. Numerical analysis of specific absorption rate in the human head due to a 13.56 MHz RFID-based intra-ocular pressure measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtl, Rene; Schmid, Gernot

    2013-09-01

    A modern wireless intra-ocular pressure monitoring system, based on 13.56 MHz inductively coupled data transmission, was dosimetrically analyzed with respect to the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced inside the head and the eye due to the electromagnetic field exposure caused by the reader antenna of the transmission system. The analysis was based on numerical finite difference time domain computations using a high resolution anatomical eye model integrated in a modern commercially available anatomical model of a male head. Three different reader antenna configurations, a 7-turn elliptic (30 mm × 50 mm) antenna at 12 mm distance from the eye, a flexible circular antenna (60 mm diameter, 8 turns on 2 mm substrate) directly attached to the skin, and a circular 7-turn antenna (30 mm diameter at 12 mm distance to the eye) were analyzed, respectively. Possible influences of the eye-lid status (closed or opened) and the transponder antenna contained in a contact lens directly attached to the eye were taken into account. The results clearly demonstrated that for typical reader antenna currents required for proper data transmission, the SAR values remain far below the limits for localized exposure of the head, as defined by the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Particularly the induced SAR inside the eye was found to be substantially (orders of magnitudes for typical reader antenna currents in the order of 1 A turn) below values which have been reported to be critical with respect to thermally induced adverse health effects in eye tissues.

  4. A Case of Sustained Intraocular Pressure Elevation after Multiple Intravitreal Injection of Ranibizumab and Aflibercept for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Hisashi; Miyata, Ryohei; Kobayashi, Maki; Tsukitome, Hideyuki; Ikesugi, Kengo; Kondo, Mineo

    2016-01-01

    Intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents are widely used to treat neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD). Although these treatments are effective, multiple injections have recently been recommended to ensure that there is a good long-term prognosis. However, sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevations have been reported to develop after multiple injections of anti-VEGF agents. We present our findings of a case of uncontrolled and persistent IOP elevation after switching from intravitreal ranibizumab injections to intravitreal aflibercept injections. A 74-year-old Japanese man without a history of glaucoma underwent 22 ranibizumab injections for nAMD and suddenly developed an elevated IOP after the 22nd injection. Although the subsequent medical treatment led to normalization of his IOP, the subretinal fluid under the central fovea remained even after the 25th injection of ranibizumab. Thus, ranibizumab treatment was switched to bimonthly intravitreal aflibercept injections in conjunction with glaucoma medications. His IOP recovered to within the normal range; however, after the 11th aflibercept injection, there was a sudden elevation of his IOP in spite of the continued glaucoma medications. Due to this sustained IOP elevation, his aflibercept injections were suspended for 16 weeks. Because his IOP could not be normalized by a full glaucoma medication regimen, the patient underwent trabeculotomy, which resulted in a lowering of the IOP to normal levels. We conclude that patients who receive serial intravitreal injections of anti-VEGF agents need to be closely monitored because severe and sustained ocular hypertension can develop.

  5. Efeito da rotação da cabeça na pressão intraocular em decúbito ventral: estudo randomizado Efecto de la rotación de la cabeza en la presión intraocular en decúbito ventral: estudio aleatorio The effect of head Rotation on intraocular pressure in prone position: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nuri Deniz

    2013-04-01

    ón supina antes del inicio de la operación. Los pacientes fueron posicionados en decúbito ventral. La cabeza fue posicionada sobre un apoyo sin compresión externa directa en ambos ojos. Los pacientes del Grupo I fueron estrictamente mantenidos en pronación neutra, mientras que los pacientes del Grupo II fueron posicionados en pronación con rotación de la cabeza a 45º hacia el lado derecho. Al final de la operación, los pacientes fueron reposicionados en supinación y la PIO fue inmediatamente medida. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencia entre los datos demográficos, la duración de la cirugía, la pérdida de sangre y la reposición de líquido de los pacientes. Los valores postquirúrgicos de la PIO en decúbito ventral aumentaron significativamente en comparación con los valores preoperatorios en ambos grupos (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The increased intraocular pressure (IOP - which decreases perfusion pressure on the optic nerve - increases by prone positioning (1. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of head rotation 45o laterally in prone position on the increase in IOP of upper placed and lower placed eyes in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. METHODS: Forty-five patients were randomly divided into 2 Groups. IOP of the patients were recorded bilaterally in supine position before the operation had started. Patients were turned to prone position. The head was placed on a prone headrest without external direct compression to both eyes. Patients in Group I were kept in strictly neutral prone position where as patients in Group II were placed prone with their heads rotated 45º laterally to the right side. At the end of the operation, patients were turned to supine position and their IOP was measured immediately. RESULTS: There was no difference related to demographics, duration of surgery, blood loss and fluid input data. IOP values after surgery in prone position increased significantly compared to preoperative values in both groups

  6. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  7. Tribological performance of ashless antiwear additives under extreme pressure conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bohoon

    Zinc diakyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP) has been used in engine oil for several decades as an antiwear additive. However, ZDDP is the primary source of P, S and Zn in the exhaust, which results in frequent maintenance or replacement of exhaust gas treatment systems. The use of ashless additives is more desirable because of recent environmental regulations. The main goal of this research was to develop a fundamental understanding of how ashless compounds protect the tribological surface in comparison to ZDDP. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) has been performed on tribo and thermal films in order to investigate the chemical properties of films generated from ashless antiwear additives like chemical structure as well as chemical composition. In order to achieve this objective, three approaches were used. First, the relationships between ashless thiophosphates and wear properties under extreme pressure were examined. Ashless antiwear additives properly form their tribofilms on the sliding steel surface, reacting with iron (Fe) which is originated from the substrate. The tribofilms consist of iron phosphates, iron sulfides, and iron sulfates that have lower reduced modulus and hardness compared to tribofilms from ZDDP. However, they are still sufficiently stiff to prevent asperity contact and provide antiwear behavior. In addition, the thickness of protective tribofilms formed with ashless thiophosphates was found to be thicker than the ones formed when ZDDP was used under identical tribological conditions. Secondly, in order to understand the mechanism of tribofilm generation of metal free additives, a fundamental understanding of thermal decomposition of ashless antiwear chemistries and their influence on thermal film formation was derived. The decomposed P- and S- containing products of ZDDP reacted with the metal surface and their own metal cations forming thermal films. In case of metal free dithiophosphates, sulfur species initially formed on

  8. ADDITIONAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL NOZZLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Matthew [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc.; Yin, Shengjun [ORNL; Stevens, Gary [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Sommerville, Daniel [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc.; Palm, Nathan [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA; Heinecke, Carol [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA

    2012-01-01

    In past years, the authors have undertaken various studies of nozzles in both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Those studies described stress and fracture mechanics analyses performed to assess various RPV nozzle geometries, which were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-life (EOL) to require evaluation of embrittlement as part of the RPV analyses associated with pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. In this paper, additional stress and fracture analyses are summarized that were performed for additional PWR nozzles with the following objectives: To expand the population of PWR nozzle configurations evaluated, which was limited in the previous work to just two nozzles (one inlet and one outlet nozzle). To model and understand differences in stress results obtained for an internal pressure load case using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) vs. a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for these PWR nozzles. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated. To investigate the applicability of previously recommended linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solutions for calculating the Mode I stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for pressure loading for these PWR nozzles. These analyses were performed to further expand earlier work completed to support potential revision and refinement of Title 10 to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Requirements, and are intended to supplement similar evaluation of nozzles presented at the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP

  9. 优视胶囊对急性高眼压家兔眼压及神经节细胞的影响%Effects of Youshi capsule on the intraocular pressure(IOP) and retinal ganglion cells (RGC) of rabbits under artificial acute intraocular hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗端; 段俊国

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察优视胶囊对急性高眼压兔眼压的影响及对视网膜视神经的保护作用。方法:采用自行设计的上巩膜静脉结扎法建立18只兔眼急性高眼压动物模型,于造模前1周至造模后3天共10天内给予具活血化瘀、开窍明目功效的优视胶囊灌胃,18只造模眼随机分为模型组、低剂量组和高剂量组,每组6眼,与18只正常眼进行对照。实验过程中测量眼压并行视网膜神经节细胞计数。结果:①造模后即可获得平均眼压高于6.83kPa并能持续3天以上的高眼压动物模型,优视胶囊高、低剂量组表现出轻微的降眼压作用。②持续性的高眼压可造成视网膜神经节细胞减少,但高、低剂量组经优视胶囊治疗后高眼压模型眼神经节细胞数高于模型组,提示优视胶囊具有保护或改善急性高眼压后兔眼视网膜神经节细胞的作用。结论:优视胶囊对急性高眼压兔眼视网膜视神经具有保护的作用。%Objective:To observe the effects of Youshi capsule on the intraocular pressure(IOP) and retinal ganglion cells(RGC) of rabbits under artificial acute intraocular hypertension.Methods:We used episcleral veins ligation on rabbit to establish an acute intraocular hypertension animal model devised by ourselves. Between one week before and 3 days after the models were induced, Youshi capsule was irrigated into the stomachs, having the function of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis,opening porus and improving vision. 18 model-established eyes were randomly divided into model group, high and low dosage group(6 eyes each group) and compared with other 18 normal eyes. Then examined IOP and counted RGC.Results:①Acute intraocular hypertension animal model was produced just after model was established and its average IOP above 6.83kPa could maintain 3 days. High and low dosage Youshi capsule showed slight effect on the reduction of IOP in intraocluar

  10. Efeitos da infusão contínua de cetamina sobre a pressão intra-ocular em cães hipovolêmicos anestesiados com desflurano Effects of continuous infusion of ketamine on intraocular pressure in hypovolemic dogs during desflurane anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Honsho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se os efeitos de duas doses de cetamina, administradas em infusão contínua, sobre a pressão intra-ocular (PIO de 18 cães submetidos à hipovolemia e à anestesia com desflurano. Promoveu-se a hipovolemia em todos os cães, retirando-se 40 ml de sangue/kg de peso. A anestesia foi induzida com desflurano, através de máscara facial, até que a intubação orotraqueal fosse permitida. Decorridos 30 minutos, para estabilização dos parâmetros, iniciou-se a infusão contínua de cetamina. Os cães foram distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em três grupos (n= 6. O grupo I (controle recebeu solução salina estéril; o grupo II (GII recebeu cetamina, na dose de 100mig/kg/min, e o grupo III (GIII, cetamina na dose de 200mig/kg/min. A PIO foi medida por tonometria de aplanação. Foram mensurados freqüência cardíaca (FC, ritmo cardíaco, pressão arterial média (PAM, débito cardíaco (DC, pressão venosa central (PVC e pressão parcial de CO2 no final da expiração (ETCO2. O desflurano não influenciou os resultados da PIO, porém observou-se discreta ação da cetamina em todos os grupos. Foi possível estabelecer relação direta entre os valores de PIO e de ETCO2. A PIO apresentou relação direta somente com a ETCO2.Effects of two dosages of continuous infusion of ketamine on the intraocular pressure (IOP of 18 dogs, subjected to hypovolemia and anesthesia with desflurane were studied. Hypovolemia was induced in all dogs by withdrawal of 40ml of blood/kg of body weight. Initially, anesthesia was induced through face mask and then by tracheal intubation. After a delay of 30 minutes, for parameters stabilization, continuous infusion of ketamine was initiated. Dogs were randomly allotted in three groups (n =6: group I (control group received continuous infusion of saline solution, group II received 100mug/kg/min of ketamine and group III received 200mug/kg/min of ketamine. IOP was measured by applanation tonometry. It was not possible

  11. Influence of gross saponins from tribulus terrestris L on SOD activity and MDA content for chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit%白蒺藜皂苷对慢性高眼压兔视网膜SOD活性和MDA含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李诺; 黄丽娜; 曾平

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To observe influence of gross saponins from tribulus terrestris L (GSTT) on SOD activity and MDA content for chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit, and discusses the retina oxidative damage inhibition on chronic high intraocular pressure model of rabbit. METHODS: Totally 24 healthy New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups; normal control group (A group); high intraocular pressure model blank group (B group); high intraocular pressure model with GSTT treated group (C group); high intraocular pressure model with Erigeron brevicapas hand mass ( EBHM) treated group (D group). High intraocular pressure model was induced by 20g/L methylcellulose injection into the anterior chamber in B group, C group and D group. D group was injected 5 mg/kg GSTT and C group was injected 4. 5mg/kg EBHM and measured intraocular pressure with Schiotz tonometer every day for 4 weeks. The retina tissue superoxide dismutase (SOD) and maleic dialdehyde(MDA) content were detected 28 days later. RESULTS: After glaucoma model of rabbit eyes were established, the intraocular pressure during observation period was maintained in 32-39mmHg; High intraocular pressure model blank group and normal control group, EBHM treatment group, GSTT treatment group were compared, the differences of retina MDA, SOD content had statistical significance (P0. 05); EBHM treatment group, GSTT te atment group and normal o ntrol group were compared, the content of MDA in the retina was still slightly higher (P0.05),EBHM治疗组、GSTT组与正常对照组比较视网膜中MDA的含量仍略高(P<0.05),SOD的含量略降低(P<0.05).结论:白蒺藜皂苷能有效提高慢性高眼压下兔视网膜中SOD活性,降低MDA含量,从而对持续性高眼压视网膜氧化应激具有保护作用.

  12. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 2% dorzolamide and 0.5% betaxolol in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure. Dorzolamide Comparison Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, C; Sharpe, E; Laurence, J; Polis, A; Adamsons, I

    1998-01-01

    A multicenter, parallel-design, randomized, double-masked study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of 2% dorzolamide with those of 0.5% betaxolol in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (i.o.p). A total of 311 adults with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma were randomly allocated to receive either 2% dorzolamide administered topically TID or 0.5% betaxolol administered topically BID plus placebo administered topically QD for 12 weeks. After the washout of previous ocular hypotensive drugs, patients with IOP > or = 23 mm Hg in at least one eye at 10 AM or 4 PM on study day 1 were randomly allocated to receive one of the study treatments. Throughout the study, IOP was measured 2 and 8 hours after instillation of study medication for the morning peak effect (hour 2) and afternoon trough effect (hour 8). After 12 weeks of therapy, the mean change in IOP was not significantly different between the dorzolamide and betaxolol treatment groups at hour 8 (-3.6 mm Hg in both groups) or hour 2 (-5.4 vs -5.3 mm Hg, respectively). The differences between treatments (and 95% CIs associated with these differences) in mean IOP changes from baseline were 0.02 mm Hg (-0.870 to 0.901) for hour 8 and -0.14 mm Hg (-0.959 to 0.685) for hour 2. The ocular adverse experience (AE) most frequently reported by patients was ocular burning and/or stinging, and the most frequently reported nonocular AEs were taste perversion, upper respiratory infection, and headache. Only the incidence of taste perversion was significantly different between treatment groups (14.6% for the dorzolamide group and 0.0% for the betaxolol group). Two percent of patients in each treatment group discontinued the study due to AEs. This study confirmed the similar IOP-lowering effect of 2% dorzolamide and 0.5% betaxolol. Both treatments were generally well tolerated, and their safety profiles were similar. PMID:9663361

  13. Intraocular pressure-lowering effects of commonly used fixed-combination drugs with timolol: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Wei Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The first goal of medical therapy in glaucoma is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP, and the fixed-combination medications are needed to achieve sufficiently low target IOP. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate IOP-lowering effect of the commonly used fixed-combination drugs containing 0.5% timolol. METHODS: Pertinent publications were identified through systematic searches. Over 85% of the patients had to be diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension (OHT. Forty-one randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. The main efficacy measures were the absolute and relative values of mean diurnal IOP reduction, and the highest and lowest IOP reductions on the diurnal IOP curve. The pooled 1- to 3-month IOP-lowering effects after a medicine-free washout period was calculated by performing meta-analysis using the random effects model, and relative treatment effects among different fixed combinations were assessed using a mixed-effects meta-regression model. RESULTS: The relative reductions for mean diurnal IOP were 34.9% for travoprost/timolol, 34.3% for bimatoprost/timolol, 33.9% for latanoprost/timolol, 32.7% for brinzolamide/timolol, 29.9% for dorzolamide/timolol, and 28.1% for brimonidine/timolol. For the highest IOP decrease, relative reductions ranged from 31.3% for dorzolamide/timolol to 35.5% for travoprost/timolol; for the lowest IOP decrease, those varied from 25.9% for dorzolamide/timolol to 33.1% for bimatoprost/timolol. Both latanoprost/timolol and travoprost/timolol were more effective in lowering mean diurnal IOP than brimonidine/timolol (WMD: 5.9 and 7.0 and dorzolamide/timolol (WMD: 3.8 and 3.3. CONCLUSIONS: All six commonly used fixed-combination drugs containing timolol can effectively lower IOP in patients with POAG and OHT, and both latanoprost/timolol and travoprost/timolol might achieve better IOP-lowering effects among the six fixed

  14. Surgical induced astigmatism correlated with corneal pachymetry and intraocular pressure: transconjunctival sutureless 23-gauge versus 20-gauge sutured vitrectomy in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Shao; Li-Jie; Dong; Yan; Zhang; Hui; Liu; Bo-Jie; Hu; Ju-Ping; Liu; Xiao-Rong; Li

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the difference of surgical induced astigmatism between conventional 20-gauge sutured vitrectomy and 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy, and the influence of corneal pachymetry and intraocular pressure(IOP) on surgical induced astigmatism in diabetic patients.METHODS: This retrospective, consecutive case series consisted of 40 eyes of 38 diabetic subjects who underwent either 20-gauge or 23-gauge vitrectomy. The corneal curvature and thickness were measured with Scheimpflug imaging before surgery and 1wk; 1, 3mo after surgery. We compared the surgical induced astigmatism(SIA) on the true net power in 23-gauge group with that in 20-gauge group. We determined the correlation between corneal thickness change ratio, IOP and SIA measured by Pentacam. RESULTS: The mean SIAs were 1.082 ±0.085 D( mean ± SEM), 0.689 ±0.070 D and 0.459 ±0.063 D at postoperative 1wk; 1, 3mo respectively in diabetic subjects. The vitrectomy induced astigmatisms were declined significantly with time(F2,36=33.629, P =0.000)postoperatively. The 23-gauge surgery group induced significantly less astigmatism than 20-gauge surgery group(F1,37=11.046, P =0.020). Corneal thickness in diabetes elevated after surgery(F3,78=10.532, P =0.000).The linear regression analysis at postoperatively 1wk went as: SIA =-4.519 +4.931 change ratio(Port3) +0.026IOP(R2=0.46, P =0.000), whereas the rate of cornealthickness change and IOP showed no correlation with the change of astigmatism at postoperatively 1 and 3mo.CONCLUSION: There are significant serial changes in both 20-gauge and 23-gauge group in diabetic subjects.23-gauge induce less astigmatism than 20-gauge and become stable more rapidly than 20-gauge. The elevation of corneal thickness and IOP was associated with increased astigmatim at the early postoperative stage both in 23-gauge and 20-gauge surgery group.

  15. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. The patient was subsequently managed with intravitreal methotrexate in both eyes and responded favorably. Central nervous system workup for lymphoma was negative. Conclusion: Primary intraocular lymphoma should be considered in young adults suffering from chronic recalcitrant panuveitis.

  16. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrdad Karimi; Masoud Soheilian; Mozhgan Rezaei Kanavi

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lympho...

  17. Bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viney Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular dirofilariasis mostly presents as a subconjunctival or eyelid lesion. [1] Intraocular dirofilarial infestation is rare. [2],[3] We report a case of a young woman who was accidentally detected to have a live motile worm in the anterior segment in one eye and a cystic lesion on the optic disc in the other eye. To our knowledge, bilateral intraocular dirofilariasis has never been reported.

  18. 局部麻醉剂引起的眼压改变%Changes in intraocular pressure after topical anaesthetic instillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier A Montero; Jose M Ruiz-Moreno; Marta Fernandez-Munoz; M.Isabel Rodriguez-Palacios

    2006-01-01

    · AIM: To determine the influence of topical anaesthetic drops, age and central corneal thickness (CCT) in the determination of intraocular pressure (IOP) by non contact tonometry (NCT). · METHODS: Ninety-three eyes from 47 patients were examined for CCT and lOP by NCT before and after the instillation of topical anaesthetic drops.· RESULTS: Average age was 66.4 (SD 16, range 34 to 88years-of-age). Thirty one patients were female and 16 were male. Average basal IOP was 16.0 mmHg (SD 4.0, range 8.5to 26.1). IOP pressure one minute after topical anesthesia instillation was 15.0 mmHg (SD 3.8, range 7.7 to 26.7), and 14.9 mm Hg (SD 3.9, range 7.6 to 26.3) five minutes after the instillation. The differences were statistically significant for the 0 to 1 minute lapse (P=0.0007) and for the 0 to 5minute lapse (P=0.0003), but not for the 1 to 5 minute lapse (P=0.27) (Student's t test for paired data). Average CCT before topical anaesthetic drops was 565.4 microns. Simple linear regression analysis demonstrated absence of significant variation between age and IOP changes and between CCT and IOP changes,· CONCLUSION: Our study confirms that the instillation of topical anaesthetics causes a reduction in IOP, which is progressive during the first 5 minutes after instillation. This IOP reduction does not seem to be associated with basal CCT or age.%目的:确定局麻药,年龄和角膜中央厚度对非接触眼压计眼压测量值的影响.方法:记录47例93眼滴局麻药前后角膜中央厚度和非接触眼压计眼压测量值.结果:在47例中女31例,男16例;平均年龄66.4岁(标准差16,范围34~88岁);平均基础眼压16.0 mmHg(标准差4.0,范围8.5~26.1 mmHg).滴局麻药后1 min平均眼压16.0 mmHg(标准差3.8,范围7.7~26.7 mmHg),5 min平均眼压14.9 mmHg(标准差3.9,范围7.6~26.3).0~1 min(P=0.0007)和0~5 min(P=0.0003)的数值差异有统计学意义,1~5 min(P=0.27)的数值差异无统计学意义(配对资料t检验).滴局麻

  19. 49 CFR 173.301b - Additional general requirements for shipment of UN pressure receptacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional general requirements for shipment of UN....301b Additional general requirements for shipment of UN pressure receptacles. (a) General. The... gases in UN pressure receptacles. A UN pressure receptacle, including closures, must conform to...

  20. Vanadium and niobium additions in pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Peiyuan.

    1992-01-01

    A statistically designed series of vanadium and niobium microalloyed C-Mn HSLA steels was used for an investigation of heat-affected zone (HAZ) toughness in multipass welds. The vanadium additions were in the range 0.005 to 0.097 Wt.% and the niobium additions were in the range 0.004 to 0.06 Wt.%. GMAW processes with welding heat inputs of 3kJ/mm and 5kJ/mm and post-weld heat treatments (PWHT) at additions of microalloy elements V and Nb on multipass HAZ toughness in the as-welded and PWHT conditions was confirmed. the 50 Joule transition temperature (TT50J) for HAZs in all weld conditions correlated with maximum HAZ hardness. Increases in HAZ hardness and TT50J caused by PWHT were observed. Hence PWHT is not recommended for V/Nb microalloyed HLSA steels. The randomly distributed precipitation of V and Nb carbides (V,Nb)C, including dislocation precipitation and matrix precipitation with particle sizes of 5-15nm, is the predominant alloy carbide precipitate morphology in these steels. Banded morphology of (V,Nb)C precipitation is rarely observed in the HAZ. The volume fraction of (V,Nb)C precipitates increases as increasing V and/or Nb contents in the experimental heats. The volume fraction of precipitates also increases with increasing the PWHT time. The crack initiation sites in Charpy specimens of HAZs tested at the approximate transition temperature are shifted from the highest stress triaxiality location to a higher hardness location. This is found to be characteristic of fracture in the multipass HAZ of the microalloyed steel. An analytical study shows that the influences of additions of microalloy elements V and Nb on yield stress, [sigma][sub y8], and fracture stress, [sigma][sub f], eventuate in the increase of transition temperature in these materials.

  1. Comparison of the Effects of Dorzolamide/Timolol Fixed Combination versus Latanoprost on Intraocular Pressure and Ocular Perfusion Pressure in Patients with Normal-Tension Glaucoma: A Randomized, Crossover Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Young Lee

    Full Text Available To assess the noninferiority of a dorzolamide-timolol fixed combination (DTFC versus latanoprost in terms of intraocular pressure (IOP and to compare blood pressure (BP, ocular perfusion pressure (OPP and diastolic ocular perfusion pressure (DOPP between the latanoprost and DTFC groups in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG.Prospective, interventional, randomized, single-blinded, crossover design study. Patients with newly diagnosed NTG that had not been treated with a glaucoma medication in the most recent 2 months were recruited. In total, 44 patients with NTG were randomly allocated to one of two groups. Patients in group A were treated with DTFC, lubricant, and latanoprost for 4 weeks each, whereas patients in group B were treated with latanoprost, lubricant, and DTFC for 4 weeks each. Patients were examined on day 1 (without medication, week 4 (under medication, week 8 (without medication, and week 12 (under medication. At weeks 4 and 12, diurnal IOP, systolic and diastolic BP, and OPP were measured at 8:00 AM, 10:00 AM, 12:00 PM, 4:00 PM, and 8:00 PM.Baseline demographic characteristics showed no difference in terms of age, sex, central corneal thickness, spherical equivalent, or stage of glaucoma between the groups. The between-group difference was -0.19 ± 0.18 mmHg (mean ± SE, upper bound of one-sided 95% CI, 0.12. Diurnal IOP showed no difference between the groups with an average IOP reduction of 13.1% using latanoprost and 12.3% using DTFC. Diurnal systolic and diastolic BP were lower in the DTFC group than the latanoprost group; however, the difference between the groups was not statistically significant. Diurnal OPP and DOPP also showed no statistically significant difference between the groups.IOP lowering efficacy of DTFC was noninferior to that of latanoprost in newly diagnosed NTG patients. There was no difference in BP, OPP, or DOPP between the latanoprost and DTFC groups. This prospective, randomized, single

  2. Vanadium and columbium additions in pressure vessel steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, P.; Somers, B.R.; Pense, A.W. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). ATLSS Center

    1994-09-01

    A statistically designed series of vanadium and columbium microalloyed C-Mn HSLA steels was used for an investigation of heat-affected zone (HAZ) toughness in post weld heat treated (PWHT) multi-pass welds. The vanadium additions were in the range 0.005 to 0.097 Wt.% and the columbium additions were in the range 0.004 to 0.06 Wt.% GMAW processes with welding heat inputs of 3kJ/mm and 5kJ/mm and post-weld heat treatments at 620 C for 2 10 hours were employed. A degradation of the HAZ toughness with additions of microalloy elements V and Cb in the as-welded and PWHT conditions was revealed. The 50 Joule (37 ft-lb) transition temperature (TT50J) for HAZs in all weld conditions correlated with maximum HAZ hardness. Increases in HAZ hardness and TT50J caused by PWHT were observed. Hence PWHT in some situations may not beneficial for V/Cb microalloyed HLSA steels. The randomly distributed precipitation of V and Cb carbides (V, Cb)C, including dislocation precipitation and matrix precipitation with particle sizes of 5--15 nm, is the predominant alloy carbide precipitate morphology in these steels. The crack initiation sites in Charpy specimens of HAZs tested at the approximate transition temperature are shifted from the highest stress triaxiality, mid-specimen location to an off center higher hardness location. This is found to be characteristic of fracture in the multipass HAZ of the microalloyed steel.

  3. A comparative study of central corneal thickness (CCT and intraocular pressure (IOP in University of KwaZulu-Natal students of Black and Indian ethnicity*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Sardiwalla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Thisstudy compared central corneal thickness (CCT and intraocular pressure (IOP of Black and Indian students from the University of Kwa-Zulu-Natal. Two hundred (100 Black and 100 Indi-an participants of both genders aged 18-25 years (mean and standard deviation; 20.1±1.6 years participated in this study. CCT and IOP were measured for the right eye of each participant using a Tono-Pachymeter (NT530P and a Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT respectively. Data was analyzed with descriptive, t-test and Pearson’s cor-relation statistics. In the total sample (N = 200, the mean CCT value was 519.5 ± 38.6 μm and CCT was higher in the Indians (526.5 ± 37.2 µm than in the Blacks (512.4 ± 38.9 µm (p = 0.01.  Also, it was higher in the females (522.3 µm than in males (516.7 µm, but the difference was insignificant (p = 0.07. The mean CCT was higher in the Indian males (520.1 µm than in the Black males (513.2 µm, but the difference was insignificant (p=0.39.  However, it was significantly higher in the Indian females (533 µm than in the Black females (511.6 µm (p = 0.003. In the total sample, the mean IOP was 14.6 mmHg and IOP was greater in Indiansthan Blacks (mean = 15.3 ± 2.9 mmHg and 13.8 ± 2.6 mmHg respectively (p = 0.01. Also, the mean IOP (N = 200 value was slightly higher in the females (14.7 mmHg than in males (14.5 mmHg (p = 0.51. The mean IOP was higher in the Indian males (15.0 mmHg than in the Black males (14.0 mmHg (p = 0.07 and the mean IOP value was higher in the Indian females (15.7 mmHg than in the Black females (13.6 mmHg (p < 0.001. The higher mean IOP value in the Indian than Black participants was attributed to the higher mean CCT values. A positive, but inconsistent association between CCT and IOP was found in this study, the coefficient in the total sample (r = 0.382, p = 0.000, in the Blacks (r = 0.196, p = 0.05 and in Indians (r = 0.498, p = 0.000. A national population study comparing CCT and IOP in the various

  4. 硅油注入后高眼压的治疗策略%Therapy for elevated intraocular pressure after silicone oil tamponade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张歆; 梁四妥; 杨艳; 赵华; 徐深

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze intraocular pressure (IOP) after silicone oil tamponade for one month.Methods This is a retrospective study.There were 46 cases (46 eyes) from 2004 to 2011 registered in our hospital who accepted vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade,after one month later,who had elevated IOP.We compared the rate of elevated IOP between two types of silicon oil tamponade for one month,as well as the treatment for elevated IOP.x2 test was used to analyze the results.Result The time for light silicon oil removal was three months ( the rate is 68.8% ) after the operation,and after the second surgery the IOP could be normal.And the time for heavy silicon oil removal was two months (the rate is 64.3% ),then the IOP could be normal.The two results had no statistical differences.But the rate of glaucoma surgery after heavy silicone oil tamponade was higher than that of light silicone oil tamponade.And this result had statistical difference.Conclusion The rate of elevated IOP after light or heavy silicone oil tamponade after one month was the same.The rate of glaucoma surgery after heavy silicone oil tamponade was higher than that of light silicone oil tamponade.%目的 回顾性分析轻重硅油注入术后1个月高眼压的发生及其治疗策略.方法 玻切+轻/重硅油注入术后1个月发生高眼压共46例(46眼).对两种硅油注入术后1个月高眼压的发生率进行分析对比,且对高眼压的处理方式进行对比.结果用x2检验进行分析.结果 轻硅油注入术后取油的时机一般在3个月(68.8%)左右,取出后高眼压可以降至正常范围;重硅油在2个月左右取油(64.3%),取出后高眼压可以降至正常范围.二者没有统计学差异.但重硅油注入术后因高眼压行抗青光眼手术的比例较轻硅油者高,差异有统计学意义.结论 轻重硅油注入术后1个月高眼压的发生率没有统计学差异,但重硅油引起的高眼压最终行抗青光眼手术的比例较轻硅油者高.

  5. Effect of 3 years of treatment with a dorzolamide/timolol (1%/0.5% combination on intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeda S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sakurako Takeda,1,2 Tatsuya Mimura,1 Masao Matsubara1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nippori Clinic, Medical Center East, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the effect on the intraocular pressure (IOP of a dorzolamide/timolol (1%/0.5% fixed combination (DTFC ophthalmic agent for 3 years.Participants: A total of 19 consecutive patients who had previously been treated with monotherapy or any combination of a beta-blocker, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, or prostaglandin analog, for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG (n=5 or normal tension glaucoma (N=14 were enrolled.Methods: Patients were switched to DTFC from their prior glaucoma therapy. The IOP was measured at intervals of 4–6 weeks for 3 years. Treatment failure was defined as an increase of IOP by ≥10% from baseline after switching to DTFC.Results: The average IOP decreased significantly from 14.1±2.9 mmHg at baseline to 12.2±2.2, 11.8±2.4, 12.1±2.5, 11.6±1.8, and 12.1±2.7 mmHg at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after switching therapy (all P<0.05. The mean percent decrease of IOP was 12.0%±13.0%, 14.5%±14.2%, 12.2%±18.7%, 16.0%±12.8%, and 12.8%±15.2% at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after switching. Univariate or multivariate analysis revealed the percent decrease of IOP was associated with the type of glaucoma (POAG at 3 and 12 months, and with the baseline IOP at 3, 12, 24, and 36 months. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that the percentage of patients who remained on treatment with DTFC was 94.7%, 94.7%, 84.2%, 78.9%, and 78.9% at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that the type of glaucoma (POAG was associated with an increased risk of failure to control the IOP.Conclusion: The IOP-lowering effect of DTFC was demonstrated for 3 years in this

  6. Efeitos da leitura, exercício e exercício sob leitura na pressão intra-ocular de portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto ou hipertensão ocular controlados clinicamente com medicação tópica Effects of reading, exercise and exercise combined with reading on intraocular pressure for patients sustaining primary glaucoma (open angle or ocular hypertension, both clinically controlled with topic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maria Corrêa Medina

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a pressão intra-ocular (Po em indivíduos usuários de análogos de prostaglandina, prostamida ou beta-bloqueador em portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto ou hipertensão ocular após leitura, exercício e exercício sob leitura. MÉTODOS: Quarenta indivíduos (79 olhos, subdivididos em 5 grupos: G1 (portadores de hipertensão arterial e glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular usando análogos de prostaglandinas ou prostamidas; G2 (portadores de hipertensão arterial e glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular usando beta-bloqueador; G3 (indivíduos sem hipertensão arterial e portadores de glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular em uso de análogos de prostaglandinas ou prostamidas; G4 (indivíduos sem hipertensão arterial e portadores de glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular em uso de beta-bloqueador e G5 (indivíduos sem hipertensão arterial e sem glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular, tiveram a pressão intra-ocular verificada antes e após realizarem leitura, exercício e exercício sob leitura. Cada teste foi realizado em dia distinto e sempre no período vespertino. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na média da pressão intra-ocular inicial e final nos diferentes grupos do estudo quando submetidos à leitura, exercício e exercício sob leitura. CONCLUSÃO: Ler e fazer exercícios individualmente ou concomitantemente, não representa fator de agravo da pressão intra-ocular em portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto ou hipertensão ocular em usuários de análogos de prostaglandinas ou prostamidas ou beta-bloqueador.PURPOSE: To check intraocular pressure (IOP in individuals using prostaglandin, prostamide or beta-blocker analogues, who sustain either primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension after reading, exercise or exercise combined with reading. METHODS: 40 individuals (79 eyes, subdivided in to five groups: G1 (with arterial hypertension and either glaucoma or ocular hypertension, all

  7. Arnold-Chiari畸形手术中眼内压的变化%Changes of intraocular pressure in surgical treatment of Arnold-Chiari malformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董媛媛; 蒋忠; 周路阳; 马正良

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察Arnold-Chiari畸形手术中眼内压的变化.方法 选择20例择期行Arnold-Chiari畸形手术的患者,分别于全身麻醉后5 min(T0)、俯卧位后5 min(T1)、俯卧位后30 min(T2)、俯卧位后60 min(T3)、手术结束前俯卧位(T4)、恢复平卧位5 min(T)、平卧位后30 min(T6)测量眼内压,同时记录各时间点平均动脉压(MAP)、心率(HR)、呼气末二氧化碳分压(PETCO2)的变化.俯卧位时,患者头部均采用颅骨钉固定于头架上.结果 术中各时间点MAP、HR、PETCO2比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);患者T1[(20.9±2.5)mm Hg(1mm Hg =0.133 kPa)]、T2[(17.7±1.7)mm Hg]、T3[(23.9±2.4)mm Hg]、T4[(26.3±1.0)mm Hg]眼内压较T0[(9.5±1.5)mm Hg]明显升高(P<0.05),T3较T2明显升高(P<0.05),T4较T3明显升高(P< 0.05);T5(18.6±1.8)mm Hg]较T4明显降低(P<0.05),但相对T0仍明显升高(P< 0.05);T6[(10.3±1.7)mm Hg]基本恢复到T0水平;颅骨钉的置入可能有一过性加剧眼内压升高的可能,T1眼内压较T2明显升高(P<0.05).结论 ArnoldChiari畸形手术中随着体位改变患者眼内压逐渐升高,颅骨钉的置入可使眼内压一过性升高.%Objective To observe the changes of intraocular pressure(IOP)in surgical treatment of Arnold-Chiari malformation.Methods The IOP of 20 patients who underwent surgical treatment of ArnoldChiari malformation were detected by Tono-Pen tonometer at 5 min utes after general anesthesia(T0),5 minutes after prone position(T1),30 minutes after prone position(T2),60 minutes after prone position(T3),prone position before the end of operation(T4),5 minutes after recovery prostration position(Ts)and 30 minutes after prostration position(T6),mean aortic pressure(MAP),heart rate(HR)and partial pressure of carbon dioxide in end tidal(PETCO2)were recorded at the same time.With the prone position,head was fixed bead-holder with skull pin.Results There was no statistical difference in MAP,HR,PEtCO2 at each time point(P> 0

  8. Meta analysis on effect of caffeine on intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma%咖啡因对青光眼患者眼压影响的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海波; 易虹; 刘鑫; 代喻兵

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价咖啡因对青光眼患者眼压的影响。方法通过计算机检索 The Cochrane Library、PubMed、Embase、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、中国科技期刊全文数据库(VIP)、万方数据库、中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)从建库至2014年9月的相关文献,纳入口服咖啡因咖啡的随机对照试验(RCT),用RevMan5.2软件对咖啡因对青光眼患者眼压的影响进行M eta分析。结果共纳入3个研究,均为交叉试验。M eta分析结果显示,青光眼患者口服咖啡因咖啡后1 h (W M D1.58,95% C I 0.70~2.47)及1.5 h (W M D1.46,95% C I 1.20~1.72)眼压均有升高。结论咖啡因有升高青光眼患者眼压的作用。%Objective To evaluate the effect of caffeine on intraocular pressure in the patients with glaucoma . Methods The related literatures in the Cochrane Library ,PubMed ,Embase ,CNKI ,VIP ,Wan Fang database and CBM from the establishment to September 2014 were retrieved ,then the included randomized controlled trial(RCT) on the effect of caffeine on intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma were performed the Meta analysis by using RevMan 5 .2 software .Results A total of 3 crossover trials were included .The results of Meta analysis showed that the intraocular pressure(IOP) was elevated at 1 h (WMD 1 .58 ,95% CI 0 .70 -2 .47) ,1 .5 h (WMD 1 .46 ,95% CI 1 .20-1 .72) after orally taking caffeine in glaucoma patients .Conclusion The caffeine has the effect for elevating IOP in the patients with glaucoma .

  9. 快速眼压波动对大鼠眼部血流动力学的影响%Intraocular pressure rapid fluctuation affects rat ocular hemodynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢茂松; 郑永征; 刘新秀; 徐国兴

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of intraocular pressure(IOP)rapid fluctuations on rat ocular hemodynamics. Methods SD rat model with IOP rapid fluctuations was established. The IOP was decreased from 12 mm Hg (1 mm Hg=0. 133 kPa) to 0 mm Hg within 1 s. 2 minutes later, the IOP was increased from 0 mm Hg to 12 mm Hg within 1 s. The anterior segment photos of rats were taken by slit lamp image analysis system when IOP at 12 mm Hg and 0 mm Hg, while the iris vessels diameter (VD) was measured. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), mean velocity (MV), resistant index (RI), pulsatility index (PI) and VD of rats central retinal artery (CRA) and central retinal vein (CRV) were detected and analyzed using color Doppler ultrasonography before and 5, 10, 20, 60s after IOP fluctuations. Results The iris VD was (28.30±5.80) or (59.80±6.40) μm when the IOP was 12 or 0 mm Hg, respectively. Compared with each other, the difference was statistically significant (t=8. 98,P<0.01). When the IOP decreased rapidly, the VD of iris, CRA and CRV expanded immediately; PSV,EDV and MV increased immediately, then decreased slowly; RI and PI decreased immediately. The differences among different periods were statistically significant (P<0.01). The change magnitudes of CRA were bigger than those of CRV. Conversely, when the IOP increased rapidly, the VD of iris, CRA and CRV reduced immediately; PSV, EDV and MV decreased immediately; RI and PI increased immediately. The differences among different periods were statistically significant (P < 0. 01). ConclusionIOP rapid fluctuations can induce dramatic fluctuation of rat ocular hemodynamics.%目的 观察快速眼压波动对大鼠眼部血流动力学的影响。方法 建立快速眼压波动Sprague-Dawley大鼠模型。其眼压在1 s内由12 mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa)下降至0 mm Hg,2 min后于1 s内由0 mm Hg上升至12 mm Hg。采用裂隙灯图像分析系统拍摄大鼠眼压12 mm Hg及0 mm Hg时眼前

  10. Effects of Mirtogenol® on ocular blood flow and intraocular hypertension in asymptomatic subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Steigerwalt, Robert D; Gianni, Belcaro; Paolo, Morazzoni; Bombardelli, Ezio; Burki, Carolina; Schönlau, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The most important variable risk factor for developing glaucoma is intraocular hypertension. Timely lowering of high intraocular pressure (IOP) significantly lowers the likelihood of developing glaucoma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the food supplement Mirtogenol® (Mirtoselect® and Pycnogenol®) on IOP and ocular blood flow in a product evaluation study. Methods Thirty-eight asymptomatic subjects with intraocular hypertension were either given Mirtogenol® (20 su...

  11. Pressures for Asymptotically Sub-additive Potentials Under a Mistake Function

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Wen-Chiao; Zhao, Yun; Cao, Yongluo

    2010-01-01

    This paper defines the pressure for asymptotically subadditive potentials under a mistake function, including the measuretheoretical and the topological versions. Using the advanced techniques of ergodic theory and topological dynamics, we reveals a variational principle for the new defined topological pressure without any additional conditions on the potentials and the compact metric space.

  12. Opaque intraocular lens implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf IH; Patel CK

    2013-01-01

    Imran H Yusuf, CK Patel The Oxford Eye Hospital, West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford, United KingdomWe read with great interest the recent article by Lee et al,1 who described their clinical experience with three patients who underwent primary implantation of Morcher (Stuttgart, Germany) occlusive intraocular lenses (IOLs) across a variety of neuro-ophthalmic indications. We hope to offer some further insight into these clinical observations in the context of o...

  13. claw intraocular lens

    OpenAIRE

    Gonnermann, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide range of alternative fixation techniques of intraocular lenses in the absence of adequate capsular support, such as angle- or iris-supported anterior chamber lenses and intra- / transsclerally-fixated (suture, fibrin glue, etc.) and iris-supported posterior chamber lenses. All procedures have different advantages and disadvantages depending on the anatomical situation and integrity of the capsular bag complex and the neighboring structures such as the iris, sclera and corneal ...

  14. Phakic Intraocular lens- a review

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Francisco Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intraocular refractive procedures with the implantation of a Phakic Intraocular lens have become a safe efficient and predictable alternative for treating high ametropias when the use of corneal photoablative procedures is not possible. The implantation of Phakic intraocular lens preservs the accomodative function,is a reversable refractive procedure, with minimal induction of higher order aberrations compaed with corneal photoablative procedures. Methods: An analytical review o...

  15. Development and Outlook of Wireless Implantable Continuously Intraocular Pressure Detection Microsystems%无线植入式连续眼内压检测微系统发展与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德盟; 吴淼; 梅年松; 张钊锋

    2013-01-01

    The implantable intraocular pressure detection microsystem is a system which can be implanted in eyes to detect intraocular pressure continuously and transmit the signal to outside. The system is summarized according to the research progress of the system in recent years. The principle and development of LC oscillation and SoC structure always used in the system are introduced, and the main technical indexes, fabrication process and existing problems are analyzed. Based on bioelectromagnetics, MEMS technology and IC technology, the development status, existing problems and breakthrough directions of the key technologies such as antenna, circuit system and pressure sensor are analyzed. Then the application level problems such as biological compatibility materials and implant position are summarized and prospected. At last, the development direction of the system is prospected according to the existing problems of the system.%植入式眼压检测微系统是一种植入到眼内进行眼内压连续检测并通过电磁波传输到体外的微系统.根据该系统近些年的研究进展对该系统进行综述,介绍了该系统常采用的LC振荡结构和SoC结构的原理和发展历程,并对其主要技术指标和制作工艺以及存在问题进行论述;结合生物电磁效应、MEMS技术和集成电路技术等,综合分析了SoC系统的天线、电路系统和压力传感器等关键技术的发展现状、存在的问题和突破方向;对生物兼容性材料和植入位置等应用层面进行总结和展望;最后根据对该系统存在问题的总结,对该系统的发展趋势进行展望.

  16. Multifocal Toric Intraocular Lens for Traumatic Cataract in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Zeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A child suffering from traumatic cataract and corneal astigmatism of 2.14 D had a phacoemulsification operation and implantation of a ReSTOR Toric intraocular lens (IOL to correct the astigmatism. The primary outcome measurements were the uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, uncorrected near vision at 40 cm, intraocular pressure, spherical equivalent refraction, residual astigmatism, corneal astigmatism, presence of unusual optical phenomena, and use of spectacles. At 7 months postoperatively, UDVA was maintained between 16/20 and 24/20, near vision was between J1 and J3, residual spherical refraction was 0–0.37 D, and residual refractive cylinder was between 0 and 0.67 D. A multifocal toric IOL can provide the possibility of satisfactory vision for both distant and near conditions without the use of spectacles to meet children’s needs when studying and doing sports. Additionally, binocular vision can be reconstructed. This intervention, therefore, seems to be a satisfactory alternative.

  17. Sutureless, Glueless, Scleral Fixation of Single-Piece and Toric Intraocular Lens: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Aditya; Shah, Rachana; Kelkar, Jai; Kelkar, Shreekant; Arora, Ekta

    2015-01-01

    Sutureless, glueless, scleral fixation of an intraocular lens is a known technique of fixing a lens in the scleral pockets. However, this technique is applied to single-piece and toric lenses instead of 3-piece lenses, allowing the advantage of the use of premium lenses in patients with poor capsular support. Favourable results without complications of pigment dispersion, iris transillumination defects, dysphotopsia, elevated intraocular pressure, intraocular hemorrhage and cystoid macular edema with a well-centered, stable intraocular lens have been observed in the 3-month postoperative period in both cases.

  18. 有晶体眼人工晶体植入术后高眼压的临床分析%Clinical analysis of high intraocular pressure after implantable collamer lens implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐莉; 白淑玮; 马波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize the reasons of high intraocular pressure (IOP) after implantable collamer lens im-plantation, discuss the treatment and prevention method. Methods 108 eyes of 54 patients with high myopia in the Fourth Hospital of Xi'an from January 2011 to May 2014 were selected. All patients were given implantable collamer lens implantation, followed up for 3 months. The naked eye eyesight, best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, high arch of artificial crystal were observed. Results 1 day to 3 months af-ter surgery, all patients' naked eye eyesight achieved or exceeded the preoperative best corrected vision. 1 day after surgery, 13 eyes had intraocular hypertension, IOP ranged from 25-38.8 mmHg. After treatment of local and systemic IOP-lowering medication or anterior chamber puncture, IOP of 10 eyes had returned to normal levels 3 days after surgery, IOP of 2 eyes gradually decreased after stopping using glucocorticoid eye drops at the 7th day after surgery. IOP of 1 patient had bad-controlled 1 month after treatment, given intraocular lens replacement surgery. IOP of all pa-tients returned to normal after 3 months follow-up. 1 month after surgery, ultrasonic biological microscope measure showed that high arch of artificial crystal ranged from 0.5-1.04 mm, artificial lens had not been in contact with the lens itself. After 3 months follow-up, there was no lens opacity. Conclusion There are several reasons for high IOP after implantable collamer lens implantation. According to the etiology give corresponding treatment, intraocular pressure of patients will be back to normal.%目的:总结有晶体眼后房型人工晶体又称植入型接触镜(ICL)植入术后高眼压的发生原因,探讨其防治方法。方法收集2011年1月~2014年5月在西安市第四医院住院的高度近视患者54例(108眼),均行有晶体眼人工晶体植入术。术后随访3个月,随访项目包括裸眼视力

  19. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  20. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Mike A. (Albuquerque, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  1. Cytomegalovirus retinitis mimicking intraocular lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gooi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Patrick Gooi1, James Farmer2, Bernard Hurley3, Elliott Brodbaker41Department of Ophthalmology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine University of Ottawa and The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa Eye Institute and The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: We present a case of an unusual retinal infiltrate requiring retinal biopsy for definitive diagnosis. A 62-year-old man with treated lymphoma presented with decreased vision in the right eye associated with a white retinal lesion, which extended inferonasally from an edematous disc. Intraocular lymphoma was considered as a diagnosis; thus, the patient was managed with vitrectomy and retinal biopsy. Cytological analysis of the vitreous aspirate could not rule out a lymphoproliferative disorder. The microbial analysis was negative. Histology of the lesion showed extensive necrosis and large cells with prominent nucleoli. To rule out lymphoma, a battery of immunostains was performed and all were negative. However the limited amount of tissue was exhausted in the process. Subsequently, a hematoxylin and eosin (H/E slide was destained, on which a CMV immunostain was performed. This revealed positivity in the nuclei and intranuclear inclusions within the large atypical cells. A diagnosis of CMV retinitis was made. Retinal biopsy may provide a definitive diagnosis and direct patient care toward intravenous gancyclovir in the case of CMV or toward radiation and chemotherapy for intraocular lymphoma. When faced with a limited amount of tissue, destaining regular H/E slides is a possible avenue to performing additional immunohistochemical studies.Keywords: CMV retinitis, retinal biopsy, immunohistochemistry, destaining

  2. ROLLING CONTACT FATIGUE BEHAVIOR OF CERAMIC BALLS LUBRICATED BY LUBRICANTS WITH EXTREME PRESSURE ADDITIVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Feng; SONG Baoyu; QU Jianjun; LIU Weimin

    2006-01-01

    An experiment is conducted to investigate the effects of lubricant10#, which contains extreme pressure additives T304 and T305, on the rolling contact fatigue (RCF) life of the contact pairs of a Si3N4 ceramic ball and a steel rod. The experimental investigation is carried out using a ball-rod RCF test rig. The results show that the extreme pressure additives increase the anti-contact-fatigue performance of ceramic balls; When the content of the additives varies from 1% to 5%, the increasing gradient of the RCF life curve decreases; And the oil sample with 1% T305 additive corresponds to the maximal gradient of the RCF life curve, with the RCF life being increased by about 10.77 times.The fatigue surface of the ceramic ball is analyzed with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray electron dispersion analysis(EDAX), and the physical model of extreme pressure additives'increasing the RCF life of the ceramic ball is proposed. It is found that the extreme pressure additives form a corrosive film and a transfer film on the surface of the ceramic ball, which decrease the surface tangential stress, and to increase the surface energy is the most effective means for increasing the RCF life.

  3. Positional and Curvature Difference of Lamina Cribrosa According to the Baseline Intraocular Pressure in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Woo; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Park, Ki Ho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the variation of lamina cribrosa (LC) structure based on the baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and healthy individuals using swept-source optical coherence tomography. Methods A total of 108 eyes with POAG and 61 healthy eyes were recruited. Based on the baseline IOP, the POAG eyes were divided into higher-baseline IOP (HTG; baseline IOP > 21 mmHg, n = 38 eyes) and lower-baseline IOP (NTG; baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg, n = 70 eyes). The anterior laminar insertion depth (ALID), mean LC depth (mLCD), and the LC curvature index (mLCD–ALID) were measured, and compared among the three groups. The regional variation of LC structure was evaluated by vertical-horizontal ALID difference. Results The mLCD and LC curvature index were greatest in HTG eyes (520.3 ± 123.0 and 80.9 ± 30.7 μm), followed by NTG (463.2 ± 110.5 and 64.5 ± 30.7 μm) and healthy eyes (382.9 ± 107.6 and 47.6 ± 25.7 μm, all P optic play a role on glaucoma. PMID:27611970

  4. A combined analysis of four observational studies evaluating the intraocular pressure-lowering ability and tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Annemie; Iliev, Milko E; de Jong, Leo; Grobeiu, Ioana; Hommer, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Objective Combine and evaluate data from four clinical practice studies investigating the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering ability, tolerability of and patient adherence to bimatoprost 0.01% therapy in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods Data were combined from four multicenter, prospective, observational studies. Patients (n=2,593) were recruited from 328 sites in Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Assessments were at study entry (baseline) and after 10–14 weeks. Results Bimatoprost 0.01% lowered mean IOP by 5.0 mmHg from baseline to final visit (Pbimatoprost 0.01% monotherapy from previous monotherapy reduced mean IOP by a further 3.2±3.6 mmHg (17.2%, Pbimatoprost 0.01% from previous prostaglandin monotherapy reduced mean IOP by 2.9±3.5 mmHg (15.5%), including by 3.1±3.4 mmHg (15.8%) and 3.3±4.1 mmHg (16.9%) for previous latanoprost and travoprost treatment, respectively (all Pbimatoprost 0.01% lowered IOP effectively in treatment-naïve and previously treated ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma patients, and was associated with good tolerability and patient adherence over 12 weeks. PMID:27103783

  5. Correlação entre os achados à biomicroscopia ultra-sônica de bolhas filtrantes, com ou sem mitomicina C, e a pressão intra-ocular The correlation between ultrasound biomicroscopy of filtering blebs, with or without mitomycin C, and intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo Mundialino Marcon

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar, pela biomicroscopia ultra-sônica (UBM, a presença ou não de bolhas filtrantes antiglaucomatosas, observando sua cavidade, e suas diferenças no diâmetro, altura e espessura da parede, em olhos submetidos à cirurgia de trabeculectomia, com ou sem o uso de mitomicina C (MMC, e avaliar o efeito destas características sobre a pressão intra-ocular (Po. Métodos: De forma aleatória, em um estudo de coorte com duração de seis meses, foram examinados pela UBM 61 olhos de 44 pacientes portadores de glaucoma, submetidos à cirurgia de trabeculectomia, tendo 38 recebido a mitomicina C (MMC e 23 não. Todos os olhos foram examinados e avaliados no pós-operatório pelo UBM, com sonda de 50 MHz, utilizando a técnica descrita por Pavlin em 1991 (Pavlin et al., 1991. Resultados: A altura da bolha filtrante foi de 1,80 ± 0,74 mm nos olhos com MMC e de 1,40 ± 0,53 mm naqueles sem MMC. A espessura da parede da bolha foi de 0,91 ± 0,59 mm nos olhos que receberam a MMC e 0,51 ± 0,45 mm naqueles que não receberam. A Po foi de 12,37 ± 5,45 mmHg nos olhos com MMC e de 14,91 ± 5,48 mmHg nos que não receberam. Conclusões: O estudo pelo UBM demonstrou que foi a altura da bolha o elemento que mais influenciou na diminuição da Po. A espessura da parede foi significativamente maior nos olhos com MMC do que nos sem MMC. A diminuição da Po foi maior nos olhos em que foi utilizada a MMC, com uma diferença média de 2,54 mmHg.Purpose: To evaluate the presence or absence of filtering blebs, its cavities, differences in diameter, height, wall thickness, seen on ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM of eyes submited to trabeculectomy, with or without using mitomicyn C (MMC, and to evaluate the effect of these caracteristics on the intraocular pressure (IOP. Methods: In a nonrandomized fashion, a six-month cohort study of 61 eyes of 44 glaucoma patients examined by UBM, all of which underwent trabeculectomy. Of these, 38 received MMC and 23 did

  6. Intraocular coenurosis: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Ibechukwu, B. I.; Onwukeme, K. E.

    1991-01-01

    A case of intraocular coenurosis was clinically diagnosed and treated with praziquantel. The drug destroyed the coenurus, but vision was lost through toxic endophthalmitis and retinal detachment. There were no systemic side effects.

  7. Comparing the efficacy of the monocular trial treatment paradigm with multiple measurements of intraocular pressure before and after treatment initiation in primary open-angle glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Koulen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Rohit Krishna, Peter W DeBry, Corey W Waldman, Peter KoulenVision Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine, MO, USAAbstract: The monocular trial has been proposed as a test to help control for diurnal fluctuations in eye pressure when assessing medication effectiveness. We undertook a prospective study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the monocular trial as a test for determining the effectiveness of a glaucoma medicati...

  8. Methods of Measuring Vapor Pressures of Lubricants With Their Additives Using TGA and/or Microbalances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scialdone, John J.; Miller, Michael K.; Montoya, Alex F.

    1996-01-01

    The life of a space system may be critically dependent on the lubrication of some of its moving parts. The vapor pressure, the quantity of the available lubricant, the temperature and the exhaust venting conductance passage are important considerations in the selection and application of a lubricant. In addition, the oil additives employed to provide certain properties of low friction, surface tension, antioxidant and load bearing characteristics, are also very important and need to be known with regard to their amounts and vapor pressures. This paper reports on the measurements and analyses carried out to obtain those parameters for two often employed lubricants, the Apiezon(TM)-C and the Krytox(TM) AB. The measurements were made employing an electronic microbalance and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) modified to operate in a vacuum. The results have been compared to other data on these oils when available. The identification of the mass fractions of the additives in the oil and their vapor pressures as a function of the temperature were carried out. These may be used to estimate the lubricant life given its quantity and the system vent exhaust conductance. It was found that the Apiezon(TM)-C has three main components with different rates of evaporation while the Krytox(TM) did not indicate any measurable additive.

  9. Report From BPTCS Project Team On Evaluation Of Additive Manufacturing For Pressure Retaining Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawls, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-09-22

    ASME is evaluating the use of additive manufacturing (AM) for the construction of pressure equipment. The information in this report assesses available AM technologies for direct metal fabrication of pressure equipment. Background information is included in the report to provide context for those not experienced in AM technology. Only commercially available technologies for direct metal fabrication are addressed in the report because these AM methods are the only viable approaches for the construction of pressure equipment. Metal AM technologies can produce near-net shape parts by using multiple layers of material from a three dimensional (3D) design model of the geometry. Additive manufacturing of metal components was developed from polymer based rapid prototyping or 3D printing. At the current maturity level, AM application for pressure equipment has the potential to reduce delivery times and costs for complex shapes. AM will also lead to a reduction in the use of high cost materials, since parts can be created with corrosion resistant layers of high alloy material and structural layers of lower cost materials.

  10. A combined analysis of four observational studies evaluating the intraocular pressure-lowering ability and tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Annemie Stevens,1 Milko E Iliev,2 Leo de Jong,3 Ioana Grobeiu,4 Anton Hommer5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 4Allergan Holdings Ltd, Marlow, UK; 5Private Office, Vienna, Austria Objective: Combine and evaluate data from four clinical practice studies investigating the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering ability, tolerability of and patient adherence to bimatoprost 0.01% therapy in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods: Data were combined from four multicenter, prospective, observational studies. Patients (n=2,593 were recruited from 328 sites in Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Assessments were at study entry (baseline and after 10–14 weeks. Results: Bimatoprost 0.01% lowered mean IOP by 5.0 mmHg from baseline to final visit (P<0.0001. Individual IOP goals were achieved in 75.5% of patients. Results were similar in right and left eyes; right-eye data are presented here for brevity. The greatest mean IOP reduction was 6.7±4.7 mmHg (28.8% reduction from baseline to final visit, P<0.0001 in treatment-naïve patients. Switching to bimatoprost 0.01% monotherapy from previous monotherapy reduced mean IOP by a further 3.2±3.6 mmHg (17.2%, P<0.0001. Switching to bimatoprost 0.01% from previous prostaglandin monotherapy reduced mean IOP by 2.9±3.5 mmHg (15.5%, including by 3.1±3.4 mmHg (15.8% and 3.3±4.1 mmHg (16.9% for previous latanoprost and travoprost treatment, respectively (all P<0.0001. IOP reduction in patients previously treated with a fixed combination was 2.7±4.0 mmHg (14.2%, P<0.0001. The most commonly reported adverse events were conjunctival hyperemia (5.2% and eye irritation (4.7%. Tolerability was rated as “very good” or “good” by 90.1% of patients. Adherence was rated by

  11. Intraocular pressure change in young orthokeratology lens wearers%108例青少年近视患者配戴角膜塑形镜前后的眼压分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴艳; 杨丽萍; 黄振平; 王春红

    2012-01-01

    目的 近视眼有极高的发病率,文中通过108例青少年近视患者配戴角膜塑形镜前后的眼压变化,探讨角膜塑形镜对青少年眼压的影响.方法 对108例(190只眼)患者配戴角膜塑形镜前后的眼压、屈光度及中央角膜厚度变化进行测量,对结果进行统计学分析.结果 108例青少年近视患者配戴角膜塑形镜前后角膜中央厚度、角膜曲率、屈光度降低(P0.05).结论 青少年配戴角膜塑形镜会引起NCT测量数值降低,但不会引起眼压的降低.%Objective The incidence of myopia is high in the Chinese population. This stuffy aimed to investigate the intraocular pressure ( IOP ) change before and after orthokeratology lens wear. Methods Using non-contact tonometry ( NCT ) and dynamic contour tonometry ( DCT ), we measured the IOP, diopter and central comeal thickness of 108 cases of myopia in 190 eyes, and statistically analyzed the data obtained. Results The central comeal thickness, comeal curvature, diopter and IOP were significantly reduced ( P<0.05 ), but the IOP measured by DCT showed no statistically significant difference from that before orthokeratology lens wear( P > 0. 05 ). Conclusion Orthokeratology lens wear does not reduce IOP in adolescents.

  12. 白内障继发青光眼高眼压下超声乳化手术%Phacoemulsification for secondary glaucoma following cataract with high intraocular pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志辉; 罗春云; 杜娟; 汤学付; 段勇波; 刘巧萍; 黄家丽; 董宝莹

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of phacoemulsification for secondary glaucoma following cataract with sustained high intraocular pressure(IOP).Methods 26 eyes of 26 cases of secondary glaucoma to intumescent cataract that the IOP was uncontrolled by drug treatment for 3 to 7 days were studied.Under local anaesthesia,the eyes were treated by aspiration of vitreous in order to lower the IOP,and then phacoemulsification combined with implantation of foldable intraocular lens through transparent cornea incision.After 3 months to 3 years,the visual acuity,IOP,anterior chamber depth and angle opening degree were analyzed pre-and postoperatively.Results There was no serious complication observed in all cases during surgery and postoperatively.Compared with postoperation,the best corrected visual acuity was obviously better than preoperation (p < 0.001) ; the IOP level was decreased significantly (p <0.001) ; the anterior chamber depth was increased (p < 0.001).The narrow anterior chamber angle was widened in all cases,and some closed anterior chamber angle could open.Conclusion The surgery of phacoemulsification is safe and effective for acute angle-closure glaucoma following intumescent cataract with persistent high IOP.In order to avoid further damage of visual function,surgery should be performed for these patients with persistent high IOP actively.%目的 探讨白内障继发青光眼持续高眼压状态下进行晶状体超声乳化手术的手术特点及效果.方法 药物治疗3~7d后眼压未能控制的膨胀期白内障继发急性闭角型青光眼26例(26只眼),局麻下先行玻璃体腔穿刺抽液降低眼压,然后实行透明角膜切口晶状体超声乳化联合折叠人工晶状体植入手术.术后随访3个月~3年,对比术前术后视力、眼压、前房深度和前房角开放范围.结果 术中、术后均未发生严重手术并发症.术后最佳矫正视力明显好于术前(x2=48.148,P<0.00l);

  13. Association Between Cardiovascular and Intraocular Pressure Changes in a 14-day 6 deg Head Down Tilt (HDT) Bed Rest Study: Possible Implications in Retinal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, R. L.; Zanello, S. B.; Yarbough, P. O.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Taibbi, G.; Brewer, J. L.; Vizzeri, G.

    2013-01-01

    Mean IOP significantly increased while at 6deg HDT and returned towards pre-bed rest values upon leaving bed rest. While mean IOP increased during bed rest, it remained within the normal limits for subject safety. A diuretic shift and cardiovascular deconditioning occurs during in-bed rest, as expected. There was no demonstrable correlation between the largest change in IOP (pre/post) and cardiovascular measure changes (pre/post). Additional mixed effects linear regression modeling may reveal some subclinical physiological changes that might assist in describing the VIIP syndrome pathophysiology.

  14. An additional uncertainty of the throughput generated by the constant pressure gas flowmeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peksa, L.; Gronych, T.; Řepa, P.; Wild, J.; Tesař, J.; Pražák, D.; Krajíček, Z.; Vičar, M.

    2008-03-01

    The lower range limit of constant pressure gas flowmeters is about 10-8 Pa×m3/s. Detrimental gas throughputs caused by leaks and gassing from surfaces prevent from its decrease. Even if the flowmeter is entirely vacuum tight the throughput caused by the outgassing from surfaces can be sufficiently reduced only by pumping at elevated temperature. It can be performed with the flowmeters using directly driven bellows or diaphragm bellows in the volume displacers. Despite it, the lower range limit can hardly be decreased more than several ten times with up to now known designs. An additional uncertainty caused by the difference in pressure at the initial and final instant of measurement will increase at generating small throughputs to the extent that it will kill the measurement.

  15. An additional uncertainty of the throughput generated by the constant pressure gas flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lower range limit of constant pressure gas flowmeters is about 10-8 Paxm3/s. Detrimental gas throughputs caused by leaks and gassing from surfaces prevent from its decrease. Even if the flowmeter is entirely vacuum tight the throughput caused by the outgassing from surfaces can be sufficiently reduced only by pumping at elevated temperature. It can be performed with the flowmeters using directly driven bellows or diaphragm bellows in the volume displacers. Despite it, the lower range limit can hardly be decreased more than several ten times with up to now known designs. An additional uncertainty caused by the difference in pressure at the initial and final instant of measurement will increase at generating small throughputs to the extent that it will kill the measurement

  16. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials...

  17. Experimental investigation into the effects of coolant additives on boiling phenomena in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates the effects of coolant additives like boric acid on boiling phenomena in pressurized water reactors under conditions as realistic as possible. The effects covered range from subcooled boiling to critical boiling conditions (CHF). The focus of this project lies on flow boiling with up to 40 bar and 250 °C in order to generate a data basis for a possible extrapolation to reactor conditions. The results of the experiments are used to implement and validate new models into CFD-Codes in context to a nationwide German joint research project with the specific aim of improving CFD boiling-models. (author)

  18. EVAPORATION: a new vapour pressure estimation methodfor organic molecules including non-additivity and intramolecular interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Compernolle

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present EVAPORATION (Estimation of VApour Pressure of ORganics, Accounting for Temperature, Intramolecular, and Non-additivity effects, a method to predict (subcooled liquid pure compound vapour pressure p0 of organic molecules that requires only molecular structure as input. The method is applicable to zero-, mono- and polyfunctional molecules. A simple formula to describe log10p0(T is employed, that takes into account both a wide temperature dependence and the non-additivity of functional groups. In order to match the recent data on functionalised diacids an empirical modification to the method was introduced. Contributions due to carbon skeleton, functional groups, and intramolecular interaction between groups are included. Molecules typically originating from oxidation of biogenic molecules are within the scope of this method: aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, ethers, esters, nitrates, acids, peroxides, hydroperoxides, peroxy acyl nitrates and peracids. Therefore the method is especially suited to describe compounds forming secondary organic aerosol (SOA.

  19. 49 CFR 173.304b - Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles. 173.304b Section 173.304b Transportation Other Regulations...; Preparation and Packaging § 173.304b Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN... UN pressure receptacles subject to the requirements in this section and § 173.304. In addition,...

  20. Several issues for the diagnosis and treatment of anterior uveitis with increased intraocular pressure%伴有高眼压的前葡萄膜炎诊治中的一些问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红; 沈琳

    2012-01-01

    Some anterior uveitis lack of severe fibrinous exudation and posterior synechiae of iris, such as viral anterior uveitis, Fuchs syndrome and Posner-Schlossman syndrome, can be manifested as persistent or recurrent elevated intraocular pressure, and its treatment is often difficult. Recently, Singapore scholars described clinical features of cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis in immuocompe-tent patients, and presented a new idea to diagnosis and treatment of the anterior uveitis with ocular hypertension. Though Fuchs syndrome and Posner-Schlossman syndrome have similar clinical manifestations to cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis, and cytomegalovirus infection may be the pathogenesis of the two diseases, whether to join the antiviral therapy for the Fuchs syndrome, Posner-Schlossman syndrome or not, is still a problem worthy of discussion. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 228-233)%某些缺乏严重纤维素性渗出及虹膜后粘连的前葡萄膜炎如病毒性前葡萄膜炎、Fuchs综合征、青光眼睫状体炎综合征等均可表现为持续性或反复性眼压升高,对其治疗常较棘手.最近,新加坡学者对巨细胞病毒性前葡萄膜炎进行了系统分析,对伴有眼压升高的前葡萄膜炎患者提出了新的诊治思路.虽然Fuchs综合征、青光眼睫状体炎综合征与巨细胞病毒性前葡萄膜炎有类似表现,且后两者的发病机制中均有提到巨细胞病毒,但针对后两者的治疗目前仍以对症治疗为主,是否需加入抗病毒治疗,仍需长期的实践探讨.

  1. 玻璃体切除硅油填充术后高眼压临床分析%Clinical analysis of intraocular pressure(IOP) elevation after vitrectomy and silicon oil tamponade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄庆; 张军军

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the causes and measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation after vitrectomy. Methods To retrospectively analyze clinical data of thirty-one eyes out of one hundred and sixty patients (one hundred and seventy-eight eyes) which had IOP elevation in early period after vitrectomy from January,2010 to December, 2010. Results The causes of postoperative IOP elevation ate uveitic inflammation (eighteen eyes, 58. 1% ), aphakia (four eyes, 12.9%), steroids ((our eyes, 12.9%), silicon oil tamponade excess (three eyes, 9.7%) and endoph-thalmitis (two eyes, 6.5%). After various treatments such as IOP-lowering medication, stop using of steroids, taken-out part of silicon oil, paracentesis of anterior chamber and change to hign-grade antibiotics, the IOP of all eyes returned to normal. Conclusion The incidence of IOP elevation after vitrectomy is 17.4% and uveitic inflammation is the common cause. Timely prevention and proper measurement can reduce visual damage.%目的 探讨玻璃体切除硅油填充术后高眼压的原因及处理.方法 回顾性分析2010年1月到2010年12月本院160例(178只眼)玻璃体切除硅油填充术后早期发生高眼压31例(31只眼)的临床资料.结果 术后高眼压发生原因如下:葡萄膜炎症反应(18只眼,58.1%)、无晶状体眼(4只眼,12.9%)、激素引发(4只眼,129%)、硅油填充过量(3只眼,9.7%)、眼内炎(2只眼,6.5%).给予降眼压药物、停用激素类药物、硅油部分取出、前房穿刺或换用敏感抗生素等治疗后,眼压均降至正常.结论 玻璃体切除硅油填充术后高眼压在本研究的发生率为17.4%,术后葡萄膜炎症反应为常见原因,及时的预防和处理能减少视功能的损害.

  2. 准分子激光原位角膜磨镶术后眼压分析%Intraocular Pressure Analysis Before and After Eximer Laser in Situ Keratomileusis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小梅; 王华; 何书喜; 唐罗生

    2009-01-01

    [目的]探讨准分子激光原位角膜磨镶 (LASIK) 术后眼压的变化.[方法]采用非接触式眼压计对72例(139只眼)测量LASIK术前后眼压;应用计算机辅助的角膜地形图分析系统对LASIK术前后角膜地形图形态进行检测,并比较分析其与眼压的关系.[结果]术前平均眼压为(17.99±2.69) mmHg,术后1个月平均眼压为( 10.99±2.70)mmHg,术后3个月平均眼压为(11.55±2.29)mmHg,明显低于术前,差异有显著性(P<0.05).术前后角膜形态对眼压无影响,术后偏心距离与术后眼压呈正相关.[结论]LASIK术后眼压测量值明显低于术前,且术后偏心距离与术后眼压呈正相关.%[Objective] To evaluate the change of intraocular pressure (IOP) readings after eximer laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). [Methods] The IOP readings of 139 eyes were measured with noncontact tonometer (NCT) before and at one month, three months after LASIK. Computer-assisted corneal topography analysis system was used to measure corneal topographic pattern on 139 eyes before and after LASIK. The relationship between these indicators was analyzed. [Results] Average IOP was 17.99±2.69 mmHg before operation, 10.99±2.70mmHg at one month after the operation and 11.55±2.29mmHg at three months after the operation. The IOP readings after LASIK were lower than those before LASIK (t=27.598,P<0.001). Corneal topographic shapes before and after LASIK had no association with IOP. But the longer was the distance of decentration, the higher was the IOP readings. [Conclusion]The IOP readings after LASIK are lower than those before LASIK. The IOP readings after LASIK are increased with the distance of decentration.

  3. Efecto de la sedación con dexmedetomidina sobre la presión intraocular y el espesor central de la córnea en perros (Effects of the dexmedetomidine sedation on intraocular pressure and on the central cornea thickness in the dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal-Gómez, L.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenDeterminar el efecto de la sedación con dexmedetomidinasobre la presión intraocular (PIO y el espesor central de la córnea (ECC en perros Material y métodos: Estudio realizado en 10 perros a los que se midió la PIO y ECC basales y tras administración tópica de tropicamida 1%. Seguidamente sedamos con dexmedetomidina 5µg/kg IV y valoramos PIO y ECC a los 5,10, 15 y 20 minutos post-sedación. Los valores medios se compararon mediante la prueba t de Student para muestras pareadas. Resultados: Los valores medios basales de PIO fueron media ± D.E. 10,95 ± 1,70 mmHg; y 571 ± 21,42 µm para el ECC. No existe asociación significativa entre PIO y ECC (r= -0,2399. La midriasis no varió significativamente los valores de PIO (P= 0,3665 pero sí el ECC (P=5,6109x10-6. La sedación con dexmedetomidina no varía significativamente los valores de PIO ni ECC (P>0,05. Conclusiones midriasis provocada por tropicamida 1% disminuyesignificativamente el ECC pero no la PIO. La sedación condexmedetomidina 5 mg/kg IV no varía significativamente los valores basales de PIO ni del ECC.SummaryObjective: to determine the effects of the dexmedetomidine sedation onintraocular pressure (IOP and on the central corneal thickness (CCT.Material and methods: this study has been performed over 10 dogstreated in the Veterinary Clinical Hospital of Córdoba University. The IOP and the CCT were measured before and after administration of one drop of 1% tropicamide. Thereafter, they were sedated with dexmedetomidine 5 µg/kg IV, and IOP and CCT were evaluated at 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes after sedation. A t-Student test was performed with paired samples of mean values in order to compare both groups.Results: Basal values of IOP were 10.95 ± 1.70 mmHg, whereas CCTmean values were 571 ± 21.42µm. There were no statistically significant association between IOP and CCT (Pearson correlation r= -0.2399.Mydriasis did not significantly change the values of IOP (P= 0

  4. Study on Titanium Nitride Film Modified for Intraocular Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the characteristics of the intraocular lens using ion beam sputtering depositing titanium nitride thin film on the intraocular lens(IOLs).Methods:To deposite titanium nitride thin film on the top of intraocular lens by ion beam sputtering depositing.We analyzed the surface morphology of intraocular lens through SEM and AFM.We detected intraocular lens resolution through the measurement of intraocular lens.Biocompatibility of intraocular lens is preliminary evaluated in this test.Results:T...

  5. Enhanced near stereopsis after phacoemulsification and implantation of posterior chamber intraocular lens by prescribing addition properly%人工晶状体眼近视力矫正对近立体视的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞阿勇; 王勤美; 诸葛晶; 金婉卿; 姜珺; 赵云娥

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨超声乳化白内障吸除及人工晶状体植入术后近立体视改善的方法和手段,为临床改善人工晶状体眼者生活质量提供依据.方法 前瞻性系列病例研究.随机收录年龄相关性白内障患者46例(92只眼),平均年龄(61.3±5.5)岁.其中单眼人工晶状体眼24例(A组),双眼人工晶状体眼22例(B组).测量调节幅度、相对调节、近附加、近立体视.对被收录者人工晶状体眼的一般资料及近附加等计量资料进行t检验,对受检者近立体视分布数据采用X2检验,以P<0.05有统计学意义.结果 A、B组人工晶状体眼移近法单眼调节幅度分别为(2.05±1.12)和(2.35±1.30)D;双眼近附加分别为(2.08±0.37)和(2.13±0.46)D,单眼近附加分别为(2.20±0.42)和(2.01±0.39)D,各组内双眼近附加与单眼近附加差异均有统计学意义(t=2.33,2.20;P<0.05),左右眼单眼近附加差异均有统计学意义(t=3.70,5.02;P<0.01).A、B组配戴单眼近附加时的近立体视优于双眼近附加,差异均有统计学意义(X2=6.46,7.02;P<0.05).结论 单眼近附加作为人工晶状体眼的近附加可以有效改善近屯体视.(中华眼科杂志,2008,44:711-714)%Objective To improve near stereopsis in pseudophakic eyes after phacocmulsification and implantation of posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL). Methods This prospective case-series study comprised 92 eyes of 46 patients aged 50 to 70 years [mean age (61.33±5.54 ) years ] who hod phacocmulsification and implantation of posterior chamber IOL, including 24 unilateral pseudophakias (Group A ) and 22 bilateral pseudophakias (Group B ). The accommodative amplitude, relative accommodation, reading addition, near stereoacuity, etc. Were measured. All data were analyzed with the SPSS11.0 for Windows. Results (1) The mean value of monocular accommodative amplitude in the group A and group B was (2.05±1.12) and (2.35±1.30) D, respectively. (2) In the group A and group B,the binocular odd

  6. Clinical effect of St.John's Wort Extract on intraocular pressure in perioperative period of narrowangle glaucoma%圣约翰草提取物对青光眼围手术期眼压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳红云; 徐朝晖; 曹虹; 张百红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To research the matching factor about intraocular pressure in perioperative period by studying the influence of St. John's Wort Extract to intraocular pressure during this time. Methods The 56 narrow - angle glaucoma patients were charged into St. John's Wort Extract group or control group randomly and all cases were treated with carteolol hydrochloride eyedrop by 2 times and Brinzolamide 3 times every day for lowering IOP in 3 days before operation, while the St. John S Wort Extract 300mg was given to the treatment group' s cases everyday before operation for 3 day. Control group was charged with placebo.The same score before St. John' S Wort Extract and before operation between groups was analysed by t test The IOP Of St. JohnS Wort Extract group and cintrol group 7 day. after operation was contrasted by t test and line that the cirrelation coefficient with SPSS 13.0. Results The difference of IOP between before and after the theory of St. JohnS Wort Extract were charged by t test (t =2.017 P =0.046)and the treatment group was significanly higher(8.91 ±2.73mmHg) than the control group(3.66 ± 1.93mmHg),meanwhile,1 week after operation, the IOP of treatment group(6. 37 ± 2.49mmHg)were significantly lower than control (9.25 ± 1.98),the differnece were significantly showed by t test (t = 2. 009 P =0. 041 ). In operation day, HAMA score of control gronp(13. 35 ±2.58)and treatment group(8.67 ±2.32) showed significant difference (t =2.013 P= 0.044) while HAMA score seems positive correlation to IOP in treatment group and control groups cases in operation day (r1 =0. 397 P1 =0. 046, r2 =415 P2 =0. 033). Conclusion St. John's Wort Extract seems the effect of lower IOP for glaucoma operation through modifing anxiety of narrow-angle glaucoma patients.%目的 探讨圣约翰草提取物对抗青光眼术前眼压的影响,研究青光眼围手术期眼压波动诱因及应对策略。方法 56例原发性闭角性青光眼按照随机表顺序随机进入对

  7. Avaliação comparativa do efeito dos colírios de apraclonidina e latanoprost na profilaxia da hipertensão ocular pós capsulotomia com YAG Laser em pacientes não glaucomatosos Profilatic use of apraclonidine and latanoprost to prevent intraocular pressure elevation following Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane de Freitas S. Paranhos

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia do latanoprost 0,005% e da apraclonidina 1% na prevenção da hipertensão ocular pós-capsulotomia posterior com YAG laser, em pacientes não- glaucomatosos. Método: Trinta e seis pacientes (36 olhos incluídos foram divididos em três grupos que usaram latanoprost 0,005%, apraclonidina 1% ou placebo. Foram realizadas medidas da pressão ocular antes da instilação de qualquer colírio, 30 minutos após a dilatação, 1 hora e 4 horas após o YAG laser. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa entre os 3 grupos em relação à idade, pressão ocular inicial e pós-dilatação, assim como em quantidade de energia utilizada. Na primeira hora, tanto para a diferença absoluta quanto para o percentual de alteração da pressão intra-ocular, o grupo da apraclonidina apresentou redução estatisticamente maior em relação ao grupo controle (p 0,05. Na 4a. hora não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos (p > 0,05. As medidas de pressão nos 4 intervalos não apresentaram variação estatisticamente significativa (p > 0,05. A quantidade de energia utilizada não mostrou correlação significativa com o aumento da Po (p > 0,05. Conclusão: A apraclonidina 1% apresentou maior eficácia na profilaxia da hipertensão após capsulotomia posterior com YAG laser quando comparada com latanoprost 0,005%.Purpose: To compare the efficacy of 0.005% latanoprost and 1% apraclonidine in the prevention of an increase of intraocular pressure (IOP after Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy in nonglaucomatous patients. Methods: Thirty-six patients were included and divided in to three groups. Patients received 0.005% latanoprost. 1% apraclonidine or placebo. Four measurements of IOP were made: before instillation of any drug, 30 minutes after cycloplegia, 1 hour and 4 hours after laser. Results: No significant difference was found between the three groups regarding age, initial intraocular pressure, pressure 30 minutes after

  8. New Management of Malignant Glaucoma by Phacoemulsification with Posterior Chamber Foldable Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GeJian; GuoY

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the feasibility of phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation in the management of malignant glaucoma. Patients and Methods:Fourteen patients with malignant glaucoma diagnosed in the Department of Glaucoma were enrolled in the study.12 patients developed malignant glaucoma after filtration surgery.1 developed after peripheral iridectomy.1 patient developed malignant glaucoma without any clear cause.Cataract phacoemulsification was performed.Posterior chamber intraocular foldable lens was implanted in 10 cases of patients.Results:All 14 patients were cured wiht normal intraocular pressure,normal anterior chamber depth and increased visual acuity.Conclusion:Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation is a good alternative in treating malignant glaucoma.

  9. Influência da redução medicamentosa da pressão intra-ocular na medida da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina de olhos hipertensos e glaucomatosos pela polarimetria de varredura a laser The influence of intraocular pressure reduction with medication on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements obtained with scanning laser polarimetry in glaucomatous and hypertensive eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rezende Gomes Avelino

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da redução da pressão intra-ocular (PIO obtido com o uso de terapia medicamentosa na espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina medida pela polarimetria de varredura a laser (PVL em pacientes glaucomatosos ou hipertensos oculares. MÉTODOS: Trinta e sete olhos de 37 pacientes foram prospectivamente incluídos no estudo e avaliados com a PVL sem uso de medicação ocular hipotensora e num período entre 15 e 30 dias após a instituição de medicação ocular hipotensora, que resultou em redução da PIO de pelo menos 25%. Os parâmetros medidos pela PVL antes e após a redução da PIO foram comparados com o teste t de Student pareado. RESULTADOS: A PIO média dos 37 pacientes diminuiu significativamente de 26,57±4,23 mmHg para 16,54±2,92 mmHg (p0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A redução da PIO com o uso de medicação ocular hipotensora não altera a medida da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina pela PVL em pacientes com glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular.PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness as measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP after the use of medication to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP in glaucomatous or ocular hypertensive patients. METHODS: The authors prospectively enrolled 37 eyes of 37 patients in whom IOP was reduced by more than 25% after the use of medication. The images were obtained before and 15 to 30 days after the introduction of medication. The SLP parameters measured before and after the use of medication were compared using paired Student's t Test. RESULTS: The mean IOP was significantly reduced from 26.57±4.23 mmHg to 16.54 ±2.92 mmHg after the use of medication (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as measured by SLP, is not affected by the reduction of IOP with medication in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

  10. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with intraocular lens implantation: a new surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Isabel Canut Jordana

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available M Isabel Canut Jordana1, Daniel Pérez Formigó1, Rodrigo Abreu González2, Jeroni Nadal Reus11Barraquer Ophthalmology Centre, Barcelona, Spain; 2University Hospital of La Candelaria, Tenerife, SpainAims: We report the case of a myopic patient who, after intraocular lens transplant in the posterior chamber, suffered elevated intraocular pressure due to pigment dispersion, with recurrent episodes of blurred vision. The patient was treated with a new surgical technique that can avoid potential iridolenticular contact.Methods: Complete ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT of the anterior segment were performed.Results: Contact between the pigmentary epithelium and the iris with an intraocular lens was revealed by utrasound biomicroscopy and OCT. In this case, Nd:YAG laser iridotomy and laser iridoplasty were not effective for iridolenticular separation and control of the pigment dispersion. We propose a new technique: stitches on the surface of the iris to obtain good iridolenticular separation and good intraocular pressure control.Conclusion: Stitches on the iris surface should be considered as optional therapy in pigmentary glaucoma secondary to intraocular lens implantation. This surgical technique can avoid potential iridolenticular contacts more definitively.Keywords: pigmentary glaucoma, intraocular lens, optical coherence tomography, laser

  11. [Intraocular Inflammation: Autoimmune or Infectious?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auw-Hädrich, C; Heinzelmann, S; Coupland, S

    2016-07-01

    Presentation of 3 cases of intraocular inflammation: 1. 47-year old female patient with severe necrotising scleritis and uveitis with underlying granulomatous polyangiitis (formerly known as Wegener granulomatosis, in honour of the German pathologist Friedrich Wegener), known for 10 years. 2. 48-year old male patient with longstanding bilateral uveitis and granulomatous polyangiitis for 2 years. In the histopathological examination of the enucleation specimen, a retrolental tumour turned out to be a granuloma. 3. 57-year old male patient in status post renal transplantation with intraocular cellular infiltration suspicious for lymphoma, which surprisingly proved to be Toxoplasma gondii-associated uveitis. The clinical course and characteristic histological signs and therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:27468098

  12. Additive pressures of elevated sea surface temperatures and herbicides on symbiont-bearing foraminifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost W van Dam

    Full Text Available Elevated ocean temperatures and agrochemical pollution individually threaten inshore coral reefs, but these pressures are likely to occur simultaneously. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and the photosystem II (PSII inhibiting herbicide diuron on several types of symbiotic algae (diatom, dinoflagellate or rhodophyte of benthic foraminifera in hospite. Diuron was shown to evoke a direct effect on photosynthetic efficiency (reduced effective PSII quantum yield ΔF/F'(m, while elevated temperatures (>30 °C, only 2 °C above current average summer temperatures were observed to impact photosynthesis more indirectly by causing reductions in maximum PSII quantum yield (F(v/F(m, interpreted as photodamage. Additionally, elevated temperatures were shown to cause bleaching through loss of chlorophyll a in foraminifera hosting either diatoms or dinoflagellates. A significant linear correlation was found between reduced F(v/F(m and loss of chlorophyll a. In most cases, symbionts within foraminifera proved more sensitive to thermal stress in the presence of diuron (≥ 1 µg L(-1. The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action (IA described the combined effects of temperature and diuron on the photosystem of species hosting diatoms or dinoflagellates convincingly and in agreement with probabilistic statistics, so a response additive joint action can be assumed. We thus demonstrate that improving water quality can improve resilience of symbiotic phototrophs to projected increases in ocean temperatures. As IA described the observed combined effects from elevated temperature and diuron stress it may therefore be employed for prediction of untested mixtures and for assessing the efficacy of management measures.

  13. Hematoporphyrin derivative photoradiation therapy for the treatment of intraocular tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) photoradiation therapy (PRT) is currently being examined for the treatment of intraocular tumors (retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma). HpD is preferentially retained in malignant tissue and tumorcidal action can be induced when HpD is activated with visible red light. Preclinical studies have been conducted using pigmented rabbits having transplanted intraocular tumors. A dye laser system has been used to generate red light (630 nm) for localized irradiation of ocular tissue following I.V. administration of HpD. The authors have previously reported that acute toxicity to normal retina (in the form of retinal necrosis) can be induced by HpD PRT, and that this damage can be limited to the treatment field. The results of current preclinical studies related to long term ocular toxicity, HpD distribution in ocular tissue and intraocular tumor tissue response following HpD PRT are presented. In addition, initial clinical results of intraocular HpD PRT are described

  14. Survey of Intraocular Antibiotics Prophylaxis Practice after Open Globe Injury in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Junlian; Yang, Yao; Yuan, Zhaohui; Lin, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To elucidate the Chinese practice of intraocular antibiotics administration for prophylaxis after open globe injury. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed online by scanning a Quickmark (QR) code with smartphones at the 20th Chinese National Conference of Ocular Trauma in November 2014. Results A total of 153 (30.6%) of all participators at the conference responded. Of the respondents, 20.9% were routinely administered with prophylactic intraocular injection of antibiotics at the conclusion of the primary eye repair, and 56.9% were used only in cases with high risk of endophthalmitis development. The intraocular route of delivery was mainly included with intracameral injection (47.9%) and intravitreal injection (42.0%). Cephalosporins (53.8%) and vancomycin (42.0%) were the main choices of antibiotic agents, followed by fluoroquinolones (24.3%), and aminoglycosides (13.4%). Only 21.9% preferred a combination of two or more two drugs routinely. In addition, significantly more respondents from the referral eye hospital (92.7%) replied using intraocular antibiotics injection for prophylaxis compared to those respondents from the primary hospital (69.4%) (p = 0.001, Fisher’s exact test). Conclusions Intraocular antibiotics injection for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis is widely used in China. However, the choice of antibiotic agents and the intraocular route of delivery vary. A well-designed clinical trial is needed to establish a standardized protocol of intraocular antibiotics administration for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis. PMID:27275777

  15. Survey of Intraocular Antibiotics Prophylaxis Practice after Open Globe Injury in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingsheng Lou

    Full Text Available To elucidate the Chinese practice of intraocular antibiotics administration for prophylaxis after open globe injury.A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed online by scanning a Quickmark (QR code with smartphones at the 20th Chinese National Conference of Ocular Trauma in November 2014.A total of 153 (30.6% of all participators at the conference responded. Of the respondents, 20.9% were routinely administered with prophylactic intraocular injection of antibiotics at the conclusion of the primary eye repair, and 56.9% were used only in cases with high risk of endophthalmitis development. The intraocular route of delivery was mainly included with intracameral injection (47.9% and intravitreal injection (42.0%. Cephalosporins (53.8% and vancomycin (42.0% were the main choices of antibiotic agents, followed by fluoroquinolones (24.3%, and aminoglycosides (13.4%. Only 21.9% preferred a combination of two or more two drugs routinely. In addition, significantly more respondents from the referral eye hospital (92.7% replied using intraocular antibiotics injection for prophylaxis compared to those respondents from the primary hospital (69.4% (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test.Intraocular antibiotics injection for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis is widely used in China. However, the choice of antibiotic agents and the intraocular route of delivery vary. A well-designed clinical trial is needed to establish a standardized protocol of intraocular antibiotics administration for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis.

  16. Efeitos da infusão contínua de cetamina sobre a pressão intra-ocular em cães hipovolêmicos anestesiados com desflurano Effects of continuous infusion of ketamine on intraocular pressure in hypovolemic dogs during desflurane anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    C.S. Honsho; I.C. Talieri; N. Nunes; J.C.D. Moreno; A. P. Souza

    2004-01-01

    Compararam-se os efeitos de duas doses de cetamina, administradas em infusão contínua, sobre a pressão intra-ocular (PIO) de 18 cães submetidos à hipovolemia e à anestesia com desflurano. Promoveu-se a hipovolemia em todos os cães, retirando-se 40 ml de sangue/kg de peso. A anestesia foi induzida com desflurano, através de máscara facial, até que a intubação orotraqueal fosse permitida. Decorridos 30 minutos, para estabilização dos parâmetros, iniciou-se a infusão contínua de cetamina. Os cãe...

  17. Effect of oxygen partial pressure during sintering on the microstructure of Mg-PSZ with strontia and silica additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure, average grain size, and density of Mg-PSZ sintered with SrO and SiO2 additions are found to depend on the partial pressure of oxygen in the sintering atmosphere. Over the range of 10-12 to 100 atm, both the average grain size and density increase with oxygen partial pressure, for a constant SrO/SiO2 ratio. The partial pressure of oxygen also affects the microstructural distribution of the remnant liquid phase. At high partial pressures the liquid phase is uniformly distributed, whereas at lower oxygen pressures it is preferentially located near the surface. It is proposed that the microstructure produced by sintering is the result of a competition between liquid-phase-enhanced densification and the migration of the liquid phase to the free surface. The migration is attributed to vaporization of MgO from the liquid phase which increases with decreasing partial pressure of oxygen

  18. Water properties and structure of pork sausages as affected by high-pressure processing and addition of carrot fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Sandie Mejer; Grossi, Alberto Blak; Christensen, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    The effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and addition of carrot fibre on pork sausages have been studied using NMR T(2) relaxometry and measurements of water-binding capacity (WBC) by centrifugation. Significant effects of temperature (raw, 40, 50, or 60°C), holding time (1s, 3, 6, or 9min......), and addition of carrot fibre on the distribution and mobility of water were found. However, the effect of carrot fibre could not be explained by structural changes in the sausages when examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Correlations between T(2) relaxation measurements and WBC determined...... by centrifugation revealed that T(2) relaxation times were able to explain more than 90% of the variation in WBC for both non-pressure and pressure-treated sausages. However, only 49% of the variation was explained for pressure-treated sausages with carrot fibre, indicating that combining addition of fibre and high...

  19. 氯胺酮和异丙酚对小儿眼内压的影响%Effects of anesthesia with ketamine or propofol on intraocular pressure in pediatric patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴蓉蓉; 戴秀萍; 张家东

    2001-01-01

    Objective To observe the influence of intravenous anesthesia with ketamine or propofol on intraocular pressure (IOP) in pediatric patients. Methods 27 pediatric patients, ASA grade Ⅰ~Ⅱ, were divided into ketamine and propofol groups. Basic anesthesia was conducted with ketamine 4~6 mg*kg-1 combined droperidol 0.04~0.1 mg*kg-1 intramuscularly. Anesthesia maintained with continous infusion of 0.04% ketamine or 0.04% propofol following intravenous bolus of ketamine 1 mg*kg-1 or propofol 1 mg*kg-1 in ketamine group and propofol group respectively. IOP, systemic blood pressure(SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP), heart rate(HR) and pulse oxygen saturation(SpO2) were measured at 10 minutes after basic anesthesia, 3 minutes after intravenous bolus of ketamine or propofol and end of surgery. Results There were no differences in IOP between two groups after basic anesthesia. IOP increased or decreased significantly after intravenous bolus of ketamine or propofol respectively. IOP in ketamine group decreased near to the level in propofol group at end of surgery. There were no statistic differences in SBP, DBP and HR between two groups priopration. SpO2 did not change (but in one patient decreasing to below 95% ) and significantly decreased within 5 minutes of intravenous bolus of ketamine and propofol respectively. Conclusion Ketamine increases IOP propofol decreases IOP. Ketamine combined propofol can keep from increase of IOP but strength respiration inhibition.%目的观察静脉麻醉药氯胺酮和异丙酚对小儿眼内压的影响。方法选择ASAⅠ~Ⅱ级患儿27例,分为氯胺酮组和异丙酚组。肌注氯胺酮4~6 mg*kg-1和氟哌利多0.04~0.1 mg*kg-1基础麻醉后,氯胺酮组单次静注氯胺酮1 mg*kg-1,继之静滴0.04%氯胺酮,必要时间断追加氯胺酮;异丙酚组单次静注异丙酚1 mg*kg-1,继之静滴0.04%异丙酚,必要时间断追加异丙酚和氯胺酮。分别于基础麻醉后10 min、单

  20. Heat shock protein 27 and its role in retinal ganglion cell apoptosis in rat high intraocular pressure model%大鼠高眼压模型中热休克蛋白27抗体及视网膜神经节细胞凋亡的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳科; 袁援生

    2012-01-01

    .05).结论 随着眼压的升高以及高眼压持续时间的延长,大鼠血清中的HSP27抗体水平逐渐升高,视网膜在高眼压状态下HSP27表达上调.逐渐升高的HSP27抗体水平与RGCs凋亡增加的趋势一致.%Background Glaucoma is common blinding eye diseases characterized by chronic loss of retinal ganglion cells(RGCs).Currently glaucoma pathogenesis is not completely understood,heat shock protein 27 ( HSP27 )may be associated with the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Objective Through the establishment of a rat model of high intraocular pressure,detection of the expression of HSP27 antibody in serum and RGCs apoptosis to investigate the role of HSP27 in RGCs apoptosis. Methods Fifty-one clean Wistar rats were divided into high intraocular pressure group (34 rats)and sham operation group( 17 rats)using a random number table.An animal model of high intraocular pressure was established in the right eye by the application of bipolar underwater electrocoagulation on vein of sclera surface in the experimental group,and rats with conjunctiva incision only without electric coagulation were served as sham operation (control).The intraocular pressure of rats of the both groups including experimental and control rats was measured 1,2,4,6,8 weeks after operation and then the rats were sacrificed.1 ml serum was collected from these rats to determine the concentration of HSP27 antibody.The retinas of the rats were isolated and homogenated for the extraction and analysis of the retinal protein by Western blot.Apoptosis of RGCs were assayed by TUNEL.The use of the experimental animals followed the Regulations for the Administration of Affair Concerning Experimental Animals by Kunming Medical Collegc. Results Intraocular pressure was elevated significantly after modeling and remained a high value during the expcrimental duration,showing a significant difference among the different groups ( F =318.502,P<0.01 ).However,no significant change in

  1. APPLICATION OF LASER ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE DIES FOR ALUMINIUM HIGH PRESSURE DIE-CASTING#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.V.T. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A number of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technologies can produce fully-dense metal components that potentially offer opportunities to apply the technology in die or mould making (known as rapid tooling. From these LAM technologies, three were selected for evaluation of their suitability as die cavity inserts in the manufacture of high pressure die-casting (HPDC dies. Apart from comparing the different LAM inserts with one another, their performance was also compared with components manufactured in a standard hot work steel. In the HPDC process, the die is unique to each component to be produced. Die cavities in particular are subjected to demanding conditions, such as cyclic heating caused by the introduction of molten aluminium at over 650°C, followed by cooling in water-based die release medium at temperatures around 25°C. Besides cyclic heating, the die cavities are also exposed to pressures exceeding 1500 MPa during the injection of molten aluminium into the cavities. This application of LAM, therefore, poses extreme challenges to the technology. The results of this study confirmed that the metals used in some of the LAM technologies did indeed meet the demanding requirements of the current application, and can lead to significant time- and cost-saving during product or process developments. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations are made for users interested in the application of LAM to produce die cavities.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Aantal laser laagvervaardigingstegnologieë (LLV tegnolgieë is in staat om volledig digte metaalkomponente te lewer, wat tot gevolg het dat hierdie tegnologie potensieel vir vormingsmatrys- of gietmatrysvervaardiging gebruik kan word (bekend as snelgereedskap. Drie van hierdie LLV tegnologieë is gekies vir evaluasie van hulle geskiktheid as gietvorminsetsels tydens die vervaardiging van gietmatryse vir hoë druk matrysgiet (HDMG. Benewens die onderlinge

  2. The measurement of intraocular pressure by non-contact tonometer through bandage contact lenses%应用非接触性眼压计经绷带型角膜接触镜的眼压测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈约洁; 王爱孙; 郑钦象

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of the measurement of inttrocular pressure (IOP) by non-contact tonometer (NCT) through bandage contact lenses.Methods IOPs were measured by (NCT) in 42 eyes of 42 patients with and without bandage contact lenses for three times each to get the averages.The values of with and without bandage contact lenses were compared.The correlation of the measurements with and without bandage contact lenses was analyzed.Results The measurement with bandage contact lenses appeared greater than the one without bandage contact lenses (15.26±6.81mmHg vs 13.05±6.16mmHg, P <0.05).The difference of IOPs was 2.21±2.04mmHg, with a maximum of 8mmHg, a minimum of-1.5mmHg, and 95% confidence interval (1.58-2.85mmHg).The measurements with bandage contact lenses significantly correlated with the measurements without bandage contact lenses (r =0.96, P <0.01), while the differences of IOPs did not significantly correlated with the native measurement (r =0.17, P =0.28).Conclusions The measurement of intraocular pressure by non-contact tonometer through bandage contact lens is feasible, so it's unnecessary to remove lenses frequently before the procedures, lest the corneas will be injured once more.However, it should be noted that IOPs through bandage contact lenses may be overestimated.%目的 评价非接触性眼压计(non-contact tonometry,NCT)经绷带型角膜接触镜测量眼压的可行性和准确性.方法 选取2013年11月至2014年6月在温州医科大学眼视光医院需要配戴绷带型角膜接触镜的角膜病、角膜外伤及角膜术后患者42例,共42只患眼.应用NCT分别在患者配戴角膜接触镜前、后测量眼压3次取平均值,比较配戴角膜接触镜前后眼压测值,并进行相关分析以判断角膜接触镜对眼压测量的影响.结果 42例患者配戴前的眼压为(13.05±6.16) mmHg,配戴后的眼压为(15.26±6.81) mmHg,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),

  3. Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Dorronsoro, Carlos; Alejandre, Nicolás; Bekesi, Nandor; Marcos, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Intraocular lens with accommodation capacity comprising a first optical member (1) having a dynamic optical power, to which a second optical member (2) with a fixed optical power is affixed, in such a manner that at least a central part of each of one of one of the curved surfaces (2a, 2b) of the second optical member (2) and of at least one of the surfaces (1a, 1b) of the first optical member (1) are in contact with each other, the second optical member (2) and the first optical member (1) p...

  4. Design of an additional heat sink based on natural circulation in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Residual heat removal through the steam generators in Nuclear Power Plant with pressurized water reactors (PWR) or pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWR in pressured vessel or pressured tube types) requires the maintenance of the steam generator inventory and the availability of and appropriate heat sink, which are based on the operability of the steam generators feedwater system. This paper describes the conceptual design of an assured heat removal system which includes only passive elements and is based on natural circulation. The system can supplement the original systems of the plant. The new system includes a condenser/boiler heat exchanger to condense the steam produced in the steam generator, transferring the heat to the water of an open pool at atmospheric pressure. The condensed steam flows back to the steam generators by natural circulation effects. The performance of an Atucha type PHWR nuclear power station with and without the proposed system is calculated in an emergency power case for the first 5000 seconds after the incident. The analysis shows that the proposed system offers the possibility to cool-down the plant to a low energy state during several hours and avoids the repeated actuation of the primary and secondary system safety valves. (Author)

  5. Retropupillary iris claw intraocular lens implantation in aphakia for dislocated intraocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno Pinto; Pinto, Joana Medeiros; Sousa, David Cordeiro; Leal, Ines; Neto, Eliana; Marques-Neves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Background Nowadays, dislocated intraocular lenses (IOLs) and inadequate capsular support are becoming a challenge for every ophthalmic surgeon. Explantation of dislocated IOL and iris claw IOL (ICIOL) are the techniques that have been used in our ophthalmic department. The aim of this study is to report our technique for retropupillar ICIOL. Methods This study is a retrospective case series. A total of 105 eyes with dislocated IOL from the patients at the Department of Ophthalmology in Santa Maria Hospital, a tertiary reference hospital in Lisbon, Portugal, from January 2012 until January 2016, had been analyzed. Of these 105 eyes, 66 eyes had dislocated one-piece IOL and 39 eyes had dislocated three-piece IOL. The latter underwent iris suture of the same IOL and were excluded from this study. The remaining 66 eyes with dislocated one-piece IOL underwent pars plana vitrectomy, that is, explantation of dislocated IOL through corneal incision and an implantation of retropupillary ICIOL. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included best corrected visual acuity, IOL position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and anterior chamber depth. Results The mean follow-up was 23 months (range: 6–48 months). The mean preoperative best corrected visual acuity was 1.260±0.771 logMAR, and postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 0.352±0.400 logMAR units. Mean vision gain was 0.909 logMar units. The patients had the following complications: 1) retinal detachment was found in one patient, 2) corneal edema was found in three patients, 3) high intraocular pressure was observed in twelve patients, 4) subluxation of the IOL was observed in one patient, and 5) macular edema was found in three eyes. Conclusion The results demonstrate that retropupillary ICIOL is an easy and effective method for the correction of aphakia in patients not receiving capsule support. The safety of this procedure must be interpreted in the context

  6. Retropupillary iris claw intraocular lens implantation in aphakia for dislocated intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria MY

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mun Yueh Faria,1–3 Nuno Pinto Ferreira,1–3 Joana Medeiros Pinto,1–3 David Cordeiro Sousa,1–3 Ines Leal,1–3 Eliana Neto,1–3 Carlos Marques-Neves1–3 1Centro de Estudos da Visão, Universidade de Lisboa, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital de Santa Maria, 3Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal Background: Nowadays, dislocated intraocular lenses (IOLs and inadequate capsular support are becoming a challenge for every ophthalmic surgeon. Explantation of dislocated IOL and iris claw IOL (ICIOL are the techniques that have been used in our ophthalmic department. The aim of this study is to report our technique for retropupillar ICIOL.Methods: This study is a retrospective case series. A total of 105 eyes with dislocated IOL from the patients at the Department of Ophthalmology in Santa Maria Hospital, a tertiary reference hospital in Lisbon, Portugal, from January 2012 until January 2016, had been analyzed. Of these 105 eyes, 66 eyes had dislocated one-piece IOL and 39 eyes had dislocated three-piece IOL. The latter underwent iris suture of the same IOL and were excluded from this study. The remaining 66 eyes with dislocated one-piece IOL underwent pars plana vitrectomy, that is, explantation of dislocated IOL through corneal incision and an implantation of retropupillary ICIOL. Operative data and postoperative outcomes included best corrected visual acuity, IOL position, intraocular pressure, pigment dispersion, clinical signs of endothelial cell loss, and anterior chamber depth.Results: The mean follow-up was 23 months (range: 6–48 months. The mean preoperative best corrected visual acuity was 1.260±0.771 logMAR, and postoperative best corrected visual acuity was 0.352±0.400 logMAR units. Mean vision gain was 0.909 logMar units. The patients had the following complications: 1 retinal detachment was found in one patient, 2 corneal edema was found in three patients, 3 high intraocular pressure was observed in

  7. Metal additive manufacturing of a high-pressure micro-pump

    OpenAIRE

    Wits, Wessel W.; Weitkamp, Sander J.; Es, van, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    For the thermal control of future space applications pumped two-phase loops are an essential part to handle the increasing thermal power densities. This study investigates the design of a reliable, leak tight, low-weight and high-pressure micro-pump for small satellite applications. The developed micro-pump uses a piezoelectric disk to create a pressure head and propel the working fluid. The micro-pumps are produced from Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4 V) using Selective Laser Melting (SLM) as a metal...

  8. 糖尿病视网膜病变玻璃体视网膜术后高眼压发生率及相关因素%Incidence rate and related factors of intraocular pressure after vitro-retinal surgery for patients with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭青; 蔡晓峰; 庹瑶; 陈康

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨糖尿病视网膜病变( DRP)行玻璃体视网膜术后高眼压的发生率及相关因素。方法选择行玻璃体视网膜术治疗的DRP患者986例(1326眼)为研究对象。分析术后高眼压的发生率,并且对比分析不同类型、不同分级、术前是否合并黄斑脱离、行硅油/C3F8充填、术中行全/补充视网膜光凝、是否晶状体切除患者高眼压发生率的差异。结果1326眼术后发生高眼压共计368例(27.8%)。增生型DRP患者术后高眼压发生率(34.0%)显著高于非增生型(17.2%)(χ2=30.648,P=0.000);DRP D级高眼压发生率为34.1%,显著高于 B 级(20.8%)(χ2=16.348,P =0.001);术前合并黄斑脱离患者高眼压发生率(30.4%)显著高于无黄斑脱离患者(22.7%)(χ2=8.834,P =0.003);术中充填硅油患者(39.1%)显著高于填充 C3F8患者(24.0%)(χ2=28.088,P=0.000);术中全视网膜光凝者(32.8%)显著高于补充光凝患者(16.8%)(χ2=21.159,P=0.000);术中行晶状体切除者(40.5%)显著高于无晶状体切除者(25.9%)(χ2=15.532,P=0.0001)。结论 DRP患者玻璃体视网膜术后高眼压的发生率高,并且与DRP类型、分级、术前合并黄斑脱离、术中填充物、视网膜光凝、晶状体切除等相关。%Objective To explore the incidence rate and related factors of high intraocular pressure after vitro-retinal surgery for patients with diabetic retinopathy(DRP). Methods The 986 patients(1 326 eyes) with DRP arranged vitro-retinal surgery were studied. The inci-dence rate of intraocular pressure was analyzed between different types,grades,complicated with macular detachment,filled with silicone oil/C3F8,total/supplementary retina photo-coagulation and crystalline lens excision. Results The incidence rate of high intraocular pressure was 27. 8%(368/1 326). The incidence rate of high intraocular pressure of proliferative DRP (34. 0%) was obviously higher than non-pro-liferative DRP (17. 2%)(χ2 =30. 648,P=0. 000),and higher in DRP D

  9. 改良23G 玻璃体切除手术后早期高眼压的危险因素分析%Risk factors of early postoperative high intraocular pressure after improved 23 -gauge vitrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁雪梅; 李婧婧; 秦斌

    2014-01-01

    To observe the incidence of high intraocular pressure ( lOP ) and its risk factors in the early stage (within 7d) after 23 - gauge sutureless microincisional vitrectomy. ●METHODS: Retrospective case series study. Totally 98 patients ( 98 eyes ) who had undergone 23 - gauge sutureless microincisional vitrectomy were enrolled. lOP was measured by non-contact tonometry. High lOP was defined as an lOP > 25mmHg at any time within 7d after surgery. The influence of age, sex, side of operation, course of disease, primary disease pre - operation, reoperation, surgical options, type of tamponade, status of lens, surgical time on postoperative high lOP were analyzed. ● RESULTS: High lOP was found in 33 eyes ( 33. 7%) within 7d after surgery. High lOP was found in 8 eyes on postoperative 1d, the incidence was 24. 2% (8 / 33), and 25 eyes was found on postoperative 3d, the incidence was 75. 8% (25 / 33). The incidence of high lOP of male and female were 32. 8% ( 20 / 61 ) and 35. 1% ( 13 / 37 ) respectively. The incidence of high lOP of right and left eye were 36. 8% (21 / 57) and 29. 3% (12 / 41) respectively. There were no significant differences comparing age (Z =-0. 22), sex( χ2 = 0. 057), side of operation( χ2 = 0. 612), course of disease (Z= -0.079) and surgical time (Z= -0. 553) between patients with high lOP and those without it (P>0. 05). Similarly, no statistical significance was found between eyes with gas tamponade and silicone oil tamponade (χ2 = 1. 04), traumatic eyes and non traumatic eyes(χ2 = 0. 044), and retinal detachment eyes and without retinal detachment eyes ( χ2 = 2. 282, P > 0. 05 ). The incidence of high lOP in eyes with several operations was higher than that in eyes with the first operation ( χ2 =5. 211,P ●CONCLUSlON:High lOP occurs commonly in 3d after 23- gauge sutureless microincisional vitrectomy. The risk factors of high lOP are reoperation, combined operations and aphakic eye.%目的:观察改良23G 经结膜免缝合微切口

  10. Effect of CO2 Insufflation on Intraocular Pressure during Endoscopic Thyroidectomy%腔镜甲状腺手术中颈部CO2充气对眼内压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高友兵; 刘勇; 张奕; 汪训实; 蔡逊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of carbon dioxide ( CO2 ) insufflation on intraocular pressure ( IOP ) during endoscopic thyroidectomy. Methods 30 cases with thyroid neoplasms were divided into two groups; 15 cases underwent endoscopic thyroidectomy (as group A) and 15 cases underwent conventional open thyroidectomy ( as group B). IOP Was measured before anesthesia ( T0) , at 5 min after tracheal intubation ( Tl) , 10 min after CO2 Insufflation (T2) , 20 min after CO2 Insufflation (T3) ,40 min after CO2 Insufflation (T4) and 10 min after CO2 Insufflation cease(T5). And HR, MAP and PETCO2 were recorded at every time point. Results There was no obvious difference in age, gender, operative duration and preoperative IOP between two groups ( P > 0. 05 ). Compare with T0, the IOP decreased at Tl in both two groups ( P 0. 05 ). The IOP of group A was remarkable higher than that of group B at T2 to T5. The HR and MAP has no statistic difference in intra-group comparison and comparison between two groups (P >0.05). Both PETCO2 of T3 and T4 was higher than that of TO in group A ( P < 0. 05 ) , and also was higher than those of group B at the same time points ( P < 0. 05). Conclusion The IOP will increase in patietits undergoing endoscopic thyroidectomy, which could be harmful to vision.%目的 观察腔镜甲状腺手术中颈部CO2充气对患者眼压的影响. 方法 甲状腺手术患者30例,根据手术方式分为腔镜手术组(A组)和开放手术组(B组),每组各15例.测量两组麻醉前(T0)、麻醉后5 min(T1)、颈部CO2充气10 min(T2)、20 min( T3)、40 min( T4)及停止充气10 min(T5)各个时点的眼压及心率(HR)、平均动脉压(MAP)及呼气末CO2分压(PETCO2). 结果 ①两组患者的年龄、手术时间及术前眼压无显著性差异.②两组患者麻醉诱导后(T1)眼压较麻醉前(T0)均有所下降,差异有显著性(P<0.05).A组患者在颈部充气后眼压呈逐渐上升的趋势,T4时达到最高.手术结束颈部排气10 min

  11. Immediate intraocular pressure rise after intravitreal injection of ranibizumab and two doses of triamcinolone acetonide%兰尼单抗和曲安奈德玻璃体内注射后眼压的即时升高

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gul Arikan; Ali Osman Saatci; Ferit Hakan Oner

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate prospectively immediate intraocular pressure (IOP) changes after the intravitreal injection of ranibizumab, 2 and 4mg triamcinolone acetonide.METHODS: Patients who underwent intravitreal injection of 0.1mL (4mg) triamcinolone acetonide (TA, Group T4), 0.05mL (2mg) TA (Group T2) and 0.05mL (0.5mg) ranibizumab (Group R) comprised the study population. Overall, 229 eyes of 205 patients were injected. Fifty-four eyes (23.6%) were in Group T4, 69 eyes (30.1%) in Group T2 and 106 eyes (46.3%) in Group R. If IOP was less than 26mmHg immediately after the injection no further measurement was performed. If IOP was ≥26mmHg, IOP was remeasured till the reading was below 26mmHg at 5, 15 and 30 minutes.RESULTS: Immediately after the injection, the IOP of 28 eyes (51.9%) in Group T4, 22 eyes (31.9%) in Group T2 and 51 eyes (48.1%) in Group R were over 25mmHg. At 30 minutes, IOP of one eye (1.9%) in group T4, two eyes (2.9%) in group T2 and two eyes (1.9 %) in Group R were over 25mmHg. Immediate post-injection IOP was significantly higher in Group T4 and Group R when compared to Group T2(P<0.001 and P<0.001,respectively). IOP was significantly higher in eyes without vitreous reflux when compared to those with vitreous reflux in all groups (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: IOP may remarkably increase immediately after the intravitreal injection of 2 or 4mg triamcinolone acetonide, and 0.5mg ranibizumab. Absence of vitreous reflux is the most important predicting factor for immediate IOP rise after the injection.%目的:前瞻性评估玻璃体腔内注射兰尼单抗、2和4mg曲安奈德(TA)后眼压(IOP)的即时变化.方法:接受玻璃体腔内注射0.1mL(4mg)曲安奈德(T4组),0.05mL(2mg)TA(T2组)和0.05mL(0.5mg)兰尼单抗(R组)的患者组成研究群体.总体而言,205例229眼接受注射.T4组54眼(23.6%),T2组69眼(30.1%),及R组106眼(46.3%).如果注射后即时眼压<26mmHg就不行进一步的测量.如果眼压≥26mmHg,就在5,15和30min后

  12. Posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation for high myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈晔; 杜持新; 顾扬顺; 王竞

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy, safety and stability of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens (PIOLs) implantation for the correction of high myopia.Methods Thirty-nine eyes of twenty patients with high myopia (between-11.75 and-25.75 diopters) had a posterior chamber PIOL (Staar ICL) implanted. During 6-48 months' follow-up, visual acuity, refraction, intraocular pressure (IOP), corneal reaction and space between crystal lens and intraocular lens (IOLs) were tested.Results Successful implantation was achieved in all patients. Visual acuity without correction greater than 0.5 was found in 34 eyes at 1 day and 3 months postoperatively. Thirty-five eyes maintained a low negative power of refraction (-1.42±1.32 doipters), which did not prevent the patients from most of their daily activities. During 3-48 months' follow-up, refraction was stable and no cornea edema and glaucoma was found. Two eyes of one patient had corticosteroid glaucoma and another eye showed cataractogenesis under anterior capsular membrane.Conclusion Posterior chamber PIOL implantation is predictable, safe, and effective in the correction of high myopia, and its indications should be carefully selected.

  13. DPPC Monolayers Exhibit an Additional Phase Transition at High Surface Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; de la Serna, Jorge B.; Struth, Bernd;

    2015-01-01

    (GIXD). The results report on the 2D packing lattice and on the inter-chain distance dxy. Moreover, the tilt angle of the palmitoyl chains was calculated combining the lattice parameters and the geometrical boundary conditions. The course of the inter-chain distance versus surface pressure exhibits two...

  14. Metal additive manufacturing of a high-pressure micro-pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel W.; Weitkamp, Sander J.; Es, van J.

    2013-01-01

    For the thermal control of future space applications pumped two-phase loops are an essential part to handle the increasing thermal power densities. This study investigates the design of a reliable, leak tight, low-weight and high-pressure micro-pump for small satellite applications. The developed mi

  15. Intercomparison of techniques for inspection and diagnostics of heavy water reactor pressure tubes. Additional information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reports from Argentina, Canada, India, Korea and Romania are presented concerning the projects carried out under the Coordinated Research Program (CRP) I3.30.10 of the International Agency for Atomic Energy - Vienna related to 'Intercomparison of Techniques for Pressure Tube Inspection and Diagnostics'

  16. Choking under Pressure: When an Additional Positive Stereotype Affects Performance for Domain Identified Male Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Harriet E. S.; Crisp, Richard J.

    2007-01-01

    This research aimed to establish if the presentation of two positive stereotypes would result in choking under pressure for identified male mathematics students. Seventy-five 16 year old men, who had just commenced their AS-level study, were either made aware of their gender group membership (single positive stereotype), their school group…

  17. Drug loading of foldable commercial intraocular lenses using supercritical impregnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouledjouidja, A; Masmoudi, Y; Sergent, M; Trivedi, V; Meniai, A; Badens, E

    2016-03-16

    The drug delivery through intraocular lenses (IOLs) allows the combination of cataract surgery act and postoperative treatment in a single procedure. In order to prepare such systems, "clean" supercritical CO2 processes are studied for loading commercial IOLs with ophthalmic drugs. Ciprofloxacin (CIP, an antibiotic) and dexamethasone 21-phosphate disodium (DXP, an anti-inflammatory drug) were impregnated into foldable IOLs made from poly-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (P-HEMA). A first pre-treatment step was conducted in order to remove absorbed conditioning physiological solution. Supercritical impregnations were then performed by varying the experimental conditions. In order to obtain transparent IOLs and avoid the appearance of undesirable foaming, it was necessary to couple slow pressurization and depressurization phases during supercritical treatments. The impregnation yields were determined through drug release studies. For both drugs, release studies show deep and reproducible impregnation for different diopters. For the system P-HEMA/CIP, a series of impregnations was performed to delimit the experimental range at two pressures (80 and 200 bar) in the presence or absence of ethanol as a co-solvent for two diopters (+5.0 D and +21.0 D). Increase in pressure in the absence of a co-solvent resulted in improved CIP impregnation. The addition of ethanol (5 mol%) produced impregnation yields comparable to those obtained at 200 bar without co-solvent. A response surface methodology based on experimental designs was used to study the influence of operating conditions on impregnation of IOLs (+21.0 D) in the absence of co-solvent. Two input variables with 5 levels each were considered; the pressure (80-200 bar) and the impregnation duration (30-240 min). CIP impregnation yields ranging between 0.92 and 3.83 μg CIP/mg IOL were obtained from these experiments and response surface indicated the pressure as a key factor in the process. The DXP impregnation in P-HEMA was

  18. 中国陕西省农村人群血压、眼压和原发性开角型青光眼流行病学调查%Systemic blood pressure,intraocular pressure and primary open-glaucoma: A populationbased study in Shaanxi Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白芝兰; 任百超; 杨建刚; 何媛; 陈莉; 孙乃学

    2005-01-01

    AIM :To investigate the association of primary open-glaucoma (POAG), intraocular pressure (IOP) and systemic blood pressure in a rural population aged 50 years old or above in Shaanxi Province, China.METHODS: In the population-based, cross-sectional study, 1 775 (83.53%) residents, aged 50 years old or above, from 3 counties of Shaanxi Province, China, undertook an interview with a standard questionnaire and a detailed eye examination, including logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry and dilated fundus examination. Two blood pressure reading in the sitting position were taken. Gonioscopy was performed if a narrower peripheral anterior chamber (less than one fourth of the corneal thickness) was indicated. Automated visual field testing was performed by participants assessed to have suspicion of glaucomatous disc damage or if IOP was 22mmHg or higher.RESULTS: IOP significantly correlated with systemic blood pressure, and both IOP and systolic blood pressure increased significantly with increasing age. No association between POAG and hypertension was found. The frequency of POAG increased significantly with lower diastolic perfusion pressure.CONCLUSION: Data in our study are accordance with those reported in other population-based studies, and confirm that lower diastolic perfusion pressure is a significant risk factor for primary open angle glaucoma.%目的:调查中国陕西省农村≥50岁人群原发性开角型青光眼、眼内压与全身血压的联系.方法:2003-07/12,采用整体随机分层抽样法在陕西省洋县、靖边县及富平县调查8 500人,其中≥50岁人群2 125人,所有受检人员均进行标准问卷调查及详细的眼科检查,包括视力检查、裂隙灯检查、测量眼压及散瞳后直接检眼镜检查眼底.受检者于坐位测量血压.若有可疑青光眼性视盘损害或眼压高于22mmHg者则应进行视野检查.结果:≥50岁人群中有1 775

  19. Roles of intraocular pressure in different degree of myopia and axial elongation in children%眼压在儿童不同程度近视和眼轴变化中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨铮; 雷方; 周瑞雅; 陈彬川

    2016-01-01

    Background The development and progression of myopic eyes is biomechanical and dominated by axial elongation.The biomechanics change of stretching of the fundus and sclera appears to reduce its thickness and elastic modulus,which make eyeballs more susceptible to the distending forces of intraocular pressure (IOP).Objective This study was to analyz the axial length (AL) and IOP changes in different degree of myopia and investigate the roles of IOP in myopia development and AL elongation.Methods A prospective cases-controlled study was performed under the informed consent of patients and custodian.Four hundred and twenty-eight eyes of 428 children aged 4-14 years were enrolled in Affilicated Second Hospital of Zhengzhou University from February to December 2014.The patients were divided into 4 groups based on the refractive status.Ninety-three eyes of 93 patients were in the hyperopic-emmetropia group with the spherical equivalent (SE) of (1.81±2.32) D,192 eyes of 192 patients were in mild myopia group with the SE of (-1.43±0.74)D,83 eyes of 83 patients were in the moderate myopia group with the SE of (-4.09±0.89) D and 60 eyes of 60 patients were in the high myopia group with the SE of (-8.02±2.61) D.AL was measured by IOL Master system,IOP was measured by iCare tomnometer,and the central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured by OCT.The corrected IOP was calculated based on IOPcorrection =IOPGAT+(544-CCT)/37.03.The correlations between IOP ion and AL or diopter were analyzed.Results The AL values were (22.44±1.32) mm,(23.89±1.09) mm,(25.05±0.89) mm and (26.47±1.20) mm in the hyperopic-emmetropia group,mild myopia group,moderate myopia group and the high myopia group,showing a significant difference among the four groups (F =177.336,P =0.000).The IOP ion values were (15.24 ±2.73) mmHg,(17.51 ±2.98) mmHg,(17.94 ±2.34) mmHg and (18.49 ± 2.90) mmHg in the hyperopic-emmetropia group,mild myopia group,moderate myopia group and the high myopia group,with a

  20. Additional pool-swell experiments on a 1/11.7-scale Mark I pressure-suppression model. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic response of a Mark I pressure-suppression system during the early air-discharging phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) was studied by means of scale model experiments. The results reported here were performed since the publication of Three Dimensional Pool Swell Modeling of a Mark I Suppression System, EPRI Report NP-906. Additional tests included assessing the effect of vent resistance placement, determining the equality of downcomer pressures, and a number of tests performed to support parallel analytical efforts

  1. Additional pool-swell experiments on a 1/11. 7-scale Mark I pressure-suppression model. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiang, R.L.; Jeuck, P.R. III

    1981-10-01

    The dynamic response of a Mark I pressure-suppression system during the early air-discharging phase of a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) was studied by means of scale model experiments. The results reported here were performed since the publication of Three Dimensional Pool Swell Modeling of a Mark I Suppression System, EPRI Report NP-906. Additional tests included assessing the effect of vent resistance placement, determining the equality of downcomer pressures, and a number of tests performed to support parallel analytical efforts.

  2. Tinting of intraocular lens implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zigman, S.

    1982-06-01

    Intraocular lens (IOL) implants of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) lack an important yellow pigment useful as a filter in the visual process and in the protection of the retina from short-wavelength radiant energy. The ability to produce a yellow pigment in the PMMA used in IOL implants by exposure to near-ultraviolet (UV) light was tested. It was found that the highly cross-linked material in Copeland lens blanks was tinted slightly because of this exposure. The absorptive properties of lens blanks treated with near-UV light in this way approached that of the absorptive properties of human lenses. This finding shows that it is possible to alter IOL implants simply so as to induce a pale-yellow pigment in them to improve the visual process and to protect the retinas of IOL users.

  3. Central hemodynamics in risk assessment strategies: additive value over and above brachial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannoutsos, Alexandra; Rinaldi, Elisa R; Zhang, Yi; Protogerou, Athanassios D; Safar, Michel E; Blacher, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Although the clinical relevance of brachial blood pressure (BP) measurement for cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification is nowadays widely accepted, this approach can nevertheless present several limitations. Pulse pressure (PP) amplification accounts for the notable increase in PP from central to peripheral arterial sites. Target organs are more greatly exposed to central hemodynamic changes than peripheral organs. The pathophysiological significance of local BP pulsatility, which has a role in the pathogenesis of target organ damage in both the macro- and the microcirculation, may therefore not be accurately captured by brachial BP as traditionally evaluated with cuff measurements. The predictive value of central systolic BP and PP over brachial BP for major clinical outcomes has been demonstrated in the general population, in elderly adults and in patients at high CV risk, irrespective of the invasive or non-invasive methods used to assess central BP. Aortic stiffness, timing and intensity of wave reflections, and cardiac performance appear as major factors influencing central PP. Great emphasis has been placed on the role of aortic stiffness, disturbed arterial wave reflections and their intercorrelation in the pathophysiological mechanisms of CV diseases as well as on their capacity to predict target organ damage and clinical events. Comorbidities and age-related changes, together with gender-related specificities of arterial and cardiac parameters, are known to affect the predictive ability of central hemodynamics on individual CV risk. PMID:25341861

  4. Study of Pt Addition Under Simulated Primary Circuit Condition of Pressurized Water Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAI; Zheng-yin; WANG; Hui; CAO; Lin-yuan; HU; Yong

    2013-01-01

    The method of Pt addition under simulated PWR hydrogen water chemistry(HWC)condition and its effects on the electrochemical behavior of structural material 316LN were studied by SEM,XPS,XRD,ICP-AES and linear dynamic polarization etc.At first,all test samples were exposed in 320℃high

  5. Intraocular cilia associated with perforating injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case series of penetrating injury complicated by occurrence of intraocular cilia. Methods: Retrospective analysis of charts of 11 eyes of 11 patients with penetrating injury and intraocular cilia, presenting between September 1978 and November 1998. Ten eyes underwent surgery for trauma-related problems such as cataract, vitritis, retinal detachment etc., at which time intraocular cilia were removed. One eye did not have surgery and continues to harbour cilia at the posterior perforation site. Results: Metallic wire was responsible for injury in 6 of 11 eyes with intraocular cilia. Five eyes had significant intraocular inflammation. The cilia were located in the anterior segment in 4 eyes; in the posterior segment in 6 eyes and in both in one eye. At the last follow up, 72.7% had 6/18 or better vision. Poor vision in the rest was due to recurrent retinal detachment (2 eyes and macular scarring (1 eye. Conclusion: Intraocular cilia are more commonly associated with injury by a metallic wire. The presentation and management of an injured eye does not seem to be influenced by the presence of cilia in the eye.

  6. 阻塞性睡眠呼吸暂停综合征患者眼压的变化观察%Stydy on the changes of intraocular pressure in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵春梅; 喻昌利; 张云玲; 刘湘云; 刘立杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the changes of intraocular pressure (IOP) in 24 hours between obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS) and the non-obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(non-OSAS).Methods Sixty patients with OSAS were divided into two groups:OSAS group(n =30) and non-OSAS group (n =30).The following indicators were detected:(1) Awake oxygen saturation ((HSaO2) %),(2) The lowest oxygen saturation (LSaO2) %) ; (3) Mean oxygen saturation ((MSaO2 %)) ; (4) Oxygen desaturation index ((DI4),time/h:number of times that the hourly oxygen desaturation ≥ 4%) ; (5) The percentage of the time that oxygen saturation ≤ 90% accounts the total time ((SIT90)%) and 24-hour IOP.IOP was measured from early morning 5:00 and measured once every four hours.The measurement results were compared between two groups.Results There was no significant difference on age ((62.60 ± 12.44) years old vs (65.20 ± 10.66)years old,t =1.48),Course of disease ((22.40 ± 6.88) month vs (25.49 ± 7.22) month,t =1.97),gender (The ratio of male to female is(20/10)vs (17/13),x2 =0.007) between the OSAS and the non-OSAS(P >0.05).Value of AHI(h-1) ((27.9 ±6.0) vs (2.5 ±1.1),t =8.78),LSaO2 ((74.7 ±11.7)% vs (91.8 ±5.9)%,t=3.44),SIT90((13.2±12.4)% vs(0.2±1.1)%,t=9.92) and ODI4(h-1) ((28.9 ±13.9)vs (6.1 ±4.1),t =8.09) of OSAS was significantly higher than that of non-OSAS(P <0.05 or P <0.01).Value of IOP of 21:00 o'clock((20.61±4.15)mm Hg vs(19.60 ± 4.03)mm Hg,t =2.18),1:00 o'clock((23.12 ±3.11)mm Hg vs (20.60 ± 3.29) mm Hg,t =4.64) and 5:00 o' clock ((22.82 ± 2.99)mm Hg vs (17.21 ±3.55) mm Hg,t =4.23) of OSAS was significantly higher than that of non-OSAS (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).The wave ((10.40 ± 2.85)mm Hg vs (8.40 ± 2.55) mm Hg,t =4.15) and maximal ((23.60 ± 3.29) mm Hg vs (21.23 ±3.43)mm-Hg,t =2.60) value of IOP of OSAS was significantly higher than that of non-OSAS(P <0.05 or P <0.01).There was no significant difference on minimum of IOP between the OSAS

  7. Evaluation of Vapor Pressure and Ultra-High Vacuum Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids (2) Mixtures and Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Koch, Victor R.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Richard, Ryan M.

    2008-01-01

    Ionic liquids are salts, many of which are typically viscous fluids at room temperature. The fluids are characterized by negligible vapor pressures under ambient conditions. These properties have led us to study the effectiveness of ionic liquids containing both organic cations and anions for use as space lubricants. In the previous paper we have measured the vapor pressure and some tribological properties of two distinct ionic liquids under simulated space conditions. In this paper we will present vapor pressure measurements for two new ionic liquids and friction coefficient data for boundary lubrication conditions in a spiral orbit tribometer using stainless steel tribocouples. In addition we present the first tribological data on mixed ionic liquids and an ionic liquid additive. Post mortem infrared and Raman analysis of the balls and races indicates the major degradation pathway for these two organic ionic liquids is similar to those of other carbon based lubricants, i.e. deterioration of the organic structure into amorphous graphitic carbon. The coefficients of friction and lifetimes of these lubricants are comparable to or exceed these properties for several commonly used space oils.

  8. Drug-Eluting Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Concheiro

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Notable advances in materials science and in surgical techniques make the management of cataract by replacement of the opaque crystalline with an intraocular lens (IOL, one of the most cost-effective interventions in current healthcare. The usefulness and safety of IOLs can be enhanced if they are endowed with the ability to load and to sustain drug release in the implantation site. Drug-eluting IOLs can prevent infections and untoward reactions of eye tissues (which lead to opacification and also can act as drug depots for treatment of several other ocular pathologies. Such a myriad of therapeutic possibilities has prompted the design of drug-IOL combination products. Several approaches are under study, namely combination of the IOL with an insert in a single device, soaking in drug solutions, impregnation using supercritical fluids, coating with drug/polymer layers, and covalent grafting of the drug. The advantages/limitations of each technique are discussed in the present review on selected examples. Although more in vivo data are required, the information already available proves the interest of some approaches in ocular therapeutics.

  9. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous, suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies.

  10. Biopsy techniques for intraocular tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishi, Pukhraj; Dhami, Abhinav; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2016-06-01

    Biopsy involves the surgical removal of a tissue specimen for histopathologic evaluation. Most intraocular tumors are reliably diagnosed based on the clinical evaluation or with noninvasive diagnostic techniques. However, accurately diagnosing a small percentage of tumors can be challenging. A tissue biopsy is thus needed to establish a definitive diagnosis and plan the requisite treatment. From fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) to surgical excision, all tissue collection techniques have been studied in the literature. Each technique has its indications and limitations. FNAB has been reported to provide for 88-95% reliable and safe ophthalmic tumor diagnosis and has gained popularity for prognostic purposes and providing eye conserving treatment surgeries. The technique and instrumentation for biopsy vary depending upon the tissue involved (retina, choroid, subretinal space, vitreous, and aqueous), suspected diagnosis, size, location, associated retinal detachment, and clarity of the media. The cytopathologist confers a very important role in diagnosis and their assistance plays a key role in managing and planning the treatment for malignancies. PMID:27488148

  11. Surface Modification of Intraocular Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper aimed to review the current literature on the surface modification of intraocular lenses (IOLs. Data Sources: All articles about surface modification of IOLs published up to 2015 were identified through a literature search on both PubMed and ScienceDirect. Study Selection: The articles on the surface modification of IOLs were included, but those on design modification and surface coating were excluded. Results: Technology of surface modification included plasma, ion beam, layer-by-layer self-assembly, ultraviolet radiation, and ozone. The main molecules introduced into IOLs surface were poly (ethylene glycol, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane, 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine, TiO 2 , heparin, F-heparin, titanium, titanium nitride, vinyl pyrrolidone, and inhibitors of cytokines. The surface modification either resulted in a more hydrophobic lens, a more hydrophilic lens, or a lens with a hydrophilic anterior and hydrophobic posterior surface. Advances in research regarding surface modification of IOLs had led to a better biocompatibility in both in vitro and animal experiments. Conclusion: The surface modification is an efficient, convenient, economic and promising method to improve the biocompatibility of IOLs.

  12. Surface Modification of Intraocular Lenses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Huang; George Pak-Man Cheng; Kin Chiu; Gui-Qin Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:This paper aimed to review the current literature on the surface modification of intraocular lenses (IOLs).Data Sources:All articles about surface modification of IOLs published up to 2015 were identified through a literature search on both PubMed and ScienceDirect.Study Selection:The articles on the surface modification of IOLs were included,but those on design modification and surface coating were excluded.Results:Technology of surface modification included plasma,ion beam,layer-by-layer self-assembly,ultraviolet radiation,and ozone.The main molecules introduced into IOLs surface were poly (ethylene glycol),polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane,2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine,TiO2,heparin,F-heparin,titanium,titanium nitride,vinyl pyrrolidone,and inhibitors of cytokines.The surface modification either resulted in a more hydrophobic lens,a more hydrophilic lens,or a lens with a hydrophilic anterior and hydrophobic posterior surface.Advances in research regarding surface modification of IOLs had led to a better biocompatibility in both in vitro and animal experiments.Conclusion:The surface modification is an efficient,convenient,economic and promising method to improve the biocompatibility ofIOLs.

  13. Spray nozzles, pressures, additives and stirring time on viability and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematoda: rhabditida for greenhouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Furtado Moreira

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN. Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004, three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa, four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed.

  14. Late opacification of a hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Bdour Muawyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation is considered to be a safe procedure in most cases. However, the new advances in the surgical technique namely phacoemulsification and hence the increased use of foldable intraocular lenses have given rise to new complications including late opacification of intraocular lenses. In this case we report late opacification of a foldable hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens and the surgical technique for its exchange.

  15. Phakic Pattern Pseudoexfoliation Material Accumulation on Intraocular Lens Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Güler

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation is the accumulation of pseudoexfoliation material on the intraocular lens. Most of the cases have showed scattered flecks of pseudoexfoliation material on the surface of the intraocular lens. However, the phakic pattern consisting of classic three-zone on the intraocular lens is rarely observed. In this case report, we describe a phakic pattern pseudoexfoliation material on the intraocular lens surface 8 years after cataract extraction. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 156-7

  16. Phakic Pattern Pseudoexfoliation Material Accumulation on Intraocular Lens Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Emre Güler; Aylin Tenlik; Tuba Kara Akyüz

    2014-01-01

    Pseudophakic pseudoexfoliation is the accumulation of pseudoexfoliation material on the intraocular lens. Most of the cases have showed scattered flecks of pseudoexfoliation material on the surface of the intraocular lens. However, the phakic pattern consisting of classic three-zone on the intraocular lens is rarely observed. In this case report, we describe a phakic pattern pseudoexfoliation material on the intraocular lens surface 8 years after cataract extraction. (Turk J Ophthalm...

  17. 23-gauge Transconjunctival Sutureless Vitrectomy in Eyes with Posteriorly Dislocated Intraocular Lens after Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Horozo¤lu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of 23-gauge (23-G transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV in eyes with posteriorly dislocated intraocular lens (IOL after cataract surgery. Material and Method: In this retrospective study, we evaluated 6 eyes of 6 consecutive cases with posteriorly dislocated intraocular lens after cataract surgery between April 2007 and November 2010. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, detailed fundus examination and details of surgery were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patients was 64.7 years and the mean follow-up was 5.5 months (3-12 months. All eyes received 23-G TSV. Dislocated IOL was removed from the vitreous and implanted into ciliary sulcus in 2 eyes (33.3% with polymethylmetacrilate IOL and in 4 eyes (66.7% with 3-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOL. In 5 of the 6 eyes (83.7%, visual acuity improved postoperatively. In one eye (16.7%, elevation of intraocular pressure was observed postoperatively and controlled by topical treatment. Discussion: 23-G TSV surgery may be used in eyes with posteriorly IOLs after cataract surgery. Studies with a larger number of patients would better demonstrate the efficacy of this method. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 213-6

  18. Are blood pressure and diabetes additive or synergistic risk factors? outcome in 8494 subjects randomly recruited from 10 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan;

    2011-01-01

    It remains unknown whether diabetes and high blood pressure (BP) are simply additive risk factors for cardiovascular outcome or whether they act synergistically and potentiate one another. We performed 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in 8494 subjects (mean age, 54.6 years; 47.0% women; 6.9% diabetic...... as the reference group, the adjusted hazard ratios for the cardiovascular endpoint were 1.35 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-2.11) for white-coat hypertension, 1.78 (95% CI, 1.22-2.60) for masked hypertension and 2.44 (95% CI, 1.92-3.11) for sustained hypertension. The hazard ratios for non-diabetic subjects...... patients) enrolled in prospective population studies in 10 countries. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression, we assessed the additive as opposed to the synergistic effects of BP and diabetes in relation to a composite cardiovascular endpoint by testing the significance of appropriate interaction terms...

  19. Bionic intraocular lens with variable focus and integrated structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Wang, Xuan-Yin; Du, Jia-Wei; Xiang, Ke

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a bionic accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) for ophthalmic surgery. The designed lens has a solid-liquid mixed integrated structure, which mainly consists of a support ring, elastic membrane, rigid lens, and optical liquid. The lens focus can be adjusted through the deformation of the lens front surface when compressed. The integrated structure of the IOL is presented, as well as a detailed description of the lens materials and fabrication process. Images under different radial pressures are captured, and the lens deformation process, accommodating range, density, and optical property are analyzed. The designed lens achieves a 14.6 D accommodating range under a radial pressure of 51.4 mN and a 0.24 mm alteration of the lens outer radius. The deformation property of the lens matches well with the characteristic of the eye and shows the potential to help patients fully recover their vision accommodation ability after the cataract surgery.

  20. 21 CFR 886.4300 - Intraocular lens guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens guide. 886.4300 Section 886.4300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 886.4300 Intraocular lens guide. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens guide is a device...

  1. Green technology effect of injection pressure, timing and compression ratio in constant pressure heat addition cycle by an eco-friendly material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikayan, S; Sankaranarayanan, G; Karthikeyan, R

    2015-11-01

    Present energy strategies focus on environmental issues, especially environmental pollution prevention and control by eco-friendly green technologies. This includes, increase in the energy supplies, encouraging cleaner and more efficient energy management, addressing air pollution, greenhouse effect, global warming, and climate change. Biofuels provide the panorama of new fiscal opportunities for people in rural area for meeting their need and also the demand of the local market. Biofuels concern protection of the environment and job creation. Renewable energy sources are self-reliance resources, have the potential in energy management with less emissions of air pollutants. Biofuels are expected to reduce dependability on imported crude oil with connected economic susceptibility, reduce greenhouse gases, other pollutants and invigorate the economy by increasing demand and prices for agricultural products. The use of neat paradise tree oil and induction of eco-friendly material Hydrogen through inlet manifold in a constant pressure heat addition cycle engine (diesel engine) with optimized engine operating parameters such as injection timing, injection pressure and compression ratio. The results shows the heat utilization efficiency for neat vegetable oil is 29% and neat oil with 15% Hydrogen as 33%. The exhaust gas temperature (EGT) for 15% of H2 share as 450°C at full load and the heat release of 80J/deg. crank angle for 15% Hydrogen energy share. PMID:26025643

  2. Effect of cerium addition on oxidation behavior of 2SCr20Ni alloy under lowoxygen partial pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Mingzeng; CUI Lishan; ZHENG Yanjun; XING Linlin

    2012-01-01

    The influence of Ce addition on the oxidation behavior of 25Cr20Ni alloy at 950 ℃ under low oxygen partial pressure was investigated.The oxidized samples were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD),scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS),and scratch tester to obtain the oxide phases,morphology,thickness,composition and adhesion property of the oxide scales.The experiment results indicated that a small amount of Ce addition (0.02 wt.% or 0.05 wt.%) promoted oxidation resistance and inhibited the growth of the needlelike oxide.The Ce addition also decreased the formation of MnCr2O4 but promoted the SiO2 formation underneath the Cr2O3,which largely contributed to the improvement of oxide scale spallation resistance.For the sample with 0.3 wt.% Ce addition,the oxidation rate significantly increased and the spallation resistance of the oxide scale decreased.

  3. Classification of intraocular lens and its intraocular biocompatibility%人工晶体分类及其在眼内的生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡莉群

    2009-01-01

    目的:通过手术摘除自身浑浊晶体,植入人工晶体是治疗白内障的惟一有效措施.文章总结人工晶体材料的研究进展,为今后的临床应用和研究提供参考.方法:应用计算机检索1997/2009 Medline数据库、中国期刊网和万方数据库、SpringerLink数据库和ScienceDirect数据库.结果:共有25篇文章符合纳入标准.文章主要从人工晶体的发展现状、分类、生物相容性、人工晶体的并发症和发展趋势进行阐述.人工晶体按照硬度,可以分为硬质人工晶体和软性人工晶体.丙烯酸人工晶体比硅凝胶人工晶体的生物相容性更好.人工晶状体脱位是白内障摘除联合人工晶状体植入术后较常见的并发症之一.注入式人工晶体材料是今后研究的方向.结论:人工晶体植入眼内作为一种异物,机体对此产生反应是机体正常的防御现象.人工晶体材料和设计应充分的考虑人工晶体的生物相容性、术后视功能、调节功能、光保护等方面性能.保证术后的疗效和减少并发症的发生,使白内障患者获得更高质量的视力康复.%OBJECTIVE: The sole effective measure for cataract is replaced the epinephelos lens with intraocular lens. So, in this paper, we summarize the research process of intraocular lens, which can provide a reference for further study. METHODS: Medline, China Journal Net, Wanfang Data, SpringerLink, and ScienceDirect database were computer retrieved from 1997 to 2009. RESULTS: A total of 25 papers were included. All the papers were explained intraocular lens from the aspect of current situation, complication following implantation, and develop tendency. According to hardness, intraocular lens can be divided into hard intraocular lens and soft intraocular lens. Acrylic intraocular lenses showed better biocompatibility than the silicone intraocular lenses. In addition, the common complication following implantation was dislocation of lens. Therefore

  4. The case for intraocular delivery of PPAR agonists in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Treacy, Maxwell P

    2012-09-01

    Systemic therapeutics targeting the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors have been found to be beneficial in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we provide a rationale for the use of these therapeutics as intraocular agents. In addition, we introduce the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and describe their functions in response to the drugs.

  5. The cryogenic bonding evaluation at the metallic-composite interface of a composite overwrapped pressure vessel with additional impact investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eric A.

    A bonding evaluation that investigated the cryogenic tensile strength of several different adhesives/resins was performed. The test materials consisted of 606 aluminum test pieces adhered to a wet-wound graphite laminate in order to simulate the bond created at the liner-composite interface of an aluminum-lined composite overwrapped pressure vessel. It was found that for cryogenic applications, a flexible, low modulus resin system must be used. Additionally, the samples prepared with a thin layer of cured resin -- or prebond -- performed significantly better than those without. It was found that it is critical that the prebond surface must have sufficient surface roughness prior to the bonding application. Also, the aluminum test pieces that were prepared using a surface etchant slightly outperformed those that were prepared with a grit blast surface finish and performed significantly better than those that had been scored using sand paper to achieve the desired surface finish. An additional impact investigation studied the post impact tensile strength of composite rings in a cryogenic environment. The composite rings were filament wound with several combinations of graphite and aramid fibers and were prepared with different resin systems. The rings were subjected to varying levels of Charpy impact damage and then pulled to failure in tension. It was found that the addition of elastic aramid fibers with the carbon fibers mitigates the overall impact damage and drastically improves the post-impact strength of the structure in a cryogenic environment.

  6. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets with Excellent Tribological Properties under High Contact Pressure as Water-Based Lubricant Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Bibo; Xu, Sailong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-01-01

    High efficient and sustainable utilization of water-based lubricant is essential for saving energy. In this paper, a kind of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets is synthesized and well dispersed in water due to the surface modification with oleylamine. The excellent tribological properties of the oleylamine-modified Ni-Al LDH (NiAl-LDH/OAm) nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives are evaluated by the tribological tests in an aqueous environment. The modified LDH nanoplatelets are found to not only reduce the friction but also enhance the wear resistance, compared with the water-based cutting fluid and lubricants containing other particle additives. By adding 0.5 wt% LDH nanoplatelets, under 1.5 GPa initial contact pressure, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth and width of the wear track dramatically decrease by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5% and 59.5%, respectively. It is considered that the sufficiently small size and the excellent dispersion of NiAl-LDH/OAm nanoplatelets in water are the key factors, so as to make them enter the contact area, form a lubricating film and prevent direct collision of asperity peaks. Our investigations demonstrate that the LDH nanoplatelet as a water-based lubricant additive has a great potential value in industrial application. PMID:26951794

  7. Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoplatelets with Excellent Tribological Properties under High Contact Pressure as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdong; Liu, Yuhong; Chen, Zhe; Wu, Bibo; Xu, Sailong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    High efficient and sustainable utilization of water-based lubricant is essential for saving energy. In this paper, a kind of layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoplatelets is synthesized and well dispersed in water due to the surface modification with oleylamine. The excellent tribological properties of the oleylamine-modified Ni-Al LDH (NiAl-LDH/OAm) nanoplatelets as water-based lubricant additives are evaluated by the tribological tests in an aqueous environment. The modified LDH nanoplatelets are found to not only reduce the friction but also enhance the wear resistance, compared with the water-based cutting fluid and lubricants containing other particle additives. By adding 0.5 wt% LDH nanoplatelets, under 1.5 GPa initial contact pressure, the friction coefficient, scar diameter, depth and width of the wear track dramatically decrease by 83.1%, 43.2%, 88.5% and 59.5%, respectively. It is considered that the sufficiently small size and the excellent dispersion of NiAl-LDH/OAm nanoplatelets in water are the key factors, so as to make them enter the contact area, form a lubricating film and prevent direct collision of asperity peaks. Our investigations demonstrate that the LDH nanoplatelet as a water-based lubricant additive has a great potential value in industrial application.

  8. Closed intraocular microsurgery in ocular trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1978-04-01

    A series of 53 eyes that had suffered severe trauma was treated by closed intraocular microsurgery with vitreous cutters. The cases were divided into three categories: (a) anterior segment reconstruction for traumatic cataracts and post-traumatic pupillary membranes, (b) vitreous haemorrhage with and without retinal detachment, and (c) traumatically dislocated lenses.

  9. Characterizing intraocular tumors with photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guan; Xue, Yafang; Gursel, Zeynep; Slimani, Naziha; Wang, Xueding; Demirci, Hakan

    2016-03-01

    Intraocular tumors are life-threatening conditions. Long-term mortality from uveal melanoma, which accounts for 80% of primary intraocular tumors, could be as high as 25% depending on the size, ciliary body involvement and extraocular extension. The treatments of intraocular tumors include eye-sparing approaches such as radiotherapy and thermotherapy, and the more aggressive enucleation. The accurate diagnosis of intraocular tumors is thereby critical in the management and follow-up of the patients. The diagnosis of intraocular tumors is usually based on clinical examination with acoustic backscattering based ultrasonography. By analyzing the high frequency fluctuations within the ultrasound (US) signals, microarchitecture information inside the tumor can be characterized. However, US cannot interrogate the histochemical components formulating the microarchitecture. One representative example is the inability of US imaging (and other contemporary imaging modalities as well) in differentiating nevoid and melanoma cells as the two types of cells possesses similar acoustic backscattering properties. Combining optical and US imaging, photoacoustic (PA) measurements encode both the microarchitecture and histochemical component information in biological tissue. This study attempts to characterize ocular tumors by analyzing the high frequency signal components in the multispectral PA images. Ex vivo human eye globes with melanoma and retinoblastoma tumors were scanned using less than 6 mJ per square centimeters laser energy with tunable range of 600-1700 nm. A PA-US parallel imaging system with US probes CL15-7 and L22-14 were used to acquire the high frequency PA signals in real time. Preliminary results show that the proposed method can identify uveal melanoma against retinoblastoma tumors.

  10. Management of dislocated intraocular implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C K; Agarwal, A; Agarwal, S; Agarwal, A

    2001-12-01

    Implant dislocation may occur in the absence of appropriate capsular or zonular support (PCIOL) (11,35,53) or following traumatic injury to anterior ocular tissues (ACIOL). (11,19,20) Other factors (e.g., advanced patient age, high myopia, previous vitrectomy, pseudoexfoliation syndrome, and certain connective tissue disorders) also may predispose implant dislocation. (9,52) Although reported for all types of IOLs, implant dislocation is becoming more manageable because of the advancement of surgical techniques. A dislocated ACIOL or PCIOL may be explanted, exchanged, or repositioned. (11,48,71) Repositioning the dislocated PCIOL in the ciliary sulcus with modern vitreoretinal techniques provides an optimal environment for visual recovery. (11,71) Implant repositioning techniques generally may be categorized into the external or the internal approaches. (8,11) The former involves external suturing methods for a primary or secondary implant in the absence of adequate capsular or zonular support (15,16,31,42,56,60,61,64,66,73,76) and the latter is achieved through modern pars plana techniques. 8,11,62,69) Recently, several implant repositioning methods gaining increasing acceptance include the scleral loop fixation, (45) the snare approach, (43) the use of the 25-gauge implant forceps, (13) temporary haptic externalization, (8,11,36,71) and the use of perfluorocarbon liquids. (1,28,40,41,44) The temporary haptic externalization method combines the best features of the external and the internal approaches, avoids complex intraocular maneuvers, and allows precise scleral fixation of the dislocated IOL on a consistent basis. (8,11,71) Endoscopy provides the surgeon with optimal viewing of the anterior retropupillary anatomy that is often difficult to appreciate (e.g., capsular-zonular complex, ciliary sulcus, anterior retina, and vitreous base). (6,11) As a result, precise haptic placement is possible during the repositioning process. (6,11) However, a three

  11. Effects of topical levobunolol or fixed combination of dorzolamide-timolol or association of dorzolamide-levobunolol on intraocular pressure, pupil size, and heart rate in healthy cats Efeitos da aplicação tópica do levobunolol, da combinação fixa de dorzolamidatimolol ou da associação de dorzolamida com levobunolol sobre a pressão intra-ocular, o diâmetro pupilar e a freqüência cardíaca em gatos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Ribeiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of topical levobunolol with the fixed combination of 2% dorzolamide-0.5% timolol and the association of 2% dorzolamide with 0.5% levobunolol on intraocular pressure (IOP, pupil size (PS, heart rate (HR, and conjunctival hyperemia in eighteen halthy cats were investigated and compared. IOP, PS, HR, and conjuntival hyperemia were daily recorded at three times (9a.m., 2p.m., and 6p.m.. Three groups were formed (n=6, and one eye of each animal was randomly selected and treated with topical levobunolol (L, or commercial combination of dorzolamide-timolol (DT, or the association of dorzolamide with levobunolol (DL. The first day (0 consisted of recording of baseline values. On the next four consecutive days, drugs were instilled at 8a.m. and 8p.m. and measurements were taken at the same times fore cited. Comparing with the baseline values, all evaluated parameters significantly decreased (PEstudaram-se e compararam-se os efeitos do levobunolol, da combinação fixa de dorzolamida 2%-timolol 0,5% e da associação de dorzolamida 2% com levobunolol 0,5% sobre a pressão intra-ocular (PIO, o diâmetro pupilar (DP, a freqüência cardíaca (FC e a hiperemia conjuntival em 18 gatos saudáveis. PIO, DP, FC e hiperemia conjuntival foram aferidos diariamente, em três horários distintos (9h, 14h e 18h. Três grupos foram formados (n=6 e um olho de cada animal recebeu, aleatoriamente, uma gota de levobunolol (L, ou a combinação comercial à base de dorzolamida-timolol (DT, ou a associação de dorzolamida com levobunolol (DL. Parâmetros basais foram aferidos no primeiro dia (dia 0. Nos quatro dias consecutivos, os fármacos foram instilados às 8h e 20h e os parâmetros aferidos nos mesmos horários. Todos os parâmetros decresceram significativamente em relação aos valores basais (P<0,001 e não se observou hiperemia conjuntival. O levobunolol reduziu significativamente a PIO, o DP e a FC e o foi o fármaco que mais reduziu a FC. Não se

  12. On the performance of low pressure die-cast Al-Cu based automotive alloys: Role of additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Gergis Adel

    The present study focuses on the effect of alloying elements, namely, strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), scandium (Sc) and silver(Ag) individually or in combination, on the performance of a newly developed Al-2%Cu based alloy. A total of thirteen alloy compositions were used in the study. Tensile test bar castings were prepared employing the low pressure die casting (LPDC) technique. The test bars were solution heat treated at 495°C for 8 hours, followed by quenching in warm water, and then subjected to different isochronal aging treatments using an aging time of 5 hours and aging temperatures of 155°C, 180°C, 200°C, 240°C and 300°C. Tensile testing of as-cast and heat-treated test bars was carried out at room temperature using a strain rate of 4 x 10-4s-1. Five test bars were used per alloy composition/condition. Hardness measurements were also carried out on these alloys using a Brinell hardness tester. The microstructures of selected samples were examined using optical microscopy and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). The results showed that adding Ti in the amount of 0.15 wt% in the form of Al-5%Ti-1%B master alloy is sufficient to refine the grains in the cast structure in the presence of 200 ppm Sr (0.02 wt%). Addition of Zr and Sc did not contribute further to the grain refining effect. The main role of addition of these two elements appeared in the formation of complex compounds with Al and Ti. Their presence resulted in extending the aging temperature range before the onset of softening. Mathematical analysis of the hardness and tensile data was carried out using the Minitab statistical software program. It was determined that the alloy containing (0.5wt% Zr + 0.15wt% Ti) is the most effective in maximizing the alloy tensile strength over the range of aging temperatures, from 155°C to 300°C. Addition of Ag is beneficial at high aging temperatures, in the range of 240°C-300°C. However, it is less effective compared to the (Zr + Ti

  13. 49 CFR 173.302b - Additional requirements for shipment of non-liquefied (permanent) compressed gases in UN pressure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-liquefied (permanent) compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles. 173.302b Section 173.302b Transportation... (permanent) compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles. (a) General. A cylinder filled with a non-liquefied gas must be offered for transportation in UN pressure receptacles subject to the requirements in...

  14. Comparison of intraocular pressure reducing effects of three prostaglandin eyedrops in open-angle glaucoma%三种前列腺素类滴眼液治疗原发性开角型青光眼的降眼压效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海荔; 孙兴怀; 肖明

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较拉坦前列素、曲伏前列素及贝美前列素3种前列腺素类滴眼液治疗原发性开角型青光眼患者4周后的24h降眼压效果。方法 病例对照研究。选取2009年1月至6月门诊就诊的原发性开角型青光眼患者63例(63只眼)。其中拉坦前列素组21例(21只眼),曲伏前列素组22例(22只眼),贝美前列素组20例(20只眼),分别使用相应的滴眼液,均为每日滴药1次,共观察4周,测量用药前后的24h眼压曲线。3组间用药前或用药后24h不同时间点眼压值比较采用两因素重复测量的方差分析,眼压波动幅度比较采用单因素方差分析。结果 3组患者用药4周后眼压均明显下降,拉坦前列素组眼压从(18.9±2.1)mm Hg(1mm Hg =0.133 kPa)降至(15.3±2.7)mm Hg,下降幅度(用药前后眼压差值/用药前眼压值)为19.0%;曲伏前列素组眼压从(19.1±3.1)mm Hg降至(15.3 ±2.1)mm Hg,下降幅度为19.4%;贝美前列素组眼压从(18.6±1.9) mm Hg降至(14.9±1.9)mm Hg,下降幅度为19.9%。波幅下降幅度(用药前后波幅差值/用药前波幅值),拉坦前列素组为31.0%,曲伏前列素组为31.1%,贝美前列素组为31.9%。用药前及用药后3组间眼压值随时间点变化差异均无统计学意义(F= 1.501,P=0.110),3组间用药后眼压波幅下降幅度差异无统计学意义(F =0.286,P=0.752)。结论 拉坦前列素、曲伏前列素、贝美前列素3种滴眼液对原发性开角型青光眼的昼夜降眼压效果显著且无明显差别。%Objective To compare the efficacy of latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost given in the evening on the 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) curve in open-angle glaucoma patients. Methods It was a case-control study. Patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were selected for the present study.Twenty-one, 22 and 20 patients were treated once daily with latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost for 4

  15. Effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on glutamate expression in the retina with acute high intraocular pressure in a rabbit model%重组人促红细胞生成素对急性高眼压兔视网膜谷氨酸表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建明; 熊蕾; 孙乃学; 赵世平

    2009-01-01

    Objective The neuroprotection provided by recombinant human erythropoietin(rhEPO)on the retina from ischemia-reperfusion injury has been confirmed but its mechanism is not fully understood.The present study aimed to investigate the effect of systemic administration of recombinant human erythropoietin(rhEPO)on the expression of glutamate in the retina after acute high intraocular pressure in vitro.MethodsThe acute high intraocular pressure models were established by the perfusion of physiological saline into anterior chamber of the lateral eye in forty-eight Japanese white rabbits.Other 6 Japanese white rabbits were as normal control group.The experimental rabbits were then equally divided into the model group and EPO group,and hypodermic injection of rhEPO was only performed in the EPO group.Glutamate expression in the retina in both groups was observed by immunohistochemistry on days 1,3,7,and 14 after retinal ischemia-reperfusion.Glutamate expression in another 6 rabbit retina without any treatment was determined as normal by the same method.The use of animal followed the Standard of Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.ResultsNo positive expression of glutamate was observed in normal rabbit retina,but positive expression response of glutamate occurred in the rabbit retina of the model group.The number of positive expression cells in the EPO group was more than that in the model group at each time point(P<0.01).On day 14 after ischemia-reperfusion,the number of positive expression cells was 3.3±1.1 per high visual field in the retina of the model group but 0.3±0.2 in the retina of the EPO group,showing a significant decrease of positive expression cells in EPO group(P<0.01).ConclusionSystemic administration of rhEPO can down-regulate the expression of glutamate in the retina with acute high intraocular pressure.This process may be one of the mechanisms that rhEPO protects the retina from ischemia reperfusion injury.%目的 探讨全身应

  16. A dominant role of oxygen additive on cold atmospheric-pressure He + O{sub 2} plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Aijun; Liu, Dingxin, E-mail: liudingxin@gmail.com, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Xiaohua, E-mail: liudingxin@gmail.com, E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Kong, Michael G. [Centre for Plasma Biomedicine, State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    We present in this paper how oxygen additive impacts on the cold atmospheric-pressure helium plasmas by means of a one-dimensional fluid model. For the oxygen concentration [O{sub 2}] > ∼0.1%, the influence of oxygen on the electron characteristics and the power dissipation becomes important, e.g., the electron density, the electron temperature in sheath, the electron-coupling power, and the sheath width decreasing by 1.6 to 16 folds with a two-log increase in [O{sub 2}] from 0.1% to 10%. Also the discharge mode evolves from the γ mode to the α mode. The reactive oxygen species are found to peak in the narrow range of [O{sub 2}] = 0.4%–0.9% in the plasmas, similar to their power-coupling values. This applies to their wall fluxes except for those of O* and O{sub 2}{sup −}. These two species have very short lifetimes, thus only when generated in boundary layers within several micrometers next to the electrode can contribute to the fluxes. The dominant reactive oxygen species and the corresponding main reactions are schematically presented, and their relations are quantified for selected applications.

  17. The Visual Effects of Intraocular Colored Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy R. Hammond

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern life is associated with a myriad of visual problems, most notably refractive conditions such as myopia. Human ingenuity has addressed such problems using strategies such as spectacle lenses or surgical correction. There are other visual problems, however, that have been present throughout our evolutionary history and are not as easily solved by simply correcting refractive error. These problems include issues like glare disability and discomfort arising from intraocular scatter, photostress with the associated transient loss in vision that arises from short intense light exposures, or the ability to see objects in the distance through a veil of atmospheric haze. One likely biological solution to these more long-standing problems has been the use of colored intraocular filters. Many species, especially diurnal, incorporate chromophores from numerous sources (e.g., often plant pigments called carotenoids into ocular tissues to improve visual performance outdoors. This review summarizes information on the utility of such filters focusing on chromatic filtering by humans.

  18. Environmental standards for intraocular lens implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, B A; Kaufman, D V

    1984-02-01

    Successful implantation of prosthetic devices depends upon their freedom from postoperative inflammation and infection. Techniques and lessons learned in orthopaedic and other implant surgery should be applied to intraocular lens implantation. The avoidance of contamination by particles and micro-organisms is one essential principle of the surgical procedure. Practical steps are described to reduce both types of contamination. These measures taken together are recommended for adoption as a standard of environmental safety for lens implantation.

  19. Adherence of Staphylococcus epidermidis to intraocular lenses.

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, P G; Elliot, T. S.; McTaggart, L

    1989-01-01

    We have demonstrated, with an in vitro model, that Staphylococcus epidermidis is able to colonise intraocular lenses. Adherent organisms were quantitated by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and viable counting. Bacterial adherence was associated with production of a polysaccharide glycocalyx. Organisms which were attached to the lenses were resistant to apparently bactericidal concentrations of antibiotics, as determined by conventional testing. We speculate on the role of colo...

  20. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez; Sergio Bonafonte Royo

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL) implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for i...

  1. Introduction to the development of intraocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yifan; Peng, Runling; Hu, Shuilan; Wei, Maowei; Chen, Jiabi

    2013-08-01

    In order to cure the cataract disease or injuries in eyes, intraocular lens(IOL) has been studied all the time to replace the crystalline lens in human eyes. Researches on IOL are started early from 19th century, and it develops greatly in the hundreds years after. This article introduces several main kinds of IOLs that appear in the development history of IOL, and raises the double-liquid zoom IOL based on electrowetting, which will be the trend of IOL study.

  2. File list: DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.20.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.10.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  4. File list: DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.50.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  5. File list: DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular mm9 DNase-seq Others Lenses, Intraocular http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/DNS.Oth.05.AllAg.Lenses,_Intraocular.bed ...

  6. Quality of vision through diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses.

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, J L; Chakrabarti, H S; Morrison, J D

    1991-01-01

    Two elderly women have each received a monofocal intraocular lens in one eye and a 3M diffractive bifocal intraocular lens in the other eye. Both eyes were shown to have equivalent retinal/neural function by measuring contrast sensitivity to laser interference fringes which bypassed refractive and other defects of the ocular media. The eyes with a bifocal intraocular lens displayed a much greater depth of focus, though at the expense of diminished contrast sensitivity compared with the normal...

  7. Fixed-combination treatments for intraocular hypertension in Chinese patients - focus on bimatoprost-timolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Ling, Zhihong; Sun, Xinghuai

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common eye disease that can lead to irreversible vision loss if left untreated. The early diagnosis and treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma is challenging, and visual impairment in Chinese glaucoma patients is a serious concern. Most of these patients need more than one topical antiglaucoma agent to control their intraocular pressures (IOPs). In the People's Republic of China, the daily cost of different glaucoma medication varies greatly, and the treatment habits differ throughout the country. Prostaglandin analogs (PGAs) are recommended as first-line monotherapy, because of their efficacy and low risk of systemic side effects. Fixed-combination drops, particularly PGA-based fixed combinations, have recently been developed and used in patients with progression or who have failed to achieve their target IOPs. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the use of bimatoprost-timolol fixed combination (BTFC) in the People's Republic of China. BTFC has achieved good efficacy and tolerability in Chinese clinical trials. In addition, BTFC is more cost effective compared with other fixed combinations available in the People's Republic of China. Fixed-combination drops may offer benefits, such as keeping the ocular surface healthy, convenience of administration, and improvement in long-term adherence and quality of life. Therefore, BTFC has great potential for the treatment of Chinese glaucoma patients. However, the long-term efficacy of BTFC, comparisons of BTFC with other fixed-combination drugs, and treatment adherence and persistence with treatment in Chinese patients are unknown and will require further study.

  8. Development of a hydrophobic polymer composition with improved biocompatibility for making foldable intraocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, R. S.; Chauhan, R.; Kapoor, K.; Niyogi, U. K.

    2014-05-01

    A hydrophobic composition for foldable intraocular lenses was developed by copolymerizing phenyl ethyl acrylate, phenyl ethyl methacrylate and butanediol diacrylate by gamma irradiation. Aqueous solution of heparin, a biocompatibilizer absorbed in hydroxyethyl methacrylate was added to the monomer mixture before irradiation to impart desired level of hydrophilicity and improved biocompatibility to the hydrophobic composition. Ketorolac tromethamine, an anti-inflammatory agent and L-glutathione, an antioxidant were added to the composition as functional additive for exhibiting improved performance while in use. Concentrations of monomers, biocompatibilizer and functional additives were optimized to develop an advanced material for foldable intraocular lenses. Transmittance, refractive index, Abbe number, hardness, tensile strength, flexibility and foldability were studied on the final composition. Scanning electron microscopic study, differential scanning calorimetric analysis, leachability and viscometry confirmed the permanent incorporation of additives into the polymer. Results of haemocompatibility, tissue implantation and cytotoxicity confirm that the biocompatibility of the base polymer was improved by incorporation of heparin.

  9. Acute Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Associated with Intraocular Silicone Oil Tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Yasin Teke

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many systemic and ocular factors may cause acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO. Herein, we aimed to describe a case of CRAO due to intraocular silicone oil (SO tamponade. To the best of our knowledge, a case like our has not been reported previously. A 58-yearold male patient had undergone combined pars plana vitrectomy-lensectomy and intraocular SO for lens luxation and vitreus hemorrhage associated with a blunt ocular trauma in his right eye. Two weeks after the surgery, he presented with acute vision loss in the same eye. He was diagnosed with acute CRAO and it should be related with mechanical press or raised intraocular pressure (IOP associated with SO. He was treated by partial removal of SO immediately. In spite of the regression of retina edema, his visual acuity did not improve due to optic atrophy. SO may cause CRAO due to raised IOP and/or its mechanical pressure and this complication must be kept in mind. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 238-40

  10. Closure of a persistent cyclodialysis cleft using the haptics of a normal-sized intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shentu, Xingchao; Zhu, Yanan; Tang, Yelei

    2011-11-01

    A 50-year-old man suffering from hypotony in the right eye caused by a traumatic cyclodialysis and complicated by a choroidal detachment and cataract was treated in our clinic. After an unsuccessful direct cyclopexy, phacoemulsification was performed and a normal-sized single-piece polymethyl methacrylate posterior chamber intraocular lens (PMMA PCIOL) was inserted into the ciliary sulcus, with the haptic rotated toward the cyclodialysis cleft. Postoperatively, the corrected visual acuity improved to 20/20, and the intraocular pressure returned to normal. Ultrasound biomicroscopy showed the closure of the cleft. Phacoemulsification with a normal-sized PMMA PCIOL inserted into the ciliary sulcus is a safe, effective and technically simple surgical treatment for small cyclodialysis induced hypotony complicated by cataract. Internal compression of the cleft by the haptic of a normal sized IOL along with postoperative inflammation led to scarring and closure of the cleft.

  11. Evaluation of intra ocular pressure and hemodynamic change following intubation with Maccoy, Macintosh and Video laryngoscope

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Khosro Zamiri; Mehrdad Noroozi; Siavash Moradi; Mohammad Shabani; Ali Sharifi; Mohammad Ali Haghbin

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objective: The induction of anesthesia, laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation can be associated with adverse hemodynamic response and increased intraocular pressure. The aim of this study was to evaluate intraocular pressure and hemodynamic changes after laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation with three methods of laryngoscopy (Macintosh, Maccoy and Video laryngoscope).Materials & Methods: One hundred and eighty patients with American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) classifi...

  12. Laboratory analyses of two explanted hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two three-piece hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lenses (IOLs were explanted from two patients at 7 and 9 years, respectively, after implantation, because of poor fundus visualisation and/or a clinically significant decrease in visual acuity related to their opacified IOLs. In addition to light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy was used for the first time to observe the explanted IOLs. The clinical aspect seemed to correspond to the phenomenon of surface light scattering, while laboratory analyses showed dense glistenings in the central layer of the IOL optic, which had no change next to the surface. Further studies on these phenomena are needed.

  13. Intraocular lymphoma after cardiac transplantation: Magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yi Kyung; Kim, Hyung Jin; Woo, Kyung In; Kim, Yoon Duck [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    We report a case of intraocular lymphoma in a 65-year-old man, 15 months after cardiac transplantation. On Magnetic Resonance (MR) images, the iris and the anterior chamber of the right eye were found to be involved with an enhancing soft-tissue lesion. To our knowledge, this is the first case of post-transplantation intraocular lymphoma evaluated with MR imaging.

  14. Relationship of the efficacy of latanoprost in lowering intraocular pressure and the genetic polymorphism of prostaglandin receptor gene%拉坦前列素降眼压疗效与前列腺素受体基因多态性的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋尧; 赵秀丽; 马科

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察拉坦前列素降眼压疗效与前列腺素受体基因( PTGFR)多态性的相关性。方法纳入临床确诊的高眼压症患者和原发性开角型青光眼患者70例,用荧光染色原位杂交法确定PTGFR基因单核苷酸多态性( SNPs )位点rs3766355、rs3753380的基因型,分析其与拉坦前列素降眼压疗效的关系。结果65例原发性开角型青光眼患者和高眼压症患者前列腺素受体的rs3766355位点 CC +CA 型的有效率高于 AA 型( P <0.05);rs3753380位点TT+TC型较CC型的有效率差异无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论 PTGFR基因rs3766355位点基因多态性与拉坦前列素的降眼压疗效可能相关。%Objective To study the association between the efficacy of latanoprost in lowing intraocular pressure and genetic polymorphisms of prostaglandin receptor ( PTGFR ) gene.Methods A pharmacogenetic analysis was performed by using fluorescence in situ hybridization ( FISH) to analyze the genotype of single nucleotide polymorphism ( SNPs ) ( rs3766355 , rs3753380 ) in patients with ocular hypertension and primary open -angle glaucoma who were treated with latanoprost.Results Sixty -five partients completed follow -up.The CC +CA genotypes in rs3766355 may be of high response to latanoprost versus AA genotype in patients with ocular hypertension or primary open -angle glau-coma(P0.05 ).Conclusion SNP of rs3766355 in PTGFR may be associated with the effect of latanoprost.

  15. Out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation: outcomes of posterior chamber intraocular lens exchange, risk factors, and prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Dan-ying; CHEN Li-na; SUN Yi; SHAO Ying-feng; LIANG Jing-li; LIU Yi-zhi

    2010-01-01

    Background Dislocation of posterior chamber intraocular lens is one of the most common complications of intraocular lens implantation. Lens exchange is an effective solution to this unsatisfactory status. This study was conducted to analyze the possible predisposing factors for out-of-the-bag posterior chamber intraocular lens dislocation and to study the outcomes of lens exchange surgery.Methods Thirty-six consecutive patients (36 eyes) with out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation who underwent posterior chamber intraocular lens exchange in Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center of Sun Yat-sen University (Guangdong,China) from January 2003 to October 2009 were included. A 6-month follow-up was completed. The causes for out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation and visual outcomes of posterior chamber intraocular lens exchange were analyzed. The out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation was diagnosed on the basis of the findings from slit-lamp microscope and B-ultrasound. The dislocated intraocular lens was explanted. Reimplantation of a new posterior chamber intraocular lens was performed in each case using standardized surgical procedures.Results In this study, a total of thirty-six consecutive patients (36 eyes) with out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation underwent posterior chamber intraocular lens exchange surgery. Causes for out-of-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation included posterior capsule rupture during the initial cataract extraction procedure (23 eyes, 63.8%), trauma (5 eyes,13.9%), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser-induced dislocation (2 eyes, 5.6%), the status after vitrectomy (2 eyes, 5.6%) and unidentifiable etiology (4 eyes, 11.1%). Symptoms of these patients mainly included decrease in visual acuity (17 cases, 47.2%), blurred vision (16 cases, 44.4%), glare (1 case, 2.8%), diplopia (1 case,2.8%), and halo (1 case, 2.8%). Intraocular lens dislocation into the posterior vitreous cavity (29 eyes, 80.5%), anterior chamber (1

  16. Bilateral Pseudoexfoliation Deposits on Intraocular Lens Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bonafonte Marquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of bilateral pseudoexfoliative deposits on both intraocular lens (IOL implants in an 83-year-old woman with no other associated pathology, 5 years after cataract surgery. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is the most common cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma worldwide and these deposits are usually found on the natural lens. The fact that pseudoexfoliative deposits have been found on IOL implants implies the need for a thorough examination in pseudophakic patients, for it could be the only sign of secondary glaucoma.

  17. [Iris suture fixation of posterior-chamber elastic intraocular lens in ligament apparatus laxity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashtaev, N P; Bat'kov, E N; Zotov, V V

    2010-01-01

    An original MIOL-23 multifocal elastic intraocular lens (IOL) was used to operate 5 eyes with acquired lens dislocation and traumatic cataract. By making self-sealing tunnel incision, ILO was implanted into the capsular sac and sutured to the iris. MIOL-23 implantation caused an increase in mean visual acuity. The IOL took up a correct position. Elastic IOL implantation with iris suture fixation is an efficient and safe mode of additional ILO support. PMID:20645577

  18. Use of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose 2% for removing adherent silicone oil from silicone intraocular lenses

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, S Chien; Ramkissoon, Yashin D; Lopez, Mauricio; Page, Kristopher; Ivan P. Parkin; Sullivan, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background / aims: To investigate the effect of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) on the physical interaction (contact angle) between silicone oil and a silicone intraocular lens (IOL). Methods: In vitro experiments were performed, to determine the effect of HPMC (0.5%, 1% or 2%), with or without an additional simple mechanical manoeuvre, on the contact angle of silicone oil at the surface of both silicone and acrylic (control) IOLs. A balanced salt solu...

  19. Intraocular penetration of sequentially instilled topical moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and levofloxacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Sugioka

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Koji Sugioka1, Masahiko Fukuda1, Shohei Komoto1, Motoki Itahashi1, Masakazu Yamada2, Yoshikazu Shimomura11Department of Ophthalmology, Kinki University School of Medicine, Osaka-Sayama City, Osaka, Japan; 2Division for Vision Research, National Institute of Sensory Organs, National Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: The objective of the study was to compare the intraocular penetration levels of the newer fluoroquinolones, moxifloxacin, gatifloxacin, and levofloxacin in the rabbit’s cornea, aqueous humor, and conjunctiva after topical instillation.Methods: 0.5% moxifloxacin, 0.3% gatifloxacin, and 0.5% levofloxacin were instilled in random sequence in both eyes of nine New Zealand White rabbits at two-minute intervals. Instillation was repeated every 15 minutes for a total of three drops of each fluoroquinolone per eye. Three additional animals had only moxifloxacin instilled bilaterally using the same schedule. Sixty minutes after the final instillation, the rabbits were sacrificed for determination of corneal, aqueous humor, and conjunctival fluoroquinolone concentrations using highperformance liquid chromatography.Results: Moxifloxacin achieved significantly higher concentrations than levofloxacin and gatifloxacin in the cornea (P = 0.0102 and P = 0.0006, respectively, aqueous humor (P = 0.0015 and P < 0.0001, respectively, and conjunctiva (P = 0.0191 and P = 0.0236, respectively. Conclusions: 0.5% moxifloxacin eyedrops provided superior intraocular penetration in rabbits’ eyes compared with the two other fluoroquinolones, 0.5% levofloxacin and 0.3% gatifloxacin.Keywords: fluoroquinolone, gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, penetration, rabbit

  20. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millan, Maria S, E-mail: francisco.alba-bueno@upc.edu, E-mail: fvega@oo.upc.edu, E-mail: millan@oo.upc.edu [Departamento de Optica y Optometria, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, C/ Violinista Vellsola 37, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  1. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millán, María S.

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  2. Dissociative anesthetic combination reduces intraocular pressure (IOP in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewaldo de Mattos-Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of three anesthetic combinations, ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam, on IOP in rabbits. In a experimental, blind, randomized, crossover study, six rabbits were anesthetized with each of 3 treatments in random order. Groups KM (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + midazolam, 1 mg/kg; KX (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + xylazine, 3 mg/kg; and TZ (tiletamine + zolazepam, 20 mg/kg. The drugs were mixed in the same syringe injected intramuscularly (IM into the quadriceps muscle. IOP was measured before drug administration (baseline and at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes. The data were analyzed by a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test. All groups had significant decreases in IOP compared to baseline (p 0.05. Administration of either ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine, or tiletamine-zolazepam similarly decrease IOP in rabbits within 30 minutes of injection.

  3. The effects on intraocular pressure, chamber angle and number of corneal endothelial cells after the implantation of iris clip lens in children%儿童虹膜夹持型人工晶状体植入术后眼压、房角和角膜内皮的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱邵品; 邵新香; 范可顺

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the efficacy and safety of clinical application of children's iris clip lens by analyzing the changes of postoperative intraocular pressure, chamber angle and number of corneal endothelial cells. Methods 21 cases (30 eyes) , whose posterior chamber were unable to be implanted with artificial lens because of absence of posterior capsule, were managed by implanting iris clip lens . The changes of postoperative visual acuity, ocular pressure, number of comeal endothelial cells, and chamber angle were studied. Results All patients were followed up, ranging from 3-12 moths (medium: 6months). Improvement of postoperative visual (0. 1~1.0) and normal ocular pressure(11~20 mm Hg)were achieved for all patients. Secondary glaucoma was not observed. The number of corneal endothelial cells and chamber angle by UBM were unchanged postoperatively. Conclusion Implantation of iris clip lens, which is easily manipulated , with short surgical duration and less complications , was proved to be efficient and safe , when difficulty is met with routine implantation of artificial lens in posterior chamber. The most advantage of this procedure is no decrease of corneal endothelial cells postoperatively and no influence on chamber angle and vitreous body intraoperatively.%目的 总结分析儿童虹膜夹持型人工晶状体植入术后眼压、房角和角膜内皮的变化,探讨临床应用的有效性和安全性.方法 21例(30只眼)患者中,钝挫伤晶状体脱位2例,马-凡综合征晶状体脱位8例,外伤性白内障术后无晶状体眼4例,先天性白内障术后无晶状体眼7例.均无后囊支撑,无法行后房人工晶状体植入而应用虹膜夹持型人工晶状体植入术.术后观察视力、眼压、角膜内皮计数、房角改变等.结果 随访3~12月(平均6个月),术后视力0.1~1.0,均较术前明显提高;眼压正常11 ~20 mm Hg,无继发性青光眼;角膜内皮细胞计数无明显变化;超声生物显微镜

  4. [Results of intraocular lens implantation in cataract complicated by medium and high myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, Iu A; Chuprov, A D; Volkov, D V

    2001-01-01

    Results of surgical treatment of cataract complicated by medium and high myopia are analyzed. The main group consisted of 90 patients (96 eyes) subjected to extracapsular cataract extraction with implantation of posterior-chamber intraocular lenses and the reference group of 128 patients in whom cataract was extracted without implantation of artificial lens. The study included creation of a mathematical model of myopic eye with estimation of pressure fluctuations in various zones of the eye, developing during transposition of the vitreous during patient's movements (head movements, jumps, falling) and the damping effect of the lens in the ocular system. It was proven by mathematical calculations that transpositions of jelly fractions of the vitreous decreased by 70% in an eye with the lens in comparison with their transposition in aphakia. Clinical studies demonstrated the efficiency of intraocular correction of aphakia in high myopia: implantation of an intraocular lens decreases the risk of detachment of the retina during the postoperative period and helps attain the desired refraction. PMID:11765458

  5. Clinical Observation of 126 Cases of Sutureless Phacoemulsification with PMMA Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanshuang Yan; Zhengxing Mao

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To observe the safety and effect of sutureless phacoemulsification with PMMA intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.Methods: One-hundred and twenty-six cases (126 eyes) of sutureless phacoemulsification with PMMA intraocular lens (IOL) implantation were retrospected and evaluated. The surgeries were performed through a limbal tunnel incision. PMMA IOLs with 5.5mm or 6.0mm in diameter were implanted.Results: The follow-up was 3~20 months. Visual acuity of 0. 5 or better was obtained in 120 cases (95.2%), and that of 1.0 or better was obtained in 89 cases (70. 6% ).Intra-operative complications included posterior capsule rupture in 9 cases (7. 1% ) and iris injury in 7 cases(5.6% ). Postoperative complications included early corneal edema in 96 cases(76.2% ), transient intraocular pressure elevation in 5 cases(4. 3%),remnant of cortex in 1 case and leakage of incision in 1 case. M1 were properly managed with good results.Conclusion: Sutureless phacoemulsification with PMMA IOL implantation is safe even in grass-root hospitals where cataracts are harder.

  6. Stereoselectivity of satropane, a novel tropane analog, on iris muscarinic receptor activation and intraocular hypotension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang ZHU; Hong-zhuan CHEN; Li-min YANG; Yong-yao CUI; Pei-li ZHENG; Yin-yao NIU; Hao WANG; Yang LU; Qiu-shi REN; Pi-jing WEI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To study the stereoselectivity of satropane (3-paramethylbenzene sulfonyloxy-6-acetoxy tropane), a novel tropane analog, on iris muscarinic receptor activation and intraocular hypotension. Methods: The assays for radioligand-receptor binding, the contractile responses of isolated iris muscle, the miosis response, and the intraocular hypotension of the enantiomers of satropane were investigated. Results: In the binding analysis, S(-)satropane (lesatropane) completely com-peted against the [3H]quinuclydinyl benzilate-labeled ligand at muscarinic recep-tors in the iris muscle, whereas R(+)satropane failed to completely compete. In an isolated iris contractile assay, R,S(±)satropane and S(-)satropane produced a concentration-dependent contractile response with similar efficacy and potency to that of carbachol. R(+)satropane did not induce any contractile response. In the pupil diameter measurement assay in vivo, S(-)satropane induced miosis much more effectively than pilocarpine, while R(+)satropane failed to produce any miosis. In the water loading-induced and methylcellulose-induced ocular hypertensive models, S(-)satropane, but not R(+)satropane, significantly suppressed intraocu-lar pressure at a much lower concentration than pilocarpine. Conclusion: The ago-nistic and hypotensive properties of satropane on rabbit eyes are stereoselective, with the S(-)isomer being its active form.

  7. Optical bench performance of a novel trifocal intraocular lens compared with a multifocal intraocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinwook; Choi, Myoung; Xu, Zaiwei; Zhao, Zeyu; Alexander, Elsinore; Liu, Yueai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the optical characteristics of the novel PanOptix presbyopia-correcting trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) and the multifocal ReSTOR +3.0 D IOL, through in vitro bench investigations. Methods The optical characteristics of AcrySof® IQ PanOptix™ (PanOptix) and AcrySof® IQ ReSTOR +3.0 D (ReSTOR +3.0 D) IOLs were evaluated by through-focus Badal images, simulated headlight images, and modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements which determine resolution, photic phenomena, and image quality. Through-focus Badal images of an Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart were recorded at both photopic and mesopic pupil sizes. Simulated headlight images were taken on an MTF bench with a 50-μm pinhole target and a 5.0 mm pupil at the distance focus of the IOL. MTF curves were measured with a 3.0 mm pupil, and spatial frequencies equivalent to 20/40 and 20/20 visual acuities were recorded to illustrate the through-focus MTF curves. Far-, intermediate-, and near-focus MTF values were obtained. Results Bench Badal image testing and MTF measurements showed that PanOptix has a near focus at a distance of 42 cm and an additional intermediate focus at a distance of about 60 cm. The near focus for ReSTOR +3.0 D is at 45 cm. PanOptix and ReSTOR +3.0 D have comparable photopic distances and near MTF values. Additionally, PanOptix provided a substantial continuous range of vision from distance to intermediate and to near compared with ReSTOR +3.0 D. The halo propensity for PanOptix was slightly higher than that for ReSTOR +3.0 D. Conclusion Laboratory-based in vitro simulations showed that PanOptix trifocal IOL has comparable resolution and image quality performance in distance and near foci compared with ReSTOR +3.0 D IOL. PanOptix showed better resolution and image quality performance at the intermediate focus than ReSTOR +3.0 D IOL. PMID:27330273

  8. New Management of Angle-closure Glaucoma by Phacoemulsification with Foldable Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ge; Yan Guo; Yizhi Liu; Mingkai Lin; Yehong Zhuo; Bing Chen; Xiuqi Chen

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the management of angle-closure glaucoma by phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. Design: Retrospective, noncontrolled interventional case series.Participants: In 36 eyes with angle-closure glaucoma (ACG), there were 18 eyes with primary acute angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), 14 eyes with primary chronic angle-closure glaucoma (PCCG), 3 eyes with secondary acute angle-closure glaucoma (SACG) and 1 eye with secondary chronic angle-closure glaucoma (SCCG).Intervention: Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.Main Outcome Measures: Postoperative visual acuity, IOP, axial anterior chamber depth.Results: After a mean postoperative follow-up time of 8.81 ± 7.45 months, intraocular pressure was reduced from a preoperative mean of 23.81 ± 17.84 mmHg to a postoperative mean of 12.54 ± 4. 73 mmHg ( P = 0. 001 ). Mean anterior chamber depth was 1.75 ± 0.48 mm preoperatively and 2.29 ± 0.38 mm postoperatively ( P = 0. 000).Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in 36 eyes ranged from 0. 01 to 0. 7 (20/200 to 20/30) postoperatively, which was better than preoperative VA ranging from hand movement to 0.4 (20/50) ( P= 0. 000).Conclusion: Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation can be a good alternative in treating angle-closure glaucoma. Eye Science 2000; 16:22 ~ 28.

  9. New Management of Angle-closure Glaucoma by Phacoemulsification with Folable Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianGE; YanGuo; 等

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the management of angle-closure glaucoma by phacoemulsification with foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOIL)implantation.Design:Retrospective,noncontrolled interventional case series.Participants:In 36 eyes with angle -closure glaucoma(ACG).there were 18eyes with primary acute angle-closure glaucoma(PACG),14 eyes with primary chonic angle -closure glaucoma(PCCG),3 eyes with secondary acute angle-closure glaucoma (SACG) and 1 eye with secondary chronic angle -closure glaucoma(SCCG).Intervention:Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation.Main Outcome Measures:Postoperative visual acuity,IOP,axial anterior chamber depth.Results:After a mean postoperative follow -time of 8.81±7.45 months,intraocular pressure was reduced from a preoperative mean of 23.81±17.84 mmHg to a postoperative mean of 12.54±4.73mmHg(P=0.001).Mean anterior chamber depth was 1.75±0.48 mm preoiperatively and 2.29±0.38mm postoperatively(P-0.000).Best spectacle-corrected visual acuity in 36 eyes ranged from 0.01 to 0.7(20/200 to 20/30)postoperatively,which was better than preoperative VA ranging from hand movement to 0.4(20/50)(P=0.000).Conclusion:Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation can be a good alternative in treating angle-closure glaucoma.Eye Science2000;16:22-28.

  10. Characteristics of Optic Nerve Damage Induced by Chronic Intraocular Hypertension in Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiantao Wang; Jian Ge; A.A. Sadun; T.T. Lam

    2004-01-01

    Purpose:To set up the Sharma's chronic intraocular hypertension model and investigate the intraocular pressure (lOP) as well as the optic nerve damage of this model in rat.Methods:The operations of the chronic intraocular hypertension model were performed as described by Sharma in 60 male Lewis albino rats. IOP was measured using the TonoPen XL immediately after surgery and then at 5 day, 2 week or 4 week intervals. Cresyl violet staining of whole-mounted retinas was used to label retinal ganglion cells (RGCs),then RGCs were counted. Paraphenylenediamine (PPD) staining was performed in the semi-thin cross sections of optic nerve of rat, in order to know whether the axons of optic nerve were degenerated or not. Results:There were 47 rats with higher IOP after the episcleral veins cauterized in 60rats. The ratio of elevated IOP was 78.3%. The IOPs were stable in 4 weeks. After cresyl violet staining, the RGCs loss was 11.0% and 11.3% was found in the central and peripheral retina respectively after 2 weeks of increased IOP. After 4 weeks of increased lOP, the loss of RGCs was 17% for the central retina and 24.6% for the peripheral retina. In the retinas without higher IOP, there was no loss of RGCs. PPD staining showed that optic nerve of rat with about 5.3% damage of axons located at the superior temporal region. Region of affected optic nerve 1 mm posterior to the globe by light microscope showed evidence of damaged axons with axonal swelling and myelin debris.Conclusion:Sharma's chronic intraocular hypertension model is a reproducible and effective glaucoma model, which mimics human glaucoma with chronically elevation IOP and induced RGCs loss and damage of optic nerve. Eye Science 2004;20:25-29.

  11. Small-Gauge Pars Plana Vitrectomy for the Management of Symptomatic Posterior Vitreous Detachment after Phacoemulsification and Multifocal Intraocular Lens Implantation: A Pilot Study from the Pan-American Collaborative Retina Study Group

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Rodrigo M.; Machado, Leonardo M.; Ossires Maia; Lihteh Wu; Farah, Michel E.; Octaviano Magalhaes; J Fernando Arevalo; Mauricio Maia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the efficacy of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for symptomatic posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) on visual acuity (VA) and quality after multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs). Methods. In this prospective case series, patients who developed symptomatic PVD and were not satisfied with visual quality due to floaters and halos after multifocal IOL implantation underwent PPV. Examinations included LogMAR uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), intraocular pressure, biomicro...

  12. Effects of intraocular mescaline and LSD on visual-evoked responses in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eells, J T; Wilkison, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of mescaline and LSD on the flash-evoked cortical potential (FEP) were determined in unrestrained rats with chronically-implanted electrodes. Systemic administration of mescaline or LSD significantly attenuated the primary component of the FEP at three stimulus intensities with the greatest effect observed 60-90 minutes following drug administration. The magnitude and specificity of the effects of these agents on the primary response suggest that they produce deficits in conduction through the retino-geniculato-cortical system. The serotonin receptor antagonists, cyproheptadine and methysergide, antagonized the mescaline-induced depression of the FEP in accordance with neurochemical and behavioral evidence that mescaline acts as a partial agonist on serotonin receptors. Topical or intraocular administration of atropine antagonized the actions of systemically-administered mescaline. In addition, intraocular administration of mescaline or LSD attenuated the FEP indicative of an action of these hallucinogens on visual processing in the retina which is modulated by muscarinic receptor activity.

  13. Polymer-additive extraction via pressurized fluids and organic solvents of variously cross-linked poly(methylmethacrylates).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazem, N; Taylor, L T

    2002-04-01

    Variously cross-linked poly(methylmethacrylates) (PMMAs) are synthesized with three additives incorporated at theoretically 1000 microg of the additive per gram of prepared polymer. The additives are Irganox 1010, Irganox 1076, and Irgafos 168. The in-house" synthesized polyacrylates are then subjected to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to determine if additive recovery is a function of percent cross-linking. Although considerable work in this regard has been performed with non-cross-linked polyolefins, the literature is lacking regarding polyacrylates. Some additive degradation apparently occurs during the synthesis, as judged by the increased complexity of the extract high-performance liquid chromatographic trace and the low percent recoveries observed especially for the Irganoxes. For low polymer cross-linking (1%), it appears that both PMMA synthetic reproducibility and readily observed polymer swelling during SFE are serious issues that adversely affect additive percent recovery and precision of results. Higher percent cross-linking yields more consistent analytical data than low percent cross-linking, even though the amount of additive extracted in all PMMA samples (regardless of cross-linking percentage) is essentially the same whether the extraction is via SFE or liquid-solid extraction with methylene chloride. Results for comparably cross-linked poly(ethylmethacrylate) and poly(butylmethacrylate) are similar to PMMA. PMID:12004935

  14. Lente intra-ocular multifocal difrativa apodizada: resultados Diffractive apodized multifocal intraocular lens: results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Centurion

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Mostrar os resultados visuais e refracionais com lente intra-ocular multifocal difrativa apodizada. MÉTODOS: Estudo de 100 olhos de 50 pacientes com catarata, submetidos à facoemulsificação com implante bilateral de lente intra-ocular (LIO multifocal difrativa apodizada. Foi avaliada a acuidade visual binocular sem e com correção para longe e perto, a previsibilidade refracional e a freqüência de uso de óculos. RESULTADOS: A acuidade visual sem correção para longe foi de e " 20/30 em 97,56% dos olhos operados e e" J2 em 100%, sendo que 82% dos pacientes nunca usam óculos e 16% usam de forma esporádica. CONCLUSÃO: A LIO multifocal difrativa apodizada mostrou ser uma opção previsível, reproduzível e segura na correção dos vícios de refração para longe e perto durante a cirurgia da catarata, permitindo elevado índice de independência ao uso de óculos.OBJECTIVE: To show visual and refraction results using multifocal diffractive apodized intraocular lens. METHODS: The study of 100 eyes of 50 patients with cataract, submitted to phacoemulsification with bilateral implant of multifocal diffractive apodized intraocular lens (IOL. Binocular visual acuity was evaluated with and without correction for near and distance, and refraction previsibility and frequency of wearing glasses. RESULTS: Visual acuity without correction for distance was e" 20/30 in 97.56% of eyes operated on and e" J2 in 100%, of these 82% of patients never wear glasses and 16% wear glasses sporadically. CONCLUSION: Multifocal diffractive apodized IOL proved to be a foreseeable option, reproducible and safe in the correction of refraction errors for distance and near during cataract surgery, enabling a high rate of independence from the use of glasses.

  15. MicroRNA profiling in intraocular medulloepitheliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak P Edward

    Full Text Available To study the differential expression of microRNA (miRNA profiles between intraocular medulloepithelioma (ME and normal control tissue (CT.Total RNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE intraocular ME (n=7 and from age matched ciliary body controls (n=8. The clinical history and phenotype was recorded. MiRNA profiles were determined using the Affymetrix GeneChip miRNA Arrays analyzed using expression console 1.3 software. Validation of significantly dysregulated miRNA was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. The web-based DNA Intelligent Analysis (DIANA-miRPath v2.0 was used to perform enrichment analysis of differentially expressed (DE miRNA gene targets in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathway.The pathologic evaluation revealed one benign (benign non-teratoid, n=1 and six malignant tumors (malignant teratoid, n=2; malignant non-teratoid, n = 4. A total of 88 miRNAs were upregulated and 43 miRNAs were downregulated significantly (P<0.05 in the tumor specimens. Many of these significantly dysregulated miRNAs were known to play various roles in carcinogenesis and tumor behavior. RT-PCR validated three significantly upregulated miRNAs and three significantly downregulated miRNAs namely miR-217, miR-216a, miR-216b, miR-146a, miR-509-3p and miR-211. Many DE miRNAs that were significant in ME tumors showed dysregulation in retinoblastoma, glioblastoma, and precursor, normal and reactive human cartilage. Enriched pathway analysis suggested a significant association of upregulated miRNAs with 15 pathways involved in prion disease and several types of cancer. The pathways involving significantly downregulated miRNAs included the toll-like receptor (TLR (p<4.36E-16 and Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB signaling pathways (p<9.00E-06.We report significantly dysregulated miRNAs in intraocular ME tumors, which exhibited abnormal profiles in other cancers as well such as retinoblastoma and glioblastoma. Pathway analysis

  16. Enhanced computational prediction of polyethylene wear in hip joints by incorporating cross-shear and contact pressure in additional to load and sliding distance: effect of head diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Lu; Galvin, Alison L; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2009-05-11

    A new definition of the experimental wear factor was established and reported as a function of cross-shear motion and contact pressure using a multi-directional pin-on-plate wear testing machine for conventional polyethylene in the present study. An independent computational wear model was developed by incorporating the cross-shear motion and contact pressure-dependent wear factor into the Archard's law, in additional to load and sliding distance. The computational prediction of wear volume was directly compared with a simulator testing of a polyethylene hip joint with a 28 mm diameter. The effect of increasing the femoral head size was subsequently considered and was shown to increase wear, as a result of increased sliding distance and reduced contact pressure. PMID:19261286

  17. Intraocular lens employed for cataract surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.

  18. Mechanical properties of intra-ocular lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Klaus; Kim, Eon; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2008-02-01

    Cataract surgery usually involves the replacement of the natural crystalline lens with a rigid or foldable intraocular lens to restore clear vision for the patient. While great efforts have been placed on optimising the shape and optical characteristics of IOLs, little is know about the mechanical properties of these devices and how they interact with the capsular bag once implanted. Mechanical properties measurements were performed on 8 of the most commonly implanted IOLs using a custom build micro tensometer. Measurement data will be presented for the stiffness of the haptic elements, the buckling resistance of foldable IOLs, the dynamic behaviour of the different lens materials and the axial compressibility. The biggest difference between the lens types was found between one-piece and 3-piece lenses with respect to the flexibility of the haptic elements

  19. Primary orbital neuroblastoma with intraocular extension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthukrishnan Vallinayagam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is an undifferentiated malignancy of primitive neuroblasts. Neuroblastoma is among the most common solid tumors of childhood. Orbital neuroblastoma is typically a metastatic tumor. In this case report, we describe a 2-year-old child with a rapidly progressing orbital tumor. Computed tomography revealed an orbital mass lesion with extraocular and intraocular components. An incisional biopsy was done, and a histopathological examination showed features suggestive of neuroblastoma. Systemic workup including ultrasonography of the abdomen, chest roentgenogram, whole body computed tomography, and bone scintigraphy showed no evidence of systemic involvement. The diagnosis of primary orbital neuroblastoma was made, and the child was subjected to chemotherapy followed by rapid melting of the tumor. Neuroblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of childhood orbital tumors.

  20. Intraocular lens employed for cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszkowska, A. M.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to illustrate the techniques of cataract surgery with implantation of intraocular lenses and some physical properties of the used materials. The new technology, coupled with extensive experience and the studied cases, permits to increase the standardization and accuracy of the engravings, by reducing the use and handling of surgical instruments inside the eye. At present it is possible to replace the cataract with crystalline lenses based on biopolymers such as PMMA, silicone, acrylic hydrophilic and hydrophobic acrylic. These materials are increasingly able to replace the natural lens and to ensure the fully functional of the eye. The role of femtosecond lasers in cataract surgery, to assist or replace several aspects of the manual cataract surgery, are discussed.

  1. Intraocular Lens Calcification; a Clinicopathologic Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Rezaei-Kanavi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To describe the clinical and pathological features of a case of hydrogel intraocular lens (IOL calcification. CASE REPORT: A 48-year-old man underwent explantation of a single-piece hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens in his left eye because of decreased visual acuity and milky white opalescence of the IOL. The opacified lens was exchanged uneventfully with a hydrophobic acrylic IOL. Gross examination of the explanted IOL disclosed opacification of the optic and haptics. Full-thickness sections of the lens optic were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E, von Kossa and Gram Tworts'. Microscopic examination of the sections revealed fine and diffuse basophilic granular deposits of variable size within the lens optic parallel to the lens curvature but separated from the surface by a moderately clear zone. The deposits were of high calcium content as evident by dark brown staining with von Kossa. Gram Tworts' staining disclosed no microorganisms. CONCLUSION: This report further contributes to the existing literature on hydrogel IOL calcification.

  2. Computational modeling of intraocular gas dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, P.; Abdekhodaie, M. J.; Cheng, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a computational model to simulate the dynamics of intraocular gas behavior in pneumatic retinopexy (PR) procedure. The presented model predicted intraocular gas volume at any time and determined the tolerance angle within which a patient can maneuver and still gas completely covers the tear(s). Computational fluid dynamics calculations were conducted to describe PR procedure. The geometrical model was constructed based on the rabbit and human eye dimensions. SF6 in the form of pure and diluted with air was considered as the injected gas. The presented results indicated that the composition of the injected gas affected the gas absorption rate and gas volume. After injection of pure SF6, the bubble expanded to 2.3 times of its initial volume during the first 23 h, but when diluted SF6 was used, no significant expansion was observed. Also, head positioning for the treatment of retinal tear influenced the rate of gas absorption. Moreover, the determined tolerance angle depended on the bubble and tear size. More bubble expansion and smaller retinal tear caused greater tolerance angle. For example, after 23 h, for the tear size of 2 mm the tolerance angle of using pure SF6 is 1.4 times more than that of using diluted SF6 with 80% air. Composition of the injected gas and conditions of the tear in PR may dramatically affect the gas absorption rate and gas volume. Quantifying these effects helps to predict the tolerance angle and improve treatment efficiency.

  3. Mechanisms of radical formation in beef and chicken meat during high pressure processing evaluated by electron spin resonance detection and the addition of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolumar, Tomas; Andersen, Mogens L; Orlien, Vibeke

    2014-05-01

    The generation of radicals during high pressure (HP) processing of beef loin and chicken breast was studied by spin trapping and electron spin resonance detection. The pressurization resulted in a higher level of spin adducts in the beef loin than in the chicken breast. It was shown that radicals were formed in the sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar fractions as well as in the non-soluble protein fraction due to the HP treatment, indicating that other radicals than iron-derived radicals were formed, and most likely protein-derived radicals. The addition of iron as well as the natural antioxidants caffeic acid, rosemary extract, and ascorbic acid resulted in an increased formation of radicals during the HP treatment, whereas addition of ethylendiamintetraacetic acid (EDTA) reduced the radical formation. This suggests that iron-species (protein-bound or free) catalyses the formation of radicals when meat systems are submitted to HP. PMID:24360471

  4. Application of Foldable Intraocular Lens in Multiple Types of Cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Songtao Yuan; Qinghuai Liu; Qing Jiang; Nanrong Yuan

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical results of implantation of foldable intraocular lens inmultiple types of cataract.Methods: This retrospective study comprised 162 eyes of 148 patients undergoingphacoemulsification and implantation of foldable intraocular lens, some of whom under-went combined pars plana vitrectomy or trabeculectomy or silicone oil removal. Theperiod of follow-up was from 3 months to 17 months.Results: There is slight reaction postoperatively in all cases. The postoperative uncorrectedvisual acuites was from 0. 05 to 1.2, patient with 0.6 or above acuity were 70.98%. Aneodymium: YAG capsulotomy was required in 5 eyes. Posterior capsule ruptured in 1eyes, and a PMMA intraocular lens was implanted in ciliary sulcus. In one eye, a lenswas removed because of recurrence of retina detachment.Conclusions: The application of foldable intraocular lens in multiple types of cataract issafe, and there is a slight postoperative reaction. less complications , and fast visualacuity recovery.

  5. Patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Sood1, Maria A Woodward21Emory Eye Center, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Cataract surgery has evolved. The goal of the surgeon includes both restoration of vision and refinement of vision. Patients' desire for spectacle independence has driven the market for presbyopia-correcting cataract surgery and development of novel intraocular lens (IOL designs. The Tecnis® Multifocal Intraocular Lens incorporates an aspheric, modified anterior prolate IOL with a diffractive multifocal lens design. The design aims to minimize spherical aberration and improve range of focus. The purpose of this review is to assess patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens.Keywords: Tecnis®, intraocular lens, multifocal, presbyopia 

  6. The effects of CO addition on the autoignition of H-2, CH4 and CH4/H-2 fuels at high pressure in an RCM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gersen, Sander; Darmeveil, Harry; Levinsky, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Autoignition delay times of stoichiometric and fuel-lean (phi = 0.5) H-2, H-2/CO, CH4, CH4/CO, CH4/H-2 and CH4/CO/H-2 mixtures have been measured in an Rapid Compression Machine at pressures ranging from 20 to 80 bar and in the temperature range 900-1100K. The effects of CO addition on the ignition

  7. Effects comparison of tree prostaglandin eyedrops in reducing open-angle glaucoma intraocular pressure%不同种类前列腺素类滴眼液治疗原发性开角型青光眼的降眼压效果对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪涛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the effect of latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost on the 24 h intraocular pressure (IOP) curve in open-angle glaucoma patients. Methods 78 patients with open-angle glaucoma were randomly divided into 3 groups according to different kinds of administration methods, with 26 cases in each group. GroupⅠ, groupIIand group Ⅲ were treated once daily with latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost eyedrops for four weeks,respectively. Be-fore and 4 weeks after the treatment, IOP was measured and compared at 4 time opints in 24 hours. Results There was no difference of IOP before the treatment among the three groups (P > 0.05), but IOP became lower at various time points among the three groups 4 weeks after the treatment, the differences were statistically significant (P0.05). There was no significant difference of IOP a-mong the three groups after 4 weeks' treatment (P>0.05). Conclusion The method is quite obvious by using latanoprost, travoprost and bimatoprost on the IOP in open-angle glaucoma patients.%目的:比较拉坦前列素、曲伏前列素及贝美前列素滴眼液治疗原发性开角型青光眼患者6周后的降眼压的效果.方法选取2012年10月~2013年10月于承德市中心医院门诊就诊的原发性开角型青光眼患者78例(141只眼).将其按照给药方法分为三组,每组均为26例,其中玉组给予拉坦前列素滴眼液(47只眼);域组给予曲伏前列素滴眼液(47只眼);芋组给予贝美前列素滴眼液(47只眼),三组均每日不同时间点滴眼1次,疗程为4周,测量比较三组用药前后的24 h内、不同时间点的眼压以及用药前后4周内眼压.结果三组治疗前眼压比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);三组治疗后24 h内各时间点眼压均明显下降,差异有统计学意义(P0.05);三组用药后4周眼压比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论采用拉坦前列素、曲伏前列素及贝美前列素滴眼液治疗原

  8. Effects of rAAV-mediated rhBDNF gene transfection on BDNF gene expression in the retina of a rabbit model of acute high intraocular pressure%rAAV介导hBDNF基因转染对急性高眼压兔眼视网膜BDNF表达的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建明; 孙乃学; 惠娜; 范雅稚; 冯海晓; 赵世平

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes in the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene in the retina of rabbits with acute high intraocular pressure (IOP) after injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector containing human BDNF gene (rAAV-hBDNF), and investigate the neuroprotective mechanism of rAAV-hBDNF. Methods The unilateral eyes of 24 white rabbits were randomly chosen as the model group with high IOP induced by saline perfusion into the anterior chamber, and the contralateral eyes served as the control group without treatment. In another 24 white rabbits, 10 μl rAAV-BDNF was injected into the vitreous body of one of the eyes 3 days before induction of high IOP. On days 1,3,7, and 14 after perfusion, the bilateral eyes of 6 rabbits were excised for immunohistochemistry for the expression of endogenous BDNF gene in the retina. Results The number of BDNF-positive cells in the retina decreased after induction of high IOP, and injection of rAAV-hBDNF resulted in a significant increase in BDNF-positive cells as compared with the positive cell number in the high IOP model and control groups (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion rAAV-mediated BDNF gene transfection can increase endogenous BDNF expression in the retina of rabbits with acute high IOP. Intravitreous injection is an effective pathway for rAAV-hBDNF gene transfection into the retina.%目的 通过观察视网膜内源性脑源性神经营养因:F(BDNF)表达的变化,探讨玻璃体注射携带人脑源性神经营养因子(hBDNF)的重组腺伴随病毒(rAAV-BDNF)对急性高眼压兔眼神经损害的保护机制.方法 24只健康日本大耳白兔任选一眼作为造模眼(为模型组,共24眼),用生理盐水前房灌注法造成急性高眼压模型,对侧眼不作任何处理作为正常对照组(24眼).另24只健康日本大耳白兔任选一眼作为造模眼(为BDNF组,共24眼),BDNF组在造模前3d玻璃体内注射10μl rAAV-BDNF.于造模后第1、3、7、14d

  9. Visual performance after the implantation of a new trifocal intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vryghem JC

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jérôme C Vryghem,1,2 Steven Heireman1,21Brussels Eye Doctors, Brussels, Belgium; 2Clinique Saint-Jean, Brussels, BelgiumPurpose: To evaluate the subjective and objective visual results after the implantation of a new trifocal diffractive intraocular lens.Methods: A new trifocal diffractive intraocular lens was designed combining two superimposed diffractive profiles: one with +1.75 diopters (D addition for intermediate vision and the other with +3.50 D addition for near vision. Fifty eyes of 25 patients that were operated on by one surgeon are included in this study. The uncorrected and best distance-corrected monocular and binocular, near, intermediate, and distance visual acuities, contrast sensitivity, and defocus curves were measured 6 months postoperatively. In addition to the standard clinical follow-up, a questionnaire evaluating individual satisfaction and quality of life was submitted to the patients.Results: The mean age of patients at the time of surgery was 70 ± 10 years. The mean uncorrected and corrected monocular distance visual acuity (VA were LogMAR 0.06 ± 0.10 and LogMAR 0.00 ± 0.08, respectively. The outcomes for the binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity were almost the same (LogMAR −0.04 ± 0.09. LogMAR −010 ± 0.15 and 0.02 ± 0.06 were measured for the binocular uncorrected intermediate and near VA, respectively. The distance-corrected visual acuity was maintained in mesopic conditions. The contrast sensitivity was similar to that obtained after implantation of a bifocal intraocular lens and did not decrease in mesopic conditions. The binocular defocus curve confirms good VA even in the intermediate distance range, with a moderate decrease of less than LogMAR 0.2 at −1.5 D, with respect to the best distance VA at 0 D defocus. Patient satisfaction was high. No discrepancy between the objective and subjective outcomes was evidenced.Conclusion: The introduction of a third focus in diffractive multifocal

  10. EXTERIOR PRESSURE OF THE GASEOUS MEDIUM AS AN ADDITIONAL TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR FOR OPTIMIZING THE VAPORIZATION PROCESS IN THE PRODUCTION OF CELLULAR SILICATE CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Rezanov

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. The quality of silicate porous concrete is largely determined by vapor-ization processes at the stage of the formation of the macrostructure of the obtained material. In the production of cellular concrete with the use of injection molding, the existing manufacturing technologies do not enable the expeditious handling of the vaporization process. This is why there is a growing need to develop additional efficient methods of handling the vaporization process thus improving cellular silicate concrete.Results. Based on modelling and detailed examination of the balance of pressure affecting devel-oping gas pores, mechanisms and factors governing a defect-free structure are found. An additional governing factor, which is a pressure of the external gaseous medium, was discovered. The approaches to handling the vaporization process have been developed and a plant fitted with a system of automatic control of vaporization process by conscious operative pressuring effect from the external gaseous phase on a poring mixture has been designed.Conclusions. Theoretical validation along with the results of the experimental study help to arrive at the conclusion about the efficiency of the suggested system in controlling vaporization that could provide a good addition to the traditional injection molding and make it more susceptible against varying characteristics of raw materials.

  11. Intraocular Gnathostomiasis: Report of a Case and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Pillai, Gopal S.; Kumar, Anil; Radhakrishnan, Natasha; Maniyelil, Jayasree; Shafi, Tufela; Dinesh, Kavitha R.; Karim, Shamsul

    2012-01-01

    Intraocular gnathostomiasis is a rare parasitic infection caused by the third-stage larvae of spiruroid nematode Gnanthostoma spp. seen mostly in tropical and subtropical regions. It is a food-borne zoonosis caused by ingestion of raw or undercooked freshwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals, all of which are known to harbor advanced third-stage larvae of Gnanthostoma spp. To date, 74 cases of intraocular gnathostomiasis have been reported from 12 different countries. Only four...

  12. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    OpenAIRE

    Ladan Espandar; Shameema Sikder; Majid Moshirfar

    2011-01-01

    Ladan Espandar1, Shameema Sikder2, Majid Moshirfar31Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular le...

  13. Patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Maria; Sood,Priyanka

    2011-01-01

    Priyanka Sood1, Maria A Woodward21Emory Eye Center, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Cataract surgery has evolved. The goal of the surgeon includes both restoration of vision and refinement of vision. Patients' desire for spectacle independence has driven the market for presbyopia-correcting cataract surgery and development of novel intraocular lens (IOL) designs. The Tecnis® Multifocal Intraocular Lens incorporates an aspheric, modified anter...

  14. Effect of BDNF pre-treated on expression of phospho-EIK-1 in rat retina after acute high intraocular pressure%外源性BDNF对急性高眼压后大鼠视网膜EIK-1磷酸化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋丽珠; 赵红念; 高春燕; 李云

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of brain-derived neurotrophie factor(BDNF) pre-treated an the expression of phospho-EIK-1 (p-EIK-1)in rat retina after acute high intraocular pressure(HIOP), seventy-two adult rats were randomly divided into acute HIOP group, BDNF pre-treated HIOP group and vehicle pre-treated HIOP group. The left eyes of rata in BDNF pre-treated HIOP group and vehicle pre-treated HIOP group were injected with BDNF or vehicle respectively 2 days before HIOP. The intrancular pressure of all left eyes was increased un-til b wave of flash eleetroretinogragh (fERG) disappeared and such pressure maintained for 60 minutes. All the right eyes were served as normal control group. The rata were sacrificed after 1,3,7 or 14 days, immuanhistechemistry for detecting the expression of p-EIK-1 was used. The results showed that compared to the normal control group, the p-EIK-1 immunopositive cells in ganglion cell layer were de-creased significantly (P < 0.05) during reperfusion in the acute HIOP group. The expression of p-EIK-1 during reperfusion in vehicle con-trol group was similar to those in acute HIOP group. In the BDNF pre-treated HIOP group, the p-EIK-1 immunopositive cells in ganglion cell layer were similar to those of the normal group at 1,3 and 7 days following HIOP, but at 14 day group p-EIK-1 immunopositive cells in ganglion cell layer were decreased markedly(P <0.05). These results indicate that the protective function of exogenous BDNF to in-jured retina may be involved in promoting the phosphorylation of EIK-1 in ganglion cell layer of the retina.%为了研究脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)干预对急性高眼压(HIOP)后大鼠视网膜EIK-1磷酸化的影响,本实验将72只成年大鼠随机分为单纯高眼压组、BDNF预处理高眼压组和溶媒预处理高眼压组.BDNF预处理高眼压组和溶媒预处理高眼压组动物左眼于加压前2 d分别给予BDNF预处理或溶媒,右眼设为正常对照.各组动物左眼眼压升高至闪

  15. A study of brachytherapy for intraocular tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose of this study is to perform brachytherapy for intraocular tumor. The result were as followed. 1. Eye model was determined as a 25 mm diameter sphere. Ir-192 was considered the most appropriate as radioisotope for brachytherapy, because of the size, half, energy and availability. 2. Considering the biological response with human tissue and protection of exposed dose, we made the plaques with gold, of which size were 15 mm, 17 mm and 20 mm in diameter, and 1.5 mm in thickness. 3. Transmission factor of plaques are all 0.71 with TLD and film dosimetry at the surface of plaques and 0.45, 0.49 at 1.5 mm distance of surface, respectively. 4. As compared the measured data for the plaque with Ir-192 seeds to results of computer dose calculation model by Gary Luxton et al. and CAP-PLAN (Radiation Treatment Planning System), absorbed doses are within ±10% and distance deviations are within 0.4 mm. Maximum error is -11.3% and 0.8 mm, respectively. 7 figs, 2 tabs, 28 refs. (Author)

  16. Surgical management of intraocular lens dislocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Gul

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To report and compare the surgical, visual, and anatomical outcomes following treatment of dislocated intraocular lenses (IOLs.Methods:The medical records of 28 eyes of 28 patients were evaluated. Age, gender, pre-and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, surgical methods, and complications were recorded.Results:Pre-and postoperative BCVA ranged from counting fingers to 20/32 and from counting fingers to 20/25, respectively. Late-onset dislocations were the most frequently observed complication. The most frequent surgical method was IOL repositioning in 15 of 28 patients, followed by IOL exchange in 11 patients, and IOL removal in 2 patients. Only 1 patient required surgical re-intervention with IOL capture.Conclusions:Visual acuity improved following the use of either IOL repositioning or IOL exchange. No superiority of one method over the other was observed. In the present retrospective case series, management of dislocated IOLs with repositioning or exchange of the primary implant conferred comparable surgical and visual outcomes.

  17. Treatment of cystoid macular edema secondary to chronic non-infectious intermediate uveitis with an intraocular dexamethasone implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dutra Rossetto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the use of a slow-release dexamethasone 0.7-mg intravitreal implant for cystoid macular edema (CME secondary to intermediate uveitis and refractory to systemic steroids. Methods: A retrospective study of the best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, intraocular inflammation, intraocular pressure (IOP, fundus photography, optical coherence tomography (OCT, inflammation, and adverse reactions of five patients (women, mean age of 35 years with cystoid macular edema treated with a dexamethasone implant. Patients were evaluated in seven visits until the 150th day after the implant. Results: Four patients had bilateral pars planitis and one had bilateral intermediate uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Six dexamethasone devices were implanted, under topical anesthesia (one each in six eyes, five patients. The mean follow-up time was 5 months. The best-corrected visual acuity improved in all eyes that received an implant, with five having improvements of two or more lines. Optical coherence tomography showed thinning of the macula in all eyes treated, and we saw a correlation between the best-corrected visual acuity and retinal thinning. No serious adverse events occurred and no significant increase in intraocular pressure was observed. Conclusions: Slow-release dexamethasone intravitreal implants can effectively treat CME secondary to intermediate uveitis and refractory to systemic steroids.

  18. Effects of the Dietary Addition of Amaranth (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) Protein Isolate on Antioxidant Status, Lipid Profiles and Blood Pressure of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, María B; Burini, Julieta; Rinaldi, Gustavo; Añón, María C; Tironi, Valeria A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of the dietary addition of 2.5% (w/w) Amaranthus mantegazzianus protein isolate (AI) on blood pressure, lipid profiles and antioxidative status of Wistar rats were evaluated. Six diets were used to feed animals during 28 days: (base (AIN93G), Chol (cholesterol 1%, w/w), CE (α-tocopherol 0.005%, w/w), CholE (cholesterol 1% (w/w) + α-tocopherol 0.005%, w/w), CAI (AI 2.5% w/w), CholAI (cholesterol 1% (w/w) + AI 2.5%, w/w). Lipid profiles of plasma and liver and faecal cholesterol content were analyzed. Antioxidant status was evaluated by the ferric reducing activity of plasma (FRAP), the 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma and liver. Blood pressure was measured in the tail artery of rats. CholA group presented a significant (α < 0.05) reduction (16%) in the plasma total cholesterol. In liver, the intake of cholesterol (Chol group) induced a significant increment in cholesterol and triglycerides (2.5 and 2.3 times, respectively), which could be decreased (18% and 47%, respectively) by the addition of AI (CholA group). This last group also showed an increased faecal cholesterol excretion (20%). Increment (50%) in FRAP values, diminution of TBA value in plasma and liver (70% and 38%, respectively) and diminution of SOD activity (20%) in plasma of CholA group suggest an antioxidant effect because of the intake of AI. In addition, CA and CholA groups presented a diminution (18%) of blood pressure after 28 days. PMID:26497504

  19. Retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Mun Yueh; Ferreira, Nuno; Neto, Eliana

    2016-01-01

    Objective To report visual outcomes, complication rate, and safety of retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens (ICIOL) in ectopia lentis in Marfan syndrome (MFS). Design Retrospective study. Methods Six eyes of three MFS patients with ectopia lentis underwent surgery for subluxation lens and retropupillary ICIOL implantation from October 2014 to October 2015 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Santa Maria Hospital in Lisbon, Portugal. Demographics, preoperative and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and intraocular pressure were evaluated. Endothelium cell count was assessed using specular microscopy; anterior chamber depth was measured using Pentacam postoperatively; and intraocular lens position was viewed by ultrasound biomicroscopy. All patients were female; mean age was 20±14.264 years (range: 7–38 years). Results The average follow-up period was 6.66 months (range: 4–16 months). Preoperative BCVA was 0.568±0.149 logMAR units, and postoperative BCVA was 0.066±0.121 logMAR units. The mean BCVA gain was −0.502±0.221 on the logMAR scale. Postoperative average astigmatism and intraocular pressure were 1.292±0.697 mmHg (range: 0.5–2.25 mmHg) and 16 mmHg (range: 12–18 mmHg), respectively. The average endothelial cell density decreased from 3,121±178 cells/mm2 before surgery to 2,835±533 cells/mm2 after surgery (measured at last follow-up visit) and in the last follow-up, representing an average endothelial cell loss of 9.16%. Mean anterior chamber depth was 4.01 mm (±0.77 mm), as measured by Pentacam. No complications were found intra- or postoperatively in any of the six studied eyes. Conclusion Retropupillary ICIOL implantation is a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of aphakia in MFS eyes, without capsular support after surgery for ectopia lens. The six eyes that underwent lensectomy and retropupillary ICIOL implantation have had excellent visual outcomes with no complications so far. PMID:27382335

  20. Densiron® 68 as an intraocular tamponade for complex inferior retinal detachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain RN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Rumana N Hussain, Somnath BanerjeeLeicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UKIntroduction: Densiron® 68 is a high-density liquid used to tamponade inferior retinal detachments. We present a case series of 12 patients treated with Densiron as an intraocular tamponade agent.Methods: A retrospective analysis of 12 eyes in 12 patients was carried out. The primary endpoint was anatomic reattachment of the retina following removal of Densiron oil.Results: All patients had inferior detachments; 33% had associated proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. Densiron was utilized as a primary agent in five patients (42%; the remaining patients had prior unsuccessful surgery for retinal reattachment, including pars plana vitrectomy, cryotherapy, laser, encirclement, gas (C3F8 or C2F6, or silicone oil. Eleven patients (91% had successful reattachment of the retina at 3 months following removal of Densiron; one patient had extensive PVR, total retinal detachment, preretinal macula fibrosis, and chronic hypotony, and surgical intervention was unsuccessful. Six patients (50% had raised intraocular pressure (IOP, resolving in the majority of cases following Densiron removal; two patients had long-term raised IOP requiring topical or surgical therapy. Of the six phakic patients, 50% developed significant cataract in the operated eye. Of those with successful retinal reattachment, visual outcome was variable, with 36% patients gaining two to four lines on Snellen, 27% remaining objectively the same, and 36% losing one to two lines.Conclusion: The anatomic success rate is high (91% in patients requiring Densiron tamponade for inferior retinal detachments with or without evidence of PVR either as a primary or secondary intervention. A common complication is raised IOP; however, this most often resolves following removal of the oil.Keywords: intraocular tamponade, silicone oil, retinal detachment, retinal reattachments

  1. Primary Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lens Implantation in Traumatic Cataract With Posterior Capsule Breaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YupingZou; WenhuiYang

    1995-01-01

    Background:In patients with incomplete posterior capsule support,posterior chamber intraocular lenses(PC-IOLs)were implanted with both haptics transs-cleral fixation.This causes more damage to the eye and may result in more com-plications,In patients with small posterior breaks,non-fixation or single haptic fixation may be adequate.Methods:Thiry-two consecutive patients of traumatic cataract with posterior capsule breaks caused by penetrating eye trauma were retospected.Posterior chamber intraocular lenses were implanted in all these patients with three tech-niques,ie,without fixation,with single haptic fixation and with both haptics fixation .The selection of the technique was based on the position and size of the posterior capsule.The follow-up period was 21days to 28months(mean,15.2months).Results:Intra-operative problems included ciliary body bleeding(Two patents,6.25%)and enlargement of posterior capsule breaks(2patients,6.25).Postoperative visual acuity was0.5or better(Corrected)in28case(87.5%)and 0.1-0.4in four patients(12.5%),Postoperative complications included hyphema(6eyes,18.8%),transient intraocular pressure elevation(6eyes,18.8%),transient hypotention(7eyes,21.8%).Postoperative IOL position were good except one case of IOL tilt.No pupillary capture or endophthalmitis was found.Conclusions:Not all PC-IOLs have to be fixed by two haptics.In patients with small posterior capsule breaks,PC-IOLmay not be fixed or fixed by only one haptics.Eye Science1995;11:140-142.

  2. Low pressure hot pressing of B4C matrix ceramic composites improved by Al2O3 and TiC additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B4C matrix ceramic composites toughened by Al2O3 and TiC were prepared by low pressure hot pressing. The relative density, Vickers hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength of the new fabricated composites were measured. Microstructure observations of the fracture surfaces and the indentation cracks of the B4C matrix ceramic composites were analyzed, and an X-ray diffraction phase analysis was performed. The experiment results showed that chemical reactions took place during the low pressure hot pressing process and resulted in the B4C/Al2O3/TiB2 composite. The densification rate of the B4C matrix ceramic composites was enhanced and the mechanical properties were improved via the introduction of Al2O3 and TiC additives. The Vickers hardness, fracture toughness and flexural strength of the composite with the addition of 4.7 wt.% Al2O3 and 10 wt.% TiC were 24.8 GPa, 4.8 MPa m1/2 and 445 MPa, respectively.

  3. New trends in intraocular lens imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, María S.; Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel

    2011-08-01

    As a result of modern technological advances, cataract surgery can be seen as not only a rehabilitative operation, but a customized procedure to compensate for important sources of image degradation in the visual system of a patient, such as defocus and some aberrations. With the development of new materials, instruments and surgical techniques in ophthalmology, great progress has been achieved in the imaging capability of a pseudophakic eye implanted with an intraocular lens (IOL). From the very beginning, optical design has played an essential role in this progress. New IOL designs need, on the one hand, theoretical eye models able to predict optical imaging performance and on the other hand, testing methods, verification through in vitro and in vivo measurements, and clinical validation. The implant of an IOL requires a precise biometry of the eye, a prior calculation from physiological data, and an accurate position inside the eye. Otherwise, the effects of IOL calculation errors or misplacements degrade the image very quickly. The incorporation of wavefront aberrometry into clinical ophthalmology practice has motivated new designs of IOLs to compensate for high order aberrations in some extent. Thus, for instance, IOLs with an aspheric design have the potential to improve optical performance and contrast sensitivity by reducing the positive spherical aberration of human cornea. Monofocal IOLs cause a complete loss of accommodation that requires further correction for either distance or near vision. Multifocal IOLs address this limitation using the principle of simultaneous vision. Some multifocal IOLs include a diffractive zone that covers the aperture in part or totally. Reduced image contrast and undesired visual phenomena, such as halos and glare, have been associated to the performance of multifocal IOLs. Based on a different principle, accommodating IOLs rely on the effort of the ciliary body to increase the effective power of the optical system of the

  4. 不同剂量右美托咪定对琥珀胆碱气管插管时眼内压的影响%Effects of different dosage of dexmedetomidine on the intraocular pressure changes after succinylcholine administration and endotracheal intubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    过伟; 张兆平; 房宁宁; 顾美蓉; 裘学; 姚敏

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different dosage of dexmedetomidine on the intraocular pressure changes after succinylcholine administration and endotracheal intubation. Methods Sixty ASA I or Ⅱ patients undergoing general anaesthesia for non-ophthalmic surgery were randomly allocated into three groups to receive 0.4 μg/kg dexmedetomidine (group Dl), 0. 6 μg/kg dexmedetomidine (group D2) or normal saline (group C) over a period of 10 min before induction. IOP, HR and MAP were recorded before and 3 min after the premedication(T0, T1), 30 s after induction (T2) . 30 s after suxamethonium injection(T3) and 1 min (T4), 2 min(T5) , 4 min (T6) and 6 min (T7) after endotracheal intubation. Results Two patients in group D2 were exduded because of hypotension and bradycardia after receiving dexmedetomidine. In group Dl and D2, fall in IOP was observed at T1-T3 compared with T0 (P<0. 01). In group C, IOP at T3-T7, MAP at T4-T7 and HR at T4-T6 increased significantly(P<0. 05). Compared with group C, IOP at T3-T7and MAP, HR at T4-T7 was significantly lower in group Dl and D2 (P<0. 01). Conclusion Dexmedetomidine (0. 6 μg/kg as well as 0. 4 μg/kg) could effectively prevent rise of IOP associated with administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation. However, the dosage of 0. 6 μg/kg may cause significant hypotension. Thus dexmedetomidine 0. 4 μg/kg may be preferred for prevention of rise in IOP.%目的 观察不同剂量右美托咪定对琥珀胆碱气管插管引起的眼内压(IOP)升高的影响.方法 选择ASA Ⅰ或Ⅱ级无眼部疾患的全麻患者60例,随机均分为三组:D1组和D2组,麻醉诱导前10 min内分别静脉给予右美托咪定0.4、0.6 μg/kg;C组,给予等量生理盐水.监测和记录给予右美托咪定前(基础值,T0)、给予右美托咪定后3 min(T1)、麻醉诱导后30 s(T2)、给予琥珀胆碱后30 s(T3)、气管插管后1min (T4)、2min(T5)、4 min(T6)和6 min(T7)

  5. Influencing factors of high intraocular pressure during stable period after implantable collamer lens%有晶体眼后房型人工晶体植入术后稳定期高眼压发生的相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡春明; 谢汉平; 汪辉; 罗启惠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate influencing factors of high intraocular pressure (IOP) during stable period (1 to 3 months) after implantable collamer lens (ICL) and therapeutic efficacy. Methods Clinical data of 79 high myopia patients ( 155 eyes) who received ICL from January to December in 2011 were analyzed retrospectively. They were 36 males and 43 females, with an age ranging from 18 to 46 (mean 23. 84 ?6. 54) , and were followed up within 6 months post-operatively. IOP, uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity, refractive diopter, slit lamp examination, gonioscopy, coneal endocellion, central anterior chamber depth (ACD) , lens thickness, axial length, vault and trabecular-iris angle (TIA) were observed and analyzed. Results Eight patients (16 eyes) experienced high IOP during stable period post-operatively with an incidence of 10. 32% (16/155). Non-high IOP after ICL was found in 71 patients ( 139 eyes). Fourteen eyes (87.5%) out of 16 eyes were treated with drops and good outcomes were obtained, but the left 2 eyes (12. 5% ) had to turn to surgery which were uncontrollable with drops. Pre- and post-operative ACD, post-operative vault and TIA were closely related to high IOP during stable period after ICL( P < 0. 05 , P < 0. 01). Post-operative TIA was an independent influencing factor for high IOP after ICL. IOP and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were 26.13 +3.56 mmHg and 0. 69 +0. 20 in stable period, 19.98 +2.51 mmHg and 0.80 + 0. 19 in 1 week after treatment, and 17. 58 +2. 30 mmHg and 0. 84 +0. 19 at the end of follow-up. There were significant difference between those of the stable period with those of later 2 time points (P < 0. 05 , P < 0. 01). Conclusion High IOP during stable period after ICL may be related to not matching good enough between ICL and eye ball, which induces chronic inflammation for long time.%目的 探讨有晶体眼后房型人工晶体(implantable collamer lens,ICL)植入术后稳定期发生高眼压的相关影

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  7. Penetrating Scleral Injury with Intraocular Foreign Body. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anay Martínez Díaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Ocular trauma is a health problem in the world today and a common cause of visual impairment leading to severe sequelae and psychological disorders. The case of a 46-year-old male patient who attended the Ophthalmology emergency services of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima University General Hospital of Cienfuegos, recounting that while hammering iron on iron he felt that something entered his right eye, is presented. He suffered from pain, tearing, red eye and blurred vision. A penetrating scleral injury with an intraocular foreign body was diagnosed. Its study was conducted through biomicroscopy, orbital x-ray and ocular ultrasound. Surgical treatment by extracapsular lens extraction with intraocular lens implantation was performed using Blumenthal technique and pars plana approach for removal of the intraocular foreign body.

  8. Epithelial Downgrowth after Intraocular Surgery Treated with Intracameral 5-Fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Ni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To present the clinical and histopathologic correlation of two cases of epithelial downgrowth (EDG after prior intraocular surgery. Methods. Observational case reports. Results. We present two cases of EDG occurring after intraocular surgery. In both cases, after two anterior chamber injections of 5-fluorouracil (5FU, the area of EDG initially regressed. In Case 1, a limited area of EDG eventually recurred, and penetrating keratoplasty with cryotherapy was curative. In Case 2, subsequent corneal edema required Descemet-stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, and the patient remained clinically free of EDG without further treatment. Conclusion. Intracameral 5FU may have a role in the treatment of EDG after intraocular surgery, though its precise utilization and impact remain to be defined.

  9. Group additivity calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous amino acids, polypeptides and unfolded proteins as a function of temperature, pressure and ionization state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dick

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculation of the chemical speciation of proteins and the limits of protein metastability affords a quantitative understanding of the biogeochemical constraints on the distribution of proteins within and among different organisms and chemical environments. These calculations depend on accurate determination of the ionization states and standard molal Gibbs free energies of proteins as a function of temperature and pressure, which are not generally available. Hence, to aid predictions of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of ionized proteins as a function of temperature and pressure, calculated values are given below of the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equations of state parameters of the structural groups comprising amino acids, polypeptides and unfolded proteins. Group additivity and correlation algorithms were used to calculate contributions by ionized and neutral sidechain and backbone groups to the standard molal Gibbs free energy (Δ G°, enthalpy (Δ H°, entropy (S°, isobaric heat capacity (C°P, volume (V° and isothermal compressibility (κ°T of multiple reference model compounds. Experimental values of C°P, V° and κ°T at high temperature were taken from the recent literature, which ensures an internally consistent revision of the thermodynamic properties and equations of state parameters of the sidechain and backbone groups of proteins, as well as organic groups. As a result, Δ G°, Δ H°, S° C°P, V° and κ°T of unfolded proteins in any ionization state can be calculated up to T~-300°C and P~-5000 bars. In addition, the ionization states of unfolded proteins as a function of not only pH, but also temperature and pressure can be calculated by taking account of the degree of ionization of the sidechain and backbone groups present in the sequence. Calculations of this

  10. Comparison of shape recovery ratios in various intraocular lens haptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, W; Kimura, T; Sawada, T; Kikuchi, T; Toda, H; Yamada, Y; Nagai, H

    1992-11-01

    Since understanding the mechanical properties of intraocular lens (IOL) haptic materials can minimize decentration after surgery, we have examined shape recovery ratios of various intraocular lens haptics (polypropylene [PP], polyvinylidene fluoride [PVDF], extruded poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA]) currently on the market under conditions that approximate clinical use. The results using various Ascon lens-holding forceps and compression tests, during which the lenses were held in a cylindrical holder for seven days, one month, and three months, indicated that PVDF haptics had better shape recovery capability than PP and extruded three-piece PMMA haptics.

  11. Development and experimental verification of an intraocular scattering model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chong-Jhih; Jhong, Tian-Siang; Chen, Yi-Chun; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2011-10-01

    An intraocular scattering model was constructed in human eye model and experimentally verified. According to the biometric data, the volumetric scattering in crystalline lens and diffusion at retina fundus were developed. The scattering parameters of cornea, including particle size and obscuration ratio, were varied to make the veiling luminance of the eye model matching the CIE disability glare general formula. By replacing the transparent lens with a cataractous lens, the disability glare curve of cataracts was generated and compared with that of transparent lenses. The MTF of the intraocular scattering model showed nice correspondence with the data measured by a double-pass experiment.

  12. Comparison of Trans-scleral Fixation of PMMA and Foldable Intraocular Lens in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuping Zou; Zhende Lin; Bo Feng; Shaozhen Li

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the difference of the effects of PMMA and foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) trans-sclerally fixed in pediatric eyes. Methods: Thirty-two children (43 eyes) who had undergone trans-scleral fixation of IOL were retrospected, of whom 5 children were implanted PMMA IOL in both eyes, 6children were implanted PMMA IOL in one eye and foldable IOL in the other eye, 12children were implanted foldable IOL in one eye and 9 chilrden were implanted PMMA IOL in one eye. Mean age was 5.3 years ( range 2.5 ~ 12 years ). Twelve children had traumatic cataract and the others congenital cataract before lens extraction. Results: Foldable group (18 eyes ): Mean follow-up was 12.1 months. Visual acuity (VA): compared with the best corrected VA before IOL fixation, postoperative best corrected VA improved in 16 eyes, remained unchanged in 2 eyes. In 14 eyes, one or two stitches were needed to seal the incision. Complications: Severe anterior chamber reaction was seen in 3 eyes. Intraocular bleeding was found in 3 eyes. IOL decentration was detected in 1 eye. Iris capture of IOL was seen in one eye. PMMA group (25 eyes ):Mean follow-up was 20.3 months. Visual acuity (VA): compared with the best corrected VA before IOL fixation, postoperative best corrected VA improved in 19 eyes,remained unchanged in 5 eyes and got worse in one eye. In 24 eyes, one to three stitches were needed to seal the incision. Complications: Severe anterior chamber reaction was seen in 5 eyes. Intraocular bleeding was found in 4 eyes. IOL decentration was seen in one eye. Iris capture of IOL was seen in 3 eyes. Intraocular pressure elevated in one eye. Conclusion: Our study shows that trans-scleral fixation of IOL is a safe procedure in pediatric eyes. Foldable IOL showed similar effect compared with PMMA IOL in pediatric trans-scleral fixation. Eye Science 2001; 17:61 ~ 64.

  13. A retrospective analysis of the first Indian experience on Artisan phakic intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Sirisha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, predictability and stability of implanting a polymethylmethacrylate phakic intraocular lens (PIOL in high myopia. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the data of patients who underwent Artisan phakic IOL implantation between 2002 and 2003 with a follow-up of at least 24 months. Results: An Artisan myopia lens was implanted in 60 eyes of 36 patients with preoperative myopia ranging from -5.0 to -24.0 D. Mean patient age was 22.6 years. Mean spherical equivalent of manifest refraction stabilized by the first postoperative week. At three months follow-up, 54 eyes (90% had a postoperative refraction within ± 1D emmetropia and 45 eyes (75% had uncorrected visual acuity of 20/40 or better. Seven eyes (11.6% had loss of one Snellen line and none had loss of two Snellen lines or more at three months. The mean endothelial cell loss was 3.8% at three months, 5.2% at six months, 5.25% at 12 months and 6.38% at two years, which was not significant. Postoperative complications included anterior chamber reaction in two eyes (3.3%, rise in intraocular pressure in six eyes (10% and dislocation of PIOL in two eyes (3.3%. Conclusion: Implantation of Artisan myopia lens to correct high myopia resulted in a stable and fairly predictable refractive outcome with few complications. Significant endothelial damage was not detected in two years of follow-up.

  14. Iris-claw intraocular lens implantation: Anterior chamber versus retropupillary implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacı, Sezer; Demirdüzen, Selahaddin; Öksüz, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the outcomes of anterior chamber and retropupillary implantation of iris-claw Artisan intraocular lenses (IOL). Design: Prospective, randomized, single-blinded study. Patients and Methods: Forty eyes of forty aphakic patients were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups. Each group includes twenty patients. Group 1 received anterior chamber Artisan IOL implantation. Group 2 received retropupillary Artisan IOL implantation. Preoperative and postoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), and all complications were noted and compared at 6 months follow-up. Results: Each two groups obtained a significant improvement in CDVA (P < 0.05). Four patients in Group 1 and five patients in Group 2 had significant but nonpermanent increase at IOP values. There were one and two pupillary irregularity in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively. In one patient, a shallow and inferior located retinal detachment were encountered in anterior chamber group. Conclusions: The results were not significantly different between the two fixation techniques for iris-claw lens. The surgery procedure is dependent to surgeon experience and eye's conditions. PMID:26953023

  15. Effect of high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments of in-package food on additive migration from conventional and bio-sourced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio-Iglesias, M; Jansana, S; Peyron, S; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2010-01-01

    Migration was assessed during and after two high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments intended for a pasteurization (800 MPa for 5 min, from 20 to 40 degrees C) and a sterilization treatment (800 MPa for 5 min, from 90 to 115 degrees C) and were compared with conventional pasteurization and sterilization, respectively. The specific migration of actual packaging additives used as antioxidants and ultraviolet light absorbers (Irganox 1076, Uvitex OB) was investigated in a number of food-packaging systems combining one synthetic common packaging (LLDPE) and a bio-sourced one (PLA) in contact with the four food-simulating liquids defined by European Commission regulations. After standard HP/T processing, migration kinetics was followed during the service life of the packaging material using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectroscopy. LLDPE withstood the high-pressure sterilization, whereas it melted during the conventional sterilization. No difference was observed on migration from LLDPE for both treatments. In the case of PLA, migration of Uvitex OB was very low or not detectable for all the cases studied.

  16. Effect of high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments of in-package food on additive migration from conventional and bio-sourced materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio-Iglesias, M; Jansana, S; Peyron, S; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2010-01-01

    Migration was assessed during and after two high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments intended for a pasteurization (800 MPa for 5 min, from 20 to 40 degrees C) and a sterilization treatment (800 MPa for 5 min, from 90 to 115 degrees C) and were compared with conventional pasteurization and sterilization, respectively. The specific migration of actual packaging additives used as antioxidants and ultraviolet light absorbers (Irganox 1076, Uvitex OB) was investigated in a number of food-packaging systems combining one synthetic common packaging (LLDPE) and a bio-sourced one (PLA) in contact with the four food-simulating liquids defined by European Commission regulations. After standard HP/T processing, migration kinetics was followed during the service life of the packaging material using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectroscopy. LLDPE withstood the high-pressure sterilization, whereas it melted during the conventional sterilization. No difference was observed on migration from LLDPE for both treatments. In the case of PLA, migration of Uvitex OB was very low or not detectable for all the cases studied. PMID:19809898

  17. Energy Efficiency of a New Trifocal Intraocular Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, F.; Alba-Bueno, F.; Millán, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    The light distribution among the far, intermediate and near foci of a new trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) is experimentally determined, as a function of the pupil size, from image analysis. The concept of focus energy efficiency is introduced because, in addition to the theoretical diffraction efficiency of the focus, it accounts for other factors that are naturally presented in the human eye such as the level of spherical aberration (SA) upon the IOL, light scattering at the diffractive steps or the depth of focus. The trifocal IOL is tested in-vitro in two eye models: the aberration-free ISO model, and a so called modified-ISO one that uses an artificial cornea with positive spherical SA in instead. The SA upon the IOL is measured with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and compared to the values of theoretical eye models. The results show, for large pupils, a notorious reduction of the energy efficiency of the far and near foci of the trifocal IOL due to two facts: the level of SA upon the IOL is larger than the value the lens is able to compensate for and there is significant light scattering at the diffractive steps. On the other hand, the energy efficiency of the intermediate focus for small pupils is enhanced by the contribution of the extended depth of focus of the near and far foci. Thus, while IOLs manufacturers tend to provide just the theoretical diffraction efficiency of the foci to show which would be the performance of the lens in terms of light distribution among the foci, our results put into evidence that this is better described by using the energy efficiency of the foci.

  18. Controversies in intraocular lens implantation in pediatric uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Sumita; Lowder, Careen; Pavesio, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Cataract is one of the most common and visually debilitating complications of pediatric uveitis. It develops as a consequence of chronic inflammation and steroid use and is seen most often in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis. Cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) insertion has been carried out with a measure of success in non-uveitic pediatric eyes, but in cases of uveitis, multiple factors affect the final outcome. Chronic inflammation and its sequelae such as band keratopathy, posterior synechiae, and cyclitic membranes make surgical intervention more challenging and outcome less certain. Postoperative complications like increased inflammation, glaucoma, posterior capsular opacification, retrolental membranes, and hypotony may compromise the visual outcome. Early refractive correction is imperative in pediatric eyes to prevent amblyopia. The use of contact lenses and intraocular lenses in pediatric uveitic eyes were fraught with complications in the past. Surgical interventions such as vitreo-lensectomy followed by contact lens fitting and small incision cataract surgery followed by different types of intraocular lenses have been utilized, and many reports have been published, albeit in small patient groups. This review analyzes and discusses the existing literature on intraocular lens implantation in cases of pediatric uveitic cataract surgery. PMID:27009616

  19. Intraocular inflammation following endotamponade with high-density silicone oil.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, T.; Tilanus, M.A.D.; Klevering, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of a mixture of silicone oil and partially fluorinated alkanes (high-density silicone oil) has recently been suggested as intraocular tamponade in complicated retinal detachment of the inferior quadrants. We describe a series of patients who developed a clinical picture resemblin

  20. Combined aniridic intraocular lens implantation and vitreoretinal surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Hijab; Jayadev, Chaitra; Natarajan, S

    2007-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with post-traumatic aniridia. We describe the combined surgery done to treat both aniridia and epiretinal membrane simultaneously. A combined aniridia intraocular lens and vitreoretinal surgery was done. The case report highlights the advantage of combined surgery in terms of cost factor and surgical time. PMID:17699956

  1. Combined aniridic intraocular lens implantation and vitreoretinal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta Hitendra; Mehta Hijab; Jayadev Chaitra; Natarajan S

    2007-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with post-traumatic aniridia. We describe the combined surgery done to treat both aniridia and epiretinal membrane simultaneously. A combined aniridia intraocular lens and vitreoretinal surgery was done. The case report highlights the advantage of combined surgery in terms of cost factor and surgical time.

  2. Method for in vitro assessment of straylight from intraocular lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Łabuz, Grzegorz; Vargas-Martín, Fernando; van den Berg, Thomas J T P; López-Gil, Norberto

    2015-01-01

    Ocular straylight has been measured by means of psychophysical methods over the years. This approach gives a functional parameter yielding a straight comparison with optically defined light scattering, and the point-spread-function. This is of particular importance when the effect of intraocular len

  3. Development of a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, Erik A.; Terwee, Thom T.; Koopmans, Steven A.; Dubbelman, Michiel; van der Heijde, Rob G. L.; Heethaar, Rob M.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a ciliary muscle-driven accommodating intraocular lens (IOL) that has a large and predictable range of variable power as a step toward spectacle independence. SETTING: Department of Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. METHODS:

  4. NEW MATERIAL FOR LOW-COST INTRAOCULAR LENSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONGEBLOED, WL; VANDERVEEN, G; KALICHARAN, D; VANANDEL, MV; BARTMAN, G; WORST, JGF

    1994-01-01

    A UV-hardening lacquer material based on polyurethane, used in Philips compact disc lens systems, was tested as suitable material for low-cost intraocular lenses (IOLs). A slightly changed composition (code number I-0.5A) came out as the best and was subsequenly tested, with reference to poly(methyl

  5. Combined aniridic intraocular lens implantation and vitreoretinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta Hitendra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with post-traumatic aniridia. We describe the combined surgery done to treat both aniridia and epiretinal membrane simultaneously. A combined aniridia intraocular lens and vitreoretinal surgery was done. The case report highlights the advantage of combined surgery in terms of cost factor and surgical time.

  6. Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of an explanted opacified intraocular lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, V., E-mail: viosimon@phys.ubbcluj.ro [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Radu, T.; Vulpoi, A. [Babeş-Bolyai University, Faculty of Physics and Interdisciplinary Research Institute on Bio-Nano-Sciences, 400084 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Rosca, C. [Optilens Clinic of Ophthalmology, 400604 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Eniu, D. [Iuliu Haţieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Department of Molecular Sciences, 400349 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Changes on intraocular lens (IOL) surface after implantation. • Partial opacification of IOL central area. • Elemental composition on IOL surface prior to and after implantation. • First XPS depth profiling examination of the opacifying deposits. • Cell-mediated hydroxyapatite structuring. - Abstract: The investigated polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lens explanted an year after implantation presented a fine granularity consisting of ring-like grains of about 15 μm in diameter. In order to evidence the changes occurred on intraocular lens relative to morphology, elemental composition and atomic environments, microscopic and spectroscopic analyses were carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS), and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopies. The results revealed that the grains contain hydroxyapatite mineral phase. A protein layer covers the lens both in opacified and transparent zones. The amide II band is like in basal epithelial cells. The shape and size of the grains, and the XPS depth profiling results indicate the possibility of a cell-mediated process involving lens epithelial cells which fagocitated apoptotic epithelial cells, and in which the debris derived from cell necrosis were calcified. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on explanted intraocular lenses using XPS depth profiling in order to examine the inside of the opacifying deposits.

  7. Liquid-crystal intraocular adaptive lens with wireless control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simonov, A.N.; Vdovine, G.V.; Loktev, M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a prototype of an adaptive intraocular lens based on a modal liquid-crystal spatial phase modulator with wireless control. The modal corrector consists of a nematic liquid-crystal layer sandwiched between two glass substrates with transparent low- and high-ohmic electrodes, respectively.

  8. Controversies in intraocular lens implantation in pediatric uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phatak, Sumita; Lowder, Careen; Pavesio, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Cataract is one of the most common and visually debilitating complications of pediatric uveitis. It develops as a consequence of chronic inflammation and steroid use and is seen most often in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)-associated uveitis. Cataract extraction with intraocular lens (IOL) insertion has been carried out with a measure of success in non-uveitic pediatric eyes, but in cases of uveitis, multiple factors affect the final outcome. Chronic inflammation and its sequelae such as band keratopathy, posterior synechiae, and cyclitic membranes make surgical intervention more challenging and outcome less certain. Postoperative complications like increased inflammation, glaucoma, posterior capsular opacification, retrolental membranes, and hypotony may compromise the visual outcome. Early refractive correction is imperative in pediatric eyes to prevent amblyopia. The use of contact lenses and intraocular lenses in pediatric uveitic eyes were fraught with complications in the past. Surgical interventions such as vitreo-lensectomy followed by contact lens fitting and small incision cataract surgery followed by different types of intraocular lenses have been utilized, and many reports have been published, albeit in small patient groups. This review analyzes and discusses the existing literature on intraocular lens implantation in cases of pediatric uveitic cataract surgery.

  9. Influence of Metal Diboride and Dy2O3 Additions on Microstructure and Properties of MgB2 Fabricated at High Temperatures and under Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Sumption, M D; Collings, E W

    2016-07-13

    High temperatures and under pressure (HTP) processing has been used to study the effects of chemical doping in MgB2. ZrB2, TiB2 and NbB2 were selected as additives since, like MgB2, they have an AlB2-type structure and similar lattice parameters. Dy2O3 was selected as it has been reported to generate nanoscale, secondary intragrain phases in MgB2. While C is known to enter the B-sublattice readily, attempts to dope Zr and other elements onto the Mg site have been less successful due to slow bulk diffusion, low solubility in MgB2, or both. We have used high-temperature, solid-state sintering (1500 °C), as well as excursions through the peritectic temperature (up to 1700 °C), to investigate both of these limitations. Bulk MgB2 samples doped with MB2 (M = Zr, Ti and Nb) and Dy2O3 additions were synthesized and then characterized. Lattice distortion and high densities of crystal defects were observed in the MgB2 grains around nano-sized MB2 inclusions, this highly defected band contributed to a large increase in Bc2 but was not large enough to increase the irreversibility field. In contrast, distributed intragrain precipitates were formed by Dy2O3 additions which did not change the lattice parameters, Tc, Tc distribution or Bc2 of MgB2, but modified the flux pinning.

  10. Influence of Metal Diboride and Dy2O3 Additions on Microstructure and Properties of MgB2 Fabricated at High Temperatures and under Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.

    2016-07-01

    High temperatures and under pressure (HTP) processing has been used to study the effects of chemical doping in MgB2. ZrB2, TiB2 and NbB2 were selected as additives since, like MgB2, they have an AlB2-type structure and similar lattice parameters. Dy2O3 was selected as it has been reported to generate nanoscale, secondary intragrain phases in MgB2. While C is known to enter the B-sublattice readily, attempts to dope Zr and other elements onto the Mg site have been less successful due to slow bulk diffusion, low solubility in MgB2, or both. We have used high-temperature, solid-state sintering (1500 °C), as well as excursions through the peritectic temperature (up to 1700 °C), to investigate both of these limitations. Bulk MgB2 samples doped with MB2 (M = Zr, Ti and Nb) and Dy2O3 additions were synthesized and then characterized. Lattice distortion and high densities of crystal defects were observed in the MgB2 grains around nano-sized MB2 inclusions, this highly defected band contributed to a large increase in Bc2 but was not large enough to increase the irreversibility field. In contrast, distributed intragrain precipitates were formed by Dy2O3 additions which did not change the lattice parameters, Tc, Tc distribution or Bc2 of MgB2, but modified the flux pinning.

  11. Fixed-combination treatments for intraocular hypertension in Chinese patients – focus on bimatoprost-timolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Y

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Yuan Fang,1,* Zhihong Ling,1,* Xinghuai Sun1–4 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 2Shanghai Key Laboratory of Visual Impairment and Restoration, 3Key Laboratory of Myopia, Ministry of Health, 4State Key Laboratory of Medical Neurobiology, Institutes of Brain Science, Fudan University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Glaucoma is a common eye disease that can lead to irreversible vision loss if left untreated. The early diagnosis and treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma is challenging, and visual impairment in Chinese glaucoma patients is a serious concern. Most of these patients need more than one topical antiglaucoma agent to control their intraocular pressures (IOPs. In the People’s Republic of China, the daily cost of different glaucoma medication varies greatly, and the treatment habits differ throughout the country. Prostaglandin analogs (PGAs are recommended as first-line monotherapy, because of their efficacy and low risk of systemic side effects. Fixed-combination drops, particularly PGA-based fixed combinations, have recently been developed and used in patients with progression or who have failed to achieve their target IOPs. Here, we reviewed the current literature on the use of bimatoprost-timolol fixed combination (BTFC in the People’s Republic of China. BTFC has achieved good efficacy and tolerability in Chinese clinical trials. In addition, BTFC is more cost effective compared with other fixed combinations available in the People’s Republic of China. Fixed-combination drops may offer benefits, such as keeping the ocular surface healthy, convenience of administration, and improvement in long-term adherence and quality of life. Therefore, BTFC has great potential for the treatment of Chinese glaucoma patients. However, the long-term efficacy of BTFC, comparisons

  12. Effects of N2O and O2 addition to nitrogen Townsend dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure on the absolute ground-state atomic nitrogen density

    KAUST Repository

    Es-sebbar, Et-touhami

    2012-11-27

    Absolute ground-state density of nitrogen atoms N (2p3 4S3/2) in non-equilibrium Townsend dielectric barrier discharges (TDBDs) at atmospheric pressure sustained in N2/N2O and N2/O2 gas mixtures has been measured using Two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF) spectroscopy. The quantitative measurements have been obtained by TALIF calibration using krypton as a reference gas. We previously reported that the maximum of N (2p3 4S3/2) atom density is around 3 × 1014 cm-3 in pure nitrogen TDBD, and that this maximum depends strongly on the mean energy dissipated in the gas. In the two gas mixtures studied here, results show that the absolute N (2p3 4S3/2) density is strongly affected by the N2O and O2 addition. Indeed, the density still increases exponentially with the energy dissipated in the gas but an increase in N2O and O2 amounts (a few hundreds of ppm) leads to a decrease in nitrogen atom density. No discrepancy in the order of magnitude of N (2p3 4S3/2) density is observed when comparing results obtained in N2/N2O and N2/O2 mixtures. Compared with pure nitrogen, for an energy of ∼90 mJ cm-3, the maximum of N (2p3 4S3/2) density drops by a factor of 3 when 100 ppm of N2O and O2 are added and it reduces by a factor of 5 for 200 ppm, to reach values close to our TALIF detection sensitivity for 400 ppm (1 × 1013 cm -3 at atmospheric pressure). © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  13. Temperature, pressure, and electrochemical constraints on protein speciation: Group additivity calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of ionized unfolded proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Dick

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations can be used to quantify environmental constraints on the speciation of proteins, such as the pH and temperature dependence of ionization state, and the relative chemical stabilities of proteins in different biogeochemical settings. These calculations depend in part on values of the standard molal Gibbs energies of proteins and their ionization reactions as a function of temperature and pressure. Because these values are not generally available, we calculated values of the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar as well as the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equations of state parameters of neutral and charged zwitterionic reference model compounds including aqueous amino acids, polypeptides, and unfolded proteins. The experimental calorimetric and volumetric data for these species taken from the literature were combined with group additivity algorithms to calculate the properties and parameters of neutral and ionized sidechain and backbone groups in unfolded proteins. The resulting set of group contributions enables the calculation of the standard molal Gibbs energy, enthalpy, entropy, isobaric heat capacity, volume, and isothermal compressibility of unfolded proteins in a range of proton ionization states to temperatures and pressures exceeding 100°C and 1000 bar. This approach provides a useful frame of reference for thermodynamic studies of protein folding and complexation reactions. It can also be used to assign provisional values of the net charge and Gibbs energy of ionized proteins as a function of temperature and pH. Using these values, an Eh-pH diagram for a reaction representing the speciation of extracellular proteins from Pyrococcus furiosus and Bacillus subtilis was generated. The predicted predominance limits of these proteins correspond with the different electrochemical conditions of hydrothermal vents and soils. More comprehensive calculations of this kind may reveal pervasive

  14. Intraocular infections in the neonatal intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisk RA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Hassan A Aziz1, Audina M Berrocal1,2, Robert A Sisk1, Kristin Hartley1, Magaly Diaz-Barbosa2, Rose A Johnson2, Ditte Hess1, Sander R Dubovy1, Timothy G Murray1, Harry W Flynn Jr11Department of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, 2Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to report on the incidence and treatment outcomes of endogenous endophthalmitis among newborns in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of a single medical center.Methods: This was a noncomparative, retrospective case series of endogenous endophthalmitis among infants at the Jackson Memorial Hospital NICU treated between March 1, 2002 and March 1, 2007.Results: Of 4323 infants admitted to the NICU, seven eyes of six (0.139% infants (two males, four females were diagnosed with endophthalmitis during the study period. Four patients were born prematurely with a mean gestational age of 27.5 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1153 g. Retinopathy of prematurity was reported in two of the six patients. Mean follow-up was 3.5 years. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive cultures or polymerase chain reaction testing at a median age of 34 postnatal days. Positive cultures included Candida albicans (n = 4, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 1, and Herpes simplex type 2 (n = 1. All patients received systemic treatment and five received adjunctive ophthalmic interventions, including intravitreal antibiotics in five eyes of four patients and vitrectomy with pars plana lensectomy in three eyes. One patient underwent primary enucleation and another had delayed evisceration. In the remaining five eyes, there was a normal appearing posterior segment and normal intraocular pressures at last follow-up.Conclusion: Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare complication in infants in the NICU, but may occur in patients with candidemia, bacteremia, retinopathy of prematurity, and low birth weight. Despite early and

  15. Use of a Toric Intraocular Lens and a Limbal-Relaxing Incision for the Management of Astigmatism in Combined Glaucoma and Cataract Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Allister

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We report the surgical management of a patient with glaucoma undergoing cataract surgery with high preexisting astigmatism. A combination of techniques was employed for her astigmatism management. Methods A 76-year-old female with 5.5 dpt of corneal astigmatism underwent surgery in her left eye consisting of one-site trabeculectomy, phacoemulsification, toric intraocular lens implantation and a single inferior limbal-relaxing incision. Results Intraocular pressure control was achieved with no medication at 11 mm Hg; before the filtering procedure, the pressure was 16 mm Hg on two topical drugs. Astigmatism was reduced to 0.75 dpt, and both corrected and uncorrected visual acuity improved. Conclusions Astigmatism management can have a good outcome in combined procedures. We encourage surgeons to address astigmatism in the preoperative planning of patients undergoing glaucoma surgery associated with phacoemulsification. PMID:27293408

  16. 2-(1-Hexyn-1-yl)adenosine-induced intraocular hypertension is mediated via K+ channel opening through adenosine A2A receptor in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2005-08-22

    The present study was performed to clarify the mechanism of change in intraocular pressure by 2-(1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-H-Ado), a selective adenosine A2 receptor agonist, in rabbits. 2-H-Ado (0.1%, 50 microl)-induced ocular hypertension (E(max): 7.7 mm Hg) was inhibited by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine, ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker glibenclamide or 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, but not by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an adenosine A2B receptor antagonist alloxazine or a cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The outflow facility induced by 2-H-Ado seems to be independent of increase in intraocular pressure or ATP-sensitive K+ channel. In contrast, the recovery rate in intraocular pressure decreased by hypertonic saline was accelerated by 2-H-Ado, and this response was dependent on ATP-sensitive K+ channel. These results suggest that 2-H-Ado-induced ocular hypertension is mediated via K+ channel opening through adenosine A2A receptor, and this is probably due to aqueous formation, but independent of change in outflow facility or prostaglandin production.

  17. 2-(1-Hexyn-1-yl)adenosine-induced intraocular hypertension is mediated via K+ channel opening through adenosine A2A receptor in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2005-08-22

    The present study was performed to clarify the mechanism of change in intraocular pressure by 2-(1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-H-Ado), a selective adenosine A2 receptor agonist, in rabbits. 2-H-Ado (0.1%, 50 microl)-induced ocular hypertension (E(max): 7.7 mm Hg) was inhibited by an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine, ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker glibenclamide or 5-hydroxydecanoic acid, but not by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, an adenosine A2B receptor antagonist alloxazine or a cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The outflow facility induced by 2-H-Ado seems to be independent of increase in intraocular pressure or ATP-sensitive K+ channel. In contrast, the recovery rate in intraocular press