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Sample records for additional intraocular pressure

  1. Pseudophakia and intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Schultz, K; Sobocinski, K; Schultz, R O; Easom, H

    1984-06-01

    We studied the change in intraocular pressure in 373 consecutive eyes undergoing cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation between Jan. 1, 1981, and May 31, 1982. There was a mean increase in intraocular pressure of 0.1 mm Hg following this surgery. This increase, however, was not statistically significant (P greater than .5). There was a mean rise in pressure of 0.8 mm Hg in the eyes undergoing intracapsular surgery and a mean fall in pressure of 0.6 mm Hg in the eyes undergoing extracapsular surgery (P less than .05). The change in pressure was unrelated to age, surgeon, or lens type. The results of a separate analysis of 16 eyes with a preoperative diagnosis of glaucoma and eight eyes with ocular hypertension were similar.

  2. Personalizing Intraocular Pressure: Target Intraocular Pressure in the Setting of 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sit, Arthur J; Pruet, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Determining target intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients is multifaceted, requiring attention to many different factors such as glaucoma type, severity of disease, age, race, family history, corneal thickness and hysteresis, and initial IOP. Even with all these variables accounted for, there are still patients who have progression of the disease despite achieving target IOP. Intraocular pressure variability has been identified as a potential independent risk factor for glaucoma progression but is currently difficult to quantify in individual patients. New technologies enabling measurement of both diurnal and nocturnal IOP may necessitate modifying our concept of target pressure.

  3. The genetics of intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Pallavi; Wiggs, Janey L; Pasquale, Louis R

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Intraocular pressure (IOP) is the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma, yet there is little known about the molecular events that regulate IOP. Genetic and genomic studies have helped identify genes that influence IOP and could lead to the identification of biological pathways that serve as targets for novel pressure-modifying therapies. Genetic linkage studies resulted in the identification of several genes that cause Mendelian (autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive) forms of high-pressure glaucoma, including MYOC. PITX2, FOXC1, and CYP1B1. Classical twin studies suggest that IOP is a heritable trait. More recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have shown that common genetic variants in the GAS7 and TMCO1 genomic regions are associated with elevated IOP. TMCO1 has also been associated with primary open-angle glaucoma in patients with advanced disease. A further study identifying additional genes contributing to IOP will be necessary to fully define the underlying genetic architecture of IOP.

  4. Intraocular pressure estimation using proper orthogonal decomposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the second leading cause of irreversible blindness. The primary indicator for glaucoma is an elevated intraocular pressure, which is estimated by means of contact or non-contact tonometry. However, these techniques do not accurately...

  5. Short Term Effect of Exercise on Intraocular Pressure of Ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Term Effect of Exercise on Intraocular Pressure of Ocular Hypertensive Subjects. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... Keywords: Intraocular pressure; short term exercise; ocular hypertension.

  6. Associations with intraocular pressure across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Springelkamp, Henriët; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for developing glaucoma, the second commonest cause of blindness globally. Understanding associations with IOP and variations in IOP between countries may teach us about mechanisms underlying glaucoma. We examined cross-sectional...

  7. [Changes in intraocular pressure depending on posture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barac, Ramona; Pop, Monica; Tătaru, C; Gheorghe, A; Bădescu, Silvia; Stanciu, Maria; Burcea, M

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is an important eye disease that, left untreated, causes irreversible blindness by affecting optic nerve threads. Decreasing intraocular pressure and maintaining it at a low level throughout the day is one of the objectives of antiglaucoma therapy. This is a prospective study conducted on a sample of 80 patients who presented at "Emergency Eye Hospital" Bucharest between 1st of December 2013 30th of July 2014. Patients were divided into two groups: 40 patients with glaucoma and 40 patients without glaucoma (control group). THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To determine changes in intraocular pressure that may occur depending on body posture and the correlations between changes in intraocular pressure and glaucoma, obesity, hypertension. These IOP changes may be important in the progression of glaucoma regarding that one third of our time is spent on supine position during night. RESULTS AND CONCLUZIONS: IOP varies from sitting down to supine position. IOP increases in supine in most patients (with or without glaucoma) with an average of 1.25 mmHg. The increase among patients with glaucoma is higher (1.67 mmHg) compared to those without glaucoma (0.82 mmHg). In patients with hypertension and glaucoma, IOP increased with 2.62 mmHg. In patients with hypertension and obesity IOP increased with 2.5 mmHg.

  8. PATTERN OF INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean. lOP in the male patients was 1487mmfig and for the female 15.11 mmHg. This difference ... lntraocular pressure (IOP) has been the most obvious ... extra-ocular muscle. Volume ... and have attempted to explain the opposite trend.

  9. How to measure intraocular pressure: applanation tonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Astbury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Unless there is a contraindication (e.g. trauma or corneal ulcer, all adults attending an eye unit should have their intraocular pressure (IOP measured. Many people with glaucoma have no symptoms and do not know they have the condition. All children who have had cataract surgery should also have their IOP measured at every follow-up visit, if possible. Finding glaucoma early allows treatment to be given which will preserve sight. Although elevated IOP is not the only sign of glaucoma, measuring it is simple and quick to do. Applanation tonometry, using a Goldmann tonometer at a slit lamp, is the preferred method (the ‘gold standard’.

  10. Implantable intraocular pressure monitoring systems: Design considerations

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-12-01

    Design considerations and limitations of implantable Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) systems are presented in this paper. Detailed comparison with the state of the art is performed to highlight the benefits and challenges of the proposed design. The system-on-chip, presented here, is battery free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. This low-cost design, in standard CMOS process, does not require any external components or bond wires to function. This paper provides useful insights to the designers of implantable wireless sensors in terms of design choices and associated tradeoffs. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. An examination of the hypothesis that intraocular pressure elevation episodes can have prognostic significance in glaucoma suspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of intraocular pressure reduction in retarding the progression of glaucoma has been demonstrated. This review examines the potential for prognostic advantage for glaucoma suspects in reducing their optic nerve head exposure to elevated intraocular pressure associated with activities which have been shown to elevate intraocular pressure. In this observational study, patients examined at the Centre for Eye Health (University of New South Wales) with a diagnosis of glaucoma suspect were surveyed to determine their histories for participation in activities which are known to elevate intraocular pressure. The evidence regarding the pathological significance of these sources of elevation in susceptible patients was examined. Apart from the universality of sleep-related intraocular pressure elevations, the histories from 183 confirmed glaucoma suspects indicate a wide range and variation in frequency of participation in other intraocular pressure elevating activities. A reduction in exposure to elevated intraocular pressure may improve the prognosis for glaucoma suspects. Additional patient specific assessment of the results of this screening could provide an indication of the degree (frequency, intensity level and duration) of exposure to elevated intraocular pressure. Such information may provide the basis for improving a patient's prognosis by helping them to identify opportunities to reduce such exposure to elevated intraocular pressure. Any benefit of reduction of such exposure appears likely to be greater if activities which elevate intraocular pressure are of long duration, occur frequently, occur over a long period of time, and/or involve high levels of intraocular pressure elevation.

  12. [Iritis with destabilization of the intraocular pressure due to dislocation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handzel, D M

    2012-04-01

    This report concerns the case of a 67-year-old male patient who underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification with implantation of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL). After an interval of 2 months the patient developed iritis together with an uncontrollable increase in intraocular pressure. After a detailed examination a dislocated haptic of the IOL was identified as the cause of the symptoms. The dislocation had led to uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome although no hemorrhage was observed. In addition to this complication the haptic had arroded the zonular complex which made implantation of an anterior chamber lens necessary. Although improvements in operating techniques, lens materials and designs have been made uveitis-glaucoma-hyphema syndrome has to be kept in mind. Surgical intervention is the only therapeutic option.

  13. Intraocular pressure in Japanese diabetic patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Masato; Ogata, Nahoko; Matsuyama, Kayako; Yoshikawa, Tadanobu; Takahashi, Kanji

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine whether the intraocular pressure (IOP) in diabetic patients is significantly different from that in nondiabetic patients. Methods The medical records of all patients who were initially examined in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital were reviewed. At the initial examination, patients had a detailed interview and underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. All patients were over 20 years of age and did not have glaucoma. Results A total of 703 patients were evaluated. The mean (±standard error) IOP of the diabetic patients was 15.5 ± 0.2 mmHg (n = 206), and was significantly higher than the 14.0 ± 0.1 mmHg (n = 497) in the nondiabetic patients (P control of diabetes. PMID:22815643

  14. Intraocular pressure in Japanese diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Masato Matsuoka,1 Nahoko Ogata,2 Kayako Matsuyama,1 Tadanobu Yoshikawa,1 Kanji Takahashi31Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital, Osaka, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nara Medical University, Nara, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata Hospital, Osaka, JapanBackground: To determine whether the intraocular pressure (IOP in diabetic patients is significantly different from that in nondiabetic patients.Methods: The medical records of all patients who were initially examined in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Takii Hospital were reviewed. At the initial examination, patients had a detailed interview and underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic examinations. All patients were over 20 years of age and did not have glaucoma.Results: A total of 703 patients were evaluated. The mean (±standard error IOP of the diabetic patients was 15.5 ± 0.2 mmHg (n = 206, and was significantly higher than the 14.0 ± 0.1 mmHg (n = 497 in the nondiabetic patients (P < 0.0001. The IOP was negatively correlated with age (r = –0.202; P = 0.024 in the diabetic patients and was weakly but significantly correlated with the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c level (r = 0.240; P = 0.015 in the group with diabetic retinopathy.Conclusion: The significantly higher IOP in diabetic patients and positive correlation of IOP with HbA1c levels in patients with diabetic retinopathy indicate that IOP in diabetic patients is higher, especially in those with poor control of diabetes.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diabetic retinopathy, intraocular pressure, open-angle glaucoma

  15. Additive intraocular pressure-lowering effect of dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% fixed combination on prostaglandin monotherapy in patients with normal tension glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoguchi T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Takanori Mizoguchi1, Mineo Ozaki2, Harumi Wakiyama1,3, Nobuchika Ogino11Mizoguchi Eye Clinic, Sasebo, 2Ozaki Eye Clinic and Dept of Opthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 3The Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital, Nagasaki, JapanPurpose: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect of adding dorzolamide 1.0%/timolol 0.5% fixed combination (DTFC to prostaglandin analogs (PGAs as monotherapy in patients with normal tension glaucoma.Methods: A prospective, clinical, case-controlled study of patients with normal tension glaucoma. Patients had been on a once-daily night dose of prostaglandins (PGs as monotherapy and then received DTFC added to PGs for 8 weeks. The IOP was measured at 9 am, week 0 (baseline, week 4, and week 8.Results: The baseline IOP of 40 patients who had previously been treated by prostaglandin monotherapy was 15.6 ± 2.0 mmHg at baseline. The IOPs at 4 and 8 weeks after adding DTFC to PGs were 13.5 ± 2.1 mmHg and 13.7 ± 2.2 mmHg, respectively. Significant decrease of the IOP was observed at each time point of measurement as compared with the baseline IOP before adding DTFC (P = 0.01. The percent IOP reduction from the baseline IOP at week 4 and week 8 was 13.5% ± 12.3% and 11.7% ± 13.1%, respectively. The percentage of patients who achieved 10% or more IOP reduction from the baseline IOP at week 8 was 62.5%. The baseline IOP was significantly correlated with the percent IOP reduction at week 8 (P = 0.03, r = 0.34.Conclusion: DTFC therapy added to PGAs as glaucoma monotherapy is effective in patients with normal tension glaucoma.Keywords: IOP-lowering effect, prostaglandin, dorzolamide 1%/timolol 0.5% fixed combination, fixed combination, normal tension glaucoma

  16. Investigation of the relationship between intraocular pressure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of the relationship between intraocular pressure and total body water. ... Journal of Health and Visual Sciences ... attending Abia State University Optometry Clinic, Uturu, 100 healthy subjects of either sex were enlisted into study, ...

  17. Relation between intraocular pressure and size of transverse sinuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kantarci, Mecit; Onbas, Omer; Alper, Fatih; Okur, Adnan [Atatuerk University, Department of Radiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Dane, Senol; Gumustekin, Kenan [Atatuerk University, Department of Physiology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Aslankurt, Murat [Atatuerk University, Department of Ophtalmatology, Medical Faculty, Erzurum (Turkey); Yazici, Ahmet Taylan [Beyoglu Goez Egitim ve Arastirma Hastanesi, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2005-01-01

    There are asymmetries in the sizes of transverse sinus and intraocular pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible relationships between the asymmetry of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressures of right and left eyes. In this study, subjects were 63 male and 42 female medical school students, aged 18-21 years (mean{+-}SD; 19.72{+-}0.67 years). Subjects with neurological and ophthalmologic disease, particularly dural sinus thrombosis, myopia, trauma and glaucoma, were excluded the study. Subjects were divided into five groups according to the magnitudes of the right- and left-transverse sinuses in MR venography results. There is a functional relation between intraocular pressures of the right and left eyes and asymmetry of the transverse sinus. If the transverse sinus on one side is larger and its venous drainage is greater, the intraocular pressure of the eye on this side is lower. It can be speculated that the transverse sinus size may be associated with pathogenesis of diseases with increased intraocular pressure such as glaucoma. We aim to determine the relation between the size and drainage of transverse sinuses in TOF MR venography and intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma in our next study. (orig.)

  18. Effects of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives on intraocular pressure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Ohnuma, Shin-ya; Uemoto, Kazuhiro; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Endo, Kazuki; Hosokawa, Tomokazu; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2004-02-23

    We evaluated the activities of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives, relatively selective adenosine A2 receptor agonists, in the intraocular pressure regulation in rabbits. An adenosine A2 receptor agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS-21680) decreased intraocular pressure, while another A2 receptor agonist 2-(phenylamino)adenosine transiently increased it. The first group of 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives (1-hexyn-1-yl derivatives) caused a transient increase followed by decrease in intraocular pressure, while the second group (1-octyn-1-yl and 6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl derivatives) only decreased it. The second group is also effective in the ocular hypertensive models induced by water-loading and alpha-chymotrypsin. The outflow facility was increased by a 1-octyn-1-yl derivative. Both increase and decrease in intraocular pressure induced by 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives were inhibited by an adenosine A2 receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, but not by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropyl xanthine. These findings suggest that 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives may affect intraocular pressure via adenosine A2 receptor, and 2-alkynyladenosine derivative-induced ocular hypotension is due to the increase of outflow facility.

  19. [Intraocular Pressure Sensor Based on a Contact Lens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuhong; Pet, Weihua; Yao, Zhaolin; Chen, Yuanfang; Hu, Xiaohui; Chen, Hongda; Zhu, Jingyuan; Wu, Huijuan

    2016-02-01

    Intraocular pressure detection has a great significance for understanding the status of eye health, prevention and treatment of diseases such as glaucoma. Traditional intraocular pressure detection needs to be held in the hospital. It is not only time-consuming to doctors and patients, but also difficult to achieve 24 hour-continuous detection. Microminiaturization of the intraocular pressure sensor and wearing it as a contact lens, which is convenient, comfortable and noninvasive, can solve this problem because the soft contact lens with an embedded micro fabricated strain gauge allows the measurement of changes in corneal curvature to correlate to variations of intraocular pressure. We fabricated a strain gauge using micro-electron mechanical systems, and integrated with the contact lens made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using injection molding. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity was 100. 7 µV/µm. When attached to the corneal surface, the average sensitivity of sensor response of intraocular pressure can be 125.8 µV/mm Hg under the ideal condition.

  20. Polyvinylidene Flouride Polymer Applied in an Intraocular Pressure Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Morán, Carlos Omar; González Ballesteros, Rubén; Rodríguez Guzmán, Maria Dolores Alicia; Suaste Gómez, Ernesto

    2005-06-01

    An indentation intraocular pressure sensor (IIOPS) was designed and manufactured. It is based on piezoelectric polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films. This sensor will help in the detection and diagnosis of intraocular pressure (IOP) in eye diseases like glaucoma. The pressure in the normal aqueous and vitreous phases is, on average, 15.5 mmHg and up of 21 mmHg when glaucoma exists. The proposed IIOPS offers a measurement range from 10-29 mmHg with a resolution of 1 mmHg and an accuracy of ± 0.025.

  1. Trabeculectomy for traumatic hyphema with increased intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graul, T A; Ruttum, M S; Lloyd, M A; Radius, R L; Hyndiuk, R A

    1994-02-15

    We reviewed the medical records of 11 consecutive patients who underwent trabeculectomy with anterior chamber washout and peripheral iridectomy as the primary surgical treatment for traumatic hyphema that was unresponsive to medical management. The mean intraocular pressure before surgery was 48 mm Hg. In ten of the patients the intraocular pressure was lowered to 21 mm Hg or lower after surgery and remained below that level up to the most recent follow-up visit, which ranged from eight to 97 months. One patient required a topical beta-blocker and oral acetazolamide to lower pressure to this level after surgery. Eight patients had visual acuity of 20/60 or better at last follow-up. Corneal blood staining occurred in eight patients. Compared with other techniques for surgical management of traumatic hyphema, trabeculectomy provides a means to keep intraocular pressure lowered while the remaining blood is clearing from the anterior chamber. Trabeculectomy with anterior chamber washout and peripheral iridectomy appears to be a safe and reliable procedure in the management of traumatic hyphemas in which medical management fails to control intraocular pressure.

  2. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  3. Use of betaxolol in the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L

    1983-06-01

    Forty eyes in 20 patients with elevated intraocular pressure were treated with either a 0.125% betaxolol ophthalmic solution or a placebo. After 2, 4, and 6 weeks of twice-daily therapy, the eyes receiving the betaxolol had a mean percent reduction in IOP greater than that in the eyes treated only with the drug vehicle (placebo). Both solutions were well tolerated.

  4. Effect of chymase on intraocular pressure in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Maruichi, Midori; Takai, Shinji; Oku, Hidehiro; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Ikeda, Tsunehiko; Miyazaki, Mizuo

    2005-11-01

    Chymase is a chymotrypsin-like serine protease that is stored exclusively in the secretory granules of mast cells and converts big endothelins to endothelin-1 (1-31). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chymase on intraocular pressure in rabbits. Chymase injection (3 and 10 mU) resulted in a trend toward increased intraocular pressure and a significant increase in intraocular pressure at a dose of 10 mU compared with the control. A specific chymase inhibitor, Suc-Val-Pro-Phe(P)(OPh)(2), attenuated the ocular hypertension induced by chymase. Endothelin-1 (1-31) also caused ocular hypertension, which was inhibited by a selective endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonist, cyclo(D-Asp-Pro-D-Val-Leu-D-Trp) (BQ-123). Moreover, chymase-induced ocular hypertension was inhibited by BQ-123. These results suggest that chymase influences the regulation of intraocular pressure, and it is likely that the formation of endothelin-1 (1-31) and subsequent activation of endothelin ET(A) receptors are involved in the development of ocular hypertension induced by chymase.

  5. Evaluation of the diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuations and blood pressure under dehydration due to fasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonen Baser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuations under dehydration conditions and the relationship between the intraocular pressure fluctuations and blood pressure. Methods: The intraocular pressures (IOP, body weights, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP of 36 fasting healthy volunteers were recorded at 8:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. in the Ramadan of 2014 and two weeks after it. The data were analyzed using paired Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation analysis. Results: As the results demonstrated, the mean diurnal IOP differences of IOP, SBP, DBP, and weight were 2.67±1.33 mmHg, 9.44±8.02 mmHg, 3.33±5.94 mmHg, and 0.90±0.46 kg during the fasting period, respectively. In addition, the mean diurnal IOP differences of IOP, SBP, DBP, and weight were -0.33±1.4 mmHg (P=0.001, 0.55±7.25mmHg (P=0.003, -3.33±5.94 mmHg (P=0.001, and 0.12±0.45 kg (P=0.001 during the control period, respectively. There was a moderate correlation between the diurnal IOP and SBP differences (r=0.517, P=0.028. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the current study, the total fluid volume might have a more dominant effect on IOP peaks than the sympathetic system activity. Furthermore, the SBP was found to correlate with the IOP.

  6. Foldable micro coils for a transponder system measuring intraocular pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullerich, S.; Schnakenberg, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Materials in Electrical Engineering 1; Mokwa, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. of Materials in Electrical Engineering 1]|[Fraunhofer Inst. of Microelectronic Circuits and Systems, Duisburg (Germany); Boegel, G. vom [Fraunhofer Inst. of Microelectronic Circuits and Systems, Duisburg (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    A foldable transponder system consisting of a chip and a micro coil for measuring intraocular pressure continuously is presented. The system will be integrated in the haptic of a soft artificial intraocular lens. Calculations of planar micro coils with 6 mm and 10.3 mm in diameter show the limits for planar coils with an outer diameter of 6 mm. For the realisation of the transponder system a 20 {mu}m thick coil with an outer diameter of 10.3 mm, an inner diameter of 7.7 mm, 16 turns and a gap of 20 {mu}m between the windings was selected. Measurements show a good agreement between calculated and measured values. Wireless pressure measurements were carried out showing a linear behaviour of the output signal with respect to the applied pressure. (orig.)

  7. WHAT HAPPENS TO INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AFTER PERIBULBAR ANAESTHESIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamoorthy Segharipuram Ranganathan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Most of intraocular surgeries are done under local anaesthesia. The peribulbar anaesthesia provides adequate anaesthesia and akinesia. There is no reported intraoperative and/or postoperative amaurosis. The peribulbar anaesthesia provides adequate anaesthesia and akinesia. The disadvantages of it are the larger quantity of the aesthetic agent. Increasing the bulk load on the globe and a reported rise of intraocular pressure. MATERIALS AND METHODS A study of fifty cases was conducted in patients who received peribulbar anaesthesia undergoing cataract extraction with intraocular lens implantation and their intraocular pressures were noted and studied after giving the peribulbar anaesthesia all given by the same surgeon. RESULTS This study did show that the peribulbar anaesthesia increases the intraocular pressure in all the cases. The external ocular compression indeed helps to dissipate the anaesthetic load thereby reducing the enormous rise in IOP, which is only expected if you recollect the fact that the eyeball occupies one sixth of the total volume of the orbit that is 5 mL and 30 mL. The volume of peribulbar anaesthesia (6 mL does add its effects to increase the IOP. Hence, a properly planned post peribulbar compression helps to minimise the transient rise in IOP. CONCLUSION Summarising the study, it is better to give peribulbar injection initially followed by external ocular compression after a delay of at least 2 to 5 minutes. It is also advised that an initial compression maybe given in slightly risk cases, so that the peribulbarinduced rise may not be alarming. The anaesthetic solution maybe fragmented and the second injection maybe delayed by 5 minutes or omitted if good akinesia and anaesthesia are achieved already.

  8. Effects of angiotensin, vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide on intraocular pressure in anesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, D. E.; Shue, S. G.; Keil, L. C.; Balaban, C. D.; Severs, W. B.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), vasopressin (AVP) and angiotensin (ANG) on blood and intraocular pressures of pentobarbital anesthetized rats were evaluated following intravenous, intracerebroventricular or anterior chamber routes of administration. Central injections did not affect intraocular pressure. Equipressor intravenous infusions of ANG raised, whereas AVP decreased, intraocular pressure. Direct infusions of a balanced salt solution (0.175 microliter/min) raised intraocular pressure between 30 and 60 min. Adding ANG or ANP slightly reduced this solvent effect but AVP was markedly inhibitory. An AVP-V1 receptor antagonist reversed the blunting of the solvent-induced rise by the peptide, indicating receptor specificity. Acetazolamide pretreatment lowered intraocular pressure, but the solvent-induced rise in intraocular pressure and inhibition by AVP still occurred without altering the temporal pattern. Thus, these effects appear unrelated to aqueous humor synthesis rate. The data support the possibility of intraocular pressure regulation by peptides acting from the blood and aqueous humor.

  9. Visual functional changes during acute elevation of intraocular pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-De SHOU

    2006-01-01

    Glaucoma is closely related to elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Many studies have done on the effect of chronic elevation of IOP on the retina and optic nerve, but less attention was paid to the effect of acute elevated IOP. Here we briefly review experimental studies on functional changes of the visual system from the retina to the visual cortex under acute elevated IOP condition, which is similar to that of acute primary angle-closure glaucoma.

  10. Intraocular pressure following ECCE, phacoemulsification, and PC-IOL implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooner, K S; Cooksey, J C; Perry, P; Zimmerman, T J

    1988-09-01

    Abnormal intraocular pressure (IOP), either transient or permanent, may follow extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with phacoemulsification (PE) and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. We retrospectively studied IOP measurements at different intervals post ECCE and PE in 242 eyes of 211 patients: 105 males, 106 females, 198 Caucasians and 13 blacks. Elevated IOP (greater than 23 mm Hg) was observed in 20 eyes (8.2%). Only two patients (0.8%) had persistent (greater than 3 months) IOP elevation and needed antiglaucoma therapy. Six more eyes (2.5%), however, developed glaucoma after 1 year. Hence, the incidence of secondary pseudophakic glaucoma at the conclusion of this study was 3.3%. No patient required laser or other mechanical surgery for IOP control. ECCE and PE with PC-IOL does not appear to adversely affect IOP. Patients, however, must be followed closely, as some may develop glaucoma months after surgery.

  11. Additional multifocal sulcus-based intraocular lens: alternative to multifocal intraocular lens in the capsular bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Jens; Kroeber, Sandra; Eppig, Timo; Langenbucher, Achim

    2013-04-01

    To compare the visual outcomes of additional multifocal intraocular lenses (IOLs) for sulcus fixation with those of standard multifocal IOLs in the capsular bag. Department of Ophthalmology, Rudolf-Virchow-Klinikum Glauchau, Glauchau, Germany. Prospective controlled clinical trial. Eyes had phacoemulsification and implantation of a monofocal IOL in the capsular bag and an additional aberration-free diffractive IOL in the ciliary sulcus (multifocal add-on IOL group). Measurements of uncorrected and distance-corrected distance, intermediate, and near visual acuities; contrast sensitivity; and defocus curve were performed 3 months postoperatively. Results were compared with those in eyes with an aberration-correcting diffractive posterior chamber IOL (multifocal PC IOL group). The multifocal add-on IOL group comprised 34 eyes of 20 patients and the multifocal PC IOL group, 31 eyes of 17 patients. Cataract surgery, IOL implantation, and the postoperative course were uneventful in all cases. There were no statistically significant differences in uncorrected and distance-corrected distance, intermediate, or near visual acuities between the 2 groups. The median uncorrected distance visual acuity was 0.00 logMAR in both groups, and the median uncorrected near visual acuity was 0.10 logMAR in both groups. Contrast sensitivity testing yielded significantly better results in the multifocal add-on IOL group, especially at spatial frequencies over 1.5 cycles per degree. Defocus curves were similar in the 2 groups. Visual performance with a multifocal diffractive add-on IOL was equivalent to that achieved with a commonly used multifocal diffractive PC IOL. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of a new-generation sectorial addition multifocal intraocular lens and a diffractive apodized multifocal intraocular lens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Velthoven, M. van; Meulen, I. van der; Nieuwendaal, C.; Mourits, M.; Lapid-Gortzak, R.

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare visual, refractive, and satisfactory outcomes between a new-generation sectorial addition multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) (Lentis Mplus LS-312; study group) and a diffractive apodized multifocal IOL (Restor SN6AD1; control group). SETTING: Private practice, Driebergen, and Depa

  13. Effect of osteotomies during rhinoplasty on intraocular pressure

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    Amr N. Rabie

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate whether rhinoplasty with osteotomies for the treatment of deformed nose induces changes in intraocular pressure (IOP. Design: Prospective, nonrandomized study. Setting: University-affiliated medical center. Patients: Thirty patients who underwent rhinoplasty with osteotomies for the nose were prospectively enrolled in this study. Fifteen patients had lateral osteotomies with the external perforating technique, and fifteen with an internal continuous technique with periosteal elevation. We excluded patients with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, glaucoma, previous ocular trauma, history of ocular surgery, and previous use of topical corticosteroid eye drops. Main outcome measures: The intraocular pressure (IOP in each patient was measured by Goldmann tonometry preoperatively and postoperatively on days 1, 2, and 7. Results: 23 women and 7 men with a mean age of 27 years were enrolled in the study. The mean ± SD IOP of the eye was 15.69 ± 2.37 mmHg preoperatively. Postoperatively, the mean ± SD IOPs were 15.96 ± 1.92 mmHg on day 1, 15.45 ± 2.55 mmHg on day 2, and 15.72 ± 2.86 mmHg on day 7 (P = .863. Conclusions: Although osteotomes during rhinoplasty caused variations in the IOP compartment, the changes in IOP were not statistically significant. Therefore, rhinoplasty should be a safe surgical procedure with respect to ocular physiological function, however monitoring IOP peri-operatively is advised. To our best knowledge, this is the first clinical trial to determine the effect of rhinoplasty with osteotomy on intraocular pressure.

  14. Proteomic Analysis of Elevated Intraocular Pressure with Retinal Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Gabriel; Roybal, C Nathaniel; Binkley, Elaine; Bassuk, Alexander G; Tsang, Stephen H; Mahajan, Vinit B

    2017-04-01

    To report a case of elevated intraocular pressure with retinal detachment. Liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry was performed on the patient aqueous biopsy. Protein levels were analyzed with 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and unbiased clustering. High levels of rod outer segment proteins were not detected, suggesting that this was not a case of Schwartz-Matsuo syndrome. Instead, elevated levels of Hepcidin (HEPC) and Cystatin C (CYTC; candidate biomarkers for primary open angle glaucoma) were detected, suggesting a different, unknown etiology. Molecular diagnoses can differentiate between clinical diagnoses and point to common biomarkers or disease mechanisms.

  15. How to measure intraocular pressure: Schiötz tonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Stevens

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available If glaucoma is diagnosed early, treatment can then be given that may preserve vision. Although raised intraocular pressure (IOP is not the only sign of glaucoma, the IOP should be checked routinely on all adults attending eye care facilities. Applanation tonometry (as described in Issue 64, December 2007 is the most accurate method to measure IOP, but Schiötz tonometry is also a useful screening test. If Schiötz tonometry reveals a high IOP, this result should be checked and confirmed by applanation tonometry and the patient referred to the senior clinician at the eye clinic.

  16. A CLINICAL STUDY OF INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE CHANGES WITH VECURONIUM BROMIDE AND PANCURONIUM BROMIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The maintenance of intraocular pressure forms the mainstay of anesthetic management of intraocular surgery. It is desirable to achieve a normal or reduced intraocular pressure before the eye is opened to avoid expulsive hemorrhage and ocular disruption at the time of incision. Therefore the ideal anesthetic technique for intraocular surgery should produce a moderate reduction in intraocular pressure, or maintain intraocular pressure at near normal values and avoid marked fluctuations during surgery (George et al, 1979. The use of suxamethonium is associated with significant rise in intraocular pressure with a peak increase between 2 and 4 minutes following administration and return to base line value after 6 minutes. The outcome of eye surgery, particularly when there is globe injury depends to a large extent on good control of intraocular pressure not only during maintenance, but also at induction of anesthesia. This is usually achieved by use of non-depolarizing muscle relaxant. Pancuronium when used in relatively larger doses is known to have a faster onset of action and also the block may be prolonged. Vecuronium is intermediate acting and free of cardiovascular and other side effects even when used in larger doses. ABACKGROUND: The maintenance of intraocular pressure forms the mainstay of anesthetic management of intraocular surgery. It is desirable to achieve a normal or reduced intraocular pressure before the eye is opened to avoid expulsive hemorrhage and ocular disruption at the time of incision. Therefore the ideal anesthetic technique for intraocular surgery should produce a moderate reduction in intraocular pressure, or maintain intraocular pressure at near normal values and avoid marked fluctuations during surgery (George et al, 1979. The use of suxamethonium is associated with significant rise in intraocular pressure with a peak increase between 2 and 4 minutes following administration and return to base line value

  17. Biomechanics of Schlemm's canal endothelium and intraocular pressure reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamer, W Daniel; Braakman, Sietse T; Zhou, Enhua H; Ethier, C Ross; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Overby, Darryl R; Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Ocular hypertension in glaucoma develops due to age-related cellular dysfunction in the conventional outflow tract, resulting in increased resistance to aqueous humor outflow. Two cell types, trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal (SC) endothelia, interact in the juxtacanalicular tissue (JCT) region of the conventional outflow tract to regulate outflow resistance. Unlike endothelial cells lining the systemic vasculature, endothelial cells lining the inner wall of SC support a transcellular pressure gradient in the basal to apical direction, thus acting to push the cells off their basal lamina. The resulting biomechanical strain in SC cells is quite large and is likely to be an important determinant of endothelial barrier function, outflow resistance and intraocular pressure. This review summarizes recent work demonstrating how biomechanical properties of SC cells impact glaucoma. SC cells are highly contractile, and such contraction greatly increases cell stiffness. Elevated cell stiffness in glaucoma may reduce the strain experienced by SC cells, decrease the propensity of SC cells to form pores, and thus impair the egress of aqueous humor from the eye. Furthermore, SC cells are sensitive to the stiffness of their local mechanical microenvironment, altering their own cell stiffness and modulating gene expression in response. Significantly, glaucomatous SC cells appear to be hyper-responsive to substrate stiffness. Thus, evidence suggests that targeting the material properties of SC cells will have therapeutic benefits for lowering intraocular pressure in glaucoma.

  18. INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE ASYMMETRY: AN INDICATOR FOR GLAUCOMA DIAGNOSIS

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    Rekha R.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM To investigate the amount of intraocular pressure asymmetry between fellow eyes in patients with and without primary open angle glaucoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a retrospective case control study conducted at a tertiary care hospital of Central India. A single pre-treatment IOP of the primary open angle glaucoma patients was recorded from the Glaucoma Clinic data from Jan 2013 to Dec 2013. The inter-eye IOP asymmetry of these cases was compared with normal subjects without primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. RESULTS There were 84 (POAG glaucoma patients and 168 control subjects in the study. It was observed that 23.8% patients suffering from glaucoma had an asymmetry of 2 mmHg while 20.23% had no asymmetry. Asymmetry as high as >20 mmHg was also seen in glaucomatous patients. Intraocular pressure asymmetry was a significant factor for having glaucoma (Odds ratio, 18.89%; P<0.001. CONCLUSION Inter-eye asymmetry of IOP is a common finding in patients with POAG. There is a direct relationship between the amount of IOP asymmetry between the fellow eyes and the likelihood of having glaucoma.

  19. The Pathogenesis of Raised Intraocular Pressure in Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneke, Alexander Jan; Lim, K Sheng; Stanford, Miles

    2016-01-01

    To analyze current understanding of the factors that contribute to raised intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with uveitis. A pubmed literature review was carried out using words including "uveitic glaucoma", "IOP AND uveitis", "ocular hypertension AND uveitis", "inflammation AND glaucoma", "aqueous dynamics" AND "glaucoma/uveitis". Of the two studies looking at the aqueous dynamics in experimentally induced uveitis, both found aqueous flow decreased acutely, and one found that uveoscleral outflow increased. This is likely to reflect the types of uveitis that present acutely with hypotony. A study examining patients with Fuch's heterochromic cyclitis found no difference in aqueous flow or uveoscleral outflow. No studies have examined aqueous dynamics in types of uveitis that present with acutely raised IOP. Levels of prostaglandins rise in acute uveitis, which has been shown to increase uveoscleral and trabecular outflow, without affecting aqueous flow. Studies have demonstrated that raised levels of trabecular protein reduce trabecular outflow. Steroid treatment, inflammatory cells, free radicals and enzymes are also likely to contribute to the development of raised pressure. When considering the impact of the pathogenesis of raised pressure in uveitis on its treatment, prostaglandins may provide good intraocular pressure control, but there are concerns regarding their theoretical ability to worsen the inflammatory response in uveitis. Studies have not conclusively proven this to be the case. Surgical success rates vary, but trabeculectomy plus an antimetabolite, deep sclerectomy plus an antimetabolite, and Ahmed valve surgery have been used. Uveitic glaucoma is caused by a number of different diseases, some of which present with acute hypotony, others with acutely raised IOP, and others which demonstrate an increase in IOP over time. Further studies should be carried out to examine the differing pathogenesis in these types of diseases, and to establish the

  20. Correlation between hand preference and intraocular pressure from right- and left-eyes in right- and left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dane, Senol; Gümüştekin, Kenan; Yazici, Ahmet Taylan; Baykal, Orhan

    2003-02-01

    To test whether there is a relationship between handedness and the intraocular pressure and there is a lateralization in the intraocular pressure, the intraocular pressures of the right- and left-eyes were compared in right- and left-handed students. The intraocular pressures were higher in the right-eye than in the left-eye in men, right-handers, and right-eyed subjects; there was no right-left difference in females, left-handers, left-eyed, and both-eyed subjects. The intraocular pressure of right- and left-eyes was higher in left-handers than right-handers. And there were significant negative correlations between hand preference and the intraocular pressure of both right- and left-eyes. We have concluded that the dominant eye has higher intraocular pressure compared to the nondominant one, and there is a relationship between hand preference and the intraocular pressure.

  1. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE OF MODERATE INTENSITY AND SHORT DURATION ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN YOUNG INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamala Devi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intra-ocular pressure (IOP in normal individuals varies throughout the night and day. The diurnal variation for normal eyes is between 3 and 6mmHg and the variation may increase in glaucomatous eyes. Hence, the present effort is to investigate the effect of moderate exercise on intraocular pressure changes. IOP was measured before and after exercise in 100 subjects (50M, 50F with no ocular abnormality with ages ranging from 18-21 years by using Schiotz tonometer. Weight, height and body mass index, were recorded. The results obtained were compared between before-and-after-exercise of the subjects. The data were presented as the mean ± SD, Student’s t-test was used to calculate significance between means. The IOP showed a statistically significant fall following moderate exercise. The mean IOP significantly decreased (p0.05 decreased after 60 minutes of aerobic exercise. Gender wise comparison of intraocular pressure both before and after exercise did not reveal much significance. Physical exercise, such as jogging, walking and bicycle riding, could be suggested as a complimentary therapy in addition to the pharmaceutical and surgical therapies available for glaucoma patients, even though the mechanism for lowering IOP is not clear enough.

  2. Immediate effect of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab on intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemos-Reis R

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ricardo Lemos-Reis,1 Nuno Moreira-Gonçalves,1 António B Melo,1 Ângela M Carneiro,1,2 Fernando M Falcão-Reis1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology of Hospital de São João, Porto, Portugal; 2Department of Sense Organs, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal Purpose: To investigate the immediate effect of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab on intraocular pressure (IOP. Methods: This was a prospective and nonrandomized study. A total of 291 eyes with macular edema or active choroidal neovascularization were submitted to a single 1.25 mg (0.05 mL bevacizumab intravitreal injection. Intraocular pressure was measured with an Icare® tonometer immediately before and after injection in a seated position. The presence of subconjunctival reflux was recorded. The fellow eye served as the control.Results: Mean preoperative IOP was 18.0±5.9 mmHg in the treated eye versus 16.9±6.0 mmHg in the fellow eye. Mean postoperative IOP was 42.1±14.5 mmHg in the treated eye versus 17.5±6.0 mmHg in the fellow eye. The IOP variation was statistically significant in both cases and controls (P<0.001 and P=0.003, respectively, and this increase was higher in cases than in controls (P<0.001. Postoperative IOPs higher than 50 mmHg were achieved in 32.0% of the eyes. Subconjunctival reflux was present in 21.3% and determined a lower IOP rise (P<0.001. Tested variables (glaucoma, phakic status, and sex did not have a statistically significant effect on IOP rise or subconjunctival reflux. Conclusion: IOP increases with intravitreal bevacizumab injection, reaching 50 mmHg or more in about one third of patients. A higher IOP is expected if no subconjunctival reflux occurs. The baseline IOP does not influence the incidence of subconjunctival reflux. The clinical relevance of these facts has yet to be clarified. Keywords: bevacizumab, intraocular pressure, intravitreal injection, Icare®

  3. [Combination surgery (ECCE+IOL+TE) and intraocular pressure levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornová, J

    1997-08-01

    The authors investigated the effect of a combined operation, ECCE + TE + IOL, on reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), changes in antiglaucomatous treatment and on vision six months after operation. In 1994 36 eyes were operated, 16 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), 8 eyes with angular glaucoma (PACG) and 12 eyes with marked exfoliative syndrome (CG). Six months after operation the IOP declined from 26.4 mm Hg to 13.3 mm Hg (P 0.05), antiglaucomatous treatment was reduced from 2.55 to 1.11 (P 0.05), vision improved by 0.39, i.e. by 2-3 lines of optotypes (P 0.05). 89% of the operated patients have a vision better than 0.5. Comparison of values before and after operation revealed a more marked drop of IOP in CG (P 0.05) than in POAG.

  4. The accute effects of resistance exercise on intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Geraldo Magela

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study intraocular pressure (IOP variations in healthy volunteers after weight lifting, in the supine position. METHODS: A descriptive study was designed. Thirty-four individuals were preselected for this study, and a group of 25 volunteers fulfilled the inclusion criteria for joining the initial phase of this research. All of them were healthy without glaucoma. They were asked to lift an 85% top load in the supine position for 8 times. IOP was measured before and after the exercise. Student's t test was used to analyze the IOP variations. RESULTS: A small, but significant IOP decrease (1.61 mmHg was obtained after exposing 25 individuals (49 eyes to a specific physical effort. CONCLUSIONS: After a session of weight lifting in the supine position with 85% top load for 8 repetitions, there is a small, but significant IOP decrease.

  5. Ocular Onchocerciasis in the Yanomami Communities from Brazilian Amazon: Effects on Intraocular Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog-Neto, Guilherme; Jaegger, Karen; do Nascimento, Erika S.; Marchon-Silva, Verônica; Banic, Dalma M.; Maia-Herzog, Marilza

    2014-01-01

    To determine the influence of onchocercal eye disease on the intraocular pressure of the Yanomami Tribe Aratha-ú of Roraima State, Brazil, considered endemic for onchocerciasis, a total of 86 patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic exam that included external examination, slit lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement, and a fundus ophthalmoscope examination. A high prevalence of onchocerciasis-related eye lesions was encountered in 68.6% of the patients. Punctate keratitis and microfilariae in the anterior chamber were found in ∼28%. The mean of intraocular eye pressure found was 10.47 mm of Hg. PMID:24297812

  6. Correlation of the intraocular pressure with increased intracranial pressure in rabbits

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    Eskandari H

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Although measurement of intracranial pressure by noninvasive methods has been suggested, but mainly invasive methods are used for this purpose-Increase in episcleral venous pressure can be expected to result in a linear increase in intraocular pressure. Congested oculat veins with capillary leakage and hemorrhage are seen when the ICP is increased, thus theoretically measurement of intraocular pressure can be a procedure for estimation of the ICP. This study was performed to find whether there is andy relationship between intraocular pressure and ICP, so we used 12 albino rabbits in two divided groups. Our study was not designed to elucidate the mechanism of change but merely to record any changes observed. All measures except an increase in ICP were applied on the test group as well as on the control group. After general anesthesia with the combination of ketamin, rampune, and pentobarbital a burr hole was made in the lambda region of the skull and a cannula was placed in the subdural space. The ICP in the test group increased up to 15 mmHg and was constant throughout the experiment. Intraocular pressure was measured by Schiotz tonometers afte general anesthesia, after cannulation of the skull, and immediately after increasing the ICP which was repated in 15 minutes interval for 4 hours. There was no statistical difference between the two groups (P:0.997 . results show that neither cannulation nor general anesthesia for 4 hours produce alteration in IOP in the control group nor increasing of the ICP to level of 15 mmHg produces any alteration in IOP on the test group.

  7. INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE, MEAN ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE AND PUPILLARY DIAMETER IN RABBITS ( (Oryctolagus cuniculus SUBJECTED TO RETROBULBAR BLOCK WITH DIFFERENT ANESTHETIC PROTOCOLS

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    Renata Maria Monção da Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate four protocols of loco regional anesthesia for ophthalmic procedures that could provide safety and life support, in addition to maintain intraocular pressure stable, with eye centralization and eyelid akinesia. 20 New Zealand rabbits were used to perform local anesthesia by retrobulbar block with four protocols: 2% lidocaine with epinephrine, 2% lidocaine without epinephrine associated with tramadol, 1% ropivacaine and bupivacaine 0.5 %. Each animal received an anesthetic volume of 1 mL. All anesthetic protocols used promoted eyelid akinesia and centralization of the eye during the assessment period. The retrobulbar block with the proposed anesthetic protocols proved to be feasible and safe for the maintenance of intraocular pressure, invasive blood pressure and pupillary diameter and can be used in intraocular surgeries, respecting the time of action of each anesthetic. All protocols showed an excellent blockage action but bupivacaine promoted the highest pupil diameter compared to the other drugs tested.

  8. Intraocular pressure variations during zygomatic fracture reduction and fixation: a clinical study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Dylan J

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: The reduction of midface fractures has been associated with the rare but devastating complication of blindness. An increase in intraocular pressure is important in the mechanism of blindness in this setting. In this study, the authors assessed the intraocular pressure in patients who underwent zygomatic fracture reduction (with or without fixation). METHODS: Using applanation tonometry, 29 patients underwent intraocular pressure measurements before, during, and after fracture fixation. The contralateral pressures were measured and used as the control. RESULTS: There were 29 patients with a mean age of 35 years, and the mean time to surgery was 5 days. Preoperatively, all patients had normal intraocular pressures and normal visual acuity. All patients underwent a Gillies lift and 18 patients required open reduction and fixation of the frontozygomatic suture (n = 4) or the infraorbital margin (n = 2), and the remainder (n = 12) required fixation of both points. There was no statistically significant increase in the intraocular pressures following the reduction of uncomplicated zygomatic fractures. Statistically significant pressure reductions were noted immediately after reduction and fixation. CONCLUSIONS: The surgical reduction of uncomplicated zygomatic fractures has no adverse effect on the intraocular pressure. It is the authors\\' opinion that adjunctive measures to reduce the pressures are unnecessary.

  9. A Circadian and Cardiac Intraocular Pressure Sensor for Smart Implantable Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donida, Achille; Di Dato, Giuseppe; Cunzolo, Paolo; Sala, Marco; Piffaretti, Filippo; Orsatti, Paolo; Barrettino, Diego

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a new system to measure the Intraocular Pressure (IOP) with very high accuracy (0.036 mbar) used for monitoring glaucoma. The system not only monitors the daily variation of the IOP (circadian IOP), but also allows to perform an spectral analysis of the pressure signal generated by the heartbeat (cardiac IOP). The system comprises a piezoresistive pressure sensor, an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to read out the sensor data and an external reader installed on customized glasses. The ASIC readout electronics combines chopping modulation with correlated double sampling (CDS) in order to eliminate both the amplifier offset and the chopper ripple at the sampling frequency. In addition, programmable current sources are used to compensate for the atmospheric pressure ( 800-1200 mbar ) and the circadian component (± 7 mbar) thus allowing to read out the very weak cardiac signals (± 1.6 mbar) with a maximum accuracy of 0.036 mbar.

  10. Influence of untreated chronic plastic iridocyclitis on intraocular pressure in leprosy patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Karaçorlu, M A; Cakiner, T; Saylan, T

    1991-01-01

    The intraocular pressures of a total of 286 eyes of patients with lepromatous and borderline lepromatous leprosy who never had regular ophthalmological care or local eye treatment were measured. The patients were categorised according to the type of leprosy they had, and the eyes were categorised as without or with chronic plastic iridocyclitis. In patients with lepromatous and borderline lepromatous types of leprosy the intraocular pressure was significantly lower in eyes with chronic plasti...

  11. Prognostic Factor Analysis of Intraocular Pressure with Neovascular Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Satoko; Nakamuro, Takako; Yokoyama, Katsuhiko; Kiyosaki, Kunihiro; Kubota, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To perform multivariate analysis for identifying independent predictors of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) with neovascular glaucoma (NVG), including antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) intravitreal injections. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 142 NVG patients (181 eyes) with ischemic retinal diseases [proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in 134 eyes, retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in 29, and ocular ischemic syndrome in 18]. We analyzed age, gender, initial/final LogMAR VA, initial/final IOP, extent of iris and/or angle neovascularization, treatments, preexisting complications, concurrent medications, and follow-up duration. Results. The mean follow-up duration was 23.8 ± 18.8 months. At the final follow-up, 125 (72.3%) eyes had IOP ≤ 21 mmHg. NVG patients with RVO had a higher degree of angle closure and higher IOP. NVG with PDR had better IOP and LogMAR VA. Angle closure had the greatest impact on final IOP. Greater than 90% of patients treated with trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (LEC) had persistent declines in IOP (≤21 mmHg). Stand-alone and combination anti-VEGF therapies were not associated with improved long-term prognosis of IOP. Conclusions. Angle closure was found to have the greatest effect on NVG-IOP prognosis. When target IOP values are not obtained after adequate PRP with or without anti-VEGF, early LEC may improve the prognosis of IOP.

  12. Prognostic Factor Analysis of Intraocular Pressure with Neovascular Glaucoma

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    Satoko Nakano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To perform multivariate analysis for identifying independent predictors of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP with neovascular glaucoma (NVG, including antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF intravitreal injections. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed 142 NVG patients (181 eyes with ischemic retinal diseases [proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR in 134 eyes, retinal vein occlusion (RVO in 29, and ocular ischemic syndrome in 18]. We analyzed age, gender, initial/final LogMAR VA, initial/final IOP, extent of iris and/or angle neovascularization, treatments, preexisting complications, concurrent medications, and follow-up duration. Results. The mean follow-up duration was 23.8 ± 18.8 months. At the final follow-up, 125 (72.3% eyes had IOP ≤ 21 mmHg. NVG patients with RVO had a higher degree of angle closure and higher IOP. NVG with PDR had better IOP and LogMAR VA. Angle closure had the greatest impact on final IOP. Greater than 90% of patients treated with trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (LEC had persistent declines in IOP (≤21 mmHg. Stand-alone and combination anti-VEGF therapies were not associated with improved long-term prognosis of IOP. Conclusions. Angle closure was found to have the greatest effect on NVG-IOP prognosis. When target IOP values are not obtained after adequate PRP with or without anti-VEGF, early LEC may improve the prognosis of IOP.

  13. Hypobaric Hypoxia: Effects on Intraocular Pressure and Corneal Thickness

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    Marcella Nebbioso

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying ocular hydrodynamics and the changes which occur in the eyes of subjects exposed to hypobaric hypoxia (HH to permit the achievement of more detailed knowledge in glaucomatous disease. Methods. Twenty male subjects, aged 32±5 years, attending the Italian Air Force, were enrolled for this study. The research derived from hypobaric chamber, using helmet and mask supplied to jet pilotes connected to oxygen cylinder and equipped with a preset automatic mixer. Results. The baseline values of intraocular pressure (IOP, recorded at T1, showed a mean of 16±2.23 mmHg, while climbing up to 18,000 feet the mean value was 13.7±4.17 mmHg, recorded at T2. The last assessment was performed returning to sea level (T4 where the mean IOP value was 12.8±2.57 mmHg, with a significant change (P<0.05 compared to T1. Pachymetry values related to corneal thickness in conditions of hypobarism revealed a statistically significant increase (P<0.05. Conclusions. The data collected in this research seem to confirm the increasing outflow of aqueous humor (AH in the trabecular meshwork (TM under conditions of HH.

  14. [Intraocular pressure decrease after manual small incision cataract surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nganga Ngabou, C G F; Makita, C; Ndalla, S S; Nkokolo, F; Madzou, M

    2017-05-01

    We decided to evaluate the decrease in intraocular pressure six months after cataract surgery. We evaluated patients' IOP using an applanation tonometer. The patients then underwent cataract surgery. Six months after cataract surgery, we reevaluated the IOP by the same method, and we determined the post-operative change. Among the 147 operated eyes, 123 eyes or 83.67% exhibited a decrease in IOP. The mean preoperative IOP for the operative eye was 15.61±4.5mmHg; the mean post-operative IOP was 12.57±3.5mmHg; the mean IOP decrease after surgery was 3.16±4mmHg, for a mean decrease of 20%. This decrease is statistically significant, Pdecrease in IOP varies proportionally to the initial IOP. In glaucomatous patients, the mean preoperative IOP was 23.16±5.68mmHg and mean post-operative IOP was 14.5±2.7mmHg, a decrease of 37.39%. The decrease in IOP after cataract surgery was generally moderate. However, this IOP decreased proportionally to the initial IOP, thus giving significant decreases for higher IOPs. This decrease in IOP, well known after phacoemulsification, was also obtained after Manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery, a surgical technique which is increasingly employed in developing countries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Soft wearable contact lens sensor for continuous intraocular pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guo-Zhen; Chan, Ion-Seng; Leung, Leo K K; Lam, David C C

    2014-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a primary indicator of glaucoma, but measurements from a single visit to the clinic miss the peak IOP that may occur at night during sleep. A soft chipless contact lens sensor that allows the IOP to be monitored throughout the day and at night is developed in this study. A resonance circuit composed of a thin film capacitor coupled with a sensing coil that can sense corneal curvature deformation is designed, fabricated and embedded into a soft contact lens. The resonance frequency of the sensor is designed to vary with the lens curvature as it changes with the IOP. The frequency responses and the ability of the sensor to track IOP cycles were tested using a silicone rubber model eye. The results showed that the sensor has excellent linearity with a frequency response of ∼8 kHz/mmHg, and the sensor can accurately track fluctuating IOP. These results showed that the chipless contact lens sensor can potentially be used to monitor IOP to improve diagnosis accuracy and treatment of glaucoma.

  16. Aerobic exercise and intraocular pressure in normotensive and glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzibalis Theodosios

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing number of people participating in physical aerobic exercise, jogging in particular, we considered that it would be worth knowing if there are should be limits to the exercise with regard to the intraocular pressure (IOP of the eyes. The purpose of this study is to check IOP in healthy and primary glaucoma patients after aerobic exercise. Methods 145 individuals were subdivided into seven groups: normotensives who exercised regularly (Group A; normotensives in whose right eye (RE timolol maleate 0.5% (Group B, latanoprost 0.005% (Group C, or brimonidine tartrate 0.2% (Group D was instilled; and primary glaucoma patients under monotherapy with β-blockers (Group E, prostaglandin analogues (Group F or combined antiglaucoma treatment (Group G instilled in both eyes. The IOP of both eyes was measured before and after exercise. Results A statistically significant decrease was found in IOP during jogging. The aerobic exercise reduces the IOP in those eyes where a b-blocker, a prostaglandin analogue or an α-agonist was previously instilled. The IOP is also decreased in glaucoma patients who are already under antiglaucoma treatment. Conclusion There is no ocular restriction for simple glaucoma patients in performing aerobic physical activity.

  17. Influence factors and clinical treatment of high intraocular pressure after LASEK

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    Qi-Feng Lei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the influence factors of high intraocular pressure after laser epithelial keratomileusis(LASEK, and to discuss the clinical treatment and prognosis of the high intraocular pressure patients. METHODS: A retrospective study was used. From August 2013 to February 2016, 160 LASEK patients(160 eyesin our hospital were selected. Visual acuity after operation was recorded. The incidence and influence factors of high intraocular pressure were investigated. The treatment method and prognosis of high intraocular pressure were recorded. RESULTS: In the 160 patients, all patients had complete epithelial flap and different degree of photophobia. There were 19 patients with postoperative photophobia, conjunctival hyperemia and foreign body sensation significantly. At postoperative 3mo, average intraocular pressure were 18.40±4.98mmHg, which was higher than that of preoperative, 16.27±2.24mmHg(PPOR=3.209, maximum diameter of curvature(OR=3.071and fundus C/D(OR=9.224value were the main risk factors leading to postoperative steroid induced ocular hypertension(PCONCLUSION: The postoperative steroid induced ocular hypertension in LASEK is common, but has no obvious effect on visual acuity. The cutting depth, maximum diameter, curvature fundus C/D value were the main influencing factors, so we should careful use the hormone drugs in treatment and prevention. Periodic review and detection for change of intraocular pressure are needed.

  18. Effect of lateral temporal corneal incision for intraocular pressure and tear film stability in cataract patients

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    Ying Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate therapeutic effect of lateral temporal corneal incision phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens(IOLon cataract and its effect on intraocular pressure(IOPand tear film. METHODS: The clinical data of patients with cataract who received treatment in our hospital from March 2014 to December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. According to the location of the incision, they were divided into temporal corneal incision group and upper corneal incision group. We observed the incidence of complications of the two groups, compared the intraocular pressure, visual acuity, refraction and tear film break-up time of the two groups before and after surgery. RESULTS: The operation time and postoperative pain score of the two groups had no significant difference(P>0.05. The IOP and visual acuity between the two groups before operation had no significant difference(P>0.05. At the intraocular pressure of the two groups was lower than that before operation, and the visual acuity was higher than before operation, and the changes of the anterior lateral incision group were more obvious(PPCONCLUSION: The temporal corneal incision phacoemulsification combined with intraocular lens implantation has a good therapeutic effect on cataract patients, can effectively improve the intraocular pressure and tear film stability, improve eye function, promote the recovery of the body after surgery.

  19. Open Globe Injuries Presenting With Normal or High Intraocular Pressure.

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    Margo, Jordan A; Feldman, Samantha; Addis, Hampton; Bodanapally, Uttam K; Ellish, Nancy; Saeedi, Osamah

    2016-07-01

    To determine the frequency, clinical characteristics, and visual outcomes of patients who present with high or normal intraocular pressure (IOP) and open globe injuries. Retrospective chart review. University of Maryland Medical Center, a level 1 trauma center. All cases of open globe injury presenting to The University of Maryland Medical Center from July 2005 to January 2014. Demographics, initial physical examination, computed tomography findings, IOP of the affected and unaffected eyes, and follow-up evaluations. (1) IOP 10 mm Hg or greater and (2) visual acuity. Of 132 eyes presenting with open globe injury, IOP was recorded in 38 (28%). Mean IOP for the affected and unaffected eyes was 14±10.3 mm Hg and 16.6±4.1 mm Hg, respectively. Twenty-three (59.4%) eyes had IOP greater than 10 mm Hg. Six eyes (16.2%) had IOP greater than 21 mm Hg. Using bivariate analysis, IOP greater than 10 mm Hg was associated with posterior open globe injury (P=0.01), posterior hemorrhage (P=0.04), and intraconal retrobulbar hemorrhage (P=0.05). Adjusting for age, sex, and race, IOP greater than 10 mm Hg was associated with the presence of posterior open globe injury on clinical examination (P=0.04). Higher presenting IOP was found to predict light perception or worse vision (P=0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that poor presenting vision was the best predictor of poor final vision (Pglobe injury. It is a frequent finding in patients with open globe injuries and may be associated with posterior injury and poor visual prognosis.

  20. Effects of fasting on intraocular pressure in a black population

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    Mustapha B Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a dearth of literature available on the effects of fasting on Intraocular pressure (IOP among all races and worldwide. Objectives : To determine the effects of fasting on IOP in a black African population. Materials and Methods: A population-based survey utilizing multistage random sampling techniques was carried out among healthy adult Muslims who were examined before and during Ramadan fast in Osogbo, Nigeria. Demographics were obtained, visual acuities, clinical examination of both eyes, and IOPs were done. Weights and waist circumference were measured. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences ( SPSS Version 16. Analysis generated frequencies and cross tabulations, whereas statistical significant values were derived using paired sample t-test and P < 0.05. Results: A total of 60 subjects with 120 eyes were examined. Mean age was 42.3 years standard deviation (SD 16.7, and the male to female ratio was 3:2. Majority were professionals (33.3%. Only 18.3% had less than secondary school education. Over 90% had normal vision (6/5-6/18. Before and during fasting, the mean weights were 65.92 kg SD 12.98 and 65.29 kg SD 12.41 with a reduction of 0.63 kg SD 3.82 (P = 0.214, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.372-1.626; and the mean waist circumference was 87.20 cm SD 12.39 and 81.78 cm SD 11.65 (P = 0.000, 95% CI 4.128-6.720, respectively. Mean IOPs were 15.98 mmHg SD 3.11 and 14.08 mmHg SD 2.71 before and during fasting, respectively (P = 0.000, 95% CI 0.98558-2.82798. Conclusions: The study shows that fasting significantly reduced IOP in an ocularly healthy black African population.

  1. Effect of lens status on intraocular pressure in siliconized eyes

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    Mohalhal AA ,El Shazly MI ,Ghalwash DA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed A Mohalhal, Malak I El Shazly, Dalia A GhalwashKasr El Aini Hospital, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptPurpose: To evaluate the effect of lens status on intraocular pressure (IOP in siliconized eyes and also on the emulsification of silicone oil.Patients and methods: A total of 31 eyes of 31 patients with retinal detachment were operated on with pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection: 16 phakic (Group A and 15 pseudophakic (Group B. During the 6-month follow-up period, IOP was measured: 1 day postoperative, then at 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, and 6 months postoperative. At the end of the follow-up period, gonioscopy was carried out to check emulsified silicone at the anterior chamber angle and also the presence of emulsified silicone on the back of the cornea when the patient was lying down.Results: There was no significant difference between both groups until the first week (P value = 0.15. Starting from the first month, the difference was statistically significant, with mean IOPs in Groups A and B of 14.9 mmHg and 18.2 mmHg, respectively, up to the sixth month (P value = 0.002, with a mean IOP in Groups A and B of 14.4 mmHg and 19.4 mmHg, respectively. Emulsified silicone was clinically stated in twelve cases (80% in Group B and in three cases (19% in Group A.Conclusion: There is a higher incidence of increased IOP and emulsification of silicone oil in pseudophakic eyes than in phakic eyes.Keywords: vitrectomy, siliconized eyes, emulsification, lens status

  2. Evaluation of Different Power of Near Addition in Two Different Multifocal Intraocular Lenses

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    Ugur Unsal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare near, intermediate, and distance vision and quality of vision, when refractive rotational multifocal intraocular lenses with 3.0 diopters or diffractive multifocal intraocular lenses with 2.5 diopters near addition are implanted. Methods. 41 eyes of 41 patients in whom rotational +3.0 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted and 30 eyes of 30 patients in whom diffractive +2.5 diopters near addition IOLs were implanted after cataract surgery were reviewed. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity, intermediate visual acuity, near visual acuity, and patient satisfaction were evaluated 6 months later. Results. The corrected and uncorrected distance visual acuity were the same between both groups (p=0.50 and p=0.509, resp.. The uncorrected intermediate and corrected intermediate and near vision acuities were better in the +2.5 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p=0.049, p=0.005, and p=0.001, resp. and the uncorrected near vision acuity was better in the +3.0 near vision added intraocular lens implanted group (p=0.001. The patient satisfactions of both groups were similar. Conclusion. The +2.5 diopters near addition could be a better choice in younger patients with more distance and intermediate visual requirements (driving, outdoor activities, whereas the + 3.0 diopters should be considered for patients with more near vision correction (reading.

  3. Intraocular pressure and glaucoma: Is physical exercise beneficial or a risk?

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    McMonnies, Charles William

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure may become elevated with muscle exertion, changes in body position and increased respiratory volumes, especially when Valsalva manoeuver mechanisms are involved. All of these factors may be present during physical exercise, especially if hydration levels are increased. This review examines the evidence for intraocular pressure changes during and after physical exercise. Intraocular pressure elevation may result in a reduction in ocular perfusion pressure with the associated possibility of mechanical and/or ischaemic damage to the optic nerve head. A key consideration is the possibility that, rather than being beneficial for patients who are susceptible to glaucomatous pathology, any intraocular pressure elevation could be detrimental. Lower intraocular pressure after exercise may result from its elevation causing accelerated aqueous outflow during exercise. Also examined is the possibility that people who have lower frailty are more likely to exercise as well as less likely to have or develop glaucoma. Consequently, lower prevalence of glaucoma would be expected among people who exercise. The evidence base for this topic is deficient and would be greatly improved by the availability of tonometry assessment during dynamic exercise, more studies which control for hydration levels, and methods for assessing the potential general health benefits of exercise against any possibility of exacerbated glaucomatous pathology for individual patients who are susceptible to such changes. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on intraocular pressure and blood pressure

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    Ilechie AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Alex Ilechie, Sandra TettehDepartment of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Energy drinks contain a wide variety of ingredients including caffeine, for which there have been conflicting reports regarding its effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull® on the IOP and blood pressure of healthy young adults.Methods: Thirty healthy university students of either gender, aged 18–30 (mean 23.20 ± 2.81 years were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control and were asked to abstain from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and blood pressure were measured. The experimental group (n = 15 consumed one can of the energy drink (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 mL and measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes, while the control group drank 250 mL of water and were tested over the same time period.Results: When compared with baseline, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in mean IOP at 60 and 90 minutes was observed in the experimental group. There was no corresponding change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Our results suggest that energy drinks (ie, Red Bull produce a significant reduction in IOP but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the combination of caffeine and taurine in the Red Bull energy drink. This effect may result from the known hypotensive effect of taurine, and warrants further study.Keywords: acute effect, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, glaucoma, caffeine, taurine

  5. Clinical Analysis of Early and Mid-late Elevated Intraocular Pressure after Silicone Oil Injection

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    Lifei Wang; Jingjiang Liu; Tianxiang Lu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:To discuss the incidence and clinical features of early and mid-late elevated intraocular pressure after pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection, and to evaluate the clinical management of eyes with secondary glaucoma. Methods:.This was an observational consecutive case series of 691 eyes in 679 patients who were treated with pars plana vitrectomy and silicone injection...The diagnostic criteria of early elevated intraocular pressure after silicone oil injection was ≥21 mmHg two weeks after surgery, while mid-late ele-vated intraocular pressure was ≥21 mmHg after two weeks. The incidence and clinical management of elevated intraocular pressure were analyzed. Results: In total, 211 of 691 eyes (30.54%) developed ele-vated intraocular pressure two weeks after pars plana vitrecto my and silicone injection. Of the 211 eyes, 101 eyes (47.87%) had ocular inflammation, 64 eyes (30.33%) showed hyphema, 35 eyes(16.59%) had silicone oil in the anterior chamber, 6 eyes. (2.84% ).had excess silicone oil injected,.and 5 eyes (2.37%).had rubeosis irides. Eighty three of 691 eyes (12.01%). developed elevated intraocular pressure after two weeks..Of these 83 eyes, 25 eyes (30.12%) had rubeosis irides,.16 eyes (19.27%) had issues related to topic steroid therapy,.13 eyes . (15.66%).had a papillary block,.silicone oil in the anterior chamber,10 eyes (12.05%) had a silicone emulsion,.10 eyes (12.05% ).had peripheral anterior synchiae,.and 9 eyes (10.84%).had silicone oil in the anterior chamber..All eyes with elevated intraocular pressure were treated with antiglau-coma medications and surgeries. Conclusion:.The reasons for elevated intraocular pressure dif-fered between early and mid-late after pars plana vitrectomy and silicone oil injection. The elevated intraocular pressure can be controlled effectively by immediate diagnosis and proper treatment with medicine and operation.

  6. Intraocular pressure in captive American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber) as measured by rebound tonometry.

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    Molter, Christine M; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Kass, Philip H; Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Wack, Raymund F

    2014-09-01

    Intraocular pressure was measured using rebound tonometry in American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), with the head in an upright standing position and when lowered in a feeding position, to establish a reference range. Mean +/- standard deviation (SD) (range) intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in an upright position was right eye (OD)= 10.9 +/- 1.8 mm Hg (7-15 mm Hg) and left eye (OS) = 11.1 +/- 2.3 mm Hg (8-21 mm Hg). Median intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in an upright position was OD and OS = 11 mm Hg. Mean intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in a feeding position was OD = 14.3 +/- 2.5 mm Hg (10-22 mm Hg) and OS = 14.4 +/- 2.7 mm Hg (11-24 mm Hg), which were significantly higher. Median intraocular pressure for flamingos with the head in a feeding position was OD and OS = 14 mm Hg.

  7. Effects of phacoemulsification on the intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial cells of the patients with glaucoma

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    Ye Zhao; Zhi-Feng Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial cells integrity changes in cataract phacoemulsification after anti-glaucoma surgery.Methods:Phacoemulsification was performed in 102 patients (118 eyes) with cataract after anti-glaucoma surgery and the intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial cell integrity changes of patients were observed at Day 1 and 3, first week and first month before and after surgery, including central corneal endothelial cell density, average cell area (AVE), cell area of coefficient of variation (CV) and central corneal thickness (CCT).Results:The intraocular pressure was elevated, the central endothelial cell density was reduced, the AVE, the CV and CTT thicken were increased at Day 1 and 3, first week and first month after surgery. The difference compared with preoperative was statistically significant. The intraocular pressure and CTT almost recovered to preoperative levels in 1 month after cataract phacoemulsification and the difference was not statistically significant; while the central endothelial cell density was still decreased and AVE and CV were still increased and the difference of these indexes and the coefficient of the patients was statistically significant compared with before surgery.Conclusions:For the patients with anti-glaucoma after cataract phacoemulsification, intraocular pressure and endothelial cell integrity change was initially observed at Day 1 after surgery, whereas they can almost return to the preoperative level in a month after surgery.

  8. Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure During Various Degrees of Head-Down Tilt.

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    Marshall-Goebel, Karina; Mulder, Edwin; Bershad, Eric; Laing, Charles; Eklund, Anders; Malm, Jan; Stern, Claudia; Rittweger, Jörn

    2017-01-01

    More than half of astronauts develop ophthalmic changes during long-duration spaceflight consistent with an abnormal intraocular and intracranial pressure (IOP, ICP) difference. The aim of our study was to assess IOP and ICP during head-down tilt (HDT) and the additive or attenuating effects of 1% CO2 and lower body negative pressure (LBNP). In Experiment I, IOP and ICP were measured in nine healthy subjects after 3.5 h HDT in five conditions: -6°, -12°, and -18° HDT, -12° with 1% CO2, and -12° with -20 mmHg LBNP. In Experiment II, IOP was measured in 16 healthy subjects after 5 min tilt at +12°, 0°, -6°, -12°, -18°, and -24°, with and without -40 mmHg LBNP. ICP was only found to increase from supine baseline during -18° HDT (9.2 ± 0.9 and 14.4 ± 1 mmHg, respectively), whereas IOP increased from 15.7 ± 0.3 mmHg at 0° to 17.9 ± 0.4 mmHg during -12° HDT and from 15.3 ± 0.4 mmHg at 0° to 18.7 ± 0.4 mmHg during -18° HDT. The addition of -20 mmHg LBNP or 1% CO2 had no further effects on ICP or IOP. However, the use of -40 mmHg LBNP during HDT lowered IOP back to baseline values, except at -24° HDT. A small, posterior intraocular-intracranial pressure difference (IOP > ICP) is maintained during HDT, and a sustained or further decreased difference may lead to structural changes in the eye in real and simulated microgravity.Marshall-Goebel K, Mulder E, Bershad E, Laing C, Eklund A, Malm J, Stern C, Rittweger J. Intracranial and intraocular pressure during various degrees of head-down tilt. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(1):10-16.

  9. The Risk of Intraocular Pressure Elevation in Pediatric Noninfectious Uveitis.

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    Kothari, Srishti; Foster, C Stephen; Pistilli, Maxwell; Liesegang, Teresa L; Daniel, Ebenezer; Sen, H Nida; Suhler, Eric B; Thorne, Jennifer E; Jabs, Douglas A; Levy-Clarke, Grace A; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Rosenbaum, James T; Lawrence, Scott D; Kempen, John H

    2015-10-01

    To characterize the risk and risk factors for intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in pediatric noninfectious uveitis. Multicenter retrospective cohort study. Nine hundred sixteen children (1593 eyes) younger than 18 years at presentation with noninfectious uveitis followed up between January 1978 and December 2007 at 5 academic uveitis centers in the United States. Medical records review by trained, certified experts. Prevalence and incidence of IOP of 21 mmHg or more and 30 mmHg or more and incidence of a rise in IOP by 10 mmHg or more. To avoid underascertainment, outcomes were counted as present when IOP-lowering therapies were in use. Initially, 251 (15.8%) and 46 eyes (2.9%) had IOP ≥21 mmHg and ≥30 mmHg, respectively. Factors significantly associated with presenting IOP elevation included age of 6 to 12 years (versus other pediatric ages), prior cataract surgery, pars plana vitrectomy, duration of uveitis ≥6 months, contralateral IOP elevation, presenting visual acuity worse than 20/40, and topical corticosteroid use (in a dose-response relationship). The median follow-up was 1.25 years (interquartile range, 0.4-3.66). The estimated incidence of any observed IOP elevation to ≥21 mmHg, to ≥30 mmHg, and increase in IOP by ≥10 mmHg was 33.4%, 14.8%, and 24.4%, respectively, within 2 years. Factors associated with IOP elevation included pars plana vitrectomy, contralateral IOP elevation (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], up to 9.54; P uveitis. Statistically significant risk factors include IOP elevation or use of IOP-lowering treatment in the contralateral eye and local corticosteroid use that demonstrated a dose-and route of administration-dependent relationship. In contrast, use of immunosuppressive drug therapy did not increase such risk. Pediatric eyes with noninfectious uveitis should be followed up closely for IOP elevation, especially when strong risk factors such as the use of local corticosteroids and contralateral IOP elevation are present

  10. Nocturnal blood pressure and intraocular pressure measurement in glaucoma patients and healthy controls.

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    Follmann, P; Palotás, C; Süveges, I; Petrovits, A

    Daytime and nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP) values and systemic blood pressure (BP) values were compared in 60 non-glaucomatous controls, 54 glaucoma patients with normal visual field, and 46 glaucoma patients with visual field loss. The daytime IOP was measured with a Goldmann applanation tonometer and the nocturnal IOP with a Bio-Rad-Tono-Pen 2. The BP was measured with either a mercury manometer or with a Meditech ABPM-02 Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor, which took BP readings at 60 minute intervals. A tendency towards increasing IOP and decreasing BP was detected in the non-glaucomatous controls, within normal limits, and pathological changes of IOP and BP were observed with a significantly high occurrence (5% > P > 2%; Pearson's chi 2-test) in the glaucoma group with visual field loss.

  11. Comparative evaluation of intraocular pressure changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube.

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    Ghai B

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway and endotracheal tube. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 adult patients. A standard general anaesthesia was administered to all the patients. After 3 minutes of induction of anaesthesia baseline measurements of heart rate, non-invasive blood pressure and intraocular pressure were taken following which patients were divided into two groups: laryngeal mask airway was inserted in group 1 and tracheal tube in group 2. These measurements were repeated at 15-30 second, every minute thereafter up to 5 minutes after airway instrumentation. RESULTS: A statistically significant rise in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and intraocular pressure was seen in both the groups subsequent to insertion of laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube. Mean maximum increase was statistically more after endotracheal intubation than after laryngeal mask airway insertion. The duration of statistically significant pressure responses was also longer after endotracheal intubation. CONCLUSION: Laryngeal mask airway is an acceptable alternative technique for ocular surgeries, offering advantages in terms of intraocular pressure and cardiovascular stability compared to tracheal intubation.

  12. The new factors defining variability of circadian’s rhythms of intraocular and perfusion pressure of glaucoma patients

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    N. A. Baranova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the most scientifically based local risk and progressive factors are elevated levels of intraocular pressure and its instability during the day, caused by local hydromechanical disturbances. However, the other factors affecting the circadian changes of intraocular pressure levels are still evaluated. It was found that light is one of the most important factors affecting the intensity of the cyclical fluctuations of various biological processes, including, and fluctuations of intraocular pressure. At the same time, glaucoma can lead to a variety of sleep disorders, due to a mismatch between cycles «sleep-wake». One if this reason is the death of retinal ganglion cells and their axons. Such damage indirectly lead to a decrease in production of the pigment melanopsin, which is located in the retina. It is not involved in the visual process, but ensures the implementation of circadian rhythms «sleep-wake» and mediated suppression of epiphyseal melatonin. Most likely, melatonin plays a protective role in the occurrence and progression of glaucoma, protecting retinal cells against free radicals and has a direct impact on the intraocular pressure level. Several studies have shown that the circadian change in intraocular pressure levels, and in particular, its substantial reduction, is influenced by melatonin. In this regard, glaucoma is a disease in which the death of retinal cells, including producing melanopsin, a unique opportunity to study violations of cyclic rhythms. Melatonin acts on such established risk factors and progression of glaucoma as hypertension and diabetes. There are published results of the use of melatonin agonists in the experiment and clinical practice. So, in addition to local and systemic hypotensive action, normalizes sleep patients. Data about the melatonin’s effects on the direct and indirect reduction of intraocular pressure, neuroprotective effects and reducing symptoms of depression can

  13. Influence of untreated chronic plastic iridocyclitis on intraocular pressure in leprosy patients.

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    Karaçorlu, M A; Cakiner, T; Saylan, T

    1991-02-01

    The intraocular pressures of a total of 286 eyes of patients with lepromatous and borderline lepromatous leprosy who never had regular ophthalmological care or local eye treatment were measured. The patients were categorised according to the type of leprosy they had, and the eyes were categorised as without or with chronic plastic iridocyclitis. In patients with lepromatous and borderline lepromatous types of leprosy the intraocular pressure was significantly lower in eyes with chronic plastic iridocylitis 10.1 (3.6) mmHg than in both unaffected eyes 11.0 (3.2) mmHg and control eyes 13.5 (2.5) mmHg. It has been shown that chronic plastic iridocyclitis which remains untreated for years results in a lower intraocular pressure than normal.

  14. Spatiotemporal alterations of presynaptic elements in the retina after high intraocular pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jufang Huang; Lihong Zhou; Hui Wang; Jia Luo; Kun Xiong; Leping Zeng; Dan Chen

    2012-01-01

    A rat model of acute high intraocular pressure was established by injecting saline into the anterior chamber of the left eye. Synaptophysin expression was increased in the inner plexiform layer at 2 hours following injury, and was widely distributed in the outer plexiform layer at 3–7 days, and then decreased to the normal level at 14 days. This suggests that expression of this presynaptic functional protein experienced spatiotemporal alterations after elevation of intraocular pressure. There was no significant change in the fluorescence intensity and distribution pattern for synapse-associated protein 102 following elevated intraocular pressure. Synapse-associated protein 102 immunoreactivity was confined to the outer plexiform layer, while synaptophysin immunoreactivity spread into the outer plexiform layer and the outer nuclear layer at 3 and 7 days following injury. These alterations in presynaptic elements were not accompanied by changes in postsynaptic components.

  15. Reference intervals for intraocular pressure measured by rebound tonometry in ten raptor species and factors affecting the intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Anne; Müller, Kerstin; Arndt, Gisela; Eule, Johanna Corinna

    2011-09-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured with the TonoVet rebound tonometer in 10 raptor species, and possible factors affecting IOP were investigated. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed, and IOP was assessed in 2 positions, upright and dorsal recumbency, in 237 birds belonging to the families Accipitridae, Falconidae, Strigidae, and Tytonidae. Mean IOP values of healthy eyes were calculated for each species, and differences between families, species, age, sex, left and right eye, as well as the 2 body positions were evaluated. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP were assessed by measuring IOP serially for 5 days at the same time of day in 15 birds of 3 species. Results showed IOP values varied by family and species, with the following mean IOP values (mm Hg +/- SD) determined: white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), 26.9 +/- 5.8; red kite (Milvus milvus), 13.0 +/- 5.5; northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), 18.3 +/- 3.8; Eurasian sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), 15.5 +/- 2.5; common buzzard (Buteo buteo), 26.9 +/- 7.0; common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), 9.8 +/- 2.5; peregrine falcon, (Falco peregrinus), 12.7 +/- 5.8; tawny owl (Strix aluco), 9.4 +/- 4.1; long-eared owl (Asio otus), 7.8 +/- 3.2; and barn owl (Tyto alba), 10.8 +/- 3.8. No significant differences were found between sexes or between left and right eyes. In goshawks, common buzzards, and common kestrels, mean IOP was significantly lower in juvenile birds than it was in adult birds. Mean IOP differed significantly by body position in tawny owls (P = .01) and common buzzards (P = .04). By measuring IOP over several days, mean physiologic variations of +/- 2 mm Hg were detected. Differences in IOP between species and age groups should be considered when interpreting tonometric results. Physiologic fluctuations of IOP may occur and should not be misinterpreted. These results show that rebound tonometry is a useful diagnostic tool in measuring IOP in birds of prey because it provides rapid

  16. Long-term change in intraocular pressure after extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation versus phacoemulsification with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Virendra K; Agrawal, Ajai; Suman, Suwarna; Pratap, V B

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the long-term changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with posterior chamber intraocular lens (PCIOL) implantation versus phacoemulsification with PCIOL implantation in otherwise normal cataract patients in India. The study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology, King George's Medical College, Lucknow between August 2000 and August 2001. One hundred and seventeen eyes of 115 patients were included in the study. 84 patients were randomly selected for ECCE with PCIOL implantation (ECCE group) and 31 patients were selected for phacoemulsification with PCIOL implantation (Phaco group). IOP was measured pre-operatively and post-operatively, from the 1(st) month to the 12(th) month. Statistical significance was indicated by P > 0.05. There was a mean fall in IOP of 2.70 mm Hg (19.74%) in the ECCE group and 2.74 mm Hg (20.57%) in the phaco group. The decrease in the mean post-operative IOP from baseline was statistically significant (P > 0.01) at the end of 2 months in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in post-operative IOP at any visit between groups (P ECCE or phacoemulsification with IOL implantation. The lowering of IOP became statistically significant at about 2 months post-operatively, but became almost stable after the 4(th) month.

  17. Depression of Intraocular Pressure Following Inactivation of Connexin43 in the Nonpigmented Epithelium of the Ciliary Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calera, Mónica R.; Wang, Zhao; Sanchez-Olea, Roberto; Paul, David L.; Civan, Mortimer M.; Goodenough, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Conditional inactivation of connexin43 (Cx43) in the pigmented epithelium of the mouse eye results in a reduction in aqueous humor production and complete loss of the vitreous chamber. It was proposed that gap junctions between pigmented and nonpigmented epithelia of the ciliary body are critical for the production of the aqueous humor. To form such junctions, Cx43 in the pigmented epithelium must interact with connexin(s) present in the adjacent cells of the nonpigmented epithelium. The importance of Cx43 expression in the nonpigmented epithelium for the establishment of gap junctions and the regulation of intraocular pressure was tested. Methods To inactivate Cx43 in the nonpigmented epithelium of the mouse eye, a mouse line was crossed with a floxed Cx43 locus (Cx43flox/flox) and a transgenic mouse line expressing cre recombinase under the control of the Pax6α promoter. General eye structure was evaluated by light microscopy, gap junctions were analyzed by electron microscopy, and intraocular pressure was directly assessed with micropipettes. Results In Pax6α-cre/Cx43flox/flox mice, Cx43 was partially inactivated in the nonpigmented epithelium of the ciliary body and iris. Animals developed dilatations between the pigmented and nonpigmented epithelia and displayed a significant reduction in intraocular pressure. However, gap junctions between the ciliary epithelial layers were decreased but not eliminated. Conclusions Cx43 expression in the nonpigmented epithelium of the ciliary body contributes to the formation of gap junctions with the cells of the pigmented epithelium. These gap junctions play a critical role in maintaining the physical integrity of the ciliary body epithelium. Although the partial loss of Cx43 from the nonpigmented epithelium was correlated with a measurable drop in intraocular pressure, possible changes in Cx43 in the aqueous outflow pathway may provide an additional contribution to the observed phenotype. PMID:19168903

  18. Assessment of Intraocular and Systemic Vasculature Pressure Parameters in Simulated Microgravity with Thigh Cuff Countermeasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alex S.; Balasubramanian, Siva; Tepelus, Tudor; Sadda, Jaya; Sadda, Srinivas; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Laurie, Steve S.; Liu, John; Macias, Brandon R.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in vision have been well documented among astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. One hypothesis is that the space flight induced headward fluid alters posterior ocular pressure and volume and may contribute to visual acuity decrements. Therefore, we evaluated venoconstrictive thigh cuffs as a potential countermeasure to the headward fluid shift-induced effects on intraocular pressure (IOP) and cephalic vascular pressure and volumes.

  19. Latanoprost ophthalmic solution in the treatment of open angle glaucoma or raised intraocular pressure: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Russo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Russo, Ivano Riva, Teodoro Pizzolante, Federico Noto, Luciano QuarantaCattedra di Malattie dell’Apparato Visivo, Università degli studi di Brescia, USVD “Centro per lo studio del Glaucoma” Spedali Civili di BresciaAbstract: Latanoprost is a prostaglandin F2-alpha isopropyl ester prodrug which is rapidly hydrolyzed by esterases in the cornea to the biologically active latanoprost acid. When latanoprost is topically administered into the eye, the cornea seems to act like as a slow-release depot to the anterior segment. One hour after administration maximum concentration is found in the iris, followed by the anterior chamber and the ciliary body. Despite extensive research, controversy remains about the real mechanism of action of this drug. Immunohistochemical data have shown that the intraocular pressure (IOP reduction with topical prostaglandin F2-alpha is associated with a reduction of collagens within the uveoscleral outflow pathway. Evidence from several experimental and clinical studies suggests that latanoprost is a valuable addition first-line treatment alternatives for glaucoma, ocular hypertension and even angle-closure glaucoma. Strong points are its efficacy, which is demonstrated to be higher than that of brimonidine, dorzolamide and timolol with fewer systemic adverse effects; a convenient administration schedule; and the IOP-controlling pattern, which is relatively flat compared with timolol and dorzolamide, and enables better control in glaucoma progression, since large fluctuations may be associated with the risk of developing glaucoma in untreated ocular hypertensive subjects.Keywords: latanoprost, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, ocular hypertension

  20. Associations with intraocular pressure across Europe: The European Eye Epidemiology (E3) Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P. Khawaja (Anthony); H. Springelkamp (Henriët); Creuzot-Garcher, C. (Catherine); C. Delcourt (Cécile); Hofman, A. (Albert); R. Höhn (René); O. Iglesias (Oriol); R.C.W. Wolfs (Roger); J.-F. Korobelnik (Jean-François); Silva, R. (Rufino); F. Topouzis (Fotis); K.M. Williams (Katie M.); A. Bron (Alain); G.H.S. Buitendijk (Gabrielle); Cachulo, M.L. (Maria da Luz); A. Cougnard-Grégoire (Audrey); J.-F. Dartigues; C.J. Hammond (Christopher J.); A.F.H. Pfeiffer (Andreas); Salonikiou, A. (Angeliki); van Duijn, C.M. (Cornelia M.); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); R.N. Luben (Robert); Mirshahi, A. (Alireza); Lamparter, J. (Julia); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); Jansonius, N.M. (Nomdo M.); P.J. Foster (Paul); On behalf of the European Eye Epidemiology (E³) Consortium,; Acar, N. (Niyazi); Anastosopoulos, E. (Eleftherios); Azuara-Blanco, A. (Augusto); A.A.B. Bergen (Arthur); G. Bertelsen (Geir); Binquet, C. (Christine); Bird, A. (Alan); L. Bretillon (Lionel); Bron, A. (Alain); Buitendijk, G. (Gabrielle); U. Chakravarthy (Usha); Chakravarthy, U. (Usha); Chan, M. (Michelle); Chang, P. (Petrus); Colijn, A. (Annemarie); Cougnard-Grégoire, A. (Audrey); C. Creuzot-Garcher (Catherine); Cumberland, P. (Philippa); Cunha-Vaz, J. (José); V. Daien (Vincent); G. Deak (Gabor); C. Delcourt (Cécile); Delyfer, M.-N. (Marie-Noëlle); Hollander, A. (Anneke den); Dietzel, M. (Martha); M.G. Erke (Maja Gran); S. Fauser (Sascha); Finger, R. (Robert); A.E. Fletcher (Astrid E.); P.J. Foster (Paul J.); Founti, P. (Panayiota); Göbel, A. (Arno); T.G.M.F. Gorgels (Theo); J. Grauslund (Jakob); Grus, F. (Franz); C.J. Hammond (Christopher); C. Helmer (Catherine); H.-W. Hense (Hans-Werner); Hermann, M. (Manuel); R. Hogg (Ruth); Hogg, R. (Ruth); Holz, F. (Frank); C. Hoyng (Carel); N.M. Jansonius (Nomdo); S.F. Janssen (Sarah); A.P. Khawaja (Anthony P.); Klaver, C. (Caroline); J.-F. Korobelnik (Jean-François); Lamparter, J. (Julia); Le Goff, M. (Mélanie); Leal, S. (Sergio); Lechanteur, Y. (Yara); T. Lehtimäki (Terho); A.J. Lotery (Andrew); Leung, I. (Irene); Mauschitz, M. (Matthias); Merle, B. (Bénédicte); E. Midena (Edoardo); Midena, E. (Edoardo); Miotto, S. (Stefania); A. Mirshahi (Alireza); Mohan-Saïd, S. (Sadek); Muldrew, A. (Alyson); Mueller, M. (Michael); Nunes, S. (Sandrina); K. Oexle (Konrad); T. Peto (Tünde); S. Piermarocchi (Stefano); E. Prokofyeva (Elena); J.S. Rahi (Jugnoo); O. Raitakari (Olli); Ribeiro, L. (Luisa); Rougier, M.-B. (Marie-Bénédicte); Sahel, J. (José); Salonikiou, A. (Aggeliki); Sanchez, C. (Clarisa); S. Schmitz-Valckenberg (Steffen); C.M.C. Schweitzer (C. M C); Segato, T. (Tatiana); Shehata, J. (Jasmin); Silva, R. (Rufino); Silvestri, G. (Giuliana); Simader, C. (Christian); E.H. Souied (Eric); Springelkamp, H. (Henriet); Tapp, R. (Robyn); Topouzis, F. (Fotis); V.J.M. Verhoeven (Virginie); Von Hanno, T. (Therese); Vujosevic, S. (Stela); K.M. Williams (Katie M.); C. Wolfram (Christian); Yip, J. (Jennifer); Zerbib, J. (Jennyfer); Zwiener, I. (Isabella)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractRaised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for developing glaucoma, the second commonest cause of blindness globally. Understanding associations with IOP and variations in IOP between countries may teach us about mechanisms underlying glaucoma. We examined cross-

  1. Associations with intraocular pressure across Europe : The European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Springelkamp, Henriët; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine; Delcourt, Cécile; Hofman, Albert; Höhn, René; Iglesias, Adriana I; Wolfs, Roger C W; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Silva, Rufino; Topouzis, Fotis; Williams, Katie M; Bron, Alain M; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Cachulo, Maria da Luz; Cougnard-Grégoire, Audrey; Dartigues, Jean-François; Hammond, Christopher J; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Salonikiou, Angeliki; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vingerling, Johannes R; Luben, Robert N; Mirshahi, Alireza; Lamparter, Julia; Klaver, Caroline C W; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Foster, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Raised intraocular pressure (IOP) is the most important risk factor for developing glaucoma, the second commonest cause of blindness globally. Understanding associations with IOP and variations in IOP between countries may teach us about mechanisms underlying glaucoma. We examined cross-sectional

  2. Common Genetic Determinants of Intraocular Pressure and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koolwijk, Leonieke M. E.; Ramdas, Wishal D.; Ikram, M. Kamran; Jansonius, Nomdo M.; Pasutto, Francesca; Hysi, Pirro G.; Macgregor, Stuart; Janssen, Sarah F.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Viswanathan, Ananth C.; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Hosseini, S. Mohsen; Amin, Najaf; Despriet, Dominiek D. G.; Willemse-Assink, Jacqueline J. M.; Kramer, Rogier; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Struchalin, Maksim; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Weisschuh, Nicole; Zenkel, Matthias; Mardin, Christian Y.; Gramer, Eugen; Welge-Luessen, Ulrich; Montgomery, Grant W.; Carbonaro, Francis; Young, Terri L.; Bellenguez, Celine; McGuffin, Peter; Foster, Paul J.; Topouzis, Fotis; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Y.; Czudowska, Monika A.; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Oostra, Ben A.; Paterson, Andrew D.; Mackey, David A.; Bergen, Arthur A. B.; Reis, Andre; Hammond, Christopher J.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Lemij, Hans G.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.

    2012-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independen

  3. Clinical analysis of modified trabeculectomy in glaucoma surgery with high elevated intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cang-Xia Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To make a retrospective analysis of the clinical data of modified trabeculectomy in treating glaucoma surgery with high elevated intraocular pressure retrospectively and evaluate the effect of modified trabeculectomy.METHODS:One hundred acute angle-closure glaucoma patients(100 eyeswith persistent high intraocular pressure were divided into treatment group(45 eyesand control group(55 eyes. Patients in treatment group was treated with by trabeculectomy, while those in control group received modified trabeculectomy. The modified measures include stellate ganglion block preoperative, topical anesthesia and local anesthesia with 20g/L lidocaine cotton-piece, to make scleral flap with sclerotome, to release aqueous humor outflow slowly after paracentesis of anterior chamber, and using mydriatic and cycloplegic during and after surgery.RESULTS: The incidence of operation complicationin control group was lower than that in treatment group. The differences were statistically significant(Pt=9.1535, Pt=39.8010, Pt=11.3219, PCONCLUSION: The modified trabeculectomy applied in the treatment of glaucoma with persistent high intraocular pressure can not only save the visual function of connection part to a certain extent, but also reduce the incidence of serious complications. It can obtain better intraocular pressure, shorten the average hospitalization days, decrease the expenses and increase patients satisfaction.

  4. Effect of pegaptanib sodium 0.3 mg intravitreal injections (Macugen) in intraocular pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, David S; Goldbaum, Mauro; Leys, Anita M

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the rate of pegaptanib-associated sustained intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. METHODS: A posthoc analysis was conducted on all IOP measurements, except the immediate 30-min postinjection, from all subjects randomised to pegaptanib 0.3 mg or sham injections continuously in...

  5. Intraocular pressure-lowering effect of oral paracetamol and its in vitro corneal penetration properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nabiel Mohamed, David MeyerDivision of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South AfricaBackground: Several studies have confirmed the ability of cannabinoids to reduce intraocular pressure. Experimental data recently demonstrated unequivocally that the analgesic effect of paracetamol is due to its indirect action on cannabinoid receptors. The question then arises as to whether paracetamol can reduce intraocular pressure via its effect on intraocular cannabinoid receptors.Methods: A 2-week, prospective, randomized, controlled, single-center, parallel-group pilot study was carried out to determine the efficacy and safety of paracetamol 1 g orally administered every 6 hours in adult patients with primary or secondary open angle glaucoma as compared with topical levobunolol 0.5% twice a day. Patient well-being was closely monitored throughout the study and focused on hepatic safety in accordance with Drug-Induced Liver Injury Network criteria. The in vitro diffusion kinetics of acetaminophen in a phosphate-buffered solution in rabbit and human corneas was also investigated, with the view to a topical application.Results: Eighteen adult patients were enrolled in the study, with nine in the topical levobunolol group and nine in the oral paracetamol group. In the levobunolol group, the mean reduction in intraocular pressure at day 7 was 7.5 mmHg (P < 0.008 and at day 14 was 9.1 mmHg (P < 0.005, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.6 mmHg. The corresponding figures for the paracetamol group were 8.8 mmHg (P < 0.0004 at day 7 and 6.5 mmHg (P < 0.004 at day 14, from a mean baseline intraocular pressure of 29.4 mmHg. Both study regimens were well tolerated. No serious treatment-related adverse events were reported in either of the treatment groups. Liver function tests, systolic/diastolic blood pressure, or heart rate remained unchanged in both groups during the 2 weeks of the study. In

  6. Intraocular pressure following ECCE and IOL implantation in patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooner, K S; Dulaney, D D; Zimmerman, T J

    1988-08-01

    Patients with glaucoma may suffer optic nerve head damage due to elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) after any intraocular procedure. We retrospectively reviewed the IOP data in 82 consecutive patients (103 eyes) with glaucoma after extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) and posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) implantation. Nine eyes had previous trabeculectomy and three eyes required combined trabeculectomy with ECCE and PC-IOL. The average follow-up period is 1.5 years (range 0.5 to 6 years). The postoperative IOP rise of 8 mm Hg over baseline or above 23 mm Hg was observed in 45 eyes (49.5%). Two eyes needed argon laser trabeculoplasty and one required trabeculectomy to control postoperative IOP elevation. Most of the patients required the same or lesser number of medications for IOP control after surgery. Results suggest that ECCE with PC-IOL may be a relatively safe procedure in cataract patients with preexisting glaucoma.

  7. Intraocular pressure and estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. The Beijing Eye Study 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya Xing; Jonas, Jost B; Wang, Ningli; You, Qi Sheng; Yang, Diya; Xie, Xiao Bin; Xu, Liang

    2014-01-01

    To examine a potential association between intraocular pressure (IOP) and cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) in a population-based setting. The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50-93 years). A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed. Based on a previous study with lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) measurements, CSFP was calculated as CSFP [mm Hg] = 0.44×Body Mass Index [kg/m2]+0.16×Diastolic Blood Pressure [mm Hg]-0.18×Age [Years]. In multivariate analysis, IOP was associated with higher estimated CSFP (Pregion of habitation (P<0.001; beta:-0.37; B:-2.78;95%CI:-3.07,-2.48), higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.001; beta: 0.34; B: 0.06;95%CI: 0.05,0.07), higher pulse rate (P = 0.003; beta: 0.05; B: 0.02;95%CI: 0.01,0.03), taller body height (P<0.001; beta: 0.11; B: 0.05;95%CI: 0.03,0.07), higher blood concentration of cholesterol (P = 0.003; beta: 0.05; B: 0.17;95%CI: 0.06,0.28) and higher level of education (P = 0.003; beta: 0.09; B: 0.30;95%CI: 0.16,0.45). IOP was positively associated with estimated CSFP after adjusting for other ocular and systemic parameters. As a corollary, higher estimated CSFP was significantly associated with higher IOP in multivariate analysis. It fits with the notion that the arterial blood pressure, estimated CSFP and IOP are physiologically correlated with each other.

  8. Meta-analysis of timolol on diurnal and nighttime intraocular pressure and blood pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Princeton Wen-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the nighttime intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure (BP) response to timolol treatment in patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of previously published studies that must have been randomized, prospective, crossover or parallel, single or double-masked trials. The treatment period must have been >\\/=2 weeks with >\\/=19 patients per treatment arm for a crossover, and >\\/=50 patients for a parallel designed trial. Studies must have included both baseline and treated 24-hour curves. RESULTS: For the IOP analysis, we included 8 articles with 340 patients. A reduction from baseline was observed for timolol at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.009). When 2 studies, in which timolol was used adjunctively, were removed, a similar difference was observed as above at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.003). In 2 studies, there were small reductions from baseline for the mean diastolic and systolic BPs at most time points and for the 24-hour curve (3.9 and 4.2 mmHg, respectively) with timolol treatment. The ocular perfusion pressure did not show any difference between baseline and timolol treatment at any time point or for the 24-hour curve (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that topical timolol therapy provides an ocular hypotensive effect over the 24-hour curve, including the nighttime hours, and while small reductions in the systolic and diastolic pressures occur, the ocular perfusion pressure is not altered over 24 hours.

  9. A Wireless Pressure Sensor for Continuous Monitoring of Intraocular Pressure in Conscious Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Simon A; Passaglia, Christopher L

    2017-08-15

    An important aspect of eye health in humans and animal models of human diseases is intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP is typically measured by hand with a tonometer, so data are sparse and sporadic and round-the-clock variations are not well characterized. Here we present a novel system for continuous wireless IOP and temperature measurement in small animals. The system consists of a cannula implanted in the anterior chamber of the eye connected to pressure sensing electronics that can be worn by rats or implanted in larger mammals. The system can record IOP with 0.3 mmHg accuracy and negligible drift at a rate of 0.25 Hz for 1-2 months on a regulated battery or indefinitely at rates up to 250 Hz via RF energy harvesting. Chronic recordings from conscious rats showed that IOP follows a diurnal rhythm, averaging 16.5 mmHg during the day and 21.7 mmHg at night, and that the IOP rhythm lags a diurnal rhythm in body temperature by 2.1 h. IOP and body temperature fluctuations were positively correlated from moment-to-moment as well. This technology allows researchers to monitor for the first time the precise IOP history of rat eyes, a popular model for glaucoma studies.

  10. A rat experimental model of glaucoma incorporating rapid-onset elevation of intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedowski, Adrian; Pietrucha-Dutczak, Marita; Kaarniranta, Kai; Lewin-Kowalik, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is a chronic disease that causes structural and functional damage to retinal ganglion cells (RGC). The currently employed therapeutic options are not sufficient to prevent vision loss in patients with glaucoma; therefore, there is a need to develop novel therapies, which requires the creation of functional, repeatable and easy-to-utilize animal models for use in pre-clinical studies. The currently available models ensure only low to moderate damage in optic nerves, with high variation in the outcomes and poor repeatability. We have developed an effective and reproducible rat glaucoma model based on a previous idea for a “Bead Model” in mice, which could be useful in future glaucoma research. Additionally, in an attempt to achieve rapid elevation of Intraocular Pressure (IOP), we included an initial “high-pressure injury” as part of this method, which serves as the equivalent of a severe glaucoma attack. These modifications made it possible to achieve longer lasting IOP elevation with chronic damage of retinal ganglion cells. PMID:25081302

  11. Intraocular pressure dynamics with prostaglandin analogs: a clinical application of water-drinking test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özyol P

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pelin Özyol,1 Erhan Özyol,1 Ercan Baldemir2 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Biostatistics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Mugla, Turkey Aim: To evaluate the clinical applicability of the water-drinking test in treatment-naive primary open-angle glaucoma patients. Methods: Twenty newly diagnosed primary open-angle glaucoma patients and 20 healthy controls were enrolled in this prospective study. The water-drinking test was performed at baseline and 6 weeks and 3 months after prostaglandin analog treatment. Peak and fluctuation of intraocular pressure (IOP measurements obtained with the water-drinking test during follow-up were analyzed. Analysis of variance for repeated measures and paired and unpaired t-tests were used for statistical analysis. Results: The mean baseline IOP values in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma were 25.1±4.6 mmHg before prostaglandin analog treatment, 19.8±3.7 mmHg at week 6, and 17.9±2.2 mmHg at month 3 after treatment. The difference in mean baseline IOP of the water-drinking tests was statistically significant (P<0.001. At 6 weeks of prostaglandin analog treatment, two patients had high peak and fluctuation of IOP measurements despite a reduction in baseline IOP. After modifying treatment, patients had lower peak and fluctuation of IOP values at month 3 of the study. Conclusion: Peak and fluctuation of IOP in response to the water-drinking test were lower with prostaglandin analogs compared with before medication. The water-drinking test can represent an additional benefit in the management of glaucoma patients, especially by detecting higher peak and fluctuation of IOP values despite a reduced mean IOP. Therefore, it could be helpful as a supplementary method in monitoring IOP in the clinical practice. Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, water-drinking test, prostaglandin analog, intra­ocular pressure fluctuation

  12. [The effect of crystalline lens extraction on intraocular pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarie, S; Macarie, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    This issue presents the results of a study on patients with cataract and primary open angle glaucoma who suffered lens extraction for cataract. We analise the effects of the lens extraction on the level of intraocular pressure at this patients.

  13. Placement of a collagen glaucoma drainage device to control intraocular pressure and chronic iritis secondary to juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Francis W; Ziemba, Steven L

    2002-01-01

    A patient with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and chronic iritis is reported with intraocular pressure near 30 mm Hg and previous episodes of intraocular pressure as high as 50 mm Hg despite maximally tolerated medical therapy. Because of the potential risk involved with a full-thickness filtration procedure, it was decided that a nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy would be appropriate, followed by placement of a collagen glaucoma drainage device to maintain aqueous outflow. Immediately postoperatively, intraocular pressure was stabilized. At 24 months postoperatively, intraocular pressure was well controlled at 15 mm Hg with patient receiving only Lotemax. No significant complications were noted at any point in the postoperative course. Because of the patient's predisposition for serious complications frequently associated with trabeculectomy, nonpenetrating deep sclerectomy with the collagen glaucoma drainage device was an effective alternative for this patient.

  14. Intraocular Pressure After 2 Hours of Small-Diameter Scleral Lens Wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Cherie B; Schornack, Muriel M; McLaren, Jay W; Sit, Arthur J

    2016-11-01

    Compression of episcleral veins or deformation of tissue in the Schlemm's canal beneath the landing zone of scleral lenses could elevate intraocular pressure (IOP). We examined the effect of 2 hr of small-diameter scleral lens wear on IOP. Twenty-nine participants, 29 ± 6 years old (mean ± SD) who experienced no history of eye disease or scleral lens wear, were included in the study. Each participant was fitted with a 15-mm Jupiter scleral lens on one eye (study eye). Intraocular pressure was measured in both eyes by pneumatonometry centrally on the cornea and peripherally on the sclera. The lens was then placed on one eye and was worn for 2 hr. Intraocular pressure was remeasured immediately after lens placement, at 1 and 2 hr of lens wear, and immediately after lens removal. Intraocular pressure after removal of the scleral lens was compared with IOP before placing the lens and to IOP in the control eye using paired t tests. Immediately after removing the scleral lens, mean central IOP in the study eye (13.9 ± 3.1 mm Hg) was not different from mean central IOP in the control eye (13.5 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.4) or in the same eye before lens wear (13.6 ± 1.9 mm Hg, P = 0.6). There were also no differences in IOP measured peripherally at 2 hr of lens wear (P = 0.8). Neophyte scleral lens wear of a 15-mm scleral lens for 2 hr does not increase IOP in healthy eyes.

  15. Changes in intraocular pressure following administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation: Influence of dexmedetomidine premedication

    OpenAIRE

    Chandan Kumar Pal; Manjushree Ray; Anjana Sen; Bimal Hajra; Dipankar Mukherjee; Anil Kumar Ghanta

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of suxamethonium is associated with an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) and may be harmful for patients with penetrating eye injuries. The purpose of our study was to observe the efficacy of dexmedetomidine for prevention of rise in IOP associated with the administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation. Methods: Sixty-six American Society of Anaesthesiologists I or II patients undergoing general anaesthesia for non-ophthalmic surgery were included in this ra...

  16. Vitrectomy combined with intraocular tamponade postoperative intraocular pressure changes%玻璃体切除联合眼内填充术后眼压变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娜; 张红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the posterior vitrectomy combined with intraocular tamponade in early postoperative intraocular pressure changes and to explore the pathogenesis of early high intraocular pressure. Methods On 119 eyes of 132 patients in Ophthalmological Center of Tianjin Medical University line vitrectomy in patients with clinical data analysis of high intraocular pressure, the diagnostic criteria for non contact tonometer is greater than or equal to 24 mm Hg, analysis of vitrectomy combined with different intraocular tamponade postoperative intraocular high incidence and trend. Resuis In 50 eyes in the occurrence of postoperative early elevated intraocular pressure, incidence rates for37. 88%. The sili-cone oil tamponade group, C2F6group, C3F8Group filling filling and simple phaco group, its early postoperative intraocular high morbidity rates were48% ,41.18% ,57.14% ,11.76% , the group compare (χ2 = 14.395, r =3, P =0.002) .with statistical significance. Conclusion Early postoperative intraocular pressure elevation is posterior vitrectomy postoperative common complications, posterior vitrectomy combined with intraocular inert gas or silicone oil tamponade are increased intraocular hypertension risk factors.%目的 观察后部玻璃体切除(PPV)联合眼内填充物术后早期眼压变化规律并探讨早期高眼压的发病机制.方法 对119例(132只眼)在天津医科大学眼科中心行后部PPV患者的临床资料进行分析,高眼压的诊断标准为非接触式眼压计测量眼压≥24 mm Hg,分析了玻璃体切除联合不同眼内填充物术后高眼压的发病率及变化趋势.结果 有50只眼术后发生早期眼压升高,发病率为37.88%.其中硅油填充组、C2F6填充组、C3F8填充组及单纯玻切组,其术后早期高眼压的发病率分别为48%、41.18%、57.14%、11.76%,各组间比较(x2=14.395,r=3,P=0.002),有统计学意义.结论 术后早期高眼压是后部PPV术后常见的并发症,后部PPV联

  17. Intraocular Pressure, Tear Production, and Ocular Echobiometry in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Seyed Mehdi; Mood, Maneli Ansari; Sadjadi, Reza; Azizi, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) by means of rebound tonometry, to assess tear production by using the endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPTT) and phenol red thread test (PRTT), and to determine the effects of time of day on IOP and tear production in guinea pigs. The study population comprised 24 healthy adult guinea pigs (12 male, 12 female; 48 eyes) of different breeds and ranging in age from 12 to 15 mo. IOP and tear production were measured at 3 time points (0700, 1500, and 2300) during a 24-h period. Overall values (mean ± 1 SD) were: IOP, 6.81 ± 1.41 mm Hg (range, 4.83 to 8.50); PRTT, 14.33 ± 1.35 mm (range, 12.50 to 16.83); and EAPTT, 8.54 ± 1.08 mm (range, 7.17 to 10.0 mm). In addition, ultrasound biometry was performed by using a B-mode system with linear 8-MHz transducer. This study reports reference values for IOP and tear production in guinea pigs.

  18. Common genetic determinants of intraocular pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koolwijk, Leonieke M E; Ramdas, Wishal D; Ikram, M Kamran; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Pasutto, Francesca; Hysi, Pirro G; Macgregor, Stuart; Janssen, Sarah F; Hewitt, Alex W; Viswanathan, Ananth C; ten Brink, Jacoline B; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Amin, Najaf; Despriet, Dominiek D G; Willemse-Assink, Jacqueline J M; Kramer, Rogier; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Struchalin, Maksim; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Weisschuh, Nicole; Zenkel, Matthias; Mardin, Christian Y; Gramer, Eugen; Welge-Lüssen, Ulrich; Montgomery, Grant W; Carbonaro, Francis; Young, Terri L; Bellenguez, Céline; McGuffin, Peter; Foster, Paul J; Topouzis, Fotis; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Y; Czudowska, Monika A; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Wolfs, Roger C W; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Oostra, Ben A; Paterson, Andrew D; Mackey, David A; Bergen, Arthur A B; Reis, André; Hammond, Christopher J; Vingerling, Johannes R; Lemij, Hans G; Klaver, Caroline C W; van Duijn, Cornelia M

    2012-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independent population-based studies in The Netherlands. We replicated our findings in 7,482 participants from 4 additional cohorts from the UK, Australia, Canada, and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2/Blue Mountains Eye Study. IOP was significantly associated with rs11656696, located in GAS7 at 17p13.1 (p=1.4×10(-8)), and with rs7555523, located in TMCO1 at 1q24.1 (p=1.6×10(-8)). In a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies (total N = 1,432 glaucoma cases), both variants also showed evidence for association with glaucoma (p=2.4×10(-2) for rs11656696 and p=9.1×10(-4) for rs7555523). GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina. Both genes functionally interact with known glaucoma disease genes. These data suggest that we have identified two clinically relevant genes involved in IOP regulation.

  19. Common genetic determinants of intraocular pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonieke M E van Koolwijk

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independent population-based studies in The Netherlands. We replicated our findings in 7,482 participants from 4 additional cohorts from the UK, Australia, Canada, and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2/Blue Mountains Eye Study. IOP was significantly associated with rs11656696, located in GAS7 at 17p13.1 (p=1.4×10(-8, and with rs7555523, located in TMCO1 at 1q24.1 (p=1.6×10(-8. In a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies (total N = 1,432 glaucoma cases, both variants also showed evidence for association with glaucoma (p=2.4×10(-2 for rs11656696 and p=9.1×10(-4 for rs7555523. GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina. Both genes functionally interact with known glaucoma disease genes. These data suggest that we have identified two clinically relevant genes involved in IOP regulation.

  20. Common genetic determinants of intraocular pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonieke M E van Koolwijk

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP is a highly heritable risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and is the only target for current glaucoma therapy. The genetic factors which determine IOP are largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study for IOP in 11,972 participants from 4 independent population-based studies in The Netherlands. We replicated our findings in 7,482 participants from 4 additional cohorts from the UK, Australia, Canada, and the Wellcome Trust Case-Control Consortium 2/Blue Mountains Eye Study. IOP was significantly associated with rs11656696, located in GAS7 at 17p13.1 (p=1.4×10(-8, and with rs7555523, located in TMCO1 at 1q24.1 (p=1.6×10(-8. In a meta-analysis of 4 case-control studies (total N = 1,432 glaucoma cases, both variants also showed evidence for association with glaucoma (p=2.4×10(-2 for rs11656696 and p=9.1×10(-4 for rs7555523. GAS7 and TMCO1 are highly expressed in the ciliary body and trabecular meshwork as well as in the lamina cribrosa, optic nerve, and retina. Both genes functionally interact with known glaucoma disease genes. These data suggest that we have identified two clinically relevant genes involved in IOP regulation.

  1. Measurement of intraocular pressure in healthy unanesthetized inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Eva J; Strueve, Julia; Fehr, Michael J; Mathes, Karina A

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the use of rebound and applanation tonometry for the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) and to assess diurnal variations in and the effect of topical anesthesia on the IOP of healthy inland bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). 56 bearded dragons from 4 months to 11 years old. For each animal following an initial ophthalmic examination, 3 IOP measurements were obtained on each eye between 9 AM and 10 AM, 1 PM and 2 PM, and 5 PM and 7 PM by use of rebound and applanation tonometry. An additional measurement was obtained by rebound tonometry for each eye in the evening following the application of a topical anesthetic to evaluate changes in the tolerance of the animals to the tonometer. Descriptive data were generated, and the effects of sex, time of day, and topical anesthesia on IOP were evaluated. Bearded dragons did not tolerate applanation tonometry even following topical anesthesia. Median daily IOP as determined by rebound tonometry was 6.16 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 5.61 to 6.44 mm Hg). The IOP did not differ significantly between the right and left eyes. The IOP was highest in the morning, which indicated that the IOP in this species undergoes diurnal variations. Topical anesthesia did not significantly affect IOP, but it did improve the compliance for all subjects. Results indicated that rebound tonometry, but not applanation tonometry, was appropriate for measurement of IOP in bearded dragons. These findings provided preliminary guidelines for IOP measurement and ophthalmic evaluation in bearded dragons.

  2. Corneal biomechanical parameters and intraocular pressure: the effect of topical anesthesia

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    Ogbuehi KC

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Kelechi C OgbuehiCornea Research Chair, Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi ArabiaBackground: The intraocular pressures and biomechanical parameters measured by the ocular response analyzer make the analyzer a useful tool for the diagnosis and management of anterior segment disease. This observational study was designed to investigate the effect of topical anesthesia on the parameters measured by the ocular response analyzer: corneal hysteresis, corneal resistance factor, Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg, and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc.Methods: Two sets of measurements were made for 78 eyes of 39 subjects, approximately 1 week apart. In session 1, each eye of each subject was randomized into one of three groups: polyvinyl alcohol (0.5%, tetracaine hydrochloride (0.5%, or oxybuprocaine hydrochloride (0.4%. In session 2, eyes that were in the polyvinyl alcohol group in session 1 were assigned to the tetracaine group, those in the tetracaine group in session 1 were assigned to oxybuprocaine group, and those in the oxybuprocaine group in session 1 were assigned to the polyvinyl alcohol group. For both sessions, each subject first had his or her central corneal thickness assessed with a specular microscope, followed by measurements of intraocular pressure and corneal biomechanical parameters with the Ocular Response Analyzer. All measurements were repeated for 2 minutes and 5 minutes following the instillation of either polyvinyl alcohol, tetracaine, or oxybuprocaine. The level of statistical significance was 0.05.Results: Polyvinyl alcohol, tetracaine hydrochloride, and oxybuprocaine hydrochloride had no statistically significant (P > 0.05 effect on any of the biomechanical parameters of the cornea. There was no statistically significant effect on either IOPg (P > 0.05 or IOPcc (P > 0.05 2 minutes after the eye drops were instilled in

  3. Cluster headache: interictal asymmetric increment in intraocular pressure elicited by Valsalva manoeuvre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, F J; Sánchez-del-Río, M; Barón, M; Dobato, J l; Gili, P; Yangüela, J; Bueno, A; Pareja, J A

    2004-03-01

    Changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) elicited by a Valsalva manoeuvre were studied in 11 male patients (mean age 39.8 years) suffering from episodic cluster headache (CH), and 12 healthy male controls (mean age 39.9 years). The tests were performed at rest and while exhaling hard through a mouthpiece connected to a mercury manometer. In the CH group, during symptomatic periods, between attacks, Valsalva manoeuvre elicited an asymmetric increase in IOP with significantly higher values on the symptomatic side (P = 0011), whereas no asymmetric increments in IOP were found during asymptomatic periods. Outside the cluster period the IOP values both baseline and with Valsalva manoeuvre did not differ from controls. The increment in IOP took place within a few seconds, as in spontaneous CH attacks, thus pointing to a rapid increase in intraocular blood volume or vasodilatation. These findings may reflect a latent increased vascular reactivity of the symptomatic orbit during CH period.

  4. Using the Electroretinogram to Understand How Intraocular Pressure Elevation Affects the Rat Retina

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    Bang V. Bui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intraocular pressure (IOP elevation is a key risk factor for glaucoma. Our understanding of the effect that IOP elevation has on the eye has been greatly enhanced by the application of the electroretinogram (ERG. In this paper, we describe how the ERG in the rodent eye is affected by changes in IOP magnitude, duration, and number of spikes. We consider how the variables of blood pressure and age can modify the effect of IOP elevation on the ERG. Finally, we contrast the effects that acute and chronic IOP elevation can have on the rodent ERG.

  5. A time-delay calibrated method for cornea hysteresis and intraocular pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Jen; Tsai, Che-Liang; Wang, Wai; Hsu, Long; Hsu, Ken-Yuh

    2016-04-01

    The presence of cornea hysteresis (CH) in characterizing the intraocular pressure (IOP) of a human eye deteriorates the accuracy of IOP. To suppress CH, the pressure gauge of a tonometer must be located as close as possible to the cornea. However, this arrangement is unpractical because appropriate working distance to the cornea is required. In this paper, a time-delay calibrated (TDC) method is proposed to counteract the undesired effect of CH in characterizing the IOP. Employing this TDC method, the CH approaches to zero for most eyes measured.

  6. Genetic correlations between intraocular pressure, blood pressure and primary open-angle glaucoma: a multi-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschard, Hugues; Kang, Jae H; Iglesias, Adriana I; Hysi, Pirro; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Khawaja, Anthony P; Allingham, R Rand; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Lee, Richard K; Moroi, Sayoko E; Brilliant, Murray H; Wollstein, Gadi; Schuman, Joel S; Fingert, John H; Budenz, Donald L; Realini, Tony; Gaasterland, Terry; Scott, William K; Singh, Kuldev; Sit, Arthur J; Igo, Robert P; Song, Yeunjoo E; Hark, Lisa; Ritch, Robert; Rhee, Douglas J; Gulati, Vikas; Haven, Shane; Vollrath, Douglas; Zack, Donald J; Medeiros, Felipe; Weinreb, Robert N; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Chasman, Daniel I; Christen, William G; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Liu, Yutao; Kraft, Peter; Richards, Julia E; Rosner, Bernard A; Hauser, Michael A; Klaver, Caroline C W; vanDuijn, Cornelia M; Haines, Jonathan; Wiggs, Janey L; Pasquale, Louis R

    2017-08-30

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is the most common chronic optic neuropathy worldwide. Epidemiological studies show a robust positive relation between intraocular pressure (IOP) and POAG and modest positive association between IOP and blood pressure (BP), while the relation between BP and POAG is controversial. The International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium (n=27 558), the International Consortium on Blood Pressure (n=69 395), and the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration Heritable Overall Operational Database (n=37 333), represent genome-wide data sets for IOP, BP traits and POAG, respectively. We formed genome-wide significant variant panels for IOP and diastolic BP and found a strong relation with POAG (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval: 1.18 (1.14-1.21), P=1.8 × 10(-27)) for the former trait but no association for the latter (P=0.93). Next, we used linkage disequilibrium (LD) score regression, to provide genome-wide estimates of correlation between traits without the need for additional phenotyping. We also compared our genome-wide estimate of heritability between IOP and BP to an estimate based solely on direct measures of these traits in the Erasmus Rucphen Family (ERF; n=2519) study using Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR). LD score regression revealed high genetic correlation between IOP and POAG (48.5%, P=2.1 × 10(-5)); however, genetic correlation between IOP and diastolic BP (P=0.86) and between diastolic BP and POAG (P=0.42) were negligible. Using SOLAR in the ERF study, we confirmed the minimal heritability between IOP and diastolic BP (P=0.63). Overall, IOP shares genetic basis with POAG, whereas BP has limited shared genetic correlation with IOP or POAG.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 30 August 2017; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2017.136.

  7. Intraocular pressure and estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure. The Beijing Eye Study 2011.

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    Ya Xing Wang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To examine a potential association between intraocular pressure (IOP and cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP in a population-based setting. METHODS: The population-based Beijing Eye Study 2011 included 3468 individuals with a mean age of 64.6±9.8 years (range: 50-93 years. A detailed ophthalmic examination was performed. Based on a previous study with lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP measurements, CSFP was calculated as CSFP [mm Hg] = 0.44×Body Mass Index [kg/m2]+0.16×Diastolic Blood Pressure [mm Hg]-0.18×Age [Years]. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, IOP was associated with higher estimated CSFP (P<0.001; standardized correlation coefficient beta: 0.27; regression coefficient B: 0.20; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.16, 0.24, after adjusting for thinner central corneal thickness (P<0.001; beta: 0.45; B: 0.04;95%CI: 0.04,0.04, smaller corneal curvature radius (P<0.001; beta:-0.11; B:-1.13;95%CI:-1.61,-0.64, shallower anterior chamber depth (P = 0.01; beta:-0.05; B:-0.33;95%CI:-0.59,-0.08 and longer axial length (P = 0.002; beta: 0.08; B: 0.20;95%CI: 0.08,0.32, and after adjusting for the systemic parameters of higher pulse rate (P<0.001; beta: 0.08; B: 0.02;95%CI: 0.01,0.03, higher prevalence of arterial hypertension (P = 0.002; beta: 0.06; B: 0.32;95%CI: 0.12,0.53, frequency of drinking alcohol (P = 0.02; beta: 0.04; B: 0.09;95%CI: 0.01,0.17, higher blood concentration of triglycerides (P = 0.001; beta: 0.06; B: 0.06;95%CI: 0.02,0.10 and cholesterol (P = 0.049; beta: 0.04; B: 0.08;95%CI: 0.00,0.17, and body mass index (P<0.001; beta:-0.13; B:-0.09;95%CI:-0.13,-0.06. In a parallel manner, estimated CSFP (mean: 10.8±3.7 mm Hg was significantly associated with higher IOP (P<0.001; beta: 0.13; B: 0.18;95%CI: 0.13,0.23 after adjusting for rural region of habitation (P<0.001; beta:-0.37; B:-2.78;95%CI:-3.07,-2.48, higher systolic blood pressure (P<0.001; beta: 0.34; B: 0.06;95%CI: 0.05,0.07, higher

  8. Intraocular Pressure Fluctuations and 24-Hour Continuous Monitoring for Glaucoma Risk in Wind Instrument Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Crom, Ronald M P C; Webers, Carroll A B; van Kooten-Noordzij, Marina A W; Michiels, Agnes C; Schouten, Jan S A G; Berendschot, Tos T J M; Beckers, Henny J M

    2017-08-30

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of playing a wind instrument on intraocular pressure (IOP) and to monitor 24-hour (IOP) fluctuations in wind musicians of symphony and wind orchestras to compare IOP levels during normal daily activities with IOP levels during playing. Professional and amateur musicians of symphony and wind orchestras were invited to participate. A total of 42 participants, 9 with glaucoma, underwent a routine ophthalmologic examination. IOP measurements were taken before and immediately after 20 minutes of playing wind instruments. In addition, 6 participants underwent 24-hour IOP monitoring with the Triggerfish (Sensimed AG, Switzerland) sensing contact lens, during which they kept an activity logbook. Eleven professionals and 31 amateur musicians participated in the study. A total of 7 eyes of 6 patients underwent additional 24-hour IOP monitoring. Mean IOP before playing was 13.6±2.6 mm Hg, IOP change after playing was +1.5±2.2 mm Hg with a significant difference between professionals (2.5±1.5 mm Hg) and amateurs (1.1±2.3 mm Hg). There were no significant differences in IOP change between subjects with or without glaucoma. During 24-hour IOP monitoring there were slight increases in IOP while playing an instrument, but also during other activities and overnight. These latter IOP levels were similar or even higher than the IOP rise caused by playing a wind instrument. IOP often rises after playing wind instruments, but similar or even higher IOP levels seem to occur during common other daily activities or at night. These peaks may be relevant for glaucomatous field progression and treatment of glaucoma patients.

  9. MEASUREMENT OF INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE USING TONOVET® IN EUROPEAN POND TURTLE (EMYS ORBICULARIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei, Seyed mehdi; Ansari mood, Maneli; Sadjadi, Reza; Azizi, Farzaneh

    2015-06-01

    Twenty-two captive adult European pond turtles (12 males and 10 females) were unrestrained without sedation while intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured by means of a Tonovet®. Mean±SD IOP values between 8 and 10 am for all turtles were 5.42±0.96 mm Hg (range, 3-9 mm Hg). IOP between the right and left eye and between males and females was not significantly different. There was no correlation between IOP and body weight or body length of animals.

  10. Twenty-four-hour intraocular pressure patterns in a symptomatic patient after ab interno trabeculotomy surgery

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    Mansouri K

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kaweh Mansouri,1 Felipe A Medeiros,2 Robert N Weinreb2 1Glaucoma Sector, Department of Ophthalmology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland; 2Hamilton Glaucoma Center and Department of Ophthalmology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: We report the results of repeated ambulatory continuous 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP monitoring with a contact lens sensor (CLS in a glaucoma patient with ocular pain after ab interno trabeculotomy (Trabectome™ surgery. Our findings show that a combined prostaglandin–pilocarpine treatment reduced nighttime IOP peaks and relieved the patient’s symptoms. Keywords: 24-hour, Trabectome contact lens sensor, prostaglandin–pilocarpine treatment

  11. Identifying the critical factors that influence intraocular pressure using an automated regression tree

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    Nishanee Rampersad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of intraocular pressure (IOP is an important test in glaucoma. In addition, anterior segment variables may be useful in screening for glaucoma risk. Studies have investigated the associations between IOP and anterior segment variables using traditional statistical methods. The classification and regression tree (CART method provides another dimension to detect important variables in a relationship automatically.Aim: To identify the critical factors that influence IOP using a regression tree.Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional research design was used. Anterior segment variables were measured in 700 participants using the iVue100 optical coherence tomographer, Oculus Keratograph and Nidek US-500 ultrasonographer. A Goldmann applanation tonometer was used to measure IOP. Data from only the right eyes were analysed because of high levels of interocular symmetry. A regression tree model was generated with the CART method and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used to assess the relationships between the ocular variables.Results: The mean IOP for the entire sample was 14.63 mmHg ± 2.40 mmHg. The CART method selected three anterior segment variables in the regression tree model. Central corneal thickness was the most important variable with a cut-off value of 527 µm. The other important variables included average paracentral corneal thickness and axial anterior chamber depth. Corneal thickness measurements increased towards the periphery and were significantly correlated with IOP (r ≥ 0.50, p ≤ 0.001.Conclusion: The CART method identified the anterior segment variables that influenced IOP. Understanding the relationship between IOP and anterior segment variables may help to clinically identify patients with ocular risk factors associated with elevated IOPs.

  12. EVOLUTION THE CONCEPTS OF ROLE OF INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN GLAUCOMA PROGRESSION (REVIEW

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    N. I. Kurysheva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in the progression of glaucoma optical neuropathy has emphasized repeatedly. The question about the role of elevated IOP as the underlying cause of glaucoma arose in the early 1960s. However, epidemiological studies have questioned the role of IOP as a diagnostic criterion for glaucoma, due to the relatively rare detection the disease among those with ocular hypertension and frequent detection of glaucoma with normal IOP. Multicenter studies determining the role of antihypertensive therapy in the treatment of glaucoma, have shown the importance of reducing IOP: decricing IOP at 1 mm Hg reduced the risk of developing glaucoma on 10-19%. In addition, it was found that the rate of glaucoma progression is very variable. It depends not only on the form of glaucoma, but also on other factors such as the stage of disease and therapy. Swedish study shown normal-tension glaucoma often progressed among the patients with more aggressive treatment such as argon laser trabeculoplasty or trabeculectomies. According to the study’s data, age is the most important risk factor for the progression of normal-tension glaucoma. Such questions as fluctuations in IOP, reduction of retrobulbar blood flow, antihypertensive treatment on the progression of glaucoma are still discussed. Despite the fact that the latter UKGTS multicenter study (2014 showed a decrease in the rate of progression of glaucoma in patients treated with latanoprost, a high percentage of non-treated patients didn’t have disease’s progression. In this regard, the role of IOP as main starting factor in glaucoma pathogenesis is still open.

  13. The Effect of a Diving Mask on Intraocular Pressure in a Healthy Population

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    Catherina Josephine Goenadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Swimming goggles increase the intraocular pressure (IOP via the periorbital frame pressure and suction effect. In comparison, diving masks have a larger frame rim and incorporate the nose. The exact effect(s of diving masks on IOP is unknown. This study evaluates the influence of diving masks on IOP in normal, healthy subjects. Methods: Tonometry was performed in both eyes of all subjects with an AVIA®Tono-Pen by a single investigator. Measurements were taken at baseline without the diving mask and with the subjects wearing a small-volume, double-window diving mask, but with the mask lenses removed. Two IOP readings in each eye were measured, and an additional reading was measured if the difference between the initial 2 was ≥2 mm Hg. Central corneal thickness (CCT was also measured in each eye, using a contact pachymeter (OcuScan®Alcon. Results: Forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteers (age 29.7 ± 9.3 years; range 21–52 were included. The mean CCT was 544.4 ± 43.5 µm. The mean IOP before the diving mask was worn had been 17.23 ± 2.18 mm Hg (n = 40. The IOP decreased by 0.43 mm Hg (p < 0.05 to 16.80 ± 2.57 mm Hg after the diving mask had been put on. There was no correlation between IOP change and age (r = 0.143, p = 0.337, gender (r = –0.174, p = 0.283 or CCT (r = –0.123, p = 0.445. Conclusion: There was no increase in IOP after the diving mask had been worn. A small but statistically significant decrease in IOP was observed. This study demonstrates that unlike swimming goggles, the strap tension and frame pressure on the periorbital tissue from a diving mask does not increase IOP. Diving masks may be a suitable alternative to swimming goggles for patients with advanced glaucoma or glaucoma filtration surgery.

  14. Effect of interface reflection in pseudophakic eyes with an additional refractive intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Jens; Zoric, Katja; Meßner, Arthur; Eppig, Timo

    2012-09-01

    To compare the surface reflections in a pseudophakic model eye with and without a monofocal additional refractive intraocular lens (add-on IOL). Department of Ophthalmology, Rudolf-Virchow-Klinikum Glauchau, Glauchau, and Experimental Ophthalmology, Saarland University, Homburg, Germany. Experimental study. The Liou and Brennan model eye was used to determine the retinal surface reflections in a pseudophakic model eye with and without an add-on IOL. The crystalline lens of the model eye was replaced by (1) a standard posterior chamber IOL (PC IOL) with a refractive power of 22.0 diopters (D) and (2) a PC IOL and an add-on IOL with refractive powers of 19.0 D and 2.5 D, respectively. To theoretically estimate the impact of the reflected images to visual impression, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated under 2 conditions: without and with straylight and double reflection effects. Compared with the pseudophakic model eye without an add-on IOL, the pseudophakic model eye with an add-on IOL showed no relevant differences in the SNR under both conditions. Findings indicate that implantation of monofocal add-on IOLs will not induce relevant additional disturbing glare compared with conventional pseudophakia. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Fluctuation of intraocular pressure in 24-hour telemonitoring compared to tonometry during normal office hours].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, C; Antal, S; Henrici, K; Grossjohann, R; Tost, F H

    2009-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is a clinically relevant factor in glaucoma progression. As a dynamic parameter the IOP depends on various internal and exogenic influencing factors. Therefore, we analysed intraindividual IOD variations between ambulant care and 24-h home-monitoring using self-tonometry. This study is based on paper-based glaucoma cards of 25 patients with primary open angle glaucoma. Additionally, all patients participated in a telemedical home-monitoring study with self-measurements of IOP and blood pressure stored in an electronic patient record. The glaucoma cards contained a total number of 409 IOP values with documentation periods from 0.5 to 10 years. In the teletonometry project all 25 patients were observed for 6 months with 1490 recorded IOP values. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS software. Average IOP values for all 25 glaucoma patients were 16.3 +/- 2.9 mmHg for both eyes in glaucoma card documentation, whereas the electronic patient records showed IOP averages of 18.9 +/- 4.7 mmHg for right eyes and 18.2 +/- 4.4 mmHg for left eyes. Corresponding to the practice opening hours the glaucoma cards contained no IOP records from 12:00 pm to 01:30 pm as well as between 06:00 pm and 07:15 am. In these time periods 17 % of all IOP values recorded in 24-hour teletonometry were higher than 20 mmHg. However, statistical analysis and clinical evaluation of device parameters and measurement characteristics revealed sporadic measuring errors. The additional involvement of self-tonometry in telemedical 24-h home-monitoring is a feasible method to record and detect intraday IOP fluctuations. Compared to single IOP measurements documented in common paper-based glaucoma cards, the 24-h electronic patient record showed more frequent circadian IOP variations. As a result, self-tonometry and home-monitoring can be a useful link to fill the gap between singular ambulant IOP measurement and hospitalisation with 24-hour IOP profiles.

  16. Intraocular pressure and Schirmer tear test values in maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S. Honsho

    Full Text Available Abstract: The purpose of this study was to establish baseline data on lacrimal quantity (STT-1 and intraocular pressure (IOP in captive maned wolves. Ten healthy adult maned wolves were contained with a snare pole and muzzle and kept in decubitus of the left side. STT-1 measurement was performed on the lateral third of the lower conjunctival sac for one minute. The cornea was desensitized and intraocular pressure was measured with an tonopen. Average STT-1 in both eyes was 11±5mm.min-1, with no statistical difference between the left and right eye (p=0.960. Average IOP in both eyes was 20±6mmHg, with no statistical difference between the left and right eye (p=0.836. Average STT-1 was lower than, and IOP was the same as normal levels found in dogs. There was no statistical difference in the age of the animals, and STT-1 and IOP values. In the present paper, average maned wolf STT-1 levels were lower compared with those found in dogs, while the IOP was the same in maned wolves as in dogs. Due to the increased incidence in providing emergency care for maned wolf victims of road kill and fires, determination reference values of ocular parameters may improve the correct diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  17. Tafluprost once daily for treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Yang Liu, Weiming MaoDepartment of Cell Biology and Anatomy, North Texas Eye Research Institute, University of North Texas Health Science Center, Fort Worth, TXAbstract: Glaucoma is a leading cause of visual loss worldwide. Current antiglaucoma therapy focuses on lowering intraocular pressure to a safe level. In recent years, prostaglandin analogs have become the first-line agents for treating open angle glaucoma. Tafluprost, which was first reported in 2003, is a novel prostaglandin analog, and has been shown to be a potent ocular hypotensive agent in a number of preclinical and clinical studies. Also, its unique preservative-free formulation helps to decrease preservative-associated ocular disorders and improve patient compliance. In this review, studies from 2003 to 2012 focusing on the structure, metabolism, efficacy, and safety of tafluprost are summarized. These studies suggested that application of tafluprost once daily is a safe and effective treatment for patients with open angle glaucoma.Keywords: tafluprost, prostaglandin analog, glaucoma, intraocular pressure, preservative-free formulation

  18. Effects of unoprostone on diurnal variation of intraocular pressure in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue K

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Kenji Inoue1, Kei Noguchi1, Masato Wakakura1, Goji Tomita21Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo; 22nd Department of Ophthalmology, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To prospectively evaluate the diurnal variation of intraocular pressure (IOP during unoprostone treatment in 13 healthy volunteers.Method: IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry by the same observer every 3 hours from 9 am to 9 am the next morning. Unoprostone was then instilled at 9 am and 9 pm daily for 1 month. After 1 month, IOP was measured again with unoprostone instilled at 9 am and 9 pm during IOP measurement. We then compared the average daily IOP before and after the treatment (paired t-test.Results: After 1 month of treatment, the average IOP decreased at every time point but one (12 pm, 3 pm, 6 pm, 9 pm, 12 am, 3 am, and 9 am, but not at 6 am. There were no adverse reactions and none of the subjects discontinued unoprostone.Conclusion: The hypotensive effects of unoprostone persist throughout the day, but this study suggests that the effects may be weaker at nighttime and early in the morning.Keywords: unoprostone, intraocular pressure, diurnal variation, healthy volunteer

  19. The heritability of glaucoma-related traits corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and choroidal blood flow pulsatility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen E Freeman

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to investigate the heritability of potential glaucoma endophenotypes. We estimated for the first time the heritability of the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow. We also sought to confirm the heritability of corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and 3 ways of measuring intraocular pressure. METHODS: Measurements were performed on 96 first-degree relatives recruited from Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal. Corneal hysteresis was determined using the Reichert Ocular Response Analyser. Central corneal thickness was measured with an ultrasound pachymeter. Three measures of intraocular pressure were obtained: Goldmann-correlated and corneal compensated intraocular pressure using the Ocular Response Analyser, and Pascal intraocular pressure using the Pascal Dynamic Contour Tonometer. The pulsatility of choroidal blood velocity and flow were measured in the sub-foveolar choroid using single-point laser Doppler flowmetry (Oculix. We estimated heritability using maximum-likelihood variance components methods implemented in the SOLAR software. RESULTS: No significant heritability was detected for the pulsatility of choroidal blood flow or velocity. The Goldman-correlated, corneal compensated, and Pascal measures of intraocular pressure measures were all significantly heritable at 0.94, 0.79, and 0.53 after age and sex adjustment (p = 0.0003, p = 0.0023, p = 0.0239. Central corneal thickness was significantly heritable at 0.68 (p = 0.0078. Corneal hysteresis was highly heritable but the estimate was at the upper boundary of 1.00 preventing us from giving a precise estimate. CONCLUSION: Corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, and intraocular pressure are all heritable and may be suitable as glaucoma endophenotypes. The pulsatility of choroidal blood flow and blood velocity were not significantly heritable in this sample.

  20. The Effect of Laser Trabeculoplasty on Posture-Induced Intraocular Pressure Changes in Patients with Open Angle Glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jee Myung Yang

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT on posture-induced intraocular pressure (IOP changes in patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG.Thirty eyes of 30 consecutive patients with OAG who underwent ALT were prospectively analyzed. The IOP was measured using Icare PRO in the sitting position, supine position, and dependent lateral decubitus position (DLDP before ALT and at 1 week, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months after ALT.Compared to the baseline values, the IOP in each position was significantly decreased after ALT (all P 0.05.ALT appears to be effective in lowering the IOP in various body positions, but the degree of this effect was significantly lower in DLDP. In addition, ALT seemed to have limited effects on posture-induced IOP changes.

  1. Laser-assisted formation of micropores and nanobubbles in sclera promote stable normalization of intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Olga; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Milner, Thomas; Sobol, Emil

    2017-06-01

    Pores in sclera enhance uveoscleral water outflow and can normalize intraocular pressure in glaucomatous eyes. The aims of this study are to demonstrate laser-induced formation of pores with a dendritic structure and to answer the questions: How is a pore system stable and can laser treatment provide a long-lasting pressure stabilization effect? Effect of 1.56 µm laser radiation on porcine eye sclera was studied using atomic force microscopy and super resolution structured irradiation microscopy with fluorescent markers. Results suggest that the pores with a complex spatial configuration can arise as a result of laser irradiation and that laser-generated stable gas nanobubbles coated with calcium ions allow pore stabilization in the sclera. Our results support a laser based approach for treatment of glaucoma.

  2. Body position and intraocular pressure fluctuation%体位与眼压波动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯瑞莉; 李金瑛

    2013-01-01

    眼压较大波动是造成青光眼视神经损伤的重要因素,而眼压波动受多重因素影响,体位是其中之一.本文通过介绍体位变化时间对眼压的影响、连续体位变化对眼压的影响、不同卧位对眼压的影响、倒立举重等对眼压的影响、正常人与青光眼患者体位变化眼压比较等来阐述体位变化与眼压的关系,从上巩膜静脉压、血压、眼内容物与前房深度、眼灌注压、激素等五个方面解释体位变化如何影响眼压,并阐述了体位影响眼压的意义.%The fluctuation of intraocular pressure(IOP) is an important factor causing glaucomatous optic nerve injury,and posture is one of the most important factors affecting IOP.The effects of body posision on IOP is receiving more and more attention.This article reviews the research progress about the posture impacts on IOP.The objective is to explain the relationship between position change and IOP by presenting the effects of postural changing time,continuous postural change,different supine position,handstand and weightlifling,and summarize how the postural change affect the IOP from five aspects:episcleral venous pressure,blood pressure,intraocular contents and anterior chamber depth,ocular perfusion pressure,and the change of adrenalin.

  3. Aquaporin deletion in mice reduces intraocular pressure and aqueous fluid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Vetrivel, L; Verkman, A S

    2002-06-01

    Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are expressed in the eye at sites of aqueous fluid production and outflow: AQP1 and AQP4 in nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, and AQP1 in trabecular meshwork endothelium. Novel methods were developed to compare aqueous fluid dynamics in wild-type mice versus mice lacking AQP1 and/or AQP4. Aqueous fluid production was measured by in vivo confocal microscopy after transcorneal iontophoretic introduction of fluorescein. Intraocular pressure (IOP), outflow, and anterior chamber compliance were determined from pressure measurements in response to fluid infusions using micropipettes. Aqueous fluid volume and [Cl(-)] were assayed in samples withdrawn by micropipettes. In wild-type mice (CD1 genetic background, age 4-6 wk), IOP was 16.0 +/- 0.4 mmHg (SE), aqueous fluid volume 7.2 +/- 0.3 microl, fluid production 3.6 +/- 0.2 microl/h, fluid outflow 0.36 +/- 0.06 microl/h/mmHg, and compliance 0.036 +/- 0.006 microl/mmHg. IOP was significantly decreased by up to 1.8 mmHg (P fluid production by up to 0.9 microl/h in age/litter-matched mice lacking AQP1 and/or AQP4 (outbred CD1 and inbred C57/bl6 genetic backgrounds). However, AQP deletion did not significantly affect outflow, [Cl(-)], volume, or compliance. These results provide evidence for the involvement of AQPs in intraocular pressure regulation by facilitating aqueous fluid secretion across the ciliary epithelium. AQP inhibition may thus provide a novel approach for the treatment of elevated IOP.

  4. Effect of altered eating habits and periods during Ramadan fasting on intraocular pressure, tear secretion, corneal and anterior chamber parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerimoglu, H.; Ozturk, B.; Gunduz, K.; Bozkurt, B.; Kamis, U.; Okka, M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether altered eating habits and periods, especially the pre-dawn meal, during Ramadan fasting have any significant effect on intraocular pressure (IOP), tear secretion, corneal and anterior chamber parameters. Methods IOP, basal tear secretion (BTS), reflex tear secretion (RTS

  5. Genome-wide analysis of multi-ancestry cohorts identifies new loci influencing intraocular pressure and susceptibility to glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. Hysi (Pirro); C-Y. Cheng (Ching-Yu); H. Springelkamp (Henriët); S. MacGregor (Stuart); J.N.C. Bailey (Jessica N. Cooke); R. Wojciechowski (Robert); V. Vitart (Veronique); A. Nag (Abhishek); A.W. Hewit (Alex); R. Höhn (René); C. Venturini (Cristina); A. Mirshahi (Alireza); W.D. Ramdas (Wishal); G. Thorleifsson (Gudmar); E.N. Vithana (Eranga); C.C. Khor; A.B. Stefansson (Arni B.); J. Liao (Jie); J.L. Haines (Jonathan); N. Amin (Najaf); Y. Wang (Ying); P.S. Wild (Philipp S.); A.B. Ozel (Ayse B.); J. Li; B.W. Fleck (Brian W.); T. Zeller (Tanja); S.E. Staffieri (Sandra E.); Y.Y. Teo (Yik Ying); G. Cuellar-Partida (Gabriel); X. Luo (Xiaoyan); R.R. Allingham (R Rand); J.E. Richards (Julia); A. Senft (Andrea); L.C. Karssen (Lennart); Y. Zheng (Yingfeng); C. Bellenguez (Céline); L. Xu (Liang); A.I. Iglesias González (Adriana); J.F. Wilson (James F); J.H. Kang (Jae H.); E.M. van Leeuwen (Elisa); V. Jonsson (Vesteinn); U. Thorsteinsdottir (Unnur); D.D.G. Despriet (Dominique); S. Ennis (Sarah); S.E. Moroi (Sayoko); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); N.M. Jansonius (Nomdo); S. Yazar (Seyhan); E.S. Tai (Shyong); P. Amouyel (Philippe); J. Kirwan (James); L.M.E. van Koolwijk (Leonieke); M.A. Hauser (Michael); F. Jonasson (Fridbert); P.J. Leo (Paul); S.J. Loomis (Stephanie J.); R. Fogarty (Rhys); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); L.S. Kearns (Lisa S.); K.J. Lackner (Karl); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); C.L. Simpson (Claire); C.E. Pennell (Craig); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); S-M. Saw (Seang-Mei); A.J. Lotery (Andrew); J.E. Bailey-Wilson (Joan E.); A. Hofman (Albert); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); C. Maubaret (Cécilia); A.F.H. Pfeiffer (Andreas); R.C.W. Wolfs (Roger); H.G. Lemij (Hans); T.L. Young (Terri); L.R. Pasquale (Louis); C. Delcourt (Cécile); T.D. Spector (Timothy); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline); K.S. Small (Kerrin); K.P. Burdon (Kathryn); J-A. Zwart (John-Anker); T.Y. Wong (Tien); A.C. Viswanathan (Ananth); D.A. Mackey (David); J.E. Craig (Jamie); J.L. Wiggs (Janey); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); C.J. Hammond (Christopher); T. Aung (Tin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractElevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor in developing glaucoma, and variability in IOP might herald glaucomatous development or progression. We report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 18 population cohorts from the International

  6. Genome-wide analysis of multi-ancestry cohorts identifies new loci influencing intraocular pressure and susceptibility to glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hysi, Pirro G; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Springelkamp, Henriët; Macgregor, Stuart; Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Wojciechowski, Robert; Vitart, Veronique; Nag, Abhishek; Hewitt, Alex W; Höhn, René; Venturini, Cristina; Mirshahi, Alireza; Ramdas, Wishal D; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vithana, Eranga; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Stefansson, Arni B; Liao, Jiemin; Haines, Jonathan L; Amin, Najaf; Wang, Ya Xing; Wild, Philipp S; Ozel, Ayse B; Li, Jun Z; Fleck, Brian W; Zeller, Tanja; Staffieri, Sandra E; Teo, Yik-Ying; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Luo, Xiaoyan; Allingham, R Rand; Richards, Julia E; Senft, Andrea; Karssen, Lennart C; Zheng, Yingfeng; Bellenguez, Céline; Xu, Liang; Iglesias, Adriana I; Wilson, James F; Kang, Jae H; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Jonsson, Vesteinn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Despriet, Dominiek D G; Ennis, Sarah; Moroi, Sayoko E; Martin, Nicholas G; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Yazar, Seyhan; Tai, E-Shyong; Amouyel, Philippe; Kirwan, James; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M E; Hauser, Michael A; Jonasson, Fridbert; Leo, Paul; Loomis, Stephanie J; Fogarty, Rhys; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Kearns, Lisa; Lackner, Karl J; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Simpson, Claire L; Pennell, Craig E; Oostra, Ben A; Uitterlinden, André G; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lotery, Andrew J; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R; Maubaret, Cécilia; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wolfs, Roger C W; Lemij, Hans G; Young, Terri L; Pasquale, Louis R; Delcourt, Cécile; Spector, Timothy D; Klaver, Caroline C W; Small, Kerrin S; Burdon, Kathryn P; Stefansson, Kari; Wong, Tien-Yin; Viswanathan, Ananth; Mackey, David A; Craig, Jamie E; Wiggs, Janey L; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hammond, Christopher J; Aung, Tin

    2014-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor in developing glaucoma, and variability in IOP might herald glaucomatous development or progression. We report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 18 population cohorts from the International Glaucoma

  7. Effect of altered eating habits and periods during Ramadan fasting on intraocular pressure, tear secretion, corneal and anterior chamber parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerimoglu, H.; Ozturk, B.; Gunduz, K.; Bozkurt, B.; Kamis, U.; Okka, M.

    Purpose To determine whether altered eating habits and periods, especially the pre-dawn meal, during Ramadan fasting have any significant effect on intraocular pressure (IOP), tear secretion, corneal and anterior chamber parameters. Methods IOP, basal tear secretion (BTS), reflex tear secretion

  8. Mouse model of sustained elevation in intraocular pressure produced by episcleral vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Ederra, Javier; Verkman, A S

    2006-05-01

    We have developed an inducible mouse model of glaucoma based on episcleral vein cauterization (EVC). Intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in adult mice was produced by cauterizing three episcleral veins. Serial IOP measurements were done by induction-impact tonometry. IOP was significantly elevated by 104+/-20% in 20 out of 23 mice (87%) within the first day after EVC, and remained elevated for 4 weeks, with mean IOP 94% higher in EVC-treated vs. contralateral control eyes. Aqueous outflow blockade was verified from the IOP response to pulsed fluid infusions into the anterior chamber. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, determined by retrograde labelling using Fluoro-Gold applied to the superior colliculous, was approximately 20% at 2 weeks after EVC. We conclude that episcleral vein occlusion in mice produces significant and sustained elevation in IOP associated with increased outflow resistance and RGC loss, and thus may be useful to model glaucoma in genetically modified and drug-treated mice.

  9. Raised intraocular pressure as a potential risk factor for visual loss in Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anais Thouin

    Full Text Available Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON is an important cause of inherited mitochondrial blindness among young adults. The majority of patients carry one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA point mutations: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C, all of which affect critical complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. LHON is characterised by marked incomplete penetrance, clearly implying that the mtDNA mutation is insufficient on its own to trigger retinal ganglion cell dysfunction and visual loss. In this case series of three affected patients harbouring the m.11778G>A mutation, we provide evidence suggesting that raised intraocular pressure could be a risk factor triggering visual loss in at-risk LHON carriers.

  10. The rectenna design on contact lens for wireless powering of the active intraocular pressure monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, H W; Jeng, B M; Chen, C Y; Huang, H Y; Chiou, J C; Luo, C H

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposed a wireless power harvesting system with micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) fabrication for noninvasive intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement on soft contact lens substructure. The power harvesting IC consists of a loop antenna, an impedance matching network and a rectifier. The proposed IC has been designed and fabricated by CMOS 0.18 um process that operates at the ISM band of 5.8 GHz. The antenna and the power harvesting IC would be bonded together by using flip chip bonding technologies without extra wire interference. The circuit utilized an impedance transformation circuit to boost the input RF signal that improves the circuit performance. The proposed design achieves an RF-to-DC conversion efficiency of 35% at 5.8 GHz.

  11. [The influence of electro-stimulation anaesthesia on the intraocular pressure (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, W; Oggel, K; Schwab, R

    1981-04-01

    The effect of electrostimulation anaesthesia was studied in 23 patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured 30 minutes after premedication (I), immediately after intubation (II), after the start of stimulation and relaxation (III) and after the establishment of full relaxation and achievement of full stimulation (IV). After intubation IOP increased from 16.4 +/- 3.3 mm Hg to 19.4 +/- 5.6 mm Hg (p less than 0.05), but decreased at reading IV statistically significantly compared with reading I to 12.7 +/- 2.8 mm Hg. To investigate the effect of electrostimulation alone on IOP, we performed tonometry on 10 control persons, in whom we observed a rise in IOP which can be attributed to current induced contractions of the extraocular muscles. The results demonstrate that there is a direct relation between electrostimulation and extraocular muscles, and we find it essential to relax the patients sufficiently to avoid hazards of IOP elevation.

  12. Respiratory complications associated with ketamine anesthesia for ophthalmic procedures following intraocular pressure measurement in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We compared respiratory complications (RCs in children who received intramuscular (IM versus intravenous (IV or no ketamine for intraocular pressure (IOP measurement to test our observation that IM ketamine is associated with higher incidence of RCs. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 149 eye examinations under anesthesia with ketamine in 27 patients and 263 non-ketamine examinations under anesthesia in 81 patients using a mixed effects logistic regression model. Results: IM ketamine was strongly associated with increased odds of RCs compared to no ketamine (odds ratio (OR: 20.23, P < 0.0001 and to IV ketamine (OR: 6.78, P = 0.02, as were higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA classification (OR: 2.60, P = 0.04, and the use of volatile agents (OR: 3.32, P = 0.02. Conclusion: Further studies should be conducted to confirm our observation of increased RCs with IM ketamine.

  13. Raised intraocular pressure as a potential risk factor for visual loss in Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouin, Anais; Griffiths, Philip G; Hudson, Gavin; Chinnery, Patrick F; Yu-Wai-Man, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) is an important cause of inherited mitochondrial blindness among young adults. The majority of patients carry one of three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) point mutations: m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A and m.14484T>C, all of which affect critical complex I subunits of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. LHON is characterised by marked incomplete penetrance, clearly implying that the mtDNA mutation is insufficient on its own to trigger retinal ganglion cell dysfunction and visual loss. In this case series of three affected patients harbouring the m.11778G>A mutation, we provide evidence suggesting that raised intraocular pressure could be a risk factor triggering visual loss in at-risk LHON carriers.

  14. The Management of a Patient with Elevated Intraocular Pressure Resistant to Medical Treatment: Anterior Chamber Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Beyoğlu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old male patient was medically treated in another center for hyphema which occurred after blunt trauma to his right eye. He was admitted to our clinic when his visual acuity decreased after being discharged. Biomicroscopic examination revealed total hyphema. Intraocular pressure (IOP was 48 mm Hg in the right eye with Goldmann applanation tonometry. Since IOP could not be managed by medical therapy and there was no regression in hyphema, anterior chamber was irrigated. As in our case, it should not be forgotten that re-hemorrhage may occur in the first week of hyphema during childhood. Moreover, surgical treatment should be considered when hemorrhage does not regress with medical treatment, increased IOP persists, and when there is a risk of corneal endothelial staining (corneal blood staining. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 400-2

  15. A compact nanopower low output impedance CMOS operational amplifier for wireless intraocular pressure recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresher, Russell P; Irazoqui, Pedro P

    2007-01-01

    Wireless sensing has shown potential benefits for the continuous-time measurement of physiological data. One such application is the recording of intraocular pressure (IOP) for patients with glaucoma. Ultra-low-power circuits facilitate the use of inductively-coupled power for implantable wireless systems. Compact circuit size is also desirable for implantable systems. As a first step towards the realization of such circuits, we have designed a compact, ultra-low-power operational amplifier which can be used to record IOP. This paper presents the measured results of a CMOS operational amplifier that can be incorporated with a wireless IOP monitoring system or other low-power application. It has a power consumption of 736 nW, chip area of 0.023 mm2, and output impedance of 69 Omega to drive low-impedance loads.

  16. Characteristics of Reversal Optic Cupping in Adults Glaucoma after Reduction of Intraocular Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangXu; LeiLiu

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:According to Quigley's hypothesis the dense of connective tissue is the least and the pores of the lamina cribrosa are the largest at the superior and infe-rior poles of the lamina cribrosa,therefore they are the most vulnerable location to be involved in the characteristic glaucomatous optic nerve damage,To get clin-ical evidence for the hypltheses,the reversal of optic cup in adults glaucoma after reduction of intraocular pressure(IOP)was examined.Methods:The stereoscopic flicker comparison on with computerized image sys-tem was used to monitor the optic cup's changing,2 serial superposed stereo pairs were displayed alternatively and rapidly and the changing parts appeared moving Under the stereoscopic observation ,hthe changes of 3-dimention optic cup could be seen and the false positive phenomena caused by photographic angle variation,vascular pulsation could be differentiated from the characteristic change of the cup.Stereo fundus photographs were taken from 31eyes with hy-pertension glaucoma before and after treatment of reduction of IOPs which was either diamox administration or trabeculectomy.Results:the result showed that the reversal of optic cups after reduction of IOPs were mostly asymmetrical,especially at the inferior and/or superior poles.By multiple stepwise regression.it is known that the amount of the change is only correlated with the initial elevated IOP.Conclusions:The study indicated that it was the distortion and deformity of the lamina cribrosa leading to shearing stress that results in glaucomatous character-istic damage in structure and function.The individul tolerance of the lamina cribrosa to the high intraocular pressure and the locations of indivdual vulnerable at he optic nerve head are various.Eye Science1995;11:155-160.

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Association between Adiposity Markers and Intraocular Pressure: The Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction or stabilization is the only proven method for glaucoma management. Identifying risk factors for IOP is crucial to understand the pathophysiology of glaucoma. To examine the associations of change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and percent fat mass with change in intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean adults. Cohort study of 274,064 young and middle age Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings who attended annual or biennial health exams from January 1, 2002 to Feb 28, 2010 (577,981 screening visits). BMI, waist circumference, and percent fat mass. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes with automated noncontact tonometers. In multivariable-adjusted models, the average increase in IOP (95% confidence intervals) over time per interquartile increase in BMI (1.26 kg/m2), waist circumference (6.20 cm), and percent fat mass (3.40%) were 0.18 mmHg (0.17 to 0.19), 0.27 mmHg (0.26 to 0.29), and 0.10 mmHg (0.09 to 0.11), respectively (all P < 0.001). The association was stronger in men compared to women (P < 0.001) and it was only slightly attenuated after including diabetes and hypertension as potential mediators in the model. Increases in adiposity were significantly associated with an increase in IOP in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health screening visits, an association that was stronger for central obesity. Further research is needed to understand better the underlying mechanisms of this association, and to establish the role of weight gain in increasing IOP and the risk of glaucoma and its complications.

  18. A longitudinal study of age-related changes in intraocular pressure: the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Di; Kim, Myung Hun; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Shin, Hocheol; Kim, Joon Mo; Friedman, David S; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee

    2014-09-02

    To examine the longitudinal association between age and intraocular pressure (IOP) in a large sample of Korean men and women. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 274,064 young and middle-aged Korean adults with normal fundoscopic findings, following them from January 1, 2002, to February 28, 2010. Health exams were scheduled annually or biennially. At each visit, IOP was measured in both eyes using automated noncontact tonometers. The longitudinal change in IOP with age was evaluated using three-level mixed models for longitudinal paired-eye data, accounting for correlations between paired eyes and repeated measurements over time. In fully adjusted models, the average longitudinal change in IOP per 1-year increase in age was -0.065 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.068 to -0.063), with marked sex differences (P < 0.001). In men, the average annual IOP change was -0.093 mm Hg (95% CI -0.096 to -0.091) throughout follow-up. In women, the average annual IOP change was -0.006 mm Hg (95% CI -0.010 to -0.003), with a relatively flat association in the age range of 30 to 59 years and more marked annual decreases at younger and older ages. Intraocular pressure was inversely associated with age in a large cohort of Korean adults attending health-screening visits. For men, this inverse association was observed throughout the entire age range, while for women it was evident only in younger (<30 years of age) and older (≥60 years of age) women, with no association in women aged 30 to 59. Further research is needed to better understand the underlying mechanisms and to reconsider cutoffs for defining high IOP by age and sex groups in Asian populations. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  19. Bleb failure and intraocular pressure rise following Nd: Yag laser capsulotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diagourtas, Andreas; Petrou, Petros; Georgalas, Ilias; Oikonomakis, Kostantinos; Giannakouras, Panagiotis; Vergados, Athanasios; Papaconstantinou, Dimitrios

    2017-02-22

    To report the negative effect of Nd: Yag (Neodymium-doped: Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) laser capsulotomy on the intraocular pressure (IOP) and the trabeculectomy bleb integrity, in a small series of eyes, both trabeculectomised and pseudophakic, following the laser application for the management of posterior capsular opacification (PCO). This is a retrospective, non-comparative interventional case series study, in which 20 trabeculectomised and pseudophakic eyes from 15 patients, with otherwise well functioning blebs, were presented with uncontrolled IOP, in a variable distance of time following the application of YAG laser capsulotomy. Student paired t-test confirmed a statistically significant difference (P nd the respective one, 2 to 6 months after Nd: Yag capsulotomy (34.5 ± 11 mmHg). All of the cases failed to respond to conservative treatment and were successfully managed with the implantation of Ahmed drainage devices. All patients showed flat filtering bleb and uncontrolled IOP (34.5 ± 11 mmHg), under maximum topical treatment, in a period of 2 to 6 months following Nd: YAG laser caspulotomy. The implantation of Ahmed valve proved to be effective treatment for these patients (IOP nd usually is done without second thought, in this series of eyes, it is postulated that it may be responsible for the deregulation of the filtering bleb and subsequent loss of IOP control. We consider that laser capsulotomy should be performed with caution, especially in eyes with previous trabeculectomy. Also close monitoring of the intraocular pressure and assessment of eventual bleb morphology variations in the follow-up period is mandatory. Further studies are needed in order to confirm our findings.

  20. The Aachen-keratoprosthesis--a flexible KPro that permits intraocular pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, A; Kompa, S; Schrage, N F

    2002-03-01

    Postoperative glaucoma is one of the major complications observed in patients with keratoprostheses (KPro). The optical components of the majority of KPros are rigid and inflexible, which prevents indirect tonometry by common methods. This study confirms that the Aachen-KPro allows measurements of intraocular pressure (IOP) due to its flexible optical part with a modified Schiotz tonometer. The Aachen-KPro was placed in a special chamber where pressure can be generated and monitored by a transducer. Measurements were taken by common ophthalmologic methods. The results were compared to the initial pressure values in the chamber. With the Goldmann tonometer, the Tono-Pen and the topography system (Technomed), no significant pressure changes could be observed. The results of the Schiotz tonometer were promising. It was slightly modified and standard curves with different weights could be obtained. With a modified Schiotz tonometer, it is possible to detect elevated IOPs. Modifying this common instrument is inexpensive and can be easily performed. This advantage of the Aachen-KPro permits early management of postoperative high tension glaucoma.

  1. Development of a wireless intra-ocular pressure monitoring system for incorporation into a therapeutic glaucoma drainage implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaday, Tarun; Plunkett, Malcolm; McInnes, Steven; Li, Jim S. Jimmy; Voelcker, Nicolas H.; Craig, Jamie E.

    2008-12-01

    Glaucoma is a common cause of blindness. Wireless, continuous monitoring of intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important, unsolved goal in managing glaucoma. An IOP monitoring system incorporated into a glaucoma drainage implant (GDI) overcomes the design complexity associated with incorporating a similar system in a more confined space within the eye. The device consists of a micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based capacitive pressure sensor integrated with an inductor printed directly onto a polyimide printed circuit board (PCB). The device is designed to be incorporated onto the external plate of a therapeutic GDI. The resonance frequency changes as a function of IOP, and is tracked remotely using a spectrum analyzer. A theoretical model for the reader antenna was developed to enable maximal inductive coupling with the IOP sensor implant. Pressure chamber tests indicate that the sensor implant has adequate sensitivity in the IOP range with excellent reproducibility over time. Additionally, we show that sensor sensitivity does not change significantly after encapsulation with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to protect the device from fluid environment. In vitro experiments showed that the signal measured wirelessly through sheep corneal and scleral tissue was adequate indicating potential for using the system in human subjects.

  2. Muscular and intraocular pressure responses among ocular-hypertensive subjects: is there a rationale for biofeedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raczynski, J M; Mason, D A; Wilson, R P; Silvia, E S; Kleinstein, R N

    1985-12-01

    Several animal and human investigations have indicated that intraocular pressure (IOP) levels may be associated with extreme drug-induced changes in the extraocular muscles. Further, recent data suggest that, among individuals with normal IOP level, moderate increases in facial muscle (EMG) activity around the eye while the eye is open are associated with increases in IOP. To investigate further the relationship between facial EMG activity and IOP levels and to examine a group of individuals with elevated IOP levels, subjects were recruited from outpatients at an optometry clinic. Three groups of subjects were selected: a group of ocular hypertensive subjects who showed elevated pressures at the optometry clinic and upon the day of testing, a group of labile ocular hypertensive subjects who evinced elevated pressures during their visit to the optometry clinic but lower pressures on the day of testing, and a group of normal IOP subjects who showed normal pressures both during their optometry clinic visit and on the day of testing. To investigate anxiety differences, subjects were administered the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, but subsequent analysis revealed no group differences. To evaluate the role of stress upon muscle (EMG) functioning around the eye, subjects were subjected to imagery and standardized mental arithmetic stressors; analyses of these results also revealed no significant group differences. Finally, subjects were given EMG biofeedback for muscle activity around the eye while IOP was assessed during five alternating periods in which they made decreases and increases in EMG activity. Results revealed significant group, period, and group by period interaction effects. The pattern of results is interpreted as implicating EMG activity in IOP fluctuations; the implications of these data for potential biofeedback and stress management treatments are discussed.

  3. Metabolic syndrome: a risk factor for high intraocular pressure in the Israeli population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamara; Wygnanski-Jaffe; Itzhak; Bieran; Dorit; Tekes-Manova; Yair; Morad; Isaac; Ashkenazi; Eedy; Mezer

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association among elevated intraocular pressure(IOP), the metabolic syndrome(Met S), body mass index(BMI), and some of their components in the Israeli population.METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of12 747 soldiers of the Israeli Defense Forces, aged 35 y or older, who underwent a routine periodical medical examination between 1991 and 2004. None of the subjects received medical treatment for either glaucoma or ocular hypertension. High IOP(>21 mm Hg) was correlated with age, sex, arterial blood pressure, total blood cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI and Met S.RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was found between the IOP of subjects with a low risk and higher risk for the development of Met S(P <0.0001 for males, P =0.0026 for females). A statistically significant positive correlation was found in male subjects between high BMI and elevated IOP(r =0.11677, P <0.0001).CONCLUSION: Met S and BMI were significantly more prevalent in subjects with increased IOP levels. We suggest that both should be taken into consideration in the assessment of glaucoma suspects.

  4. Clinical Analysis of 106 Cases with Elevated Intraocular Pressure in Thyroid-associated Ophthalmopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng He; Zhongyao Wu; Jianhua Yan; Huasheng Yang; Yuxiang Mao; Siming Ai; Zhicong Chen

    2004-01-01

    Purpose :To summarize the clinical manifestation of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), and to analyze the contributing factors.Methods: One hundred and six cases(188 eyes) of ocular hypertension in 339 cases(597eyes) with TAO were collected from 1994 to 2001 and their clinic manifestations were summarized and analyzed.Results:It was demonstrated that the incidence of ocular hypertension in TAO was 31.3%, and was more frequently found in the male than in the female. The elevated IOP in TAO was found to be partially related to compression of the eyeball by enlarged extraocular muscles, the elevated intraorbital pressure as result of the proliferation of intraorbital connective tissue and the enlargement as well as swelling of extraocular muscles. It was also related to the severity of TAO other than the course of TAO. The ocular hypertension in most cases can be controlled with reduction of IOP by methylprednisolone or orbital decompression.Conclusion: Specific clinical features were found in TAO patients with ocular hypertension. It should be differentiated with primary glaucoma. The IOP in most cases can be controlled by prompt and effective treatment of TAO. Eye Science 2004;20:10-14.

  5. Effect of alpha-2-agonist premedication on intraocular pressure after selective laser trabeculoplasty

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    Julius T Oatts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effect of alpha-2-agonist (AA premedication (PM on intraocular pressure (IOP following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing 360° SLT at an institution with two prevalent practice patterns consisting of SLT performed with PM and without premedication (NPM with AA. The association between pre- and post-operative IOP was evaluated using a linear regression model in 49 (59% PM and 34 (41% NPM eyes. Results: The prevalence of IOP elevations up to 5 mmHg 1 h postoperatively was similar in both groups, occurring in 18% of PM and in 15% of NPM. Elevations above 5 mmHg were seen in 4% of PM and 8% of NPM (P = 0.732. After correcting for age, gender, diagnosis, number of medications, and preoperative IOP, the presence or absence of AA PM had no significant association with any postoperative IOP (P > 0.5. Conclusion: The practice of using AAs before SLT and measuring IOP at 1 h has not been validated yet adds to expenses and workflow burden. Our retrospective study showed no significant correlation between PM and postoperative or longer-term IOP. IOP at 1 h should be measured in patients who cannot tolerate transient pressure elevations. Further studies are needed to elucidate this relationship.

  6. Metabolic syndrome: a risk factor for high intraocular pressure in the Israeli population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygnanski-Jaffe, Tamara; Bieran, Itzhak; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Morad, Yair; Ashkenazi, Isaac; Mezer, Eedy

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association among elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), the metabolic syndrome (MetS), body mass index (BMI), and some of their components in the Israeli population. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 12 747 soldiers of the Israeli Defense Forces, aged 35y or older, who underwent a routine periodical medical examination between 1991 and 2004. None of the subjects received medical treatment for either glaucoma or ocular hypertension. High IOP (>21 mm Hg) was correlated with age, sex, arterial blood pressure, total blood cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI and MetS. A statistically significant difference was found between the IOP of subjects with a low risk and higher risk for the development of MetS (P<0.0001 for males, P=0.0026 for females). A statistically significant positive correlation was found in male subjects between high BMI and elevated IOP (r=0.11677, P<0.0001). MetS and BMI were significantly more prevalent in subjects with increased IOP levels. We suggest that both should be taken into consideration in the assessment of glaucoma suspects.

  7. Metabolic syndrome: a risk factor for high intraocular pressure in the Israeli population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Wygnanski-Jaffe

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association among elevated intraocular pressure (IOP, the metabolic syndrome (MetS, body mass index (BMI, and some of their components in the Israeli population. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 12 747 soldiers of the Israeli Defense Forces, aged 35y or older, who underwent a routine periodical medical examination between 1991 and 2004. None of the subjects received medical treatment for either glaucoma or ocular hypertension. High IOP (>21 mm Hg was correlated with age, sex, arterial blood pressure, total blood cholesterol levels, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking , BMI and MetS. RESULTS: A statistically significant difference was found between the IOP of subjects with a low risk and higher risk for the development of MetS (P<0.0001 for males, P=0.0026 for females. A statistically significant positive correlation was found in male subjects between high BMI and elevated IOP (r=0.11677, P<0.0001. CONCLUSION: MetS and BMI were significantly more prevalent in subjects with increased IOP levels. We suggest that both should be taken into consideration in the assessment of glaucoma suspects.

  8. Assessment of intraocular pressure sensing using an implanted reflective flexible membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, Andrey; Knyazer, Boris; Lifshitz, Tova; Schvartzman, Mark; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative condition that is the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the main cause for the development of the disease. The symptoms of this form, such as deterioration of vision and scotomas (loss of visual fields), appear in the latter stages of the disease. Therefore, an IOP monitoring device is needed for better, simpler, and faster diagnosis, and to enable a fast treatment response. We present a theoretical assessment as well as preliminary experimental results of a simple approach for easy, optical, IOP self-monitoring. It is based on a polydimethylsiloxane membrane coated with a reflective layer and a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor. Nearly linear correlation is found between membrane deformation and Zernike coefficients representing defocus primary spherical aberration, with high sensitivity and negligible dependence on the measurement distance. The proposed device is expected to provide an accurate IOP measurement resolution of less than ±0.2 mm Hg with a pressure dependence on working distances <0.7 mm Hg/cm for a thick membrane; the corresponding values for a thin membrane are ±0.45 mm Hg and <0.6 mm Hg/cm, respectively, at typical IOP values-up to 40 mm Hg.

  9. Remifentanil-Ketamine versus Fentanyl-Ketamine sedation in patients undergoing phacoemulsification with topical anesthesia: comparison of intraocular pressure changes and sedation quality

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    Bahram Soleymani

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Narcotics and sedatives can reduce intraocular pressure. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of remifentanil plus ketamine on intraocular pressure and sedation quality in comparison with fentanyl plus ketamine during and after operation in patients undergoing phacoemulsification with topical anesthesia.METHODS: Forty four patients were randomized into two groups to receive either a continuous infusion of remifentanil (0.2 µg/kg/min for 4 min and then 0.1 µg/kg/min: Group R, n=22 or bolus intravenous fentanyl (1.5 µg/kg: Group F, n=22 for sedation. Patients in both groups received low dose ketamine (0.15 mg/kg intravenously. Topical anesthesia was performed using tetracaine 0.5% eye drop in both eyes. Intraocular pressure was measured in non-operative eye before sedation (baseline, 2 minutes after sedation, before intraocular lens insertion, at the end of operation and 15 minutes after the end of operation using Schiötz tonometer. Sedation, cooperation, satisfaction and pain scores and also postoperative nausea and vomiting were recorded in all patients. Surgeon satisfaction scores were evaluated at the end of operation.RESULTS: The intraocular pressure did not differ significantly between the two groups throughout the study. The mean (SD intraocular pressures 2 minutes after sedation, before intraocular lens insertion, at the end of operation and 15 minutes after the end of operation in recovery room were all less than that of baseline in both groups, but the baseline value was decreased only significantly (P CONCLUSIONS: Combination of remifentanil infusion and intravenous ketamine did not offer any advantages over the combination of intravenous fentanyl and ketamine in order to prevent intraocular pressure rising during phacoemulsification. The lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and higher rate of appropriate sedation in fentanyl group suggested fentanyl as a more suitable medication for systemic

  10. Effects of inner materials on the sensitivity and phase depth of wireless inductive pressure sensors for monitoring intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheol-In; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Kim, Mi Jeung; Yun, Kwang-Seok; Park, Ki Ho; Kang, Ji Yoon; Lee, Soo Hyun

    2016-03-01

    In this research, we developed wireless, inductive, pressure sensors with high sensitivity and investigated the effects of the inner materials (copper or ferrite) on the performance of the sensors. The proposed sensor is comprised of two parts, i.e., the top and the bottom parts. The top part includes a micro coil and a capacitor for the wireless transfer of data, and the bottom part includes the inner materials and a thick or thin flexible membrane to induce changes in the inductance. An anchor is used to assemble the top and bottom parts. The behavior of the sensor with copper was based on the eddy current effect, and, as the pressure increased, its resonance frequency increased, while its phase depth decreased exponentially. The principle of the sensor with ferrite was related to the effective permeability between a ferrite and a coil, and its response was the opposite of that with copper, i.e., as the pressure increased, the resonance frequency decreased linearly, and the phase depth increased linearly. These different operational mechanisms can be explained by the changes in the equations of inductance presented in this paper. After characterizing four different types of inductive pressure sensors in ambient air, one type of inductive pressure sensor was used to monitor the intraocular pressure (IOP) of a rabbit's eye as a biomedical application. The results showed that, in the animal tests, the measured responsivity and sensitivity were 16.7 kHz/mmHg and 1340 ppm/mmHg, respectively. These data indicate that the proposed sensor is a good candidate for monitoring IOP.

  11. INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE CHANGES IN NORMAL AND MODERATE LY HYPERTENSIVE POST MENOPAUSAL WOMEN

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    Shankarappa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Elevated Intraocular Pressure (IOP causes a mecha nical stress situation, leading to damage of neurons in retina a nd their axons resulting in progressive loss of visual field and blindness seen in Glaucoma. Change s in IOP are directly and significantly associated with changes in systemic blood pressures. Blood pressure increases with age in most populations, especially so after menopause. Menopausal women with hypertension are at increased risk of developing elevated IOP. There are limited data about association of moderat e changes in blood pressure that often go with treatme nt for hypertension with IOP. This work was undertaken to study the effect of moderate syst emic hypertension on IOP in postmenopausal women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 Normotensive and 40 Hypertensive postmenopausal women participated in the study. All pa rticipants satisfied inclusion and exclusion criteria and gave informed consent. Parti cipants underwent detailed clinical and ophthalmologic examination and IOPs were measured us ing Schiotz Indentation Tonometer. RESULTS: Mean IOP was 15.28+/-2.54 mmHg in normotensive and 19.47+/-3.37 mmHg, in moderately Hypertensive women. IOP was significantly increased (P<0.001** among the hypertensive post menopausal women compared to normot ensives. Subjects with higher SBP had significantly higher IOP (p < 0.001. The mean I OP also showed a significant correlation (p value of 0.001** to the total number of years afte r attainment of menopause. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated IOP was seen in postmenopausal women with mo derate hypertension associated with treatment. It is therefore essential that postmenopau sal hypertensive women are screened regularly for increases in IOP, the only modifiable risk factor for Glaucoma.

  12. Pattern of intraocular pressure reduction following laser trabeculoplasty in open-angle glaucoma patients: comparison between selective and nonselective treatment

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    Almeida Jr ED

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Eglailson Dantas Almeida Júnior1, Luciano Moreira Pinto1,2, Rodrigo Antonio Brant Fernandes1,2, Tiago Santos Prata1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Cerpo Oftalmologia, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Hospital Medicina dos Olhos, São Paulo, BrazilObjective: To compare the pattern of intraocular pressure (IOP reduction following selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT in open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients, and to investigate the ability of initial IOP reduction to predict mid-term success.Methods: A prospective, nonrandomized, interventional case series was carried out. Consecutive uncontrolled OAG glaucoma patients underwent SLT or ALT; the same preoperative medical regimen was maintained during follow-up. Data collected included age, type of OAG, pre- and postoperative IOP, number of glaucoma medications, and surgical complications. Post-treatment assessments were scheduled at day 1 and 7 and months 1, 3, and 6.Results: A total of 45 patients (45 eyes were enrolled [SLT group (n = 25; ALT group (n = 20]. Groups were similar for age, baseline IOP, and number of glaucoma medications (P ≥ 0.12. We found no significant differences in mean IOP reduction between SLT (5.1 ± 2.5 mmHg; 26.6% and ALT (4.4 ± 2.8 mmHg; 22.8% groups at month 6 (P = 0.38. Success rates (IOP ≤ 16 mmHg and IOP reduction ≥25% at last follow-up visit were similar for SLT (72% and ALT (65% groups (P = 0.36. Comparing the pattern of IOP reduction (% of IOP reduction at each visit between groups, we found a greater effect following SLT compared with ALT at day 7 (23.7% ± 13.7% vs 8.1% ± 9.5%; P < 0.001. No significant differences were observed at other time points (P ≥ 0.32. Additionally, the percentage of IOP reduction at day 7 and at month 6 were significantly correlated in the SLT group (R2 = 0.36; P < 0.01, but not in the ALT group (P = 0.89. Early postoperative success predicted late

  13. Adenine nucleotide effect on intraocular pressure: Involvement of the parasympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peral, Assumpta; Gallar, Juana; Pintor, Jesús

    2009-06-15

    Nucleotides are present in the aqueous humor possibly exerting physiological effects on intraocular pressure (IOP). To determine the effect of nucleotides such as ATP and its related derivatives on IOP, New Zealand white rabbits were used. IOP was measured in rabbits treated topically either with saline (control) or with a single dose (10 microg/microL) of adenine nucleotides (ATP, 2-meS-ATP, ATP-gamma-S, alpha,beta-meADP, alpha,beta-meATP and beta,gamma-meATP). Those nucleotides reducing IOP (alpha,beta-meATP and beta,gamma-meATP) were then tested in concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 microg/microL to obtain the IC(50) value. Several antagonists for the P2 and adenosine A1 receptors (all at 10 microg/microL) were assayed 30 min before the application of the hypotensive nucleotide beta,gamma-meATP. To see whether the nucleotide was acting directly on the structures involved in aqueous humor dynamics or on the autonomic nerves controlling IOP, animal denervation and sympathetic (yohimbine and ICI-118,551 at 10 microg/microL) and parasympathetic (atropine and hexametonium at 10 microg/microL) receptors' antagonists were used 30 min before the instillation of beta,gamma-meATP. alpha,beta-meATP and beta,gamma-meATP decreased IOP to 60% of control value (basal IOP=23.2+/-1.3 mmHg), with IC(50) of 1.59+/-0.21 microg/microLand 0.56+/-0.62 microg/microL, which corresponds to 3mM and 1mM respectively. Denervation completely abolished the effect of beta,gamma-meATP. Sympathetic antagonists did not modify the hypotensive effect of beta,gamma-meATP, but parasympathetic antagonists were able to abolish it. Among the series of adenine nucleotide tested, alpha,beta-meATP and beta,gamma-meATP presented hypotensive actions on IOP. beta,gamma-meATP seems to stimulate cholinergic terminals being its final effect the IOP reduction. Therefore, these two nucleotides are interesting pharmacological tools for those pathologies related with high intraocular pressure.

  14. Clinical factors affecting intraocular pressure change after orbital decompression surgery in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

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    Jeong JH

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Jae Hoon Jeong,1 Jeong Kyu Lee,1,2 Dong Ik Lee,1 Yeoun Sook Chun,1 Bo Youn Cho2 1Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University 2Thyroid Center, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul, Korea Objective: To report the physiological monitoring of intraocular pressure (IOP during the postoperative periods after orbital decompression surgery and ascertain the correlation between the clinical factors and IOP changes.Methods: The medical records of 113 orbits from 60 patients who underwent orbital decompression surgery were reviewed retrospectively. IOP measurement during the postoperative periods was classified based on the postoperative day: week 1 (1–7 days, month 1 (8–41 days, month 2 (42–70 days, month 3 (71–97 days, month 4 (98–126 days, and final (after 127 days. The mean postoperative follow-up was 286.5 days for orbits with at least 6 months of follow-up. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to assess the correlation between the IOP reduction percentage and clinical factors.Results: The mean IOP increased from 16.9 to 18.6 mmHg (10.1% at postoperative week 1 and decreased to 14.4 mmHg (14.5% after 2 months. Minimal little changes were observed postoperatively in the IOP after 2 months. Preoperative IOP had a significant positive effect on the reduction percentage both at postoperative week 1 (β=2.51, P=0.001 and after 2 months (β=1.07, P=0.029, and the spherical equivalent showed a positive correlation with the reduction level at postoperative week 1 (β=1.71, P=0.021.Conclusion: Surgical decompression caused a significant reduction in the IOP in thyroid-associated orbitopathy, and the amount of reduction was closely related to preoperative IOP; however, it may also cause a transient elevation in the IOP during the early postoperative phase in highly myopic eyes. Keywords: Graves’ ophthalmopathy, intraocular pressure, myopia, physiologic monitoring, postoperative periods

  15. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous population

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    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Godefroy Koki2, Augustin Ellong2, Didier Owono2, Emilienne Epée2, Lucienne Assumpta Bella2, Côme Ebana Mvogo1, Jeanne Mayouego Kouam21Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceuticals Sciences, University of Douala; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé, CameroonAim: We performed a prospective, analytical study from 01 January to 31 March 2009 in the Ophthalmology Unit of the Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yaounde, aiming to determine the profile of central corneal thickness (CCT in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous black population and its relationship with intraocular pressure (IOP.Results and discussion: Four hundred and eighty-five patients (970 eyes meeting our ­inclusion criteria were selected for this study. The average CCT was 529.29 ± 35.9 µm in the right eye (95% confidence interval [CI]: 526.09–532.49, 528.19 ± 35.9 µm in the left eye (95% CI: 524.99–531.40 and 528.74 ± 35.89 µm in both eyes (95% CI: 526.48–531.00, range 440 to 670 µm. The average IOP was 13.01 ± 2.97 mmHg in both eyes (95% CI: 12.82–13.19. A rise in CCT by 100 µm was followed by an increase in IOP of about 2.8 mmHg (95% CI: 2.3–3.6 for both eyes taken together. Linear regression analysis showed that corneal thickness was negatively correlated with age and IOP was positively related with age.Conclusion: CCT in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous black population was found to be lower compared with CCT values in Caucasian and Asian populations. On the basis of reference values ranging between 527 and 560 µm, an adjustment of IOP values by a correction factor is required for many Cameroonian patients. This will improve the diagnosis and follow-up of glaucoma by helping to detect true ocular hypertension.Keywords: central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, Cameroon

  16. The Influence of Central Corneal Thickness and Corneal Curvature and Axial Length on the Measurement of Intraocular Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Li; Minru Li; Zhigang Fan; Ningli Wang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal curvature (CC), and axial length (AL) on intraocular pressure (IOP).Methods: Eighty-one clinically normal eyes were included in our study. The IOP, CCT, CC, AL were measured using a Goldmann applanation tonometer, optical pachymeter, keratometer and A-scan ultrasound biometer respectively in all subjects.Results: A highly significant positive correlation was identified between IOP and CCT. Linear regression analysis suggests that an increase in CCT of 0. 010 mm is associated with a 4. 946 mmHg increment in IOP. No significant positive correlation was identified between IOP and CC. P values are 0. 724 and 0.414 respectively for vertical and horizontal readings. A paradoxically reversed correlation was present between IOP and axial length.Conclusion: Corneal thickness is a very important confounding factor in the measurement of intraocular pressure, which warrants further attention in our clinical practice.

  17. Changes in intraocular pressure following administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation: Influence of dexmedetomidine premedication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chandan Kumar; Ray, Manjushree; Sen, Anjana; Hajra, Bimal; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Ghanta, Anil Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Background: Use of suxamethonium is associated with an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP) and may be harmful for patients with penetrating eye injuries. The purpose of our study was to observe the efficacy of dexmedetomidine for prevention of rise in IOP associated with the administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation. Methods: Sixty-six American Society of Anaesthesiologists I or II patients undergoing general anaesthesia for non-ophthalmic surgery were included in this randomized, prospective, clinical study. Patients were allocated into three groups to receive 0.4 μg/kg dexmedetomidine (group D4), 0.6 μg/kg dexmedetomidine (group D6) or normal saline (group C) over a period of 10 min before induction. IOP, heart rate and mean arterial pressure were recorded before and after the premedication, after induction, after suxamethonium injection and after endotracheal intubation. Results: Fall in IOP was observed following administration of dexmedetomidine. IOP increased in all three groups after suxamethonium injection and endotracheal intubation, but it never crossed the baseline value in group D4 as well as in group D6. Fall in mean arterial pressure was noticed after dexmedetomidine infusion, especially in the D6 group. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine (0.6 μg/kg as well as 0.4 μg/kg body weight) effectively prevents rise of IOP associated with administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation. However, dexmedetomidine 0.6 μg/kg may cause significant hypotension. Thus, dexmedetomidine 0.4 μg/kg may be preferred for prevention of rise in IOP. PMID:22223900

  18. Changes in intraocular pressure following administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation: Influence of dexmedetomidine premedication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar Pal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of suxamethonium is associated with an increase in intraocular pressure (IOP and may be harmful for patients with penetrating eye injuries. The purpose of our study was to observe the efficacy of dexmedetomidine for prevention of rise in IOP associated with the administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation. Methods: Sixty-six American Society of Anaesthesiologists I or II patients undergoing general anaesthesia for non-ophthalmic surgery were included in this randomized, prospective, clinical study. Patients were allocated into three groups to receive 0.4 mg/kg dexmedetomidine (group D4, 0.6 mg/kg dexmedetomidine (group D6 or normal saline (group C over a period of 10 min before induction. IOP, heart rate and mean arterial pressure were recorded before and after the premedication, after induction, after suxamethonium injection and after endotracheal intubation. Results: Fall in IOP was observed following administration of dexmedetomidine. IOP increased in all three groups after suxamethonium injection and endotracheal intubation, but it never crossed the baseline value in group D4 as well as in group D6. Fall in mean arterial pressure was noticed after dexmedetomidine infusion, especially in the D6 group. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine (0.6 mg/kg as well as 0.4 mg/kg body weight effectively prevents rise of IOP associated with administration of suxamethonium and endotracheal intubation. However, dexmedetomidine 0.6 mg/kg may cause significant hypotension. Thus, dexmedetomidine 0.4 mg/kg may be preferred for prevention of rise in IOP.

  19. Ocular Decompression with Cotton Swabs Lowers Intraocular Pressure Elevation Following Intravitreal Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Ninel Z.; Weiss, Matthew J.; Goldhardt, Raquel; Schiffman, Joyce C.; Vega, Edgardo; Mattis, Cherrie-Ann; Shi, Wei; Kelley, Linda; Hernandez, Vilma; Feuer, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of pre-injection ocular decompression by cotton swabs on the immediate rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) after intravitreal injections. Methods Forty-eight patients receiving 0.05-ml ranibizumab injections in a retina clinic were randomized to two anesthetic methods in each eye on the same day (if bilateral disease) or on consecutive visits (if unilateral disease). One method utilized cotton swabs soaked in 4% lidocaine applied to the globe with moderate pressure and the other 3.5% lidocaine gel applied without pressure. IOPs were recorded at baseline (before injection) and at 0, 5, 10, and 15 minutes after the injection until the IOP was ≤30 mmHg. The IOP elevations from baseline were compared after the two anesthetic methods. Results The pre-injection mean IOP (SD, mmHg) was 15.5 (3.3) before the cotton swabs and 15.9 (3.0) before the gel (p=0.28). Mean IOP (SD, mmHg) change immediately after injection was 25.7 (9.2) after the cotton swabs and 30.9 (9.9) after the gel (P=0.001). Thirty-five percent of gel eyes had IOP ≥50 mmHg compared to only 10% of cotton swab eyes immediately after the injection (P<0.001). Conclusion Decompressing the eye with cotton swabs during anesthetic preparation prior to an intravitreal injection produces a significantly lower IOP spike after the injection. PMID:23632408

  20. Genome-wide analysis of multiethnic cohorts identifies new loci influencing intraocular pressure and susceptibility to glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hysi, Pirro G.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Springelkamp, Henri?t; MacGregor, Stuart; Bailey, Jessica N. Cooke; Wojciechowski, Robert; Vitart, Veronique; Nag, Abhishek; Hewitt, Alex W.; H?hn, Ren?; Venturini, Cristina; Mirshahi, Alireza; Wishal D Ramdas; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vithana, Eranga

    2014-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor in developing glaucoma and IOP variability may herald glaucomatous development or progression. We report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 18 population cohorts from the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium (IGGC), comprising 35,296 multiethnic participants for IOP. We confirm genetic association of known loci for IOP and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and identify four new IOP loci located...

  1. Genome-wide analysis of multi-ancestry cohorts identifies new loci influencing intraocular pressure and susceptibility to glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hysi, Pirro G.; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Springelkamp, Henriët; MacGregor, Stuart; Bailey, Jessica N. Cooke; Wojciechowski, Robert; Vitart, Veronique; Nag, Abhishek; Hewitt, Alex W.; Höhn, René; Venturini, Cristina; Mirshahi, Alireza; Wishal D Ramdas; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vithana, Eranga

    2014-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor in developing glaucoma, and variability in IOP might herald glaucomatous development or progression. We report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 18 population cohorts from the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium (IGGC), comprising 35,296 multi-ancestry participants for IOP. We confirm genetic association of known loci for IOP and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and identify four new IOP-ass...

  2. Effect of prophylactic timolol 0.1% gel on intraocular pressure after an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab: a randomized study

    OpenAIRE

    Pece A; Allegrini D; Montesano G; Dimastrogiovanni AF

    2016-01-01

    Alfredo Pece,1 Davide Allegrini,1 Giovanni Montesano,2 Andrea Fabio Dimastrogiovanni1 1Eye Clinic, Melegnano Hospital, Vizzolo Predabissi, 2Eye Clinic, San Paolo Hospital, Università di Milano, Milano, Italy Purpose: The purpose of this study is to make a prospective evaluation of the effect of timolol 0.1% eye gel on short-term intraocular pressure (IOP) after an intravitreal injection (IVI) of ranibizumab. Participants and methods: One hundred and fifty eyes of 150 IVI-na&i...

  3. Effects of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin on HIF-1α expression in the retina in a rabbit model of acute high intraocular pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the retina of rabbits with acute high intraocular pressure and to investigate the mechanism of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) protecting the retina from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods First,control group and model group were established in rabbit eyes. The acute high intraocular pressure model was established by saline perfusion into anterior chamber,and then hypodermic injection of domestic rhEP...

  4. Determination of Tear Production and Intraocular Pressure With Rebound Tonometry in Wild Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Julie D; Adkesson, Michael J; Allender, Matthew C; Jankowski, Gwen; Langan, Jennifer; Cardeña, Marco; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana

    2017-03-01

    Tear production and intraocular pressures (IOPs) were determined in 38 and 102 wild Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), respectively, from the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area in Ica, Peru. Tear production was measured by Schirmer tear test, and IOP was measured with a TonoVet rebound tonometer. Adult (n = 90) and chick (n = 12) penguins were sampled from 2 different beaches (north and south facing) during 2 sampling years (2010 and 2011). Results showed a mean ± SD (range) of 9 ± 4 (2-20) mm/min for tear production and 28 ± 9 (3-49) mm Hg for IOP. Tear production in penguins differed between beach and sex, whereas IOP differed between age, year, and beach. The IOPs were negatively correlated with packed cell volume. Tear production and IOP values had greater variation in this population than it has in other avian species. Previous investigations of IOP and tear production in Spheniscus species were conducted with birds housed under professional care in artificial marine and freshwater environments. This is the first study, to our knowledge, investigating tear production and IOP in wild penguins and establishes valuable reference intervals for this species.

  5. INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN SOUTHERN ROCKHOPPER (EUDYPTES CHRYSOCOME) AND MACARONI PENGUINS (EUDYPTES CHRYSOLOPHUS): EVALUATION OF INFLUENCING FACTORS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Sarah J; Peterson, Edward L; Schmitt, Todd; Aquino, Susette

    2016-03-01

    Ophthalmic examinations were performed on 160 macaroni penguins (Eudyptes chrysolophus) and 90 southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) at eight North American zoos and aquaria. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured using rebound tonometry while penguins were held in two different body positions. Correlations between IOP and factors including age, body position, eye pathology, and housing parameters were evaluated. Normal macaroni penguins had a mean IOP of 42.0 ± 9.7 mm Hg. Normal rockhopper penguins had a mean IOP of 32.9 ± 6.2 mm Hg. Neither species had significantly different IOP between sexes or between left and right eyes of the same penguin. In both species, there was a negative linear correlation between age and IOP. In the macaroni population, IOP was significantly higher when IOP measurement was performed before ophthalmic exam; this was not true in rockhoppers. In both species, IOP measured in a horizontal body position was significantly higher than IOP measured in a vertical body position. In both species, eyes with corneal lesions had significantly lower IOP than normal eyes. In the macaroni penguin, eyes with rubeosis iridis had significantly lower IOP than normal eyes. In macaroni penguins, eyes with cataracts had significantly lower mean IOP than normal eyes; this was not true for rockhoppers.

  6. Changes in intraocular pressure during surgery in the lateral decubitus position under sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko Hardy; Takazawa, Tomonori; Iriuchijima, Nobuhisa; Horiuchi, Tatsuo; Saito, Shigeru

    2016-12-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) has been shown to change with body position. Several studies have shown that the lateral decubitus position (LDP) is associated with a significant increase in IOP in the dependent eye. However, whether anesthetic agents alter IOP in the LDP remains unclear. This study investigated the effect of sevoflurane and propofol anesthesia on IOP in the LDP. A total of 28 patients undergoing surgery in the LDP were included. Patients were randomly allocated to sevoflurane or propofol groups. IOP in both eyes was recorded and compared between groups at five time points: after anesthesia induction, after endotracheal intubation, at 5 min and 1 h after a positional change to the LDP, and 5 min after returning to the supine position. In the sevoflurane group, IOP was significantly increased in both dependent and non-dependent eyes 1 h after changing to the LDP. In the propofol group, IOP decreased in both dependent and non-dependent eyes after tracheal intubation, but did not increase after changing to the LDP. The number of patients in whom IOP increased to ≥28 mmHg was greater in the sevoflurane group than in the propofol group. Propofol may be better than sevoflurane for the maintenance of anesthesia in the LDP. Monitoring of IOP in the LDP might help avoid ophthalmic complications.

  7. A biodegradable ocular implant for long-term suppression of intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Xu Wen; Liu, Kerh Lin; Veluchamy, Amutha Barathi; Lwin, Nyein Chan; Wong, Tina T; Venkatraman, Subbu S

    2015-10-01

    Timolol maleate (TM) has been used for many years for the reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients. However, the topical mode of administration (eyedrops) is far from optimal because of the issues of low bioavailability, high drug wastage, and lack of patient compliance. Suboptimal control of the IOP leads to disease progression and eventually to blindness. Ideally, TM is delivered to the patient so that its action is both localized and sustained for 3 months or more. In this work, we developed a subconjunctival TM microfilm for sustained, long-term delivery of TM to the eyes, using the biodegradable elastomer poly(lactide-co-caprolactone) (PLC). The copolymer is biocompatible and has flexibility and mechanical characteristics suitable for a patient-acceptable implant. Controlling the release of TM for 3 months is challenging, and this work describes how, by using a combination of multilayering and blending with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) copolymers, we were able to develop a TM-incorporated biodegradable film that can deliver TM at a therapeutic dose for 90 days in vitro. The data was further confirmed in a diseased primate model, with sustained IOP-lowering effects for 5 months with a single implant, with acceptable biocompatibility and partial degradation.

  8. Influence of different artificial lighting regimes on intraocular pressure circadian profile in the dog (Canis familiaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccione, Giuseppe; Giannetto, Claudia; Fazio, Francesco; Giudice, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the temporal variation in intraocular pressure (IOP) and if this variation is under circadian clock control. The authors exposed five female and five male Beagles to four different artificial lighting regimes: 12/12 light/dark (L/D) period, 12/12 D/L period, constant light, and constant darkness. IOP was measured at 3 h intervals over a 48-h period. Statistical analysis of the data was performed by multivariate ANOVA, one-way repeated measure ANOVA and by the single cosinor method. Results showed no statistical effect of gender, eye and photoperiod on IOP values. A significant effect of time for each gender and each eye during all lighting regimes was seen, except during constant light, and also robust daily rhythmicity of IOP values in all L/D periods, except during constant light. In conclusion IOP values in the dog show a circadian rhythm and this rhythm is driven by a central pacemaker.

  9. Screening of intraocular pressure before routine pupil dilation for retinal photography: Clinical case report

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    Lap-kin Chiang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pharmacologic dilation of the pupil results in twice the sensitivity of detection of diabetic retinopathy compared with undilated retinal examination. The potential risk of acute angle-closure glaucoma after pupil dilation has been hypothesized to be higher in Asian patients with diabetes mellitus. Clinical case: A 61-year-old man with diabetes mellitus and hypertension was incidentally found to have elevated intraocular pressure (IOP before routine retinal photography. He was asymptomatic and the visual acuity was 0.67 for both eyes. An ophthalmologist later found he had anatomical narrow-angle borderline glaucoma. Topical administration of pilocarpine and oral administration of acetazolamide were initiated, and laser iridotomy was later performed. IOP screening: Among 1736 diabetic and/or hypertensive patients who underwent IOP screening, 31 patients (1.8% had IOP of any eye persistently higher than 21 mm Hg on at least two occasions. The mean (standard deviation IOP of the right eye was 24.1 (2.1 mm Hg, while that of the left eye was 24.6 (2.5 mm Hg. Four patients (12.9% were found to have glaucoma, and treatment was initiated by an ophthalmologist. Therefore further study should be conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of IOP screening among this group of patients.

  10. Tear production and intraocular pressure in canine eyes with corneal ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David L; Burg, Philippa

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in lacrimation and intraocular pressure (IOP) in dogs with unilateral corneal ulceration using the Schirmer tear test (STT) and rebound (TonoVet®) tonometry. IOP and STT values were recorded in both ulcerated and non-ulcerated (control) eyes of 100 dogs diagnosed with unilateral corneal ulceration. Dogs presented with other ocular conditions as their primary complaint were excluded from this study. The mean ± standard deviation for STT values in the ulcerated and control eyes were 20.2±4.6 mm/min and 16.7±3.5 mm/min respectively. The mean ± standard deviation for IOP in the ulcerated and control eyes were 11.9±3.1 mmHg and 16.7±2.6 mmHg respectively. STT values were significantly higher (pSTT in both eyes in cases of corneal ulceration, since this increased lacrimation may mask an underlying keratoconjunctivitis sicca only evident in the contralateral eye. The lower IOP in ulcerated eyes is likely to relate to mild uveitic change in the ulcerated eye with a concomitant increase in uveoscleral aqueous drainage. While these changes in tear production and IOP in ulcerated eyes are widely recognised in both human and veterinary ophthalmology, it appears that this is the first controlled documented report of these changes in a large number of individuals.

  11. Toward a Wirelessly Powered On-Lens Intraocular Pressure Monitoring System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Jin-Chern; Hsu, Shun-Hsi; Liao, Yu-Te; Huang, Yu-Chieh; Yeh, Guan-Ting; Kuei, Cheng-Kai; Dai, Kai-Shiun

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a wireless on-lens intraocular pressure monitoring system, comprising a capacitance-to-digital converter and a wirelessly powered radio-frequency identification (RFID)-compatible communication system, for sensor control and data communication. The capacitive sensor was embedded on a soft contact lens of 200 μm thickness using commercially available biocompatible lens material, to improve compliance and reduce user discomfort. The sensor chip was shown to achieve effective number of bits greater than 10 over a capacitance range up to 50 pF while consuming only 64-μW power. The on-lens capacitive sensor could detect dielectric variation caused by changes in water content from a distance of 2 cm by using incident power from an RFID reader at 20 dBm. The maximum detectable distance was 11 cm with 30-dBm incident RF power. The rise in eye tissue temperature under 30-dBm RF exposure over an interval of 1 s was simulated and found to be less than 0.01°C.

  12. Effect of Tetracaine on Intraocular Pressure in Normal and Hypertensive Rabbit Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Sarchahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of tetracaine on intraocular pressure (IOP in normal and hypertensive rabbit eyes. Methods: The study was conducted on 12 healthy rabbits as controls and 6 healthy rabbits in which an experimental model of ocular hypertension (OHT was induced by administration of 70 mL/kg of tap water through an orogastric tube. One drop of tetracaine was instilled in the left eye while a drop of normal saline (placebo was applied to the right eye of the control group. IOP was measured before and 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 minutes after drop administration in this group. The OHT group also received one drop of tetracaine and normal saline in the left eyes and right eyes respectively, immediately after water loading; the instillation of drops was repeated after 55 minutes. IOP was measured before and 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 55, 70, 85, 100 and 115 minutes after water loading in this group. Results: Tetracaine treated eyes in both groups (ocular hypertensive and normal controls demonstrated significant IOP reduction at time zero (immediately after drop instillation which was sustained up to 20 minutes, as compared to placebo treated eyes (P<0.05. In ocular hypertensive rabbits, repeat instillation of tetracaine significantly reduced IOP at 55 minutes up to 30 minutes thereafter. Conclusion: Topical tetracaine can reduce IOP; this fact should be considered in experiments evaluating IOP reducing agents.

  13. Selective laser trabeculoplasty for elevated intraocular pressure following subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenya Yuki

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Kenya Yuki1, Makoto Inoue1,2, Daisuke Shiba1, Ryosuke Kawamura1, Susumu Ishida1, Yuichiro Ohtake11Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, 2Kyorin Eye Center, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Mitaka, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To report on the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT for elevated intraocular pressure (IOP following subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide.Method: SLT was performed on four of 148 eyes in which IOP was elevated after a subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide and could not be maintained within normal limits by conventional medications. Postoperative IOP and relative reduction of IOP were evaluated.Results: IOP was reduced in three eyes to within the normal range without any medications six months after SLT alone, but trabeculotomy was performed on one eye. Percentage reduction in IOP after SLT was 21.6% at one month, 45.0% at three months, and 52.7% at nine months.Conclusion: SLT may be effective in reducing elevated IOP following subtenon injection of triamcinolone acetonide and should be considered before glaucoma surgery.Keywords: selective laser trabeculoplasty, steroid glaucoma, subtenon injection, triamcinolone acetonide

  14. Application of Cornelian Cherry Iridoid-Polyphenolic Fraction and Loganic Acid to Reduce Intraocular Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumny, Dorota; Sozański, Tomasz; Kucharska, Alicja Z.; Dziewiszek, Wojciech; Piórecki, Narcyz; Magdalan, Jan; Chlebda-Sieragowska, Ewa; Kupczynski, Robert; Szeląg, Adam; Szumny, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common diseases of old age in modern societies is glaucoma. It is strongly connected with increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and could permanently damage vision in the affected eye. As there are only a limited number of chemical compounds that can decrease IOP as well as blood flow in eye vessels, the up-to-date investigation of new molecules is important. The chemical composition of the dried Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) polar, iridoid-polyphenol-rich fraction was investigated. Loganic acid (50%) and pelargonidin-3-galactoside (7%) were found as the main components. Among the other constituents, iridoid compound cornuside and the anthocyans cyanidin 3-O-galactoside, cyanidin 3-O-robinobioside, and pelargonidin 3-O-robinobioside were quantified in the fraction. In an animal model (New Zealand rabbits), the influence of loganic acid and the polyphenolic fraction isolated from Cornelian cherry fruit was investigated. We found a strong IOP-hypotensive effect for a 0.7% solution of loganic acid, which could be compared with the widely ophthalmologically used timolol. About a 25% decrease in IOP was observed within the first 3 hours of use. PMID:26124854

  15. Long-term Reliability of Diurnal Intraocular Pressure Patterns in Healthy Asians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Yeoun Sook; Park, In Ki; Shin, Ko Un

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the long-term repeatability of diurnal intraocular pressure (IOP) patterns in healthy Asian subjects without glaucoma. Methods Twenty-three eyes in 23 healthy Asian subjects without glaucoma underwent diurnal IOP measurements using Goldmann applanation tonometry every 2 hours from 9 AM to 11 PM during two visits that were 8 weeks apart. To validate repeatability between visits, we calculated intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) mean IOP, peak IOP, minimum IOP, and IOP fluctuation at each time point and expressed the results as the difference between peak IOP and minimum IOP or as the standard deviation of all diurnal IOP values in the diurnal IOP curve. Results IOP repeatability was excellent at all time points, with ICCs ranging from 0.812 to 0.946 (p 929). However, IOP fluctuations showed poor repeatability, with an ICC lower than 0.15. Conclusions Long-term repeatability of diurnal IOP patterns in healthy Asian subjects was excellent. These findings suggest that IOP measurements at standardized times of the day will be useful for assessing the effectiveness of glaucoma therapy.

  16. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF DEXMEDETOMIDINE AND CLONIDINE AS PREMEDICANT ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AND HAEMODYNAMIC CHANGES IN NON-OPHTHALMIC SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation are associated with hypertension, tachycardia, increased circulating catecholamines and increase in intraocular pressure. Aim of this study is to compare the effect of IV Dexmedetomidine and IV Clonidine premedication on the intraocular pressure changes, haemodynamic responses after succinylcholine injection and intubation. METHODS Sixty cases both male and female patients ranging between the age group 18 to 60 years belonging to ASA 1 or ASA 2 grades, undergoing elective non-ophthalmic surgeries under general anaesthesia were studied. All patients were randomized into 3 groups of 20 patients each. Each group consists of 20 patients. Dexmedetomidine Group (Group 1 patients received intravenous Dexmedetomidine 1 micro/kg in 100 mL normal saline, Clonidine Group (Group 2 patients received intravenous Clonidine 1 micro/kg in 100 mL normal saline, Control Group (Group 3 patients received intravenous 100 mL saline infused over 10 minutes. Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP, Heart Rate (HR and IOP were recorded at before premedication 5 min. after premedication, 30 s after succinylcholine, 1 min. after intubation, 5 mins. after intubation. RESULT Fall in Pulse rate, Systolic blood pressure. Diastolic blood pressure, Mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure were observed following administration of dexmedetomidine and clonidine groups after suxamethonium injection and endotracheal intubation. Pulse rate, blood pressure (Systolic, Diastolic and Mean and IOP differences were statistically significant (p value between 0.000 and 0.5 in dexmedetomidine and clonidine group compared to control groups 1 min. and 5 minutes after intubation, but it was statistically not significant between dexmedetomidine and clonidine group. CONCLUSION Dexmedetomidine (1 micro/kg given 10 minutes before induction is much more effective in controlling both the tachycardia, hypertension and IOP following laryngoscopy and intubation

  17. Ocular bacterial flora, tear production, and intraocular pressure in a captive flock of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, Robert L; Langan, Jennifer N; Hamor, Ralph

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine normal ocular surface bacterial flora, tear production, and intraocular pressure in a captive flock of Humboldt penguins, Spheniscus humboldti. Twenty-eight healthy penguins were studied and equally divided between fresh- and saltwater habitats. The population consisted of 15 female and 13 male penguins, ranging from 3-20 years of age. Following complete ophthalmic exam, 4 penguins with cataracts were removed from the study. Eight penguins from each habitat were randomly selected for ocular surface aerobic bacterial culture. Corynebacterium spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were the most common isolates. Twenty-five organisms consisting of 17 species, and 15 organisms consisting of 9 species, were identified in fresh- and saltwater groups, respectively. Tear production and intraocular pressures were evaluated on 24 penguins with normal ocular exams. The range and mean (+/- standard deviation) tear production, measured with the Schirmer tear test, was 1-12 mm/min and 6.45 mm/min +/- 2.9, respectively. The mean tear production for penguins housed in the freshwater habitat was greater (8.5 mm/min) than those in saltwater (4.8 mm/min). The range and mean (+/- standard deviation) intraocular pressure, measured by applanation tonometry using a Tono-Pen XL tonometer, was 10-27 mmHg and 20.36 mmHg +/- 4.1, respectively. This data should be utilized as a reliable resource for those involved in avian and zoo medicine.

  18. A randomised comparative study of the effect of Airtraq optical laryngoscope vs. Macintosh laryngoscope on intraocular pressure in non-ophthalmic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikramjit Das

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We compared intraocular pressure changes following laryngoscopy and intubation with conventional Macintosh blade and Airtraq optical laryngoscope. METHODS: Ninety adult patients were randomly assigned to study group or control group. Study group (n = 45 - Airtraq laryngoscope was used for laryngoscopy. Control group (n = 45 - conventional Macintosh laryngoscope was used for laryngoscopy. Preoperative baseline intraocular pressure was measured with Schiotz tonometer. Laryngoscopy was done as per group protocol. Intraocular pressure and haemodynamic parameters were recorded just before insertion of the device and subsequently three times at an interval of one minute after insertion of the device. RESULTS: Patient characteristics, baseline haemodynamic parameters and baseline intraocular pressure were comparable in the two groups. Following insertion of the endotracheal tube with Macintosh laryngoscope, there was statistically significant rise in heart rate and intraocular pressure compared to Airtraq group. There was no significant change in MAP. Eight patients in Macintosh group had tongue-lip-dental trauma during intubation, while only 2 patients received upper airway trauma in Airtraq group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that Airtraq laryngoscope in comparison to Macintosh laryngoscope results in significantly fewer rises in intraocular pressure and clinically less marked increase in haemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation.

  19. The Effect of Altitude on Intraocular Pressure in Vitrectomized Eyes with Sulfur Hexafluoride Tamponade by the Friedenwald Method: Rabbit Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromow-Guerra, Jans; Solís-Vivanco, Adriana; Perez-Reguera, Adriana; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Meza-de Regil, Armando; Papa-Oliva, Gabriela; Morales-Cantón, Virgilio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the change in intraocular pressure after a road trip, in eyes with different levels of filling with gas tamponade. Five rabbit eyes were subject to pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade (filling percentage: 25%, 50%, and 100% of nonexpansile SF6, 100% saline solution, and 100% room air). A sixth eye was injected with 0.35 cc of undiluted SF6 without vitrectomy. Guided by global positioning system, they were driven to the highest point of the highway connecting Mexico City with Puebla city and back, stopping every 300 m to assess intraocular pressure. The rabbit's scleral rigidity and estimation for human eyes were done by using the Friedenwald nomogram. Maximum altitude was 3209 m (Δ949 m). There were significant differences in intraocular pressure on the rabbit eyes filled with SF6 at 100%, 50%, 25%, and 100% room air. Per every 100 m of altitude rise, the intraocular pressure increased by 1.53, 1.0046, 0.971, and 0.97 mmHg, respectively. Using the human Friedenwald rigidity coefficient, the human eye estimate for intraocular pressure change was 2.1, 1.8, 1.4, and 1.1 mmHg per every 100 m of attitude rise. Altitude changes have a significant impact on intraocular pressure. The final effect depends on the percentage of vitreous cavity fill and scleral rigidity. PMID:27957500

  20. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

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    E.F.S. Castro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP. Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group or kept sedentary (F group, and a control group (C was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT. Arterial pressure (AP was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP induced by fructose overload (FT vs F. The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg2, was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg2. Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01 and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003. Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01 and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005. ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement.

  1. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, E.F.S. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, C.T. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís, MA (Brazil); Rodrigues, B. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moraes-Silva, I.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Feriani, D.J. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg{sup 2}), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg{sup 2}). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement.

  2. Measurement of amino acid levels in the vitreous humor of rats after chronic intraocular pressure elevation or optic nerve transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levkovitch-Verbin, Hana; Martin, Keith R G; Quigley, Harry A; Baumrind, Lisa A; Pease, Mary Ellen; Valenta, Danielle

    2002-10-01

    To investigate whether the levels of free amino acids and protein in the vitreous of rat eyes are altered with chronic intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation or after optic nerve transection. The concentrations of 20 amino acids in the vitreous humor were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in both eyes of 41 rats with unilateral IOP elevation induced by translimbal photocoagulation. Eyes were studied 1 day and 1, 2, 4, and 9 weeks after initial IOP elevation. The same amino acids were measured in 41 rats 1 day and 2, 4, and 9 weeks after unilateral transection of the orbital optic nerve. The intravitreal protein level was assayed in additional 22 rats with IOP elevation and 12 rats after nerve transection. Two masked observers evaluated the amount of optic nerve damage with a semiquantitative, light-microscopic technique. In rats with experimental glaucoma, amino acid concentrations were unchanged 1 day after treatment. At 1 week, 4 of 20 amino acids (aspartate, proline, alanine, and lysine) were higher than in control eyes ( 0.05). Vitreous protein level was significantly higher in glaucomatous eyes than their paired controls at 1 day ( 0.01).

  3. Intraocular pressure following 18 hours of systemic dehydration in ocular normotensive healthy subjects

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    Faustina K. Idu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of dehydration on intraocular pressure (IOP. Subjects: The study population comprised 50 subjects (27 men and 23 women with a mean age of 42.84 ± 2.64 years.Method: The subjects dehydrated for 18 hours. IOP was assessed in both eyes using the Perkins handheld applanation tonometer. Baseline measurement of IOP was taken before the subjects dehydrated for 18 hours and repeated after dehydration. Blood samples were taken before and after dehydration for the determination of plasma osmolality and plasma antidiuretic hormone (ADH concentrations.Results: A statistically significant (p < 0.001 reduction in the mean weight of subjects occurred after dehydration. There was a significant reduction in IOP from 16.68 mmHg ± 0.32 mmHg to 13.08 mmHg ± 0.31 mmHg after dehydration (p < 0.001. Mean plasma osmolality showed a statistically significant increase (p < 0.05 from baseline of 290.02 mOsmol/kg ± 1.25 mOsmol/kg to 294.96 mOsmol/kg ± 1.33 mOsmol/kg after dehydration. There was also a significant increase (p < 0.05 in mean plasma ADH concentration from 5.36 pg/mL ± 0.21 pg/mL to 6.40 pg/mL ± 0.20 pg/mL after dehydration. There were no significant differences in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures before and after dehydration.Conclusion: Dehydration decreases IOP in healthy humans; this decrease probably results from an increase in plasma osmolality and plasma ADH concentrations.

  4. Allometry and Scaling of the Intraocular Pressure and Aqueous Humour Flow Rate in Vertebrate Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouache, Moussa A.; Eames, Ian; Samsudin, Amir

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrates, intraocular pressure (IOP) is required to maintain the eye into a shape allowing it to function as an optical instrument. It is sustained by the balance between the production of aqueous humour by the ciliary body and the resistance to its outflow from the eye. Dysregulation of the IOP is often pathological to vision. High IOP may lead to glaucoma, which is in man the second most prevalent cause of blindness. Here, we examine the importance of the IOP and rate of formation of aqueous humour in the development of vertebrate eyes by performing allometric and scaling analyses of the forces acting on the eye during head movement and the energy demands of the cornea, and testing the predictions of the models against a list of measurements in vertebrates collated through a systematic review. We show that the IOP has a weak dependence on body mass, and that in order to maintain the focal length of the eye, it needs to be an order of magnitude greater than the pressure drop across the eye resulting from gravity or head movement. This constitutes an evolutionary constraint that is common to all vertebrates. In animals with cornea-based optics, this constraint also represents a condition to maintain visual acuity. Estimated IOPs were found to increase with the evolution of terrestrial animals. The rate of formation of aqueous humour was found to be adjusted to the metabolic requirements of the cornea, scaling as Vac0.67, where Vac is the volume of the anterior chamber. The present work highlights an interdependence between IOP and aqueous flow rate crucial to ocular function that must be considered to understand the evolution of the dioptric apparatus. It should also be taken into consideration in the prevention and treatment of glaucoma. PMID:26990431

  5. Association between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure in type 2 diabetic patients without renal impairment.

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    Jin A Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To assess the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure (IOP in type 2 diabetes patients without renal impairment. METHODS: We explored the effects of albuminuria on high IOP in 402 non-glaucomatous type 2 diabetes without renal impairment who participated in the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between log-transformed albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR tertiles and an IOP of ≥ 18 mmHg after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, body mass index, triglycerides, area of residence, and education level. RESULTS: Subjects with a high IOP ≥ 18 mmHg were more likely to be current smokers (P = 0.038, heavy drinkers (P = 0.006, and to have high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.016, triglycerides (P = 0.008, and a higher log-transformed ACR (P = 0.022.In multivariate regression analysis, ACR tertile was associated with the prevalence of high IOP significantly (P = 0.022. The associations between ACR tertiles and high IOP were significant in overweight patients and those with abdominal obesity (P = 0.003 and 0.003, respectively. In contrast, there were no associations in the subgroup of patients who were not overweight and those without abdominal obesity (P = 0.291 and 0.561, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary albumin excretion is associated with high IOP in the type 2 diabetes population without renal insufficiency. The effect of the albuminuria on IOP was evident in a subgroup of patients with components of metabolic syndrome.

  6. The correlation between body mass index and intraocular pressure in children

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    Luciano Lira de Albuquerque

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: There is evidence from some studies that support an association between obesity in adults and higher intraocular pressure (IOP. However, this association has not been completely studied in children. Our aim is to evaluate the association between child body mass index (BMI and IOP. METHODS: Ninety-six children attending the Instituto de Medicina Integral Prof. Fernando Figueira (IMIP in Brazil were studied. Thirty-three were overweight/obese with a mean BMI of 29.7 ± 5.2 and 63 with a mean BMI of 20.8 ± 3.3. IOP was measured using the Goldmann applanation tonometer and was corrected for corneal thickness. The coefficient of correlation between BMI and IOP was calculated. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the IOP of children with or without overweight/obesity. The mean IOP was 13.5 and 13.0 mmHg for the right eye and 13.1 and 12.9 mmHg for left eye, respectively (p=0.38 and p=0.71. The results remained the same after correction by pachymetry; 13.0 and 13.1 mmHg for the right eye and 12.4 and 12.9 mmHg for the left eye, respectively (p=0.88 and p=0.41. The coefficient of correlation between BMI and IOP was 0.070 (p=0.496. CONCLUSION: These results do not show a correlation between body mass index and IOP in children. Further studies are warranted to clarify the association between BMI and IOP in children.

  7. Intraocular Pressure Is a Poor Predictor of Hydration Status following Intermittent Exercise in the Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian B.; Dias, Brittany; Borg, David N.; Bach, Aaron J. E.; Feigl, Beatrix; Costello, Joseph T.

    2017-01-01

    Current hydration assessments involve biological fluids that are either compromised in dehydrated individuals or require laboratory equipment, making timely results unfeasible. The eye has been proposed as a potential site to provide a field-based hydration measure. The present study evaluated the efficacy and sensitivity of intraocular pressure (IOP) to assess hydration status. Twelve healthy males undertook two 150 min walking trials in 40°C 20% relative humidity. One trial matched fluid intake to body mass loss (control, CON) and the other had fluid restricted (dehydrated, DEH). IOP (rebound tonometry) and hydration status (nude body mass and serum osmolality) were determined every 30 min. Body mass and serum osmolality were significantly (p < 0.05) different between trials at all-time points following baseline. Body mass losses reached 2.5 ± 0.2% and serum osmolality 299 ± 5 mOsmol.kg−1 in DEH. A significant trial by time interaction was observed for IOP (p = 0.042), indicating that over the duration of the trials IOP declined to a greater extent in the DEH compared with the CON trial. Compared with baseline measurements IOP was reduced during DEH (150 min: −2.7 ± 1.9 mm Hg; p < 0.05) but remained stable in CON (150 min: −0.3 ± 2.4 mm Hg). However, using an IOP value of 13.2 mm Hg to predict a 2% body mass loss resulted in only 57% of the data being correctly classified (sensitivity 55% and specificity 57%). The use of ΔIOP (−2.4 mm Hg) marginally improved the predictive ability with 77% of the data correctly classified (sensitivity: 55%; specificity: 81%). The present study provides evidence that the large inter-individual variability in baseline IOP and in the IOP response to progressive dehydration, prevents the use of IOP as an acute single assessment marker of hydration status. PMID:28203205

  8. Changes in intraocular pressure and anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, I

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To study changes in anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery, and to investigate whether there is a relationship between any observed changes and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after the procedure. METHODS: The anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOP were measured in 101 non-glaucomatous eyes before and after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery. RESULTS: After cataract surgery, the mean ACD, ACV, and ACA values increased by 1.08 mm, 54.4 mm(3), and 13.1 degrees , respectively, and the mean IOP (corrected for CCT) decreased by 3.2 mm Hg. The predictive value of a previously described index (preoperative ACD\\/preoperative IOP (corrected for CCT) or CPD ratio) for IOP (corrected for CCT) reduction after cataract surgery was confirmed, reflected in an r(2) value of 23.3% between these two parameters (P<0.001). Other indices predictive of IOP reduction after cataract surgery were also identified, including preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACV and preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACA, reflected in r(2) values of 13.7 and 13.7%, respectively (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the predictive value of the CPD ratio for IOP reduction after cataract surgery, and may contribute to the decision-making process in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Furthermore, two novel indices of preoperative parameters that are predictive for IOP reduction after cataract surgery were identified, and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying IOP changes after this procedure.

  9. Pigmented and albino rats differ in their responses to moderate, acute and reversible intraocular pressure elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdita, Akshay; Tan, Bingyao; Joos, Karen M; Bizheva, Kostadinka; Choh, Vivian

    2017-06-01

    To compare the electrophysiological and morphological responses to acute, moderately elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) in Sprague-Dawley (SD), Long-Evans (LE) and Brown Norway (BN) rat eyes. Eleven-week-old SD (n = 5), LE (n = 5) and BN (n = 5) rats were used. Scotopic threshold responses (STRs), Maxwellian flash electroretinograms (ERGs) or ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) images of the rat retinas were collected from both eyes before, during and after IOP elevation of one eye. IOP was raised to ~35 mmHg for 1 h using a vascular loop, while the other eye served as a control. STRs, ERGs and UHR-OCT images were acquired on 3 days separated by 1 day of no experimental manipulation. There were no significant differences between species in baseline electroretinography. However, during IOP elevation, peak positive STR amplitudes in LE (mean ± standard deviation 259 ± 124 µV) and BN (228 ± 96 µV) rats were about fourfold higher than those in SD rats (56 ± 46 µV) rats (p = 0.0002 for both). Similarly, during elevated IOP, ERG b-wave amplitudes were twofold higher in LE and BN rats compared to those of SD rats (947 ± 129 µV and 892 ± 184 µV, vs 427 ± 138 µV; p = 0.0002 for both). UHR-OCT images showed backward bowing in all groups during IOP elevation, with a return to typical form about 30 min after IOP elevation. Differences in the loop-induced responses between the strains are likely due to different inherent retinal morphology and physiology.

  10. Tear production and intraocular pressure in canine eyes with corneal ulceration

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    David L. Williams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate changes in lacrimation and intraocular pressure (IOP in dogs with unilateral corneal ulceration using the Schirmer tear test (STT and rebound (TonoVet® tonometry. IOP and STT values were recorded in both ulcerated and non-ulcerated (control eyes of 100 dogs diagnosed with unilateral corneal ulceration. Dogs presented with other ocular conditions as their primary complaint were excluded from this study. The mean ± standard deviation for STT values in the ulcerated and control eyes were 20.2±4.6 mm/min and 16.7±3.5 mm/min respectively. The mean ± standard deviation for IOP in the ulcerated and control eyes were 11.9±3.1 mmHg and 16.7±2.6 mmHg respectively. STT values were significantly higher (p<0.000001 in the ulcerated eye compared to the control eye while IOP was significantly lower (p<0.0001. There is an increase in lacrimation and a decrease in IOP in canine eyes with corneal ulceration. The higher tear production in ulcerated eyes shows the importance of measuring STT in both eyes in cases of corneal ulceration, since this increased lacrimation may mask an underlying keratoconjunctivitis sicca only evident in the contralateral eye. The lower IOP in ulcerated eyes is likely to relate to mild uveitic change in the ulcerated eye with a concomitant increase in uveoscleral aqueous drainage. While these changes in tear production and IOP in ulcerated eyes are widely recognised in both human and veterinary ophthalmology, it appears that this is the first controlled documented report of these changes in a large number of individuals.

  11. Relationship between corneal hysteresis and lamina cribrosa displacement after medical reduction of intraocular pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lopez, Marta; Palacios-Pozo, Elena; Davo-Cabrera, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relationship between the displacement of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and prelaminar tissue with corneal hysteresis (CH) using spectral-domain coherence tomography (SD-OCT) after reducing intraocular pressure (IOP) with medical treatment. Methods Sixty-one eyes of 61 patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma who were going to start with treatment were imaged by means of 12 cross-sectional scans of the optic nerve using enhanced depth imaging SD-OCT before and after 1 week of treatment. We used the ‘follow-up’ mode to make sure that all the measurements were performed in the same location. We also measured the CH using an Ocular Response Analyzer, and we related it to the magnitude of displacement of LC and prelaminar tissue and the thickness of both structures. Results There was a significant variation of LC thickness from 132.66±37.40 to 160.09±41.13 µm (p<0001). LC distance was significantly reduced from 258.53±145 µm before treatment to 239.86±135 µm after it. No significant changes were found in the thickness and movement of prelaminar tissue before and after treatment. The only factors related with LC displacement were CH (R2=0.48) and age (R2=0.42). Conclusions A significant increase in LC thickness and a reduction in the posterior displacement of LC but not in the prelaminar tissue were demonstrated after IOP reduction with medical treatment. The factors most related with LC displacement were age and CH. PMID:27474156

  12. Assessment of Corneal Biomechanical Properties and Intraocular Pressure in Myopic Spanish Healthy Population

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    María A. del Buey

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine biomechanical parameters of the cornea in myopic eyes and their relationship with the degree of myopia in a western healthy population. Methods. Corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann correlated intraocular pressure (IOP, and corneal compensated IOP (IOPcc were measured using the ocular response analyzer (ORA in 312 eyes of 177 Spanish subjects aged between 20 and 56 years. Refraction was expressed as spherical equivalent (SE, which ranged from 0 to −16.50 diopters (D (mean: −3.88±2.90 D. Subjects were divided into four groups according to their refractive status: group 1 or control group: emmetropia (-0.50≤SE0.05; nevertheless, IOPcc was significantly higher in the moderately myopic (15.47±2.47 mmHg and highly myopic (16.14±2.59 mmHg groups than in the emmetropia (15.15±2.06 mmHg and low myopia groups (14.53±2.37 mmHg. No correlation between age and the measured parameters was found. CH and IOPcc were weakly but significantly correlated with SE (r=0.171, P=0.002 and r=-0.131, P=0.021, resp.. Conclusions. Present study showed only a very weak, but significant, correlation between CH and refractive error, with CH being lower in both moderately and highly myopic eyes than that in the emmetropic and low myopic eyes. These changes in biomechanical properties of the cornea may have an impact on IOP measurement, increasing the risk of glaucoma.

  13. Diurnal variation in central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome without glaucoma

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    Stuart Keel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to ascertain if any differences exist in diurnal central corneal thickness (CCT and intra-ocular pressure (IOP between eyes with pseudoexfoliation (PXF syndrome without glaucoma and eyes with no ocular pathology. A secondary aim was to determine whether there was a significant relationship between CCT and IOP. Settings and Design: This study was a prospective design conducted within a hospital setting. Materials and Methods: The experimental group consisted of seven participants with bilateral PXF (14 eyes and the control group comprised of 15 participants (30 eyes. Testing included CCT and IOP measured at four different times on one given day (8.00 a.m.; 11 a.m.; 2 p.m. and 5 p.m.. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed with the generalized linear latent mixed model. Results: PXF eyes displayed a significantly thinner overall mean CCT (520 μm compared to controls (530 μm. Furthermore, a significant reduction in CCT and IOP occurred in the PXF group from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. The mean overall IOP in PXF eyes was significantly lower than the control group. A significant association between IOP and CCT was also found in PXF eyes. Conclusions: Displaying a significantly thinner mean CCT highlights the importance of measuring CCT in an ophthalmic clinical setting as to avoid falsely underestimated IOP measurements in such a high-risk glaucoma population. Furthermore, a statistically significant correlation between IOP and CCT in PXF eyes suggests that the reduction in CCT that occurred in PXF eyes between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m. may be partly responsible for the reduction in IOP measurements.

  14. Posture change and intraocular pressure fluctuation%体位与眼压

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 邢小丽; 季健

    2015-01-01

    Although the pathogenesis of glaucoma is complicated and multifactorial,elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the most important known risk factor.The higher the IOP and the larger the IOP fluctuation,the more damage to the optic nerve.IOP fluctuation can be affected by many factors,such as emotion,exercise and circadian rhythm,etc.Recently,the effects of postural change on IOP fluctuation are receiving more and more attention.This article reviews the effects of different body positions on IOP fluctuation,the effects of surgery,medications and aging on posture-induced IOP fluctuation and the effects of postural change on IOP fluctuation of certain special groups.The possible mechanisms of postureinduced IOP fluctuation are also discussed in this article.%青光眼的发病机制复杂,而眼压是已知的最重要的危险因素.眼压越高,眼压波动越大,青光眼性视神经损害越严重.眼压波动会受到多重因素的影响,如情绪、运动、昼夜节律等.近些年来,体位变化对眼压波动的影响得到越来越多的关注.本文主要综述各种不同体位对眼压的影响,药物和手术、年龄对眼压随体位变化的影响,体位变化对几类特殊人群眼压的影响,并对眼压随体位变化的机制进行了分析探讨.

  15. ARHGEF12 influences the risk of glaucoma by increasing intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Iglesias, Adriana I; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Amin, Najaf; Burdon, Kathryn P; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Gharahkhani, Puya; Mishra, Aniket; van der Lee, Sven J; Hewitt, Alex W; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wolfs, Roger C W; Martin, Nicholas G; Ramdas, Wishal D; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M; Pennell, Craig E; Vingerling, Johannes R; Mountain, Jenny E; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Mitchell, Paul; Lemij, Hans G; Wang, Jie Jin; Klaver, Caroline C W; Mackey, David A; Craig, Jamie E; van Duijn, Cornelia M; MacGregor, Stuart

    2015-05-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a blinding disease. Two important risk factors for this disease are a positive family history and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which is also highly heritable. Genes found to date associated with IOP and POAG are ABCA1, CAV1/CAV2, GAS7 and TMCO1. However, these genes explain only a small part of the heritability of IOP and POAG. We performed a genome-wide association study of IOP in the population-based Rotterdam Study I and Rotterdam Study II using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) imputed to 1000 Genomes. In this discovery cohort (n = 8105), we identified a new locus associated with IOP. The most significantly associated SNP was rs58073046 (β = 0.44, P-value = 1.87 × 10(-8), minor allele frequency = 0.12), within the gene ARHGEF12. Independent replication in five population-based studies (n = 7471) resulted in an effect size in the same direction that was significantly associated (β = 0.16, P-value = 0.04). The SNP was also significantly associated with POAG in two independent case-control studies [n = 1225 cases and n = 4117 controls; odds ratio (OR) = 1.53, P-value = 1.99 × 10(-8)], especially with high-tension glaucoma (OR = 1.66, P-value = 2.81 × 10(-9); for normal-tension glaucoma OR = 1.29, P-value = 4.23 × 10(-2)). ARHGEF12 plays an important role in the RhoA/RhoA kinase pathway, which has been implicated in IOP regulation. Furthermore, it binds to ABCA1 and links the ABCA1, CAV1/CAV2 and GAS7 pathway to Mendelian POAG genes (MYOC, OPTN, WDR36). In conclusion, this study identified a novel association between IOP and ARHGEF12.

  16. Haploinsufficient Bmp4 ocular phenotypes include anterior segment dysgenesis with elevated intraocular pressure

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    Nusinowitz Steven

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is a blinding disease usually associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP. In some families, abnormal anterior segment development contributes to glaucoma. The genes causing anterior segment dysgenesis and glaucoma in most of these families are not identified and the affected developmental processes are poorly understood. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs participate in various developmental processes. We tested the importance of Bmp4 gene dosage for ocular development and developmental glaucoma. Results Bmp4+/- mice have anterior segment abnormalities including malformed, absent or blocked trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal drainage structures. Mice with severe drainage structure abnormalities, over 80% or more of their angle's extent, have elevated IOP. The penetrance and severity of abnormalities is strongly influenced by genetic background, being most severe on the C57BL/6J background and absent on some other backgrounds. On the C57BL/6J background there is also persistence of the hyaloid vasculature, diminished numbers of inner retinal cells, and absence of the optic nerve. Conclusions We demonstrate that heterozygous deficiency of BMP4 results in anterior segment dysgenesis and elevated IOP. The abnormalities are similar to those in human patients with developmental glaucoma. Thus, BMP4 is a strong candidate to contribute to Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly and other developmental conditions associated with human glaucoma. BMP4 also participates in posterior segment development and wild-type levels are usually critical for optic nerve development on the C57BL/6J background. Bmp4+/- mice are useful for studying various components of ocular development, and may allow identification of strain specific modifiers affecting a variety of ocular phenotypes.

  17. Surface modification of acrylate intraocular lenses with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yao; LIU ZhenMei; XU ZhiKang; YAO Ke

    2009-01-01

    Surface modification with dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma was carried out at atmospheric pressure (argon as the discharge gas) to improve the biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylate intraocular lens (IOL). Changes of the plasma-treated IOL surface in chemical composition,morphology and hydrophilicity were comprehensively evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS),field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM),atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The surface biocompatibility of the untreated and plasma-treated IOLs was compared with the adhesion behavior of platelets,macrophages and lens epithelial cells (LECs) in vitro. After DBD plasma treatment,the hydrophilicity of the IOL surface was obviously improved. The changes in WCA with treatment extension may be attributed to both the introduction of oxygen or/and nitrogen-containing polar groups and the increase of surface roughness induced by plasma etching effect. The existence of low molecular weight oxidized material (LMWOM) was proved on the plasma treated IOL which was caused by the chain scission effect of the plasma treatment. The plasma-treated lOLs resisted the adhesion of platelets and macrophages significantly. The LECs spreading and proliferation were postponed on the lOLs plasma-treated for more than 180 s,with a well maintained epithelial phenotype of LECs. The IOL biocompatibility was improved after the DBD plasma treatment. We speculate that slighter foreign-body reaction and later incidence of anterior capsule opacification (ACO) may be expected after implantation of the argon DBD plasma-treated IOL.

  18. Not only pregnancy but also the number of fetuses in the uterus affects intraocular pressure

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    Metin Saylik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate whether, intraocular pressure (IOP is affected when there is a second fetus in the uterus during pregnancy. Materials and Methods: Eighty eyes of 40 twin pregnancies (TwPs, 80 eyes of 40 singleton pregnancies (SiPs and 80 eyes of 40 non-pregnant females (NoPs were included in the study. Statistical Analysis: Repeated measurements analysis of variance with two factors, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and theTukey′s multiple comparison test were used. Results: The mean IOP (MIOP values in TwPs were 14.29 ± 1.28, 11.48 ± 1.20, and 9.81 ± 1.36 mmHg and the MIOP values in SiPs were 14.42 ± 0.95, 13.12 ± 0.75, and 10.97 ± 0.89 mmHg in subsequent trimesters. The MIOP values in NoPs were 14.77 ± 1.18, 14.92 ± 1.33, and 15.08 ± 0.89 mmHg in subsequent 3-month measurements. The results show that the MIOP values for the TwPs group were significantly lower than the SiPs in all trimesters. Conclusions: During pregnancy, the number of fetuses in the uterus is an indirectly important factor that influences the decrease in IOP. We hypothesize that the increased ocular hypotensive effect of TwPs is most likely related to the presence of higher levels of hormones, particularly estrogen, progesterone and relaxin compared with SiPs.

  19. Safety and efficacy of travoprost solution for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure

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    Quaranta L

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Luciano Quaranta,1,* Ivano Riva,1,* Andreas Katsanos,2 Irene Floriani,3 Marco Centofanti,4,† Anastasios G P Konstas51Centre for the Study of Glaucoma, University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy; 2Ophthalmology Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 3Laboratory of Clinical Research, IRCCS, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri, Milan, Italy; 4DSCMT, University of Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 5Glaucoma Unit, 1st University Department of Ophthalmology, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece*These authors contributed equally to this work; †Dr Centofanti passed away on 1 March 2015Abstract: Travoprost is a prostaglandin analogue widely used for reducing intraocular pressure (IOP in patients affected with glaucoma and ocular hypertension. It exerts its ocular hypotensive effect through the prostaglandin FP receptors, located in the ciliary muscle and the trabecular meshwork. Several studies have shown that topical administration of travoprost induces a mean IOP reduction ranging from 25% to 32%, and sustained throughout the 24-hour cycle. When compared with timolol, travoprost is more effective at reducing IOP, while generally no difference has been found in the head-to-head comparison with other prostaglandin analogues. The fixed combination of travoprost and timolol has demonstrated a hypotensive efficacy comparable to the concomitant administration of the two drugs. Recently, a new preservative-free formulation of travoprost 0.004% has been marketed for reducing tolerability-related problems in subjects affected with ocular surface disease. Low rates of topical and systemic adverse reactions, strong ocular hypotensive efficacy, and once-a-day dosing make travoprost a first-line treatment for patients affected with elevated IOP.Keywords: prostaglandin analogue, glaucoma, ocular hypertension

  20. Comparison of sugammadex and neostigmine–atropine on intraocular pressure and postoperative effects

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    Sedat Hakimoğlu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During surgery, changes in intraocular pressure (IOP can be observed resulting from several factors, such as airway manipulations and drugs used. We aimed to investigate the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine on IOP, hemodynamic parameters, and complications after extubation. Our study comprised 60 patients, aged 18–65 years, with a risk status of the American Society of Anesthesiologists I–II who underwent arthroscopic surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups. At the end of the surgery, the neuromuscular block was reversed using neostigmine (50 μg/kg plus atropine (15 μg/kg in Group 1, and sugammadex (4 mg/kg in Group 2. Neuromuscular blockade was monitored using acceleromyography and a train-of-four mode of stimulation. IOP was measured before induction and at 30 seconds, 2 minutes, and 10 minutes after extubation. A Tono-Pen XL applanation tonometer was used to measure IOP. This showed that elevation in IOP of patients reversed using sugammadex was similar to that recorded in patients reversed using neostigmine–atropine. When heart rate was compared, there was a significant difference between basal values and those obtained at 30 seconds and 10 minutes after extubation in the neostigmine–atropine group. Extubation time (time from withdrawal of anesthetic gas to extubation was significantly shorter in the sugammadex group (p = 0.003 than in the neostigmine–atropine group. The postextubation IOP values of the sugammadex group were similar to the neostigmine–atropine group. Extubation time (time from withdrawal of anesthetic gas to extubation was significantly shorter in the sugammadex group (p = 0.003 than in the neostigmine–atropine group.

  1. Comparison of sugammadex and neostigmine-atropine on intraocular pressure and postoperative effects.

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    Hakimoğlu, Sedat; Tuzcu, Kasım; Davarcı, Işıl; Karcıoğlu, Murat; Ayhan Tuzcu, Esra; Hancı, Volkan; Aydın, Suzan; Kahraman, Hilal; Elbeyli, Ahmet; Turhanoğlu, Selim

    2016-02-01

    During surgery, changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) can be observed resulting from several factors, such as airway manipulations and drugs used. We aimed to investigate the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine on IOP, hemodynamic parameters, and complications after extubation. Our study comprised 60 patients, aged 18-65 years, with a risk status of the American Society of Anesthesiologists I-II who underwent arthroscopic surgery under general anesthesia. The patients were randomly assigned into two groups. At the end of the surgery, the neuromuscular block was reversed using neostigmine (50 μg/kg) plus atropine (15 μg/kg) in Group 1, and sugammadex (4 mg/kg) in Group 2. Neuromuscular blockade was monitored using acceleromyography and a train-of-four mode of stimulation. IOP was measured before induction and at 30 seconds, 2 minutes, and 10 minutes after extubation. A Tono-Pen XL applanation tonometer was used to measure IOP. This showed that elevation in IOP of patients reversed using sugammadex was similar to that recorded in patients reversed using neostigmine-atropine. When heart rate was compared, there was a significant difference between basal values and those obtained at 30 seconds and 10 minutes after extubation in the neostigmine-atropine group. Extubation time (time from withdrawal of anesthetic gas to extubation) was significantly shorter in the sugammadex group (p = 0.003) than in the neostigmine-atropine group. The postextubation IOP values of the sugammadex group were similar to the neostigmine-atropine group. Extubation time (time from withdrawal of anesthetic gas to extubation) was significantly shorter in the sugammadex group (p = 0.003) than in the neostigmine-atropine group. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  2. Recurrent symptomatic intraocular pressure spikes during hemodialysis in a patient with unilateral anterior uveitis

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    Lim Su-Ho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP changes and hemodialysis has been evaluated for several decades. However, no report on an IOP rise in uveitis patients during hemodialysis has been previously documented. This report describes the case of an uveitis patient with repetitive IOP spikes associated with severe ocular pain during hemodialysis sessions, which resolved after glaucoma filtering surgery. Case presentation A 47-year-old male with diabetes and hypertension had complained of recurrent ocular pain in the left eye during hemodialysis sessions. A slit-lamp examination showed diffuse corneal epithelial edema with several white keratic precipitates and inflammatory cells (Grade 3+ in the anterior chamber of the left eye. No visible neovascularization or synechiae were visible on the iris or angle. Topical glaucoma eye-drops and intravenous mannitol before hemodialysis did not prevent subsequent painful IOP spikes in the left eye. At the end of hemodialysis, IOP averaged ~40 mmHg. After trabeculectomy with mitomycin C in the left eye, his IOP stabilized in the low-teens (range, 10–14 mmHg and no painful IOP spikes occurred during hemodialysis over the first postoperative year. Conclusion We present a case of recurrent painful IOP spikes during hemodialysis in a patient with unilateral anterior uveitis unresponsive to conventional medical treatment prior to hemodialysis. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of repetitive symptomatic IOP rise during hemodialysis in an uveitic glaucoma patient. This case highlights the importance of the awareness of the possibility that IOP may rise intolerably during hemodialysis in uveitis patients with a compromised outflow facility.

  3. Surface modification of acrylate intraocular lenses with dielectric barrier discharge plasma at atmospheric pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Surface modification with dielectric barrier discharge(DBD) plasma was carried out at atmospheric pressure(argon as the discharge gas) to improve the biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylate intraocular lens(IOL).Changes of the plasma-treated IOL surface in chemical composition,morphology and hydrophilicity were comprehensively evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS),field emission scanning electron microscopy(FESEM),atomic force microscopy(AFM) and water contact angle(WCA) measurements.The surface biocompatibility of the untreated and plasma-treated IOLs was compared with the adhesion behavior of platelets,macrophages and lens epithelial cells(LECs) in vitro.After DBD plasma treatment,the hydrophilicity of the IOL surface was obviously improved.The changes in WCA with treatment extension may be attributed to both the introduction of oxygen or/and nitrogen-containing polar groups and the increase of surface roughness induced by plasma etching effect.The existence of low molecular weight oxidized material(LMWOM) was proved on the plasma-treated IOL which was caused by the chain scission effect of the plasma treatment.The plasma-treated IOLs resisted the adhesion of platelets and macrophages significantly.The LECs spreading and proliferation were postponed on the IOLs plasma-treated for more than 180 s,with a well maintained epithelial phenotype of LECs.The IOL biocompatibility was improved after the DBD plasma treatment.We speculate that slighter foreign-body reaction and later incidence of anterior capsule opacification(ACO) may be expected after implantation of the argon DBD plasma-treated IOL.

  4. Schirmer tear tests and intraocular pressures in conscious and anesthetized koalas (Phascolarctus cinereus).

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    Grundon, Rachael A; Anderson, Gary A; Lynch, Michael; Hardman, Chlöe; O'Reilly, Anu; Stanley, Robin G

    2011-09-01

    To estimate mean Schirmer tear test (STT) and intraocular pressure (IOP) values in healthy koalas both conscious and anesthetized. Data were gathered from koalas in Victoria, Australia. Conscious examinations were performed on captive koalas. Free-ranging (wild) koalas were examined under anesthesia. Anesthesia was induced using alfaxalone, and animals were maintained on oxygen and isoflurane if required. All animals were healthy and had no surface ocular pathology detectable during slit lamp biomicroscopy. STT I tests were performed using commercial STT test strips placed in the lower fornix for 1 min. IOP was measured using an applanation tonometer after topical anesthesia. The higher value of the two eyes for both STT and IOP was analyzed. STT was measured in 53 koalas (34 conscious, 19 anesthetized) and IOP was measured in 43 koalas (30 conscious, 13 anesthetized). A two-sample t-test was used to compare means. A P-value koalas was 10.3 ± 3.6 mm wetting/min and in anesthetized koalas it decreased to 3.8 ± 4.0 mm wetting/min (P koalas was 15.3 ± 5.1 mmHg, and in anesthetized koalas it was 13.8 ± 3.4 mmHg (P = 0.32). There was no effect of sex on either STT or IOP. The mean and SD of STT and IOP values for koalas both conscious and anesthetized were reported. The mean STT was significantly reduced by alfaxalone anesthesia. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  5. Regulation of trabecular meshwork cell contraction and intraocular pressure by miR-200c.

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    Coralia Luna

    Full Text Available Lowering intraocular pressure (IOP delays or prevents the loss of vision in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG patients with high IOP and in those with normal tension glaucoma showing progression. Abundant evidence demonstrates that inhibition of contractile machinery of the trabecular meshwork cells is an effective method to lower IOP. However, the mechanisms involved in the regulation of trabecular contraction are not well understood. Although microRNAs have been shown to play important roles in the regulation of multiple cellular functions, little is known about their potential involvement in the regulation of IOP. Here, we showed that miR-200c is a direct postranscriptional inhibitor of genes relevant to the physiologic regulation of TM cell contraction including the validated targets Zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1 and 2 (ZEB1 and ZEB2, and formin homology 2 domain containing 1 (FHOD1, as well as three novel targets: lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1/EDG2, endothelin A receptor (ETAR, and RhoA kinase (RHOA. Consistently, transfection of TM cells with miR-200c resulted in strong inhibition of contraction in collagen populated gels as well as decreased cell traction forces exerted by individual TM cells. Finally, delivery of miR-200c to the anterior chamber of living rat eyes resulted in a significant decrease in IOP, while inhibition of miR-200c using an adenoviral vector expressing a molecular sponge led to a significant increase in IOP. These results demonstrate for the first time the ability of a miRNA to regulate trabecular contraction and modulate IOP in vivo, making miR-200c a worthy candidate for exploring ways to alter trabecular contractility with therapeutic purposes in glaucoma.

  6. Intraocular pressure measurement over soft contact lens by rebound tonometer: a comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Senay; Asik; Nacaroglu; Emine; Seker; Un; Mehmet; Giray; Ersoz; Yelda; Tasci

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the intraocular pressure(IOP)measurements by Icare rebound tonometer over a contact lens in comparison with Goldmann applanation tonometry(GAT). METHODS: Fifty patients using contact lens were included in this study. One of the eyes of the patients was selected randomly and their IOP were measured by rebound tonometer with and without contact lens(RTCL,RT respectively) and by GAT, as well as their central corneal thickness(CCT) by optical pachymeter. The results of both methods were compared by correlation analysis, general linear method repeated measure and Bland-Altman analysis.RESULTS: Mean IOP values measured by RTCL, RT and GAT were 15.68 ±3.7, 14.50 ±3.4 and 14.16 ±2.8(P <0.001), respectively. Mean IOP by RTCL was significantly higher than the measurements implemented by RT and GAT(P <0.001), while there was no difference between the measurements by GAT and RT(P =0.629). There was a good level of positive correlation between GAT and RTCL as well as RT(r =0.786 P <0.001, r =0.833 P <0.001, respectively). We have observed that CCT increase did not show any correlation with the differences of the measurements between RTCL and RT(P =0.329), RTCL and GAT(P =0.07) as well as RT and GAT(P =0.189) in linear regression model.CONCLUSION: The average of the measurements over contact lens by rebound tonometer was found to be higher than what was measured by GAT. Although this difference is statistically significant, it may be clinically negligible in the normal population.

  7. Changes in intraocular pressure in study and fellow eyes in the IVAN trial

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    Foss, Alexander J E; Scott, Lauren J; Rogers, Chris A; Reeves, Barney C; Ghanchi, Faruque; Gibson, Jonathan; Chakravarthy, Usha

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To describe changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) in the ‘alternative treatments to Inhibit VEGF in Age-related choroidal Neovascularisation (IVAN)’ trial (registered as ISRCTN92166560). Design Randomised controlled clinical trial with factorial design. Participants Patients (n=610) with treatment naïve neovascular age-related macular degeneration were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive either ranibizumab or bevacizumab and to two regimens, namely monthly (continuous) or as needed (discontinuous) treatment. Methods At monthly visits, IOP was measured preinjection in both eyes, and postinjection in the study eye. Outcome measures The effects of 10 prespecified covariates on preinjection IOP, change in IOP (postinjection minus preinjection) and the difference in preinjection IOP between the two eyes were examined. Results For every month in trial, there was a statistically significant rise in both the preinjection IOP and the change in IOP postinjection during the time in the trial (estimate 0.02 mm Hg, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.03, p<0.001 and 0.03 mm Hg, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.04, p=0.002, respectively). There was also a small but significant increase during the time in trial in the difference in IOP between the two eyes (estimate 0.01 mm Hg, 95% CI 0.005 to 0.02, p<0.001). There were no differences between bevacizumab and ranibizumab for any of the three outcomes (p=0.93, p=0.22 and p=0.87, respectively). Conclusions Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents induce increases in IOP of small and uncertain clinical significance. Trial registration number ISRCTN92166560. PMID:27073205

  8. Prevention effect of travoprost on high intraocular pressure within 24 hours after diabetic retinopathy vitrectomy

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    Xue Li

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To observe the clinical significance of travoprost for prevention of high intraocular pressure(IOPwithin 24 hours after diabetic retinopathy(DRvitrectomy.METHODS: A total of 102 patients(102 eyeswith DR who underwent vitrectomy and related literatures were analyzed and compared. All patients were randomly assigned to group A(vitrectomy combined with intravitreal silicone oil, C3F8 or balanced salt solution tamponade group, 51 patients 51 eyesor group B(surgical therapy is the same as the group A, while instilling one drop of 0.04g/L travoprost eyedrops in the inferior cul-de-sac about 60 minutes before the surgery, 51 patients 51 eyes. The changes of IOP, best-corrected visual acuity(BCVAand ophthalmoscope observations within 24 hours respectively before and after the surgery were counted and analyzed.RESULTS: The mean IOP of each group within 24 hours after the surgery was higher than the contralateral eyes(t=2.17 and 2.09, Pt=2.41 and 2.28, Pχ2=4.86 and 3.99,Pt=1.43, P>0.05.CONCLUSION: The preliminary result in our scrutiny showed that the preoperative treatment of 0.04g/L travoprost eyedrops was well tolerated with the significant reduction in the incidence of high IOP and decrease in BCVA within 24 hours after DR vitrectomy. It has clinical significance about the prevention of visual impairment owing to high IOP within 24 hours after DR vitrectomy.

  9. The Risk of Intraocular Pressure Elevation in Pediatric Non-infectious Uveitis

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    Kothari, Srishti; Foster, C. Stephen; Pistilli, Maxwell; Liesegang, Teresa L.; Daniel, Ebenezer; Sen, H. Nida; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Jabs, Douglas A.; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Lawrence, Scott D.; Kempen, John H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the risk and risk factors for intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in pediatric non-infectious uveitis. Design Multi-center retrospective cohort study. Participants Nine hundred sixteen children (1593 eyes) uveitis followed between January 1978 through December 2007 at five academic uveitis centers in United States. Methods Medical records review by trained, certified experts. Main outcome measures Prevalence and incidence of IOP≥21 and ≥30mmHg and incidence of a rise in IOP by ≥10mmHg. To avoid under ascertainment, outcomes were counted as present when IOP-lowering therapies were in use. Results Initially 251 (15.8%) and 46 eyes (2.9%) had IOP≥21 and ≥30mmHg, respectively. Factors associated with presenting IOP elevation included age 6–12 years (versus other pediatric ages), prior cataract surgery (adjusted odds ratio≥21mmHg [aOR21]=2.42, P=0.01), pars plana vitrectomy (adjusted odds ratio≥30mmHg[aOR30]=11.1, P=0.03), duration of uveitis ≥6 months (aORs30 up to 11.8, Puveitis. Statistically significant risk factors include IOP elevation or use of IOP-lowering treatment in the contralateral eye and local corticosteroid use – that demonstrated a dose-and route of administration-dependent relationship. In contrast, use of immunosuppressive drug therapy did not increase such risk. Pediatric eyes with non-infectious uveitis should be followed closely for IOP elevation when strong risk factors such as the use of local corticosteroids and contralateral IOP elevation are present. PMID:26233626

  10. Effects of submaximal exercise with water ingestion on intraocular pressure in healthy human males

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    Moura M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise and water replacement on intraocular pressure (IOP have not been well established. Furthermore, it is not known whether the temperature of the fluid ingested influences the IOP response. In the present study we determined the effect of water ingestion at three temperatures (10, 24 and 38ºC; 600 ml 15 min before and 240 ml 15, 30 and 45 min after the beginning of each experimental session on the IOP of six healthy male volunteers (age = 24.0 ± 3.5 years, weight = 67.0 ± 4.8 kg, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak = 47.8 ± 9.1 ml kg-1 min-1. The subjects exercised until exhaustion on a cycle ergometer at a 60% VO2peak in a thermoneutral environment. IOP was measured before and after exercise and during recovery (15, 30 and 45 min using the applanation tonometry method. Skin and rectal temperatures, heart rate and oxygen uptake were measured continuously. IOP was similar for the right eye and the left eye and increased post-water ingestion under both exercising and resting conditions (P<0.05 but did not differ between resting and exercising situations, or between the three water temperatures. Time to exhaustion was not affected by the different water temperatures. Rectal temperature, hydration status, heart rate, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide extraction and lactate concentration were increased by exercise but were not affected by water temperature. We conclude that IOP was not affected by exercise and that water ingestion increased IOP as expected, regardless of water temperature.

  11. Evaulation of Incidence and Risk Factors for Intraocular Pressure Elevation After Intravitreal Triamcinolone Acetonide Injection

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    Didar Uçar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA used for the macular edema on intraocular pressure (IOP and to determine the risk factors for IOP elevation. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included 93 eyes of 85 patients who had 4 mg intravitreal triamcinolone injection. Of the 85 patients, 56 (65.8% had diabetic macular edema, 22 (25.8% had branch retinal, and 7 (8.2% had central retinal vein occlusion. IOP changes after injection as well as the relation between IOP elevation and age, sex, lens status, etiology of macular edema, baseline IOP were evaluated. Results: Fourty-six male and 39 female patients with mean age 61.58±9.5 years were evaluated. IOP was recorded to be >24 mmHg in 30 eyes (32.2% at follow-up visit after an average of 7.5 weeks. Normalization of IOP with medication was achieved in all IOP elevated eyes. Fifteen of 29 eyes (51.7% with vein occlusion and 15 of 64 eyes (23.3% with diabetic macula edema had IOP elevation (p=0.01. Twenty-six of 73 phakic (35.6% and 4 of 20 pseudophakic eyes (20% had IOP >24 mmHg (p=0.16. There was no association between IOP elevation and sex (p=0.33. Baseline IOP was 16.47±2.8 mmHg in eyes which had elevated IOP and 14.78±2.4 mmHg in the remaining. There was significant relation between IOP elevation and baseline IOP level (p=0.01. Conclusion: Elevated IOP is common side effect after IVTA, but normalization is usually achieved by topical medication. Patients with baseline IOP ≥15 mmHg and vein occlusion have higher risk for IOP elevation. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 86-91

  12. Diurnal pattern of intraocular pressure is affected by microgravity when measured in space with the pressure phosphene tonometer (PPT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ki-Young; Woo, Se Joon; Yi, Soyeon; Choi, Gi-Hyuk; Ahn, Chang-Ho; Hur, Gang-Chul; Lim, Jung-Gu; Kim, Tae-Woo

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of microgravity on the diurnal variation of intraocular pressure (IOP). IOPs were measured with the pressure phosphene tonometer in 1 subject (the first Korean astronaut) during spaceflight. IOPs were measured every 3 hours during day time (6 times per day) at 2 separate days in space with 3 repeated measurements at each time on both eyes. A total of 72 measurements were obtained during spaceflight. To obtain control IOP data, IOP was measured using the same protocol on ground before spaceflight. Mean IOP increased by 26.3% during spaceflight compared with that on ground [16.47 ± 0.60 (SD) mm Hg vs. 13.04 ± 0.74 mm Hg, P<0.001). The IOP elevation was maintained until Launch+8 days. There was no significant difference in IOP increase between right and left eyes (16.4 2 ± 0.65 mm Hg right eye vs. 16.53 ± 0.56 mm Hg left eye). There was a different pattern of diurnal variation of IOP during spaceflight compared with that on ground. The IOP at 7 AM was the lowest under microgravity, whereas it was the highest on ground. The slope of the best fit line for diurnal IOP measures was 0.0349 mm Hg/h (95% confidence interval: 0.0082-0.0616) under microgravity and -0.0294 mm Hg/h (95% confidence interval: -0.0063-0.0041) on ground. The study showed a different diurnal pattern of IOP under microgravity compared with that on ground. This result suggests that gravity and subsequent body fluid shift is one of the determining factors of IOP diurnal variation.

  13. System for Rapid, Precise Modulation of Intraocular Pressure, toward Minimally-Invasive In Vivo Measurement of Intracranial Pressure.

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    Max A Stockslager

    Full Text Available Pathologic changes in intracranial pressure (ICP are commonly observed in a variety of medical conditions, including traumatic brain injury, stroke, brain tumors, and glaucoma. However, current ICP measurement techniques are invasive, requiring a lumbar puncture or surgical insertion of a cannula into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-filled ventricles of the brain. A potential alternative approach to ICP measurement leverages the unique anatomy of the central retinal vein, which is exposed to both intraocular pressure (IOP and ICP as it travels inside the eye and through the optic nerve; manipulating IOP while observing changes in the natural pulsations of the central retinal vein could potentially provide an accurate, indirect measure of ICP. As a step toward implementing this technique, we describe the design, fabrication, and characterization of a system that is capable of manipulating IOP in vivo with <0.1 mmHg resolution and settling times less than 2 seconds. In vitro tests were carried out to characterize system performance. Then, as a proof of concept, we used the system to manipulate IOP in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri while video of the retinal vessels was recorded and the caliber of a selected vein was quantified. Modulating IOP using our system elicited a rapid change in the appearance of the retinal vein of interest: IOP was lowered from 10 to 3 mmHg, and retinal vein caliber sharply increased as IOP decreased from 7 to 5 mmHg. Another important feature of this technology is its capability to measure ocular compliance and outflow facility in vivo, as demonstrated in tree shrews. Collectively, these proof-of-concept demonstrations support the utility of this system to manipulate IOP for a variety of useful applications in ocular biomechanics, and provide a framework for further study of the mechanisms of retinal venous pulsation.

  14. Intraocular pressure and associations in children. The Gobi Desert Children Eye Study.

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    Da Yong Yang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the intraocular pressure (IOP and its association in children in a population living in an oasis in the Gobi Desert. METHODS: The cross-sectional school-based study included all schools in the Ejina region. The children underwent an ophthalmic examination, non-contact tonometry and measurement of blood pressure and body height and weight. RESULTS: Out of eligible 1911 children, 1565 (81.9% children with a mean age of 11.9±3.5 years (range: 6-21 years participated. Mean spherical refractive error was -1.58±2.00 diopters. In multivariate analysis, higher IOP (right eye was associated with younger age (P<0.001; standardized coefficient beta: -0.13; regression coefficient B: -0.13; 95% Confidence interval (CI:-0.18, -0.07, higher diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001;beta:0.13;B:0.05;95%CI:0.03,0.07, higher corneal refractive power (P<0.001;beta:0.11;B:0.23;95%CI:0.12,0.34, more myopic refractive error (P = 0.035;beta: -0.06;B: -0.10;95%CI: -0.19, -0.001, and Han Chinese ethnicity of the father (P = 0.03;beta:0.06;B:0.42;95%CI:0.04,0.89. If age and diastolic blood pressure were dropped, higher IOP was associated with higher estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP (P<0.001;beta:0.09; B:0.13;95%CI:0.06,0.21 after adjusting for higher corneal refractive power (P<0.001 and Han Chinese ethnicity of the father (P = 0.04. Correspondingly, higher IOP of the left eye was associated with younger age (P<0.001;beta: -0.15;B: -0.16;95%CI: -0.21, -0.10, female gender (P<0.001;beta:0.09;B:0.65;95%CI:0.30,1.01, higher corneal refractive power (P<0.001;beta:0.08;B:0.19;95%CI:0.06,0.32, more myopic refractive error (P = 0.03;beta: -0.06;B: -0.12;95%CI: -0.22, -0.01, and higher estimated CSFP (P<0.001;beta:0.11;B:0.17;95%CI:0.09,0.24. CONCLUSIONS: In school children, higher IOP was associated with steeper corneal curvature and with younger age and higher blood pressure, or alternatively, with higher estimated CSFP. Corneal

  15. Correlation between diurnal variation of intraocular pressure, ocular pulse amplitude and corneal structural properties Correlação entre a variação diurna da pressão intraocular, amplitude de pulso e propriedades estruturais corneanas

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    Flávia Silva Villas-Bôas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fluctuation of intraocular pressure measurements obtained by Goldmann applanation tonometry, dynamic contour tonometry, and corneal compensated non-contact tonometry during office hours in glaucoma and healthy participants. This study also aims at correlating the intraocular pressure fluctuations with fluctuations of corneal hysteresis, central corneal thickness, mean central corneal curvature and ocular pulse amplitude. METHODS: A total of 12 controls (24 eyes and 21 patients (38 eyes with open-angle glaucoma were recruited. Intraocular pressure measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry, dynamic contour tonometry and corneal compensated non-contact tonometry, ocular pulse amplitude, central corneal curvature and thickness, corneal hysteresis, and resistance factor were obtained at intervals of 2 hours, between 9 AM and 5 PM. RESULTS: Intraocular pressure fluctuated significantly throughout the day in controls and glaucoma individuals with all tonometers (POBJETIVO: Avaliar a flutuação das medidas da pressão intraocular obtidas pela tonometria de aplanação de Goldmann, tonometria de contorno dinâmico e pela tonometria de não-contato com compensação corneana durante o período ambulatorial, em participantes com glaucoma e saudáveis. Esse estudo também correlacionou as flutuações da pressão intraocular com as flutuações da histerese corneana, espessura corneana central, média da curvatura corneana central e amplitude de pulso ocular. MÉTODOS: Um total de 12 controles (24 olhos e 21 pacientes com glaucoma de ângulo aberto (38 olhos foram selecionados. A pressão intraocular medida pela tonometria de aplanação de Goldmann, tonometria de contorno dinâmico e tonometria de não-contato com compensação corneana, amplitude de pulso ocular, a curvatura central e espessura corneanas, a histerese corneana e o fator de resistência foram medidos em intervalos de 2 horas, entre 9

  16. The relationship between central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure: a comparative study of normals and glaucoma subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyamu, E; Ituah, I

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of the study is to determine whether central corneal thickness (CCT) is a better predictor than intraocular pressure (IOP) in early identification of those at higher risk of developing glaucoma. Sixty-five subjects were categorized into normals, ocular hypertensives and glaucoma subjects based on clinical characteristics of ocular risk factors. The lOP was assessed with slit-lamp mounted Goldmann applanation tonometer. Prior to applanation tonometry, the central corneal thickness (CCT) of both eyes was assessed with Sonomed PacScan 300AP Biometric/pachymeter. The difference in mean IOP between normals and glaucoma subjects was statistically significant (unpaired t-test; p<0.05). Similarly, there was a significant difference in mean CCT between normals and glaucoma subjects (p<0.05). The association between CCT and Age was not significant in normals but slightly significant in glaucoma subjects and the linear regression predicts a decrease of 7.0 ìm in CCT for every 10 years. A strong association was found between CCT and IOP for ocular hypertensives with a prediction of increase of 0.70 mmHg for every 10 ìm corneal thickening. The association between CCT and IOP for glaucoma subjects was weak, with an indication of an increase of 0.35 mmHg in intraocular pressure for every 10 ìm corneal thinning. The central corneal thickness is a better predictor than intraocular pressure in identifying those at higher risk of developing primary open-angle glaucoma when combined with some ocular risk factors.

  17. Refraction changes during elevation of intraocular pressure by suction cup, their reflection in the pattern visual evoked cortical potential and their compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernd, A; Ulrich, W D; Teubel, H; Rohrwacher, F; Barth, T

    1993-01-01

    Visual evoked cortical potential studies using pattern stimuli with the intraocular pressure raised artificially by the suction cup method have been reported. Possible changes in the refraction of the eye due to the method employed and their influence on the pattern visual evoked cortical potential have not been considered. Changes in the refraction of the eye during artificial intraocular pressure elevation and the influence of such changes on pattern visual evoked cortical potentials were studied. The refraction changes were found to depend on the shape of the suction cup. They could be compensated for by employing properly shaped suction cups and contact lenses. The behavior of amplitude and latency of the pattern visual evoked cortical potential at artificially elevated intraocular pressure with compensation for refraction changes has been studied and found to depend in a characteristic manner on ocular perfusion pressure.

  18. CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF LENS INDUCED GLAUCOMA: STUDY OF EPIDEMIOLOGY, DURATION OF SYMPTOMS, INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE AND VISUAL ACUITY

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    Venkataratnam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lens Induced Glaucoma is a common cause of ocular morbidity. OBJECTIVES: Our study was to know the Epidemiological factors, Duration of Symptoms, Visual Acuity and Intraocular Pressure in the clinical Presentation of Lens Induced Glaucoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS : This w as a tertiary hospital based prospective study in the department of Glaucoma, Sarojini Devi Eye Hospital and Regional Institute of Ophthalmology (RIO, Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad over a period from March 2015 to August 2015. 50 Patients clinically diagnosed as Lens Induced Glaucoma (LIG were studied with the data of Age, Sex, literacy, Laterality and Rural / Urban status with the duration of symptoms, Intraocular pressure and Visual Acuity. The data was analyzed by simple statistical methods. RESULT S: 50 patients, clinically diagnosed as Lens Induced Glaucoma (LIG were studied. Age group distribution was 1(2.0% in 40 - 50yrs, 13 ( 26.0% in >50 - 60yrs, 26(52.0% in >60 - 70yrs and 10(20.0% in > 70 yrs. Sex distribution was 23(46.0% of Males and 27(54.0% of Females. Urban / Rural status was 15(30.0% of Urban and 35(70.0% of Rural. Literacy status was 7(14.0% of Literate and 43(86.0% of Illiterate. Laterality was RE in 24(48.0% and LE in 26(52.0%. Duration of the presenting symptoms before re porting to the Hospital was 12.0% in 2wks. Intraocular pressure (IOP in mm of Hg showed no case (0.0% in 20 – 40, 27(54.0% in >40 - 60 and 5(10.0% >60 wit h the Mean IOP of 42.12 mm of Hg. Visual Acuity (VA was PL +ve in 24(48.0 and HM - 3/60. CONCLUSIONS: Increasing age, female gender, rural, illiterate, and delayed reporting to the hospital after the pre senting symptoms were the common risk factors with increased Intraocular pressure and poor visual acuity in the clinical presentation of Lens induced Glaucoma.

  19. Effect of prophylactic timolol 0.1% gel on intraocular pressure after an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab: a randomized study

    OpenAIRE

    Pece, Alfredo; Allegrini, Davide; Montesano, Giovanni; Dimastrogiovanni, Andrea Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to make a prospective evaluation of the effect of timolol 0.1% eye gel on short-term intraocular pressure (IOP) after an intravitreal injection (IVI) of ranibizumab. Participants and methods One hundred and fifty eyes of 150 IVI-naïve patients with macular edema caused by various pathological conditions (age-related macular degeneration, central or branch retinal vein occlusion, and diabetic retinopathy) were scheduled to undergo an IVI of ranibizumab (0.5...

  20. The evaluation of central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in conjunction with tear IGF-1 levels in patients with acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Emrah; Kan, Elif K; Okuyucu, Ali

    2017-08-30

    To compare the central corneal thickness (CCT), intraocular pressure (IOP), and tear insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels between patients with acromegaly and a control group and to evaluate the possible effect of tear IGF-1 and duration of the disease on CCT and IOP. We included 31 patients with acromegaly (study group) and 40 age- and sex-matched controls in the study. Patients with acromegaly were divided into 2 subgroups based on disease status (active/inactive). All participants underwent complete ophthalmologic evaluation including CCT and IOP values. Basal tear samples were collected from both groups and tear IGF-1 levels were measured. The CCT, IOP, and tear IGF-1 levels were compared between groups and subgroups and the association between tear IGF-I levels and ocular parameters (CCT, IOP) and disease duration were also evaluated. Central corneal thickness, IOP, and tear IGF-1 levels did not show a significant difference between study and control groups. We also did not find a significant difference in terms of CCT, IOP, or tear IGF-1 levels between subgroups of patients. Correlation analysis did not show an association between the duration of disease and tear IGF-1 levels with CCT or IOP. There was no significant difference in tear IGF-1 levels between patients with acromegaly and controls. Additionally, there was no correlation between disease duration and tear IGF-1 levels with CCT or IOP levels. This lack of association may suggest that tear IGF-1 levels might not have an effect on CCT or IOP findings in patients with acromegaly.

  1. Optic nerve head and intraocular pressure in the guinea pig eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrin, Lisa A; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2016-05-01

    The guinea pig is becoming an increasingly popular model for studying human myopia, which carries an increased risk of glaucoma. As a step towards understanding this association, this study sought to characterize the normal, developmental intraocular pressure (IOP) profiles, as well as the anatomy of the optic nerve head (ONH) and adjacent sclera of young guinea pigs. IOP was tracked in pigmented guinea pigs up to 3 months of age. One guinea pig was imaged in vivo with OCT and one with a fundus camera. The eyes of pigmented and albino guinea pigs (ages 2 months) were enucleated and sections from the posterior segment, including the ONH and surrounding sclera, processed for histological analyses - either hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining of paraffin embedded, sectioned tissue (n = 1), or cryostat sectioned tissue, processed for immunohistochemistry (n = 3), using primary antibodies against collagen types I-V, elastin, fibronectin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Transmission and scanning electron microscopy (TEM, SEM) studies of ONHs were also undertaken (n = 2 & 5 respectively). Mean IOPs ranged from 17.33 to 22.7 mmHg, increasing slightly across the age range studied, and the IOPs of individual animals also exhibited diurnal variations, peaking in the early morning (mean of 25.8, mmHg, ∼9 am), and decreasing across the day. H&E-stained sections showed retinal ganglion cell axons organized into fascicles in the prelaminar and laminar region of the ONHs, with immunostained sections revealing collagen types I, III, IV and V, as well as elastin, GFAP and fibronectin in the ONHs. SEM revealed a well-defined lamina cribrosa (LC), with radially-oriented collagen beams. TEM revealed collagen fibrils surrounding non-myelinated nerve fiber bundles in the LC region, with myelination and decreased collagen posterior to the LC. The adjacent sclera comprised mainly crimped collagen fibers in a crisscross arrangement. Both the sclera and LC were

  2. Intraocular pressure and ocular pulse amplitude using dynamic contour tonometry and contact lens tonometry

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    Grus Franz-H

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The new Ocular Dynamic Contour Tonometer (DCT, investigational device supplied by SMT (Swiss Microtechnology AG, Switzerland allows simultaneous recording of intraocular pressure (IOP and ocular pulse amplitude (OPA. It was the aim of this study to compare the IOP results of this new device with Goldmann tonometry. Furthermore, IOP and OPA measured with the new slitlamp-mounted DCT were compared to the IOP and OPA measured with the hand-held SmartLens®, a gonioscopic contact lens tonometer (ODC Ophthalmic Development Company AG, Switzerland. Methods Nineteen healthy subjects were included in this study. IOP was determined by three consecutive measurements with each of the DCT, SmartLens®, and Goldmann tonometer. Furthermore, OPA was measured three times consecutively by DCT and SmartLens®. Results No difference (P = 0.09 was found between the IOP values by means of DCT (mean: 16.6 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.04 mm Hg and Goldmann tonometry (mean: 16.17 mm Hg, median: 15.33 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.03 mm Hg. The IOP values of SmartLens® (mean: 20.25 mm Hg, median: 19.00 mm Hg, SD: +/- 4.96 mm Hg were significantly higher (P = 0.0008 both from Goldmann tonometry and DCT. The OPA values of the DCT (mean: 3.08 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.92 mm Hg were significantly lower (P = 0.0003 than those obtained by SmartLens® (mean: 3.92 mm Hg, SD: +/- 0.83 mm Hg. Conclusions DCT was equivalent to Goldmann applanation tonometry in measurement of IOP in a small group of normal subjects. In contrast, SmartLens® (contact lens tonometry gave IOP readings that were significantly higher compared with Goldmann applanation tonometer readings. Both devices, DCT and SmartLens® provide the measurement of OPA which could be helpful e.g. for the management of glaucoma.

  3. Intraocular Pressure-Lowering Effect of Latanoprost Is Hampered by Defective Cervical Lymphatic Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Kook; Na, Kyeong Ik; Jeoung, Jin Wook; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether defects in cervical lymphatic drainage influence the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering effect of latanoprost in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) who have undergone unilateral radical neck dissection (uRND). Methods We enrolled (1) bilateral POAG patients who had started (bilateral) latanoprost (0.005%) monotherapy prior to their uRND and (2) treatment-naïve, bilateral glaucoma suspects (GSs) who had undergone the same surgery. We compared the eyes ipsilateral to the uRND with their fellow eyes in terms of the changes in IOP between the baseline (prior to the uRND) and the follow-up visits (1, 3, and 6 months after the uRND). Results The study involved 22 eyes of 11 POAG patients and 14 eyes of 7 GSs. In the POAG patients, IOP had increased significantly after surgery in the eyes ipsilateral to the uRND (from 14.7±1.4mmHg to 17.1±2.2mmHg; P = 0.007). Interestingly, in the eyes contralateral to the uRND, IOP had not changed significantly after surgery (from 14.2±1.8mmHg to 14.4±2.0mmHg; P = 0.826). In GSs, the eyes ipsilateral to the uRND did not differ significantly from their fellow eyes in terms of post-operative IOP change (ipsilateral value: 0.3±0.5mmHg, fellow eyes: -0.1±0.7mmHg; P = 0.242). Conclusion In the POAG patients, IOP had increased significantly in the eyes ipsilateral to the uRND. However, it had not changed significantly in the eyes contralateral to the surgery or in the eyes of the GSs. These findings suggest that, latanoprost works, at least in part, by enhancing outflow from the aqueous humor via the uveolymphatic pathway. PMID:28081184

  4. Genetic context determines susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation in a mouse pigmentary glaucoma

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    Cosma Ioan M

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DBA/2J (D2 mice develop an age-related form of glaucoma. Their eyes progressively develop iris pigment dispersion and iris atrophy followed by increased intraocular pressure (IOP and glaucomatous optic nerve damage. Mutant alleles of the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 genes are necessary for the iris disease, but it is unknown whether alleles of other D2 gene(s are necessary for the distinct later stages of disease. We initiated a study of congenic strains to further define the genetic requirements and disease mechanisms of the D2 glaucoma. Results To further understand D2 glaucoma, we created congenic strains of mice on the C57BL/6J (B6 genetic background. B6 double-congenic mice carrying D2-derived Gpnmb and Tyrp1 mutations develop a D2-like iris disease. B6 single-congenics with only the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 mutations develop milder forms of iris disease. Genetic epistasis experiments introducing a B6 tyrosinase mutation into the congenic strains demonstrated that both the single and double-congenic iris diseases are rescued by interruption of melanin synthesis. Importantly, our experiments analyzing mice at ages up to 27 months indicate that the B6 double-congenic mice are much less prone to IOP elevation and glaucoma than are D2 mice. Conclusion As demonstrated here, the Gpnmb and Tyrp1 iris phenotypes are both individually dependent on tyrosinase function. These results support involvement of abnormal melanosomal events in the diseases caused by each gene. In the context of the inbred D2 mouse strain, the glaucoma phenotype is clearly influenced by more genes than just Gpnmb and Tyrp1. Despite the outward similarity of pigment-dispersing iris disease between D2 and the B6 double-congenic mice, the congenic mice are much less susceptible to developing high IOP and glaucoma. These new congenic strains provide a valuable new resource for further studying the genetic and mechanistic complexity of this form of glaucoma.

  5. Relationship of immediate intraocular pressure rise to phaco-tip ergonomics and energy dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasavada, Abhay R; Mamidipudi, Praveen R; Minj, Mamta

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) after phacoemulsification using a straight microtip or a Kelman microtip and its relationship to phaco energy delivered to the eye. Iladevi Cataract & IOL Research Center, Ahmedabad, India. This prospective randomized study comprised 48 consecutive age- and sex-matched patients with senile cataract. Inclusion criteria included older than 45 years and presence of any type of cataract from grade I to III. The patients were divided into 2 groups: straight microtip and Kelman microtip. Each group comprised 13 men and 11 women. The mean age was 58.29 years +/- 6.46 (SD) in the straight microtip group and 60.05 +/- 8.45 years in the Kelman microtip group. The IOP was measured preoperatively and postoperatively with a pneumotonometer and applanation tonometer. One surgeon performed all operations using a standardized surgical technique and topical anesthesia. The intraoperative mean phaco power and ultrasound (US) time were noted. The effective phaco time (EPT), percentage of IOP rise, and wound-site thermal injury (mild, moderate, or severe) were calculated. The correlation between the EPT and percentage of rise in IOP was evaluated using correlation coefficients and the paired t test. The mean preoperative IOP was 13.73 +/- 2.89 mm Hg in the straight microtip group and 15.14 +/- 2.60 mm Hg in the Kelman microtip group. The mean US time was 239.4 +/- 1.61 seconds and 238.2 +/- 1.48 seconds, respectively. The mean phaco power was 17.37% +/- 3.28% in the straight microtip group and 17.10% +/- 5.26% in the Kelman microtip group and the mean EPT, 39.06 +/- 2.28 seconds and 40.08 +/- 0.24 seconds, respectively (P =.412). The mean rise in IOP was 111.60% +/- 37.83% in the straight microtip group and 91.29% +/- 31.85% in the Kelman microtip group. The difference between groups was significant (Pphaco energy dissipated in the eye was the same between the 2 groups, the percentage of IOP rise was greater with the straight microtip

  6. The impact of intraocular pressure on elastic wave velocity estimates in the crystalline lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Suhyun; Yoon, Heechul; Larin, Kirill V.; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.; Aglyamov, Salavat R.

    2017-02-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is believed to influence the mechanical properties of ocular tissues including cornea and sclera. The elastic properties of the crystalline lens have been mainly investigated with regard to presbyopia, the age-related loss of accommodation power of the eye. However, the relationship between the elastic properties of the lens and IOP remains to be established. The objective of this study is to measure the elastic wave velocity, which represents the mechanical properties of tissue, in the crystalline lens ex vivo in response to changes in IOP. The elastic wave velocities in the cornea and lens from seven enucleated bovine globe samples were estimated using ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging. To generate and then image the elastic wave propagation, an ultrasound imaging system was used to transmit a 600 µs pushing pulse at 4.5 MHz center frequency and to acquire ultrasound tracking frames at 6 kHz frame rate. The pushing beams were separately applied to the cornea and lens. IOP in the eyeballs was varied from 5 to 50 mmHg. The results indicate that while the elastic wave velocity in the cornea increased from 0.96  ±  0.30 m s-1 to 6.27  ±  0.75 m s-1 as IOP was elevated from 5 to 50 mmHg, there were insignificant changes in the elastic wave velocity in the crystalline lens with the minimum and the maximum speeds of 1.44  ±  0.27 m s-1 and 2.03  ±  0.46 m s-1, respectively. This study shows that ultrasound shear wave elasticity imaging can be used to assess the biomechanical properties of the crystalline lens noninvasively. Also, it was observed that the dependency of the crystalline lens stiffness on the IOP was significantly lower in comparison with that of cornea.

  7. A laser-induced mouse model with long-term intraocular pressure elevation.

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    Hongmin Yun

    Full Text Available To develop and characterize a mouse model with intraocular pressure (IOP elevation after laser photocoagulation on the trabecular meshwork (TM, which may serve as a model to investigate the potential of stem cell-based therapies for glaucoma.IOP was measured in 281 adult C57BL/6 mice to determine normal IOP range. IOP elevation was induced unilaterally in 50 adult mice, by targeting the TM through the limbus with a 532-nm diode laser. IOP was measured up to 24 weeks post-treatment. The optic nerve damage was detected by electroretinography and assessed by semiautomatic counting of optic nerve axons. Effects of laser treatment on the TM were evaluated by histology, immunofluorescence staining, optical coherence tomography (OCT and transmission electron microscopy (TEM.The average IOP of C57BL/6 mice was 14.5 ± 2.6 mmHg (Mean ± SD. After laser treatment, IOP averaged above 20 mmHg throughout the follow-up period of 24 weeks. At 24 weeks, 57% of treated eyes had elevated IOP with the mean IOP of 22.5 ± 2.5 mmHg (Mean ± SED. The difference of average axon count (59.0% between laser treated and untreated eyes was statistically significant. Photopic negative response (PhNR by electroretinography was significantly decreased. CD45+ inflammatory cells invaded the TM within 1 week. The expression of SPARC was increased in the TM from 1 to 12 weeks. Histology showed the anterior chamber angle open after laser treatment. OCT indicated that most of the eyes with laser treatment had no synechia in the anterior chamber angles. TEM demonstrated disorganized and compacted extracellular matrix in the TM.An experimental murine ocular hypertension model with an open angle and optic nerve axon loss was produced with laser photocoagulation, which could be used to investigate stem cell-based therapies for restoration of the outflow pathway integrity for ocular hypertension or glaucoma.

  8. Age-Related Changes of Intraocular Pressure in Elderly People in Southern China: Lingtou Eye Cohort Study.

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    Xiaotong Han

    Full Text Available To study age-related changes of intraocular pressure (IOP and assess the cohort effect in both cross-sectional and longitudinal settings among elderly Chinese adults.Participants were enrolled from the Lingtou Eye Cohort Study with Chinese government officials aged 40 years and older at baseline and received physical check-up and ocular examinations from 2010 to 2012. IOP was measured using a non-contact tonometer according to standardized protocols, as well as systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and body mass index (BMI. Participants who had attended IOP measurements in both 2010 and 2012 were included in this study. Cross-sectional association of IOP with age was assessed using multivariate liner regression analyses and based on the data of 2010. Longitudinal changes in IOP were assessed by paired t-test.A total of 3372 subjects were enrolled in the current analysis (2010 mean [SD] age, 61.9 [7.1] years; 60.2% men. The mean IOP in 2010 was 15.4 ± 2.3 mmHg for women and 15.2 ± 2.3 mmHg for men with an intersex difference (P = 0.029. Cross-sectional analysis showed that IOP was negatively associated with age (P = 0.003, β = -0.033 for women and P<0.001, β = -0.061 for men adjusted for baseline SBP, DBP and BMI. Paired t-test suggested that IOP was higher in the year 2012 than 2010 in women (P = 0.006 but did not change significantly in men within 2 years (P = 0.345. In addition, the 2-year changes of IOP were not associated with age adjusted for baseline IOP in 2010 (P = 0.249.Cross-sectional data suggests that IOP is lower in people with older age. Longitudinal data does not support such findings and thus the identified decreasing pattern with age in cross-sectional analysis is likely caused by cohort effects.

  9. Effect of Gradual Onset +G(sub z) Acceleration on Rate of Visual Field Collapse and Intraocular Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Richard F.; Rositano, Salvador A.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1976-01-01

    The mechanisms that control the size of the visual field during positive acceleration are poorly understood, but involve mainly the arterial blood pressure at the eye level and intraocular pressure (IOP) (3). Fluid and electrolyte shifts that occur in the general circulation during acceleration may well influence the rate at which the visual field collapses. This could, in turn, suggest the relative influences that arterial blood pressure, IOP, and various compensatory mechanisms have upon acceleration tolerance. Such knowledge could also be of use in the design and development of protective techniques for use in the acceleration environment. The present investigation was performed to study blood withdrawal (hypovolemia) and subsequent reinfusion, oral fluid replacement upon IOP, and the rate at which the visual field collapses during gradual onset +G(sub z) acceleration (0.5 G/min).

  10. Combined ab interno trabeculotomy and lens extraction: a novel management option for combined uveitic and chronic narrow angle raised intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Siying; Gupta, Bhaskar; Rossiter, Jonathan

    2016-02-01

    Minimally invasive glaucoma surgery is a developing area that has the potential to replace traditional glaucoma surgery, with its known risk profile, but at present there are no randomised controlled data to validate its use. We report on a case where sequential bilateral combined ab interno trabeculotomy and lens extraction surgery was performed on a 45-year-old woman with combined uveitic and chronic narrow angle raised intraocular pressure. Maximal medical management alone could not control the intraocular pressure. At 12-month follow-up, the patient had achieved stable intraocular pressure in both eyes on a combination of topical ocular antiglaucomatous and steroid therapies. This case demonstrates the effectiveness of trabecular meshwork ablation via ab interno trabeculotomy in a case of complex mixed mechanism glaucoma. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. Study of the Effect of Distance and Misalignment between Magnetically Coupled Coils for Wireless Power Transfer in Intraocular Pressure Measurement

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    Adrian E. Rendon-Nava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the effect of distance and alignment between two magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement is presented. For measurement purposes, a system was fabricated consisting of an external device, which is a Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit variation, in charge of transferring energy to a biomedical implant and reading data from it. The biomedical implant is an RLC tank circuit, encapsulated by a polyimide coating. Power transfer was done by magnetic induction coupling method, by placing one of the inductors of the Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit and the inductor of the implant in close proximity. The Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit was biased with a 10 MHz sinusoidal signal. The analysis presented in this paper proves that wireless transmission of power for intraocular pressure measurement is feasible with the measurement system proposed. In order to have a proper inductive coupling link, special care must be taken when placing the two coils in proximity to avoid misalignment between them.

  12. Study of the effect of distance and misalignment between magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon-Nava, Adrian E; Díaz-Méndez, J Alejandro; Nino-de-Rivera, Luis; Calleja-Arriaga, Wilfrido; Gil-Carrasco, Felix; Díaz-Alonso, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the effect of distance and alignment between two magnetically coupled coils for wireless power transfer in intraocular pressure measurement is presented. For measurement purposes, a system was fabricated consisting of an external device, which is a Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit variation, in charge of transferring energy to a biomedical implant and reading data from it. The biomedical implant is an RLC tank circuit, encapsulated by a polyimide coating. Power transfer was done by magnetic induction coupling method, by placing one of the inductors of the Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit and the inductor of the implant in close proximity. The Maxwell-Wien bridge circuit was biased with a 10 MHz sinusoidal signal. The analysis presented in this paper proves that wireless transmission of power for intraocular pressure measurement is feasible with the measurement system proposed. In order to have a proper inductive coupling link, special care must be taken when placing the two coils in proximity to avoid misalignment between them.

  13. The Effect of Altitude on Intraocular Pressure in Vitrectomized Eyes with Sulfur Hexafluoride Tamponade by the Friedenwald Method: Rabbit Animal Model

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    Jans Fromow-Guerra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the change in intraocular pressure after a road trip, in eyes with different levels of filling with gas tamponade. Five rabbit eyes were subject to pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade (filling percentage: 25%, 50%, and 100% of nonexpansile SF6, 100% saline solution, and 100% room air. A sixth eye was injected with 0.35 cc of undiluted SF6 without vitrectomy. Guided by global positioning system, they were driven to the highest point of the highway connecting Mexico City with Puebla city and back, stopping every 300 m to assess intraocular pressure. The rabbit’s scleral rigidity and estimation for human eyes were done by using the Friedenwald nomogram. Maximum altitude was 3209 m (Δ949 m. There were significant differences in intraocular pressure on the rabbit eyes filled with SF6 at 100%, 50%, 25%, and 100% room air. Per every 100 m of altitude rise, the intraocular pressure increased by 1.53, 1.0046, 0.971, and 0.97 mmHg, respectively. Using the human Friedenwald rigidity coefficient, the human eye estimate for intraocular pressure change was 2.1, 1.8, 1.4, and 1.1 mmHg per every 100 m of attitude rise. Altitude changes have a significant impact on intraocular pressure. The final effect depends on the percentage of vitreous cavity fill and scleral rigidity.

  14. Correlation between intraocular pressure and the biometric structure of the anterior chamber in patients of chronic renal failure with hemodialysis

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    Zhi-Ying Yu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the correlation between intraocular pressure(IOPchanges pre- and post-hemodialysis(HDand the biometric structure of the anterior chamber in patients of chronic renal failure. METHODS: Fifty-two patients(take right eye as study onewith hemodialysis that were diagnosed with chronic renal failure by nephrology in our hospital from January 2015 to December 2015 were collected. Fifty-two eyes were divided into four groups based on Shaffer classification combined with ultrasound biomicroscopy(UBMand gonioscopy manifestations: wide angle group, narrow angle group, extremely narrow group and close angle group. Venous blood was collected to get plasma colloid osmotic pressure before HD and within 60s after HD. IOP was measured with rebound intraocular pressure gauge in a supine positon approximately 30min before starting HD, 2h after HD begin and approximately 30min after HD ending. Approximately 30min before and after HD, central corneal thickness was measured with corneal endothelial cell counter, central anterior chamber depth and lens thickness were taken by A scan, angle opening distance, trabecular iris angle, iris thickness and ciliary body thickness were measured by UBM. RESULTS: Plasma osmotic pressure reduced after HD, the difference was statistically significant(t=3.04, PF=41.69, PPPF=6.44, PPt=2.61, PCONCLUSION: The influence of hemodialysis on IOP is related to the biometric structure of the anterior chamber. And extremely narrow angle is risk factor of elevated IOP during hemodialysis, narrow angle may be a risk factor. While patients with wide angle is relatively safe. We suggest to take ocular examination as early as possible for patients with hemodialysis, and focus on patients with narrow angle.

  15. 人工晶状体植入术后房角与眼压变化之间的相关性研究%Correlation of the anterior chamber angle and intraocular pressure changes after intraocular lens implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉青; 叶存喜; 刘玉霞; 戴冬姝; 冀向宁; 王静娴; 邹媛媛; 李坤; 王志学; 侯四清

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究人工晶状体植入术后前房角宽度及眼压变化情况之间的相关性.方法 随机选取120例(137只眼)老年性白内障患者,于表麻下行透明角膜切口超声乳化白内障摘除人工晶状体植入术,保留手术过程顺利、后囊膜完整、人工晶状体植入囊袋中的病例作为研究对象.术前用超声生物显微镜(UBM)测量房角相关参数:房角开放距离(AOD500)、小梁虹膜夹角(TIA)、前房深度(ACD);用Goldmann眼压计测量眼压.分别于术后2周、1个月、3个月再用UBM及Goldmann眼压计复查如上参数;术前以前房角镜观察并记录房角形态并于术后1个月复查房角形态.结果 术前所测量的眼压与正常眼前节数据有显著性差异;术前所测量的ACD、AOD、TIA、眼压分别与术后2周、1个月、3个月复查数据进行多样本均数间的多重比较,均为P<0.05,均有显著性差异;术后2周、1个月、3个月时,AOD及眼压改变的量之间存在负相关;TIA夹角及眼压改变的量之间存在负相关.结论 (1)研究对象的ACD、AOD、TIA与正常眼前节相关数据比较,无显著性差异;但是,眼压较正常值稍高,提示部分患者有发生闭角型青光眼的潜在趋势.(2)超声乳化白内障摘除人工晶状体植入术后,前房深度及房角宽度显著增大,眼压显著降低,避免或减少了闭角型青光眼的发生机会.(3)AOD、TIA这2个变量与眼压这个变量间呈负相关.提示在老年人群中,AOD、TIA是影响眼压的重要因素.%Objective To study the correlation of anterior chamber angle and intraocular pressure changes after intraocular lens implantation. Methods 120 patients with cataract were randomly selected, anesthesized, and underwent phacoemulsification cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. The surgery went smoothly, the posterior capsule was intact, and intraocular lens was implanted in the capsular bag. Preoperative and postoperative measurement

  16. Clinical Evaluation of Functional Vision of +1.5 Diopters near Addition, Aspheric, Rotational Asymmetric Multifocal Intraocular Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoramnia, Rahmin; Attia, Mary Safwat; Koss, Michael Janusz; Linz, Katharina; Auffarth, Gerd Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate postoperative outcomes and visual performance in intermediate distance after implantation of a +1.5 diopters (D) addition, aspheric, rotational asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL). Methods Patients underwent bilateral cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric, asymmetric MIOL with +1.5 D near addition. A complete ophthalmological examination was performed preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. The main outcome measures were monocular and binocular uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), uncorrected intermediate visual acuity (UIVA), distance corrected intermediate visual acuity (DCIVA), uncorrected near visual acuity (UNVA) and distance corrected keratometry, and manifest refraction. The Salzburg Reading Desk was used to analyze unilateral and bilateral functional vision with uncorrected and corrected reading acuity, reading distance, reading speed, and the smallest log-scaled print size that could be read effectively at near and intermediate distances. Results The study comprised 60 eyes of 30 patients (mean age, 68.30 ± 9.26 years; range, 34 to 80 years). There was significant improvement in UDVA and CDVA. Mean UIVA was 0.01 ± 0.09 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) and mean DCIVA was -0.02 ± 0.11 logMAR. In Salzburg Reading Desk analysis for UIVA, the mean subjective intermediate distance was 67.58 ± 8.59 cm with mean UIVA of -0.02 ± 0.09 logMAR and mean word count of 96.38 ± 28.32 words/min. Conclusions The new aspheric, asymmetric, +1.5 D near addition MIOL offers good results for distance visual function in combination with good performance for intermediate distances and functional results for near distance. PMID:27729759

  17. Mirtogenol® potentiates latanoprost in lowering intraocular pressure and improves ocular blood flow in asymptomatic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert D Steigerwalt Jr

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert D Steigerwalt Jr1, Gianni Belcaro1, Paolo Morazzoni2, Ezio Bombardelli2, Carolina Burki3, Frank Schönlau4 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Chieti-Pescara, San Valentino, Italy; 2Indena S.p.A. Scientific Department, Milan, Italy; 3Horphag Research (UK Ltd., Geneva, Switzerland; 4Horphag Research (UK Ltd. South Kensington, London UKPurpose: The dietary supplement Mirtogenol® was previously shown to lower elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. We here present the effects of this supplement on IOP in comparison as well as in combination with latanoprost eye drops. Methods: Seventy-nine patients with asymptomatic ocular hypertension were randomly assigned to three groups receiving either the supplement, or latanoprost eye drops, or both in combination. Intraocular pressure and retinal blood flow were investigated in monthly intervals over 24 weeks.Results: Mirtogenol alone lowered IOP from baseline 38.1 to 29.0 mmHg after 16 weeks, with little further improvement during the following eight weeks. Latanoprost rapidly lowered IOP from baseline 37.7 to 27.2 mmHg within four weeks, without further effects thereafter. The combination of the supplement and latanoprost lowered IOP from 38.0 to 27.3 mmHg after four weeks, and further decreased IOP to 24.2 mmHg after six weeks. After 24 weeks IOP with the combination treatment (23.0 mmHg was significantly lower than with latanoprost alone (27.2 mmHg. Mirtogenol and latanoprost individually showed comparable effects for gradually increasing central artery blood flow with treatment duration. Combination treatment showed higher systolic blood flow velocity throughout the trial period. The diastolic blood flow velocity gradually increased with treatment duration in all three groups. From twelve weeks onwards, the diastolic component with combination treatment was higher than with individual treatments.Conclusions: Mirtogenol lowered elevated IOP in patients almost as effectively as

  18. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography cross-sectional image of optic nerve head during intraocular pressure elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze changes of the optic nerve head (ONH and peripapillary region during intraocular pressure (IOP elevation in patients using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.METHODS: Both an optic disc 200×200 cube scan and a high-definition 5-line raster scan were obtained from open angle glaucoma patients presented with monocular elevation of IOP (≥30 mm Hg using SD-OCT. Additional baseline characteristics included age, gender, diagnosis, best-corrected visual acuity, refractive error, findings of slit lamp biomicroscopy, findings of dilated stereoscopic examination of the ONH and fundus, IOP, pachymetry findings, and the results of visual field.RESULTS: The 24 patients were selected and divided into two groups:group 1 patients had no history of IOP elevation or glaucoma (n=14, and group 2 patients did have history of IOP elevation or glaucoma (n=10. In each patient, the study eye with elevated IOP was classified into group H (high, and the fellow eye was classified into group L (low. The mean deviation (MD differed significantly between groups H and L when all eyes were considered (P=0.047 and in group 2 (P=0.042, not in group 1 (P=0.893. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL average thickness (P=0.050, rim area (P=0.015, vertical cup/disc ratio (P=0.011, cup volume (P=0.028, inferior quadrant RNFL thickness (P=0.017, and clock-hour (1, 5, and 6 RNFL thicknesses (P=0.050, 0.012, and 0.018, respectively, cup depth (P=0.008, central prelaminar layer thickness (P=0.023, mid-inferior prelaminar layer thickness (P=0.023, and nasal retinal slope (P=0.034 were significantly different between the eyes with groups H and L.CONCLUSION:RNFL average thickness, rim area, vertical cup/disc ratio, cup volume, inferior quadrant RNFL thickness, and clock-hour (1, 5, and 6 RNFL thicknesses significantly changed during acute IOP elevation.

  19. Correlation of intraocular pressure with blood pressure and body mass index in offsprings of diabetic patients: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailaja Patil, Anita Herur, Shashikala GV, Surekharani Chinagudi, Manjula R, Roopa Ankad, Sukanya Badami, Brid SV

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Raised intraocular pressure (IOP has been associated with risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM, obesity, body mass index (BMI and sex, increasing the risk of glaucoma causing visual impairment and blindness. Since familial inheritance is known with glaucoma and DM, the aim was to study the IOP and its correlation with BMI and blood pressure (BP in offsprings of DM and also to predict the future/early onset of glaucoma in them. Methods: This was an observational study done in medical undergraduate students. 25 students were included in the study group (offsprings of diabetic parents-cases and 23 students in the control group (offsprings without diabetic history in parents. Height, weight, blood pressure and intraocular pressure were recorded in both the groups and these were compared. Statistical analysis was done by student’s t test and Pearson’s correlation. Results: Cases exhibited a lower IOP, BMI, mean arterial pressure (MAP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, but not SBP, as compared to controls. These differences, however, were not statistically significant except DBP. There was a negative correlation found between IOP and BMI and also between IOP and MAP in cases, whereas in controls, there was a positive correlation found between BMI and IOP and no correlation between IOP and MAP. Conclusion: Offsprings of diabetic patients may be less prone for primary open angle glaucoma. Limitations: The limitations of the present study include a smaller sample size, study of the results in relation to paternal or maternal diabetic status and also of grandparents, so that the inheritance of diabetes and also of IOP can be studied.

  20. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, H. (Henriët); Iglesias, A.I. (Adriana); Mishra, A. (Aniket); Höhn, R. (René); Wojciechowski, R. (Robert); Khawaja, A.P. (Anthony); Nag, A. (Abhishek); Wang, Y.X. (Ya Xing); Wang, J.J. (Jie Jin); Cuellar-Partida, G. (Gabriel); Gibson, J. (Jane); Cooke Bailey, J.N. (Jessica); Vithana, E.N. (Eranga); Gharahkhani, P. (Puya); Boutin, T. (Thibaud); Ramdas, W.D. (Wishal); Zeller, T. (Tanja); Luben, R.N. (Robert); Yonova-Doing, E. (Ekaterina); Viswanathan, A.C. (Ananth); Yazar, S. (Seyhan); Cree, A.J. (Angela); Haines, J.L. (Jonathan); Koh, J.Y. (Jia Yu); Souzeau, E. (Emmanuelle); Wilson, J.F. (James); Amin, N. (Najaf); Müller, C. (Christian); Venturini, C. (Cristina); Kearns, L.S. (Lisa); Hee Kang, J. (Jae); Consortium, N. (Neighborhood); Tham, Y.C. (Yih Chung); Zhou, T. (Tiger); van Leeuwen, E.M. (Elisabeth); Nickels, S. (Stefan); Sanfilippo, P. (Paul); Liao, J. (Jiemin); Linde, H.V. (Herma van der); Zhao, W. (Wanting); van Koolwijk, L.M. (Leonieke); Zheng, L. (Li); Rivadeneira, F. (Fernando); Baskaran, M. (Mani); van der Lee, S.J. (Sven); Perera, S. (Shamira); de Jong, P.T. (Paulus); Oostra, B.A. (Ben); Uitterlinden, A.G. (André); Fan, Q. (Qiao); Hofman, A. (Albert); Shyong Tai, E. (E-); Vingerling, J.R. (Johannes); Sim, X. (Xueling); Wolfs, R.C. (Roger); Teo, Y.Y. (Yik Ying); Lemij, H.G. (Hans); Khor, C.C. (Chiea Chuen); Willemsen, R. (Rob); Lackner, K.J. (Karl); Aung, T. (Tin); Jansonius, N.M. (Nomdo); Montgomery, G. (Grant); Wild, P.S. (Philipp); Young, T.L. (Terri); Burdon, K.P. (Kathryn); Hysi, P.G. (Pirro); Pasquale, L.R. (Louis); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Klaver, C.C. (Caroline); Hewitt, A.W. (Alex); Jonas, J.B. (Jost); Mitchell, P. (Paul); Lotery, A.J. (Andrew); Foster, P.J. (Paul); Vitart, V. (Veronique); Pfeiffer, N. (Norbert); Craig, J.E. (Jamie); Mackey, D.A. (David); Hammond, C.J. (Christopher); Wiggs, J.L. (Janey); Cheng, C.Y. (Ching-Yu); van Duijn, C.M. (Cornelia); MacGregor, S. (Stuart)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPrimary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increase risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We

  1. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Iglesias, Adriana I; Mishra, Aniket; Höhn, René; Wojciechowski, Robert; Khawaja, Anthony P; Nag, Abhishek; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Gibson, Jane; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Vithana, Eranga N; Gharahkhani, Puya; Boutin, Thibaud; Ramdas, Wishal D; Zeller, Tanja; Luben, Robert N; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Yazar, Seyhan; Cree, Angela J; Haines, Jonathan L; Koh, Jia Yu; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Wilson, James F; Amin, Najaf; Müller, Christian; Venturini, Cristina; Kearns, Lisa S; Hee Kang, Jae; Consortium, Neighborhood; Tham, Yih Chung; Zhou, Tiger; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Nickels, Stefan; Sanfilippo, Paul; Liao, Jiemin; Linde, Herma van der; Zhao, Wanting; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M E; Zheng, Li; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Baskaran, Mani; van der Lee, Sven J; Perera, Shamira; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Oostra, Ben A; Uitterlinden, André G; Fan, Qiao; Hofman, Albert; Shyong Tai, E-; Vingerling, Johannes R; Sim, Xueling; Wolfs, Roger C W; Teo, Yik Ying; Lemij, Hans G; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Willemsen, Rob; Lackner, Karl J; Aung, Tin; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Montgomery, Grant; Wild, Philipp S; Young, Terri L; Burdon, Kathryn P; Hysi, Pirro G; Pasquale, Louis R; Wong, Tien Yin; Klaver, Caroline C W; Hewitt, Alex W; Jonas, Jost B; Mitchell, Paul; Lotery, Andrew J; Foster, Paul J; Vitart, Veronique; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A; Hammond, Christopher J; Wiggs, Janey L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; van Duijn, Cornelia M; MacGregor, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increase risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We conducted a

  2. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, H.; Iglesias, A.I.; Mishra, A; Hohn, R.; Wojciechowski, R.; Khawaja, A.P.; Nag, A.; Wang, Y.X.; Wang, J.J.; Cuellar-Partida, G.; Gibson, J.; Bailey, J.N.; Vithana, E.N.; Gharahkhani, P.; Boutin, T.; Ramdas, W.D.; Zeller, T.; Luben, R.N.; Yonova-Doing, E.; Viswanathan, A.C.; Yazar, S.; Cree, A.J.; Haines, J.L.; Koh, J.Y.; Souzeau, E.; Wilson, J.F.; Amin, N.; Muller, C.; Venturini, C.; Kearns, L.S.; Kang, J.H.; Tham, Y.C.; Zhou, T.; Leeuwen, E.M. van; Nickels, S.; Sanfilippo, P.; Liao, J.; Linde, H. van der; Zhao, W.; Koolwijk, L.M. van; Zheng, L.; Rivadeneira, F.; Baskaran, M.; Lee, S.J. van der; Perera, S.; Jong, P.T.; Oostra, B.A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Fan, Q.; Hofman, A.; Tai, E.S.; Vingerling, J.R.; Sim, X.; Wolfs, R.C.; Teo, Y.Y.; Lemij, H.G.; Khor, C.C.; Willemsen, R.; Lackner, K.J.; Aung, T.; Jansonius, N.M.; Montgomery, G.; Wild, P.S.; Young, T.L.; Burdon, K.P.; Hysi, P.G.; Pasquale, L.R.; Wong, T.Y.; Klaver, C.C.W.; Hewitt, A.W.; Jonas, J.B.; Mitchell, P.; Lotery, A.J.; Foster, P.J.; Vitart, V.; Pfeiffer, N.; Craig, J.E.; Mackey, D.A.; Hammond, C.J.; Wiggs, J.L.; Cheng, C.Y.; Duijn, C.M. van; MacGregor, S.

    2017-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increased risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We conducted a

  3. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Iglesias, Adriana I; Mishra, Aniket; Höhn, René; Wojciechowski, Robert; Khawaja, Anthony P; Nag, Abhishek; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Gibson, Jane; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Vithana, Eranga N; Gharahkhani, Puya; Boutin, Thibaud; Ramdas, Wishal D; Zeller, Tanja; Luben, Robert N; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Yazar, Seyhan; Cree, Angela J; Haines, Jonathan L; Koh, Jia Yu; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Wilson, James F; Amin, Najaf; Müller, Christian; Venturini, Cristina; Kearns, Lisa S; Hee Kang, Jae; Consortium, Neighborhood; Tham, Yih Chung; Zhou, Tiger; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Nickels, Stefan; Sanfilippo, Paul; Liao, Jiemin; Linde, Herma van der; Zhao, Wanting; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M E; Zheng, Li; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Baskaran, Mani; van der Lee, Sven J; Perera, Shamira; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Oostra, Ben A; Uitterlinden, André G; Fan, Qiao; Hofman, Albert; Shyong Tai, E-; Vingerling, Johannes R; Sim, Xueling; Wolfs, Roger C W; Teo, Yik Ying; Lemij, Hans G; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Willemsen, Rob; Lackner, Karl J; Aung, Tin; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Montgomery, Grant; Wild, Philipp S; Young, Terri L; Burdon, Kathryn P; Hysi, Pirro G; Pasquale, Louis R; Wong, Tien Yin; Klaver, Caroline C W; Hewitt, Alex W; Jonas, Jost B; Mitchell, Paul; Lotery, Andrew J; Foster, Paul J; Vitart, Veronique; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A; Hammond, Christopher J; Wiggs, Janey L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; van Duijn, Cornelia M; MacGregor, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increase risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We conducted a genom

  4. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Springelkamp, H. (Henriët); Iglesias, A.I. (Adriana); Mishra, A. (Aniket); Höhn, R. (René); Wojciechowski, R. (Robert); Khawaja, A.P. (Anthony); Nag, A. (Abhishek); Wang, Y.X. (Ya Xing); Wang, J.J. (Jie Jin); Cuellar-Partida, G. (Gabriel); Gibson, J. (Jane); Cooke Bailey, J.N. (Jessica); Vithana, E.N. (Eranga); Gharahkhani, P. (Puya); Boutin, T. (Thibaud); Ramdas, W.D. (Wishal); Zeller, T. (Tanja); Luben, R.N. (Robert); Yonova-Doing, E. (Ekaterina); Viswanathan, A.C. (Ananth); Yazar, S. (Seyhan); Cree, A.J. (Angela); Haines, J.L. (Jonathan); Koh, J.Y. (Jia Yu); Souzeau, E. (Emmanuelle); Wilson, J.F. (James); Amin, N. (Najaf); Müller, C. (Christian); Venturini, C. (Cristina); Kearns, L.S. (Lisa); Hee Kang, J. (Jae); Consortium, N. (Neighborhood); Tham, Y.C. (Yih Chung); Zhou, T. (Tiger); van Leeuwen, E.M. (Elisabeth); Nickels, S. (Stefan); Sanfilippo, P. (Paul); Liao, J. (Jiemin); Linde, H.V. (Herma van der); Zhao, W. (Wanting); van Koolwijk, L.M. (Leonieke); Zheng, L. (Li); Rivadeneira, F. (Fernando); Baskaran, M. (Mani); van der Lee, S.J. (Sven); Perera, S. (Shamira); de Jong, P.T. (Paulus); Oostra, B.A. (Ben); Uitterlinden, A.G. (André); Fan, Q. (Qiao); Hofman, A. (Albert); Shyong Tai, E. (E-); Vingerling, J.R. (Johannes); Sim, X. (Xueling); Wolfs, R.C. (Roger); Teo, Y.Y. (Yik Ying); Lemij, H.G. (Hans); Khor, C.C. (Chiea Chuen); Willemsen, R. (Rob); Lackner, K.J. (Karl); Aung, T. (Tin); Jansonius, N.M. (Nomdo); Montgomery, G. (Grant); Wild, P.S. (Philipp); Young, T.L. (Terri); Burdon, K.P. (Kathryn); Hysi, P.G. (Pirro); Pasquale, L.R. (Louis); Wong, T.Y. (Tien Yin); Klaver, C.C. (Caroline); Hewitt, A.W. (Alex); Jonas, J.B. (Jost); Mitchell, P. (Paul); Lotery, A.J. (Andrew); Foster, P.J. (Paul); Vitart, V. (Veronique); Pfeiffer, N. (Norbert); Craig, J.E. (Jamie); Mackey, D.A. (David); Hammond, C.J. (Christopher); Wiggs, J.L. (Janey); Cheng, C.Y. (Ching-Yu); van Duijn, C.M. (Cornelia); MacGregor, S. (Stuart)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPrimary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increase risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We condu

  5. Effects of inhaled fluticasone on intraocular pressure and central corneal thickness in asthmatic children without a family history of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaadi, Muslim M; Osuagwu, Uchechukwu L; Almubrad, Turki M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to report the effects of fluticasone-inhaled corticosteroid on intraocular pressure (IOP) and central corneal thickness (CCT) of asthmatic children without a family history of glaucoma. In this prospective study, 93 children were divided into two groups: 69 asthmatic children with no family history of glaucoma who were taking inhaled fluticasone propionate 250 μg daily for at least 6 months (Group 1) and 24 age-matched control subjects without asthma (Group 2). Three measurements each, of IOP and CCT, were performed with a hand-held noncontact tonometer and a noncontact specular microscope, respectively, over a 12-week period. The order of IOP and CCT measured were randomized at each visit. Between-group comparison and the relationship between CCT and IOP measurements were investigated. P family history of glaucoma. A weak correlation between IOP and CCT values in asthmatic children did exist.

  6. Central Corneal Thickness, Corneal Endothelial Characteristics and Intraocular Pressure after Pediatric Cataract Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Nilforushan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To investigate central corneal thickness (CCT, endothelial cell characteristics and intraocular pressure (IOP in eyes with prior pediatric cataract surgery and to compare them with eyes of normal age and sex matched controls. METHODS: Specular microscopy CCT and IOP measurements were performed in 31 eyes of 17 patients with prior congenital cataract extraction and 40 eyes of 20 age and sex matched subjects. The mean of three pachymetric and specular microscopic measurements were recorded. IOP was measured using Goldmann applanation tonometry. RESULTS: Mean CCT was 632±45 µm in eyes with prior pediatric cataract surgery vs 546±33 µm in control eyes (P < 0.001, independent t test and Mann Whitney U-test. Mean IOP was 22.1±3.9 mmHg in eyes with prior pediatric cataract surgery and 14.0±1.6 mmHg in the control group (P < 0.001, independent t-test. There was no significant difference between the two groups in cell count, polymegethism and mean cell area of corneal endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Although the corneas were clinically clear and there was no significant difference in endothelial characteristics in eyes with prior pediatric cataract surgery as compared to normal controls, central corneal thickness in the operated eyes was significantly greater. To differentiate actual glaucoma from artifactual IOP

  7. Effect of elevated intraocular pressure on the thickness changes of cat laminar and prelaminar tissue using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiuyun; Qian, Xiuqing; Li, Lin; Sun, Weijian; Huang, Shan; Liu, Zhicheng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine shape the changes of the lamina cribrosa (LC) under different intraocular pressures (IOPs) with different periods. Images of the optic nerve head were obtained using enhanced depth imaging spectral domain optical coherence tomography (EDI SD-OCT). After an initial scan of the IOP at native pressure, subsequent scanning was taken when the IOP values reached 40, 60, 80 and 100 mm Hg. Then scans continued with the IOP maintained at 100 mm Hg for 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours and 4 hours. The thicknesses of the LC and prelaminar tissue were measured and the curvature of the LC was calculated. Our study found that as IOP increased, the thicknesses of both LC and prelaminar tissue decreased and the thickness variation of the LC correlated significantly with the increases of IOP when IOP was higher than 60 mm Hg. An exponential function was proposed to express the relationship between IOP and the thickness variations of LC and prelaminar tissue. Creep curves of the LC and prelaminar tissue was also obtained using the Prony model. In conclusion, both the thickness of the prelaminar tissue and LC thinned as the IOP elevated. The thickness of the LC also decreased after 4 hours of constant 100 mm Hg pressure.

  8. Changes in blood pressure and sleep duration in patients with blue light-blocking/yellow-tinted intraocular lens (CHUKYO study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    Blood pressure and sleep duration may be influenced by retinal light exposure. Cataracts may exert such an influence by decreasing the transparency of the crystalline lens. A large-scale clinical study was conducted to examine changes in blood pressure and sleep duration after intraocular lens (IOL) implantation during cataract surgery and to investigate how different types of IOL influence the degree of these effects. Using a questionnaire, we collected information, including blood pressure measurement and sleep duration, from 1367 patients (1367 eyes) before IOL implantation, 1 week after IOL implantation and 1 month after IOL implantation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly decreased in the total patient group after implantation. The decrease in systolic blood pressure 1 month after implantation was significantly more in patients who received a yellow-tinted IOL than it was in those who received an ultraviolet (UV) light-filtering IOL. The post-implantation sleep duration, including naps, became shorter in patients who had slept too much and became longer in those who had slept too little before IOL implantation. Our observations suggest that a yellow-tinted IOL is better for patients with high blood pressure than a UV light-filtering IOL. Furthermore, the yellow-tinted IOL is as good as the UV light-filtering IOL for improving sleep duration. A pale yellow-tinted IOL is likely to be superior to a moderate yellow-tinted IOL in terms of allowing patients to discriminate different colors. Thus, the pale yellow-tinted IOL appears to be better for patients than the UV light-filtering IOL and the moderate yellow-tinted IOL.

  9. Effect of prophylactic timolol 0.1% gel on intraocular pressure after an intravitreal injection of ranibizumab: a randomized study

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    Pece A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alfredo Pece,1 Davide Allegrini,1 Giovanni Montesano,2 Andrea Fabio Dimastrogiovanni1 1Eye Clinic, Melegnano Hospital, Vizzolo Predabissi, 2Eye Clinic, San Paolo Hospital, Università di Milano, Milano, Italy Purpose: The purpose of this study is to make a prospective evaluation of the effect of timolol 0.1% eye gel on short-term intraocular pressure (IOP after an intravitreal injection (IVI of ranibizumab. Participants and methods: One hundred and fifty eyes of 150 IVI-naïve patients with macular edema caused by various pathological conditions (age-related macular degeneration, central or branch retinal vein occlusion, and diabetic retinopathy were scheduled to undergo an IVI of ranibizumab (0.5 mg/0.05 cc. The patients were randomly divided into three groups: 50 were not treated with timolol before the IVI (group 1; 50 received an instillation of timolol 0.1% eye gel the evening before the IVI (group 2; and 50 received an instillation of timolol 0.1% eye gel 2 hours before the IVI (group 3. The incidence of clinically significant intraocular hypertensive spikes (>25 mmHg and >40 mmHg was then assessed. Results: Our findings showed that mean IOP at baseline was significantly higher than at both 5 and 60 minutes after IVI (P<0.01. Spikes of >25 mmHg were recorded at either time in 27 patients (54% in group 1, 23 patients (44% in group 2, and 24 patients (48% in group 3. None of the between-group differences were significant. Spikes of >40 mmHg (which were only detected 5 minutes after IVI were recorded in nine (18%, eight (16%, and one patient (2% in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The only significant difference was between the control and group 3 (P=0.012. Conclusion: An increase in IOP after antivascular endothelial growth factor IVI is a frequent complication. The prophylactic use of timolol 0.1% gel effectively reduced the mean IOP when administered 2 hours before IVI and was also effective in preventing dangerous IOP spikes of >40 mm

  10. The effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on the intraocular pressure associated with endotracheal intubation in pediatric ophthalmic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Taek; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Jang, Kyu-Yong; Um, Dea Ja

    2013-02-01

    For ophthalmic surgery anesthesia, it is vital that intraocular pressure (IOP) is controlled. Most anesthetic drugs affect IOP dose-dependently, and inhalational anesthetics dose-dependently decrease IOP. In this study, we compared the effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on IOP and hemodynamics in pediatric ophthalmic surgery. Thirty eight pediatric patients from the age of 6 to 15 years, who were scheduled for strabismus surgery and entropion surgery, were randomized to be administered desflurane (group D, n = 19) or sevoflurane (group S, n = 19). IOPs and hemodynamic parameters were measured before induction of anesthesia (B), after induction but immediately before intubation (AI), 1 min after intubation (T1), 3 min after intubation (T3), and 5 min after intubation (T5). The mean arterial pressure (MAP) at T1 and heart rates (HRs) at T1 and T3 were significantly higher in group D than those in group S. There was no significant difference between the groups in IOP, cardiac index (CI) and stroke index (SI). There was a significant difference within the group in IOP, SI, MAP and HR. There was no significant difference within the group in CI. There was no significant difference between the groups in IOP and hemodynamic parameters. The two anesthetic agents maintained IOP and hemodynamic parameters in the normal range during anesthetic induction.

  11. Pregnenolone sulfate decreases intraocular pressure and changes expression of sigma receptor in a model of chronic ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xian; Cheng, Fang; Meng, Bo; Yang, Binbin; Song, Wulian; Yuan, Huiping

    2012-06-01

    Sigma receptors are Ca(2+)-sensitive, ligand-operated receptor chaperones at the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane. This study describes the effect of the sigma receptor 1 agonist pregnenolone sulfate on intraocular pressure (IOP) and sigma receptor 1 expression in rat retinas after chronic ocular hypertension. Chronic ocular hypertension was induced by occlusion of episcleral veins. Retinal histological sections were obtained to determine inner plexiform layer thickness and the number of cell bodies in the ganglion cell layer. Sigma receptor expression in rat retinas was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. Cauterization caused IOP to increase >73%, and the pressure was maintained for 2 months. A time-dependent loss of ganglion cells and retinal thickness occurred at elevated IOP. High IOP decreased sigma receptor 1 expression during the first week, but expression was increased at 8 weeks. Injected pregnenolone significantly decreased IOP, prevented ganglion cell loss, protected inner plexiform layer thickness, and increased sigma receptor 1 expression in episcleral vein-cauterized rats. Sigma receptors appear to be neuroprotective and potential targets for glaucoma therapeutics.

  12. Influence of head flexion on intraocular pressure, cardiovascular, and respiratory responses in patients undergoing cataract surgery after endotracheal intubation

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    MR Safavi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In cataract surgery, the periorbital area is prepared anddraped after induction of general anesthesia and endotracheal intubation (ETI.For this purpose, the patient’s head and neck is usually flexed 30 to 45degrees. Neck flexion causes displacement of the endotracheal tube tip towardthe carina. Stimulation of the tracheal mucosa may cause bucking, increasedintraocular pressure (IOP, laryngospasm and/or bronchospasm, during lightanesthesia. Laryngeal constriction and all components of the tracheal responsemay affect end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2 and peripheral arterialhemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpaO2. Thus, in the current study, weinvestigated the influence of head and neck flexion on heart rate (HR, systolicand diastolic blood pressure (SAP and DAP, SpaO2, PETCO2, and IOP in patientsundergoing cataract surgery with endotracheal intubation during generalanesthesia.Patients and Methods: The present prospective study comprised patientsaged from 40 to 80 year with 106 American Society of Anesthesia (ASA physicalstatus I and II. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium, lidocaine andfentanyl. Atracurium 0.5 mg/kg was administered to facilitate trachealintubation. HR, SAP, DAP, SpaO2, PETCO2, and IOP were measured at 1, 2, and 5minutes after head flexion.Results: Mean SAP, DAP, IOP, and HR was increased after ETI and headflexion compared with baseline values. PETCO2 and SpaO2 were decreased after ETIand at 1, 2 minutes after head flexion compared with baseline values.Conclusion: In patients undergoing cataract surgery during generalanesthesia, endotracheal tube movement caused changes in head and neck positionresulting in significant effects on heart rate, systolic and diastolic bloodpressures, laryngeal reflexes, SpaO2, PETCO2, and intraocular pressure.

  13. Bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% lowered intraocular pressure of normal-tension glaucoma with minimal adverse events

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    Tsumura T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Toyoaki Tsumura,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Hirotaka Suzumura,3 Tairo Kimura,4 Satoshi Sasaki,5 Itaru Kimura,6 Ryuji Takeda71Department of Ophthalmology, Fussa Hospital, Fussa, Tokyo, Japan; 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Machida, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Nakano General Hospital, Nakano, Tokyo, Japan; 4Ueno Eye Clinic, Ueno, Tokyo, Japan; 5Sasaki Eye Clinic, Ueno, Tokyo, Japan; 6Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, Urayasu, Chiba, Japan; 7Department of Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Nara, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bimatoprost ophthalmic solution 0.03% (bimatoprost in Japanese normal-tension glaucoma (NTG patients with an intraocular pressure (IOP of 18 mmHg or less.Methods: Bimatoprost was instilled into the unilateral conjunctival sac of Japanese NTG patients with a baseline IOP of 18 mmHg or less. The time courses of IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratitis, and adverse events were examined at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks post bimatoprost instillation.Results: Thirty-two of the 38 enrolled NTG patients (mean age, 64.1 ± 12.6 years; 19 males and 19 females completed the study, with six patients unable to complete the study (two patients discontinued because of side effects and four patients withdrew. The levels of IOP in the treated eyes were significantly reduced (P < 0.0001 from the baseline IOP levels. No significant change in IOP was observed in the fellow eyes. There were significant increases in conjunctival hyperemia. No significant superficial punctate keratitis scores were noted between the baseline and each point examined. Eyelash disorder, eyelid pigmentation, and deepening of the upper eyelid sulcus were observed in 28, six, and three eyes, respectively.Conclusion: Bimatoprost effectively lowered the IOP. It was well tolerated in Japanese NTG patients, with few patients having to discontinue

  14. Effect of hemodialysis on visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and macular thickness in patients with chronic kidney disease

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    Chelala E

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elias Chelala,1,2,* Ali Dirani,1,2,* Ali Fadlallah,1,2 Elise Slim,1,2 Youssef Abdelmassih,1,2 Henry Fakhoury,3 Patrick Baz,1,2 Riad Bejjani1,2 1Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, 2Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital, Saint-Joseph University, 3Eye and Ear Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon *These two authors contributed equally to this work Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of hemodialysis (HD on visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP, and central foveal thickness (CFT in patients with chronic kidney disease.Materials and methods: Forty-nine eyes from 49 chronic kidney-disease patients were analyzed. Causes of chronic kidney disease included diabetes mellitus (n=9 patients, hypertensive nephrosclerosis (n=15 patients, and other causes (n=25 patients. All patients underwent HD in the Dialysis Unit of Hôtel-Dieu de France Hospital. Best-corrected visual acuity, CFT, and IOP were evaluated before and after HD. CFT was measured with spectral domain optical coherence tomography, and IOP was measured with Goldmann applanation tonometry.Results: Neither decimal best-corrected visual acuity (pre-HD 0.71±0.32, post-HD 0.72±0.31; P=0.877 nor CFT (pre-HD 251.39±39.29, post-HD 253.09±39.26; P=0.272 significantly changed after HD. However, mean IOP significantly decreased from 13.99±2.48 before HD to 12.65±2.41 mmHg after HD (P=0.001. IOP change was significantly correlated with serum albumin levels (P=0.008 and weight changes (P=0.047.Conclusion: HD can affect various ocular parameters. This is particularly true of IOP, which decreases significantly following HD. Keywords: chronic kidney disease, hemodialysis, visual acuity, central macular thickness, intraocular pressure

  15. To evaluate the effects of dexmedetomidine on intraocular pressure and haemodynamic changes in response to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation

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    Tanuja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The most important prerequisites for neurosurgeries are brain relaxation, need of stable haemodynamics with less fluctuation in intracranial pressure and speedy recovery from anaesthesia. Endotracheal intubation is the major stressful stimuli that can elicit a marked pressor response. Various drugs have been used to attenuate these reflexes. Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, have neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and sedative effects so it is potentially useful during neuroanaesthesia. This is a prospective randomised control trial carried out to see whether administration of Dexmedetomidine prior to intubation can attenuate the various haemodynamic responses, intraocular pressure (IOP and the requirement of induction dose of propofol in control and study group. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients (ASA grade 1, 2 scheduled for intracranial tumour surgeries were divided into two groups (25 each. Group D received Dexmedetomidine 0.8 μg/kg i.v. over 10 mins and group C received 20 ml saline. Anaesthesia induced with Propofol, dose adjusted using bispectral index monitor. The groups were compared with IOP, Heart rate (HR, Mean arterial pressure (MAP, and dose of Propofol required for induction. Results : Groups were well matched for their demographic data and pre-operative. IOP in both the eyes decreases significantly after premedication and remained below baseline even after 10 th min of intubation in group D while in Group C; it increased significantly after intubation and remained above baseline. The difference between groups was also statistically significant. HR and MAP decreased significantly in patients of group D compared to group C (P < 0.05. Patients were more haemodynamicaly stable at all time points after premedication in group D (P < 0.05. Propofol requirements for induction was lesser in group D (P < 0.05. Bradycardia and hypotension incidences were higher in group D. Conclusion

  16. Changes in intraocular pressure and horizontal pupil diameter during use of topical mydriatics in the canine eye

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    Kovalcuka, Liga; Ilgazs, Agris; Bandere, Dace; Williams, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide, 1% atropine sulphate and 10% phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions on intraocular pressure (IOP) and horizontal pupil diameter (HPD) in the dog during the first hour after treatment. Forty clinically and ophthalmologically normal canine patients (between the ages of 2 and 6 years) of varying breed and sex were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of ten and given one drop of tropicamide, atropine, phenylephrine or saline into one eye. IOP and HPD were measured in both eyes every 5 minutes for 60 minutes. Tropicamide increased IOP by 8.8±4.0 mmHg 35 minutes post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (Ppupil dilation 60 minutes after treatment, but the HPD of the – untreated eye slightly decreased at 15 minutes, but this change only reached statistical significance at 40 min post- treatment (P<0.05). Normal saline showed no influence on IOP or HPD. The drugs investigated here show a significant increase in IOP after mydriatics. PMID:28210543

  17. Phase-Contrast Micro-Computed Tomography Measurements of the Intraocular Pressure-Induced Deformation of the Porcine Lamina Cribrosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coudrillier, Baptiste; Geraldes, Diogo M; Vo, Nghia T; Atwood, Robert; Reinhard, Christina; Campbell, Ian C; Raji, Yazdan; Albon, Julie; Abel, Richard L; Ethier, C Ross

    2016-04-01

    The lamina cribrosa (LC) is a complex mesh-like tissue in the posterior eye. Its biomechanical environment is thought to play a major role in glaucoma, the second most common cause of blindness. Due to its small size and relative inaccessibility, high-resolution measurements of LC deformation, important in characterizing LC biomechanics, are challenging. Here we present a novel noninvasive imaging method, which enables measurement of the three-dimensional deformation of the LC caused by acute elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP). Posterior segments of porcine eyes were imaged using synchrotron radiation phase contrast micro-computed tomography (PC μCT) at IOPs between 6 and 37 mmHg. The complex trabecular architecture of the LC was reconstructed with an isotropic spatial resolution of 3.2 μm. Scans acquired at different IOPs were analyzed with digital volume correlation (DVC) to compute full-field deformation within the LC. IOP elevation caused substantial tensile, shearing and compressive devformation within the LC, with maximum tensile strains at 30 mmHg averaging 5.5%, and compressive strains reaching 20%. We conclude that PC μCT provides a novel high-resolution method for imaging the LC, and when combined with DVC, allows for full-field 3D measurement of ex vivo LC biomechanics at high spatial resolution.

  18. Modification of hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens with poly(ethylene glycol) by atmospheric pressure glow discharge: A facile approach

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    Lin Lin; Wang Yao; Huang Xiaodan [Eye Center, Affiliated Second Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China); Xu Zhikang [Key Laboratory of Macromolecular Synthesis and Functionalization (Ministry of Education), Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yao Ke, E-mail: xlren@zju.edu.cn [Eye Center, Affiliated Second Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009 (China)

    2010-10-01

    To improve the anterior surface biocompatibility of hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) in a convenient and continuous way, poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) were immobilized by atmospheric pressure glow discharge (APGD) treatment using argon as the discharge gas. The hydrophilicity and chemical changes on the IOL surface were characterized by static water contact angle and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to confirm the covalent binding of PEG. The morphology of the IOL surface was observed under field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The surface biocompatibility was evaluated by adhesion experiments with platelets, macrophages, and lens epithelial cells (LECs) in vitro. The results revealed that the anterior surface of the PEG-grafted IOL displayed significantly and permanently improved hydrophilicity. Cell repellency was observed, especially in the PEG-modified IOL group, which resisted the attachment of platelets, macrophages and LECs. Moreover, the spread and growth of cells were suppressed, which may be attributed to the steric stabilization force and chain mobility effect of the modified PEG. All of these results indicated that hydrophobic acrylic IOLs can be hydrophilic modified by PEG through APGD treatment in a convenient and continuous manner which will provide advantages for further industrial applications.

  19. Dynamic changes in optic disc morphology, choroidal thickness, anterior chamber parameters, and intraocular pressure during Valsalva maneuver

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    Alper Mete

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate the effects of the Valsalva maneuver (VM on optic disc morphology, choroidal thickness, and anterior chamber parameters. Methods: This prospective observational study included 60 eyes of 60 healthy subjects. The anterior chamber parameters, including central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (ACA, anterior chamber volume (ACV, pupil diameter (PD, axial length (AL, subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, optic disc parameters, and intraocular pressure (IOP, were measured at rest and during VM. Results: VM did not have any significant influence on AL, subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, optic disc area, rim area, cup area, cup-to-disc area ratio, vertical cup-to-disc ratio, rim volume, cup volume, and nerve head volume measurements (for all; p >0.05. IOP and PD significantly increased during VM (for both; p <0.001. VM significantly decreased CCT, ACD, ACA, and ACV values (for all; p <0.001. Moreover, the optic nerve cup volume decreased and the horizontal cup-to-disc ratio significantly increased during VM (for both; p <0.05. Conclusions: VM may cause transient changes in IOP, optic disc morphology, and anterior chamber parameters.

  20. Genome-wide analysis of multi-ancestry cohorts identifies new loci influencing intraocular pressure and susceptibility to glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, Pirro G; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Springelkamp, Henriët; Macgregor, Stuart; Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Wojciechowski, Robert; Vitart, Veronique; Nag, Abhishek; Hewitt, Alex W; Höhn, René; Venturini, Cristina; Mirshahi, Alireza; Ramdas, Wishal D; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vithana, Eranga; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Stefansson, Arni B; Liao, Jiemin; Haines, Jonathan L; Amin, Najaf; Wang, Ya Xing; Wild, Philipp S; Ozel, Ayse B; Li, Jun Z; Fleck, Brian W; Zeller, Tanja; Staffieri, Sandra E; Teo, Yik-Ying; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Luo, Xiaoyan; Allingham, R Rand; Richards, Julia E; Senft, Andrea; Karssen, Lennart C; Zheng, Yingfeng; Bellenguez, Céline; Xu, Liang; Iglesias, Adriana I; Wilson, James F; Kang, Jae H; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Jonsson, Vesteinn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Despriet, Dominiek D G; Ennis, Sarah; Moroi, Sayoko E; Martin, Nicholas G; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Yazar, Seyhan; Tai, E-Shyong; Amouyel, Philippe; Kirwan, James; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M E; Hauser, Michael A; Jonasson, Fridbert; Leo, Paul; Loomis, Stephanie J; Fogarty, Rhys; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Kearns, Lisa; Lackner, Karl J; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Simpson, Claire L; Pennell, Craig E; Oostra, Ben A; Uitterlinden, André G; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lotery, Andrew J; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R; Maubaret, Cécilia; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wolfs, Roger C W; Lemij, Hans G; Young, Terri L; Pasquale, Louis R; Delcourt, Cécile; Spector, Timothy D; Klaver, Caroline C W; Small, Kerrin S; Burdon, Kathryn P; Stefansson, Kari; Wong, Tien-Yin; Viswanathan, Ananth; Mackey, David A; Craig, Jamie E; Wiggs, Janey L; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hammond, Christopher J; Aung, Tin

    2014-10-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor in developing glaucoma, and variability in IOP might herald glaucomatous development or progression. We report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 18 population cohorts from the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium (IGGC), comprising 35,296 multi-ancestry participants for IOP. We confirm genetic association of known loci for IOP and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) and identify four new IOP-associated loci located on chromosome 3q25.31 within the FNDC3B gene (P = 4.19 × 10(-8) for rs6445055), two on chromosome 9 (P = 2.80 × 10(-11) for rs2472493 near ABCA1 and P = 6.39 × 10(-11) for rs8176693 within ABO) and one on chromosome 11p11.2 (best P = 1.04 × 10(-11) for rs747782). Separate meta-analyses of 4 independent POAG cohorts, totaling 4,284 cases and 95,560 controls, showed that 3 of these loci for IOP were also associated with POAG.

  1. [Determination of the individual normal range of intraocular pressure in differential diagnosis between pseudonormal tension glaucoma and ischemic optic neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamikonian, V P; Galoian, N S; Sheremet, N L; Kazarian, É É; Shmeleva-Demir, O A; Antonov, A A; Tatevosian, A A

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the relation between the actual intraocular pressure (IOP) and its individual normal range in normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) and ischemic optic neuropathy (ION) outcome. A total of 39 patients (61 eyes) were examined. Group 1 included 19 patients (35 eyes) with newly diagnosed NTG, group 2--20 patients (26 eyes) with the ION outcome. Besides conventional tests, the ophthalmic assessment in all patients included determination of the individual normal range of IOP and evaluation of biomechanical properties of the cornea. It is showed that determination of the individual normal range of IOP may play a key role in confusing cases of differential diagnosis between NTG and ION. The average actual IOP in patients with NTG generally exceeds the individual normal range by 40% (more than 5 mmHg), whereas in patients with the ION outcome--by only 11.7% (less than 5 mmHg - buffer range). No statistically significant difference in IOP measurements by different tonometry methods was found in either NTG or ION patients with corneal compensated IOP less than 21 mmHg.

  2. Genome-wide analysis of multiethnic cohorts identifies new loci influencing intraocular pressure and susceptibility to glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitart, Veronique; Nag, Abhishek; Hewitt, Alex W; Höhn, René; Venturini, Cristina; Mirshahi, Alireza; Ramdas, Wishal D.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Vithana, Eranga; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Stefansson, Arni B; Liao, Jiemin; Haines, Jonathan L; Amin, Najaf; Wang, Ya Xing; Wild, Philipp S; Ozel, Ayse B; Li, Jun Z; Fleck, Brian W; Zeller, Tanja; Staffieri, Sandra E; Teo, Yik-Ying; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Luo, Xiaoyan; Allingham, R Rand; Richards, Julia E; Senft, Andrea; Karssen, Lennart C; Zheng, Yingfeng; Bellenguez, Céline; Xu, Liang; Iglesias, Adriana I; Wilson, James F; Kang, Jae H; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Jonsson, Vesteinn; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Despriet, Dominiek D.G.; Ennis, Sarah; Moroi, Sayoko E; Martin, Nicholas G; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Yazar, Seyhan; Tai, E-Shyong; Amouyel, Philippe; Kirwan, James; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M.E.; Hauser, Michael A; Jonasson, Fridbert; Leo, Paul; Loomis, Stephanie J; Fogarty, Rhys; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Kearns, Lisa; Lackner, Karl J; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Simpson, Claire L; Pennell, Craig E; Oostra, Ben A; Uitterlinden, André G; Saw, Seang-Mei; Lotery, Andrew J; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R; Maubaret, Cécilia; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wolfs, Roger C.W.; Lemij, Hans G; Young, Terri L; Pasquale, Louis R; Delcourt, Cécile; Spector, Timothy D; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Small, Kerrin S; Burdon, Kathryn P; Stefansson, Kari; Wong, Tien-Yin; Viswanathan, Ananth; Mackey, David A; Craig, Jamie E; Wiggs, Janey L; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Hammond, Christopher J; Aung, Tin

    2014-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is an important risk factor in developing glaucoma and IOP variability may herald glaucomatous development or progression. We report the results of a genome-wide association study meta-analysis of 18 population cohorts from the International Glaucoma Genetics Consortium (IGGC), comprising 35,296 multiethnic participants for IOP. We confirm genetic association of known loci for IOP and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) and identify four new IOP loci located on chromosome 3q25.31 within the FNDC3B gene (p=4.19×10−08 for rs6445055), two on chromosome 9 (p=2.80×10−11 for rs2472493 near ABCA1 and p=6.39×10−11 for rs8176693 within ABO) and one on chromosome 11p11.2 (best p=1.04×10−11 for rs747782). Separate meta-analyses of four independent POAG cohorts, totaling 4,284 cases and 95,560 controls, show that three of these IOP loci are also associated with POAG. PMID:25173106

  3. Breakdown of the normal optic nerve head blood-brain barrier following acute elevation of intraocular pressure in experimental animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radius, R L; Anderson, D R

    1980-03-01

    Five hours of elevated intraocular pressure produced evidence of an altered blood-brain barrier at the optic nerve head in 27 of 29 monkey eyes. The change in vascular permeability was documented by fluorescein angiography (18 of 21 eyes), by Evans blue fluorescence microscopy (21 of 23 eyes), or by both methods. Leakage occurred from major blood vessels as well as from microvasculature of the nerve head. In 22 eyes, rapid axonal transport was studied after intravitreal injection of tritiated leucine. In 18 of these 22 eyes, autoradiography demonstrated a local interruption of axonal transport. In 15 eyes examined by all three methods, leakage from microvasculature (as opposed to leakage from the major vessels) was loosely associated with severe and widespread blockade of axonal transport at the lamina cribrosa. Although cause-and-effect relationships are not proved, ischemia may be responsible both for the focal endothelial damage with breakdown of the normal blood-brain barrier and for the local abnormalities of axonal transport.

  4. Goldmann applanation tonometry compared with corneal-compensated intraocular pressure in the evaluation of primary open-angle Glaucoma

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    Ehrlich Joshua R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To better understand the role of corneal properties and intraocular pressure (IOP in the evaluation of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; and to determine the feasibility of identifying glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON using IOP corrected and uncorrected for corneal biomechanics. Methods Records from 1,875 eyes of consecutively evaluated new patients were reviewed. Eyes were excluded if central corneal thickness (CCT or Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA measurements were unavailable. Presence or absence of GON was determined based on morphology of the optic disc, rim and retinal nerve fiber layer at the time of clinical examination, fundus photography and Heidelberg Retinal Tomography. Goldmann-applanation tonometry (GAT in the untreated state was recorded and Goldmann-correlated (IOPg and corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc were obtained using the ORA. Glaucomatous eyes were classified as normal or high-tension (NTG, HTG using the conventional cutoff of 21 mm Hg. One eligible eye was randomly selected from each patient for inclusion. Results A total of 357 normal, 155 HTG and 102 NTG eyes were included. Among NTG eyes, IOPcc was greater than GAT (19.8 and 14.4 mm Hg; p  Conclusions IOPcc may account for measurement error induced by corneal biomechanics. Compared to GAT, IOPcc may be a superior test in the evaluation of glaucoma but is unlikely to represent an effective diagnostic test.

  5. Effects of central corneal thickness, central corneal power, and axial length on intraocular pressure measurement assessed with goldmann applanation tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcura, Fatih; Aydin, Sayime; Uzgören, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    To determine the effects of central corneal thickness (CCT), central corneal power (CCP), and axial length (AL) on the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) using Goldmann applanation tonometry, and the effects of CCP and AL on CCT. Charts of 147 consecutive patients undergoing preoperative examinations for cataract surgery between April 2006 and April 2007 in our clinic were reviewed retrospectively. CCT, CCP, and AL were measured by ultrasonic pachymeter (Micropach Model 200P, Sonomed, Lake Success, N.Y. USA), autorefractokeratometer (KR 8800, Topcon, Tokyo, Japan), and ultrasound biometry (EZ Scan AB 5500+ Sonomed, Lake Success, N.Y. USA). Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis were used as indicated, and only one eye of each subject was included in the statistical analysis. Ninety-eight eyes of 98 patients were included in the study. IOP and CCT were significantly and positively correlated (P<0.001), and CCT and CCP (P=0.001) were inversely correlated. Multiple regression analysis showed that the effect of CCT on IOP was statistically significant (P<0.001), but the effects of CCP and AL on IOP were not significant (P=0.614, P=0.831, respectively). IOP increased by 0.29 mmHg for each 10 microm increase in CCT. CCT, but not CCP or AL, significantly affected IOP readings obtained by Goldmann applanation tonometry. The effect of CCP on IOP was weak and not significant despite the significant inverse correlation between CCT and CCP.

  6. Agreement of patient-measured intraocular pressure using rebound tonometry with Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) in glaucoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shaoying; Yu, Marco; Baig, Nafees; Hansapinyo, Linda; Tham, Clement C.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the agreement of patient-measured intraocular pressure (IOP) using rebound tonometry with ophthalmologist-measured IOP using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT). Fifty-three glaucoma patients used rebound tonometry (Icare ONE, Icare Finland Oy., Finland) to measure their own IOP in ambient environments for 1 week, 5 times per day. Clinic IOP measurements were performed by ophthalmologists using GAT and by patients using rebound tonometry on examination days 1, 4 and 7 of the same week. The agreement between the two tonometries was evaluated by modified Bland-Altman plots and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined. Differences in ICCs of them among the three examination days were evaluated by bootstrap resampling analysis. Respective within-measurement ICC of GAT and rebound tonometry were 0.98 and 0.94 on Day 1, 0.98 and 0.93 on Day 4, and 0.96 and 0.92 on Day 7. In a modified Bland-Altman plot, the mean difference ±1 standard deviation (SD) between the two tonometries was 0.15 ± 0.65 mmHg (p = 0.682). Between-measurement ICC were 0.66, 0.76 and 0.73 on the 3 examination days. There was no significant difference among ICCs. In conclusion, patient-measured IOP using rebound tonometry and ophthalmologist-measured IOP using GAT demonstrate good agreement. PMID:28165028

  7. Effect on Intraocular Pressure of Switching from Latanoprost and Travoprost Monotherapy to Timolol Fixed Combinations in Patients with Normal-Tension Glaucoma

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    Ryoko Igarashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in Japanese patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG. Methods. 27 NTG patients (54 eyes were compared IOP, superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK scores, and conjunctival injection scores in eyes treated with prostaglandin (PG or PG analog/beta-blocker (PG/b fixed-combination 6 months after the change in therapy. Results. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was 17.4±1.59 mmHg in eyes receiving PG therapy only and 17.4±1.69 mmHg in eyes switched to PG/b. Switching to fixed combination therapy from PG monotherapy, the mean IOP was 13.1±1.79 mmHg (P<0.001  (-24.71% reduction from baseline at 6 months. The mean conjunctival injection score was 0.69 for eyes on PG monotherapy and 0.56 for eyes on fixed combination therapy (P=0.028. The mean SPK scores were 0.46 and 0.53. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.463. Conclusions. Switching from PG monotherapy to PG/b fixed combination therapy for NTG resulted in a greater intraocular pressure reduction than PG alone without increasing the number of instillations.

  8. Effect on intraocular pressure of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in patients with normal-tension glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Ryoko; Togano, Tetsuya; Sakaue, Yuta; Yoshino, Takaiko; Ueda, Jun; Fukuchi, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) of switching from latanoprost and travoprost monotherapy to timolol fixed combinations in Japanese patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods. 27 NTG patients (54 eyes) were compared IOP, superficial punctuate keratitis (SPK) scores, and conjunctival injection scores in eyes treated with prostaglandin (PG) or PG analog/beta-blocker (PG/b) fixed-combination 6 months after the change in therapy. Results. The mean baseline intraocular pressure was 17.4 ± 1.59 mmHg in eyes receiving PG therapy only and 17.4 ± 1.69 mmHg in eyes switched to PG/b. Switching to fixed combination therapy from PG monotherapy, the mean IOP was 13.1 ± 1.79 mmHg (P < 0.001)  (-24.71% reduction from baseline) at 6 months. The mean conjunctival injection score was 0.69 for eyes on PG monotherapy and 0.56 for eyes on fixed combination therapy (P = 0.028). The mean SPK scores were 0.46 and 0.53. This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.463). Conclusions. Switching from PG monotherapy to PG/b fixed combination therapy for NTG resulted in a greater intraocular pressure reduction than PG alone without increasing the number of instillations.

  9. Effects of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin on HIF-1α expression in the retina in a rabbit model of acute high intraocular pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ping Song; Jian-ming Wang; Mei Zhang; Na Hui; Shi-ping Zhao; Kai Hu

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of hypoxia inducible faetor-1α (HIF-1α) in the retina of rabbits with acute high intraocular pressure and to investigate the mechanism of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) protecting the retina from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods First, control group and model group were established in rabbit eyes. The acute high intraocular pressure model was established by saline perfusion into anterior chamber, and then hypodermic injection of domestic rhEPO was made. HIF-1α protein in the retina was observed by immunohistochemical staining method on days 1, 3, 7 and 14 after retinal ischemla-reperfusion, respectively. Results No cells with HIF-la positive expression were observed in the retina of the control group. Ceils with HIF-1α positive expression in the model group outnumbered those in the control group (P < 0. 01). The resemblance pattern occurred in EPO group but its degree was slightly greater than that in the model group from day 3 after ischemia-reperfusion (P<0.05). Conclusion Domestic rhEPO can down-regulate the expression of HIF-1α in the retina with acute high intraocular pressure, which may be one of the mechanisms that rhEPO protects the retina from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  10. Effects of roscovitine, a cell cyclin [correction of cycling]-dependent kinase inhibitor, on intraocular pressure of rabbit and retinal ganglion cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Hiroyoshi; Imamura, Tomoyo; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Yuji; Kurasawa, Takashi; Hirata, Haruhisa; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2013-02-22

    Glaucoma is characterized by increased intraocular pressure (IOP) and the death of retinal ganglion cells. Previously, we reported that roscovitine, a cell cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor, strongly induced relaxation of porcine trabecular meshwork cells, implicating an interaction with lowered IOP. In addition, the activity of CDKs is known to increase in response to high IOP, which is linked to retinal ganglion cell damage. However, the effects of roscovitine on IOP and retinal damage have not been investigated. Roscovitine has racemic isomers that differ in their inhibition of CDKs. Therefore, we investigated the effects of both the R-isomer and the S-isomer on the IOP of rabbits and on the death of cultured retinal ganglion cells. In the in vivo rabbit experiment, instillation of both isomers significantly lowered the IOP. In the in vitro cell experiment, the R-isomer amplified the effects of tunicamycin, an endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer, and increased oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced cell death, whereas S-isomer significantly inhibited this cell death. Therefore, both isomers of roscovitine can lower the IOP, but from the perspective of neuroprotective effects, the S-isomer was superior to the R-isomer. The S-isomer of roscovitine may be useful as an agent for lowering IOP and its neuroprotective effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mice Homozygous for a Deletion in the Glaucoma Susceptibility Locus INK4 Show Increased Vulnerability of Retinal Ganglion Cells to Elevated Intraocular Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Jakobs, Tatjana C

    2016-04-01

    A genomic region located on chromosome 9p21 is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma and normal tension glaucoma in genome-wide association studies. The genomic region contains the gene for a long noncoding RNA called CDKN2B-AS, two genes that code for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors 2A and 2B (CDKN2A/p16(INK4A) and CDKN2B/p15(INK4B)) and an additional protein (p14(ARF)). We used a transgenic mouse model in which 70 kb of murine chromosome 4, syntenic to human chromosome 9p21, are deleted to study whether this deletion leads to a discernible phenotype in ocular structures implicated in glaucoma. Homozygous mice of this strain were previously reported to show persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Fundus photography and optical coherence tomography confirmed that finding but showed no abnormalities for heterozygous mice. Optokinetic response, eletroretinogram, and histology indicated that the heterozygous and mutant retinas were normal functionally and morphologically, whereas glial cells were activated in the retina and optic nerve head of mutant eyes. In quantitative PCR, CDKN2B expression was reduced by approximately 50% in the heterozygous mice and by 90% in the homozygous mice, which suggested that the CDKN2B knock down had no deleterious consequences for the retina under normal conditions. However, compared with wild-type and heterozygous animals, the homozygous mice are more vulnerable to retinal ganglion cell loss in response to elevated intraocular pressure.

  12. A comparative evaluation of the effect of intravenous dexmedetomidine and clonidine on intraocular pressure after suxamethonium and intubation

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    Puneet K Banga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients with penetrating eye injury and a full stomach, suxamethonium is still used for rapid sequence induction of anesthesia. But its use is associated with the rise in intraocular pressure (IOP and this can result in permanent vision loss in these patients. Dexmedetomidine and clonidine are two alpha-2 adrenergic agonist drugs which prevent the rise in IOP. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of intravenous (i.v. dexmedetomidine and clonidine in preventing an increase in IOP after administration of suxamethonium and tracheal intubation. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients undergoing elective nonophthalmic surgery under general anesthesia were included in this clinical study. Patients were randomly assigned into three groups to receive 0.5 mcg/kg dexmedetomidine (Group D, 2 mcg/kg clonidine (Group C or normal saline (Group S as premedication i.v. over a period of 10 min before induction. IOP, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure were recorded before and after premedication, after suxamethonium, after intubation and then after 5 min. Results: Following administration of dexmedetomidine and clonidine IOP decreased in both groups. After suxamethonium IOP increased in all three groups but it never crossed the baseline in Group D and C. After laryngoscopy and intubation IOP again increased in all three groups but in dexmedetomidine group it never crossed the baseline whereas in clonidine group it was significantly higher than the baseline. Conclusion: Single i.v. dose of dexmedetomidine premedication (0.5 mcg/kg blunt the IOP and hemodynamic response to suxamethonium injection and tracheal intubation more effectively than single i.v. dose of clonidine premedication (2 mcg/kg.

  13. 麻醉与眼内压的研究进展%Advance in anesthesia and intraocular pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雪芳; 徐树华

    2013-01-01

    Background Perioperative fluctuation of intraocular pressure (IOP) can cause serious ocular complications,resulting in visual field defects or even blindness.Studies have shown that,the perioperative procedures and anesthetic can lead to IOP changes,which affects the blood supply of the eyes.Objective This review systematically elaborates the research status and progress on the effects of perioperative physiological function and common anesthetics on IOP and will provide a reference for clinical work,and inspire new research ideas.Content To review the physiological and drug factors during anesthesia which affect the IOP.Trend It can be seen form the recent studies,that the researchers have conducted more indepth discussions about the mechanisms of perioperative physiology and drugs on IOP.%背景 围术期眼内压(intraoeular pressure,IOP)剧烈波动可以引起严重的眼部并发症,导致视野缺损甚至失明.有研究表明,围术期麻醉、手术操作及药物的使用均可导致IOP发生改变,影响眼内血供. 目的 系统地阐述围术期生理及麻醉常用药物对IOP影响的研究现状以及进展,为临床工作提供参考,并启发新的研究思路. 内容 对麻醉期间影响IOP的生理和药物因素进行综述. 趋向 从近期的研究可见,研究者对围术期生理及药物对IOP的影响机制进行了更为深入的探讨.

  14. Effects of hemodialysis on corneal and anterior chamber morphometry and intraocular pressure in patients with end-stage renal disease

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    Mehtap Caglayan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effects of hemodialysis (HD on corneal and anterior chamber morphometry, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP in patients with end-stage renal disease. Methods: Fifty right eyes were examined 30 minutes before and after HD. IOP was measured with a Goldmann applanation tonometer, and Ehlers' formula was used to calculate the corrected IOP values. The central corneal thickness (CCT, corneal volume (CV, keratometric values, anterior chamber depth (ACD, aqueous depth (AQD, anterior chamber volume (ACV, and anterior chamber angle (ACA in the nasal and temporal quadrants were measured with a Sirius anterior segment analysis system. Blood urea nitrogen levels, body mass, and systolic and diastolic arterial pressure were also measured before and after HD. Results: The mean age was 60.80 ± 13.38 (range: 35-80 years. The mean uncorrected and corrected IOP values decreased from 18.06 ± 3.91 and 18.31 ± 4.83 mmHg to 16.94 ± 3.87 and 16.95 ± 4.74 mmHg after HD, respectively (p=0.011 and p=0.003, respectively. The mean CCT decreased from 536.38 ± 24.73 to 533.18 ± 27.25 µm (p=0.002, and the mean CV decreased from 57.52 ± 3.15 to 55.68 ± 3.55 mm³ (p0.05 for all values. There were no significant correlations between the ocular and systemic parameters (p>0.05 for all correlations. Conclusions: Uncorrected IOP, corrected IOP, CCT, and CV values decreased after HD, whereas the anterior chamber morphometry values remained similar between the measurements performed before and after HD.

  15. Eficácia do latanoprosta x travoprosta avaliada pela curva diária de pressão intraocular Efficacy of latanoprost versus travoprost assessed by daily intraocular pressure curve

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    Hérika Danielle de Miranda Santos

    2009-02-01

    ância estatística na diferença da V entre as drogas isoladas (L e T (t= -2,9; p=0,005, com menor flutuação da Po na curva diária de pressão intraocular nos usuários de L. CONCLUSÃO: Na curva diária de pressão intraocular realizada com a medida das 6 horas no leito e no escuro, o L e o T associados ao maleato de timolol 0,5%, mostraram eficácia similar, porém, em monoterapia, a Pm foi também similar com ambas as drogas, mas a V obtida com o L foi menor com significância estatística.PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of latanoprost (L and travoprost (T as monotherapy as well as both drugs associated with 0.5% timolol maleate twice a day regarding the daily curve of intraocular pressure (DCPo with the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP at 6 am in bed. METHODS: Retrospective study analyzing the daily curve of intraocular pressure of patients treated with L or T with or without 0.5% Tim. Patients who did not correctly follow the treatment were excluded. We also excluded the patients who used the prostaglandin analog associated with any other antiglaucomatous drug different from 0.5% Tim and those who were treated with more than two antiglaucomatous drugs. Statistical analysis was made through the SPSS 11.0 program calculating mean intraocular pressure (Pm, variability (V, p value and standard deviation. Ethnic aspects or type of glaucoma were no criteria of inclusion or exclusion in this study. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients (142 eyes were included. The average age was 61.7 years. Thirty-three (44.0% patients were male and 42 (56.0% were female. Thirteen patients (26 eyes 18.3% used L, 18 patients (33 eyes - 23.2% were treated with T, 18 patients (32 eyes - 22.5% used latanoprost and 0.5% timolol (L 0.5%Tim and 26 patients (51 eyes - 35.9% used travoprost and 0.5% timolol (T 0.5%Tim. Chronic simple glaucoma was the most common type (92.0%, followed by congenital glaucoma (6.7% and glaucoma secondary to cataract surgery (1.3%. Pm was 15.2 (± 4.2 mmHg among those

  16. Ocular rigidity, ocular pulse amplitude, and pulsatile ocular blood flow: the effect of intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastiridou, Anna I; Ginis, Harilaos S; De Brouwere, Dirk; Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis K; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the pressure-volume relation in the living human eye, measure the ocular pulse amplitude (OPA), and calculate the corresponding pulsatile ocular blood flow (POBF) in a range of clinically relevant IOP levels. Fifty patients with cataract (50 eyes) were enrolled in the study. After cannulation of the anterior chamber, a computer-controlled device for the intraoperative measurement and control of IOP was used to artificially increase the IOP in a stepping procedure from 15 to 40 mm Hg. The IOP was continuously recorded for 2 seconds after each infusion step. The pressure-volume relation was approximated with an exponential fit, and the ocular rigidity coefficient was computed. OPA, pulse volume (PV), and POBF were measured from the continuous IOP recordings. The average rigidity coefficient was 0.0224 microL(-1) (SD 0.0049). OPA increased by 91% and PV and POBF decreased by 29% and 30%, respectively, when increasing the IOP from 15 to 40 mm Hg. The OPA is positively correlated with the coefficient of ocular rigidity (r = 0.65, P < 0.01). The present results suggest a nonlinear pressure-volume relation in the living human eye characterized by an increase in rigidity at higher IOP levels. The increased OPA and decreased pulse volume relate to the decreased POBF and the increased mechanical resistance of the ocular wall at high IOP levels.

  17. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure, Blood Pressure, Ocular Perfusion Pressure and Blood Flow Fluctuations During Dorzolamide Versus Timolol Add-On Therapy in Prostaglandin Analogue Treated Glaucoma Subjects

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    Ruta Barsauskaite

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effects of dorzolamide and timolol add-on therapy in open-angle glaucoma (OAG patients previously treated with prostaglandin analogue (Pg, by evaluating fluctuations in the intraocular (IOP, blood (BP, ocular perfusion pressures (OPP and retrobulbar blood flow (RBF parameters. Methods: 35 OAG patients (35 eyes, 31 women (88.6% age 63.3 (8.9 years were evaluated in a 3 month randomized, cross-over, single-masked study. During the experiments BP, heart rate, IOP and OPP were assessed 4 times per day (8–12–16–20 h. RBF was measured twice per day (8–20 h using Color Doppler imaging in the ophthalmic (OA, central retinal (CRA, nasal (nSPCA and temporal (tSPCA posterior ciliary arteries. In each vessel, peak systolic velocity (PSV and end-diastolic velocity (EDV were assessed and vascular resistance (RI calculated. Results: Both add-on therapies lowered IOP in a statistically significant manner from 15.7 ± 2.4 mmHg at latanoprost baseline to 14.9 ± 2.2 mmHg using dorzolamide (p < 0.001 and 14.2 ± 1.9 mmHg using timolol (p < 0.001. The IOP lowering effect was statistically significant at 20 h, favoring timolol as compared to dorzolamide (1.4 ± 2.4 vs. 0.2 ± 2.1 mmHg, (p < 0.05. Dorzolamide add-on therapy showed smaller IOP (2.0 ± 1.4, SPP (13.3 ± 7.9, systolic BP (13.5 ± 8.7 and diastolic BP (8.4 ± 5.4 fluctuations as compared to both latanoprost baseline or timolol add-on therapies. Higher difference between morning and evening BP was correlated to decreased evening CRA EDV in the timolol group (c = −0.41; p = 0.01. With increased MAP in the morning or evening hours, we found increased evening OA RI in timolol add-on group (c = 0.400, p = 0.02; c = 0.513, p = 0.002 accordingly. Higher MAP fluctuations were related to impaired RBF parameters during evening hours-decreased CRA EDV (c = −0.408; p = 0.01, increased CRA RI (c = 0.576; p < 0.001 and tSPCA RI (c = 0.356; p = 0.04 in the dorzolamide group and

  18. Intraocular pressure and haemodynamic responses to insertion of the i-gel, laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salah A; Bisher, Neama A; Kandil, Hazem W; Mowafi, Hany A; Atawia, Hayam A

    2011-06-01

    We hypothesised that the effects of insertion of an i-gel supraglottic airway management device on intraocular pressure (IOP) and haemodynamic variables would be milder than those associated with insertion of a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) or an endotracheal tube. This study evaluated IOP and haemodynamic responses following insertion of an i-gel airway, LMA or endotracheal tube. This was a randomised controlled study in a tertiary care centre in which 60 adults scheduled for elective non-ophthalmic procedures under general anaesthesia were allocated to one of three groups. Patients with pre-existing glaucoma, cardiovascular, pulmonary or metabolic diseases or anticipated difficult intubation were excluded. Following induction of general anaesthesia, an endotracheal tube, LMA or i-gel device was inserted. IOP, SBP, DBP, heart rate (HR) and perfusion index were measured before induction of anaesthesia and before and after insertion of the airway device. Insertion of the i-gel did not increase IOP. Insertion of an endotracheal tube increased IOP from 11.6 ± 1.6 to 16.5 ± 1.7 mmHg (P intubation significantly increased HR, SBP and DBP. Insertion of the LMA significantly increased HR and SBP. These increases were significantly higher than those which followed insertion of the i-gel device. Insertion of the endotracheal tube or LMA resulted in a significant decrease in perfusion index which was maintained for 5 min following tracheal intubation and for 2 min after insertion of the LMA. Insertion of the i-gel device did not change perfusion index significantly. Insertion of the i-gel device provides better stability of IOP and the haemodynamic system compared with insertion of an endotracheal tube or LMA in patients undergoing elective non-ophthalmic surgery.

  19. Noninvasive measurement of wave speed of porcine cornea in ex vivo porcine eyes for various intraocular pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Boran; Sit, Arthur J; Zhang, Xiaoming

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to extend an ultrasound surface wave elastography (USWE) technique for noninvasive measurement of ocular tissue elastic properties. In particular, we aim to establish the relationship between the wave speed of cornea and the intraocular pressure (IOP). Normal ranges of IOP are between 12 and 22mmHg. Ex vivo porcine eye balls were used in this research. The porcine eye ball was supported by the gelatin phantom in a testing container. Some water was pour into the container for the ultrasound measurement. A local harmonic vibration was generated on the side of the eye ball. An ultrasound probe was used to measure the wave propagation in the cornea noninvasively. A 25 gauge butterfly needle was inserted into the vitreous humor of the eye ball under the ultrasound imaging guidance. The needle was connected to a syringe. The IOP was obtained by the water height difference between the water level in the syringe and the water level in the testing container. The IOP was adjusted between 5mmHg and 30mmHg with a 5mmHg interval. The wave speed was measured at each IOP for three frequencies of 100, 150 and 200Hz. Finite element method (FEM) was used to simulate the wave propagation in the corneal according to our experimental setup. A linear viscoelastic FEM model was used to compare the experimental data. Both the experiments and the FEM analyses showed that the wave speed of cornea increased with IOP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intraocular pressure fluctuation after water drinking test in primary angle-closure glaucoma and primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Yi-Chieh Poon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Only a few studies have assessed intraocular pressure (IOP changes during the water drinking test (WDT in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG. Aims: The aim of this study is to investigate IOP changes during WDT in patients with PACG versus primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG. Settings and Design: This was a prospective and single tertiary center study. Materials and Methods: PACG and POAG patients (n = 15 each without prior glaucoma surgery were enrolled and subjected to WDT, wherein they consumed an amount of water proportional to their body weight within 10 min. IOP was measured at baseline and every 15 min for 1 h after water intake. Statistical Analysis Used: Intergroup comparisons were performed using Mann–Whitney U-test for continuous variables and Chi-square test for categorical variables. Wilcoxon signed-ranks test was used for comparisons of IOP before and after water intake in the two groups. Regression analysis was used to determine factors associated with IOP fluctuations during WDT. Results: IOP changes over 1 h after water intake showed no significant differences between groups. The mean maximum fluctuation from baseline was 3.61 ± 2.49 and 3.79 ± 1.91 mmHg, respectively, in the PACG and POAG groups. The mean peak IOP was 19.17 ± 4.32 and 19.87 ± 3.44 mmHg in the PACG and PAOG groups, respectively. The axial length and anterior chamber depth showed no correlations with IOP fluctuations. Conclusions: We found similar IOP fluctuation curves and peak IOP values in both PACG and POAG patients subjected to WDT. These findings suggest that WDT is a useful test to induce IOP peaks in both POAG and PACG patients.

  1. Magic angle-enhanced MRI of fibrous microstructures in sclera and cornea with and without intraocular pressure loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Leon C; Sigal, Ian A; Jan, Ning-Jiun; Squires, Alexander; Tse, Zion; Wu, Ed X; Kim, Seong-Gi; Schuman, Joel S; Chan, Kevin C

    2014-08-07

    The structure and biomechanics of the sclera and cornea are central to several eye diseases such as glaucoma and myopia. However, their roles remain unclear, partly because of limited noninvasive techniques to assess their fibrous microstructures globally, longitudinally, and quantitatively. We hypothesized that magic angle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal the structural details of the corneoscleral shell and their changes upon intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. Seven ovine eyes were extracted and fixed at IOP = 50 mm Hg to mimic ocular hypertension, and another 11 eyes were unpressurized. The sclera and cornea were scanned at different angular orientations relative to the main magnetic field inside a 9.4-Tesla MRI scanner. Relative MRI signal intensities and intrinsic transverse relaxation times (T2 and T2*) were determined to quantify the magic angle effect on the corneoscleral shells. Three loaded and eight unloaded tendon samples were scanned as controls. At magic angle, high-resolution MRI revealed distinct scleral and corneal lamellar fibers, and light/dark bands indicative of collagen fiber crimps in the sclera and tendon. Magic angle enhancement effect was the strongest in tendon and the least strong in cornea. Loaded sclera, cornea, and tendon possessed significantly higher T2 and T2* than unloaded tissues at magic angle. Magic angle-enhanced MRI can detect ocular fibrous microstructures without contrast agents or coatings and can reveal their MR tissue property changes with IOP loading. This technique may open up new avenues for assessment of the biomechanical and biochemical properties of ocular tissues in aging and in diseases involving the corneoscleral shell. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  2. Magic Angle–Enhanced MRI of Fibrous Microstructures in Sclera and Cornea With and Without Intraocular Pressure Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Leon C.; Sigal, Ian A.; Jan, Ning-Jiun; Squires, Alexander; Tse, Zion; Wu, Ed X.; Kim, Seong-Gi; Schuman, Joel S.; Chan, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The structure and biomechanics of the sclera and cornea are central to several eye diseases such as glaucoma and myopia. However, their roles remain unclear, partly because of limited noninvasive techniques to assess their fibrous microstructures globally, longitudinally, and quantitatively. We hypothesized that magic angle–enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can reveal the structural details of the corneoscleral shell and their changes upon intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation. Methods. Seven ovine eyes were extracted and fixed at IOP = 50 mm Hg to mimic ocular hypertension, and another 11 eyes were unpressurized. The sclera and cornea were scanned at different angular orientations relative to the main magnetic field inside a 9.4-Tesla MRI scanner. Relative MRI signal intensities and intrinsic transverse relaxation times (T2 and T2*) were determined to quantify the magic angle effect on the corneoscleral shells. Three loaded and eight unloaded tendon samples were scanned as controls. Results. At magic angle, high-resolution MRI revealed distinct scleral and corneal lamellar fibers, and light/dark bands indicative of collagen fiber crimps in the sclera and tendon. Magic angle enhancement effect was the strongest in tendon and the least strong in cornea. Loaded sclera, cornea, and tendon possessed significantly higher T2 and T2* than unloaded tissues at magic angle. Conclusions. Magic angle–enhanced MRI can detect ocular fibrous microstructures without contrast agents or coatings and can reveal their MR tissue property changes with IOP loading. This technique may open up new avenues for assessment of the biomechanical and biochemical properties of ocular tissues in aging and in diseases involving the corneoscleral shell. PMID:25103267

  3. Intraocular Pressure and the Mechanisms Involved in Resistance of the Aqueous Humor Flow in the Trabecular Meshwork Outflow Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Ernst R; Braunger, Barbara M; Fuchshofer, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP), the critical risk factor for glaucoma, is generated and maintained by the aqueous humor circulation system. Aqueous humor is secreted from the epithelial layers of the ciliary body and exits the eye through the trabecular meshwork or the uveoscleral outflow pathways. IOP builds up in response to a resistance to aqueous humor flow in the trabecular outflow pathways. The trabecular outflow resistance is localized in the inner wall region, which comprises the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) and the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal (SC). Outflow resistance in this region is lowered through the relaxation of contractile myofibroblast-like cells in trabecular meshwork and the adjacent scleral spur, or the contraction of the ciliary muscle. In primary open-angle glaucoma, the most frequent form of glaucoma, outflow resistance of the inner wall region is typically higher than normal. There is evidence that the increase in resistance is related to characteristic biological changes in the resident cells of the JCT, which more and more acquire the structural and functional characteristics of contractile myofibroblasts. The changes involve an augmentation of their actin cytoskeleton and of their surrounding fibrillary extracellular matrix, which connects to JCT cells via integrins. This scenario leads to an overall stiffening of the inner wall region, and is modulated by transforming growth factor-β/connective tissue growth factor signaling. Essentially comparable changes appear to occur in SC endothelial cells. Stiffening of JCT and SC cells is very likely a critical causative factor for the increase in trabecular outflow resistance in POAG.

  4. Clinical utility and differential effects of prostaglandin analogs in the management of raised intraocular pressure and ocular hypertension

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    Anne J Lee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anne J Lee1,2, Peter McCluskey2,31Manchester Royal Eye Hospital, Manchester, UK; 2University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; 3Sydney Eye Hospital, Sydney, AustraliaAbstract: Prostaglandin analogs (PGA are powerful topical ocular hypotensive agents available for the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. Latanoprost 0.005% and travoprost 0.004% are prodrugs and analogs of prostaglandin F2a. Bimatoprost 0.03% is regarded as a prostamide, and debate continues as to whether it is a prodrug. The free acids of all 3 PGAs reduce IOP by enhancing uveoscleral and trabecular outflow via direct effects on ciliary muscle relaxation and remodeling of extracellular matrix. The vast majority of clinical trials demonstrate IOP-lowering superiority of latanoprost, bimatoprost and travoprost compared with timolol 0.5%, brimonidine 0.2%, or dorzolamide 2% monotherapy. Bimatoprost appears to be more efficacious in IOP-lowering compared with latanoprost, with weighted mean difference in IOP reduction documented in one meta-analysis of 2.59% to 5.60% from 1- to 6-months study duration. PGAs reduce IOP further when used as adjunctive therapy. Fixed combinations of latanoprost, bimatoprost or travoprost formulated with timolol 0.5% and administered once daily are superior to monotherapy of its constituent parts. PGA have near absence of systemic side effects, although do have other commonly encountered ocular adverse effects. The adverse effects of PGA, and also those found more frequently with bimatoprost use include ocular hyperemia, eyelash growth, and peri-ocular pigmentary changes. Iris pigmentary change is unique to PGA treatment. Once daily administration and near absence of systemic side effects enhances tolerance and compliance. PGAs are often prescribed as first-line treatment for ocular hypertension and open-angle glaucoma.Keywords: prostaglandin analog, glaucoma, ocular hypertension, latanoprost, bimatoprost, travoprost

  5. Manual suction versus femtosecond laser trephination for penetrating keratoplasty: intraocular pressure, endothelial cell damage, incision geometry, and wound healing responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angunawela, Romesh I; Riau, Andri; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Tan, Donald T; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2012-05-04

    To measure real-time intraocular pressure (IOP) during trephination with a manual suction trephine (MST) and the femtosecond laser (FSL), and to assess endothelial cell damage, incision geometry, and wound healing response with these procedures. IOP was monitored with an intracameral sensor. Eight rabbits underwent manual suction trephination. Eight rabbits had FSL trephination (FSL-T). Slit lamp photography, confocal microscopy, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) were performed at baseline and postoperatively. Animals were sacrificed at 4 hours and 3 days. Tissue was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunohistochemistry for an array of wound-healing markers. Separately, 6 human corneas had MST (3) and FSL-T (3). Incision geometry was imaged with high resolution Optovue AS-OCT. The average IOP during MST and FSL-T was similar (37 mm Hg). There was wider IOP fluctuation during the MST cutting phase (60 mm Hg maximum). There were 1-2 rows of endothelial loss on either side of the incision for FSL-T and 2-5 rows deep for MST. Immune cell responses at 4 hours (CD11b) were comparable, greater apoptosis with FSL-T (TUNEL) occurred at 4 hours, and there was increased keratocyte proliferation at 3 days (Ki67) with FSL-T. There was significantly greater undercutting of the cornea with MST (46.86 degrees versus 16.72 degrees). There is more IOP variation during MST. Average IOP is 37 mm Hg for both techniques. More endothelial damage and undercutting of the cornea occurs with MST. The wound healing response to FSL-T appears greater at 3 days.

  6. Intraocular pressure and its correlation with midnight plasma cortisol level in Cushing's disease and other endogenous Cushing's syndrome

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    Priyadarshini Mishra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to measure intraocular pressure (IOP and evaluate the correlation between IOP and midnight plasma cortisol (MPC level in patients with Cushing's disease (CD and other endogenous Cushing's syndrome (ECS. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study from a single center including newly diagnosed patients with CD or ECS. All patients underwent detailed ophthalmological evaluation. IOP was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry in the morning and evening on two consecutive days. MPC value was obtained for each patient. The data were compared using paired and unpaired t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results: Among 32 patients, 22 were CD (68.75% and 10 patients were other ECS (31.25%. A total of 25 patients (78.12% in our study group had normal IOP (<22 mmHg, and seven patients (21.88% had increased IOP (≥22 mmHg. The percentage of patients with normal IOP was found to be significantly higher compared to percentage of patients with high IOP (P = 0.001 using one-sample Chi-square test. Mean MPC value was 468.6 ± 388.3 nmol/L in patients having IOP ≥22 mmHg and 658.5 ± 584 nmol/L in those with IOP <22 mmHg from both CD and ECS groups, but the difference was not statistically significant. No correlation was found between IOP and MPC (Spearman's rank correlation rho = −0.16 [P = 0.38]. Conclusion: In CD and ECS patients, IOP elevation is an uncommon feature, and high IOP in either group does not correlate with MPC level.

  7. Iris transillumination defect and its gene modulators do not correlate with intraocular pressure in the BXD family of mice.

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    Lu, Hong; Lu, Lu; Williams, Robert W; Jablonski, Monica M

    2016-01-01

    Intraocular pressure (IOP) is currently the only treatable phenotype associated with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). Our group has developed the BXD murine panel for identifying genetic modulators of the various endophenotypes of glaucoma, including pigment dispersion, IOP, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. The BXD family consists of the inbred progeny of crosses between the C57BL/6J (B6) strain and the glaucoma-prone DBA/2J (D2) strain that has mutations in Tyrp1 and Gpnmb. The role of these genes in the iris transillumination defect (TID) has been well documented; however, their possible roles in modulating IOP during glaucoma onset and progression are yet not well understood. We used the IOP data sets and the Eye M430v2 (Sep08) RMA Database available on GeneNetwork to determine whether mutations in Tyrp1 and Gpnmb or TIDs have a direct role in the elevation of IOP in the BXD family. We also determined whether TIDs and IOP are coregulated. As expected, Tyrp1 and Gpnmb expression levels showed a high degree of correlation with TIDs. However, there was no correlation between the expression of these genes and IOP. Moreover, unlike TIDs, IOP did not map to either the Tyrp1 or Gpnmb locus. Although the Tyrp1 and Gpnmb mutations in BXD strains are a prerequisite for the development of TID, they are not required for or associated with elevated IOP. Genetic modulators of IOP thus may be independently identified using the full array of BXD mice without concern for the presence of TIDs or mutations in Typr1 and/or Gpnmb.

  8. Changes in intraocular pressure and horizontal pupil diameter during use of topical mydriatics in the canine eye

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    Liga Kovalcuka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of topical 0.5% tropicamide, 1% atropine sulphate and 10% phenylephrine hydrochloride ophthalmic solutions on intraocular pressure (IOP and horizontal pupil diameter (HPD in the dog during the first hour after treatment. Forty clinically and ophthalmologically normal canine patients (between the ages of 2 and 6 years of varying breed and sex were used in this study. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of ten and given one drop of tropicamide, atropine, phenylephrine or saline into one eye. IOP and HPD were measured in both eyes every 5 minutes for 60 minutes. Tropicamide increased IOP by 8.8±4.0 mmHg 35 minutes post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (P<0.01 only in treated eye. IOP in the contralateral eye did not increase. With atropine the maximum increase in IOP was 2.6±2.8 mmHg at 20 minutes post treatment in the treated eye (P<0.01. IOP in the contralateral eye did not increase. Phenylephrine increased IOP by 2.3±2.1 mmHg (P<0.05 10 minutes after treatment. Also in the untreated eye IOP increased by 2.3±2.1 mmHg, 20 minutes post-treatment. Maximum HPD in eyes treated with tropicamide occurred at 55 minutes and with atropine at 60 minutes. There were no HPD changes in the contralateral, untreated eye. Topical 10% phenylephrine showed maximal pupil dilation 60 minutes after treatment, but the HPD of the – untreated eye slightly decreased at 15 minutes, but this change only reached statistical significance at 40 min post- treatment (P<0.05. Normal saline showed no influence on IOP or HPD. The drugs investigated here show a significant increase in IOP after mydriatics.

  9. The Effect of Diurnal Fluctuation in Intraocular Pressure on the Evaluation of Risk Factors of Progression in Normal Tension Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hoon; Lee, Eun Jung; Han, Jong Chul; Sohn, Sae Woon; Rhee, Taekkwan; Kee, Changwon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether diurnal fluctuation in intraocular pressure (IOP) can influence the result of the correlations between IOP-related factors and progression of normal tension glaucoma (NTG). Methods Glaucoma progression was defined as visual field (VF) progression and changes in the optic disc and/or retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Two different methods were used to evaluate the impact of the diurnal fluctuation in IOP. ‘Conventional method’ used in previous studies included all IOP measurements during the follow up time. ‘Time adjusted method’ was used to adjust diurnal fluctuation in IOP with the preferred time. Mean IOP, long term IOP fluctuation and the difference between the lowest and highest IOP were calculated using both methods. Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between IOP-related factors and NTG progression. Results One hundred and forty eyes of 140 patients with NTG were included in this study. 41% (58 of 140 eyes) of eyes underwent NTG progression. Long term IOP variation calculated by conventional method was not a significant risk factor for NTG progression (hazard ratio[HR], 0.311; 95% confidence interval[CI], 0.056–1.717; P = 0.180). Long term IOP variation calculated by time adjusted method, however, was related to progression, with an HR of 5.260 (95% CI,1.191–23.232; P = 0.029). Conclusion Although having the same IOP-related factors, if diurnal fluctuation is included, different results may be found on the relationship between IOP-related factors and NTG progression. Based on our results, diurnal fluctuation in IOP should be considered when IOP-related factors are studied in the future. PMID:27776182

  10. Correlation of endothelin-1 concentration in aqueous humor with intraocular pressure in primary open angle and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choritz, Lars; Machert, Maren; Thieme, Hagen

    2012-10-23

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been found in elevated concentrations in the aqueous humor of glaucoma patients. Indirect evidence from animal studies suggests that ET-1 might directly influence intraocular pressure (IOP). The aim of this study was to determine whether ET-1 concentrations in aqueous humor of cataract and glaucoma patients correlate with IOP. Aqueous humor and blood samples from patients with either cataract (control, n = 38), primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, n = 35), or pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG, n = 21), without other ocular or systemic disease, were collected during routine cataract surgery or trabeculectomy. ET-1 concentration was determined by an ET-1 ELISA kit. IOP was measured preoperatively by standard Goldmann applanation tonometry. All statistical analysis was performed using commercial predictive analytics software. Both IOP and ET-1 concentration in aqueous humor were significantly increased in POAG (23.4 ± 6.8 mm Hg, 5.9 ± 2.9 pg/mL) and PEXG (24.3 ± 8.8 mm Hg, 7.7 ± 2.1 pg/mL) compared with control (15.0 ± 2.9 mm Hg, 4.3 ± 2.4 pg/mL). No difference was detected for plasma ET-1 concentrations. IOP and ET-1 in the aqueous humor were significantly correlated (R = 0.394, R² = 0.155, P < 0.001), although no correlation was found between IOP and ET-1 in blood plasma or between ET-1 in aqueous humor and ET-1 in plasma. In this study, a small but highly significant correlation between IOP and the ET-1 concentration in the aqueous humor was found. Although no causative relationship can be deduced from this, ocular ET-1 effects on IOP control may merit further investigation.

  11. The effect of steep Trendelenburg positioning on intraocular pressure and visual function during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshikawa, Yuko; Tsutsumi, Noriko; Ohkoshi, Kisiko; Serizawa, Satoshi; Hamada, Masafumi; Inagaki, Keiji; Tsuzuki, Kentaro; Koshimizu, Junko; Echizen, Nariaki; Fujitani, Syuko; Takahashi, Osamu; Deshpande, Gautam A

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) changes in patients undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy and to evaluate complications from increased IOP. Thirty-one eyes scheduled for robotic prostatectomy were included. Perioperative IOP measurements were performed as follows: prior to induction of anaesthesia while supine and awake (T1); immediately post-induction while supine (T2); every hour from 0 to 5 h while anaesthetised in a steep Trendelenburg position (T3-T8); prior to awakening while supine (T9); and 30 min after awakening while supine (T10). A complete ophthalmic examination including visual acuity and retinal nerve fibre layer thickness (RNFL) was performed at enrolment and 1 month postoperatively. Average IOP (mm Hg) for each time point was as follows: T1=18.0, T2=9.8, T3=18.9, T4=21.6, T5=22.5, T6=22.3, T7=24.2, T8=24.0, T9=15.7 and T10=17.9. The proportion of eyes with intraoperative IOP ≧30 mm Hg were as follows: T3=0%, T4=3.23%, T5=9.68%, T6=6.45%, T7=22.22%, and T8=25%. Maximum IOP was 36 mm Hg. Mean visual acuity (logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution) and RNFL showed no statistically significant difference before and after operation and no other ocular complications were found at final examination. While IOP increased in a time-dependent fashion in anesthaetised patients undergoing robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy in a steep Trendelenburg position, visual function showed no significant change postoperatively and no complications were seen. Steep Trendelenburg positioning during time-limited procedures appears to pose little or no risk from IOP increases in patients without pre-existing ocular disease.

  12. The effect of ageing on ocular blood flow, oxygen tension and retinal function during and after intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah K H Lim

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ageing on the recovery of ocular blood flow, intravitreal oxygen tension and retinal function during and after intraocular pressure (IOP elevation. METHODS: Long Evans rats (3- and 14-month-old underwent acute stepwise IOP elevation from 10 to 120 mmHg (5 mmHg steps each 3 minutes. IOP was then returned to baseline and recovery was monitored for 2 hours. Photopic electroretinograms (ERG were recorded at each IOP step during stress and at each minute during recovery. Ocular blood flow and vitreal oxygen tension (pO2 were assayed continuously and simultaneously using a combined laser Doppler flow meter (LDF and an oxygen sensitive fibre-optic probe, respectively. The combined sensor was placed in the vitreous chamber, proximal to the retina. Data were binned into 3 minute intervals during stress and 1 min intervals during recovery. Recovery data was described using a bi-logistic function. RESULTS: Rats of both ages showed similar susceptibility to IOP elevation, with pO2 showing a closer relationship to ERG than LDF. During recovery, both ages showed a distinctive two-phased recovery for all three measures with the exception of the LDF in 3-month-old rats, which showed only 1 phase. In all animals, LDF recovered fastest (1 hour. 14-month-old rats showed surprisingly faster and greater LDF recovery compared to the younger group, with similar levels of pO2 recovery. However, the ERG in these middle-aged animals did not fully recover after two hours, despite showing no difference in susceptibility to IOP during stress compared to the young group. CONCLUSIONS: Young and middle-aged eyes showed similar susceptibility to IOP elevation in terms of pO2, LDF and ERG. Despite this lack of difference during stress, older eyes did not completely recover function, suggesting a more subtle age-related susceptibility to IOP.

  13. Role of prostaglandins and specific place in therapy of bimatoprost in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure and ocular hypertension: A closer look at the agonist properties of bimatoprost and the prostamides

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    Scott D Smid

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Scott D SmidDiscipline of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Bimatoprost is the only representative of a novel class of prostaglandin ethanolamide (prostamide compounds used therapeutically as an efficacious treatment for glaucoma. The pathways through which bimatoprost works to improve uveoscleral outflow to relieve elevated intraocular pressure are similar to those of the conventional prostaglandins used in glaucoma therapy, with some evidence of a preferential action at the trabecular meshwork. The pharmacology of bimatoprost is however, unclear. Pharmacological evidence supports a specific and distinct receptor-mediated agonist activity of bimatoprost at ‘prostamide’ receptors, which is selective to the prostamides as a class. However, other studies have reported either activity of bimatoprost at additional prostanoid and nonprostanoid receptors, or a conversion of bimatoprost to metabolites with agonist activity at prostaglandin FP receptors in the human eye. The formation of endogenous prostamides has been demonstrated in vivo, by a novel pathway involving the cyclooxygenase-2-mediated conversion of endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid substrates. Irrespective of the pharmacology of bimatoprost and the prostamides in general, further studies are needed to determine the biological role and biochemical pathology of prostamides in the human eye, particularly in glaucoma. Such studies may improve our understanding of uveoscleral flow and may offer new treatments for controlling intraocular pressure.Keywords: bimatoprost, endocannabinoid, glaucoma, prostamides, trabecular meshwork

  14. EFFECT OF ORAL CLONIDINE AND INTRAVENOUS LIDOCAINE ON INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE FOLLOWING LARYNGOSCOPY AND INTUBATION

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    P KASHEFI

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Control and prevention of increase in ntraocular Pressure (lOP can affect outcome of ophthalmologic surgical procedures. Sometimes it's necessary to administer a succinylcholine and intubate the trachea in cases of penetrating eye trauma and corneal laceration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of intravenous lidocaine and oral clonidine as premedicants on lOP following administration of succinylcholine and intubation of trachea. Methods. This study was a double blind clinical trial performed on 90 patients aged 20 - 40 years in physical status of ASA I, II (American Society of Anesthesiologists candidated for nonophthalmic elective surgical procedures. Patients were randomly divided into three groups. The first group received oral clonidine 300 µg/kg, 90-120 minutes before induction(clonidine group. The scond group received IV Lidocaine 1.5mg/kg 3 minutes preceding the induction (lidocaine group and the third group received no premedicant (control group. Induction and maintenance of anesthesia were performed by identical techniques for all three groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference of lOP at second and fifth postinduction minutes between clonidine and lidocaine groups(p > 0.05 but this difference was statistically significant between clonidine and control, as well as lidocaine versus control groups (p < 0.05. Discussion. Oral clonidine 300 µg, 90-120 minute preinduction and intravenous lidocaine 1.5mg/kg, 3 minutes preinduction could be used as effective premedicants to prevent increase in lOP following induction with succinylcholine and intubation of trachea.

  15. Fixed combination of travoprost and timolol maleate reduces intraocular pressure in Japanese patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: analysis by prostaglandin analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tadashi; Mizoue, Shiro; Fuse, Nobuo; Iwase, Aiko; Matsumoto, Shun; Yoshikawa, Keiji

    2017-01-01

    Background We have shown a decrease in mean intraocular pressure (IOP) by switching to travoprost/timolol fixed combination (TTFC) in subjects receiving prostaglandin analogue (PGA) monotherapy and requiring additional medication in a previous report. For analyzing factors affecting IOP reduction, baseline IOP and preceding PGA were selected as statistically and clinically significant factors. In this report, we examine IOP-lowering effect and adverse drug reactions by preceding PGA. Methods Patients with primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who received monotherapy with one of four PGAs (travoprost, latanoprost, tafluprost, or bimatoprost) for at least 3 months at 26 institutions and were determined to require additional medication by their primary physician were included. IOP reduction and adverse events were examined at 4, 8, and 12 weeks for each of four PGAs after switching to TTFC. Results In total, 157 patients who could be followed up for at least 4 weeks after switching to TTFC were included in the efficacy analysis. Multiple regression analysis was performed, and baseline IOP and PGA were found to be significant factors to IOP reduction. IOP reduction at week 12, adjusted with the regression model, was −3.5, −1.8, and −1.4 mmHg in the tafluprost, latanoprost, and travoprost groups, whereas it was −0.5 mmHg in the bimatoprost group. Along with differences in baseline IOP between groups, an IOP-lowering effect of >1 mmHg was noted in the tafluprost, latanoprost, and travoprost groups after the switch. IOP was maintained at 13.8–14.8 mmHg throughout the follow-up period. No serious adverse events or noteworthy issues were observed in any group after the switch. Conclusion Clinically significant IOP-reducing effects of TTFC were observed in the latanoprost, travoprost, and tafluprost groups when switching from each PGA monotherapy, while there were some differences in effects between groups, with minimal safety concerns. PMID:28053501

  16. Immediate Postoperative Intraocular Pressure Adjustment Reduces Risk of Cystoid Macular Edema after Uncomplicated Micro Incision Coaxial Phacoemulsification Cataract Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarstad, Allison R.; Chung, Gary W.; Tester, Robert A.; Day, Linda E.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the accuracy of visual estimation of immediate postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) following microincision cataract surgery (MICS) and the effect of immediate postoperative IOP adjustment on prevention of cystoid macular edema (CME). Setting Ambulatory surgical center. Methods Prospective, randomized analysis of 170 eyes in 135 patients with MICS, performed in a Medicare approved outpatient ambulatory surgery center. Surgical parameters included a keratome incision of 1.5 mm to 2.8 mm, topical anesthetic, case completion IOP estimation by palpation and patient visualization of light, and IOP adjustment before exiting the operating theater. IOPs were classified into three groups: low (21 to 30 mmHg). IOP measurements were repeated 1 day after surgery. Optical coherence tomography (Stratus OCT, Zeiss) was measured at 2 weeks. An increase in foveal thickness greater than 15 µm was used to indicate CME. Statistical analysis was performed using one- and two-tailed Student's t-tests. Results Mean minimal foveal thickness averaged 207.15 µm in the low pressure group, 205.14 µm in the normal IOP group, and 210.48 µm in the elevated IOP group 2 weeks following surgery. CME occurred in 14 of 170 eyes (8.2%) at 2 weeks (low IOP, 35.7%; normal IOP, 14.2%; elevated IOP, 50.0%). Change in IOP from the operating theater to 1 day after surgery was within +/−5 mmHg in 54 eyes (31.7%), elevated by 6 to 15 mmHg in 22 eyes (12.9%), and elevated more than 15 mmHg in four eyes (2.3%). IOP was reduced by 6 mmHg to 15 mmHg in 39 eyes (22.9%) and reduced by more than 15 mmHg in nine eyes (5.3%). Conclusions Immediate postoperative adjustment of IOP may prevent CME in MICS. Physicians can improve their ability to estimate postoperative IOP with experience in tonometry to verify immediate postoperative IOP. There are patient safety and economic benefits to immediate IOP adjustment in the operating theater. Synopsis Immediate postoperative IOP adjustment

  17. Medium-Term Visual Outcomes of Apodized Diffractive Multifocal Intraocular Lens with +3.00 D Addition Power

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    Xiaohong Guo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate 2-year visual acuities and questionnaire after bilateral implantation of SN6AD1 multifocal intraocular lens (MIOL or SN60WF IOL. Methods. Patients randomly scheduled for bilateral implantation of SN6AD1 MIOL and SN60WF IOL with 2-year follow-up were enrolled. Uncorrected/corrected distance and near visual acuity, uncorrected intermediate visual acuity at 63 cm under high and low contrast, reading activity, the defocus curve, and a quality-of-life questionnaire were evaluated. Results. Each group comprised 20 patients. Uncorrected intermediate visual acuities and uncorrected near visual acuity were better in SN6AD1 group than in SN60WF group (P=0.005, P=0.011, and P<0.001. In SN6AD1 group, the uncorrected intermediate and near visual acuities 1 year and 2 years postoperatively were reduced than postoperative 3-month outcomes, respectively. SN6AD1 group reported superior overall spectacle independence and inferior satisfaction. SN6AD1 group had a longer reading newspaper duration than SN60WF group (P=0.036. When using mobile phone, SN6AD1 group had a more comfortable distance than SN60WF group (P<0.001 and higher speed of reading fixed text message (P<0.001. Conclusion. SN6AD1 MIOL provided a satisfactory full range of visual acuities and questionnaire performance 2 years postoperatively. One-year and 2-year uncorrected near and intermediate visual acuities of SN6AD1 MIOL were lower than those 3 months postoperatively.

  18. Impact of intraocular pressure on changes of blood flow in the retina, choroid, and optic nerve head in rats investigated by optical microangiography

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi, Zhongwei; Cepurna, William O.; Johnson, Elaine C.; Morrison, John C.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of optical coherence tomography/optical microangiography (OCT/OMAG) to image and measure the effects of acute intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation on retinal, choroidal and optic nerve head (ONH) perfusion in the rat eye. In the experiments, IOP was elevated from 10 to 100 mmHg in 10 mmHg increments. At each IOP level, three-dimensional data volumes were captured using an ultrahigh sensitive (UHS) OMAG scanning protocol for 3D volumetric perfusion imaging...

  19. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics.

    OpenAIRE

    Springelkamp, H.; Iglesias, A. I.; A.; Mishra; Höhn, R; Wojciechowski, R.; Khawaja, A.P. (Anthony); Nag, A.; Wang, Y.X.; Wang, J. J.; Cuellar-Partida, G.; Gibson, J.; Cooke Bailey, J.N. (Jessica); Vithana, E. N.; Gharahkhani, P.; Boutin, T.

    2017-01-01

    textabstractPrimary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increase risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of IOP and optic disc parameters and validated our findings in multiple sets of POAG cases and controls. Using imputation to the 1000 genomes (1000G) re...

  20. Comparison of the Thickness of the Lamina Cribrosa and Vascular Factors in Early Normal-tension Glaucoma with Low and High Intraocular Pressures

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jee Hyun; Lee, Tae Yoon; Lee, Jong Wook; Lee, Kyoo Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To compare the thickness of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and vascular factors of early normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) patients with high and low intraocular pressure (IOP) that are expected to be associated with the development of glaucoma. Methods Seventy-one Korean NTG patients with low IOP (the highest IOP 15 mmHg, 31 patients) were included in this study. The thickness of LC and vascular factors were compared. The thickness of the LC was measured using the enhanced depth imaging method...

  1. Comparing two acromegalic patients with respect to central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and tear insulin-like growth factor levels before and after treatment

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    Kan Emrah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the central corneal thickness (CCT, intraocular pressure (IOP, and tear insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 levels of 2 patients with acromegaly before and after the surgical treatment of the disease. CCTs, IOP levels, and tear IGF-1 values showed a decrease after the treatment in 2 patients. As we found higher CCT, IOP, and tear IGF-1 levels in the active phase of the disease in two acromegaly patients, detailed information about the activity of the disease may be important before the examination of these patients.

  2. A comparison of intraocular pressure values obtained with the Tono-Pachymeter NT530P, iCare® rebound tonometer and Goldmann applanation tonometer

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP) values measured with the Tono-Pachymeter NT530P (Tonopachy™) and the iCare® rebound tonometer (iCare®) with those obtained by the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT). The right eyes of 105 subjects aged 18 to 82 years (mean age = 29.27 ± 14.67 years) were assessed with the three tonometers. Central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured first using the Tonopachy™ and then IOP was measured by Tonopachy™, iCare® and GAT. The...

  3. Intraocular pressure and tear secretion in Saanen goats with different ages Pressão intraocular e produção lacrimal em cabras da raça Saanen com diferentes idades

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    Alexandre Pinto Ribeiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the normal intraocular pressure (IOP and tear secretion, by means of applanation tonometry and the Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1, in goats of the Saanen breed with different ages, and at different time points. Thirty six goats, free of ocular abnormalities, were grouped into three different age categories (n=12, animals with 45, 180 and 549 days of age. STT-1 and IOP measurements were carried out always at 9:00am and 7:00pm, during three consecutive days. Results were evaluated statistically (PObjetivou-se comparar os valores normais de pressão intraocular (PIO e de produção lacrimal, através de tonometria de aplanação e do teste da lágrima de Schirmer-1 (TLS-1 em cabras da raça Saanen, com diferentes idades e momentos. Trinta e seis cabras da raça Saanen, livres de afecções oculares, foram agrupadas em três categorias etárias (n=12, compreendendo animais com 45, 180 e 549 dias de idade. O TLS-1 e a PIO foram aferidos sempre às 9:00 e às 19:00, durante três dias consecutivos. Os resultados foram avaliados estatisticamente (p<0,05. Relativamente ao horário do dia, a PIO foi significativamente menor às 19:00 (p<0,001 nos animais com 45 dias de idade; os valores do TLS-1 foram significativamente maiores às 19:00 (p=0,004 nas cabras com 549 dias de idade. Considerando-se a somatória dos três dias, ambos os parâmetros foram significativamente menores nos indivíduos com 45 dias de idade (p<0,001. A pressão intraocular e a produção lacrimal em cabras da raça Saanen se elevam de forma significativa até os 180 dias de idade.

  4. Laser therapy in intraocular tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstocea, Benone D.; Gafencu, Otilia L.; Apostol, Silvia

    1995-01-01

    Intraocular tumors present special problems of diagnosis and treatment. Diagnostic methods include, in addition to systemic and ophthalmological examinations, ancillary examinations such as transillumination, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography, radioactive phosphorus uptake test, radiology, computerized tomography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological analyses. Previously, enucleation of the involved eye was generally accepted as management of malignant tumors. Improved therapeutic methods such as photocoagulation and better surgical techniques now provide a variety of therapeutical alternatives. This study consists of 21 cases of intraocular tumors that were managed by Argon laser photocoagulation. Four cases were intraocular metastasis and 17 cases were primitive intraocular tumors. Argon laser therapy proved to be totally ineffective for the intraocular metastasis and a very adequate therapy for the primitive tumors. Tumor extirpations (choroidal, cillary body, or iris tumors) using laser lancet proved to be more suitable than classic surgery.

  5. New insights into the genetics of primary open-angle glaucoma based on meta-analyses of intraocular pressure and optic disc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springelkamp, Henriët; Iglesias, Adriana I; Mishra, Aniket; Höhn, René; Wojciechowski, Robert; Khawaja, Anthony P; Nag, Abhishek; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Jie Jin; Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel; Gibson, Jane; Bailey, Jessica N Cooke; Vithana, Eranga N; Gharahkhani, Puya; Boutin, Thibaud; Ramdas, Wishal D; Zeller, Tanja; Luben, Robert N; Yonova-Doing, Ekaterina; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Yazar, Seyhan; Cree, Angela J; Haines, Jonathan L; Koh, Jia Yu; Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Wilson, James F; Amin, Najaf; Müller, Christian; Venturini, Cristina; Kearns, Lisa S; Kang, Jae Hee; Tham, Yih Chung; Zhou, Tiger; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Nickels, Stefan; Sanfilippo, Paul; Liao, Jiemin; van der Linde, Herma; Zhao, Wanting; van Koolwijk, Leonieke M E; Zheng, Li; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Baskaran, Mani; van der Lee, Sven J; Perera, Shamira; de Jong, Paulus T V M; Oostra, Ben A; Uitterlinden, André G; Fan, Qiao; Hofman, Albert; Tai, E-Shyong; Vingerling, Johannes R; Sim, Xueling; Wolfs, Roger C W; Teo, Yik Ying; Lemij, Hans G; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Willemsen, Rob; Lackner, Karl J; Aung, Tin; Jansonius, Nomdo M; Montgomery, Grant; Wild, Philipp S; Young, Terri L; Burdon, Kathryn P; Hysi, Pirro G; Pasquale, Louis R; Wong, Tien Yin; Klaver, Caroline C W; Hewitt, Alex W; Jonas, Jost B; Mitchell, Paul; Lotery, Andrew J; Foster, Paul J; Vitart, Veronique; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Craig, Jamie E; Mackey, David A; Hammond, Christopher J; Wiggs, Janey L; Cheng, Ching-Yu; van Duijn, Cornelia M; MacGregor, Stuart

    2017-01-15

    Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the most common optic neuropathy, is a heritable disease. Siblings of POAG cases have a ten-fold increased risk of developing the disease. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and optic nerve head characteristics are used clinically to predict POAG risk. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of IOP and optic disc parameters and validated our findings in multiple sets of POAG cases and controls. Using imputation to the 1000 genomes (1000G) reference set, we identified 9 new genomic regions associated with vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR) and 1 new region associated with IOP. Additionally, we found 5 novel loci for optic nerve cup area and 6 for disc area. Previously it was assumed that genetic variation influenced POAG either through IOP or via changes to the optic nerve head; here we present evidence that some genomic regions affect both IOP and the disc parameters. We characterized the effect of the novel loci through pathway analysis and found that pathways involved are not entirely distinct as assumed so far. Further, we identified a novel association between CDKN1A and POAG. Using a zebrafish model we show that six6b (associated with POAG and optic nerve head variation) alters the expression of cdkn1a. In summary, we have identified several novel genes influencing the major clinical risk predictors of POAG and showed that genetic variation in CDKN1A is important in POAG risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Eye rubbing-induced changes in intraocular pressure and corneal thickness measured at five locations, in subjects with ocular allergy

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    Uchechukwu; L.Osuagwu; Saud; A.Alanazi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effects of eye rubbing on corneal thickness(CT) and intraocular pressure(IOP)measurements obtained 0-30 min after habitual eye rubbing in symptomatic patients.METHODS: Measurements of IOP and CT were obtained at five locations(central, temporal, superior,nasal and inferior) before, and every 5min for 30 min interval after 30 s of eye rubbing, for 25 randomly selected eyes of 14 subjects with ocular allergy and 11age-matched normals. Differences in measurements were calculated in each group [Baseline measurements minus measurements recorded at each time interval after eye rubbing(for IOP), and for each corneal location(for CT)]and comparison were then made between groups(allergic versus control) for differences in any observed effects.RESULTS: Within groups, baseline mean IOPs in the allergic patient-group(14.2 ±3.0 mm Hg) and in the control group(13.1±1.9 mm Hg) were similar at all times,after eye rubbing(P >0.05, for all). The maximum reduction in IOP was 0.8 mm Hg in the control subjects and the maximum increase was also 0.8 mm Hg in the allergic subjects. Between groups(allergic versus control), the changes in IOP remained under 1 mm Hg at all times(P =0.2) after 30 min of eye rubbing. Between 0and 30 min of CT measurements after eye rubbing, the mean central CT(CCT), inferior CT(ICT), superior CT(SCT), temporal CT(TCT) and nasal CT(NCT) did not vary significantly from baseline values in the control and allergic-subject groups(P >0.05, for both). Between both groups, changes in CT were similar at all locations(P >0.05)except for the TC which was minimally thinner by about4.4 μm(P =0.001) in the allergic subjects than in the control subjects, 30 min following 30 s of eye rubbing.CONCLUSION: IOP measured in allergic subjects after30 s of habitual eye rubbing was comparable with that obtained in normal subjects at all times between 0 and30 min. Although, CT in the allergic subjects were similar to those of the control subjects at all times, it

  7. Travoprost with sofZia® preservative system lowered intraocular pressure of Japanese normal tension glaucoma with minimal side effects

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    Mizoue S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiro Mizoue,1 Tadashi Nakano,2 Nobuo Fuse,3 Aiko Iwase,4 Shun Matsumoto,5 Keiji Yoshikawa6 On behalf of the IOP CHANGE Study Group7 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Integrative Genomics, Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Miyagi, Japan; 4Tajimi Iwase Eye Clinic, Gifu, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Teishin Hospital, 6Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 7IOP CHecked and Assessed in Normal tension Glaucoma by Exceptional Glaucomatologists Study Group, Japan Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of travoprost with sofZia® preservative system for lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP of Japanese normal tension glaucoma (NTG patients. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study, Japanese NTG patients with baseline IOPs <20 mmHg were enrolled after three consecutive time measurements taken at screening and baseline visits. Travoprost with sofZia® was instilled once daily. Lowering effect on IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy, and adverse events were examined at week 4, 8, and 12 after drug instillation. Results: One-hundred and three of the 107 enrolled patients (baseline IOP =15.2±2.0 mmHg [mean ± standard deviation] completed the study. The mean IOP value as well as percent reduction was significantly reduced at each visit after travoprost with sofZia® initiation (P<0.0001. The conjunctival hyperemia score was 1 or less throughout the study, though it increased significantly over time. No significant change was observed in superficial punctate keratopathy. The cumulative incidence of side effects such as eyelash changes, eyelid pigmentation, and deepening of the upper lid was 47.6%, 27.2%, and 16.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Travoprost preserved with sofZia® effectively lowered the IOP of Japanese NTG patients. It was

  8. Effect of high myopia on 24-hour intraocular pressure in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ying-xin; WANG Ning-li; WU Lie; ZHEN Yi; WANG Tao; REN Cai-xia; PENG Xiao-xia; HAO Jie; XIA Yan-ting

    2012-01-01

    Background As intraocular pressure (lOP) and lOP fluctuation are known risk factors for glaucoma,it is important to understand the effects of high myopia on these ocular parameters.The aim of this study was to investigate if primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with high myopia exhibit higher lOP and greater lOP fluctuations at resting conditions over 24 hours.@@Methods We designed a prospective control clinical study.Eighty-two eyes of 82 high-tension Chinese POAG patients only on prostaglandin analogue locally were divided into 3 groups according to various myopic grades (<-6.0 D,n=27 and between -0.76 and -5.99 D,n=33) or without myopia (-0.75 to 0.75 D,n=22).Single time lOP at 10 am,mean corrected 24-hour lOP,mean corrected night lOP,24-hour lOP fluctuation and lOPs of 10 am,2 pm,6 pm,10 pm,2 am,6 am and 8 am were measured.@@Results The lOP was higher in POAG patients with high myopia over those POAG alone in three ways:the elevated lOP value was 0.65 mmHg measured in single time lOP at 10 am,0.84 mmHg in mean corrected 24-hour lOP,0.97 mmHg in mean corrected night lOP.The 24-hour lOP fluctuation was lower in the two myopia groups than in non-myopia group.Further,using repeated measurement analysis of variance,there was no statistical significance among groups regarding the lOPs at the seven time points (P=0.77) and there was no interaction between groups and time points (P=0.71),but the difference of lOPs at the seven time points in same group was statistically significant (P=0.01).@@Conclusion High-tension POAG patients with high myopia,even on pharmacological glaucoma therapy,still have higher lOp,but 24-hour lOP fluctuation at resting conditions was lower in these patients.

  9. A new measure of patient satisfaction with ocular hypotensive medications: The Treatment Satisfaction Survey for Intraocular Pressure (TSS-IOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Jeanette A

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To validate the treatment-specific Treatment Satisfaction Survey for Intraocular Pressure (TSS-IOP. Methods Item content was developed by 4 heterogeneous patient focus groups (n = 32. Instrument validation involved 250 patients on ocular hypotensive medications recruited from ophthalmology practices in the Southern USA. Participants responded to demographic and test questions during a clinic visit. Standard psychometric analyses were performed on the resulting data. Sample Of the 412 patients screened, 253 consented to participate, and 250 provided complete datasets. The sample included 44% male (n = 109, 44% Black (n = 109 and 57% brown eyed (n = 142 participants, with a mean age of 64.6 years (SD 13.1 and a history of elevated IOP for an average of 8.4 yrs (SD 7.8. A majority was receiving monotherapy (60%, n = 151. Results A PC Factor analysis (w/ varimax rotation of the 31 items yielded 5 factors (Eigenvalues > 1.0 explaining 70% of the total variance. Weaker and conceptually redundant items were removed and the remaining 15 items reanalyzed. The satisfaction factors were; Eye Irritation (EI; 4 items, Convenience of Use (CofU; 3 items, Ease of Use (EofU; 3 items, Hyperemia (HYP; 3 items, and Medication Effectiveness (EFF; 2 items. Chronbach's Alphas ranged from .80 to .86. Greater distributional skew was found for less common experiences (i.e., HYP & EI with 65% & 48.4% ceilings than for more common experiences (i.e., EofU, CofU, EFF with 10.8%, 20.8% & 15.9% ceilings. TSS-IOP scales converged with conceptually related scales on a previously validated measure of treatment satisfaction, the TSQM (r = .36 to .77. Evidence of concurrent criterion-related validity was found. Patients' symptomatic ratings of eye irritation, hyperemia and difficulties using the medication correlated with satisfaction on these dimensions (r = .30-.56, all p Conclusions This study provides initial evidence that the TSS-IOP is a reliable and valid

  10. An observational study of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients on prior intraocular pressure-lowering therapy: the Canadian Lumigan® RC Early Analysis Review (CLEAR trial

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    Crichton AC

    2014-05-01

    improvement. The mean percentage change from baseline IOP at week 12 following the switch to bimatoprost 0.01% monotherapy ranged from –2.3%±17.3% to –26.3%±12.4%. Furthermore, the decreased mean percentage change from baseline IOP was statistically significant across all prior IOP-lowering medications, except for bimatoprost 0.03% at the 6- and 12-week visits and travoprost 0.004% at the 6-week visit. Conclusion: This observational study demonstrates that bimatoprost 0.01% was well tolerated among POAG and OHT subjects who switched from prior IOP-lowering medication. Furthermore, a switch in ocular hypertensive treatment to bimatoprost 0.01% was associated with an additional 10%–15% reduction in IOP. Keywords: glaucoma, intraocular pressure, hyperemia, bimatoprost

  11. Reversible changes in aqueous outflow facility, hydrodynamics,and morphology following acute intraocular pressure variation in bovine eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jing-ying; YE Wen; WANG Ti; GONG Hai-yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Elevated intraocular pressure (lOP) is primarily due to increased aqueous outflow resistance,but how aqueous outflow resistance is generated and regulated are still not fully understood.The aim of this study is to determine whether changes in outflow facility,outflow pattern,and morphology following acute lOP elevation were reversible when the lOP was returned to a normal level in bovine eyes using a two-color tracer technique to label outflow patterns within the same eye.Methods Twelve fresh enucleated bovine eyes were perfused with Dulbecco's phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing 5.5 mmol/L glucose (DBG) at 30 mmHg first to establish the baseline outflow facility followed by a fixed volume of red fluorescent microspheres (0.5 μm,0.002% v/v).After the red tracer being replaced with DBG in the anterior chamber,perfusion was continued at 7 mmHg with the same volume of green tracer,followed by a fixative.In two control groups,the eyes were constantly perfused at either 30 mmHg (n=6) or 7 mmHg (n=6) using the same methods.The outflow facility (C,μl·min·-1 mmHg-1),was continuously recorded.Confocal images were taken along the inner wall (IW) of the aqueous plexus (AP) in frontal sections.The percent of the effective filtration length (PEFL,PEFL=IW length exhibiting tracer labelingltotal length of (W) was measured.Sections with AP were processed and examined by light microscopy.The total length of IW and the length exhibiting separation (SL) in the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT) were measured.A minimum of eight collector channel (CC) ostia per eye were analyzed for herniations.Results In the experimental (30-7 mmHg) group,the outflow facility was significantly higher at 7 mmHg ((4.81±1.33)μl·min·-1 mmHg-1) than that at 30 mmHg ((0.99±0.15) μl·min·-1 mmH9-1,P=0.002),corresponding to a significant increase in the PEFL (P=0.0003).The percent of CC ostia exhibiting herniations in the experimental group ((67.40±8.90)μl·min·-1 mmHg-1

  12. Administration of the fixed combination of latanoprost 0.005% and timolol 0.5% in glaucoma patients with an intraocular pressure over 30 mmHg

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    Yelda Buyru Özkurt

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Yelda Buyru Özkurt, Tomris Sengor, Tufan Evciman, Melih Haboglu, Gökçen Bas, Sevda AydinFatih Sultan Mehmet Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, TurkeyPurpose: To evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP reducing effect of a fixed combination of 0.005% latanoprost and 0.5% timolol in patients with an IOP of 30 mmHg or higher.Design: Prospective, randomized clinical trial.Participants: Twenty-eight patients.Methods: Patients had received no prior medical glaucoma treatment. Routine ophthalmic examinations and visual field tests were performed before and after treatment for each patient.Results: Mean IOP was 32.28 ± 0.92 mmHg before treatment. Mean IOP levels were 18.75 ± 0.68 for the first day, 17.96 ± 0.90 for the first week and 17.64 ± 0.66 for the first month after treatment.Conclusion: A fixed combination of latanoprost 0.005% and timolol 0.5% is effective in significantly reducing IOP in glaucoma patients with an IOP greater than 30 mmHg.Keywords: latanoprost, timolol, combination, glaucoma, intraocular pressure 

  13. Effects of Latanoprost 0.005%/Timolol Maleate 0.5% and Dorzolamide 2%/Timolol Maleate 0.5% Fixed Combinations on 24-hour Intraocular Pressure in Patients with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma

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    Berna Yüce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of latanoprost/timolol maleate and dorzolamid/timolol maleate fixed combinations on-24 hours intraocular pressure in patients with open-angle glaucoma. Ma te ri als and Met hod: Forty-eight eyes of 24 patients with open-angle glaucoma were enrolled in the study. They were randomized to receive fixed combinations of either latanoprost/timolol maleate (Group 1 - 24 eyes of 12 patients or dorzolamid/timolol maleate (Group 2 - 24 eyes of 12 patients. Patients who achieved intraocular pressure of ≤ 21 mmHg 3 weeks after combined therapy were hospitalized and intraocular pressure was monitored at hour 06:00, 10:00, 14:00, 18:00, 22:00 and 02:00 for 24 hours. Diurnal and nocturnal fluctuations were determined by measurements done between 06:00 and 18:00 hours and between 22:00 and 02:00, respectively. Mean intraocular pressure and fluctuations of intraocular pressure between the two groups were compared. Re sults: There was no difference between the groups in terms of age, sex, visual acuity and cup/disc ratio (p>0.05. Three weeks after combined therapy, all patients achieved target intraocular pressure of ≤ 21 mmHg. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups with regard to mean intraocular pressure over 24 hours (17.1±2.3 mmHg and 17.27±2.3 mmHg for Group 1 and Group 2, respectively; p>0.05. Diurnal fluctuations were 3.6 mmHg for Group 1 and 4.7 mmHg for Group 2; nocturnal fluctuations were 4.3 mmHg for Group 1 and 2.3 mmHg for Group 2. Diurnal fluctuations in Group 1 were lower than in Group 2, while nocturnal fluctuations were lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (p<0.05. Dis cus si on: Both latanoprost/timolol maleate and dorzolamid/timolol maleate fixed combinations are effective for 24-hour intraocular pressure control. Latanoprost/timolol maleate fixed combination is superior to dorzolamid/timolol maleate in controlling diurnal fluctuations, while dorzolamid/timolol maleate is

  14. Nonpsychotropic cannabinoids, abnormal cannabidiol and canabigerol-dimethyl heptyl, act at novel cannabinoid receptors to reduce intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczesniak, Anna-Maria; Maor, Yehoshua; Robertson, Harold; Hung, Orlando; Kelly, Melanie E M

    2011-10-01

    The objective of our study was to examine the pharmacology of the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering actions of the behaviorally inactive cannabinoids, abnormal cannabidiol (abn-CBD), and a cannabigerol analog, cannabigerol-dimethyl heptyl (CBG-DMH), in comparison to that of the nonselective cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB(1)R) and CB(2)R agonist, WIN55,212-2, in Brown Norway rats. The IOP was measured noninvasively using a hand-held tonometer in nonanesthetized animals. The IOP measurements were taken every 15 min for a period of 2 h after drug administration. All drugs were administered via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections, and abn-CBD and CBG-DMH were also given topically. Both abn-CBD and CBG-DMH reduced IOP when administrated i.p. at doses of ≥2.5 mg/kg or topically at concentrations of 1%-2%. The IOP-lowering effects of abn-CBD and CBG-DMH were reduced by i.p. administration of O-1918 (2.5 mg/kg), a selective antagonist of the abn-CBD-sensitive cannabinoid-related receptor (CBx), but were unaffected by the CB(1)R antagonist, AM251 (2.5 mg/kg), or the CB(2)R antagonist, AM630 (2.5 mg/kg). In contrast, the IOP-lowering action of WIN55,212-2 was completely blocked by the CB(1)R-selective antagonist, AM251, and was unaffected by the CBx receptor antagonist, O-1918. However, similar to the nonpsychotropic cannabinoids, the ocular hypotensive actions of WIN55,212-2 were also insensitive to block by the CB(2)R antagonist, AM630. Consistent with this, the selective CB(2)R agonist, HU-308 (2 mg/kg) failed to reduce IOP in Brown Norway rats. Concurrent application of a dose of WIN55,212-2 that was subthreshold to reduce IOP (0.25 mg/kg), together with a topical dose of either abn-CBD (0.5%) or CBG-DMH (0.25%), respectively, potentiated the ocular hypotensive effect of either compound applied alone. This study demonstrates that the atypical cannabinoid, abn-CBD, and the cannabigerol analog, CBG-DMH, decrease IOP in the normotensive Brown Norway rat eye independent of CB

  15. Comportamento da pressão intra-ocular segundo os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e hemodinâmicos induzidos pela anestesia com desflurano, em cães submetidos à hipovolemia experimental Behavior of intraocular pressure according to cardiorespiratory and hemodynamic effects induced by desflurane in dogs subjected to experimental hypovolemia

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    Ivia Carmem Talieri

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Observar o comportamento da pressão intra-ocular, segundo os efeitos cardiorrespiratórios e hemodinâmicos induzidos pela anestesia geral com desflurano, em cães submetidos à hipovolemia experimental. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 18 cães, machos e fêmeas, com peso entre 10 e 15 kg. A hipovolemia foi realizada retirando-se 40 ml de sangue/kg de peso. A seguir, a anestesia foi induzida com desflurano através de máscara facial, até que a intubação orotraqueal fosse permitida. A pressão intra-ocular foi medida por tonometria de aplanação. Valores para freqüência cardíaca, débito cardíaco, pressão arterial média, pressão venosa central e pressão parcial de CO2 ao final da expiração e freqüência respiratória foram mensurados. Os parâmetros da avaliação foram registrados após a instrumentalização e antes de qualquer outro procedimento (T0, quinze minutos depois da indução da hipovolemia experimental (T45 e após 30 minutos da indução anestésica (T75. RESULTADOS: A pressão intra-ocular apresentou relação direta somente com a pressão parcial de CO2 no final da expiração. CONCLUSÕES: Não foi possível estabelecer correlação entre alterações da pressão arterial média e da pressão venosa central com a pressão intra-ocular e houve relação direta entre os valores da pressão intra-ocular e os de ETCO2.PURPOSE: To observe the behavior of intraocular pressure according to the cardiopulmonary and hemodynamic effects induced by desflurane in dogs subjected to experimental hypovolemia. METHODS: Eighteen healthy male and female mongrel dogs, weighing between 10 and 15 kg were used. Hypovolemia was induced by withdrawal of 40 ml blood/kg body weight. Then anesthesia was induced with desflurane by mask until tracheal intubation was permitted. Intraocular pressure was measured with applanation tonometry. Heart rate, cardiac output, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, end-tidal concentration

  16. Alfaxalone versus propofol in dogs: a randomised trial to assess effects on peri-induction tear production, intraocular pressure and globe position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Daniel; Leiva, Marta; Moll, Xavier; Aguilar, Adrià; Peña, Teresa; Andaluz, Anna

    2015-01-17

    The purpose of this randomised trial was to compare the effects of alfaxalone and propofol on tear production (STT-1), intraocular pressure (IOP) and globe position (GP) in healthy dogs. Fourteen Beagles were randomly divided into two groups; dogs in one group received alfaxalone (3 mg/kg) (n=7) and dogs in the other group received propofol (6 mg/kg) (n=7), both administered intravenously. IOP and GP were evaluated at basal time (Tb) and T2,5,10,15,20,25&30 (minutes after complete drug administration). STT-1 was evaluated at Tb and T10,20&30. STT-1 and IOP results were analysed using analysis of variance and GP was analysed using the likelihood ratio χ(2) test. Dogs in the alfaxalone group showed a significant reduction in STT-1 at T10&20 (P0.05), which then decreased (Pglobe deviation that lasted from T2 to T10 (Pglobe deviation from T2 to T5 (P<0.05), being restored at T20. These results suggest that both alfaxalone and propofol can be safely used for intraocular surgery, as they significantly reduce IOP. Furthermore, anaesthetic induction with propofol would be especially recommended for dogs with tear deficiencies. British Veterinary Association.

  17. Avaliação da acuidade visual e da pressão intraocular no tratamento do edema macular diabético com triancinolona intravítrea Study of visual acuity and intraocular pressure in the treatment of macular diabetic edema with intravitreous triamcinolone

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    Marcussi Palata Rezende

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar os efeitos do acetato de triancinolona intravítreo em pacientes com edema macular diabético difuso na acuidade visual e pressão intraocular. Relatar os possíveis efeitos adversos e analisar a possível relação da idade dos pacientes com as variações da acuidade visual e pressão intraocular. MÉTODOS: O ensaio clínico controlado incluiu 14 pacientes (28 olhos, sendo que 14 olhos receberam injeção de 4 mg de acetato de triancinolona intravítreo para o tratamento de edema macular diabético difuso. O grupo tratado foi comparado a um grupo controle de 14 olhos sem edema macular diabético difuso. O tempo de seguimento foi de três meses. RESULTADOS: Os picos de pressão intraocular >21 mmHg ocorreram em 28,57%, com diferença significante entre a pressão intraocular do grupo tratado com o grupo controle na primeira semana após o tratamento. A acuidade visual mostrou uma significativa melhora quando comparada com o grupo controle desde o segundo dia após o tratamento. Não houve associação entre a idade com as variações da acuidade visual e a pressão intraocular. CONCLUSÃO: O acetato de triancinolona intravítreo mostrou-se ser eficiente para melhorar a acuidade visual em pacientes com edema macular diabético difuso, nos primeiros três meses de tratamento. A incidência de hipertensão intraocular foi de 28,57%, podendo ser caracterizada como de fácil controle.PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide in patients with diffuse diabetic macular edema on the visual acuity and intraocular pressure. To report the potential adverse events and to analyze the potential relationship between age and visual acuity and intraocular pressure variability. METHODS: This clinical controlled study included 14 patients (28 eyes, 14 of the eyes received an intravitreal injection of 4 mg triamcinolone acetonide for the treatment of diabetic macular edema. The study group was compared to a control

  18. Involvement of adenosine A2a receptor in intraocular pressure decrease induced by 2-(1-octyn-1-yl)adenosine or 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Takashi; Murakami, Akira; Uchibori, Takehiro; Nagai, Akihiko; Kogi, Kentaro; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2005-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the mechanism for the decrease in intraocular pressure by 2-alkynyladenosine derivatives in rabbits. The receptor binding analysis revealed that 2-(1-octyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-O-Ado) and 2-(6-cyano-1-hexyn-1-yl)adenosine (2-CN-Ado) selectively bound to the A(2a) receptor with a high affinity. Ocular hypotensive responses to 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado were inhibited by the adenosine A(2a)-receptor antagonist 1,3,7-trimethyl-8-(3-chlorostyryl)xanthine (CSC), but not by the adenosine A(1)-receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) or the adenosine A(2b)-receptor antagonist alloxazine. In addition, 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado caused an increase in outflow facility, which was inhibited by CSC, but not by DPCPX or alloxazine. Moreover, 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado increased cAMP in the aqueous humor, and the 2-O-Ado-induced an increase in cAMP was inhibited by CSC. These results suggest that 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado reduced intraocular pressure via an increase in outflow facility. The ocular hypotension may be mainly mediated through the activation of adenosine A(2a) receptor, although a possible involvement of adenosine A(1) receptor cannot be completely ruled out. 2-O-Ado and 2-CN-Ado are useful lead compounds for the treatment of glaucoma.

  19. An observational study of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients on prior intraocular pressure-lowering therapy: the Canadian Lumigan® RC Early Analysis Review (CLEAR) trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Andrew C; Nixon, Donald R; Simonyi, Susan; Bhogal, Meetu; Sigouin, Christopher S; Discepola, Marino J; Hutnik, Cindy ML; Baptiste, Darryl C; Yan, David B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ocular hyperemia and intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering efficacy of bimatoprost 0.01% in subjects with elevated IOP due to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) or ocular hypertension (OHT) in a real-world clinical setting. Subjects and methods This open-label, 12-week, observational study was conducted at 67 centers in Canada. Subjects with elevated IOP due to POAG or OHT instilled bimatoprost 0.01% as monotherapy once daily. Ocular hyperemia was graded by the investigator at baseline, week 6, and week 12 using a standardized photographic 5-point grading scale. Change in IOP from baseline was also evaluated at these time points. This analysis includes the subgroup of 268 subjects who had been previously treated with latanoprost 0.005%, bimatoprost 0.03%, travoprost 0.004%, and travoprost 0.004% with SofZia™ or nonselective beta-adrenergic receptor blockers prior to the study. Results After 12 weeks of treatment with 0.01% bimatoprost, ocular hyperemia was graded as none-to-mild hyperemia (grades 0, +0.5, or +1) for 94.1% of subjects and as moderate-to-severe hyperemia (grades +2 or +3) for 5.9%. No statistically significant shifts in ocular hyperemia ratings were observed at week 12 for any of the prior IOP-lowering therapies except bimatoprost 0.03%, in which 20.8% of subjects experienced an improvement. The mean percentage change from baseline IOP at week 12 following the switch to bimatoprost 0.01% monotherapy ranged from −2.3%±17.3% to −26.3%±12.4%. Furthermore, the decreased mean percentage change from baseline IOP was statistically significant across all prior IOP-lowering medications, except for bimatoprost 0.03% at the 6- and 12-week visits and travoprost 0.004% at the 6-week visit. Conclusion This observational study demonstrates that bimatoprost 0.01% was well tolerated among POAG and OHT subjects who switched from prior IOP-lowering medication. Furthermore, a switch in ocular hypertensive treatment to bimatoprost 0.01% was

  20. Effect of preservative removal from fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol on intraocular pressure lowering: a potential timolol dose–response phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jie Shen,1 Marina Bejanian2 1Department of Translational Sciences, 2Department of Ophthalmology Clinical Development, Allergan plc, Irvine, CA, USA Purpose: Many patients with glaucoma require combination therapies to achieve target intraocular pressure (IOP and preserve visual function. Ocular hypotensives often contain a preservative (eg, benzalkonium chloride [BAK], but preservative-free (PF formulations have been developed for patients with sensitivity. A Phase III study found the efficacy of bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% (bim/tim, Ganfort® PF to be equivalent to that of preserved bim/tim, although a trend favoring bim/tim PF was observed. As BAK is a corneal penetration enhancer, this literature review aims to explain these findings by exploring the relationship between timolol concentration and its IOP-lowering effect. Methods: Systematic searches were performed in Scopus and PubMed for clinical trials published in English between 1960 and July 2014 using the keywords “timolol”, “intraocular pressure”, and the concentrations “1%, 0.5%, OR 0.25%”. Articles that directly compared IOP-lowering effects of ≥2 concentrations of timolol were identified by manual screening, and cross-checked for duplication. Results: Seventeen studies that included 10–371 patients were evaluated; the majority were randomized (16/17, double-masked (14/17, and enrolled patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (12/17. All studies investigated timolol in preserved formulations. Timolol concentrations tested ranged from 0.008% to 1.5%. Of 13 studies comparing timolol 0.25% versus 0.5%, two found the 0.25% dose to have greater IOP-lowering effects, and three reported the opposite; eight reported similar IOP lowering. Results also indicate that timolol 0.5% may be more effective than higher concentrations. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that timolol may have an inverted U-shaped dose–response curve, and that its optimal IOP

  1. Changes in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure in men and women with primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An altered perfusion of the optic nerve head has been proposed as a pathogenic factor of glaucoma. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of the hemodynamic parameters in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in women and men with primary open angle glaucoma. Methods. The study included 60 patients (33 males and 27 females older than 50 years, with diagnosed and treated primary open angle glaucoma (77 eyes of 39 patients had increased IOP, >25 mm Hg. They were examined at the Clinic of Eye Diseases (complete ophthalmologic exam and Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from December 2009 to December 2010. Imaging of hemodynamic parameters of three retrobulbar arterial vessels: ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries with color Doppler was performed. Results. Among women, hemodynamic arterial parameter of the peak-systolic velocity was increased in the central retinal artery and decreased in the ophthalmic artery and posterior ciliary arteries; end- diastolic velocity was increased in all three retrobulbar vascular levels; Pourcelot resistivity index was increased, but pulsatility index was decreased in all three vessels. Among men, peak-systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and pulsatility index were decreased in all three vessels; resistivity index was increased in the ophthalmic artery, but decreased in the central retinal artery and posterior ciliary arteries. There was a significant change of the ophthalmic artery pulsatility index in women, and the end-diastolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery in men. Conclusion. There was a difference of the retrobulbar arterial circulation between women and men with primary open angle glaucoma after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure. The role of vascular factors in the supply of the optic disc neuroretinal rim is important.

  2. 玻璃体切割硅油填充术后眼压变化的分析及护理%Analysis of changes of intraocular pressure and nursing for vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古丽鲜·英克尤瓦

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨玻璃体切割联合硅油填充术后患者眼压变化及护理措施.方法 对52例(52眼)玻璃体切割硅油填塞术后患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,总结护理措施.结果 24例(46.2%)患者出现高眼压,其中19例发生在术后2周内(79.2%).高眼压组与眼压正常组性别、年龄,病程、屈光度及硅油填充量比较早发现,早处理差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 玻璃体切割联合硅油填充术后早期高眼压临床较常见,应加强患者的病情观察,防止术后并发症.%Objective To explore the changes of intraocular pressure and nursing for vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade technique.Methods Clinical data of 52 patients (52 eyes) with silicone oil tamponade after vitrectomy were retrospectively analyzed and made a summary of nursing care.Results There were 24 patients (46.2%) with high intraocular pressure,and there were 19 patients high intraocular pressure occurrence within 2 weeks.There were no significant differences in sex,age,duration,the amount of refraction and silicone oil tamponade between high and normal intraocular pressure groups (P > 0.05).Conclusion The early high intraocular pressure is common after vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade technique.Patient 's condition observation should be strengthened and prevent from post-operation complications.

  3. Low cerebrospinal fluid pressure in the pathogenesis of primary open-angle glaucoma: epiphenomenon or causal relationship? The Beijing Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure (iCOP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningli; Yang, Diya; Jonas, Jost B

    2013-01-01

    Previous experimental and clinical investigations have suggested that some patients with primary open-angle glaucoma may have an abnormally low orbital cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP). A meta-analysis of available clinical data showed a marked overlap in lumbar CSFP measurements between patients with normal-tension glaucoma and healthy subjects, so that the question arises as to which additional factors play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous optic neuropathy.

  4. A comparison of intraocular pressure and hemodynamic responses to insertion of laryngeal mask airway or endotracheal tube using anesthesia with propofol and remifentanil in cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ziyaeifard

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP and hemodynamic responses following insertion of laryngeal mask airway (LMA or endotracheal tube (ETT after anesthesia induction with propofol and remifentanil in cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: In a randomized controlled study, 50 adults scheduled for elective cataract extraction procedure under general anesthesia were allocated to LMA insertion (n = 25 or ETT (n = 25 groups. IOP, systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and heart rate (HR were measured after insertion of the airway device every minute up to 5 min. Results: There were no significant differences between LMA and ETT groups in SBP, DBP, HR, and IOP immediately after airway instrumentation up to 5 min, except in 4th min in DBP, 2nd min in HR, and 5th min in IOP (7.9 ± 2.3 mmHg in LMA and 9.4 ± 2.5 mmHg in ETT group; P = 0.030. There was good surgeon satisfaction for providing acceptable surgical field in both groups (88% in LMA and 80% in ETT group; P = 0.702. Conclusion: Propofol combined with remifentanil provides good and excellent conditions for insertion of LMA or ETT with minimal hemodynamic disturbances in cataract surgery. Considering LMA insertion is less traumatic than ETT, using LMA may be better than ETT for airway securing in these patients.

  5. Variação da pressão intraocular após teste submáximo de força no treinamento resistido Intraocular pressure variation after submaximal strength test in resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a variação da pressão intraocular (PIO decorrente da aplicação do teste de predição para uma repetição máxima (1RM. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados em estudo observacional 145 calouros (22,04 ± 4,17 anos; de ambos os sexos do curso de Educação Física da Escola Superior de Educação Física de Jundiaí (ESEFJ. Os critérios de exclusão foram: opacidade de meios, alteração de globo ocular ou ausência de globo ocular. Todos os participantes assinaram o Termo de Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido. A avaliação da PIO foi determinada por duas medidas consecutivas com o tonômetro de Perkins: i pré-teste: antes do teste de 1RM e ii pós-teste: logo após a realização do teste. O teste de 1RM consistiu em predizer o valor de uma repetição máxima através de repetições até a fadiga. Foram utilizados os seguintes exercícios resistidos: supino, pulley dorsal, desenvolvimento, rosca direta e leg press 45º. Como procedimento estatístico foi empregado o teste "t" de Student pareado. RESULTADOS: Ocorreu redução da PIO após a realização do teste de predição de 1RM: 13,48 ± 3,32 vs.10,20 ± 3,72 mmHg (pPURPOSE: To verify the intraocular pressure (IOP after sub-maximal strength test. METHODS: 145 Physical Education freshmen (22.04 ± 4.17 years old; female and male from Superior Physical Education School of Jundiaí (ESEFJ were evaluated in an observacional study. The exclusion criteria were: media opacity and eyeball absence or changes. All subjects agreed to take part in this research and signed up the Informed Consent. IOP was measured by Perkins tonometer: i pretest: just before the submaximal strength test performance and ii post-test: immediately after the strength test. The strength test consisted in the one-repetition-maximum-assessment through repetition until fatigue. Resistance training exercises such as bench press, pulley dorsal high, shoulder press, arm curl and leg press 45º were performed

  6. Atmospheric Pressure Low Temperature Plasma System for Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Matthew; Staack, David

    2016-09-01

    There is growing interest in using plasmas for additive manufacturing, however these methods use high temperature plasmas to melt the material. We have developed a novel technique of additive manufacturing using a low temperature dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) jet. The jet is attached to the head of a 3D printer to allow for precise control of the plasma's location. Various methods are employed to deposit the material, including using a vaporized precursor or depositing a liquid precursor directly onto the substrate or into the plasma via a nebulizer. Various materials can be deposited including metals (copper using copper (II) acetylacetonate), polymers (PMMA using the liquid monomer), and various hydrocarbon compounds (using alcohols or a 100% methane DBD jet). The rastering pattern for the 3D printer was modified for plasma deposition, since it was originally designed for thermoplastic extrusion. The design constraints for fill pattern selection for the plasma printer are influenced by substrate heating, deposition area, and precursor consumption. Depositions onto pressure and/or temperature sensitive substrates can be easily achieved. Deposition rates range up to 0.08 cm3/hr using tris(2-methoxyethoxy)(vinyl)silane, however optimization can still be done on the system to improve the deposition rate. For example higher concentration of precursor can be combined with faster motion and higher discharge powers to increase the deposition rate without overheating the substrate.

  7. A 5.2GHz, 0.5mW RF powered wireless sensor with dual on-chip antennas for implantable intraocular pressure monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-06-01

    For the first time a single chip implantable wireless sensor system for Intraocular Pressure Monitoring (IOPM) is presented. This system-on-chip (SoC) is battery-free and harvests energy from incoming RF signals. The chip is self-contained and does not require external components or bond wires to function. This 1.4mm3 SoC has separate 2.4GHz-transmit and 5.2GHz-receive antennas, an energy harvesting module, a temperature sensor, a 7-bit TIQ Flash ADC, a 4-bit RFID, a power management and control unit, and a VCO transmitter. The chip is fabricated in a standard 6-metal 0.18μm CMOS process and is designed to work with a post-processed MEMS pressure sensor. It consumes 513μW of peak power and when implanted inside the eye, it is designed to communicate with an external reader using on-off keying (OOK). © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  9. ADDITIONAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL NOZZLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Matthew [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc.; Yin, Shengjun [ORNL; Stevens, Gary [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Sommerville, Daniel [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc.; Palm, Nathan [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA; Heinecke, Carol [Westinghouse Electric Company, Cranberry Township, PA

    2012-01-01

    In past years, the authors have undertaken various studies of nozzles in both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Those studies described stress and fracture mechanics analyses performed to assess various RPV nozzle geometries, which were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-life (EOL) to require evaluation of embrittlement as part of the RPV analyses associated with pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. In this paper, additional stress and fracture analyses are summarized that were performed for additional PWR nozzles with the following objectives: To expand the population of PWR nozzle configurations evaluated, which was limited in the previous work to just two nozzles (one inlet and one outlet nozzle). To model and understand differences in stress results obtained for an internal pressure load case using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) vs. a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for these PWR nozzles. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated. To investigate the applicability of previously recommended linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solutions for calculating the Mode I stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for pressure loading for these PWR nozzles. These analyses were performed to further expand earlier work completed to support potential revision and refinement of Title 10 to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Requirements, and are intended to supplement similar evaluation of nozzles presented at the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP

  10. Bioinformatics analysis of potential essential genes that response to the high intraocular pressure on astrocyte due to glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Yang; Jing-Zhu; Duan; Yu; Di; Dong-Mei; Gui; Dian-Wen; Gao

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study the gene expression response and predict the network in cell due to pressure effects on optic nerve injury of glaucoma.METHODS: We used glaucoma related microarray data in public database [Gene Expression Omnibus(GEO)] to explore the potential gene expression changes as well as correspondent biological process alterations due to increased pressure in astrocytes during glaucoma development.RESULTS: A total of six genes were identified to be related with pressure increasing. Through the annotation and network analysis, we found these genes might be involved in cell morphological remodeling, angiogenesis,mismatch repair.CONCLUSION: Increasing pressure in glaucoma on astrocytes might cause gene expression alterations,which might induce some cellular responses changes.

  11. Topical tissue plasminogen activator appears ineffective for the clearance of intraocular fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, J; Latimer, W B

    1998-06-01

    To determine the efficacy of topical tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for the resolution of postoperative or inflammatory intraocular fibrinous exudates. Each treatment consisted of drops of 1 mg/ml tPA given 9 times 5 minutes apart. Records were reviewed and the results at 24 and 48 hours were recorded. Sixty-two patients had a total of 94 treatments. Fibrin exudates following intraocular surgery in 34 patients were treated 44 times. In 6 patients there was a positive result. Fibrin associated with intraocular infection was treated in 9 patients. None showed clear improvement. Nineteen patients had a total of 34 treatments for poorly controlled intraocular pressure (IOP) after glaucoma surgery. Five patients showed adequate control of the IOP, 12 did not change, and 2 had a questionable improvement. Eleven patients had adequate IOP control after additional treatment. Seven required suture lysis, 2 ab interno bleb revision, and 2 YAG capsulotomy or iridotomy to reduce the IOP to an acceptable level. Within the limits of this retrospective study and taking into account that fibrin may resolve spontaneously, it appears that topical tPA drops are not effective for the liquefaction of intraocular fibrin after surgery or in association with intraocular inflammation. They did not improve IOP control after glaucoma surgery.

  12. Intraocular pressure-lowering effects of commonly used fixed combination drugs with timolol in the management of primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Atabey Ozer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect and ocular tolerability of brimonidine/timolol, dorzolamide/timolol and latanoprost/timolol fixed combination therapies in the management of primary open angle glaucoma.METHODS:Each drug was administered for two months, after which a circadian tonometric curve was recorded using a Goldmann applanation tonometer. Ocular discomfort (conjunctival hyperemia, burning or stinging, foreign body sensation, itching, ocular pain of each eye was assessed by the subject on a standardized ocular discomfort scale.RESULTS:Among the three study groups, there were no significant differences in the mean baseline IOP measurements, mean 2nd mo IOP measurements, and mean (% change of IOPs from baseline. Among the three study groups, there were no significant differences in the mean IOP measurements obtained at circadian tonometric curves at baseline and at two months controls. In sum brimonidine/timolol, dorzolamide/timolol and latanoprost/timolol fixed combination therapies showed similar effects on IOP levels.CONCLUSION:Brimonidine/timolol, dorzolamide/timolol and latanoprost/timolol fixed combination therapies showed similar lowering efficaties on IOP levels whereas there was no any difference between each other.

  13. 5.2-GHz RF Power Harvester in 0.18-/spl mu/m CMOS for Implantable Intraocular Pressure Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Ouda, Mahmoud H.

    2013-04-17

    A first fully integrated 5.2-GHz CMOS-based RF power harvester with an on-chip antenna is presented in this paper. The design is optimized for sensors implanted inside the eye to wirelessly monitor the intraocular pressure of glaucoma patients. It includes a five-stage RF rectifier with an on-chip antenna, a dc voltage limiter, two voltage sensors, a low dropout voltage regulator, and MOSCAP based on-chip storage. The chip has been designed and fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS technology. To emulate the eye environment in measurements, a custom test setup is developed that comprises Plexiglass cavities filled with saline solution. Measurements in this setup show that the proposed chip can be charged to 1 V wirelessly from a 5-W transmitter 3 cm away from the harvester chip. The energy that is stored on the 5-nF on-chip MOSCAP when charged to 1 V is 2.5 nJ, which is sufficient to drive an arbitrary 100-μW load for 9 μs at regulated 0.8 V. Simulated efficiency of the rectifier is 42% at -7 dBm of input power.

  14. Relationship between Corneal Thickness,Corneal Curva-ture,and Intraocular Pressure before and after Laser Treat-ment for Simple Myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmad MA; Edrees MH; Jafarzadehpur E

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:To determine the relationship of central corneal thickness (CCT), curvature (CC), and intraocular pressure (IOP) as determinative factors for corneal biomechanics and in refractive surgery. Methods:.The study investigated 48 eyes from subjects who visited the Excimer Laser Surgery Clinic at the Department of Ophthalmology. The refractive error, IOP, CCT, and CC were measured in all participants. After 3 months, all exami-nations were repeated. Results:.Linear regression demonstrated a significant positive relationship between pre- and postoperative CCT,.CC,.and IOP values..The IOP showed a significant correlation with CCT (P=0.033) for pre-PRK, but no significant relationship was seen post-PRK. The CCT also correlated significantly with CC both pre-and post-PRK (P<0.05). Conclusion:.The IOP was significantly correlated with CCT before PRK, but its behavior differed after surgery. Nearly the same correlation was seen between CCT and CC before and after the PRK;.nevertheless,.IOP measurements should be calculated or estimated more precisely after PRK based on CCT corrections.

  15. Phase I clinical trial of SYL040012, a small interfering RNA targeting β-adrenergic receptor 2, for lowering intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Montañés, Javier; Sádaba, Belén; Ruz, Verónica; Gómez-Guiu, Almudena; Zarranz, Javier; González, María Victoria; Pañeda, Covadonga; Jimenez, Ana Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate ocular tolerance, safety, and effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) of a topically administered small interfering RNA; SYL040012, on healthy volunteers. The study was an open-label, controlled, single-center study comprised of two intervals that enrolled 30 healthy subjects having IOP below 21 mmHg. SYL040012 was administered to one eye as a single dose to six subjects during interval 1. During interval 2 two different doses of SYL040012 were administered to one eye on a daily basis to two separate groups of 12 subjects each, over a period of 7 days. The contralateral eye was evaluated but not administered and served as control for the tolerance study. SYL040012 was well tolerated locally. No local or systemic adverse events related to the product developed in response to any of the doses studied. SYL040012 was not detected in plasma at any time point. Administration of SYL040012 over a period of 7 days reduced IOP values in 15 out of 24 healthy subjects regardless of the dose used. IOP decrease was statistically significant in response to one of the doses tested and responsiveness to SYL040012 seemed to be greater in individuals with higher baseline IOP.

  16. Disappearance of anterior chamber with high intraocular pressure in phacoemulsification%超声乳化术中前房消失伴高眼压

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅波; 苗春旭; 冯万国; 宫冰冰; 肖梦媛

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究白内障超声乳化术中前房突然消失伴眼压升高的原因、处理及预防.方法 单纯性老年性白内障行超声乳化过程中,67例(67眼)突发前房消失、高眼压,其中4例暂停手术,快速静脉滴注20%甘露醇250 ml,1h后眼压降低,黏弹剂重建前房,顺利完成手术.3例于睫状体平坦部进针吸出玻璃体内0.1ml液体,顺利重建前房.其余60例(60眼)前房频注黏弹剂,勉强完成手术,出现并发症.结果 切口处虹膜反复脱出43例,相应部位虹膜萎缩脱色素,瞳孔不圆.后囊较小破裂3例,人工晶状体照常植入囊袋内.后囊明显破裂2例,玻璃体脱出,施行前段玻璃体切除,人工晶体睫状沟植入,缝线悬吊.术中后弹力层部分脱离6例,用空气泡复位.58例不同程度角膜内皮水肿,于术后3~5d恢复.结论 白内障超声乳化术中前房突然消失、眼压升高,导致失去器械活动空间,手术风险增大,并发症相对增加.此情况的出现部分为解剖因素,但不乏与操作有关,应予以高度重视并采取有效措施,可转危为安.%Objective To study the reasons,treatment and prevention of anterior chamber disappearance with high intraocular pressure during cataract phacoemulsification.Methods Of simply age-related cataract in our hospital' s Ophthamology Dept.,67 cases (67 eyes) of anterior chamber disappearance with high intraocular pressure happened in phacoemulsification.Operation process suspended for 4 cases,immediately intravenous injection of 20% mannital 250 ml.Intraocular pressure lowered 1 hour later.Reconstruct anterior chamber with viscoelastic agent to complete operation safely.For 3 cases,insert needle through pars plana of ciliary body sucking 0.1 ml liquid from vitreous.Reconstruct anterior chamber smoothly.For the remaining 60 cases (60 eyes),repeatedly inject viscoelastic agent into anterior chamber.Operation finished difficultly,complication appeared.Results Iris prolapsed from

  17. Sustained reduction of intraocular pressure by supraciliary delivery of brimonidine-loaded poly(lactic acid) microspheres for the treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, B; Kim, Y C; Doty, A C; Grossniklaus, H E; Schwendeman, S P; Prausnitz, M R

    2016-04-28

    Although effective drugs that lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in the management of glaucoma exist, their efficacy is limited by poor patient adherence to the prescribed eye drop regimen. To replace the need for eye drops, in this study we tested the hypothesis that IOP can be reduced for one month after a single targeted injection using a microneedle for administration of a glaucoma medication (i.e., brimonidine) formulated for sustained release in the supraciliary space of the eye adjacent to the drug's site of action at the ciliary body. To test this hypothesis, brimonidine-loaded microspheres were formulated using poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to release brimonidine at a constant rate for 35 days and microneedles were designed to penetrate through the sclera, without penetrating into the choroid/retina, in order to target injection into the supraciliary space. A single administration of these microspheres using a hollow microneedle was performed in the eye of New Zealand White rabbits and was found to reduce IOP initially by 6 mmHg and then by progressively smaller amounts for more than one month. All administrations were well tolerated without significant adverse events, although histological examination showed a foreign-body reaction to the microspheres. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that the highly-targeted delivery of brimonidine-loaded microspheres into the supraciliary space using a microneedle is able to reduce IOP for one month as an alternative to daily eye drops.

  18. Comparison of Intraocular Pressure before and after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis Refractive Surgery Measured with Perkins Tonometry, Noncontact Tonometry, and Transpalpebral Tonometry

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    Isabel Cacho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the intraocular pressure (IOP before and after Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK, measured by Diaton, Perkins, and noncontact air pulse tonometers. Methods. Fifty-seven patients with a mean age of 34.88 were scheduled for myopia LASIK treatment. Spherical equivalent refraction (SER, corneal curvature (K, and central corneal thickness (CCT and superior corneal thickness (SCT were obtained before and after LASIK surgery. IOP values before and after surgery were measured using Diaton, Perkins, and noncontact air pulse tonometers. Results. The IOP values before and after LASIK surgery using Perkins tonometer and air tonometers were statistically significant (p0.05 for IOP values measured with Diaton tonometer. CCT decreases significantly after surgery (p<0.05 but no statistical differences were found in SCT (p=0.08. Correlations between pre- and postsurgery were found for all tonometers used, with p=0.001 and r=0.434 for the air pulse tonometer, p=0.008 and r=0.355 for Perkins, and p<0.001 and r=0.637 for Diaton. Conclusion. Transpalpebral tonometry may be useful for measuring postsurgery IOP after myopic LASIK ablation because this technique is not influenced by the treatment.

  19. MEASURING INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE IN WHITE'S TREE FROGS (LITORIA CAERULEA) BY REBOUND TONOMETRY: COMPARING DEVICE, TIME OF DAY, AND MANUAL VERSUS CHEMICAL RESTRAINT METHODS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Krisp, Ashley; Sladky, Kurt; Miller, Paul E; Mans, Christoph

    2017-06-01

    Ocular diseases reported in frogs include uveitis and glaucoma, which are associated with changes in intraocular pressure (IOP). The objectives of this study were to characterize the normal IOP for White's tree frogs ( Litoria caerulea ) using two types of rebound tonometers, and to assess whether time of day or method of restraint affected IOP. Eighteen conscious, unrestrained, ophthalmologically normal frogs were used to measure IOP using TonoVet® and TonoLab® tonometers, at three time points during the day. In a subset of 12 frogs, IOP was measured while under manual restraint using the TonoVet. Anesthesia was induced in 9 frogs using two different concentrations of MS-222 (0.5 g/L and 2 g/L) in order to evaluate for changes in IOP with the TonoVet. Mean (± SD) IOP values for the TonoLab (16.8 ± 3.9 mm Hg) were significantly higher than TonoVet values (14.7 ± 1.6 mm Hg; P frogs had significantly lower IOP (13.4 ± 1.5 mm Hg) compared with unrestrained frogs (15.3 ± 1.2 mm Hg; P frogs, but time of day and manual restraint can affect IOP values.

  20. [Short- and medium-term intraocular pressure lowering effects of combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without scleral implant or antifibrotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-López, M; Pérez-Alvarez, M J

    2006-02-01

    To examine the short- and medium-term intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effects of combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without the use of scleral implant or antifibrotics in open-angle glaucoma (primary and pseudoexfoliative) and coexisting cataract in eyes with no known risk factors for bleb failure. Retrospective study of 15 eyes of 12 patients with medically uncontrolled open-angle glaucoma or open-angle glaucoma treated with two or more drugs and coexisting cataract with no known risk factors for glaucoma surgery failure. All patients received combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without scleral implant or antifibrotics performed by the same surgeon. Nd-YAG perforation of the trabeculodescemetic membrane and/or needling with mitomycin-C was performed postoperatively for IOP control. Main outcome measures were postoperative IOP, percentage of eyes with IOP Conjuntival wound leakage was the most frequent complication (20%; 3/15). Primary combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without collagen implant or antifibrotics in primary open-angle glaucoma with coexisting cataract, significantly lowers IOP in the short- and medium term in low-risk cases for glaucoma surgery failure, allowing for rapid visual improvement with a low complication rate.

  1. Noninvasive observations on eyes of cats after long-term maintenance of reduced intraocular pressure by topical application of prostaglandin E2.

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    Bito, L Z; Srinivasan, B D; Baroody, R A; Schubert, H

    1983-03-01

    Daily or twice daily prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) application to cat eyes was shown to maintain a reduced intraocular pressure (IOP) for several months without causing substantial flare or cellular response. We report now on detailed ophthalmic examinations performed on these cats after 5-9 months of such treatment (ie, after 150 to 250 unilateral PGE2 applications; 100 micrograms/treatment per eye). A comparison of the treated and contralateral control eyes revealed no differences in the axial length of ocular compartments, in the biomicroscopic appearance of the lens, vitreous, retina, or optic nerve head, in the rate of light-induced pupillary constriction or in the wave form of the electroretinogram. The cell density of the corneal endothelium was not decreased, but the endothelial surface did contain a few small "dark spots." A slight iridial heterochromia was generally apparent. In three of the cats PGE2 application had a sialagogic effect that became a conditioned reflex. Cats tended to keep their lids closed after each treatment; lid closure was more prolonged in the PGE2-treated eye than in the contralateral eye that received the same volume (50 microliters) of vehicle solution. It is concluded that daily treatment with PGE2, in doses sufficient to cause a maintained reduction in IOP, does have some side effects. However, none of these side effects are of sufficient importance to exclude the use of eicosanoids as potential anti-glaucoma agents.

  2. Comparison of intraocular pressure during the application of a liquid patient interface (FEMTO LDV Z8) for femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery using two different vacuum levels.

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    Ebner, Martina; Mariacher, Siegfried; Januschowski, Kai; Boden, Katrin; Seuthe, Anna-Maria; Szurman, Peter; Boden, Karl Thomas

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) using the application of a novel liquid patient interface for femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery with the FEMTO LDV Z8. IOP was evaluated in enucleated porcine eyes prior, during and after the application of the Femto LDV Z8 liquid patient interface (Ziemer Ophthalmic Systems, Switzerland) using intracameral cannulation (n=20), intravitreal cannulation (n=20), rebound tonometry (n=20) and indentation tonometry (n=20). Pressure was assessed prior vacuum, during vacuum (30 s, 1 min, 2 min, 3 min) and after releasing the vacuum (1 min and 2 min). Two groups with different predefined vacuum levels (350 mbar, 420 mbar) were investigated. Mean intracameral pressure (±SD) increased during vacuum application from 20 mm Hg to 52.00 mm Hg (±6.35mm Hg; p=0.005) and 45.18 mmHg (±4.34 mm Hg; p=0.005) for the 420 mbar and the 350 mbar vacuum levels, respectively. Mean intravitreal pressure increased from 20 mm Hg to 25.60 mm Hg (±9.85 mm Hg; p=0.058) and 28.10 mm Hg (±2.54 mm Hg; p=0.059) for the 420 mbar and the 350 mbar vacuum levels, respectively. Pressure values from indentation and rebound tonometry were in between intracameral and intravitreal values. Mean intracameral IOP was 18.1% higher (p=0.019) in the 420 mbar group compared with the 350 mbar group. During vacuum application of the liquid patient interface of the Femto LDV Z8 for femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery, IOP values were higher in the anterior chamber compared with the intravitreal pressure measurements. The higher predefined vacuum level (350 mbar vs 420 mbar) resulted in significant higher intracameral IOP. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Effect of preservative removal from fixed-combination bimatoprost/timolol on intraocular pressure lowering: a potential timolol dose–response phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Bejanian, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Many patients with glaucoma require combination therapies to achieve target intraocular pressure (IOP) and preserve visual function. Ocular hypotensives often contain a preservative (eg, benzalkonium chloride [BAK]), but preservative-free (PF) formulations have been developed for patients with sensitivity. A Phase III study found the efficacy of bimatoprost 0.03%/timolol 0.5% (bim/tim, Ganfort®) PF to be equivalent to that of preserved bim/tim, although a trend favoring bim/tim PF was observed. As BAK is a corneal penetration enhancer, this literature review aims to explain these findings by exploring the relationship between timolol concentration and its IOP-lowering effect. Methods Systematic searches were performed in Scopus and PubMed for clinical trials published in English between 1960 and July 2014 using the keywords “timolol”, “intraocular pressure”, and the concentrations “1%, 0.5%, OR 0.25%”. Articles that directly compared IOP-lowering effects of ≥2 concentrations of timolol were identified by manual screening, and cross-checked for duplication. Results Seventeen studies that included 10–371 patients were evaluated; the majority were randomized (16/17), double-masked (14/17), and enrolled patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (12/17). All studies investigated timolol in preserved formulations. Timolol concentrations tested ranged from 0.008% to 1.5%. Of 13 studies comparing timolol 0.25% versus 0.5%, two found the 0.25% dose to have greater IOP-lowering effects, and three reported the opposite; eight reported similar IOP lowering. Results also indicate that timolol 0.5% may be more effective than higher concentrations. Conclusion The evidence suggests that timolol may have an inverted U-shaped dose–response curve, and that its optimal IOP-lowering concentration is between 0.25% and 0.5%. Compared with bim/tim, removal of the permeability enhancer BAK in bim/tim PF could have resulted in a lower timolol

  4. A comparison of the circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure in primary phronic angle closure glaucoma, primary open angle glaucoma and normal eyes

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    Sihota Ramanjit

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the circadian rhythm of intraocular pressure (IOP in primary chronic angle closure glaucoma (PCACG, primary open angle glaucoma (POAG, and normal eyes. Methods: Cross-sectional study of newly diagnosed patients of POAG (60 eyes, PCACG following laser iridotomy (75 eyes, and age and sex matched normal controls (75 eyes. All subjects underwent applanation tonometry at 7 a.m., 10 a.m., 1 p.m., 4 p.m., 7 p.m., and 10 p.m. by a masked observer. Circadian rhythms were classified based upon the timing and presence of peak pressure. Results: Age and gender in all three groups were comparable. Diurnal IOP fluctuations were significantly higher in PCACG (7.69 + 3.03 mmHg and POAG (8.31 + 2.58 mmHg groups compared to normal controls (4.83 + 2.46 mmHg. PCACG eyes and controls had similarly timed circadian rhythms, with PCACG eyes having a consistently higher IOP. At 7 and 10 a.m., IOP peaked more often in POAG eyes compared to PCACG eyes. A plateau type of circadian rhythm was most common in normal eyes. The timing of peak IOP could be significantly correlated with the type of primary glaucoma examined. Conclusion: Afternoon peaks were more common in postiridotomy PCACG eyes, similar to the rhythm in normal eyes. Morning peaks were more frequent in POAG eyes. Diurnal fluctuation > 6 mmHg, associated with an IOP of 21 mmHg or more was never seen in a normal eye.

  5. Central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, and degree of myopia in an adult myopic population aged 20 to 40 years in southeast Spain: determination and relationships

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    Manuel Garcia-Medina

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Manuel Garcia-Medina1, Jose Javier Garcia-Medina2,3, Pablo Garrido-Fernandez1, Jose Galvan-Espinosa1, Jesus Martin-Molina1, Carlos Garcia-Maturana4, Sergio Perez-Pardo1, Maria Dolores Pinazo-Duran3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Torrecardenas Hospital, Almeria, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Huercal Overa Hospital, Almeria, Spain; 3Ophthalmology Research Unit “Santiago Grisolia”, University Hospital Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain; 4University of Sevilla, SpainObjective: To determine the values of, and study the relationships among, central corneal thickness (CCT, intraocular pressure (IOP, and degree of myopia (DM in an adult myopic population aged 20 to 40 years in Almeria (southeast Spain. To our knowledge this is first study of this kind in this region.Methods: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study was done in which a sample of 310 myopic patients (620 eyes aged 20 to 40 years was selected by gender- and age-stratified sampling, which was proportionally fixed to the size of the population strata for which a 20% prevalence of myopia, 5% epsilon, and a 95% confidence interval were hypothesized. We studied IOP, CCT, and DM and their relationships by calculating the mean, standard deviation, 95% confidence interval for the mean, median, Fisher’s asymmetry coefficient, range (maximum, minimum, and the Brown-Forsythe’s robust test for each variable (IOP, CCT, and DM.Results: In the adult myopic population of Almeria aged 20 to 40 years (mean of 29.8, the mean overall CCT was 550.12 µm. The corneas of men were thicker than those of women (P = 0.014. CCT was stable as no significant differences were seen in the 20- to 40-year-old subjects’ CCT values. The mean overall IOP was 13.60 mmHg. Men had a higher IOP than women (P = 0.002. Subjects over 30 years (13.83 had a higher IOP than those under 30 (13.38 (P = 0.04. The mean overall DM was -4.18 diopters. Men had less myopia than women (P < 0.001. Myopia was stable in the

  6. Effects of preservative-free tafluprost on tear film osmolarity, tolerability, and intraocular pressure in previously treated patients with open-angle glaucoma

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    Janulevičienė I

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ingrida Januleviciene, Irmante Derkac, Lina Grybauskiene, Ruta Paulauskaite, Ruta Gromnickaite, Loreta KuzmieneEye Clinic of Kaunas Medical Academy of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Kaunas, LithuaniaPurpose: To compare the effects on tolerability, tear osmolarity, and intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering effect of switching from benzalkonium chloride (BAK containing prostaglandin analog (PGA latanoprost to preservative-free tafluprost.Patients and methods: Thirty patients with open-angle glaucoma (N = 60 eyes, 26 women (87% and four men (13% aged 64.1 (SD 14.1 years, showing abnormal values of tear osmolarity, corneal fluorescein staining, tear film break-up time (TBUT, or subjective discomfort with current latanoprost treatment were included. After tear osmolarity (TearLab™ Osmolarity System, TBUT, corneal fluorescein staining, and baseline IOP (Goldmann tonometer measurements and the completion of Ocular Surface Disease Index and Ocular Surface Symptoms in Glaucoma Scale questionnaires, patients were assigned to preservative-free tafluprost treatment. Measurements were repeated 2, 6 and 12 weeks after change of medication.Results: No statistically significant differences in IOP were observed 2, 6, and 12 weeks after switching to preservative-free tafluprost. Mean IOP at baseline was 16.4 mmHg (SD 2.9, after 2 weeks 16.2 mmHg (2.8, after 6 weeks 16.2 (2.6, and after 12 weeks 16.3 mmHg (2.3. Mean tear osmolarity decreased significantly from 315.7 mOsm/L (SD 15.1 at baseline to 308.0 ± 14.4 mOsm/L (P = 0.002, 301.7 ± 14.5 mOsm/L (P < 0.001, and 302.0 ± 9.9 mOsm/L (P < 0.001 2, 6, and 12 weeks after changing medication to preservative-free tafluprost, respectively. Tear osmolarity was lower in 37 eyes (61.7% after 2 weeks, in 46 eyes (76.7% after 6 weeks, and in 49 eyes (81.7% after 12 weeks (P < 0.005; t-test. At baseline corneal fluorescein staining was observed in 43 eyes (71.7%, after 2 weeks in 34 eyes (56.7%, after 6 weeks

  7. Intraocular pressure lowering efficacy and safety of travoprost 0.004% as a replacement therapy in patients with open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; SUN Xing-huai; WANG Ning-li; ZHAO Jia-liang; WU Ling-ling; CHEN Xiao-ming; WANG Zhi-xin; Benny Li

    2010-01-01

    Background Travoprost has been widely used for the treatment of patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) or ocular hypertension (OH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy of travoprost 0.004% monotherapy in patients previously treated with other topical hypotensive medications, and in previously untreated patients.Methods This open-label, 12-week study in 1651 adult patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma who were untreated or required a change in therapy (due to either inadequate efficacy or safety issues) as judged by the investigator was conducted at 6 sites in China. Previously treated patients were instructed to discontinue their prior medications at the first visit. All the patients were dosed with travoprost 0.004% once-daily at 8 p.m. In both eyes for 12 weeks. Efficacy and safety evaluations were conducted at week 4 and 12. IOP measurements were performed at the same time of day at the follow-up visits.Results For patients transitioned to travoprost, mean IOP reductions from baseline in untreated and treated patients with different prior medications at week 12 were: latanoprost, (4.3±4.6) mmHg; β-blocker, (6.3±4.0) mmHg; a-agonist, (7.5±4.3) mmHg; topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, (8.0±4.9) mmHg. All mean IOP changes from baseline were statistically significant (P <0.001). No treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in this study.Conclusions In patients treated with other hypotensive medications or untreated, the IOP reduction with travoprost was significant. The results of this study demonstrated the potential benefit of using travoprost as a replacement therapy in order to ensure adequate IOP control. Travoprost administered once daily was safe and well tolerated in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

  8. Anterior Chamber Angle Evaluation following Phakic Posterior Chamber Collamer Lens with CentraFLOW and Its Correlation with ICL Vault and Intraocular Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Deeb, Mohamed W. A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To assess intraocular pressure (IOP), lens vaulting, and anterior chamber (AC) angle width, following V4C implantable Collamer lens (ICL) procedure for myopic refractive error. Methods. A prospective case series that enrolled 54 eyes of 27 patients that were evaluated before and after V4C phakic posterior chamber Collamer lens implantation for correction of myopic refractive error. Preoperative measurement of IOP was done using Goldmann applanation tonometer and anterior chamber angle width using both Van Herick slit lamp grading system and Scheimpflug tomography imaging (Oculus Pentacam). Follow-up of the aforementioned variables was at 1, 6, and 18 months postoperatively, together with ICL vault measurements. Results. The mean baseline IOP of 11.69 ± 2.15 showed a statistically significant (P = 0.002) increase after 1 month that remained unchanged at 6 and 18 months postoperatively, with mean value of 16.07 ± 4.12, 16.07 ± 4.10, and 16.07 ± 4.13, respectively. Pentacam AC angle width showed a statistically significant decrease at 1 (P = 0.025), 6 (P = 0.016), and 18 (P = 0.010) months postoperatively, with mean preoperative value of 40.14 ± 5.49 that decreased to 25.28 ± 5.33, 25.46 ± 5.44, and 25.49 ± 5.38, at 1, 6, and 18 months, respectively. Mean ICL vault showed moderate correlation with Pentacam AC angle width at 1 (r = −0.435) and 6 (r = −0.424) months. Conclusion. V4C ICL implantation resulted in decrease in AC angle width and increase in IOP, within acceptable physiological values at all time points. PMID:28053776

  9. Novel usage of intraocular pressure-lowering drugs as wound-healing inhibitors after trabeculectomy with cell culture and animal models

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    Kwou-Yeung Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Inhibiting the healing of wounds to ensure that the aqueous humor can drain into the scleral space unimpeded and form a filtering bleb plays a crucial role in determining the success rate of glaucoma surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the novel use, with cell culture and animal models, of some commercial intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering drugs in inhibiting the healing of fibroblast wounds. The Tenon's fibroblasts of rabbits were cultured to evaluate 13 IOP-lowering drugs for cellular proliferation, collagen formation, and migration. These were measured using [3H]thymidine and [3H]proline uptake, and Transwell chambers. A preservative of benzalkonium chloride (BAK was initially used, with 0.02% as a maximal original concentration. All of the drugs and the BAK were diluted from original commercial concentrations to 1/10, 1/100, and 1/1000. The more inhibitive drugs screened from the cell cultures were then selected for further short-term application during and after trabeculectomy surgeries had been performed on the rabbits. Expression of the proliferative cell nuclear antigen was immunohistochemically examined 3 and 7 days after surgery. The results revealed that the inhibitive effects of BAK in cellular [3H]thymidine and [3H]proline uptake, and cellular migration were only evident at 0.002% concentrations. Based on the results of the cell cultures, timolol, latanoprost, and unoprostone exhibited a greater inhibitory effect than the other drugs. Moreover, the animal studies showed that latanoprost and unoprostone significantly suppressed the positive expression of proliferative cell nuclear antigen around the operative excision area 7 days after the trabeculectomy surgeries. The results indicate that short-term use of some IOP-lowering drugs, such as latanoprost and unoprostone, may inhibit postoperative wound healing after glaucoma surgery.

  10. Eyes with Suspicious Appearance of the Optic Disc and Normal Intraocular Pressure: Using Clinical and Epidemiological Characteristics to Differentiate Those with and without Glaucoma.

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    Diego T Dias

    Full Text Available Among all glaucoma suspects, eyes with optic nerve head features suspicious or suggestive of early glaucoma are probably those that offer the greatest challenge for clinicians. In contrast with the robust longitudinal data published on ocular hypertension, there is no specific management guideline for these patients. Therefore, evaluating eyes with suspicious optic disc appearance and normal intraocular pressure (IOP, we sought to investigate potential differences in clinical and epidemiological characteristics to differentiate those with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG from those with presumed large physiological optic disc cups (pLPC. In this observational case-control study, we consecutively enrolled individuals with pLPC and NTG. All eyes had vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR≥0.6 and untreated IOP<21 mmHg. Glaucomatous eyes had reproducible visual field defects. Eyes with pLPC required normal visual fields and ≥30 months of follow-up with no evidence of glaucomatous neuropathy. Clinical and epidemiological parameters were compared between groups. Eighty-four individuals with pLPC and 40 NTG patients were included. Regarding our main results, NTG patients were significantly older and with a higher prevalence of Japanese descendants (p<0.01. Not only did pLPC eyes have smaller mean VCDR, but also larger optic discs (p≤0.04. There were no significant differences for gender, central corneal thickness, and spherical equivalent (p≥0.38. Significant odds ratios (OR were found for race (OR = 2.42; for Japanese ancestry, age (OR = 1.05, VCDR (OR = 5.03, and disc size (OR = 0.04; p≤0.04. In conclusion, in patients with suspicious optic disc and normal IOP, those with older age, Japanese ancestry, smaller optic discs, and larger VCDR are more likely to have NTG, and therefore, deserve deeper investigation and closer monitoring.

  11. Efficacy of bimatoprost 0.03% in reducing intraocular pressure in patients with 360° synechial angle-closure glaucoma: A preliminary study

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    Vyas Prateep

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS; synechiae anterior to functional trabecular meshwork formation in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG hampers access to uveoscleral outflow. Thus, the role of bimatoprost in such patients with 360° synechiae was evaluated. Aims: To assess efficacy and safety profile of bimatoprost 0.03% in lowering intraocular pressure (IOP in 360° synechial angle-closure glaucoma patients. Settings and Design: This was a prospective, non-randomized, non-comparative, selective analysis, single-center pilot study. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 eyes of 20 Indian chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG patients with IOP greater than 21 mmHg, 360° PAS and no visual potential in the study eye underwent detailed eye examination. Baseline IOP was measured and YAG peripheral iridotomy was performed for complete angle-closure reconfirmation. Bimatoprost 0.03% was administered for 8 weeks as once-daily evening dose. IOP reduction within treatment group was determined with "paired t-test." Results: The mean reduction in IOP from baseline to 8 weeks of bimatoprost therapy was 15.3 ± 9.5 mmHg (P < 0.001. The most commonly observed adverse event was conjunctival hyperemia (35%. Bimatoprost was well tolerated in the study. Conclusions: In this study, exclusively involving patients with 360° synechial angle-closure glaucoma and no visual potential, bimatoprost 0.03% treatment demonstrated a statistically significant IOP reduction. Hence, it can be inferred that bimatoprost 0.03% is an efficacious treatment modality in this subgroup of patients for reducing IOP.

  12. Numerical analysis of specific absorption rate in the human head due to a 13.56 MHz RFID-based intra-ocular pressure measurement system

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    Hirtl, Rene; Schmid, Gernot

    2013-09-01

    A modern wireless intra-ocular pressure monitoring system, based on 13.56 MHz inductively coupled data transmission, was dosimetrically analyzed with respect to the specific absorption rate (SAR) induced inside the head and the eye due to the electromagnetic field exposure caused by the reader antenna of the transmission system. The analysis was based on numerical finite difference time domain computations using a high resolution anatomical eye model integrated in a modern commercially available anatomical model of a male head. Three different reader antenna configurations, a 7-turn elliptic (30 mm × 50 mm) antenna at 12 mm distance from the eye, a flexible circular antenna (60 mm diameter, 8 turns on 2 mm substrate) directly attached to the skin, and a circular 7-turn antenna (30 mm diameter at 12 mm distance to the eye) were analyzed, respectively. Possible influences of the eye-lid status (closed or opened) and the transponder antenna contained in a contact lens directly attached to the eye were taken into account. The results clearly demonstrated that for typical reader antenna currents required for proper data transmission, the SAR values remain far below the limits for localized exposure of the head, as defined by the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection. Particularly the induced SAR inside the eye was found to be substantially (orders of magnitudes for typical reader antenna currents in the order of 1 A turn) below values which have been reported to be critical with respect to thermally induced adverse health effects in eye tissues.

  13. Vascular and metabolic comorbidities in open-angle glaucoma with low- and high-teen intraocular pressure: a cross-sectional study from South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyung; Kim, Gyu Ah; Lee, Wonseok; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun

    2017-07-05

    To assess the associations between vascular and metabolic comorbidities and the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure (IOP) in Korea. Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2012 were analysed. Participants diagnosed with OAG with normal IOP were further classified into low-teen IOP (IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen IOP (15 mmHg teen IOP groups. The prevalences of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher among subjects with low-teen OAG compared with normal subjects, while only the prevalences of hypertension and stroke were higher among subjects with high-teen OAG compared with normal subjects. In multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for confounding factors, low-teen OAG was significantly associated with hypertension (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.30-2.18), hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.49; 95% CI, 1.07-2.08), ischaemic heart disease (OR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.07-3.11), stroke (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.12-3.25) and metabolic syndrome (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.12-1.90). High-teen OAG was only associated with stroke (OR, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.20-5.53). Various vascular and metabolic comorbidities were significantly associated with low-teen OAG, but not with high-teen OAG. These data support the hypothesis that vascular factors play a more significant role in the pathogenesis of OAG with low-teen baseline IOP. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. A cross-sectional study to compare intraocular pressure measurement by sequential use of Goldman applanation tonometry, dynamic contour tonometry, ocular response analyzer, and Corvis ST

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    Sushma Tejwani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation and effect of sequential measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP with Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT, ocular response analyzer (ORA, dynamic contour tonometer (DCT, and Corvis ST. Setting and Design: Observational cross-sectional series from the comprehensive clinic of a tertiary eye care center seen during December 2012. Methods: One hundred and twenty-five study eyes of 125 patients with normal IOP and biomechanical properties underwent IOP measurement on GAT, DCT, ORA, and Corvis ST; in four different sequences. Patients with high refractive errors, recent surgeries, glaucoma, and corneal disorders were excluded so as to rule out patients with evident altered corneal biomechanics. Statistical Analysis: Linear regression and Bland-Altman using MedCalc software. Results: Multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures showed no influence of sequence of device use on IOP (P = 0.85. Linear regression r 2 between GAT and Corvis ST, Corvis ST and Goldmann-correlated IOP (IOPg, and DCT and Corvis ST were 0.37 (P = 0.675, 0.63 (P = 0.607, and 0.19 (P = 0.708, respectively. The Bland-Altman agreement of Corvis ST with GAT, corneal compensated IOP, and IOPg was 2 mmHg (−5.0 to + 10.3, −0.5 mmHg (−8.1 to 7.1, and 0.5 mmHg (−6.2 to 7.1, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient for repeatability ranged from 0.81 to 0.96. Conclusions: Correlation between Corvis ST and ORA was found to be good and not so with GAT. However, agreement between the devices was statistically insignificant, and no influence of sequence was observed.

  15. Hydroimplantation: foldable intraocular lens implantation without an ophthalmic viscosurgical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Harshul

    2010-03-01

    I describe a technique for implantation of a 1-piece acrylic foldable intraocular lens (IOL) using an irrigation cannula of the phaco machine without using an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD). The irrigating cannula introduced through a side port provides excellent stability and positioning to the eye; if required, the cannula tip is used to guide the leading haptic of the IOL into the capsular bag. The fluid coming from the side port via a bimanual irrigation cannula maintains adequate formation of the capsular bag and anterior chamber while the foldable IOL is inserted. The hydroimplantation technique has the advantage of increased efficiency, reduced surgical time and cost, no need for OVD removal from behind the IOL or for additional instrumentation, no OVD-induced intraocular pressure elevation postoperatively, and no risk of early capsular bag distension syndrome. Copyright 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 49 CFR 173.301b - Additional general requirements for shipment of UN pressure receptacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Group I performance level. (d) Non-refillable UN pressure receptacles. Non-refillable UN pressure... pressure receptacles. 173.301b Section 173.301b Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation....301b Additional general requirements for shipment of UN pressure receptacles. (a) General....

  17. Efeito da rotação da cabeça na pressão intraocular em decúbito ventral: estudo randomizado Efecto de la rotación de la cabeza en la presión intraocular en decúbito ventral: estudio aleatorio The effect of head Rotation on intraocular pressure in prone position: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nuri Deniz

    2013-04-01

    ón supina antes del inicio de la operación. Los pacientes fueron posicionados en decúbito ventral. La cabeza fue posicionada sobre un apoyo sin compresión externa directa en ambos ojos. Los pacientes del Grupo I fueron estrictamente mantenidos en pronación neutra, mientras que los pacientes del Grupo II fueron posicionados en pronación con rotación de la cabeza a 45º hacia el lado derecho. Al final de la operación, los pacientes fueron reposicionados en supinación y la PIO fue inmediatamente medida. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencia entre los datos demográficos, la duración de la cirugía, la pérdida de sangre y la reposición de líquido de los pacientes. Los valores postquirúrgicos de la PIO en decúbito ventral aumentaron significativamente en comparación con los valores preoperatorios en ambos grupos (p BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The increased intraocular pressure (IOP - which decreases perfusion pressure on the optic nerve - increases by prone positioning (1. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of head rotation 45o laterally in prone position on the increase in IOP of upper placed and lower placed eyes in patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. METHODS: Forty-five patients were randomly divided into 2 Groups. IOP of the patients were recorded bilaterally in supine position before the operation had started. Patients were turned to prone position. The head was placed on a prone headrest without external direct compression to both eyes. Patients in Group I were kept in strictly neutral prone position where as patients in Group II were placed prone with their heads rotated 45º laterally to the right side. At the end of the operation, patients were turned to supine position and their IOP was measured immediately. RESULTS: There was no difference related to demographics, duration of surgery, blood loss and fluid input data. IOP values after surgery in prone position increased significantly compared to preoperative values in both groups

  18. 玻璃体切割硅油填塞术后眼压变化分析%Changes of intraocular pressure following silicone oil tamponade for vitrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建敏; 张士胜; 张琼; 周颖明; 朱彩红; 葛健; 王玲

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察玻璃体切割硅油填塞术后的眼压变化,并探讨其可能原因.方法 对45例(45眼)玻璃体切割硅油填塞术后患者的临床资料进行回顾性分析,高眼压标准为术后眼压≥24 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa).结果 22例(48.9%)患者出现高眼压,以术后早期(术后2周内)为多(17/22,77.3%).所有患者经降眼压药物治疗及调整激素用量或停用激素处理后,眼压均控制在正常范围.高眼压组与非高眼压组性别、年龄、病程、屈光度及硅油填充量比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.∞).结论 高眼压是玻璃体切割硅油填充术后常见的并发症,术后眼内组织水肿、葡萄膜炎反应和频繁使用激素类滴眼液等可能是引起高眼压的主要原因.%Objective To observe the changes of intraocular pressure (IOP) following silicone oil tamponade for vitrectomy, and explore the possible causes. Methods The clinical data of 45 patients (45 eyes) undergoing silicone oil tamponade for vitrectomy were retrospectively analysed, and I0P elevation was defined as I0P of 24 mmHg ( 1 mmHg =0. 133 kPa) or higher. Results Postoperative IOP elevation occurred in 22 patients ( 48.9% ), especially in the early period after operation (2 weeks after operation) ( 17/22, 77.3% ). After using lOP-lowering drugs and adjusting or cessation of glucocorticoid eyedrops, the elevated lOP in all patients was controlled within normal limits. There was no significant difference in gender, age, course of disease, refractive diopters and volume of silicone oil tamponade between patients with and without elevated lOP ( P > 0.05 for all). Conclusion IOP elevation is a common complication following silicone oil tamponade for vitrectomy, and postoperative intraocular tissue edema, uveitis reaction and frequent use of glucocorticoid eyedrops may be the main causes.

  19. Impact of intraocular pressure on changes of blood flow in the retina, choroid, and optic nerve head in rats investigated by optical microangiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Zhongwei; Cepurna, William O; Johnson, Elaine C; Morrison, John C; Wang, Ruikang K

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of optical coherence tomography/optical microangiography (OCT/OMAG) to image and measure the effects of acute intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation on retinal, choroidal and optic nerve head (ONH) perfusion in the rat eye. In the experiments, IOP was elevated from 10 to 100 mmHg in 10 mmHg increments. At each IOP level, three-dimensional data volumes were captured using an ultrahigh sensitive (UHS) OMAG scanning protocol for 3D volumetric perfusion imaging, followed by repeated B-scans for Doppler OMAG analysis to determine blood flow velocity. Velocity and vessel diameter measurements were used to calculate blood flow in selected retinal blood vessels. Choroidal perfusion was calculated by determining the peripapillary choroidal filling at each pressure level and calculating this as a percentage of area filling at baseline (10 mmHg). ONH blood perfusion was calculated as the percentage of blood flow area over a segmented ONH area to a depth 150 microns posterior to the choroidal opening. We show that volumetric blood flow reconstructions revealed detailed 3D maps, to the capillary level, of the retinal, choroidal and ONH microvasculature, revealing retinal arterioles, capillaries and veins, the choroidal opening and a consistent presence of the central retinal artery inferior to the ONH. While OCT structural images revealed a reversible compression of the ONH and vasculature with elevated IOP, OMAG successfully documented changes in retinal, choroidal and ONH blood perfusion and allowed quantitative measurements of these changes. Starting from 30 mm Hg, retinal blood flow (RBF) diminished linearly with increasing IOP and was nearly extinguished at 100 mm Hg, with full recovery after return of IOP to baseline. Choroidal filling was unaffected until IOP reached 60 mmHg, then decreased to 20% of baseline at IOP 100 mmHg, and normalized when IOP returned to baseline. A reduction in ONH blood perfusion at higher IOP's was also

  20. Efeitos da infusão contínua de cetamina sobre a pressão intra-ocular em cães hipovolêmicos anestesiados com desflurano Effects of continuous infusion of ketamine on intraocular pressure in hypovolemic dogs during desflurane anesthesia

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    C.S. Honsho

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se os efeitos de duas doses de cetamina, administradas em infusão contínua, sobre a pressão intra-ocular (PIO de 18 cães submetidos à hipovolemia e à anestesia com desflurano. Promoveu-se a hipovolemia em todos os cães, retirando-se 40 ml de sangue/kg de peso. A anestesia foi induzida com desflurano, através de máscara facial, até que a intubação orotraqueal fosse permitida. Decorridos 30 minutos, para estabilização dos parâmetros, iniciou-se a infusão contínua de cetamina. Os cães foram distribuídos, aleatoriamente, em três grupos (n= 6. O grupo I (controle recebeu solução salina estéril; o grupo II (GII recebeu cetamina, na dose de 100mig/kg/min, e o grupo III (GIII, cetamina na dose de 200mig/kg/min. A PIO foi medida por tonometria de aplanação. Foram mensurados freqüência cardíaca (FC, ritmo cardíaco, pressão arterial média (PAM, débito cardíaco (DC, pressão venosa central (PVC e pressão parcial de CO2 no final da expiração (ETCO2. O desflurano não influenciou os resultados da PIO, porém observou-se discreta ação da cetamina em todos os grupos. Foi possível estabelecer relação direta entre os valores de PIO e de ETCO2. A PIO apresentou relação direta somente com a ETCO2.Effects of two dosages of continuous infusion of ketamine on the intraocular pressure (IOP of 18 dogs, subjected to hypovolemia and anesthesia with desflurane were studied. Hypovolemia was induced in all dogs by withdrawal of 40ml of blood/kg of body weight. Initially, anesthesia was induced through face mask and then by tracheal intubation. After a delay of 30 minutes, for parameters stabilization, continuous infusion of ketamine was initiated. Dogs were randomly allotted in three groups (n =6: group I (control group received continuous infusion of saline solution, group II received 100mug/kg/min of ketamine and group III received 200mug/kg/min of ketamine. IOP was measured by applanation tonometry. It was not possible

  1. 优视胶囊对急性高眼压家兔眼压及神经节细胞的影响%Effects of Youshi capsule on the intraocular pressure(IOP) and retinal ganglion cells (RGC) of rabbits under artificial acute intraocular hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宗端; 段俊国

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察优视胶囊对急性高眼压兔眼压的影响及对视网膜视神经的保护作用。方法:采用自行设计的上巩膜静脉结扎法建立18只兔眼急性高眼压动物模型,于造模前1周至造模后3天共10天内给予具活血化瘀、开窍明目功效的优视胶囊灌胃,18只造模眼随机分为模型组、低剂量组和高剂量组,每组6眼,与18只正常眼进行对照。实验过程中测量眼压并行视网膜神经节细胞计数。结果:①造模后即可获得平均眼压高于6.83kPa并能持续3天以上的高眼压动物模型,优视胶囊高、低剂量组表现出轻微的降眼压作用。②持续性的高眼压可造成视网膜神经节细胞减少,但高、低剂量组经优视胶囊治疗后高眼压模型眼神经节细胞数高于模型组,提示优视胶囊具有保护或改善急性高眼压后兔眼视网膜神经节细胞的作用。结论:优视胶囊对急性高眼压兔眼视网膜视神经具有保护的作用。%Objective:To observe the effects of Youshi capsule on the intraocular pressure(IOP) and retinal ganglion cells(RGC) of rabbits under artificial acute intraocular hypertension.Methods:We used episcleral veins ligation on rabbit to establish an acute intraocular hypertension animal model devised by ourselves. Between one week before and 3 days after the models were induced, Youshi capsule was irrigated into the stomachs, having the function of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis,opening porus and improving vision. 18 model-established eyes were randomly divided into model group, high and low dosage group(6 eyes each group) and compared with other 18 normal eyes. Then examined IOP and counted RGC.Results:①Acute intraocular hypertension animal model was produced just after model was established and its average IOP above 6.83kPa could maintain 3 days. High and low dosage Youshi capsule showed slight effect on the reduction of IOP in intraocluar

  2. Effects of topical 0.5% levobunolol alone or in association with 2% dorzolamide compared with a fixed combination of 0.5% timolol and 2% dorzolamide on intraocular pressure and heart rate in dogs without glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardillo, Alessio; Pugliese, Michela; De Majo, Massimo; Niutta, Pietro P; Pugliese, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The goal of glaucoma management is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and maintain it at a level compatible with the health of the optic nerve. New therapies are constantly being sought. Topical instillation of levobunolol 0.5%, alone or with dorzolamide 2%, has a hypotensive effect on the IOP in healthy dogs, and levobunolol combined with dorzolamide produces a stronger hypotensive effect than the combination of timolol and dorzolamide. All animals tolerate these topical medications well with no signs of discomfort, and no ocular side effects have been observed. Levobunolol, alone or in combination with dorzolamide, induces bradycardia, as does timolol with dorzolamide.

  3. Intraocular pressure-lowering effects of commonly used fixed-combination drugs with timolol: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Jin-Wei Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The first goal of medical therapy in glaucoma is to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP, and the fixed-combination medications are needed to achieve sufficiently low target IOP. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate IOP-lowering effect of the commonly used fixed-combination drugs containing 0.5% timolol. METHODS: Pertinent publications were identified through systematic searches. Over 85% of the patients had to be diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG or ocular hypertension (OHT. Forty-one randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. The main efficacy measures were the absolute and relative values of mean diurnal IOP reduction, and the highest and lowest IOP reductions on the diurnal IOP curve. The pooled 1- to 3-month IOP-lowering effects after a medicine-free washout period was calculated by performing meta-analysis using the random effects model, and relative treatment effects among different fixed combinations were assessed using a mixed-effects meta-regression model. RESULTS: The relative reductions for mean diurnal IOP were 34.9% for travoprost/timolol, 34.3% for bimatoprost/timolol, 33.9% for latanoprost/timolol, 32.7% for brinzolamide/timolol, 29.9% for dorzolamide/timolol, and 28.1% for brimonidine/timolol. For the highest IOP decrease, relative reductions ranged from 31.3% for dorzolamide/timolol to 35.5% for travoprost/timolol; for the lowest IOP decrease, those varied from 25.9% for dorzolamide/timolol to 33.1% for bimatoprost/timolol. Both latanoprost/timolol and travoprost/timolol were more effective in lowering mean diurnal IOP than brimonidine/timolol (WMD: 5.9 and 7.0 and dorzolamide/timolol (WMD: 3.8 and 3.3. CONCLUSIONS: All six commonly used fixed-combination drugs containing timolol can effectively lower IOP in patients with POAG and OHT, and both latanoprost/timolol and travoprost/timolol might achieve better IOP-lowering effects among the six fixed

  4. Surgical induced astigmatism correlated with corneal pachymetry and intraocular pressure: transconjunctival sutureless 23-gauge versus 20-gauge sutured vitrectomy in diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Shao; Li-Jie; Dong; Yan; Zhang; Hui; Liu; Bo-Jie; Hu; Ju-Ping; Liu; Xiao-Rong; Li

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the difference of surgical induced astigmatism between conventional 20-gauge sutured vitrectomy and 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy, and the influence of corneal pachymetry and intraocular pressure(IOP) on surgical induced astigmatism in diabetic patients.METHODS: This retrospective, consecutive case series consisted of 40 eyes of 38 diabetic subjects who underwent either 20-gauge or 23-gauge vitrectomy. The corneal curvature and thickness were measured with Scheimpflug imaging before surgery and 1wk; 1, 3mo after surgery. We compared the surgical induced astigmatism(SIA) on the true net power in 23-gauge group with that in 20-gauge group. We determined the correlation between corneal thickness change ratio, IOP and SIA measured by Pentacam. RESULTS: The mean SIAs were 1.082 ±0.085 D( mean ± SEM), 0.689 ±0.070 D and 0.459 ±0.063 D at postoperative 1wk; 1, 3mo respectively in diabetic subjects. The vitrectomy induced astigmatisms were declined significantly with time(F2,36=33.629, P =0.000)postoperatively. The 23-gauge surgery group induced significantly less astigmatism than 20-gauge surgery group(F1,37=11.046, P =0.020). Corneal thickness in diabetes elevated after surgery(F3,78=10.532, P =0.000).The linear regression analysis at postoperatively 1wk went as: SIA =-4.519 +4.931 change ratio(Port3) +0.026IOP(R2=0.46, P =0.000), whereas the rate of cornealthickness change and IOP showed no correlation with the change of astigmatism at postoperatively 1 and 3mo.CONCLUSION: There are significant serial changes in both 20-gauge and 23-gauge group in diabetic subjects.23-gauge induce less astigmatism than 20-gauge and become stable more rapidly than 20-gauge. The elevation of corneal thickness and IOP was associated with increased astigmatim at the early postoperative stage both in 23-gauge and 20-gauge surgery group.

  5. Cost-comparison of two trabecular micro-bypass stents versus selective laser trabeculoplasty or medications only for intraocular pressure control for patients with open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, John P; Khatana, Anup K; Katz, L Jay; Herndon, Leon; Layton, Andrew J; Yu, Tiffany M; Bauer, Matthew J; Cantor, Louis B

    2017-07-01

    Patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) whose intraocular pressure is not adequately controlled by one medication have several treatment options in the US. This analysis evaluated direct costs of unilateral eye treatment with two trabecular micro-bypass stents (two iStents) compared to selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) or medications only. A population-based, annual state-transition, probabilistic, cost-of-care model was used to assess OAG-related costs over 5 years. Patients were modeled to initiate treatment in year zero with two iStents, SLT, or medications only. In years 1-5, patients could remain on initial treatment or move to another treatment option(s), or filtration surgery. Treatment strategy change probabilities were identified by a clinician panel. Direct costs were included for drugs, procedures, and complications. The projected average cumulative cost at 5 years was lower in the two-stent treatment arm ($4,420) compared to the SLT arm ($4,730) or medications-only arm ($6,217). Initial year-zero costs were higher with two iStents ($2,810) than with SLT ($842) or medications only ($996). Average marginal annual costs in years 1-5 were $322 for two iStents, $777 for SLT, and $1,044 for medications only. The cumulative cost differences between two iStents vs SLT or medications only decreased over time, with breakeven by 5 or 3 years post-initiation, respectively. By year 5, cumulative savings with two iStents over SLT or medications only was $309 or $1,797, respectively. This analysis relies on clinical expert panel opinion and would benefit from real-world evidence on use of multiple procedures and treatment switching after two-stent treatment, SLT, or polypharmaceutical initial approaches. Despite higher costs in year zero, annual costs thereafter were lowest in the two-stent treatment arm. Two-stent treatment may reduce OAG-related health resource use, leading to direct savings, especially over medications only or at longer time horizons.

  6. Association Between Cardiovascular and Intraocular Pressure Changes in a 14-Day 6 deg Head Down Tilt (HDT) Bed Rest Study: Possible Implications in Retinal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Ronita; Zanello, Susana; Yarbough, Patrice; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Taibbi, Giovanni; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2013-01-01

    Visual symptoms and intracranial pressure increase reported in astronauts returning from long duration missions in low Earth-orbit are thought to be related to fluid shifts within the body due to microgravity exposure. Because of this possible relation to fluid shifts, studies conducted in head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest are being monitored for potential changes in ocular health. These measures will also serve to determine whether HDT is a suitable ground-based analog to model subclinical cardiovascular and ocular changes that could shed light on the etiology of the VIIP syndrome observed in spaceflight. Sixteen healthy normotensive (12M, 4F, age range 29-54 years), non-smoker and normal weight subjects, volunteered to participate in a 14 day 6 deg head HDT study conducted at the NASA Flight Analogs Research Unit (FARU). This facility provides standard bed rest conditions (diet, wake/sleep time, time allowed in sunlight) during the time that the subjects stay at the FARU. Cardiovascular parameters were obtained in supine posture at BR-5, BR+0, and BR+3 and ocular monitoring was performed weekly. Intraocular pressure (IOP) increased from pre-bed rest BR-3) to the third day into bed rest (BR+3). Values reached a plateau towards the end of the bed rest phase (BR10) and decreased within the first three days of recovery (BR+2) returning to levels comparable to baseline at BR-3. As expected, most cardiovascular parameters were affected by 14 days of HDT bed rest. Plasma volume decreased as a result of bed rest but recovered to baseline levels by BR+3. Indications of cardiovascular deconditioning included increase in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate, and a decrease in stroke volume and cardiac output between BR-5 and BR+3. Due to the experimental design of this study, we were not able to test the hypothesis that fluid shifts might be involved in the IOP increase during the bed rest phase, since cardiovascular measures were not available for those

  7. 局部麻醉剂引起的眼压改变%Changes in intraocular pressure after topical anaesthetic instillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier A Montero; Jose M Ruiz-Moreno; Marta Fernandez-Munoz; M.Isabel Rodriguez-Palacios

    2006-01-01

    · AIM: To determine the influence of topical anaesthetic drops, age and central corneal thickness (CCT) in the determination of intraocular pressure (IOP) by non contact tonometry (NCT). · METHODS: Ninety-three eyes from 47 patients were examined for CCT and lOP by NCT before and after the instillation of topical anaesthetic drops.· RESULTS: Average age was 66.4 (SD 16, range 34 to 88years-of-age). Thirty one patients were female and 16 were male. Average basal IOP was 16.0 mmHg (SD 4.0, range 8.5to 26.1). IOP pressure one minute after topical anesthesia instillation was 15.0 mmHg (SD 3.8, range 7.7 to 26.7), and 14.9 mm Hg (SD 3.9, range 7.6 to 26.3) five minutes after the instillation. The differences were statistically significant for the 0 to 1 minute lapse (P=0.0007) and for the 0 to 5minute lapse (P=0.0003), but not for the 1 to 5 minute lapse (P=0.27) (Student's t test for paired data). Average CCT before topical anaesthetic drops was 565.4 microns. Simple linear regression analysis demonstrated absence of significant variation between age and IOP changes and between CCT and IOP changes,· CONCLUSION: Our study confirms that the instillation of topical anaesthetics causes a reduction in IOP, which is progressive during the first 5 minutes after instillation. This IOP reduction does not seem to be associated with basal CCT or age.%目的:确定局麻药,年龄和角膜中央厚度对非接触眼压计眼压测量值的影响.方法:记录47例93眼滴局麻药前后角膜中央厚度和非接触眼压计眼压测量值.结果:在47例中女31例,男16例;平均年龄66.4岁(标准差16,范围34~88岁);平均基础眼压16.0 mmHg(标准差4.0,范围8.5~26.1 mmHg).滴局麻药后1 min平均眼压16.0 mmHg(标准差3.8,范围7.7~26.7 mmHg),5 min平均眼压14.9 mmHg(标准差3.9,范围7.6~26.3).0~1 min(P=0.0007)和0~5 min(P=0.0003)的数值差异有统计学意义,1~5 min(P=0.27)的数值差异无统计学意义(配对资料t检验).滴局麻

  8. Bilateral Primary Intraocular Lymphoma

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    Mehrdad Karimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bilateral primary intraocular lymphoma. Case report: A 33-year-old man presented with bilateral blurred vision since two years ago. Examination revealed large keratic precipitates, anterior chamber reaction, posterior subcapsular cataracts, and vitreous infiltration. After a short trial of topical and periocular steroids, diagnostic 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy was performed and cytologic evaluation of the aspirate confirmed a diagnosis of intraocular lymphoma. The patient was subsequently managed with intravitreal methotrexate in both eyes and responded favorably. Central nervous system workup for lymphoma was negative. Conclusion: Primary intraocular lymphoma should be considered in young adults suffering from chronic recalcitrant panuveitis.

  9. Phacolytic glaucoma-its treatment by planned extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation

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    Singh Gurdeep

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Phacolytic glaucoma has traditionally been treated with intracapsular lens extraction to avoid any anaphylaxis. Various mechanisms have been described for the rise of intraocular pressure in these cases. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the response of extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE with posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation (PC IOL in five cases of phacolytic glaucoma that occurred between March 1989 and August 1990. A planned extracapsular cataract extraction with can-opener capsulectomy was done in all the cases with placement of a sulcus-fixated modified J-loop Sinskey design intraocular lens. With a mean follow-up period of two years, all patients (100% maintained a normal postoperative intraocular pressure of less than 20 mm Hg without any additional medical therapy. The final best-corrected visual acuity in 4 cases (80% was 6/12 or better, while in one case it was 6/24 due to a senile maculopathy. These results show that ECCE with PC IOL implantation is a safe and efficacious method of visual rehabilitation in cases of phacolytic glaucoma

  10. Effect of 3 years of treatment with a dorzolamide/timolol (1%/0.5% combination on intraocular pressure

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    Takeda S

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sakurako Takeda,1,2 Tatsuya Mimura,1 Masao Matsubara1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women’s Medical University Medical Center East, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nippori Clinic, Medical Center East, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: We aimed to evaluate the effect on the intraocular pressure (IOP of a dorzolamide/timolol (1%/0.5% fixed combination (DTFC ophthalmic agent for 3 years.Participants: A total of 19 consecutive patients who had previously been treated with monotherapy or any combination of a beta-blocker, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, or prostaglandin analog, for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG (n=5 or normal tension glaucoma (N=14 were enrolled.Methods: Patients were switched to DTFC from their prior glaucoma therapy. The IOP was measured at intervals of 4–6 weeks for 3 years. Treatment failure was defined as an increase of IOP by ≥10% from baseline after switching to DTFC.Results: The average IOP decreased significantly from 14.1±2.9 mmHg at baseline to 12.2±2.2, 11.8±2.4, 12.1±2.5, 11.6±1.8, and 12.1±2.7 mmHg at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after switching therapy (all P<0.05. The mean percent decrease of IOP was 12.0%±13.0%, 14.5%±14.2%, 12.2%±18.7%, 16.0%±12.8%, and 12.8%±15.2% at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively, after switching. Univariate or multivariate analysis revealed the percent decrease of IOP was associated with the type of glaucoma (POAG at 3 and 12 months, and with the baseline IOP at 3, 12, 24, and 36 months. Kaplan–Meier analysis demonstrated that the percentage of patients who remained on treatment with DTFC was 94.7%, 94.7%, 84.2%, 78.9%, and 78.9% at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months, respectively. Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that the type of glaucoma (POAG was associated with an increased risk of failure to control the IOP.Conclusion: The IOP-lowering effect of DTFC was demonstrated for 3 years in this

  11. 硅油注入后高眼压的治疗策略%Therapy for elevated intraocular pressure after silicone oil tamponade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张歆; 梁四妥; 杨艳; 赵华; 徐深

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze intraocular pressure (IOP) after silicone oil tamponade for one month.Methods This is a retrospective study.There were 46 cases (46 eyes) from 2004 to 2011 registered in our hospital who accepted vitrectomy and silicone oil tamponade,after one month later,who had elevated IOP.We compared the rate of elevated IOP between two types of silicon oil tamponade for one month,as well as the treatment for elevated IOP.x2 test was used to analyze the results.Result The time for light silicon oil removal was three months ( the rate is 68.8% ) after the operation,and after the second surgery the IOP could be normal.And the time for heavy silicon oil removal was two months (the rate is 64.3% ),then the IOP could be normal.The two results had no statistical differences.But the rate of glaucoma surgery after heavy silicone oil tamponade was higher than that of light silicone oil tamponade.And this result had statistical difference.Conclusion The rate of elevated IOP after light or heavy silicone oil tamponade after one month was the same.The rate of glaucoma surgery after heavy silicone oil tamponade was higher than that of light silicone oil tamponade.%目的 回顾性分析轻重硅油注入术后1个月高眼压的发生及其治疗策略.方法 玻切+轻/重硅油注入术后1个月发生高眼压共46例(46眼).对两种硅油注入术后1个月高眼压的发生率进行分析对比,且对高眼压的处理方式进行对比.结果用x2检验进行分析.结果 轻硅油注入术后取油的时机一般在3个月(68.8%)左右,取出后高眼压可以降至正常范围;重硅油在2个月左右取油(64.3%),取出后高眼压可以降至正常范围.二者没有统计学差异.但重硅油注入术后因高眼压行抗青光眼手术的比例较轻硅油者高,差异有统计学意义.结论 轻重硅油注入术后1个月高眼压的发生率没有统计学差异,但重硅油引起的高眼压最终行抗青光眼手术的比例较轻硅油者高.

  12. A comparison of intraocular pressure values obtained with the Tono-Pachymeter NT530P, iCare® rebound tonometer and Goldmann applanation tonometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rampersad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP values measured with the Tono-Pachymeter NT530P (Tonopachy™ and the iCare® rebound tonometer (iCare® with those obtained by the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT. The right eyes of 105 subjects aged 18 to 82 years (mean age = 29.27 ± 14.67 years were assessed with the three tonometers. Central corneal thickness (CCT was measured first using the Tonopachy™ and then IOP was measured by Tonopachy™, iCare® and GAT. The data was analyzed with descriptive statistics, paired  t-test, correlation and regression analysis. The Bland-Altman method of analysis was used to evaluate agreements between the sets of data from the three devices. The CCT values ranged from 440 µm to 606 µm (mean= 518.49 ± 33.01 µm. There was little or no correlation between CCT and IOP for any of the instruments used in this study (r = 0.29 for Tonopachy™, r = 0.22 for iCare®, r = 0.17 for GAT. The mean IOP measured with the Tonopachy™ was 14.31 ± 3.57 mmHg (range 8.7 mmHg to 31 mmHg and 16.64 ± 4.38 mmHg (range 8 mmHg to 32 mmHg using the iCare®. The mean IOP measured with the GAT was 14.79 ± 3.09 mmHg (range 8.7 mmHg to 29.7 mmHg. Using the Bland-Altman method, the upper and lower limits of agreement between the Tonopachy™ and GAT, iCare® and GAT, iCare® and Tonopachy™ were 5.1 mmHg and –4.2 mmHg, 8.6 mmHg and –4.9 mmHg, 7.5 mmHg and –2.8 mmHg respectively. In 79.1% of the eyes studied, the mean IOP difference between Tonopachy™ and GAT was less than 3 mmHg and in 20.9% of the eyes, the difference was greater than 3 mmHg. However, mean IOP differences of greater than 3 mmHg were obtained by iCare® in comparison with GAT (40% and Tonopachy™ (34.3% respectively. Findings of this study suggest that the Tonopachy™ yielded IOP readings that were consistent with those of GAT values while iCare® yielded higher IOP values compared to both GAT and Tonopachy™. (S Afr

  13. Meta analysis on effect of caffeine on intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma%咖啡因对青光眼患者眼压影响的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊海波; 易虹; 刘鑫; 代喻兵

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价咖啡因对青光眼患者眼压的影响。方法通过计算机检索 The Cochrane Library、PubMed、Embase、中国期刊全文数据库(CNKI)、中国科技期刊全文数据库(VIP)、万方数据库、中国生物医学文献数据库(CBM)从建库至2014年9月的相关文献,纳入口服咖啡因咖啡的随机对照试验(RCT),用RevMan5.2软件对咖啡因对青光眼患者眼压的影响进行M eta分析。结果共纳入3个研究,均为交叉试验。M eta分析结果显示,青光眼患者口服咖啡因咖啡后1 h (W M D1.58,95% C I 0.70~2.47)及1.5 h (W M D1.46,95% C I 1.20~1.72)眼压均有升高。结论咖啡因有升高青光眼患者眼压的作用。%Objective To evaluate the effect of caffeine on intraocular pressure in the patients with glaucoma . Methods The related literatures in the Cochrane Library ,PubMed ,Embase ,CNKI ,VIP ,Wan Fang database and CBM from the establishment to September 2014 were retrieved ,then the included randomized controlled trial(RCT) on the effect of caffeine on intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma were performed the Meta analysis by using RevMan 5 .2 software .Results A total of 3 crossover trials were included .The results of Meta analysis showed that the intraocular pressure(IOP) was elevated at 1 h (WMD 1 .58 ,95% CI 0 .70 -2 .47) ,1 .5 h (WMD 1 .46 ,95% CI 1 .20-1 .72) after orally taking caffeine in glaucoma patients .Conclusion The caffeine has the effect for elevating IOP in the patients with glaucoma .

  14. Efeitos da leitura, exercício e exercício sob leitura na pressão intra-ocular de portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto ou hipertensão ocular controlados clinicamente com medicação tópica Effects of reading, exercise and exercise combined with reading on intraocular pressure for patients sustaining primary glaucoma (open angle or ocular hypertension, both clinically controlled with topic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Maria Corrêa Medina

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar a pressão intra-ocular (Po em indivíduos usuários de análogos de prostaglandina, prostamida ou beta-bloqueador em portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto ou hipertensão ocular após leitura, exercício e exercício sob leitura. MÉTODOS: Quarenta indivíduos (79 olhos, subdivididos em 5 grupos: G1 (portadores de hipertensão arterial e glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular usando análogos de prostaglandinas ou prostamidas; G2 (portadores de hipertensão arterial e glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular usando beta-bloqueador; G3 (indivíduos sem hipertensão arterial e portadores de glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular em uso de análogos de prostaglandinas ou prostamidas; G4 (indivíduos sem hipertensão arterial e portadores de glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular em uso de beta-bloqueador e G5 (indivíduos sem hipertensão arterial e sem glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular, tiveram a pressão intra-ocular verificada antes e após realizarem leitura, exercício e exercício sob leitura. Cada teste foi realizado em dia distinto e sempre no período vespertino. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante na média da pressão intra-ocular inicial e final nos diferentes grupos do estudo quando submetidos à leitura, exercício e exercício sob leitura. CONCLUSÃO: Ler e fazer exercícios individualmente ou concomitantemente, não representa fator de agravo da pressão intra-ocular em portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto ou hipertensão ocular em usuários de análogos de prostaglandinas ou prostamidas ou beta-bloqueador.PURPOSE: To check intraocular pressure (IOP in individuals using prostaglandin, prostamide or beta-blocker analogues, who sustain either primary open angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension after reading, exercise or exercise combined with reading. METHODS: 40 individuals (79 eyes, subdivided in to five groups: G1 (with arterial hypertension and either glaucoma or ocular hypertension, all

  15. Late-day intraocular pressure-lowering efficacy and tolerability of travoprost 0.004% versus bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBiner, Harvey B; Hubatsch, Douglas A

    2014-11-28

    Medications to control intraocular pressure (IOP) are frequently preserved using benzalkonium chloride (BAK), which can negatively affect the ocular surface. Data are needed to assess efficacy and safety of prostaglandin drugs preserved with and without BAK. The present study compared the efficacy and safety of BAK-free travoprost 0.004% (TRAV) and BAK 0.02%-preserved bimatoprost 0.01% (BIM) during late-day time points in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. This was a 12-week, phase 4, randomized, investigator-masked, crossover study. 84 patients with IOP ≥24 and TRAV or BIM for 6 weeks followed by an additional 6-week crossover period. IOP was measured at the end of each treatment period at 4, 6, and 8 pm. TRAV was considered noninferior to BIM if the upper limit of the 95% CI of the between-group difference in mean IOP was ≤1.5 mmHg. Adverse events were assessed throughout the study. One patient discontinued due to allergic conjunctivitis, and 2 patients with missing data were excluded; 81 patients were included in the per-protocol population (mean ± SD age, 58.3 ± 11.4 years; TRAV/BIM, n = 41; BIM/TRAV, n = 40). After 6 weeks, mean IOP with TRAV (17.4 ± 2.7 mmHg; change from baseline, -6.0 mmHg) was similar to BIM (17.2 ± 2.6 mmHg; change from baseline, -6.3 mmHg); the between-group difference was 0.22 mmHg (95% CI, -0.22 to 0.67). Thus, noninferiority of TRAV versus BIM was demonstrated. Mean IOP at each time point and mean and percentage IOP change from baseline were not significantly different between treatments. All treatment-emergent adverse events were mild to moderate. The incidences of mild ocular hyperemia with TRAV and BIM were 31% and 39%, respectively; moderate hyperemia was observed in 2% of patients receiving BIM. Late-day IOP-lowering efficacy of BAK-free TRAV was noninferior to that of BAK 0.02%-preserved BIM; both reduced baseline IOP by 25%. Both treatments were well tolerated, although a higher incidence of

  16. Schirmer tear test type I readings and intraocular pressure values assessed by applanation tonometry (Tonopen® XL) in normal eyes of four European species of birds of prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Giovanni; Briganti, Angela; Spratte, Johanna R; Ceccherelli, Renato; Breghi, Gloria

    2013-09-01

    To determine normal values for Schirmer tear test I and intraocular pressure in four European species of birds of prey. Twenty birds from each of the following species: Eurasian Tawny owl (Strix aluco), Little owl (Athene noctua), Common buzzard (Buteo buteo), and European kestrel (Falco tinnunculus). Both eyes of all birds (80 eyes) underwent a complete ophthalmic examination, which included a Schirmer tear test type I (STT-I) performed with commercially available strips and the assessment of the intraocular pressure (IOP) by applanation tonometry, employing the Tonopen-XL(®) device. The animals, which had been taken to a rescue center, were examined for ocular lesions prior to their eventual release into the wild. STT-I readings and IOP values were expressed as means ± standard deviation. Schirmer tear test type I readings were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 3.12 ± 1.92 mm/min; Little owls: 3.5 ± 1.96 mm/min; Common buzzards: 12.47 ± 2.66 mm/min; European kestrels: 6.20 ± 3.67 mm/min. IOP values were as follows: Eurasian Tawny owls: 11.21 ± 3.12 mmHg; Little owls: 9.83 ± 3.41 mmHg; Common buzzards: 17.2 ± 3.53 mmHg; European kestrels: 8.53 ± 1.59 mmHg. The results of this study give representative values for STT-I and IOP in four of the most common species of birds of prey in Europe. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. Softec HD hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens: biocompatibility and precision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladan Espandar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ladan Espandar1, Shameema Sikder2, Majid Moshirfar31Department of Ophthalmology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USAAbstract: Intraocular lens development is driven by higher patient expectations for ideal visual outcomes. The recently US Food and Drug Administration-approved Softec HD™ lens is an aspheric, hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL. The hydrophilic design of the lens is optimized to address dysphotopsia while maintaining biocompatibility, optical clarity, resistance to damage, and resistance to biocontamination. Aspheric lenses decrease postoperative spherical aberration. The addition of the Softec lens provides clinicians with another option for IOL placement; however, randomized comparative studies of this lens to others already on the market remain to be completed.Keywords: hydrophilic acrylic intraocular lens, Softec HD intraocular lens, aspheric intraocular lens, IOL

  18. Intraocular nematode with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zakariah Sakinah; Said Mariyani; Alwi Azma-Azalina; Yusoff Munira,; Ghani Zulkifli; Zunaina Embong

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Live intraocular nematode is a rare occurrence. Nematode can migrate actively within the eye, creating visual symptoms and damaging ocular tissue. Case presentation A 26-year old man presented with painless reduced vision of the left eye for one week duration. It was associated with floaters. Visual acuity on the left eye was hand movement. Anterior segment examination was normal with normal intra-ocular pressure. Fundus examination showed a live nematode lying subretinall...

  19. Comparison of Extreme Pressure Additive Treat Rates in Soybean and Mineral Oils Under Boundary Lubrication Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditionally, it is considered that, under boundary lubrication conditions, the reduction in friction and wear is mostly dependent on Extreme Pressure (EP) additives, rather than the basestock. However, several studies indicate that vegetable oils also contribute to the lubricity under this regime...

  20. Development and Outlook of Wireless Implantable Continuously Intraocular Pressure Detection Microsystems%无线植入式连续眼内压检测微系统发展与展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德盟; 吴淼; 梅年松; 张钊锋

    2013-01-01

    The implantable intraocular pressure detection microsystem is a system which can be implanted in eyes to detect intraocular pressure continuously and transmit the signal to outside. The system is summarized according to the research progress of the system in recent years. The principle and development of LC oscillation and SoC structure always used in the system are introduced, and the main technical indexes, fabrication process and existing problems are analyzed. Based on bioelectromagnetics, MEMS technology and IC technology, the development status, existing problems and breakthrough directions of the key technologies such as antenna, circuit system and pressure sensor are analyzed. Then the application level problems such as biological compatibility materials and implant position are summarized and prospected. At last, the development direction of the system is prospected according to the existing problems of the system.%植入式眼压检测微系统是一种植入到眼内进行眼内压连续检测并通过电磁波传输到体外的微系统.根据该系统近些年的研究进展对该系统进行综述,介绍了该系统常采用的LC振荡结构和SoC结构的原理和发展历程,并对其主要技术指标和制作工艺以及存在问题进行论述;结合生物电磁效应、MEMS技术和集成电路技术等,综合分析了SoC系统的天线、电路系统和压力传感器等关键技术的发展现状、存在的问题和突破方向;对生物兼容性材料和植入位置等应用层面进行总结和展望;最后根据对该系统存在问题的总结,对该系统的发展趋势进行展望.

  1. Uso de viscoelásticos na facoemulsificação em cães portadores de catarata: efeitos sobre a pressão intraocular, a morfologia das células endoteliais e a espessura corneana Use of viscoelastic substances for the phacoemulsification in dogs with cataract: effects on the intraocular pressure, morphology of endothelial cells, and corneal thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.V. Chiurciu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as células endoteliais, a espessura corneana e a pressão intraocular (PIO de cães portadores de catarata madura, empregando-se viscoelástico à base de hialuronato de sódio 3% e sulfato de condroitina 4% e hidroxipropilmetilcelulose 2%, utilizando-se 20 cães, distribuídos entre os dois grupos dos viscoelásticos. A técnica cirúrgica adotada foi a da facoemulsificação bimanual. As avaliações tonométricas foram efetuadas antes e após o ato cirúrgico, aos 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 e 60 dias de pós-operatório, e a microscopia especular, antes e após 7, 28 e 60 dias. Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos quanto à PIO, com exceção aos 14 dias, em que se observou maior PIO com o uso de hialuronato de sódio 3% e sulfato de condroitina 4%. Não houve diferença entre os grupos quanto aos parâmetros relacionados ao endotélio, com diminuição discreta da densidade celular endotelial e aumento da área celular com a utilização de hidroxipropilmetilcelulose 2%. A utilização de ambos os dispositivos viscoelásticos analisados é recomendada para o procedimento de facoemulsificação em cães.The endothelial cells, the corneal thickness, and the intraocular pressure (IOP were evaluated in dogs with cataract, using viscoelastic substances based on 3% sodium hyaluronate and 4% chondroitin sulfate and comparing them with 2% hydroxypropylmethylcellulose. Twenty dogs were distributed in two groups of ten, each using one viscoelastic material. The surgical technique was bimanual phacoemulsification. The tonometric evaluations were made before and at one, seven, 14, 21, 28, and 60 days after the surgery and the specular microscopy before and after seven, 28, and 60 days. No statistical difference between groups was found according to IOP, except at 14 days, which was significantly higher with the use of 3% sodium hyaluronate and 4% chondroitin sulfate. There was no statistical difference between the groups considering

  2. Opaque intraocular lens implantation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf IH; Patel CK

    2013-01-01

    Imran H Yusuf, CK Patel The Oxford Eye Hospital, West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Headington, Oxford, United KingdomWe read with great interest the recent article by Lee et al,1 who described their clinical experience with three patients who underwent primary implantation of Morcher (Stuttgart, Germany) occlusive intraocular lenses (IOLs) across a variety of neuro-ophthalmic indications. We hope to offer some further insight into these clinical observations in the context of o...

  3. claw intraocular lens

    OpenAIRE

    Gonnermann, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    There is a wide range of alternative fixation techniques of intraocular lenses in the absence of adequate capsular support, such as angle- or iris-supported anterior chamber lenses and intra- / transsclerally-fixated (suture, fibrin glue, etc.) and iris-supported posterior chamber lenses. All procedures have different advantages and disadvantages depending on the anatomical situation and integrity of the capsular bag complex and the neighboring structures such as the iris, sclera and corneal ...

  4. Phakic Intraocular lens- a review

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Francisco Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Intraocular refractive procedures with the implantation of a Phakic Intraocular lens have become a safe efficient and predictable alternative for treating high ametropias when the use of corneal photoablative procedures is not possible. The implantation of Phakic intraocular lens preservs the accomodative function,is a reversable refractive procedure, with minimal induction of higher order aberrations compaed with corneal photoablative procedures. Methods: An analytical review o...

  5. Report From BPTCS Project Team On Evaluation Of Additive Manufacturing For Pressure Retaining Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawls, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-09-22

    ASME is evaluating the use of additive manufacturing (AM) for the construction of pressure equipment. The information in this report assesses available AM technologies for direct metal fabrication of pressure equipment. Background information is included in the report to provide context for those not experienced in AM technology. Only commercially available technologies for direct metal fabrication are addressed in the report because these AM methods are the only viable approaches for the construction of pressure equipment. Metal AM technologies can produce near-net shape parts by using multiple layers of material from a three dimensional (3D) design model of the geometry. Additive manufacturing of metal components was developed from polymer based rapid prototyping or 3D printing. At the current maturity level, AM application for pressure equipment has the potential to reduce delivery times and costs for complex shapes. AM will also lead to a reduction in the use of high cost materials, since parts can be created with corrosion resistant layers of high alloy material and structural layers of lower cost materials.

  6. 有晶体眼人工晶体植入术后高眼压的临床分析%Clinical analysis of high intraocular pressure after implantable collamer lens implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐莉; 白淑玮; 马波

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize the reasons of high intraocular pressure (IOP) after implantable collamer lens im-plantation, discuss the treatment and prevention method. Methods 108 eyes of 54 patients with high myopia in the Fourth Hospital of Xi'an from January 2011 to May 2014 were selected. All patients were given implantable collamer lens implantation, followed up for 3 months. The naked eye eyesight, best corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, slit-lamp examination, fundus examination, high arch of artificial crystal were observed. Results 1 day to 3 months af-ter surgery, all patients' naked eye eyesight achieved or exceeded the preoperative best corrected vision. 1 day after surgery, 13 eyes had intraocular hypertension, IOP ranged from 25-38.8 mmHg. After treatment of local and systemic IOP-lowering medication or anterior chamber puncture, IOP of 10 eyes had returned to normal levels 3 days after surgery, IOP of 2 eyes gradually decreased after stopping using glucocorticoid eye drops at the 7th day after surgery. IOP of 1 patient had bad-controlled 1 month after treatment, given intraocular lens replacement surgery. IOP of all pa-tients returned to normal after 3 months follow-up. 1 month after surgery, ultrasonic biological microscope measure showed that high arch of artificial crystal ranged from 0.5-1.04 mm, artificial lens had not been in contact with the lens itself. After 3 months follow-up, there was no lens opacity. Conclusion There are several reasons for high IOP after implantable collamer lens implantation. According to the etiology give corresponding treatment, intraocular pressure of patients will be back to normal.%目的:总结有晶体眼后房型人工晶体又称植入型接触镜(ICL)植入术后高眼压的发生原因,探讨其防治方法。方法收集2011年1月~2014年5月在西安市第四医院住院的高度近视患者54例(108眼),均行有晶体眼人工晶体植入术。术后随访3个月,随访项目包括裸眼视力

  7. Multifocal Toric Intraocular Lens for Traumatic Cataract in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfeng Zeng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A child suffering from traumatic cataract and corneal astigmatism of 2.14 D had a phacoemulsification operation and implantation of a ReSTOR Toric intraocular lens (IOL to correct the astigmatism. The primary outcome measurements were the uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, uncorrected near vision at 40 cm, intraocular pressure, spherical equivalent refraction, residual astigmatism, corneal astigmatism, presence of unusual optical phenomena, and use of spectacles. At 7 months postoperatively, UDVA was maintained between 16/20 and 24/20, near vision was between J1 and J3, residual spherical refraction was 0–0.37 D, and residual refractive cylinder was between 0 and 0.67 D. A multifocal toric IOL can provide the possibility of satisfactory vision for both distant and near conditions without the use of spectacles to meet children’s needs when studying and doing sports. Additionally, binocular vision can be reconstructed. This intervention, therefore, seems to be a satisfactory alternative.

  8. A porohyperelastic finite element model of the eye: the influence of stiffness and permeability on intraocular pressure and optic nerve head biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyalasomayajula, Avinash; Park, Robert I; Simon, Bruce R; Vande Geest, Jonathan P

    2016-01-01

    Progressively deteriorating visual field is a characteristic feature of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and the biomechanics of optic nerve head (ONH) is believed to be important in its onset. We used porohyperelasticity to model the complex porous behavior of ocular tissues to better understand the effect variations in ocular material properties can have on ONH biomechanics. An axisymmetric model of the human eye was constructed to parametrically study how changes in the permeabilities of retina-Bruch's-choroid complex (k(RBC)), sclera k(sclera), uveoscleral pathway (k(UVSC)) and trabecular meshwork k(TM) as well as how changes in the stiffness of the lamina cribrosa (LC) and sclera affect IOP, LC strains, and translaminar interstitial pressure gradients (TLIPG). Decreasing k(RBC) from 5 × 10(- 12) to 5 × 10(- 13) m/s increased IOP and LC strains by 17%, and TLIPG by 21%. LC strains increased by 13% and 9% when the scleral and LC moduli were decreased by 48% and 50%, respectively. In addition to the trabecular meshwork and uveoscleral pathway, the retina-Bruch's-choroid complex had an important effect on IOP, LC strains, and TLIPG. Changes in k(RBC) and scleral modulus resulted in nonlinear changes in the IOP, and LC strains especially at the lowest k(TM) and k(UVSC). This study demonstrates that porohyperelastic modeling provides a novel method for computationally studying the biomechanical environment of the ONH. Porohyperelastic simulations of ocular tissues may help provide further insight into the complex biomechanical environment of posterior ocular tissues in POAG.

  9. Effect of remifentanil on intraocular pressure during laparoscopic gynecologic operations%雷米芬太尼对妇科腹腔镜术中眼内压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董媛媛; 蒋忠; 马正良

    2009-01-01

    目的 观察雷米芬太尼对妇科腹腔镜术中眼内压变化的影响.方法 40例全凭静脉麻醉下行妇科腹腔镜手术的患者随机均分为两组,对照组(Ⅰ组)和雷米芬太尼组(Ⅱ组).所有患者均采用静脉注射咪达唑仑、异丙酚、维库溴铵、芬太尼麻醉诱导,持续输注异丙酚、间断静脉注射维库溴铵麻醉维持.Ⅱ组加用雷米芬太尼.使用笔式眼压计(Tono Pen XL To-nometer)分别于全麻后5 min(T0)、气腹后5 min(T1)、气腹后15 min(T2)、气腹结束前5 min(T3)、气腹结束后5 min(T4)、气腹结束后15 min(T5)测量眼内压(intraecular pressure,IOP),同时观测各时点平均动脉压(mear material pressure,MAP)、心率(heart rat,HR)、呼出终未CO2分压(end tidal CO2 pressure,PETCO2)、气道压(ariway pressure,PAW)的变化.结果 与Ⅰ组相比,Ⅱ组T1、T2、T3时MAP、IOP降低(P<0.05).两组各时点的HR、PETCO2、PAW的无统计学差异.结论 雷米芬太尼能够缓和妇科腹腔镜术中患者眼内压的升高.%Objective To observe the effect of remifentanil on intraocular pressure during laparoscopic gynecologic operations. Methods Forty patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic operation under complete intravenous anesthesia were divided into two groups randomly : group Ⅰ (control) and group Ⅱ (remffentanil) . Group Ⅰ: Anesthesia was induced with midazolam, propofol, vecuronium and fentanyl and maintained with continuous infusion of propel. Group Ⅱ : maintained with continuous infusion of remifentanil to replace the fentanyl, the others were same as group Ⅰ. The intraocular pressure was detected by Tono-Pen XL Tonometer at the time points of 5 min after anesthesia induction(T0) , 5 min after artificial pneumoperitoneum(Tt), 15 min after artificial pneumoperitoneum(T2), 5 min before the end of artificial pneumoperitoneum (T3) , 5 min after the end of artificial pneumoperitoneum (T4) and 15 min after the end of artificial pneumoporitoneum(T4

  10. Sutureless, Glueless, Scleral Fixation of Single-Piece and Toric Intraocular Lens: A Novel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Aditya; Shah, Rachana; Kelkar, Jai; Kelkar, Shreekant; Arora, Ekta

    2015-01-01

    Sutureless, glueless, scleral fixation of an intraocular lens is a known technique of fixing a lens in the scleral pockets. However, this technique is applied to single-piece and toric lenses instead of 3-piece lenses, allowing the advantage of the use of premium lenses in patients with poor capsular support. Favourable results without complications of pigment dispersion, iris transillumination defects, dysphotopsia, elevated intraocular pressure, intraocular hemorrhage and cystoid macular edema with a well-centered, stable intraocular lens have been observed in the 3-month postoperative period in both cases.

  11. 玻璃体切除联合硅油填充术后高眼压的病因%Cause analysis of intraocular pressure elevation after vitrectomy and silicone oil retinal tamponade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    普建萍; 马嘉; 袁援生

    2013-01-01

    继发性高眼压是硅油填充术后较常见的并发症,其主要原因有:(1)硅油填充过多;(2)硅油乳化;(3)硅油进入前房;(4)硅油的慢性毒性作用;(5)联合其他手术;(6)眼外伤;(7)患者术前眼基础状况;(8)术后用药及术后体位等.本综述对玻璃体切除联合硅油填充术后继发高眼压的病因、治疗、预后等进行回顾性分析.%Secondary high intraocular pressure(IOL) is one of the most common complications after silicone oil tamponade.The mechanisms of elevated IOP secondary to silicone oil tamponade remains complex.Several factors could be involved such as:(1) excessive silicone oil tamponade ; (2) silicone oil emulsification ; (3) diffusion of silicone oil into the anterior chamber; (4) chronic toxic effects of silicone oil; (5) association with an other surgery ; (6) ocular traumatism ; (7) preoperative predisposing factors ;(8) postoperative medication and postoperative body position.This manuscript will review the different causes of IOP elevcotion after vitrectomy and silicone oil retinal tamponade.

  12. A combined analysis of four observational studies evaluating the intraocular pressure-lowering ability and tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Annemie; Iliev, Milko E; de Jong, Leo; Grobeiu, Ioana; Hommer, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Objective Combine and evaluate data from four clinical practice studies investigating the intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering ability, tolerability of and patient adherence to bimatoprost 0.01% therapy in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods Data were combined from four multicenter, prospective, observational studies. Patients (n=2,593) were recruited from 328 sites in Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Assessments were at study entry (baseline) and after 10–14 weeks. Results Bimatoprost 0.01% lowered mean IOP by 5.0 mmHg from baseline to final visit (Pbimatoprost 0.01% monotherapy from previous monotherapy reduced mean IOP by a further 3.2±3.6 mmHg (17.2%, Pbimatoprost 0.01% from previous prostaglandin monotherapy reduced mean IOP by 2.9±3.5 mmHg (15.5%), including by 3.1±3.4 mmHg (15.8%) and 3.3±4.1 mmHg (16.9%) for previous latanoprost and travoprost treatment, respectively (all Pbimatoprost 0.01% lowered IOP effectively in treatment-naïve and previously treated ocular hypertension and primary open-angle glaucoma patients, and was associated with good tolerability and patient adherence over 12 weeks. PMID:27103783

  13. Intraocular pressure and its correlation with blood gas parameters in crested caracaras (Caracara plancus anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane Pressão intra-ocular e sua correlação com parâmetros hemogasométricos em caracarás (Caracara plancus anestesiados com isofluorano e sevofluorano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Ribeiro

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The intraocular pressure (IOP and its correlations with arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2 and arterial pH were studied in five crested caracaras (Caracara plancus anesthetized with isoflurane (ISO and sevoflurane (SEV. Baseline IOP values were measured in both eyes (M0. Brachial artery was previously catheterized to obtain blood gas and cardiorespiratory analysis. Anesthesia was induced with 5% ISO and maintained with 2.5% for 40 minutes. IOP measurements and blood samples were evaluated in different moments until the end of the procedure. After recovering, a second anesthesia was induced with 6% SEV and maintained with 3.5%. Parameters were evaluated at the same time points of the previous procedure. IOP reduced significantly (P= 0.012 from M0 at all time points and no significative changes were observed between ISO and SEV anesthesias. Correlation between IOP and PaCO2 and between PIO and blood pH were found only for SEV. IOP and blood pH decreased in parallel with IOP, whereas values of PaCO2 increased in caracaras anesthetized with isoflurane and sevoflurane.Avaliou-se a pressão intra-ocular (PIO e estimaram-se as correlações entre PIO e pressão de dióxido de carbono (PaCO2 e pH arterial de cinco caracarás (Caracara plancus, anestesiados com isofluorano (ISO ou sevofluorano (SEV. Valores basais da PIO foram aferidos em ambos os olhos (M0. Cateterizou-se previamente a artéria braquial para obtenção de parâmetros hemogasométricos e cardiorrespiratórios. Anestesia foi induzida com ISO a 5V% e mantida por 40 minutos com 2,5V%. PIO e amostras de sangue foram avaliadas em diferentes momentos até o final do procedimento. Após recuperação, uma segunda anestesia foi realizada com SEV a 6% e mantida com 3,5%. Os parâmetros foram aferidos nos mesmos momentos estabelecidos previamente. A PIO decresceu significativamente (P=0,012 de M0 em todos os momentos e não houve diferença estatística entre ISO e SEV. Correla

  14. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  15. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Mike A. (Albuquerque, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  16. EVAPORATION: a new vapour pressure estimation methodfor organic molecules including non-additivity and intramolecular interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Compernolle

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present EVAPORATION (Estimation of VApour Pressure of ORganics, Accounting for Temperature, Intramolecular, and Non-additivity effects, a method to predict (subcooled liquid pure compound vapour pressure p0 of organic molecules that requires only molecular structure as input. The method is applicable to zero-, mono- and polyfunctional molecules. A simple formula to describe log10p0(T is employed, that takes into account both a wide temperature dependence and the non-additivity of functional groups. In order to match the recent data on functionalised diacids an empirical modification to the method was introduced. Contributions due to carbon skeleton, functional groups, and intramolecular interaction between groups are included. Molecules typically originating from oxidation of biogenic molecules are within the scope of this method: aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, ethers, esters, nitrates, acids, peroxides, hydroperoxides, peroxy acyl nitrates and peracids. Therefore the method is especially suited to describe compounds forming secondary organic aerosol (SOA.

  17. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with intraocular lens implantation: a new surgical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordana, M Isabel Canut; Formigó, Daniel Pérez; González, Rodrigo Abreu; Reus, Jeroni Nadal

    2010-01-01

    Aims We report the case of a myopic patient who, after intraocular lens transplant in the posterior chamber, suffered elevated intraocular pressure due to pigment dispersion, with recurrent episodes of blurred vision. The patient was treated with a new surgical technique that can avoid potential iridolenticular contact. Methods Complete ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the anterior segment were performed. Results Contact between the pigmentary epithelium and the iris with an intraocular lens was revealed by utrasound biomicroscopy and OCT. In this case, Nd:YAG laser iridotomy and laser iridoplasty were not effective for iridolenticular separation and control of the pigment dispersion. We propose a new technique: stitches on the surface of the iris to obtain good iridolenticular separation and good intraocular pressure control. Conclusion Stitches on the iris surface should be considered as optional therapy in pigmentary glaucoma secondary to intraocular lens implantation. This surgical technique can avoid potential iridolenticular contacts more definitively. PMID:21151331

  18. 49 CFR 173.304b - Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... compressed gases in UN pressure receptacles. 173.304b Section 173.304b Transportation Other Regulations...; Preparation and Packaging § 173.304b Additional requirements for shipment of liquefied compressed gases in UN... UN pressure receptacles subject to the requirements in this section and § 173.304. In addition,...

  19. A combined analysis of four observational studies evaluating the intraocular pressure-lowering ability and tolerability of bimatoprost 0.01% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Annemie Stevens,1 Milko E Iliev,2 Leo de Jong,3 Ioana Grobeiu,4 Anton Hommer5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 4Allergan Holdings Ltd, Marlow, UK; 5Private Office, Vienna, Austria Objective: Combine and evaluate data from four clinical practice studies investigating the intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering ability, tolerability of and patient adherence to bimatoprost 0.01% therapy in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Methods: Data were combined from four multicenter, prospective, observational studies. Patients (n=2,593 were recruited from 328 sites in Austria, Belgium, Switzerland, and the Netherlands. Assessments were at study entry (baseline and after 10–14 weeks. Results: Bimatoprost 0.01% lowered mean IOP by 5.0 mmHg from baseline to final visit (P<0.0001. Individual IOP goals were achieved in 75.5% of patients. Results were similar in right and left eyes; right-eye data are presented here for brevity. The greatest mean IOP reduction was 6.7±4.7 mmHg (28.8% reduction from baseline to final visit, P<0.0001 in treatment-naïve patients. Switching to bimatoprost 0.01% monotherapy from previous monotherapy reduced mean IOP by a further 3.2±3.6 mmHg (17.2%, P<0.0001. Switching to bimatoprost 0.01% from previous prostaglandin monotherapy reduced mean IOP by 2.9±3.5 mmHg (15.5%, including by 3.1±3.4 mmHg (15.8% and 3.3±4.1 mmHg (16.9% for previous latanoprost and travoprost treatment, respectively (all P<0.0001. IOP reduction in patients previously treated with a fixed combination was 2.7±4.0 mmHg (14.2%, P<0.0001. The most commonly reported adverse events were conjunctival hyperemia (5.2% and eye irritation (4.7%. Tolerability was rated as “very good” or “good” by 90.1% of patients. Adherence was rated by

  20. Effect of accelerated corneal crosslinking combined with transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy on dynamic corneal response parameters and biomechanically corrected intraocular pressure measured with a dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer in healthy myopic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hun; Roberts, Cynthia J; Ambrósio, Renato; Elsheikh, Ahmed; Kang, David Sung Yong; Kim, Tae-Im

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of accelerated corneal crosslinking (CXL) combined with transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) on changes in new dynamic corneal response parameters and the biomechanically corrected intraocular pressure (IOP) measured using a dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer (Corvis ST). Yonsei University College of Medicine and Eyereum Eye Clinic, Seoul, South Korea. Retrospective case series. Medical records of eyes of healthy myopic patients having transepithelial PRK or transepithelial PRK with CXL were examined. Main outcome variables were the biomechanically corrected IOP and new dynamic corneal response parameters including the deformation amplitude ratio at 1.0 mm (DAR1) and at 2.0 mm (DAR2), stiffness at first applanation and at highest concavity, and the integrated inverse radius preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. The study comprised 69 eyes (69 patients); 35 had transepithelial PRK and 34, transepithelial PRK with CXL. The DAR1, DAR2, and integrated inverse radius significantly increased, while stiffness at first applanation and at highest concavity decreased postoperatively in both groups. Changes in the DAR2 and integrated inverse radius in the transepithelial PRK group were significantly larger than in the transepithelial PRK with CXL group without and with analysis of covariance with the spherical equivalent change or corneal thickness change as a covariate. No significant differences in the biomechanically corrected IOP occurred preoperatively or postoperatively in either group. Results indicate that prophylactic CXL combined with transepithelial PRK has a role in reducing the change in corneal biomechanical properties. The dynamic Scheimpflug analyzer showed stable biomechanically corrected IOP measurements preoperatively and postoperatively. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of benazepril addition to amlodipine on ankle oedema and subcutaneous tissue pressure in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogari, R; Malamani, G D; Zoppi, A; Mugellini, A; Rinaldi, A; Vanasia, A; Preti, P

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of benazepril addition to amlodipine antihypertensive treatment on ankle-foot volume (AFV) and pretibial subcutaneous tissue pressure (PSTP), two objective measures of ankle oedema. A total of 32 mild to moderate essential hypertensives (DBP>90 and amlodipine 5 mg o.d. or benazepril 10 mg o.d. or amlodipine 5 mg plus benazepril 10 mg o.d. for 4 weeks, according to a crossover design. At the end of the placebo period and of each active treatment period, blood pressure,AFV and PSTP were evaluated. AFV was measured using the principle of water displacement. PSTP was assessed using a system, the subcutaneous pretibial interstitial environment with a water manometer. Both amlodipine and benazepril monotherapy significantly reduced SBP (-18.2+/-4 and -17.8+/-4 mmHg, respectively, PAmlodipine monotherapy significantly increased both AFV (+17.1%, Pamlodipine alone, the combination produced a less pronounced increase in AFV (+5.5%, Pamlodipine) and PSTP (+20.5%, Pamlodipine). Ankle oedema was clinically evident in 11 patients with amlodipine monotherapy and in three patients with the combination. These results suggest that ACE-inhibitors partially counteract the microcirculatory changes responsible for Ca-antagonists-induced oedema formation.

  2. Additive Effects of Sinusoidal Lower Body Negative Pressure on Cardiovascular Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Keita; Oyama, Fuyuki; Yoshida, Hisao; Iwanaga, Koichi

    2017-02-01

    Sinusoidal lower body negative pressure (SLBNP) has been used to investigate the cardiovascular response to slow periodic changes in blood shifts, but measurements of slow fluctuations take a long time if measured for each period of SLBNP separately. Our study aimed to investigate whether the cardiovascular responses to superimposed SLBNP (S-SLBNP), which is expected to reduce the measurement time, are different from responses measured individually. S-SLBNP was configured by superimposing two conventional SLBNPs (C-SLBNP) at 180-s and 30-s periods in the pressure range from 0 to -25 mmHg. As the S-SLBNP has double the static load of C-SLBNP, we also used offset SLBNP (O-SLBNP), which has the same static load level as S-SLBNP. Heart rate (HR), thoracic impedance (Z0), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured from 11 male subjects. The transfer functions of gains from MAP to HR (Gain-HR/MAP) and from Z0 to HR (Gain-HR/Z0) were calculated as indexes of arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary baroreflex regulation of HR, respectively. The Gain-HR/MAP in the 180-s period (2.11 ± 0.17 bpm/mmHg; mean ± SEM) was larger than that of the 30-s period (1.04 ± 0.09 bpm/mmHg); however, there was no significant difference between the SLBNP conditions. The Gain-HR/Z0 in C-SLBNP (9.37 ± 1.47 bpm/ohm) was smaller than that of the other conditions [18.46 ± 2.45 bpm/ohm (O-SLBNP); 16.09 ± 2.29 bpm/ohm (S-SLBNP)]. Using S-SLBNP could reduce the measurement time needed to examine the arterial baroreflex. However, the cardiopulmonary baroreflex was modified by the static load of SLBNP.Ishibashi K, Oyama F, Yoshida H, Iwanaga K. Additive effects of sinusoidal lower body negative pressure on cardiovascular responses. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(2):137-141.

  3. The value of reporting pressure-time integral data in addition to peak pressure data in studies on the diabetic foot: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, S A; Waaijman, R

    2013-02-01

    In plantar pressure studies on the diabetic foot, pressure-time integral data is often analyzed and reported next to peak pressure data, mostly because of its assumed additional value. The aim was to assess this additional value by systematically reviewing the relevant literature. The MEDLINE database was searched for original articles that report both pressure-time integral and peak pressure data measured in the diabetic foot. Eligible articles were assessed according to differences in reported results between both parameters, the quality of discussion and specific conclusions drawn on pressure-time integral data, and the added value of the pressure-time integral data. All 35 eligible papers described studies on gait. Differences in reported results between parameters were found to be clear, minimal, or absent in 15, 8, and 12 papers, respectively. In 15 papers, the pressure-time integral results were discussed with respect to the peak pressure results, but in only 5 papers the explanation given for reported differences was considered meaningful. Specific conclusions were drawn in 11 papers. Some added value was found in 10 papers, but in all papers one or more limitations to this value applied. The study findings suggest that the added value of reporting pressure-time integral data is limited. Unless clear benefit can be shown such, as that ulceration can be better predicted using pressure-time integral than using peak pressure data, the reporting of pressure-time integral data seems redundant to express the plantar loading in the diabetic foot. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Synergistic and additive effects of hydrostatic pressure and growth factors on tissue formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Elder

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hydrostatic pressure (HP is a significant factor in the function of many tissues, including cartilage, knee meniscus, temporomandibular joint disc, intervertebral disc, bone, bladder, and vasculature. Though studies have been performed in assessing the role of HP in tissue biochemistry, to the best of our knowledge, no studies have demonstrated enhanced mechanical properties from HP application in any tissue. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of hydrostatic pressure (HP, with and without growth factors, on the biomechanical and biochemical properties of engineered articular cartilage constructs, using a two-phased approach. In phase I, a 3x3 full-factorial design of HP magnitude (1, 5, 10 MPa and frequency (0, 0.1, 1 Hz was used, and the best two treatments were selected for use in phase II. Static HP at 5 MPa and 10 MPa resulted in significant 95% and 96% increases, respectively, in aggregate modulus (H(A, with corresponding increases in GAG content. These regimens also resulted in significant 101% and 92% increases in Young's modulus (E(Y, with corresponding increases in collagen content. Phase II employed a 3x3 full-factorial design of HP (no HP, 5 MPa static, 10 MPa static and growth factor application (no GF, BMP-2+IGF-I, TGF-beta1. The combination of 10 MPa static HP and TGF-beta1 treatment had an additive effect on both H(A and E(Y, as well as a synergistic effect on collagen content. This group demonstrated a 164% increase in H(A, a 231% increase in E(Y, an 85% increase in GAG/wet weight (WW, and a 173% increase in collagen/WW, relative to control. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate increases in the biomechanical properties of tissue from pure HP application, using a cartilage model. Furthermore, it is the only study to demonstrate additive or synergistic effects between HP and growth factors on tissue functional properties

  5. Additive pressures of elevated sea surface temperatures and herbicides on symbiont-bearing foraminifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joost W van Dam

    Full Text Available Elevated ocean temperatures and agrochemical pollution individually threaten inshore coral reefs, but these pressures are likely to occur simultaneously. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and the photosystem II (PSII inhibiting herbicide diuron on several types of symbiotic algae (diatom, dinoflagellate or rhodophyte of benthic foraminifera in hospite. Diuron was shown to evoke a direct effect on photosynthetic efficiency (reduced effective PSII quantum yield ΔF/F'(m, while elevated temperatures (>30 °C, only 2 °C above current average summer temperatures were observed to impact photosynthesis more indirectly by causing reductions in maximum PSII quantum yield (F(v/F(m, interpreted as photodamage. Additionally, elevated temperatures were shown to cause bleaching through loss of chlorophyll a in foraminifera hosting either diatoms or dinoflagellates. A significant linear correlation was found between reduced F(v/F(m and loss of chlorophyll a. In most cases, symbionts within foraminifera proved more sensitive to thermal stress in the presence of diuron (≥ 1 µg L(-1. The mixture toxicity model of Independent Action (IA described the combined effects of temperature and diuron on the photosystem of species hosting diatoms or dinoflagellates convincingly and in agreement with probabilistic statistics, so a response additive joint action can be assumed. We thus demonstrate that improving water quality can improve resilience of symbiotic phototrophs to projected increases in ocean temperatures. As IA described the observed combined effects from elevated temperature and diuron stress it may therefore be employed for prediction of untested mixtures and for assessing the efficacy of management measures.

  6. How to Ignite an Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Torch without Any Additional Igniters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leins, Martina; Gaiser, Sandra; Schulz, Andreas; Walker, Matthias; Schumacher, Uwe; Hirth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This movie shows how an atmospheric pressure plasma torch can be ignited by microwave power with no additional igniters. After ignition of the plasma, a stable and continuous operation of the plasma is possible and the plasma torch can be used for many different applications. On one hand, the hot (3,600 K gas temperature) plasma can be used for chemical processes and on the other hand the cold afterglow (temperatures down to almost RT) can be applied for surface processes. For example chemical syntheses are interesting volume processes. Here the microwave plasma torch can be used for the decomposition of waste gases which are harmful and contribute to the global warming but are needed as etching gases in growing industry sectors like the semiconductor branch. Another application is the dissociation of CO2. Surplus electrical energy from renewable energy sources can be used to dissociate CO2 to CO and O2. The CO can be further processed to gaseous or liquid higher hydrocarbons thereby providing chemical storage of the energy, synthetic fuels or platform chemicals for the chemical industry. Applications of the afterglow of the plasma torch are the treatment of surfaces to increase the adhesion of lacquer, glue or paint, and the sterilization or decontamination of different kind of surfaces. The movie will explain how to ignite the plasma solely by microwave power without any additional igniters, e.g., electric sparks. The microwave plasma torch is based on a combination of two resonators — a coaxial one which provides the ignition of the plasma and a cylindrical one which guarantees a continuous and stable operation of the plasma after ignition. The plasma can be operated in a long microwave transparent tube for volume processes or shaped by orifices for surface treatment purposes. PMID:25938699

  7. Short-term change of intraocular pressure after vitrectomy combined phacoemulsification%玻璃体切割联合白内障超声乳化手术后的近期眼压改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纳; 马凯; 崔蕊

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨玻璃体切割联合白内障超声乳化摘除人工晶状体(IOL)植入术后的近期眼压改变.设计 回顾性比较性病例系列.研究对象 2010年北京同仁医院眼科住院施行玻璃体切割术的连续病例102例106眼.方法 回顾因玻璃体积血或黄斑疾病行标准20G玻璃体切割联合(30例32眼)或不联合(70例74眼)白内障超声乳化摘除IOL植入术的病例资料,排除患有其他可能影响眼压的疾病者.比较两组间术后3天的眼压变化情况.主要指标 眼压值.结果 联合白内障手术组与单纯玻璃体切割术组相比,术前眼压分别为(13.8±3.9)和(14.5±3.0)mm Hg,无显著性差异(P=0.319);术后第1天(16.4±9.1)、(16.4±9.1)mmHg,第2天(13.9±5.6)、(14.7±5.1)mmHg,第3天(13.1±4.4)、(13.8±4.6)mmHg的平均眼压均无显著性差异(P均>0.05).但单纯玻璃体切割术组术后第1天平均眼压较术前显著升高.两组术后高眼压发生率(15.6%、27.1%)无显著差别,80%和90%发生于术后第1天.联合手术组中术后高眼压(5眼)均为糖尿病视网膜病变者.结论 联合白内障超声乳化手术并不显著增加玻璃体切割手术后的近期眼压水平及高眼压发生率.%Objective To evaluate the short-term change of intraocular pressure (IOP) after vitreetomy combined with phacoemul-sification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Design Retrospective comparative cases series. Participants 106 eyes of 102 consecutive inpatients who had undergone vitrectomy in Department of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Hospital in 2010. Methods The cases with vitreous hemorrhage/opacity or macular disease who had undergone standard 20 gauge pars plana vitrectomy combined with pha-coemulsification and intraocular lens implantation (32 eyes of 30 patients) or without (74 eyes of 70 patients), excluding the cases with preoperative medical history of any possible effects on IOP. Main Outcome Measures IOP. Results Compared the combined

  8. Water properties and structure of pork sausages as affected by high-pressure processing and addition of carrot fibre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Sandie Mejer; Grossi, Alberto Blak; Christensen, Mette;

    2011-01-01

    The effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and addition of carrot fibre on pork sausages have been studied using NMR T(2) relaxometry and measurements of water-binding capacity (WBC) by centrifugation. Significant effects of temperature (raw, 40, 50, or 60°C), holding time (1s, 3, 6, or 9min......), and addition of carrot fibre on the distribution and mobility of water were found. However, the effect of carrot fibre could not be explained by structural changes in the sausages when examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Correlations between T(2) relaxation measurements and WBC determined...... by centrifugation revealed that T(2) relaxation times were able to explain more than 90% of the variation in WBC for both non-pressure and pressure-treated sausages. However, only 49% of the variation was explained for pressure-treated sausages with carrot fibre, indicating that combining addition of fibre and high...

  9. A mouse ocular explant model that enables the study of living optic nerve head events after acute and chronic intraocular pressure elevation: Focusing on retinal ganglion cell axons and mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Elizabeth C; Pease, Mary E; Steinhart, Matthew R; Oglesby, Ericka N; Pitha, Ian; Nguyen, Cathy; Quigley, Harry A

    2017-07-01

    We developed an explant model of the mouse eye and optic nerve that facilitates the study of retinal ganglion cell axons and mitochondria in the living optic nerve head (ONH) in an ex vivo environment. Two transgenic mouse strains were used, one expressing yellow fluorescent protein in selected axons and a second strain expressing cyan fluorescent protein in all mitochondria. We viewed an explanted mouse eye and optic nerve by laser scanning microscopy at and behind the ONH, the site of glaucoma injury. Explants from previously untreated mice were studied with the intraocular pressure (IOP) set artificially at normal or elevated levels for several hours. Explants were also studied from eyes that had undergone chronic IOP elevation from 14 h to 6 weeks prior to ex vivo study. Image analysis in static images and video of individual mitochondria or axonal structure determined effects of acute and chronic IOP elevation. At normal IOP, fluorescent axonal structure was stable for up to 3 h under ex vivo conditions. After chronic IOP elevation, axonal integrity index values indicated fragmentation of axon structure in the ONH. In mice with fluorescent mitochondria, the normal density decreased with distance behind the ONH by 45% (p = 0.002, t-test). Density increased with prior chronic IOP elevation to 21,300 ± 4176 mitochondria/mm(2) compared to control 16,110 ± 3159 mitochondria/mm(2) (p = 0.025, t-test), but did not increase significantly after 4 h, acute IOP elevation (1.5% decrease in density, p = 0.83, t-test). Mean normal mitochondrial length of 2.3 ± 1.4 μm became 13% smaller after 4 h of IOP elevation ex vivo compared to baseline (p = 0.015, t-test, N-10). Normal mitochondrial speed of movement was significantly slower in the anterograde direction (towards the brain) than retrograde, but there were more mitochondria in motion and traveling longer lengths in anterograde direction. The percent of mitochondria in motion decreased by >50

  10. 体位改变对开角型青光眼小梁切除术后眼压波动的影响%Effect of postural change on intraocular pressure fluctuation in open angle glaucoma patients after trabeculectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of postural change on intraocular pressure ( lOP ) fluctuation in open angle glaucoma patients after trabeculectomy, and to discuss the value of this investigation on prognosis.METHODS:Fifty-one cases (62 eyes) of primary open angle glaucoma were selected as the research object. Perkins ophthalmotonometer was used to test lOP at the time when patient seat ( first seat ) . The patients were asked to lie supine for 25min, detected lOP, and the patients seated again (final seat), sustaining for 15min, detected lOP. According to whether the lOP range was more than 5mmHg, they were divided into high volatility fluctuation group and low volatility fluctuation group. We recorded their visual field progression ( with AGlS score) , HPA staging, in order to evaluate the correlation of lOP range with them. Reviews were made 3mo a time, and lasted for 1a, in order to evaluate the relation between lOP range and AGlS scores.RESULTS: The lOP of first seat was 18. 1+2. 2mmHg. There was no significant difference in the same position (P>0. 05 ). The lOP range was 4. 1 ± 1. 5mmHg. Low volatility fluctuation group was more likely to have low AGlS score and to be early vision HPA ( P0.05),眼压极差4.1±1.5mmHg;低波动组AGIS视野稳定者及HPA早期者显著多于高波动组( P<0.001;P<0.05),眼压极差与 AGIS 显著正相关( r=0.412,P<0.001);随时间延长,视野进展人数上升,眼压极差上升,且任意时刻两者间均呈显著正相关(P<0.01)。结论:小梁切除术后患者体位改变下眼压波动与视野进展程度有关,可通过检测眼压波动简单预测患者预后,从而调整眼压控制方案。

  11. Several issues for the diagnosis and treatment of anterior uveitis with increased intraocular pressure%伴有高眼压的前葡萄膜炎诊治中的一些问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红; 沈琳

    2012-01-01

    Some anterior uveitis lack of severe fibrinous exudation and posterior synechiae of iris, such as viral anterior uveitis, Fuchs syndrome and Posner-Schlossman syndrome, can be manifested as persistent or recurrent elevated intraocular pressure, and its treatment is often difficult. Recently, Singapore scholars described clinical features of cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis in immuocompe-tent patients, and presented a new idea to diagnosis and treatment of the anterior uveitis with ocular hypertension. Though Fuchs syndrome and Posner-Schlossman syndrome have similar clinical manifestations to cytomegalovirus anterior uveitis, and cytomegalovirus infection may be the pathogenesis of the two diseases, whether to join the antiviral therapy for the Fuchs syndrome, Posner-Schlossman syndrome or not, is still a problem worthy of discussion. (Ophthalmol CHN, 2012, 21: 228-233)%某些缺乏严重纤维素性渗出及虹膜后粘连的前葡萄膜炎如病毒性前葡萄膜炎、Fuchs综合征、青光眼睫状体炎综合征等均可表现为持续性或反复性眼压升高,对其治疗常较棘手.最近,新加坡学者对巨细胞病毒性前葡萄膜炎进行了系统分析,对伴有眼压升高的前葡萄膜炎患者提出了新的诊治思路.虽然Fuchs综合征、青光眼睫状体炎综合征与巨细胞病毒性前葡萄膜炎有类似表现,且后两者的发病机制中均有提到巨细胞病毒,但针对后两者的治疗目前仍以对症治疗为主,是否需加入抗病毒治疗,仍需长期的实践探讨.

  12. Associations with intraocular pressure across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Anthony P; Springelkamp, Henriët; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    -sectional associations with IOP in 43,500 European adults from 12 cohort studies belonging to the European Eye Epidemiology (E(3)) consortium. Each study conducted multivariable linear regression with IOP as the outcome variable and results were pooled using random effects meta-analyzis. The association of standardized...... Europe. Despite the limited range of latitude amongst included studies, this finding is in favour of collaborative pooling of data from studies examining environmental and genetic determinants of IOP in Europeans....

  13. in Preventing Rise of Intraocular Pressure (Iop)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tulyasys

    vision, increased glare and interference in the day to day activities of ... Materials and Methods: A randomized, single-blinded, parallel group study conducted in ... Precapsulotomy baseline IOP, Slitlamp examination and grading of. PCO was ...

  14. 21 CFR 886.3600 - Intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraocular lens. 886.3600 Section 886.3600 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3600 Intraocular lens. (a) Identification. An intraocular lens is a device made of materials...

  15. Clinical effect of St.John's Wort Extract on intraocular pressure in perioperative period of narrowangle glaucoma%圣约翰草提取物对青光眼围手术期眼压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳红云; 徐朝晖; 曹虹; 张百红

    2011-01-01

    Objective To research the matching factor about intraocular pressure in perioperative period by studying the influence of St. John's Wort Extract to intraocular pressure during this time. Methods The 56 narrow - angle glaucoma patients were charged into St. John's Wort Extract group or control group randomly and all cases were treated with carteolol hydrochloride eyedrop by 2 times and Brinzolamide 3 times every day for lowering IOP in 3 days before operation, while the St. John S Wort Extract 300mg was given to the treatment group' s cases everyday before operation for 3 day. Control group was charged with placebo.The same score before St. John' S Wort Extract and before operation between groups was analysed by t test The IOP Of St. JohnS Wort Extract group and cintrol group 7 day. after operation was contrasted by t test and line that the cirrelation coefficient with SPSS 13.0. Results The difference of IOP between before and after the theory of St. JohnS Wort Extract were charged by t test (t =2.017 P =0.046)and the treatment group was significanly higher(8.91 ±2.73mmHg) than the control group(3.66 ± 1.93mmHg),meanwhile,1 week after operation, the IOP of treatment group(6. 37 ± 2.49mmHg)were significantly lower than control (9.25 ± 1.98),the differnece were significantly showed by t test (t = 2. 009 P =0. 041 ). In operation day, HAMA score of control gronp(13. 35 ±2.58)and treatment group(8.67 ±2.32) showed significant difference (t =2.013 P= 0.044) while HAMA score seems positive correlation to IOP in treatment group and control groups cases in operation day (r1 =0. 397 P1 =0. 046, r2 =415 P2 =0. 033). Conclusion St. John's Wort Extract seems the effect of lower IOP for glaucoma operation through modifing anxiety of narrow-angle glaucoma patients.%目的 探讨圣约翰草提取物对抗青光眼术前眼压的影响,研究青光眼围手术期眼压波动诱因及应对策略。方法 56例原发性闭角性青光眼按照随机表顺序随机进入对

  16. APPLICATION OF LASER ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE DIES FOR ALUMINIUM HIGH PRESSURE DIE-CASTING#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.V.T. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A number of laser additive manufacturing (LAM technologies can produce fully-dense metal components that potentially offer opportunities to apply the technology in die or mould making (known as rapid tooling. From these LAM technologies, three were selected for evaluation of their suitability as die cavity inserts in the manufacture of high pressure die-casting (HPDC dies. Apart from comparing the different LAM inserts with one another, their performance was also compared with components manufactured in a standard hot work steel. In the HPDC process, the die is unique to each component to be produced. Die cavities in particular are subjected to demanding conditions, such as cyclic heating caused by the introduction of molten aluminium at over 650°C, followed by cooling in water-based die release medium at temperatures around 25°C. Besides cyclic heating, the die cavities are also exposed to pressures exceeding 1500 MPa during the injection of molten aluminium into the cavities. This application of LAM, therefore, poses extreme challenges to the technology. The results of this study confirmed that the metals used in some of the LAM technologies did indeed meet the demanding requirements of the current application, and can lead to significant time- and cost-saving during product or process developments. Based on these findings, a number of recommendations are made for users interested in the application of LAM to produce die cavities.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Aantal laser laagvervaardigingstegnologieë (LLV tegnolgieë is in staat om volledig digte metaalkomponente te lewer, wat tot gevolg het dat hierdie tegnologie potensieel vir vormingsmatrys- of gietmatrysvervaardiging gebruik kan word (bekend as snelgereedskap. Drie van hierdie LLV tegnologieë is gekies vir evaluasie van hulle geskiktheid as gietvorminsetsels tydens die vervaardiging van gietmatryse vir hoë druk matrysgiet (HDMG. Benewens die onderlinge

  17. The influence of the circadian clock genes on 24-hour intraocular pressure rhythm in mice%生物钟对小鼠昼夜眼压节律性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖凡; 钟笑; 吴国福; 严璐

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of the circadian clock genes on 24-hour intraocular pressure (IOP) rhythm. Methods C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (group1,3 and 5,wild-type;group2,4 and 6,Cry-deficient [Cry1-/-Cry2-/-]). IOP was measured at eight time points daily (circadian time [CT] 0,3,6,9,12,15,18,and 21 hours),During the IOP measurements,mice in groups 1 and 2 were maintained in a 12-hour light-dark cycle (LD),mice in groups 3 and 4 were kept in a constant darkness(DD) that started 48 hours before the measurements,mice in groups5 and 6 were kept in a constant lightness (LL) that started 48 hours before the measurements. Analyze the changes of the IOP rhythm. Results In wild-type mice living in LD conditions,pressures measured in the light phase were significantly lower than those in the dark phase. This daily rhythm was maintained under DD and LL conditions. In contrast,Cry-deficient mice did not show significant circadian changes in IOP,regard-less of environmental light conditions. Conclusion Clock oscillatory mechanisms require the activity of clock genes,and it’s im-portant for the generation of a circadian rhythm of IOP.%目的:研究生物钟对小鼠昼夜眼压的影响。方法 C57BL/6J小鼠随机分为6组(组1,3和5为野生型小鼠,组2,4和6为Cry1-/-Cry2-/-双基因敲除小鼠)),每天8次(0,3,6,9,12,15,18和21点)测量双眼眼压。在眼压测量期间,组1和组2的小鼠处于12h光照,12h黑暗(LD)环境;组3和组4的小鼠在眼压测量前的48h一直处于完全黑暗(DD)环境中;组5和组6的小鼠在眼压测量前的48h一直处于完全光照(LL)环境中,分析周期性的眼压变化。结果野生型LD组的光照条件下的眼压明显低于黑暗环境中的眼压,而且在DD和LL环境下仍然保持着眼压的双相性;在LD,DD和LL环境下,Cry基因敲除小鼠的眼压没有表现明显的节律性。结

  18. Study on Titanium Nitride Film Modified for Intraocular Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the characteristics of the intraocular lens using ion beam sputtering depositing titanium nitride thin film on the intraocular lens(IOLs).Methods:To deposite titanium nitride thin film on the top of intraocular lens by ion beam sputtering depositing.We analyzed the surface morphology of intraocular lens through SEM and AFM.We detected intraocular lens resolution through the measurement of intraocular lens.Biocompatibility of intraocular lens is preliminary evaluated in this test.Results:T...

  19. Avaliação comparativa do efeito dos colírios de apraclonidina e latanoprost na profilaxia da hipertensão ocular pós capsulotomia com YAG Laser em pacientes não glaucomatosos Profilatic use of apraclonidine and latanoprost to prevent intraocular pressure elevation following Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane de Freitas S. Paranhos

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Comparar a eficácia do latanoprost 0,005% e da apraclonidina 1% na prevenção da hipertensão ocular pós-capsulotomia posterior com YAG laser, em pacientes não- glaucomatosos. Método: Trinta e seis pacientes (36 olhos incluídos foram divididos em três grupos que usaram latanoprost 0,005%, apraclonidina 1% ou placebo. Foram realizadas medidas da pressão ocular antes da instilação de qualquer colírio, 30 minutos após a dilatação, 1 hora e 4 horas após o YAG laser. Resultados: Não houve diferença significativa entre os 3 grupos em relação à idade, pressão ocular inicial e pós-dilatação, assim como em quantidade de energia utilizada. Na primeira hora, tanto para a diferença absoluta quanto para o percentual de alteração da pressão intra-ocular, o grupo da apraclonidina apresentou redução estatisticamente maior em relação ao grupo controle (p 0,05. Na 4a. hora não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos (p > 0,05. As medidas de pressão nos 4 intervalos não apresentaram variação estatisticamente significativa (p > 0,05. A quantidade de energia utilizada não mostrou correlação significativa com o aumento da Po (p > 0,05. Conclusão: A apraclonidina 1% apresentou maior eficácia na profilaxia da hipertensão após capsulotomia posterior com YAG laser quando comparada com latanoprost 0,005%.Purpose: To compare the efficacy of 0.005% latanoprost and 1% apraclonidine in the prevention of an increase of intraocular pressure (IOP after Nd: YAG laser capsulotomy in nonglaucomatous patients. Methods: Thirty-six patients were included and divided in to three groups. Patients received 0.005% latanoprost. 1% apraclonidine or placebo. Four measurements of IOP were made: before instillation of any drug, 30 minutes after cycloplegia, 1 hour and 4 hours after laser. Results: No significant difference was found between the three groups regarding age, initial intraocular pressure, pressure 30 minutes after

  20. Effect of phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and trabeculectomy on angle-closure glaucoma merged with cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qun Wu; Li-Li Hao; Wen-Xuan Tao; Chun-Xiang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical effect of phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and trabeculectomy in the treatment of angle-closure glaucoma merged with cataract. Methods:A total of 80 patients with angle-closure glaucoma merged with cataract who were admitted in our hospital from May, 2015 to May, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. The patients in the control group were given phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. On this basis, the patients in the observation group were given trabeculectomy. The vision, intraocular pressure, central anterior chamber depth, and visual field before operation, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after operation in the two groups were detected.Results: In the control group, 1 month after operation, while in the observation group, 1 week after operation, the vision was significantly improved, the intraocular pressure was significantly reduced, the central anterior chamber depth was significantly increased, and the average visual field defect value and average standard deviation value were significantly improved when compared with before operation (P<0.05); moreover, the improved degree in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, and trabeculectomy in the treatment of angle-closure glaucoma merged with cataract can effectively increase the central anterior chamber depth, reduce the intraocular pressure, and improve the vision; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended in the clinic.

  1. Metal additive manufacturing of a high-pressure micro-pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel W.; Weitkamp, Sander J.; Es, van J.

    2013-01-01

    For the thermal control of future space applications pumped two-phase loops are an essential part to handle the increasing thermal power densities. This study investigates the design of a reliable, leak tight, low-weight and high-pressure micro-pump for small satellite applications. The developed mi

  2. Metal additive manufacturing of a high-pressure micro-pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wits, Wessel Willems; Weitkamp, Sander J.; van Es, J.; van Es, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    For the thermal control of future space applications pumped two-phase loops are an essential part to handle the increasing thermal power densities. This study investigates the design of a reliable, leak tight, low-weight and high-pressure micro-pump for small satellite applications. The developed

  3. Influência da redução medicamentosa da pressão intra-ocular na medida da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina de olhos hipertensos e glaucomatosos pela polarimetria de varredura a laser The influence of intraocular pressure reduction with medication on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measurements obtained with scanning laser polarimetry in glaucomatous and hypertensive eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rezende Gomes Avelino

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da redução da pressão intra-ocular (PIO obtido com o uso de terapia medicamentosa na espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina medida pela polarimetria de varredura a laser (PVL em pacientes glaucomatosos ou hipertensos oculares. MÉTODOS: Trinta e sete olhos de 37 pacientes foram prospectivamente incluídos no estudo e avaliados com a PVL sem uso de medicação ocular hipotensora e num período entre 15 e 30 dias após a instituição de medicação ocular hipotensora, que resultou em redução da PIO de pelo menos 25%. Os parâmetros medidos pela PVL antes e após a redução da PIO foram comparados com o teste t de Student pareado. RESULTADOS: A PIO média dos 37 pacientes diminuiu significativamente de 26,57±4,23 mmHg para 16,54±2,92 mmHg (p0,05. CONCLUSÃO: A redução da PIO com o uso de medicação ocular hipotensora não altera a medida da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas da retina pela PVL em pacientes com glaucoma ou hipertensão ocular.PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in retinal nerve fiber layer thickness as measured by scanning laser polarimetry (SLP after the use of medication to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP in glaucomatous or ocular hypertensive patients. METHODS: The authors prospectively enrolled 37 eyes of 37 patients in whom IOP was reduced by more than 25% after the use of medication. The images were obtained before and 15 to 30 days after the introduction of medication. The SLP parameters measured before and after the use of medication were compared using paired Student's t Test. RESULTS: The mean IOP was significantly reduced from 26.57±4.23 mmHg to 16.54 ±2.92 mmHg after the use of medication (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, as measured by SLP, is not affected by the reduction of IOP with medication in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

  4. The additional phase transition of DPPC monolayers at high surface pressure confirmed by GIXD study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; Serna, Jorge B. de la; Struth, Bernd

    Pulmonary surfactant forms the alveolar monolayer at the air/aqueous interface within the lung. During the breathing process, the surface pressure periodically varies from ~40mN/m up to ~70mN/m. The film is mechanically stable during this rapid and reversible expansion. The monolayer consists...... of ~90% of lipid with 10% integrated proteins. Among its lipid compounds, di- palmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) dominates (~45wt%). No other lipid but DPPC was so far reported to be compressible to very high surface pressure (~70mN/m) before its monolayer collapsed. Its liquid......-expanded/liquid-condensed (LE/LC) phase transition at ~10mN/m is well known. Here we present results from Langmuir isotherm measurements that evidence a so far not documented second phase transition at elevated surface pressure Π (~50mN/m). The varying lateral structures of the monolayer at 8mN/m, 20mN/m, 30mN/m, 40mN/m, 50m...

  5. Pressure distribution and aerodynamic coefficients associated with heat addition to supersonic air stream adjacent to two-dimensional supersonic wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkel, I Irving; Serafini, John S; Gregg, John L

    1952-01-01

    The modifications in the pressure distributions and the aerodynamic coefficients associated with additions of heat to the two-dimensional supersonic in viscid flow field adjacetnt to the lower surface of of a 5-percent-thickness symmetrical circular-arc wing are presented in this report. The pressure distributions are obtained by the use of graphical method which gives the two-dimensional supersonic inviscid flow field obtained with moderate heat addition. The variation is given of the lift-drag ratio and of the aerodynamic coefficients of lift, drag, and moment with free stream Mach number, angle of attack, and parameters defining extent and amount of heat addition. The six graphical solutions used in this study included Mach numbers of 3.0 and 5.0 and angles of attack of 0 degrees and 2 degrees.

  6. New Management of Malignant Glaucoma by Phacoemulsification with Posterior Chamber Foldable Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GeJian; GuoY

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the feasibility of phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation in the management of malignant glaucoma. Patients and Methods:Fourteen patients with malignant glaucoma diagnosed in the Department of Glaucoma were enrolled in the study.12 patients developed malignant glaucoma after filtration surgery.1 developed after peripheral iridectomy.1 patient developed malignant glaucoma without any clear cause.Cataract phacoemulsification was performed.Posterior chamber intraocular foldable lens was implanted in 10 cases of patients.Results:All 14 patients were cured wiht normal intraocular pressure,normal anterior chamber depth and increased visual acuity.Conclusion:Phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation is a good alternative in treating malignant glaucoma.

  7. Pigment dispersion syndrome associated with intraocular lens implantation: a new surgical technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Isabel Canut Jordana

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available M Isabel Canut Jordana1, Daniel Pérez Formigó1, Rodrigo Abreu González2, Jeroni Nadal Reus11Barraquer Ophthalmology Centre, Barcelona, Spain; 2University Hospital of La Candelaria, Tenerife, SpainAims: We report the case of a myopic patient who, after intraocular lens transplant in the posterior chamber, suffered elevated intraocular pressure due to pigment dispersion, with recurrent episodes of blurred vision. The patient was treated with a new surgical technique that can avoid potential iridolenticular contact.Methods: Complete ophthalmologic examination and optical coherence tomography (OCT of the anterior segment were performed.Results: Contact between the pigmentary epithelium and the iris with an intraocular lens was revealed by utrasound biomicroscopy and OCT. In this case, Nd:YAG laser iridotomy and laser iridoplasty were not effective for iridolenticular separation and control of the pigment dispersion. We propose a new technique: stitches on the surface of the iris to obtain good iridolenticular separation and good intraocular pressure control.Conclusion: Stitches on the iris surface should be considered as optional therapy in pigmentary glaucoma secondary to intraocular lens implantation. This surgical technique can avoid potential iridolenticular contacts more definitively.Keywords: pigmentary glaucoma, intraocular lens, optical coherence tomography, laser

  8. MRI and intraocular tamponade media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manfre, I. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Inst. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Fabbri, G. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Inst. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Avitabile, T. (Inst. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Biondi, P. (Inst. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Reibaldi, A. (Inst. of Ophthalmology, Univ. of Catania (Italy)); Pero, G. (Dept. of Neuroradiology, Inst. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Catania (Italy))

    1993-05-01

    Thirteen patients who underwent surgery for retinal detachment and injection of intraocular tamponade media (silicone oil, flurosilicone oil, or perfluoro-carbon liquid) underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), using spin-echo T1- and T2-weighted images. The ophthalmic tamponade media showed different signal intensity, according to their chemical structure. Unlike ophthalmoscopy or ultrasonography, MRI showed no oil-related artefact, making possible recognition of recurrent retinal detachment. (orig.)

  9. The effect of pressure on tricalcium silicate hydration at different temperatures and in the presence of retarding additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jupe, Andrew C.; Wilkinson, Angus P.; Funkhouser, Gary P. (Halliburton); (GIT)

    2012-07-25

    The hydration of tricalcium silicate (C{sub 3}S) is accelerated by pressure. However, the extent to which temperature and/or cement additives modify this effect is largely unknown. Time-resolved synchrotron powder diffraction has been used to study cement hydration as a function of pressure at different temperatures in the absence of additives, and at selected temperatures in the presence of retarding agents. The magnitudes of the apparent activation volumes for C{sub 3}S hydration increased with the addition of the retarders sucrose, maltodextrin, aminotri(methylenephosphonic acid) and an AMPS copolymer. Pressure was found to retard the formation of Jaffeite relative to the degree of C{sub 3}S hydration in high temperature experiments. For one cement slurry studied without additives, the apparent activation volume for C{sub 3}S hydration remained close to {approx} -28 cm{sup 3} mol{sup -1} over the range 25 to 60 C. For another slurry, there were possible signs of a decrease in magnitude at the lowest temperature examined.

  10. Overlooked retained intraocular foreign body

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    Adžić-Zečević Antoaneta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The most common cause for litigation against ophthalmologists in a trauma case is a missed intraocular foreign body (IOFB. IOFBs cause internal eye damage, but some will come to rest in the posterior segment of the eye. Case report. We presented a 57-year-old male who was referred to the ophthalmologist due to decreased visual acuity in his left eye. Slit lamp examination of his left eye showed no pathological findings. Goldmann contact lens examination showed IOFB which was lying in the vitreous body in the inferior-temporal region. Retinal rupture was noticed at 7 o’clock. The optical coherence tomography (OCT examination was performed and it showed atrophic macular area as well as decreased peripapillar retinal fiber layers thickness. Ultrasound showed the IOFB in vitreous body cavity. History revealed that the patient had an accidental trauma, 48 years ago, when an old bomb from World War II (WWII exploded. Due to the decrease in visual acuity and fibrosis of the vitreous body surgical intervention was performed on his left eye (phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, pars plana vitrectomy and instrumental extraction of foreign body. Conclusion. The intraocular foreign body (IOFB was asymptomatic for 48 years. Symptoms depend on material and localization of the foreign body and the type of injury.

  11. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T H; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-10-16

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased with an increase in the additive oxygen flow rate. The electron excitation temperature estimated by the Boltzmann plot from several excited helium emission lines increased slightly with the additive oxygen flow. The oxygen atom density in the gas phase estimated by actinometry utilizing argon was observed to increase with the additive oxygen flow. The concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by fluorescence assay was found to be not exactly proportional to that of extracellular ROS (measured by OES), but both correlated considerably. It was also observed that the expression levels of p53 and the phospho-p53 were enhanced in the presence of additive oxygen flow compared with those from the pure helium plasma treatment.

  12. Survey of Intraocular Antibiotics Prophylaxis Practice after Open Globe Injury in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingsheng Lou

    Full Text Available To elucidate the Chinese practice of intraocular antibiotics administration for prophylaxis after open globe injury.A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed online by scanning a Quickmark (QR code with smartphones at the 20th Chinese National Conference of Ocular Trauma in November 2014.A total of 153 (30.6% of all participators at the conference responded. Of the respondents, 20.9% were routinely administered with prophylactic intraocular injection of antibiotics at the conclusion of the primary eye repair, and 56.9% were used only in cases with high risk of endophthalmitis development. The intraocular route of delivery was mainly included with intracameral injection (47.9% and intravitreal injection (42.0%. Cephalosporins (53.8% and vancomycin (42.0% were the main choices of antibiotic agents, followed by fluoroquinolones (24.3%, and aminoglycosides (13.4%. Only 21.9% preferred a combination of two or more two drugs routinely. In addition, significantly more respondents from the referral eye hospital (92.7% replied using intraocular antibiotics injection for prophylaxis compared to those respondents from the primary hospital (69.4% (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test.Intraocular antibiotics injection for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis is widely used in China. However, the choice of antibiotic agents and the intraocular route of delivery vary. A well-designed clinical trial is needed to establish a standardized protocol of intraocular antibiotics administration for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis.

  13. Are blood pressure and diabetes additive or synergistic risk factors? outcome in 8494 subjects randomly recruited from 10 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    It remains unknown whether diabetes and high blood pressure (BP) are simply additive risk factors for cardiovascular outcome or whether they act synergistically and potentiate one another. We performed 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in 8494 subjects (mean age, 54.6 years; 47.0% women; 6.9% diabeti.......Hypertension Research advance online publication, 10 February 2011; doi:10.1038/hr.2011.6....

  14. Factors affecting high-pressure solvent extraction (accelerated solvent extraction) of additives from polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburg, H J; Clifford, A A; Bartle, K D; Zhu, S A; Carroll, J; Newton, I D; Garden, L M

    1998-05-01

    Irganox 1010 (pentaerythritol tetrakis[3-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyphenyl)] propionate) is successfully extracted from polypropylene using solvents at high temperatures and pressures in a homemade accelerated solvent extraction system. For example, using freeze-ground polymer, 90% extraction is possible within 5 min with 2-propanol at 150 °C. Extraction curves for 2-propanol and acetone fit well to the "hot ball" model, previously developed for supercritical fluid extraction. Diffusion coefficients are determined for extractions with 2-propanol, acetone, and cyclohexane over a range of temperatures, and the activation energies for the diffusion are 134, 107, and 61 kJ mol(-)(1), respectively. The lower figure for acetone and cyclohexane indicates that these solvents swell the polymer more than does 2-propanol. The polymer dissolves in the solvent at too high a temperature, which causes blockage of the transfer lines. For maximum extraction rates, the highest temperature for each solvent that avoids dissolution of the polymer should be used. The use of mixed solvents is investigated and shows advantages in some cases, with the aim of producing a solvent that will swell the polymer but not dissolve it.

  15. Blood pressure goal achievement with olmesartan medoxomil-based treatment: additional analysis of the OLMEBEST study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Calderon, Alberto; Böhm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aims Guidelines recommend blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients should be <140 systolic BP (SBP) and <90 diastolic BP (DBP) mmHg. This analysis assessed goal rate achievement in hypertensive patients receiving olmesartan-based treatment in the OLMEBEST study. Methods Patients with essential hypertension (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg and <110 mmHg) received open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day (n = 2306). After 8 weeks, patients with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg (n = 627) were randomized to 4 weeks’ double-blind treatment with olmesartan 40 mg/day monotherapy or olmesartan 20 mg/day plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg/day. For this analysis, the numbers and proportions of patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg and/or DBP < 90 mmHg at the end of the 4 weeks were calculated. Results In patients who achieved DBP normalization (<90 mmHg) at week 8 (n = 1546) and continued open-label olmesartan 20 mg/day, 66.7% achieved SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. In patients who did not achieve DBP normalization at Week 8, 26.8% of those randomized to olmesartan 40 mg/day and 42.5% of those randomized to olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day achieved a SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. Conclusion Olmesartan 40 mg/day and olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day allow substantial proportions of patients to achieve BP goals. PMID:19756164

  16. The influence of additional electrons on memory effect in nitrogen at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesic, Nikola T; Pejovic, Momcilo M; Pejovic, Milic M; Zivanovic, Emilija N, E-mail: nikola.nesic@elfak.ni.ac.rs [University of Nis, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Aleksandra Medvedeva 14, 18000 Nis (Serbia)

    2011-03-09

    Memory effect in nitrogen based on experimental data of electrical breakdown time delay as a function of afterglow period in the presence of additional electrons has been investigated. The additional electrons were supplied as a result of extraction from the auxiliary electrode pair or nitrogen irradiation with the radioactive source {sub 88}{sup 226}Ra of low activity. The results show that these electrons have an important role in the recombination of positive ions formed in mutual metastable molecules' collisions and collisions between metastable and highly vibrationally excited molecules in the early afterglow. As a consequence of the ion-electron recombination N({sup 4}S) atoms are formed which, as well as N({sup 4}S) atoms formed in previous discharge, have a significant influence on the memory effect in late afterglow. The presence of N({sup 4}S) atoms in the late afterglow is tracked by monitoring the secondary emission which they induce via catalytic recombination on the cathode of a nitrogen-filled tube. Also, it has been shown that the contribution of secondary electrons which originate from N({sup 4}S) atoms and Compton electrons when the radioactive source is and isn't present can be distinguished.

  17. Blood pressure goal achievement with olmesartan medoxomil-based treatment: additional analysis of the OLMEBEST study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivencio Barrios

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Vivencio Barrios1, Carlos Escobar1, Alberto Calderon2, Michael Böhm31Department of Cardiology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain; 2Primary Care Center Rosa de Luxemburgo, Madrid, Spain; 3Klinik für Innere Medizin III, Universitätsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar, GermanyAims: Guidelines recommend blood pressure (BP in hypertensive patients should be <140 systolic BP (SBP and <90 diastolic BP (DBP mmHg. This analysis assessed goal rate achievement in hypertensive patients receiving olmesartan-based treatment in the OLMEBEST study.Methods: Patients with essential hypertension (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg and <110 mmHg received open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day (n = 2306. After 8 weeks, patients with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg (n = 627 were randomized to 4 weeks’ double-blind treatment with olmesartan 40 mg/day monotherapy or olmesartan 20 mg/day plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ 12.5 mg/day. For this analysis, the numbers and proportions of patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg and/or DBP < 90 mmHg at the end of the 4 weeks were calculated.Results: In patients who achieved DBP normalization (<90 mmHg at week 8 (n = 1546 and continued open-label olmesartan 20 mg/day, 66.7% achieved SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. In patients who did not achieve DBP normalization at Week 8, 26.8% of those randomized to olmesartan 40 mg/day and 42.5% of those randomized to olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day achieved a SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12.Conclusion: Olmesartan 40 mg/day and olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day allow substantial proportions of patients to achieve BP goals.Keywords: olmesartan medoxomil, hypertension, angiotensin II receptor blocker, goal rates, hydrochlorothiazide

  18. 糖尿病视网膜病变玻璃体视网膜术后高眼压发生率及相关因素%Incidence rate and related factors of intraocular pressure after vitro-retinal surgery for patients with diabetic retinopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旭青; 蔡晓峰; 庹瑶; 陈康

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨糖尿病视网膜病变( DRP)行玻璃体视网膜术后高眼压的发生率及相关因素。方法选择行玻璃体视网膜术治疗的DRP患者986例(1326眼)为研究对象。分析术后高眼压的发生率,并且对比分析不同类型、不同分级、术前是否合并黄斑脱离、行硅油/C3F8充填、术中行全/补充视网膜光凝、是否晶状体切除患者高眼压发生率的差异。结果1326眼术后发生高眼压共计368例(27.8%)。增生型DRP患者术后高眼压发生率(34.0%)显著高于非增生型(17.2%)(χ2=30.648,P=0.000);DRP D级高眼压发生率为34.1%,显著高于 B 级(20.8%)(χ2=16.348,P =0.001);术前合并黄斑脱离患者高眼压发生率(30.4%)显著高于无黄斑脱离患者(22.7%)(χ2=8.834,P =0.003);术中充填硅油患者(39.1%)显著高于填充 C3F8患者(24.0%)(χ2=28.088,P=0.000);术中全视网膜光凝者(32.8%)显著高于补充光凝患者(16.8%)(χ2=21.159,P=0.000);术中行晶状体切除者(40.5%)显著高于无晶状体切除者(25.9%)(χ2=15.532,P=0.0001)。结论 DRP患者玻璃体视网膜术后高眼压的发生率高,并且与DRP类型、分级、术前合并黄斑脱离、术中填充物、视网膜光凝、晶状体切除等相关。%Objective To explore the incidence rate and related factors of high intraocular pressure after vitro-retinal surgery for patients with diabetic retinopathy(DRP). Methods The 986 patients(1 326 eyes) with DRP arranged vitro-retinal surgery were studied. The inci-dence rate of intraocular pressure was analyzed between different types,grades,complicated with macular detachment,filled with silicone oil/C3F8,total/supplementary retina photo-coagulation and crystalline lens excision. Results The incidence rate of high intraocular pressure was 27. 8%(368/1 326). The incidence rate of high intraocular pressure of proliferative DRP (34. 0%) was obviously higher than non-pro-liferative DRP (17. 2%)(χ2 =30. 648,P=0. 000),and higher in DRP D

  19. Evaluation of Vapor Pressure and Ultra-High Vacuum Tribological Properties of Ionic Liquids (2) Mixtures and Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Wilfredo; Koch, Victor R.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Richard, Ryan M.

    2008-01-01

    Ionic liquids are salts, many of which are typically viscous fluids at room temperature. The fluids are characterized by negligible vapor pressures under ambient conditions. These properties have led us to study the effectiveness of ionic liquids containing both organic cations and anions for use as space lubricants. In the previous paper we have measured the vapor pressure and some tribological properties of two distinct ionic liquids under simulated space conditions. In this paper we will present vapor pressure measurements for two new ionic liquids and friction coefficient data for boundary lubrication conditions in a spiral orbit tribometer using stainless steel tribocouples. In addition we present the first tribological data on mixed ionic liquids and an ionic liquid additive. Post mortem infrared and Raman analysis of the balls and races indicates the major degradation pathway for these two organic ionic liquids is similar to those of other carbon based lubricants, i.e. deterioration of the organic structure into amorphous graphitic carbon. The coefficients of friction and lifetimes of these lubricants are comparable to or exceed these properties for several commonly used space oils.

  20. USE OF PRESERVATIVE CONTAINING VS PRESERVATIVE FREE INTRAOCULAR STEROID DURING VITRECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Triamcinolone is a corticosteroid that is used to treat many ophthalmic diseases . Recently, its use has been advocated to aid in visualization of transparent tissue in ophthalmic surgery. It can be used in anterior segment surgery to help manage vitreous loss during complicated cataract surgery. It has been used to visualize the posterior cortical vitreous during pars plana vitrectomy. In addition, it can be useful in the visualization and peeling of the internal limiting membrane. Triamcinolone has been advocated in surgical repair of proliferative vitreoretinopathy both for its visualizing properties and its anti-inflammatory properties. Overall, triamcinolone use in surgery is safe with low incidence of complications including elevated intraocular pressure, cataract and endophthalmitis.

  1. Spray nozzles, pressures, additives and stirring time on viability and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematoda: rhabditida) for greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Grazielle Furtado; Batista, Elder Simões de Paula; Campos, Henrique Borges Neves; Lemos, Raphael Emilio; Ferreira, Marcelo da Costa

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN). Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004), three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa), four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin) and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae) viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the viability or pathogenicity of this nematode. Appropriate techniques for the application of nematodes with backpack sprayers are discussed.

  2. Spray nozzles, pressures, additives and stirring time on viability and pathogenicity of entomopathogenic nematodes (nematoda: rhabditida for greenhouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazielle Furtado Moreira

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate different strategies for the application of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN. Three different models of spray nozzles with air induction (AI 11003, TTI 11003 and AD-IA 11004, three spray pressures (207, 413 and 720 kPa, four different additives for tank mixtures (cane molasses, mineral oil, vegetable oil and glycerin and the influence of tank mixture stirring time were all evaluated for their effect on EPN (Steinernema feltiae viability and pathogenicity. The different nozzles, at pressures of up to 620 kPa, were found to be compatible with S. feltiae. Vegetable oil, mineral oil and molasses were found to be compatible adjuvants for S. feltiae, and stirring in a motorized backpack sprayer for 30 minutes did not impact the v