WorldWideScience

Sample records for adding menu options

  1. Buridan's Ass and a Menu of Options.

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Boyarchenko

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to study how a menu of options affects decisions of a rational agent facing uncertainty over future payoff streams. Using the real options approach, we demonstrate that multiple options not only increase the barrier which the underlying stochastic variable has to reach in order investment became optimal, but cause the investor to be inactive even when the cost of investment is vanishing. As a technical contribution, the paper suggests a robust method of solution of a ...

  2. Restaurant menu labelling: Is it worth adding sodium to the label?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Corey, Paul N; Mendoza, Julio; Henson, Spencer J; L'Abbe, Mary R

    2014-07-31

    Several provincial and federal bills have recommended various forms of menu labelling that would require information beyond just calories; however, the additional benefit of including sodium information is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether sodium information on menus helps consumers make lower-sodium choices and to understand what other factors influence the effect of menu labelling on consumers' meal choices. A total of 3,080 Canadian consumers completed an online survey that included a repeated measures experiment in which consumers were asked to select what they would typically order from four mock-restaurant menus. Subsequently, consumers were randomly allocated to see one of three menu-labelling treatments (calories; calories and sodium; or calories, sodium and serving size) and were given the option to change their order. There was a significant difference in the proportion of consumers who changed their order, varying from 17% to 30%, depending on the restaurant type. After participants had seen menu labelling, sodium levels decreased in all treatments (p<0.0001). However, in three of the four restaurant types, consumers who saw calorie and sodium information ordered meals with significantly less sodium than consumers who saw only calorie information (p<0.01). Consumers who saw sodium labelling decreased the sodium level of their meal by an average of 171-384 mg, depending on the restaurant. In the subset of consumers who saw sodium information and chose to change their order, sodium levels decreased by an average of 681-1,360 mg, depending on the restaurant. Sex, intent to lose weight and the amount of calories ordered at baseline were the most important predictors of who used menu labelling. Eighty percent of survey panelists wanted to see nutrition information when dining out. Including sodium information alongside calorie information may result in a larger decrease in the amount of sodium ordered by restaurant-goers.

  3. Amuse Restaurant Lunch Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Amuse Restaurant

    2017-01-01

    Since opening, Amuse Restaurant has garnered rave reviews from the Country’s most trusted and renowned food critics. Praise has flowed for Conor’s individual style of cooking, which brings Asian flavours, namely Japanese, to modern French cuisine. The menu focuses mainly on tasting menus as it is the best way to experience this kind of food, however there is a three course set menu available Tuesday to Thursday for mid week dining. The lunch menu is a three course affair with the option of a ...

  4. Amuse Restaurant Spring Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Amuse Restaurant

    2017-01-01

    Since opening, Amuse Restaurant has garnered rave reviews from the Country’s most trusted and renowned food critics. Praise has flowed for Conor’s individual style of cooking, which brings Asian flavours, namely Japanese, to modern French cuisine. The menu focuses mainly on tasting menus as it is the best way to experience this kind of food, however there is a three course set menu available Tuesday to Thursday for mid week dining. The lunch menu is a three course affair with the option of a ...

  5. Exploring Value-Added Options - Opportunities in Mouldings and Millwork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Smith; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    The millwork industry, which includes manufacture of doors, windows, stair parts, blinds, mouldings, picture frame material, and assorted trim, can be a lucrative value-added opportunity for sawmills. Those entering the value-added millwork market often find that it is a great opportunity to generate greater profits from upper grades and utility species, such as yellow...

  6. Advanced Search Options in the ADS Abstract Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Astrophysics Data System (ADS) provides access to the astronomical literature through the World Wide Web. It is a NASA funded project and access to all the ADS services is free to everybody world-wide. The ADS Abstract Service allows searching of four databases with abstracts in Astronomy, Instrumentation, Physics/Geophysics, and the LANL Preprints with a total of almost 3 million references in the databases. The system also provides access to reference and citation information, links to on-line data and other on-line information, and to on-line electronic journals. Three advanced feedback queries are available from the bottom of the ADS results list (in addition to regular feedback queries already available from the abstract page and from the bottom of the results list): 1. Get reference list for selected articles: This query returns all known references for the selected articles (or for all articles in the first list). The resulting list will be ranked according to how often each article is referred to and will show the most referenced articles in the field of study that created the first list. It presumably shows the most important articles in that field. 2. Get citation list for selected articles: This returns all known articles that cite one or more of the articles in the first list. The resulting list shows the articles that cite the most articles in the first list at the top. The articles with the most citations are presumably the review articles in the field of study that created the first list. 3. Get also-read list for selected articles: This creates a list of articles that were also read by the readers of the articles in the first list. This list will show what articles are currently being read in the field of study of the first list and will give an idea of which articles are currently considered important for this field. Combinations of these second order queries (e.g. first a citation query to get the review articles, then a reference query to get

  7. Menu labeling: the unintended consequences to the consumer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Ellen A

    2014-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act requires certain restaurants to provide nutritional information on their menus and menu boards, which is referred to as menu labeling. Menu labeling presupposes that providing consumers with the nutritional information about their food will cause them to reconsider their food choices by picking healthier food options over less healthy options, thereby reducing the nation's high obesity rate. However, several studies have shown that consumers do not make healthier food choices even when armed with menu labeling. The issue then becomes whether menu labeling provides a correlative benefit to consumers or whether there are unintended consequences that ultimately harm consumers.

  8. Amuse Restaurant Set Dinner Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Amuse Restaurant

    2017-01-01

    Since opening, Amuse Restaurant has garnered rave reviews from the Country’s most trusted and renowned food critics. Praise has flowed for Conor’s individual style of cooking, which brings Asian flavours, namely Japanese, to modern French cuisine. The menu focuses mainly on tasting menus as it is the best way to experience this kind of food, however there is a three course set menu available Tuesday to Thursday for mid week dining. The lunch menu is a three course affair with the option of a ...

  9. Trigger Menu in 2017

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    This document summarises the trigger menu deployed by the ATLAS experiment during 2017 data taking at proton-proton collision centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV and $\\sqrt{s}=5$ TeV at the LHC and describes the improvements with respect to the trigger system and menu used in 2016 data taking.

  10. Marketing a Menu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-31

    Patients contemplating the relative nutritional values of mixed macedoine of vegetables and pea puree will soon be finding their hospital menu cards enlivened by supermarkets, travel services and other adverts.

  11. Rapidly changing treatment options adding burden to the management of typhoid fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaspal Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever continues to be a global public health problem. It is caused by the facultative intracellular organisms Salmonella enteric serotype Typhi and Salmonella paratyphi. Antimicrobial therapy is the mainstay for treatment of typhoid fever. Chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and cotrimoxazole had been in use for decades for treating enteric fever. But the emergence and rapid spread of drug resistance has resulted in rapid shift of treatment options from chloramphenicol to fluoroquinolones to third generation cephalosporins to azithromycin with tigecycline and carbapenems in line, thus adding burden to the health-care sector in developing countries. Rational and judicious antibiotic prescribing practices by health professionals are necessary to prevent further development of drug resistance and help in re-emergence of sensitive strains.

  12. A menu-driven program for a computerized spectrophotometry and spectrofluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaharia, C.N.; Stoechita, C.

    1993-01-01

    A program in BASIC and assembling language for a spectrophotometer of absorption and emission of fluorescence in UV-visible, with manual operation, interface to a microcomputer, was carried out. The program runs with the modified BASIC interpreter to which there were added the routines in the assembling for the control of the stepping motors, for the A/D and D/A conversions and for the spectrum displaying. The main menu has general controls of the work with the spectrum data files, software facilities for the recording (digital) and the reproducing of the analogue or digital spectrum and controls for the operation of the stepping motors. Some options (functions) need supplementary information such as: names of the files or the work parameters (wavelengths, slew rate) and other options lead to the secondary menus. (Author)

  13. Accounting in the Social Menu

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, José Villacís

    2010-01-01

    This paper was born out of combinatorics. It defines a level of utility which, though it cannot be measured, can be preferred to another in each specific combination of goods. In turn, each combination defines a menu, meaning that there will be as many menus as there are combinations of goods. In this manner, we have a menu and a utility for each…

  14. Effect of different children's menu labeling designs on family purchases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ashley S; Serrano, Elena L; Machin, Jane E; Duetsch, Thomas; Davis, George C

    2013-03-01

    The majority of labeling studies at restaurants have focused on adults, not children, and utilized cross-sectional data with one menu labeling design, typically calorie information. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine the effect of three different menu labeling designs for children's meals on total calories and fat selected by families. Each menu was implemented for 2months. Patrons' purchases were tracked from a control menu (with no nutrition information) through all three theoretically-based designs: calorie and fat information; followed by symbols denoting healthier choices; then nutrition bargain price. All menus were created specifically for the study. They featured six combination meals (pre-determined entrees and side items) and a la carte items (entrees and side items that could be ordered separately). Only combination meals contained labeling. Fixed effects models were estimated to detect changes in sales for each menu labeling design compared to the control. Overall, menu labeling did not result in a positive net effect on total calories or fat purchased by families, but resulted in significant shifts in purchases of combination and a la carte meals and healthy and unhealthy options. The most significant impact was seen for nutrition bargain price labeling, the last design. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Food and Beverage Selection Patterns among Menu Label Users and Nonusers: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Jessie; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2017-06-01

    By May 5, 2017, restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will be required to post calorie information on menus and menu boards. Previous research shows that those who use menu labels purchase fewer calories, but how users are saving calories is unknown. To assess food and beverage selection patterns among menu label users and nonusers. Secondary, cross-sectional analysis using data from a study examining sociodemographic disparities in menu label usage at a national fast-food restaurant chain. Participants were recruited outside restaurant locations, using street-intercept survey methodology. Consenting customers submitted receipts and completed a brief oral survey. Receipt data were used to categorize food and beverage purchases. Side, beverage, and entrée purchases. Sides and beverages were classified as healthier and less-healthy options consistent with the 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Healthier options contained items promoted in the guidelines, such as whole fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, and 100% fruit juice; less-healthy options contained solid fat or added sugar. Entrées were categorized as lower-, medium-, and higher-calorie options, based on quartile cutoffs. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) for purchases among menu label users and nonusers, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and total price paid. Healthier sides were selected by 7.5% of users vs 2.5% of nonusers; healthier beverages were selected by 34.0% of users vs 11.6% of nonusers; and lowest-calorie entrées were selected by 28.3% of users vs 30.1% of nonusers. Compared with nonusers (n=276), users (n=53) had a higher probability of purchasing healthier sides (PR=5.44; P=0.034), and healthier beverages (PR=3.37; P=0.005). No significant differences were seen in the purchasing patterns of entrées. Targeting educational campaigns to side and beverage purchasing behaviors may increase the effectiveness of menu

  16. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...... in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....

  17. Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) and transmutation of nuclear waste: Options and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.

    2001-01-01

    The scope of the lecture is to present: 1) the rationale for transmutation, 2) the principle of ADS (spallation source, sub-critical blanket), 3) an overview of the main concepts being investigated and the ongoing R and D activities in this area, 4) development trends for this technology. (author)

  18. Can we restrict the health care menu?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R

    1994-02-01

    The case of Britain's National Health Service is used to illuminate the cross-national debate about whether the availability of health care should be restricted and, if so, how this should be done. Traditionally, the NHS relied on implicit rationing by clinicians within budgetary constraints set by government. However, the logic of the 1989 reforms appeared to require explicit decisions about the packages of health care to be provided to local populations. In practice, purchasers have refused to define such packages. Explicit rationing remains very much the exception. Exploring the reasons for this suggests that defining a restricted menu of health care, by adopting a cost-utility approach and excluding specific procedures or forms of treatment on the Oregon model, is only one of many policy options. There is a large repertory of policy tools for balancing demands and resources, ranging from diluting the intensity of treatment to its earlier termination. Given that health care is characterised by uncertainty, lack of information about outcomes and patient heterogeneity, it may therefore be more 'rational' to diffuse decision-making among clinicians and managers than to try to move towards a centrally determined menu of entitlements.

  19. The Reinforcing Event (RE) Menu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Roger M.; Homme, Lloyd E.

    1973-01-01

    A motivational system, the Contingency Management System, uses contracts in which some amount of defined task behavior is demanded for some interval of reinforcing event. The Reinforcing Event Menu, a list of high probability reinforcing behaviors, is used in the system as a prompting device for the learner and as an aid for the administrator in…

  20. Benefits of adding small financial incentives or optional group meetings to a web-based statewide obesity initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahey, Tricia M; Subak, Leslee L; Fava, Joseph; Schembri, Michael; Thomas, Graham; Xu, Xiaomeng; Krupel, Katie; Kent, Kimberly; Boguszewski, Katherine; Kumar, Rajiv; Weinberg, Brad; Wing, Rena

    2015-01-01

    To examine whether adding either small, variable financial incentives or optional group sessions improves weight losses in a community-based, Internet behavioral program. Participants (N = 268) from Shape Up Rhode Island 2012, a 3-month Web-based community wellness initiative, were randomized to: Shape Up+Internet behavioral program (SI), Shape Up+Internet program+incentives (SII), or Shape Up+Internet program+group sessions (SIG). At the end of the 3-month program, SII achieved significantly greater weight losses than SI (SII: 6.4% [5.1-7.7]; SI: 4.2% [3.0-5.6]; P = 0.03); weight losses in SIG were not significantly different from the other two conditions (SIG: 5.8% [4.5-7.1], P's ≥ 0.10). However, at the 12-month no-treatment follow-up visit, both SII and SIG had greater weight losses than SI (SII: 3.1% [1.8-4.4]; SIG: 4.5% [3.2-5.8]; SI: 1.2% [-0.1-2.6]; P's ≤ 0.05). SII was the most cost-effective approach at both 3 (SII: $34/kg; SI: $34/kg; SIG: $87/kg) and 12 months (SII: $64/kg; SI: $140/kg; SIG: $113/kg). Modest financial incentives enhance weight losses during a community campaign, and both incentives and optional group meetings improved overall weight loss outcomes during the follow-up period. However, the use of the financial incentives is the most cost-effective approach. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  1. Comparison of fermented animal feed and mushroom growth media as two value-added options for waste Cassava pulp management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakulvichean, Sivalee; Chaiprasert, Pawinee; Otmakhova, Julia; Songkasiri, Warinthorn

    2017-12-01

    Cassava is one of the main processed crops in Thailand, but this generates large amounts (7.3 million tons in 2015) of waste cassava pulp (WCP). The solid WCP is sold directly to farmers or pulp-drying companies at a low cost to reduce the burden of on-site waste storage. Using an integrated direct and environmental cost model, fermented animal feed and mushroom growth media were compared as added-value waste management alternatives for WCP to mitigate environmental problems. Primary and secondary data were collected from the literature, field data, and case studies. Data boundaries were restricted to a gate-to-gate scenario with a receiving capacity of 500 t WCP/d, and based on a new production unit being set up at the starch factory. The total production cost of each WCP utilization option was analyzed from the economic and environmental costs. Fermented animal feed was an economically attractive scenario, giving a higher net present value (NPV), lower investment cost and environmental impact, and a shorter payback period for the 10-year operational period. The selling price of mushrooms was the most sensitive parameter regarding the NPV, while the NPV for the price of fermented animal feed had the highest value in the best-case scenario.

  2. Nudge to nobesity II: Menu positions influence food orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Dayan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ``Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to have significant effects, even erasing obesity over a period of years'' (Rozin et al., 2011. In two studies, one a lab study and the other a real-world study, we examine the effect of manipulating the position of different foods on a restaurant menu. Items placed at the beginning or the end of the list of their category options were up to twice as popular as when they were placed in the center of the list. Given this effect, placing healthier menu items at the top or bottom of item lists and less healthy ones in their center (e.g., sugared drinks vs. calorie-free drinks should result in some increase in favor of healthier food choices.

  3. Restaurant menu labeling use among adults--17 states, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Pan, Liping; Maynard, Leah; Kumar, Gayathri; Park, Sohyun

    2014-07-11

    Many persons underestimate the calories in restaurant foods. Increased attention has been given to menu labeling (ML) as a way to provide consumers with point-of-purchase information that can help them reduce calorie intake and make healthier dietary choices. In 2010, a federal law was passed requiring restaurants with 20 or more establishments to display calorie information on menus and menu boards.* The regulations to implement this federal law have not been finalized, but some states and local jurisdictions have implemented their own ML policies, and many restaurants have already begun providing ML. To assess fast food and chain restaurant ML use by state and by demographic subgroup, CDC examined self-reported ML use by adults in 17 states that used the Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Menu Labeling optional module in the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Based on approximately 97% of adult BRFSS respondents who noticed ML information at restaurants, the estimated overall proportion of ML users in the 17 states was 57.3% (range = 48.7% in Montana to 61.3% in New York). The prevalence of ML use was higher among women than men for all states; the patterns varied by age group and race/ethnicity across states. States and public health professionals can use these findings to track the use of ML and to develop targeted interventions to increase awareness and use of ML among nonusers.

  4. Menu Ideas for Vegetarian Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and calcium. Tofu, kidney and other beans, edamame (soy beans), quinoa, dark leafy greens, fortified soy milk and fortified orange juice are just a few of the many nutrient-rich plant-based options. Remind teens to replace animal-based ... 1 cup navy bean or lentil soup 1 ounce string cheese 1 ...

  5. Menu Proposal to Use Powdered Agar

    OpenAIRE

    土屋, ひろ子; 嶋村, 桃子; 小松, 沙霧

    2015-01-01

    The author was involved in the development of the menu items that might be sold at “Taisho Village”, a theme park. Requirements in the menu development were that cooking should be simple as it starts cooking after receiving orders and it should have attractive appearances. Powdered agar has advantages over rod-shaped or string-shaped agar, with easiness of handling such as its ready solubility in water and no need to wash, rehydrate or strain. Because powdered agar is easy to use in cooking,...

  6. Frequent price changes under menu costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Svejstrup

    1999-01-01

    , the price may be changed more frequent in the short run, and in the long run it definitely will. Hence, observing frequent price changes is not necessarily inconsistent with a firm operating under menu costs. This paper relies on an article by Dixit (1991), (Review of Economic studies, 58, 141......This paper investigates the effect of uncertainty on a single firm's pricing behaviour in a dynamic menu cost model that results in (S,s)-rules where the price is fixed inside a band. It will be demonstrated that even though the band of inaction widens in response to increased uncertainty...

  7. Discontinuation of the Bulletin's menu page

    CERN Document Server

    Publications Section

    2005-01-01

    The menus of the various CERN restaurants will no longer be published in the Bulletin as of Monday 4 April (issue No. 14/2005). The menu pages are being discontinued both as a savings measure and due to the low level of interest in this section of the Bulletin. The most recent survey of Bulletin readers showed that only 13% of the people questioned regularly read the menu section, compared to between 40% and 85% in the case of the other sections. Publications Section SG/CO Tel. 79971

  8. Discontinuation of the Bulletin's menu page

    CERN Multimedia

    Publications Section

    2005-01-01

    The menus of the various CERN restaurants will no longer be published in the Bulletin as of Monday 4 April (issue No. 14/2005). The menu pages are being discontinued both as a savings measure and due to the low level of interest in this section of the Bulletin. The most recent survey of Bulletin readers showed that only 13% of the people questioned regularly read the menu section, compared to between 40% and 85% in the case of the other sections. Publications Section DSU-CO Tel. 79971

  9. Calorie changes in chain restaurant menu items: implications for obesity and evaluations of menu labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Jarlenski, Marian P

    2015-01-01

    Supply-side reductions to the calories in chain restaurants are a possible benefit of upcoming menu labeling requirements. To describe trends in calories available in large U.S. restaurants. Data were obtained from the MenuStat project, a census of menu items in 66 of the 100 largest U.S. restaurant chains, for 2012 and 2013 (N=19,417 items). Generalized linear models were used to calculate (1) the mean change in calories from 2012 to 2013, among items on the menu in both years; and (2) the difference in mean calories, comparing newly introduced items to those on the menu in 2012 only (overall and between core versus non-core items). Data were analyzed in 2014. Mean calories among items on menus in both 2012 and 2013 did not change. Large restaurant chains in the U.S. have recently had overall declines in calories in newly introduced menu items (-56 calories, 12% decline). These declines were concentrated mainly in new main course items (-67 calories, 10% decline). New beverage (-26 calories, 8% decline) and children's (-46 calories, 20% decline) items also had fewer mean calories. Among chain restaurants with a specific focus (e.g., burgers), average calories in new menu items not core to the business declined more than calories in core menu items. Large chain restaurants significantly reduced the number of calories in newly introduced menu items. Supply-side changes to the calories in chain restaurants may have a significant impact on obesity prevention. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Menu for Every Young Mathematician's Appetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legnard, Danielle S.; Austin, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    Math Workshop offers differentiated instruction to foster a deep understanding of rich, rigorous mathematics that is attainable by all learners. The inquiry-based model provides a menu of multilevel math tasks, within the daily math block, that focus on similar mathematical content. Math Workshop promotes a culture of engagement and…

  11. Menu hind on valu? / Jaak Allik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Allik, Jaak, 1946-

    2004-01-01

    Mõtisklusi "Mosfilmis" 1984 valminud mängufilmi "Menu" ainetel, mis kujutab teatri köögipoolt. Sellega seoses arutleb autor lavastaja- ja näitejatöö üle, kunstinõukogude koosolekute osast lavastuse vastuvõtul, teatritöö eetikast

  12. Eliciting the Dutch loan phoneme /g/ with the Menu Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamann, S.; de Jonge, A.

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the menu task, which can be used to elicit infrequent sounds such as loan phonemes that only occur in a restricted set of words. The menu task is similar to the well-known map task and involves the interaction of two participants to create a menu on the basis of a list of

  13. Menu Planning Guide for School Food Service. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanEgmont-Pannell, Dorothy; And Others

    This menu planning guide for school lunches and breakfasts contains: (1) lunch requirements, recommendations, and policies; (2) the basics of menu planning; (3) how to vary portions for various age/grade groups; (4) planning breakfasts; (5) merchandising school lunches and breakfasts; and (6) nutrition education and menu planning; Appendixes…

  14. More items on visitors' menu

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    Visitors to CERN will now be able to appreciate first-hand the sheer scale of the computing challenge associated with the LHC, during guided visits to the Computing Centre. Two more of CERN's experimental facilities have recently been added to the itineraries offered to the public by the Visits Service. The general public will now be able to see the COMPASS experiment and CERN's Computing Centre. Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for visits. Last year, 25 000 visitors came to see sites at CERN. 'Visitors to CERN are impressed by the sheer scale of the experiments, interested to find out how they work and amazed at how they are often located underground,' says Dominique Bertola, Head of the CERN Visits Service. COMPASS is the first fixed-target experiment available for viewing to the general public. The linear structure of the detector makes it an ideal exhibit for the visitors, because it permits them to see the different stages of the experiment and intuitively appreciate how it ...

  15. Exploring Value-Added Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Smith; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at various opportunities for sawmills to add value to rough sawn lumber. The paper discusses edge-glued panels and blanks, mouldings and millwork, niche market opportunities, and timber bridge members.

  16. How descriptive menu labels influence attitudes and repatronage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansink, B.; Painter, J.; Ittersum, van K.

    2002-01-01

    How do descriptive menu labels influence customers? In a six-week field experiment involving 140 customers, descriptive menu labels (such as "Grandma's zucchini cookies" or "succulent Italian seafood filet") increased sales by 27% and improved attitudes towards the food, attitudes towards the

  17. Menu variations for diabetes mellitus patients using Goal Programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhoruri, Atmini; Lestari, Dwi; Ratnasari, Eminugroho

    2017-08-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) was a chronic metabolic disease characterized by higher than normal blood glucose level (normal blood glucose level = = 80 -120 mg/dl). In this study, type 2 DM which mostly caused by unhealthy eating habits would be investigated. Related to eating habit, DM patients needed dietary menu planning with an extracare regarding their nutrients intake (energy, protein, fat and carbohydrate). Therefore, the measures taken were by organizing nutritious dietary menu for diabetes mellitus patients. Dietary menu with appropriate amount of nutrients was organized by considering the amount of calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates. In this study, Goal Programming model was employed to determine optimal dietary menu variations for diabetes mellitus patients by paying attention to optimal expenses. According to the data obtained from hospitals in Yogyakarta, optimal menu variations would be analyzed by using Goal Programming model and would be completed by using LINGO computer program.

  18. Trigger Menu-aware Monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoad, Xanthe; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    We present a“trigger menu-aware” monitoring system designed for the Run-2 data-taking of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Unlike Run-1, where a change in the trigger menu had to be matched by the installation of a new software release at Tier-0, the new monitoring system aims to simplify the ATLAS operational workflows. This is achieved by integrating monitoring updates in a quick and flexible manner via an Oracle DB interface. We present the design and the implementation of the menu-aware monitoring, along with lessons from the operational experience of the new system with the 2016 collision data.

  19. Calorie menu labeling on quick-service restaurant menus: an updated systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Jonas J; Braxton, Danielle; Viera, Anthony J

    2011-12-08

    Nutrition labels are one strategy being used to combat the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 mandates that calorie labels be added to menu boards of chain restaurants with 20 or more locations. This systematic review includes seven studies published since the last review on the topic in 2008. Authors searched for peer-reviewed studies using PUBMED and Google Scholar. Included studies used an experimental or quasi-experimental design comparing a calorie-labeled menu with a no-calorie menu and were conducted in laboratories, college cafeterias, and fast food restaurants. Two of the included studies were judged to be of good quality, and five of were judged to be of fair quality. Observational studies conducted in cities after implementation of calorie labeling were imprecise in their measure of the isolated effects of calorie labels. Experimental studies conducted in laboratory settings were difficult to generalize to real world behavior. Only two of the seven studies reported a statistically significant reduction in calories purchased among consumers using calorie-labeled menus. The current evidence suggests that calorie labeling does not have the intended effect of decreasing calorie purchasing or consumption.

  20. Calorie menu labeling on quick-service restaurant menus: an updated systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swartz Jonas J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nutrition labels are one strategy being used to combat the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 mandates that calorie labels be added to menu boards of chain restaurants with 20 or more locations. This systematic review includes seven studies published since the last review on the topic in 2008. Authors searched for peer-reviewed studies using PUBMED and Google Scholar. Included studies used an experimental or quasi-experimental design comparing a calorie-labeled menu with a no-calorie menu and were conducted in laboratories, college cafeterias, and fast food restaurants. Two of the included studies were judged to be of good quality, and five of were judged to be of fair quality. Observational studies conducted in cities after implementation of calorie labeling were imprecise in their measure of the isolated effects of calorie labels. Experimental studies conducted in laboratory settings were difficult to generalize to real world behavior. Only two of the seven studies reported a statistically significant reduction in calories purchased among consumers using calorie-labeled menus. The current evidence suggests that calorie labeling does not have the intended effect of decreasing calorie purchasing or consumption.

  1. Restaurant Menu Labeling Policy: Review of Evidence and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanEpps, Eric M.; Roberto, Christina A.; Park, Sara; Economos, Christina D.; Bleich, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    In response to high rates of obesity in the USA, several American cities, counties, and states have passed laws requiring restaurant chains to post labels identifying the energy content of items on menus, and nationwide implementation of menu labeling is expected in late 2016. In this review, we identify and summarize the results of 16 studies that have assessed the impact of real-world numeric calorie posting. We also discuss several controversies surrounding the US Food and Drug Administration's implementation of federally mandated menu labeling. Overall, the evidence regarding menu labeling is mixed, showing that labels may reduce the energy content of food purchased in some contexts, but have little effect in other contexts. However, more data on a range of ong-term consumption habits and restaurant responses is needed to fully understand the impact menu labeling laws will have on the US population's diet. PMID:26877095

  2. Biomass valorisation by staged degasification A new pyrolysis-based thermochemical conversion option to produce value-added chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wild, P. J.; den Uil, H.; Reith, J. H.; Kiel, J. H. A.; Heeres, H. J.

    Pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass leads to an array Of useful solid, liquid and gaseous products. Staged degasification is a pyrolysis-based conversion route to generate value-added chemicals from biomass. Because of different thermal stabilities of the main biomass constituents hemicellulose.

  3. Comparison of the nutrient content of children's menu items at US restaurant chains, 2010-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deierlein, Andrea L; Peat, Kay; Claudio, Luz

    2015-08-15

    To determine changes in the nutritional content of children's menu items at U.S. restaurant chains between 2010 and 2014. The sample consisted of 13 sit down and 16 fast-food restaurant chains ranked within the top 50 US chains in 2009. Nutritional information was accessed in June-July 2010 and 2014. Descriptive statistics were calculated for nutrient content of main dishes and side dishes, as well as for those items that were added, removed, or unchanged during the study period. Nutrient content of main dishes did not change significantly between 2010 and 2014. Approximately one-third of main dishes at fast-food restaurant chains and half of main dishes at sit down restaurant chains exceeded the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommended levels for sodium, fat, and saturated fat in 2014. Improvements in nutrient content were observed for side dishes. At sit down restaurant chains, added side dishes contained over 50% less calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium, and were more likely to contain fruits/vegetables compared to removed sides (p restaurant chains contained less saturated fat (p restaurant industry and policy makers to improve the nutritional content of children's menu items at restaurant chains to align with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Additional efforts are necessary to help parents and children make informed choices when ordering at restaurant chains.

  4. Trigger Menu-aware Monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00441925; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the trigger menu, the online algorithmic event-selection of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, are followed by adjustments to the ATLAS trigger monitoring systems. During Run 1, and so far in Run 2, ATLAS has deployed monitoring updates with the installation of new software releases at Tier-0, the first level of the ATLAS computing grid. Having to wait for a new software release to be installed at Tier-0, in order to update ATLAS offline trigger monitoring configurations, results in a lag with respect to the modification of the trigger menu. We present the design and implementation of a `trigger menu-aware' monitoring system that aims to simplify the ATLAS operational workflows by allowing monitoring configuration changes to be made at the Tier-0 site by utilising an Oracle SQL database.

  5. 75 FR 68361 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Restaurant Menu...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Restaurant Menu and... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Restaurant Menu and Vending Machine Labeling... restaurants and similar retail food establishments (SRFE) with 20 or more locations doing business under the...

  6. The CMS experiment puts physics onto the menu

    CERN Document Server

    Leonidopoulos, Christos

    2011-01-01

    CMS has addressed the challenge of identifying in real time different kinds of 
physics at the LHC – from the "bread and butter" of Standard Model processes to 
signals of new particles – with triggers served up according to a carefully designed menu.

  7. Impact of Menu Sequencing on Internet-Based Educational Module Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensley, Robert; Brusk, John J.; Rivas, Jason; Anderson, Judith V.

    2006-01-01

    Patterns of Internet-based menu item selection can occur for a number of reasons, many of which may not be based on interest in topic. It then becomes important to ensure menu order is devised in a way that ensures the greatest accuracy in matching user need with selection. This study examined the impact of menu rotation on the selection of…

  8. An SPSSR -Menu for Ordinal Factor Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Basto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploratory factor analysis is a widely used statistical technique in the social sciences. It attempts to identify underlying factors that explain the pattern of correlations within a set of observed variables. A statistical software package is needed to perform the calculations. However, there are some limitations with popular statistical software packages, like SPSS. The R programming language is a free software package for statistical and graphical computing. It offers many packages written by contributors from all over the world and programming resources that allow it to overcome the dialog limitations of SPSS. This paper offers an SPSS dialog written in theR programming language with the help of some packages, so that researchers with little or no knowledge in programming, or those who are accustomed to making their calculations based on statistical dialogs, have more options when applying factor analysis to their data and hence can adopt a better approach when dealing with ordinal, Likert-type data.

  9. Transportation dose analysis using an interactive menu-driven computer program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenge, D.L.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1984-10-01

    An easy-to-use software package is described for performing radiological consequence analyses for transportation scenarios involving truck or rail transport of spent fuel, HLW and other radioactive waste forms. The consequence analysis is based on the unit radiological factors (person-rem/km) developed by the Transportation Technology Center (Sandia National Laboratories). These generic unit radiological factors are combined with user-supplied information describing transporation distances, routes and waste types to estimate total exposure of the population. The software was developed for use in preparing the Environmental Assessment for the Monitored Retrievable Storage Program and is suitable for such analyses as siting waste repositories. The key feature of the software is the user-oriented, menu-driven interactive input mode available as an alternative to formatted input. The interactive input option allows the user to supply all input data, edit the data and run the program. Output reports can be diverted to a high-speed printer

  10. A Cluster Randomized Trial to Promote Healthy Menu Items for Children: The Kids' Choice Restaurant Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Castro, Iana A; Pickrel, Julie L; Lin, Shih-Fan; Williams, Christine B; Madanat, Hala; Jun, Hee-Jin; Zive, Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Evidence indicates that restaurant-based interventions have the potential to promote healthier purchasing and improve the nutrients consumed. This study adds to this body of research by reporting the results of a trial focused on promoting the sale of healthy child menu items in independently owned restaurants. Eight pair-matched restaurants that met the eligibility criteria were randomized to a menu-only versus a menu-plus intervention condition. Both of the conditions implemented new healthy child menu items and received support for implementation for eight weeks. The menu-plus condition also conducted a marketing campaign involving employee trainings and promotional materials. Process evaluation data captured intervention implementation. Sales of new and existing child menu items were tracked for 16 weeks. Results indicated that the interventions were implemented with moderate to high fidelity depending on the component. Sales of new healthy child menu items occurred immediately, but decreased during the post-intervention period in both conditions. Sales of existing child menu items demonstrated a time by condition effect with restaurants in the menu-plus condition observing significant decreases and menu-only restaurants observing significant increases in sales of existing child menu items. Additional efforts are needed to inform sustainable methods for improving access to healthy foods and beverages in restaurants.

  11. A Cluster Randomized Trial to Promote Healthy Menu Items for Children: The Kids’ Choice Restaurant Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X.; Castro, Iana A.; Pickrel, Julie L.; Lin, Shih-Fan; Williams, Christine B.; Madanat, Hala; Jun, Hee-Jin; Zive, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Evidence indicates that restaurant-based interventions have the potential to promote healthier purchasing and improve the nutrients consumed. This study adds to this body of research by reporting the results of a trial focused on promoting the sale of healthy child menu items in independently owned restaurants. Eight pair-matched restaurants that met the eligibility criteria were randomized to a menu-only versus a menu-plus intervention condition. Both of the conditions implemented new healthy child menu items and received support for implementation for eight weeks. The menu-plus condition also conducted a marketing campaign involving employee trainings and promotional materials. Process evaluation data captured intervention implementation. Sales of new and existing child menu items were tracked for 16 weeks. Results indicated that the interventions were implemented with moderate to high fidelity depending on the component. Sales of new healthy child menu items occurred immediately, but decreased during the post-intervention period in both conditions. Sales of existing child menu items demonstrated a time by condition effect with restaurants in the menu-plus condition observing significant decreases and menu-only restaurants observing significant increases in sales of existing child menu items. Additional efforts are needed to inform sustainable methods for improving access to healthy foods and beverages in restaurants. PMID:29194392

  12. A Cluster Randomized Trial to Promote Healthy Menu Items for Children: The Kids’ Choice Restaurant Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe X. Ayala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that restaurant-based interventions have the potential to promote healthier purchasing and improve the nutrients consumed. This study adds to this body of research by reporting the results of a trial focused on promoting the sale of healthy child menu items in independently owned restaurants. Eight pair-matched restaurants that met the eligibility criteria were randomized to a menu-only versus a menu-plus intervention condition. Both of the conditions implemented new healthy child menu items and received support for implementation for eight weeks. The menu-plus condition also conducted a marketing campaign involving employee trainings and promotional materials. Process evaluation data captured intervention implementation. Sales of new and existing child menu items were tracked for 16 weeks. Results indicated that the interventions were implemented with moderate to high fidelity depending on the component. Sales of new healthy child menu items occurred immediately, but decreased during the post-intervention period in both conditions. Sales of existing child menu items demonstrated a time by condition effect with restaurants in the menu-plus condition observing significant decreases and menu-only restaurants observing significant increases in sales of existing child menu items. Additional efforts are needed to inform sustainable methods for improving access to healthy foods and beverages in restaurants.

  13. Promoting the selection of healthy food through menu item description in a family-style restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, J J; Elder, J P; Peterson, G; Knisley, P M; Carleton, R A

    1987-01-01

    We describe an attempt to influence the selection of menu items in a family-style restaurant. Three different messages, varying in content and emphasis, were used to promote one food special each intervention day. One message emphasized that the specials were particularly healthful, being relatively low in fat, sodium, and cholesterol. A second message stressed flavor and added that the choice was healthful. A third, nonspecific message made no mention of taste or health factors, but simply noted that there was a daily special. Results indicated that restaurant patrons selected healthful specials when the message noted that the choice was healthful but emphasized flavor. Patrons were apparently more open to information about the palatability of the food than its healthfulness per se. These results have implications for point-of-purchase health promotion efforts in general, especially those involving food-labeling programs in restaurants and grocery stores.

  14. Designing an Incentive Contract Menu for Sustaining the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs an incentive contract menu to achieve long-term stability for electricity prices in a day-ahead electricity market. A bi-level Stackelberg game model is proposed to search for the optimal incentive mechanism under a one-leader and multi-followers gaming framework. A multi-agent simulation platform was developed to investigate the effectiveness of the incentive mechanism using an independent system operator (ISO and multiple power generating companies (GenCos. Further, a Q-learning approach was implemented to analyze and assess the response of GenCos to the incentive menu. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the incentive contract.

  15. Using a visual plate waste study to monitor menu performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Priscilla L; Rozell, Sarah B

    2004-01-01

    Two visual plate waste studies were conducted in 1-week phases over a 1-year period in an acute care hospital. A total of 383 trays were evaluated in the first phase and 467 in the second. Food items were ranked for consumption from a low (1) to high (6) score, with a score of 4.0 set as the benchmark denoting a minimum level of acceptable consumption. In the first phase two entrees, four starches, all of the vegetables, sliced white bread, and skim milk scored below the benchmark. As a result six menu items were replaced and one was modified. In the second phase all entrees scored at or above 4.0, as did seven vegetables, and a dinner roll that replaced sliced white bread. Skim milk continued to score below the benchmark. A visual plate waste study assists in benchmarking performance, planning menu changes, and assessing effectiveness.

  16. Computer Algebra-based RBES personalized menu generator

    OpenAIRE

    Roanes-Lozano, Eugenio; Galán-García, José Luis; Aguilera-Venegas, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    People have many constraints concerning the food they eat. These constraints can be based on religious believes, be due to food allergies or to illnesses, or can be derived just from personal preferences. Therefore, preparing menus at hospitals and restaurants can be really complex. Another special situation arise when travel- ing abroad. It is not always enough to know the brief description in the restaurant menu or the explanation of the waiter. For example, “calamares en su...

  17. IFF, Full-Screen Input Menu Generator for FORTRAN Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Albert

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The IFF-package contains input modules for use within FORTRAN programs. This package enables the programmer to easily include interactive menu-directed data input (module VTMEN1) and command-word processing (module INPCOM) into a FORTRAN program. 2 - Method of solution: No mathematical operations are performed. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Certain restrictions of use may arise from the dimensioning of arrays. Field lengths are defined via PARAMETER-statements

  18. Warranty menu design for a two-dimensional warranty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Zhi-Sheng; Murthy, D.N. Pra

    2016-01-01

    Fierce competitions in the commercial product market have forced manufacturers to provide customer-friendly warranties with a view to achieving higher customer satisfaction and increasing the market share. This study proposes a strategy that offers customers a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices, called a flexible warranty policy. We investigate the design of a flexible two-dimensional warranty policy that contains a number of rectangular regions. This warranty policy is obtained by dividing customers into several groups according to their use rates and providing each group a germane warranty region. Consumers choose a favorable one from the menu according to their usage behaviors. Evidently, this flexible warranty policy is attractive to users of different usage behaviors, and thus, it gives the manufacturer a good position in advertising the product. When consumers are unaware about their use rates upon purchase, we consider a fixed two-dimensional warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region and show that it is equivalent to the flexible policy. Such an equivalence reveals the inherent relationship between the rectangular warranty policy, the L-shape warranty policy, the step-stair warranty policy and the iso-probability of failure warranty policy that were extensively discussed in the literature. - Highlights: • We design a two-dimensional warranty menu with a number of warranty choices. • Consumers can choose a favorable one from the menu as per their usage behavior. • We further consider a fixed 2D warranty policy with a stair-case warranty region. • We show the equivalence of the two warranty policies.

  19. Trigger Menu-aware Monitoring for the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hoad, Xanthe; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the trigger menu, the online algorithmic event-selection of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in response to luminosity and detector changes are followed by adjustments in their monitoring system. This is done to ensure that the collected data is useful, and can be properly reconstructed at Tier-0, the first level of the computing grid. During Run 1, ATLAS deployed monitoring updates with the installation of new software releases at Tier-0. This created unnecessary overhead for developers and operators, and unavoidably led to different releases for the data-taking and the monitoring setup. We present a "trigger menu-aware" monitoring system designed for the ATLAS Run 2 data-taking. The new monitoring system aims to simplify the ATLAS operational workflows, and allows for easy and flexible monitoring configuration changes at the Tier-0 site via an Oracle DB interface. We present the design and the implementation of the menu-aware monitoring, along with lessons from the operational experience of the ne...

  20. Application of the Health Belief Model to customers' use of menu labels in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jin-Yi; Ham, Sunny

    2018-04-01

    Some countries require the provision of menu labels on restaurant menus to fight the increasing prevalence of obesity and related chronic diseases. This study views customers' use of menu labels as a preventive health behavior and applies the Health Belief Model (HBM) with the aim of determining the health belief factors that influence customers' use of menu labels. A self-administered survey was distributed for data collection. Responses were collected from 335 restaurant customers who experienced menu labels in restaurants within three months prior to the survey. The results of a structural equation model showed that all the HBM variables (perceived threats, perceived benefits, and perceived barriers of using menu labels) positively affected the customers' use of menu labels. Perceived threats were influenced by cues to action and cues to action had an indirect influence on menu label use through perceived threats. In conclusion, health beliefs were good predictors of menu label use on restaurant menus. This study validated the application of the HBM to menu labeling in restaurants, and its findings could offer guidelines for the industry and government in developing strategies to expand the use of menu labels among the public. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of a user interface and evaluation of an ontology for menu-based retrieval; Soho menu ni tekishita interface no kaihatsu to yogo bunrui no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Y.; Shinohara, Y.

    2000-06-01

    We have proposed the 'complementary menu system' as an easy-to-build and easy-to-use menu system. It has two component menu systems, one is based on a word taxonomy and the other is based on the document structure (e.g., the table of contents of the target document). By the user's selection of an item on a menu, the positions and relevance of related items are shown on the other menu, which makes users easier to select proper menu items. We have also shown the combination of context-sensitive menus reduces user's errors of selection of menu items by several experiments. In this report, we investigate the choice of word taxonomies effective for novice users and the design of structure and interface of menus to reduce overlooked related items. 1. Comparative experiment among a complementary menu using a general-purpose word taxonomy used in a thesaurus and the ones using domain-specific taxonomies based on quick references used in the target document, shows that even novice users prefer domain-specific word taxonomies and exhibit higher performance in retrieval significantly. 2. Comparison between a domain-specific word taxonomy that arranges different categories in a line and another domain-specific word taxonomy which reorganizes the categories under one parent category, suggests users relatively prefer the latter taxonomy but the preference depends on the amount of user's domain specific knowledge. 3. Component menu system which has only one menu showing the whole taxonomic hierarchy with scrollbars on which the positions and relevance of related items are shown is effective to reduce the number of overlooked items. (author)

  2. Energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampton, Michael

    1999-01-01

    This chapter focuses on energy options as a means of managing exposure to energy prices. An intuitive approach to energy options is presented, and traditional definitions of call and put options are given. The relationship between options and swaps, option value and option exercises, commodity options, and option pricing are described. An end-user's guide to energy option strategy is outlined, and straight options, collars, participating swaps and collars, bull and bear spreads, and swaption are examined. Panels explaining the defining of basis risk, and discussing option pricing and the Greeks, delta hedging, managing oil options using the Black-Scholes model, caps, floors and collars, and guidelines on hedging versus speculation with options are included in the paper

  3. Pengaruh Keragaman Menu, Kualitas Produk, Citra Merek, dan Iklan terhadap Keputusan Pemebelian

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Muhammad Wahyu; Waluyo, Handoyo Djoko; Listyorini, Sari

    2013-01-01

    In the restaurant business, which is the key to success is the diversity of menu and the quality of products offered. Consumers will compare the suitability of the sacrifices made by the quality of products and the diversity of the menu offered by the restaurant, other attributes inherent in a product such as brand image and advertising needs to be developed to influence customer purchase. This study aims to determine effect of the diversity of menu, product quality, brand image, and adverti...

  4. Does a grill menu redesign influence sales, nutrients purchased, and consumer acceptance in a worksite cafeteria?

    OpenAIRE

    Maya K. Vadiveloo; Vasanti S. Malik; Donna Spiegelman; Walter C. Willett; Josiemer Mattei

    2017-01-01

    Worksite cafeterias are compelling venues to improve diet quality through environmental changes.We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate how a cafeteria-initiated grill menu redesign influenced sales, revenue, and nutrient content of foods purchased. Secondly, we evaluated consumer opinions about menu changes to inform practices for worksite environment interventions. Monthly sales data (2012–2015) were used to compute gross sales and revenue of entrées and side dishes pre-post menu changes....

  5. Fast-food menu offerings vary in dietary quality, but are consistently poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Reedy, Jill; Kahle, Lisa L; Harris, Jennifer L; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Krebs-Smith, Susan M

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate five popular fast-food chains' menus in relation to dietary guidance. Menus posted on chains' websites were coded using the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies and MyPyramid Equivalents Database to enable Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores to be assigned. Dollar or value and kids' menus and sets of items promoted as healthy or nutritious were also assessed. Five popular fast-food chains in the USA. Not applicable. Full menus scored lower than 50 out of 100 possible points on the HEI-2005. Scores for Total Fruit, Whole Grains and Sodium were particularly dismal. Compared with full menus, scores on dollar or value menus were 3 points higher on average, whereas kids' menus scored 10 points higher on average. Three chains marketed subsets of items as healthy or nutritious; these scored 17 points higher on average compared with the full menus. No menu or subset of menu items received a score higher than 72 out of 100 points. The poor quality of fast-food menus is a concern in light of increasing away-from-home eating, aggressive marketing to children and minorities, and the tendency for fast-food restaurants to be located in low-income and minority areas. The addition of fruits, vegetables and legumes; replacement of refined with whole grains; and reformulation of offerings high in sodium, solid fats and added sugars are potential strategies to improve fast-food offerings. The HEI may be a useful metric for ongoing monitoring of fast-food menus.

  6. Effects of an icon-based menu labelling initiative on consumer food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerins, Claire; Cunningham, Katie; Finucane, Francis M; Gibson, Irene; Jones, Jenni; Kelly, Colette

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an icon-based menu labelling initiative on consumer buying behaviour. This quasi-experimental study recruited a convenience sample of eight food service establishments, all with at least one menu item meeting the heart healthy criteria. Data from sales of all menu items sold over an 8-week period were collated 4 weeks prior to and 4 weeks during the display of information icons related to healthy food choices on menus. The absolute change in menu item sales showed a non-significant trend towards an increase in healthier menu item selections. Furthermore, there was no association between the type of food service establishment and the percentage change in labelled menu item sales. The study did not find a statistically significant influence of the icon-based menu labels on consumer food choice. Given the limited amount of research that examines alternative menu labelling formats in real-world settings, more studies are necessary to confirm these results. Further research is needed to identify the optimal format, content and impact of menu labels on consumer behaviour.

  7. From Menu to Mouth: Opportunities for Sodium Reduction in Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    Restaurant foods can be a substantial source of sodium in the American diet. According to the Institute of Medicine, the significant contribution made by restaurants and food service menu items to Americans’ sodium intake warrants targeted attention. Public health practitioners are uniquely poised to support sodium-reduction efforts in restaurants and help drive demand for lower-sodium products through communication and collaboration with restaurant and food service professionals and through incentives for restaurants. This article discusses the role of the public health practitioner in restaurant sodium reduction and highlights select strategies that have been taken by state and local jurisdictions to support this effort. PMID:24456646

  8. Advancing the climate agenda: Exploiting material and institutional linkages to develop a menu of policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asselt, H.D.; Gupta, J.; Biermann, F.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of interlinkages of existing material and the strengthening and promotion of new institutional interlinkages can widen the climate change agenda through new and innovative policy and legal measures. Material linkages are inherent structural connections between policy domains that are

  9. Controlling particulate matter under the Clean Air Act: a menu of options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document was prepared by STAPPA and ALAPCO to help US state and local air pollution control officials understand the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health and air quality, the relative contribution of various sources to particulate emissions, and the effectiveness and costs of various approaches - including innovative ones - to minimizing these emissions. The document covers particulate matter with a nominal diameter of 10 microns ({mu}m) or less (PM{sub 10}), including `fine` PM of 2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}). Sections cover: the effects of particulate matter on human health; regulatory issues; characterization of particulate matter; emission control strategies for mobile sources (diesel engines, small nonroad engines, alternative fuels etc.), particulates from stationary sources (electric utilities, industry and commercial fuel combustion; mineral products industry, metallurgical industry etc.); particulates from area sources; and market-based strategies for controlling particulate matter. 2 apps.

  10. Slowing global warming biotically - Options for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Each of the five biotic approaches introduced in Chapter 2 is applicable to some extent in the US. Taking US land-use characteristics into account, a menu of policy options tailored to US carbon storage opportunities is presented. Several of the options are capable of significantly reducing net US carbon emissions; several offer corollary benefits in areas other than global warming mitigation. The time frame and costs of the different options vary widely, although in most cases some level of implementation appears economically justified even without considering global warming. The approach, projected costs, and advantages of seven different policy options are profiled

  11. Mandating nutrient menu labeling in restaurants: potential public health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stran, Kimberly A; Turner, Lori W; Knol, Linda

    2013-03-01

    Many Americans have replaced home-cooked meals with fast food and restaurants meals. This contributes to increased incidences of overweight and obesity. Implementing policies that require restaurants to disclose nutrition information has the potential to improve nutrition knowledge and food behaviors. The purpose of this paper was to examine the potential health benefits of nutrient menu labeling in restaurants, the progress of this legislation and to provide results regarding the implementation of these policies. Data sources were obtained from a search of multiple databases including PubMed, Science Direct, Academic Search Premier, and Google Scholar. Study inclusion criteria were publication in the past ten years, obesity prevention, and utilization of nutrition labeling on menus in restaurants. The initial policies to provide consumers with nutrition information in restaurant settings began at the state levels in 2006. These laws demonstrated success, other states followed, and a national law was passed and is being implemented. Mandating nutrient menu disclosure has the potential to influence a large number of people; this legislation has the opportunity to impact Americans who dine at a fast food or chain restaurant. Given the growing obesity epidemic, continued research is necessary to gauge the effectiveness of this new law and its effects on the health status of the American people.

  12. Hairy AdS solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-01-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  13. Hairy AdS solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés, E-mail: andres.anabalon@uai.cl [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales and Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Av. Padre Hurtado 750, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru, E-mail: dumitru.astefanesei@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile)

    2016-11-10

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  14. Trends in Sodium Content of Menu Items in Large Chain Restaurants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, Julia A; Moran, Alyssa J; Jarlenski, Marian P; Bleich, Sara N

    2018-01-01

    Consuming too much sodium is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, and restaurant foods are a primary source of sodium. This study assessed recent trends in sodium content of menu items in U.S. chain restaurants. Data from 21,557 menu items in 66 top-earning chain restaurants available from 2012 to 2016 were obtained from the MenuStat project and analyzed in 2017. Generalized linear models were used to examine changes in calorie-adjusted, per-item sodium content of menu items offered in all years (2012-2016) and items offered in 2012 only compared with items newly introduced in 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. Overall, calorie-adjusted sodium content in newly introduced menu items declined by 104 mg from 2012 to 2016 (prestaurant type; sodium content, particularly for main course items, was high. Sodium declined by 83 mg in fast food restaurants, 19 mg in fast casual restaurants, and 163 mg in full service restaurants. Sodium in appetizer and side items newly introduced in 2016 increased by 266 mg compared with items on the menu in 2012 only (prestaurants. However, sodium content of core and new menu items remain high, and reductions are inconsistent across menu categories and restaurant types. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of restaurant menu calorie labeling on hypothetical meal choices of females with disordered eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Roberto, Christina A

    2017-03-01

    Concerns have been raised that obesity public policy measures may have harmful effects on individuals with eating disorders. However, little research has investigated this topic. We examined the impact of a popular obesity public policy, menu calorie labeling, on hypothetical food choices of women with disordered eating. Seven hundred sixteen adult females completed an online survey in which they were randomly assigned to receive a restaurant menu with or without calorie information listed. Participants selected foods representative of a meal they would choose to consume and answered questions on restaurant ordering and menu labeling. Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (Fairburn & Beglin, ) to assess global eating pathology. Diagnoses of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge-eating disorder (BED) were also derived from this measure. Generalized linear modeling examined the impact of menu label condition, disordered eating, and the menu label by disordered eating interaction on hypothetical food selection and related variables. When disordered eating was examined continuously, menu labeling did not differentially affect food selections of those with elevated disordered eating (p = .45). However, when examined by eating disorder diagnosis, participants with AN or BN ordered significantly fewer (p < .001) and participants with BED ordered significantly more (p = .001) calories in the menu label versus no label condition. Menu labeling may decrease the calories ordered among individuals with AN or BN and increase calories ordered among individuals with BED. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. 75 FR 67978 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Restaurant Menu...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Restaurant Menu Labeling... appropriate, and other forms of information technology. Restaurant Menu Labeling: Registration for Small... restaurants and similar retail food establishments (SRFE) with 20 or more locations, as well as operators of...

  17. Captivate MenuBuilder: Creating an Online Tutorial for Teaching Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yelinek, Kathryn; Tarnowski, Lynn; Hannon, Patricia; Oliver, Susan

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors, students in an instructional technology graduate course, describe a process to create an online tutorial for teaching software. They created the tutorial for a cyber school's use. Five tutorial modules were linked together through one menu screen using the MenuBuilder feature in the Adobe Captivate program. The…

  18. I saw the sign: the new federal menu-labeling law and lessons from local experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, Michelle I

    2010-01-01

    Following the lead of several state and local governments, Congress recently imposed menu-labeling requirements on chain restaurants as part of the federal health care reform bill signed into law in March 2010. Section 4205 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act requires restaurant chains with 20 or more locations nationwide to display calorie information for standard menu items on menus, menu boards, and drive-thru displays. This paper examines the new federal law in light of existing state and local regulations and considers the arguments for and against mandatory calorie labeling at restaurants as a federal tool for preventing obesity. Specifically, this paper examines the provisions of the new federal law, highlights how it differs from the municipal and state menu-labeling laws already in effect, reviews early studies of the effectiveness of these state and local laws, and considers the propriety of requiring restaurants to disclose calorie information on menus by discussing arguments for and against menu labeling generally and calorie labeling in particular. This paper finds that based on initial studies of state and local menu-labeling regulations, the efficacy of compulsory menu labeling as a tool to combat obesity remains uncertain. Finally, this paper raises practical considerations associated with the new federal law, including implementation issues, potential collateral effects of the law, a survey of legal challenges that may arise, and a discussion of the Food and Drug Administration's competence to enforce a menu-labeling requirement against restaurants.

  19. Using Cascading Style Sheets to Design a Fly-Out Menu with Microsoft Visual Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Downing, Charles

    2010-01-01

    The menu has become an integrated component within nearly all professionally designed websites. This teaching tip presents a no-code way to design either a vertical or a horizontal fly-out menu by using Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) within Microsoft Visual Studio 2008. The approach described in this tip helps students fully understand how to…

  20. 7 CFR 220.8 - Nutrition standards and menu planning approaches for breakfasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: (A) Grains/breads; and/or (B) Meat/meat alternate. (2) Quantities for the traditional food-based menu... potatoes to meet the grain/bread requirement. (h) What are the requirements for alternate menu planning... versus serve; (C) How such procedures will reduce plate waste; and (D) How a reasonable level of calories...

  1. The ATLAS Trigger Menu Design for Higher Luminosities in Run-2

    CERN Document Server

    Wiglesworth, Craig; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In this presentation we describe the design criteria for the trigger menu for Run-2. We discuss several aspects of the process of planning the trigger menu, starting from how ATLAS physics goals and the need for detector performance measurements enter the menu design, and how rate, bandwidth, and CPU constraints are folded in during the compilation of the menu. We present the tools that allow us to predict and optimize the trigger rates and CPU consumption for the anticipated LHC luminosities. We outline the online system that we implemented to monitor deviations from the individual trigger target rates and to quickly react to changing LHC conditions and data taking scenarios. Finally we give an overview of the updated 2E34 Trigger Menu, allowing the listener to get a taste of the vast physics program that the trigger is supporting.

  2. Rehabilitation Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ... Speech Pathology Occupational Therapy Art Therapy Recreational therapy Neuropsychology Home Care Options Advanced Care Planning Palliative Care ...

  3. Sociodemographic disparities among fast-food restaurant customers who notice and use calorie menu labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jessie E; Brown, Alan G; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2015-07-01

    As part of the recently passed Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, chain restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide will soon be required to post calorie information on menus with the aim of helping customers make healthier food choices. To be effective, this policy must affect all customers, especially those most at risk for poor health and diet outcomes. To determine whether noticing or using calorie menu labels was associated with demographic characteristics of customers at a national fast-food chain currently implementing calorie menu labeling. Cross-sectional analysis. Customer receipts and survey data were collected from 329 participants using street-intercept survey methodology at 29 McDonald's restaurant locations in low- and high-income neighborhoods throughout the Phoenix, AZ, metropolitan area. Calorie menu labeling awareness and use were assessed. The total number of calories purchased was evaluated using participants' itemized receipts. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds of customers noticing or using calorie menu labels. Approximately 60% of participants noticed calorie menu labels, whereas only 16% reported using the information for food or beverage purchases. Higher-income individuals had twice the odds of noticing calorie labels (P=0.029) and three times the odds of using them (P=0.004). Significant positive associations were found between individuals with a bachelor's degree or higher and use of calorie menu labels (odds ratio 3.25; P=0.023). Noticing calorie menu labels was not associated with purchasing fewer calories; however, those who reported using calorie information purchased 146 fewer calories than those who did not (P=0.001). Using calorie menu labels is associated with purchasing fewer calories. However, there are significant socioeconomic disparities among customers who notice and use calorie menu labels. Targeted education campaigns are needed to improve the use of menu labeling

  4. OASIS: a COBOL-11 menu-driven information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.F. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Automated Safeguards Information System (OASIS) is a near real-time nuclear materials/precious metals safeguard and accountability control system. Using COBOL and RSTS/E on a dedicated 11/34, the system performs on-line inventory update, inquiry and report functions. Processed transactions consisting of intra-laboratory movements, on-site receipts and off-site shipments are maintained for inquiry and report preparation. A secure, controlled but friendly user environment is maintained by chaining between menu and data manipulation tasks. The use of menus, security and access control, screen manipulation, file access and contention, word processing activities, task size problems and other aspects of this application will be discussed

  5. What menu changes do restaurants make after joining a voluntary restaurant recognition program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kaur, Mandip; Dunning, Lauren; Montes, Christine; Kuo, Tony

    2015-06-01

    Programs that recognize restaurants for offering healthful options have emerged as a popular strategy to address the obesity epidemic; however, program fidelity and business responses to such programs are rarely assessed. This study sought to examine how retail restaurants in Los Angeles County chose to comply with participation criteria required by the Choose Health LA Restaurants initiative in the region; the program recognizes restaurants for offering reduced-size portions and healthy children's meals. Menus of all restaurants that joined within 1 year of program launch (n = 17 restaurant brands) were assessed for changes. Nine of the 17 brands made changes to their menus to meet participation criteria for reduced-size portions while 8 of the 10 restaurant brands that offered children's menus made changes to improve the healthfulness of children's meals. Results of this comparative assessment lend support to restaurant compliance with program criteria and menu improvements, even though they are voluntary, representing an important step toward implementing this strategy in the retail environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal Feeding Goals and Restaurant Menu Choices for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domoff, Sarah E; Kiefner-Burmeister, Allison; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2015-08-01

    Childhood obesity remains a major public health issue. One recent effort to improve the obesogenic environment is mandating that restaurants provide calorie and other nutritional content on menus. Little is known about whether maternal feeding for young children is influenced by calorie disclosure on menus. This study examined (1) whether maternal feeding goals associate with mothers' food selections for their young children and (2) whether mothers change entrée and side selections for their children when calories/fat grams are listed on menus. One-hundred seventy mothers of children ages of 3-6 years participated in an online survey. Most participants identified as white (76.5%), with a mean BMI of 25.68 (standard deviation=5.94). Mothers were presented two menus (one with and one without calorie/fat information). The goal of feeding for the child's familiarity with the food was significantly associated with mothers' selection of original side dish and entrées, with greater endorsement of this goal associated with choosing high-calorie/-fat sides and entrées. Feeding for natural content was associated with mothers' selection of original entrée, with greater endorsement of this goal associated with choosing low-calorie/-fat entrées. Significantly fewer mothers chose a higher-calorie entrée when there was menu labeling. Maternal feeding goals are associated with mothers' selection of entrée and side dishes on restaurant menus. Results from this study suggest that menu labeling of calories and fat grams may influence entrée choices by mothers. Targeting mothers' feeding goals and labeling restaurant menus may improve the diets of young children.

  7. Menu labeling regulations and calories purchased at chain restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, James W; Chan, Nadine L; Saelens, Brian E; Ta, Myduc L; Solet, David; Fleming, David W

    2013-06-01

    The federal menu labeling law will require chain restaurants to post caloric information on menus, but the impact of labeling is uncertain. The goal of the current study was to examine the effect of menu labeling on calories purchased, and secondarily, to assess self-reported awareness and use of labels. Single-community pre-post-post cross-sectional study. Data were collected in 2008-2010 and analyzed in 2011-2012. 50 sites from 10 chain restaurants in King County, Washington, selected through stratified, two-stage cluster random sampling. A total of 7325 customers participated. Eligibility criteria were: being an English speaker, aged ≥ 14 years, and having an itemized receipt. The study population was 59% male, 76% white non-Hispanic, and 53% agedmenu boards was implemented. Mean number of calories purchased. No significant changes occurred between baseline and 4-6 months postregulation. Mean calories per purchase decreased from 908.5 to 870.4 at 18 months post-implementation (38 kcal, 95% CI=-76.9, 0.8, p=0.06) in food chains and from 154.3 to 132.1 (22 kcal, 95% CI=-35.8, -8.5, p=0.002) in coffee chains. Calories decreased in taco and coffee chains, but not in burger and sandwich establishments. They decreased more among women than men in coffee chains. Awareness of labels increased from 18.8% to 61.7% in food chains and from 4.4% to 30.0% in coffee chains (both pmenu labeling in some restaurant chains and among women but not men. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Relationships among grocery nutrition label users and consumers' attitudes and behavior toward restaurant menu labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G; Mathe-Soulek, Kimberly; Higgins, Joseph A

    2013-12-01

    In the United States (US), based on the 2010 Affordable Care Act, restaurant chains and similar retail food establishments with 20 or more locations are required to begin implementing calorie information on their menus. As enacting of the law begins, it is important to understand its potential for improving consumers' healthful behaviors. Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore relationships among users of grocery nutrition labels and attitudes toward restaurant menu labeling, along with the caloric content of their restaurant menu selection. Study participants were surveyed and then provided identical mock restaurant menus with or without calories. Results found that participants who used grocery nutrition labels and believed they would make healthy menu selections with nutrition labels on restaurant menus made healthier menu selections, regardless of whether the menu displayed calories or not. Consumers' nutrition knowledge and behaviors gained from using grocery nutrition labels and consumers' desire for restaurants to provide nutrition menu labels have a positive effect on their choosing healthful restaurant menu items. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Poor nutrition on the menu: children's meals at America's top chain restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batada, Ameena; Bruening, Meg; Marchlewicz, Elizabeth H; Story, Mary; Wootan, Margo G

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated the nutritional quality of children's meals at chain restaurants, because children obtain about a third of their daily calories from away-from-home foods and studies show that restaurant foods are often higher in calories and lower in nutritional value than foods prepared at home. We assessed the nutritional quality of children's meals at the 50 largest U.S. restaurant chains by visiting each chain's web site or calling the company. Eighteen of the chains did not have children's meals and 10 did not provide adequate nutrition information to be included in the study. The nutritional quality of each meal combination was evaluated against a set of nutrition standards based on key nutrition recommendations in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Of the 22 restaurants that had children's menus and available nutrition information, 99% of 1662 children's meal combinations were of poor nutritional quality. Restaurants should support healthier choices for children by reformulating existing menu items and adding new healthier items, posting calories on menus, and setting nutrition standards for marketing to children.

  10. A Note on the impact on sales from introducing healthy labeled meals on the lunch menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    Menu labeling of prepared meals away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper, we use a field experiment to analyze if a restaurant benefits from introducing a healthy labeled meal on its menu by experiencing an overall increase in sales. We cann...... reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a healthy labeled meal on the menu, i.e., our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a healthy labeled meal....

  11. Technological requirements on refrigeration as seen by a frozen menu manufacturer; Technologische Anforderungen an die Kaeltetechnik aus der Sicht eines Tiefkuehl-Menue-Herstellers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konietzko, M. [Apetito AG, Rheine (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The present paper examines hour refrigeration in future will need to contribute to production pactices of frozen food manufacturers. This is exemplified for the practical everyday use of a froster. The paper also points out the limitations of present-day frozen menu manufacture. Finally, it discusses future demands on refrigeration regarding ecology and economy. Optimization tasks for the future are to increase freezing speed and render it controllable and to improve capacity control. (HW) [Deutsch] Es wird der Beitrag untersucht, den die Kaeltetechnik in der Produktionspraxis eines TK-Menue-Herstellers in Zukunft leisten muss. Hierzu werden der praktische, taegliche Einsatz am Beispiel eines TK-Frosters dargestellt. Ferner werden die heutigen Grenzen einer TK-Menue-Herstellung aufgezeigt. Abschliessend werden zukuenftige Anforderungen an die Kaeltetechnik unter den Aspekten Oekologie und Oekonomie beleuchtet. Zukuenftige Optimierungsansaetze liegen in einer besseren und angepassten Gefriergeschwindigkeit sowie in einer besser regulierbaren Leistung. (HW)

  12. The ATLAS Trigger in Run-2 - Design, Menu and Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS trigger has been used very successfully for online event selection during the first part of the second LHC run (Run-2) in 2015/16 at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The trigger system is composed of a hardware Level-1 trigger and a software-based high-level trigger. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. The trigger system exploits topological information, as well as multi-variate methods to carry out the necessary physics filtering. In total, the ATLAS online selection consists of thousands of different individual triggers. Taken together constitute the trigger menu, which reflects the physics goals of the collaboration while taking into account available data taking resources. The trigger selection capabilities of ATLAS during Run-2 have been significantly improved compared to Run-1, in order to cope with the higher event rates and number of interactions per bunch crossing (pileup) which are the result of the...

  13. Adding Ajax

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    Ajax can bring many advantages to an existing web application without forcing you to redo the whole thing. This book explains how you can add Ajax to enhance, rather than replace, the way your application works. For instance, if you have a traditional web application based on submitting a form to update a table, you can enhance it by adding the capability to update the table with changes to the form fields, without actually having to submit the form. That's just one example.Adding Ajax is for those of you more interested in extending existing applications than in creating Rich Internet Applica

  14. Pengaruh Terpaan Komunikasi Pemasaran Menu Breakfast Mcdonald"s Keputusan Pembelian

    OpenAIRE

    Tasuki, Martia Mutiara; Pradekso, Tandiyo; Ulfa, Nurist Surayya

    2013-01-01

    PENGARUH TERPAAN KOMUNIKASI PEMASARAN MENU BREAKFAST MCDONALD'S DAN CITRA PRODUK TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIANSkripsiDisusun untuk memenuhi persyaratan menyelesaikanPendidikan Strata IJurusan Ilmu Komunikasi Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu PolitikUniversitas DiponegoroPenyusunNama : Martia Mutiara TasukiNIM : D2C 005 183JURUSAN ILMU KOMUNIKASIFAKULTAS ILMU SOSIAL DAN ILMU POLITIKUNIVERSITAS DIPONEGOROSEMARANG2013PENGARUH TERPAAN KOMUNIKASI PEMASARAN MENU BREAKFAST MCDONALD'S DAN CITRA PRODUK TER...

  15. Calorie Changes in Large Chain Restaurants: Declines in New Menu Items but Room for Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Sara N; Wolfson, Julia A; Jarlenski, Marian P

    2016-01-01

    Large chain restaurants reduced the number of calories in newly introduced menu items in 2013 by about 60 calories (or 12%) relative to 2012. This paper describes trends in calories available in large U.S. chain restaurants to understand whether previously documented patterns persist. Data (a census of items for included restaurants) were obtained from the MenuStat project. This analysis included 66 of the 100 largest U.S. restaurants that are available in all three of the data years (2012-2014; N=23,066 items). Generalized linear models were used to examine: (1) per-item calorie changes from 2012 to 2014 among items on the menu in all years; and (2) mean calories in new items in 2013 and 2014 compared with items on the menu in 2012 only. Data were analyzed in 2014. Overall, calories in newly introduced menu items declined by 71 (or 15%) from 2012 to 2013 (p=0.001) and by 69 (or 14%) from 2012 to 2014 (p=0.03). These declines were concentrated mainly in new main course items (85 fewer calories in 2013 and 55 fewer calories in 2014; p=0.01). Although average calories in newly introduced menu items are declining, they are higher than items common to the menu in all 3 years. No differences in mean calories among items on menus in 2012, 2013, or 2014 were found. The previously observed declines in newly introduced menu items among large restaurant chains have been maintained, which suggests the beginning of a trend toward reducing calories. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Penyusunan Dan Penyelenggaran A La Carte Menu Pada Hotel Sinabung Dan Resort

    OpenAIRE

    Nasution, Rahmawaty

    2011-01-01

    Dalam operasional hotel, hotel memiliki beberapa departemen yang mempunyai peranan yang sangat penting dalam penjualan jasa dan pelayanan, dan salah satunya adalah departemen Food & Beverage. Food & Beverage mempunyai peran yang sangat besar dalam sebuah hotel, karena pendapatan sebuah hotel yang terbesar ada pada Food & Beverage terutama pada restoran. Adapun salah satu nama jenis restoran yang ada di Hotel Sinabung. Hotel Sinabung menyediakan jenis menu antara lain A La Carte Menu. M...

  17. Assessing the Effects of Gender and Education on the Influence of Menu Labels Among Latino Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez-Cardoso, Aresha Maree

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional content labels on fast food and restaurant menus and signage have gained popularity and momentum with the recognized need to motivate individuals to improve their eating habits outside the home. However, no known studies have assessed nutrition and menu labeling behavior among Latino consumers while taking into consideration factors such as gender and education. Higher levels of education may influence the utility of menu labeling as more educated individuals recognize the benefi...

  18. Preferences for menu labelling formats of young adults in Brazil and in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Carvalho de OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective This pilot study was aimed at exploring preferences of young adults in two different contexts on restaurant menu labelling formats. Methods Five focus groups were conducted with 36 participants, two focus groups with 11 participants in Brazil and three focus groups with 25 in the United Kingdom. Themes originating from the content analysis of the transcriptions were organised around four possible menu labelling formats: 1 numerical information on calories; 2 numerical information on calories and nutrients; 3 traffic light system plus Guideline Daily Amounts; 4 food information with ingredients list plus highlighted symbols. Results In both countries, participants preferred the ingredients list plus symbols format, considered more comprehensive and useful to make an informed food choice. Organic food and vegetarian symbols were the ones considered most important to appear on restaurant menu labels with ingredients list. However, most participants in Brazil and in the United Kingdom rejected the information restricted to calories and calories plus nutrients formats, saying that these would not influence their own choices. Conclusion This is the first multicultural qualitative study exploring preferences of people living in different countries with different eating habits, but where menu labelling is voluntary. Results evidenced similarities in participants’ likes and dislikes for menu labelling formats in these two different contexts. Discussions showed participants in both countries prefer qualitative information than numerical information, suggesting that ingredients list and symbols provide information that people want to see on the menu.

  19. Fourteen-year trends in sodium content of menu offerings at eight leading fast-food restaurants in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudelt, Amanda; French, Simone; Harnack, Lisa

    2014-08-01

    To examine changes in the Na content of lunch/dinner menu offerings at eight of the leading fast-food restaurants in the USA between 1997/1998 and 2009/2010. Menu offerings and nutrient composition information for the menu items were obtained from archival versions of the University of Minnesota Nutrition Coordinating Center (NCC) Food and Nutrient Database. Nutrient composition information for lunch/dinner menu items sold by the fast-food restaurants included in the present study was updated in the database biannually. Menus were analysed for changes in mean Na content of all menu offerings (except beverages) and specific categories of menu items among all restaurants and for each individual restaurant. Lunch/dinner food menu of eight leading US fast-food restaurants. Between 1997/1998 and 2009/2010 the mean Na content of menu offerings across the eight restaurants increased by 23·4 %. Examining specific food categories, mean Na content of entrées by increased 17·2 % and that of condiments increased by 26·1 %. Only side dishes showed a decrease of 6·6 %. None of the restaurants examined had a decrease in Na across the lunch/dinner menu offerings over the 14 years examined. Results suggest that over the time period studied there has been no meaningful reduction in the Na content of lunch/dinner menu offerings at the leading fast-food restaurants examined in the present study.

  20. Potential effect of physical activity based menu labels on the calorie content of selected fast food meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowray, Sunaina; Swartz, Jonas J; Braxton, Danielle; Viera, Anthony J

    2013-03-01

    In this study we examined the effect of physical activity based labels on the calorie content of meals selected from a sample fast food menu. Using a web-based survey, participants were randomly assigned to one of four menus which differed only in their labeling schemes (n=802): (1) a menu with no nutritional information, (2) a menu with calorie information, (3) a menu with calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, or (4) a menu with calorie information and miles to walk to burn those calories. There was a significant difference in the mean number of calories ordered based on menu type (p=0.02), with an average of 1020 calories ordered from a menu with no nutritional information, 927 calories ordered from a menu with only calorie information, 916 calories ordered from a menu with both calorie information and minutes to walk to burn those calories, and 826 calories ordered from the menu with calorie information and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories. The menu with calories and the number of miles to walk to burn those calories appeared the most effective in influencing the selection of lower calorie meals (p=0.0007) when compared to the menu with no nutritional information provided. The majority of participants (82%) reported a preference for physical activity based menu labels over labels with calorie information alone and no nutritional information. Whether these labels are effective in real-life scenarios remains to be tested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Budget Options

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This volume-part of the Congressional Budget Office's (CBO's) annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Budget-is intended to help inform policymakers about options for the federal budget...

  2. Nudging Our Way to a Healthier Population: The Effect of Calorie Labeling and Self-Control on Menu Choices of Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising, Camella J; Bol, Nadine

    2017-08-01

    Emerging adults are among those in the United States with concerning rates of overweight and obesity, putting them at risk for chronic diseases. One proposed intervention to address these issues across populations is to require that chain restaurants and similar establishments provide nutrition information, such as calorie labels, on menu items. This study therefore aims to examine the effect of menu calorie labeling and self-control on food and beverage choices of emerging adults. Results of a between-subjects experiment (n = 179) revealed that calorie labeling increased the likelihood of choosing lower calorie food and beverage options. Moreover, calorie labeling only led to selecting a lower calorie food option among those with high self-control, but not among those with low self-control. This moderating effect was not revealed for beverage choice. Public health practitioners and policymakers should consider intervention approaches that address other drivers of choice, such as self-control, in addition to nutrition information.

  3. A menu-driven software package of Bayesian nonparametric (and parametric) mixed models for regression analysis and density estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabatsos, George

    2017-02-01

    Most of applied statistics involves regression analysis of data. In practice, it is important to specify a regression model that has minimal assumptions which are not violated by data, to ensure that statistical inferences from the model are informative and not misleading. This paper presents a stand-alone and menu-driven software package, Bayesian Regression: Nonparametric and Parametric Models, constructed from MATLAB Compiler. Currently, this package gives the user a choice from 83 Bayesian models for data analysis. They include 47 Bayesian nonparametric (BNP) infinite-mixture regression models; 5 BNP infinite-mixture models for density estimation; and 31 normal random effects models (HLMs), including normal linear models. Each of the 78 regression models handles either a continuous, binary, or ordinal dependent variable, and can handle multi-level (grouped) data. All 83 Bayesian models can handle the analysis of weighted observations (e.g., for meta-analysis), and the analysis of left-censored, right-censored, and/or interval-censored data. Each BNP infinite-mixture model has a mixture distribution assigned one of various BNP prior distributions, including priors defined by either the Dirichlet process, Pitman-Yor process (including the normalized stable process), beta (two-parameter) process, normalized inverse-Gaussian process, geometric weights prior, dependent Dirichlet process, or the dependent infinite-probits prior. The software user can mouse-click to select a Bayesian model and perform data analysis via Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. After the sampling completes, the software automatically opens text output that reports MCMC-based estimates of the model's posterior distribution and model predictive fit to the data. Additional text and/or graphical output can be generated by mouse-clicking other menu options. This includes output of MCMC convergence analyses, and estimates of the model's posterior predictive distribution, for selected

  4. Adding sodium information to casual dining restaurant menus: Beneficial or detrimental for consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Karen; Almanza, Barbara; Ghiselli, Richard F; Behnke, Carl; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2018-06-01

    High sodium levels in restaurant food have prompted Philadelphia and New York City to require inclusion of sodium content in addition to calories on menus to "nudge" consumers toward lower sodium foods. However, taste perceptions may impact the effectiveness of this intervention. An online survey tested whether sodium and calorie menu nutrition information (MNI) influenced consumer choices from a casual dining restaurant menu, accounting for consumers' intuition about taste of food relative to sodium, calories, and healthiness. Consumer choices were assessed based on calorie and sodium content of the menu items they selected. Participants were randomized to a menu with (1) calorie MNI only, (2) calorie plus numeric sodium MNI, (3) calorie MNI plus a sodium warning symbol for foods with 2300 mg of sodium or more, or (4) no MNI. Calorie plus numeric sodium MNI was associated with selection of meals lower in sodium compared to meals from the calorie MNI only menu or no MNI menu, but only for consumers with a taste intuition that (relatively) lower sodium, lower calorie, healthy foods were tasty. Consumers with the opposite taste intuition *(foods with these characteristics are not tasty) ordered meals higher in sodium. Inclusion of the sodium warning symbol did not result in a significantly different meal sodium content compared to the other menu conditions, regardless of taste intuition. However, differing levels of taste intuition alone, without consideration of MNI, was associated with ordering meals of significantly different calorie content. Overall, findings suggest adding calorie plus numeric sodium MNI may lead to beneficial outcomes (i.e., selecting meals lower in sodium) for some consumers and detrimental outcomes (i.e., selecting meals higher in sodium) for others, depending on their taste intuition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Does a grill menu redesign influence sales, nutrients purchased, and consumer acceptance in a worksite cafeteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya K. Vadiveloo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Worksite cafeterias are compelling venues to improve diet quality through environmental changes.We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate how a cafeteria-initiated grill menu redesign influenced sales, revenue, and nutrient content of foods purchased. Secondly, we evaluated consumer opinions about menu changes to inform practices for worksite environment interventions. Monthly sales data (2012–2015 were used to compute gross sales and revenue of entrées and side dishes pre-post menu changes. Alternative protein sources replaced red meat; nutrient composition and nutrients purchased were compared using Food Pro software. Consumer responses were queried using online surveys; open-ended responses were analyzed using NVivo. Differences in sales and nutrient content pre-post menu redesign were tested with Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests. Gross sales of entrées (61 vs. 222servings/month; p=0.01 and side dishes (120 vs. 365servings/month; p=0.001 increased more than three-fold post-menu changes. Revenue from entrées (312 vs. 1144USD/month; p=0.01 and side dishes (238 vs. 914USD/month; p=0.001 also increased; per entrée, consumers purchased significantly more unsaturated fat (5g, and less saturated fat (3g and sodium (100mg. For side dishes, they purchased fewer calories (48kcal and unsaturated fat (2.9g, but more fiber (1.8g, and sodium (260mg. Four themes emerged from consumer responses: the importance of 1 variety, novelty, choice; 2 cost, affordability, value; 3 health; and 4 food quality, taste. Menu redesign can improve nutrient content, while also increasing sales and revenue. Multi-dimensional assessment of the nutritional, consumer, and retailer implications is desirable practice for enacting similar environmental changes. Keywords: Worksite health promotion, Food environment change, Consumer satisfaction, Menu redesign, Sales and revenue

  6. Healthier side dishes at restaurants: an analysis of children's perspectives, menu content, and energy impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Dawes, Franciel; Sliwa, Sarah; Dolan, Peter R; Nelson, Miriam E; Washburn, Kyle; Economos, Christina D

    2014-07-04

    Children consume restaurant-prepared foods at high rates, suggesting that interventions and policies targeting consumption of these foods have the potential to improve diet quality and attenuate excess energy intake. One approach to encouraging healthier dietary intake in restaurants is to offer fruits and vegetables (FV) as side dishes, as opposed to traditional, energy-dense accompaniments like French fries. The aims of the current study were to examine: children's views about healthier side dishes at restaurants; current side dish offerings on children's menus at leading restaurants; and potential energy reductions when substituting FV side dishes in place of French fries. To investigate children's attitudes, a survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of U.S. 8- to 18-year-olds (n = 1178). To examine current side dish offerings, children's menus from leading quick service (QSR; n = 10) and full service restaurant chains (FSR; n = 10) were analyzed. Energy reductions that could result from substituting commonly-offered FV side dishes for French fries were estimated using nutrition information corresponding to the children's menu items. Two-thirds of children reported that they would not feel negatively about receiving FV sides instead of French fries with kids' meals. Liking/taste was the most common reason that children gave to explain their attitudes about FV side dishes. Nearly all restaurants offered at least 1 FV side dish option, but at most restaurants (60% of QSR; 70% of FSR), FV sides were never served by default. Substituting FV side dishes for French fries yielded an average estimated energy reduction of at least 170 calories. Results highlight some healthy trends in the restaurant context, including the majority of children reporting non-negative attitudes about FV side dishes and the consistent availability of FV side dish options at leading QSR and FSR. Yet the minority of restaurants offer these FV sides by default

  7. Reducing calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium in restaurant menu items: Effects on consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anjali A; Lopez, Nanette V; Lawless, Harry T; Njike, Valentine; Beleche, Mariana; Katz, David L

    2016-12-01

    To assess consumer acceptance of reductions of calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium to current restaurant recipes. Twenty-four menu items, from six restaurant chains, were slightly modified and moderately modified by reducing targeted ingredients. Restaurant customers (n = 1,838) were recruited for a taste test and were blinded to the recipe version as well as the purpose of the study. Overall consumer acceptance was measured using a 9-point hedonic (like/dislike) scale, likelihood to purchase scale, Just-About-Right (JAR) 5-point scale, penalty analysis, and alienation analysis. Overall, modified recipes of 19 menu items were scored similar to (or better than) their respective current versions. Eleven menu items were found to be acceptable in the slightly modified recipe version, and eight menu items were found to be acceptable in the moderately modified recipe version. Acceptable ingredient modifications resulted in a reduction of up to 26% in calories and a reduction of up to 31% in sodium per serving. The majority of restaurant menu items with small reductions of calories, fat, saturated fat, and sodium were acceptable. Given the frequency of eating foods away from home, these reductions could be effective in creating dietary improvements for restaurant diners. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  8. Environmental and Individual Factors Affecting Menu Labeling Utilization: A Qualitative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Jennifer; Kiszko, Kamila; Abrams, Courtney; Islam, Nadia; Elbel, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern that disproportionally affects low-income and minority populations. Recent policies mandating the posting of calories on menus in fast food chain restaurants have not proven to uniformly influence food choice. This qualitative research study uses focus groups to study individual and environmental factors affecting the usage of these menu labels among low-income, minority populations. Ten focus groups targeting low-income residents (n=105) were conducted at various community organizations throughout NYC in Spanish, English, or a combination of both languages, over a nine-month period in 2011. In late 2011 and early 2012, transcripts were coded through the process of thematic analysis using Atlas.ti for naturally emerging themes, influences, and determinants of food choice. Few used menu labels, despite awareness. Among the themes pertaining to menu label usage, price and time constraints, confusion and lack of understanding of caloric values, as well as the priority of preference, hunger, and habitual ordering habits were most frequently cited as barriers to menu label usage. Based on the individual and external influences on food choice that often take priority over calorie consideration, a modified approach may be necessary to make menu labels more effective and user-friendly. PMID:23402695

  9. The history and impact of the New York City menu labeling law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernell, Brent

    2010-01-01

    As a result of the recent federal health care legislation, all restaurants in the United States that are part of a chain with twenty or more locations serving substantially the same menu items will be required to post the calorie information of the food they serve directly on menus and menu boards. This development represents the culmination of a regulatory initiative to combat the growth of obesity that only began in 2006 with the decision by the New York City Board of Health to require calorie posting in New York City chain restaurants. That initiative, Regulation 81.50, was the first of its kind in the United States; and yet, less than four years later, the idea has become a national standard. This paper tracks the history of New York City's landmark regulation, detailing the drafting of the law, the initial legal victory for the restaurant association challenging it, and the ultimate triumph of the City in winning legal validation of its calorie posting mandate. In doing so, this paper will also use the New York City regulation as a launching point to discuss the rationale behind menu labeling, to examine the potential legal pitfalls of menu labeling laws, to track the development of the initiative from New York City to a national standard, and finally, to evaluate the preliminary data on whether or not menu labeling is actually effective in achieving its ultimate goal: changing consumer eating habits and reducing obesity.

  10. Bubbling AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, Dario; Morales, Jose Francisco

    2005-01-01

    In the light of the recent Lin, Lunin, Maldacena (LLM) results, we investigate 1/2-BPS geometries in minimal (and next to minimal) supergravity in D = 6 dimensions. In the case of minimal supergravity, solutions are given by fibrations of a two-torus T 2 specified by two harmonic functions. For a rectangular torus the two functions are related by a non-linear equation with rare solutions: AdS 3 x S 3 , the pp-wave and the multi-center string. 'Bubbling', i.e. superpositions of droplets, is accommodated by allowing the complex structure of the T 2 to vary over the base. The analysis is repeated in the presence of a tensor multiplet and similar conclusions are reached, with generic solutions describing D1D5 (or their dual fundamental string-momentum) systems. In this framework, the profile of the dual fundamental string-momentum system is identified with the boundaries of the droplets in a two-dimensional plane. (author)

  11. PENERAPAN TEKNIK PENYUSUNAN MENI DI RESTORAN BENGAWAN SOLO HOTEL SAHID JAYA, JAKARTA [The Aplication of Menu Engineering at Bengawan Solo Restaurant, Sahid Jaya Hotel Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Hubies 1); Sindi Astu Banuhapsari 2)

    2001-01-01

    Menu engineering (ME) is a step-by-step process wich is designed to help management in evaluating the current and future menu pricing, menu composition and to set decisions about price and menu. The main objectives of ME are tomake the next menu more profitable and to attract of guest’s attention. It has two critical aspect, that are contribution margin/CM (related to profit) and menu mix/MM (related to an item popularity rate amoing other item). The combination of CM and MM wll result in an ...

  12. Development of Web-Based Menu Planning Support System and its Solution Using Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Shimpei; Ishii, Hiroaki

    2009-10-01

    Recently lifestyle-related diseases have become an object of public concern, while at the same time people are being more health conscious. As an essential factor for causing the lifestyle-related diseases, we assume that the knowledge circulation on dietary habits is still insufficient. This paper focuses on everyday meals close to our life and proposes a well-balanced menu planning system as a preventive measure of lifestyle-related diseases. The system is developed by using a Web-based frontend and it provides multi-user services and menu information sharing capabilities like social networking services (SNS). The system is implemented on a Web server running Apache (HTTP server software), MySQL (database management system), and PHP (scripting language for dynamic Web pages). For the menu planning, a genetic algorithm is applied by understanding this problem as multidimensional 0-1 integer programming.

  13. Revaluasi Inventory dengan Menu Standard pada SAP-B1 Sesuaikah dengan IFRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Novianti

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Some available standard modules in SAP-B1 can be adapted for changes in accounting rules and regulations. One is the Inventory Revaluation menu of Inventory module. Users can use the menu to make Inventory value adjustments of value in SAP-B1, to be consistent with the values that must be presented in the financial statements. Based on the flexibility provided by SAP-B1menu, should not be too difficult for users of SAP-B1 to manage accounting transactions based on accounting rules that apply today, IFRS. IFRS requirements on inventory adjustment transactions with a value of SAP-B1 could be done more easily.

  14. Ready for policy? Stakeholder attitudes toward menu labelling in Toronto, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Catherine L; Vanderlinden, Loren; Mamatis, Dia; Ansara, Donna L; Levy, Jennifer; Swimmer, Lisa

    2013-04-18

    The purpose of this research was to assess key stakeholder attitudes regarding menu labelling in Toronto, the largest municipality in Canada. Menu labelling is a population health intervention where food-labelling principles are applied to the eating-out environment through disclosure of nutrient content of food items on restaurant menus at the point of sale. Menu-labelling legislation has been implemented in the United States, but has yet to be adopted in Canada. As provincial voluntary programs and federal analyses progress, municipal jurisdictions will need to assess the feasibility of moving forward with parallel interventions. Data were collected and analyzed in late 2011 to early 2012, including: a consumer eating-out module incorporated into a public health surveillance telephone survey (n=1,699); an online survey of independent restaurant operators (n=256); in-depth key informant interviews with executives and decision makers at chain restaurants (n=9); and a policy consultation with local restaurant associations. Toronto residents, particularly men, younger adults, and those with higher income or education, frequently eat out. A majority indicated that nutrition information is important to them; 69% note that they currently use it and 78% reported they would use it if it were readily available. Resistance to menu-labelling requirements at the municipal level was articulated by franchise/chain restaurant executives and industry associations. Despite overall low interest among independent restaurant operators, 57% reported feeling some responsibility to provide nutrition information and 50% believed it could be good for business. This research supports earlier literature that indicates strong public support for menu labelling alongside perceived barriers among the restaurant and foodservices sector. Leverage points for effective operator engagement for menu-labelling adoption were identified, nonetheless, highlighting the need for public health support.

  15. Macronutrient Composition of Menu Offerings in Fast Food Restaurants in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarlenski, Marian P; Wolfson, Julia A; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-10-01

    A high intake of fast food is associated with increased obesity risk. This study assessed recent changes in caloric content and macronutrient composition in large U.S. fast food restaurants. Data from the MenuStat project included 11,737 menu items in 37 fast food restaurants from 2012 to 2014. Generalized linear models were used to examine changes in the caloric content and corresponding changes in the macronutrient composition (non-sugar carbohydrates, sugar, unsaturated fat, saturated fat, and protein) of menu items over time. Additionally, macronutrient composition was compared in menu items newly introduced in 2013 and 2014, relative to 2012. Analyses, conducted in January 2016, controlled for restaurant and were stratified by menu categories. Overall, there was a 22-calorie reduction in food items from 2012 to 2014. Beverages had a 46-calorie increase, explained by an increase in calories from sugar (12 calories) and saturated fat (16 calories). Newly introduced main courses in 2014 had 59 calories fewer than those on 2012 menus, explained by a 54-calorie reduction in unsaturated fat, while other macronutrient content remained fairly constant. Newly introduced dessert items in 2014 had 90 calories more than those on 2012 menus, explained primarily by an increase of 57 calories of sugar. Overall, there were relatively minor changes in menu items' caloric and macronutrient composition. Although declines in caloric content among newly introduced fast food main courses may improve the public's caloric intake, it appears that the macronutrient composition of newly introduced items did not shift to a healthier profile. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of menu energy labelling across socioeconomic groups: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarink, Danja; Peeters, Anna; Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Beauchamp, Alison; Woods, Julie; Ball, Kylie; Backholer, Kathryn

    2016-04-01

    Menu energy labelling at point of purchase is gaining traction worldwide, yet the potential impact for different socioeconomic groups is unclear. We aimed to summarise evidence on the effectiveness of menu energy labelling by socioeconomic position (SEP). A systematic search for papers published to September 2015 was conducted using terms for labelling, food outlets, and SEP. Quality of studies was assessed. Results were summarised across stages of an intervention logic pathway. Eighteen papers were identified. Of twelve studies reporting the effect of menu energy labelling in low SEP populations, six reported on purchase outcomes. All but one of these reported no positive effect of the policy for this population. Two of the five studies that compared purchase outcomes of menu labelling across SEP groups reported that the policy was effective overall. These two studies reported either a significant decline in fast food calories purchased from consumers in high (but not low) SEP neighbourhoods or a significantly greater decline in calories purchased among consumers visiting stores in higher SEP neighbourhoods post policy implementation. None of the included papers reached the highest quality score. The current evidence describing the impact of menu energy labelling within or across SEP is limited in quantity and quality. Of the two studies that reported a positive benefit of menu energy labelling overall, both identified a greater effect on fast food purchases among consumers visiting stores in high compared to low SEP neighbourhoods. It is difficult to know whether the absence of effectiveness reported in low SEP populations represents a true lack of effectiveness or is a result of a more general lack of policy effectiveness or the limited quality of the reviewed studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Translation of the Chinese Menu from the Perspective of Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪平心

    2015-01-01

    Chinese food culture is similar to a pearl shinning in this era of globalization.Due to a higher frequency of cross-cultural communication than ever before,people from western countries show increasing interests in Chinese cuisine.Therefore,a standardized translation of the Chinese menu plays a more indispensible role in grasping the precise understanding of Chinese food names for foreign diners.From a cultural perspective,this paper primarily discusses various differences between Chinese and Western food cultures,and provides major translation principles and tips of the Chinese menu so as to arrive at a standardized translation as clearly and accessibly as possible.

  18. Translation of the Chinese Menu from the Perspective of Food Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪平心

    2015-01-01

    Chinese food culture is similar to a pearl shinning in this era of globalization. Due to a higher frequency of cross-cultural communication than ever before, people from western countries show increasing interests in Chinese cuisine. Therefore, a standardized translation of the Chinese menu plays a more indispensible role in grasping the precise understanding of Chinese food names for foreign diners. From a cultural perspective, this paper primarily discusses various differences between Chinese and Western food cultures, and provides major translation principles and tips of the Chinese menu so as to arrive at a standardized translation as clearly and accessibly as possible.

  19. DietPal: a Web-based dietary menu-generating and management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Shahrul A; Abdullah, Siti Norulhuda; Shahar, Suzana; Abdul-Hamid, Helmi; Khairudin, Nurkahirizan; Yusoff, Mohamed; Ghazali, Rafidah; Mohd-Yusoff, Nooraini; Shafii, Nik Shanita; Abdul-Manaf, Zaharah

    2004-01-30

    Attempts in current health care practice to make health care more accessible, effective, and efficient through the use of information technology could include implementation of computer-based dietary menu generation. While several of such systems already exist, their focus is mainly to assist healthy individuals calculate their calorie intake and to help monitor the selection of menus based upon a prespecified calorie value. Although these prove to be helpful in some ways, they are not suitable for monitoring, planning, and managing patients' dietary needs and requirements. This paper presents a Web-based application that simulates the process of menu suggestions according to a standard practice employed by dietitians. To model the workflow of dietitians and to develop, based on this workflow, a Web-based system for dietary menu generation and management. The system is aimed to be used by dietitians or by medical professionals of health centers in rural areas where there are no designated qualified dietitians. First, a user-needs study was conducted among dietitians in Malaysia. The first survey of 93 dietitians (with 52 responding) was an assessment of information needed for dietary management and evaluation of compliance towards a dietary regime. The second study consisted of ethnographic observation and semi-structured interviews with 14 dietitians in order to identify the workflow of a menu-suggestion process. We subsequently designed and developed a Web-based dietary menu generation and management system called DietPal. DietPal has the capability of automatically calculating the nutrient and calorie intake of each patient based on the dietary recall as well as generating suitable diet and menu plans according to the calorie and nutrient requirement of the patient, calculated from anthropometric measurements. The system also allows reusing stored or predefined menus for other patients with similar health and nutrient requirements. We modeled the workflow of

  20. The History and Impact of the New York City Menu-Labeling Law

    OpenAIRE

    Bernell, Brent

    2010-01-01

    As a result of the recent federal health care legislation, all restaurants in the United States that are part of a chain with twenty or more locations will be required to post the calorie information of the food they serve directly on the menu or menu board. This development represents the culmination of a regulatory initiative to combat the growth of obesity that only began in 2006 with the decision by the New York City Board of Health to require calorie posting in New York City chain resta...

  1. Energy exotic options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, V.; Gibner, S.; Pinnamaneni, K.

    1999-01-01

    This chapter with 88 references focuses on the use of exotic options to control exposure to energy prices. Exotic options are defined, and the conversion of a standard option into an exotic option and pricing models are examined. Pricing and hedging exotic options, path-dependent options, multi-commodity options, options on the minimum-or-maximum of two commodities, compound options, digital options, hybrid and complex structures, and natural gas daily options are described. Formulas for option pricing for vanilla, barrier, compound, options on minimum or maximum of two assets, and look back options are given in an appendix

  2. The effects of restaurant nutrition menu labelling on college students' healthy eating behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Mary G; Joung, Hyun-Woo; Choi, Eun-Kyong Cindy; Kim, Hak-Seon

    2017-04-01

    According to the US Affordable Care Act, restaurant chains are required to provide energy (calorie) and other nutrition information on their menu. The current study examined the impact of menu labelling containing calorie information and recommended daily calorie intake, along with subjective nutrition knowledge, on intention to select lower-calorie foods prior to the implementation of the Affordable Care Act. Full factorial experimental design with participants exposed to four variants of a sample menu in a 2 (presence v. absence of calorie information) ×2 (presence v. absence of recommended daily calorie intake). Large, public university in the Southwest USA. Primarily undergraduate college students. Majority of participants were 19-23 years of age (mean 21·8 (sd 3·6) years). Menu information about calorie content and respondents' subjective nutrition knowledge had a significantly positive impact on students' intention to select lower-calorie foods (β=0·24, Prestaurant menus as a way to easily and expediently obtain nutrition information.

  3. Eating Well While Dining Out: Collaborating with Local Restaurants to Promote Heart Healthy Menu Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Linden M.; Pimentel, Daniela C.; Smith, Janice C.; Garcia, Beverly A.; Sylvester, Laura Lee; Kelly, Tammy; Johnston, Larry F.; Ammerman, Alice S.; Keyserling, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Because Americans commonly consume restaurant foods with poor dietary quality, effective interventions are needed to improve food choices at restaurants. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate a restaurant-based intervention to help customers select and restaurants promote heart healthy menu items with healthful…

  4. Eating Well While Dining Out: Collaborating with Local Restaurants to Promote Heart Healthy Menu Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Linden M.; Pimentel, Daniela C.; Smith, Janice C.; Garcia, Beverly A.; Lee Sylvester, Laura; Kelly, Tammy; Johnston, Larry F.; Ammerman, Alice S.; Keyserling, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Background As Americans commonly consume restaurant foods with poor dietary quality, effective interventions are needed to improve food choices at restaurants. Purpose To design and evaluate a restaurant-based intervention to help customers select and restaurants promote heart healthy menu items with healthful fats and high quality carbohydrates. Methods The intervention included table tents outlining 10 heart healthy eating tips, coupons promoting healthy menu items, an information brochure, and link to study website. Pre and post intervention surveys were completed by restaurant managers and customers completed a brief “intercept” survey. Results Managers (n = 10) reported the table tents and coupons were well received, and several noted improved personal nutrition knowledge. Overall, 4214 coupons were distributed with 1244 (30%) redeemed. Of 300 customers surveyed, 126 (42%) noticed the table tents and of these, 115 (91%) considered the nutrition information helpful, 42 (33%) indicated the information influenced menu items purchased, and 91 (72%) reported the information will influence what they order in the future. Discussion The intervention was well-received by restaurant managers and positively influenced menu item selection by many customers. Translation to Health Education Practice Further research is needed to assess effective strategies for scaling up and sustaining this intervention approach. PMID:28947925

  5. Surveying Libraries to Identify Best Practices for a Menu Approach for Library Instruction Requests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Benjes-Small

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A challenging situation has developed in regards to library instruction. With increases in both the quantity of information and the variety of information technologies being made available to researchers, the information literacy landscape is getting more complex. Simultaneously, the time allotted for library instruction is remaining essentially the same. In order to market the breadth of content available for library instruction sessions and to promote collaboration between librarians and teaching faculty in order to create optimal instruction sessions an 'a la carte menu' approach to library instruction requests was adopted by Radford University in 2004. Since the late 1990s a number of community colleges and universities have included some type of menu in their instruction request forms or documentation and the authors desired to understand what approach these institutions had taken and whether they were effective in marketing instruction and improving communication between library instructors and teaching faculty. They analyzed forty-seven adaptations of the menu available on the web and surveyed the librarians who created them. In this article the authors present the findings of the web analysis and the survey, and recommendations are given for using the menu approach to library instruction requests.

  6. Options theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markland, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used in conventional project appraisal are mathematically very simple in comparison to those used in reservoir modelling, and in the geosciences. Clearly it would be possible to value assets in mathematically more sophisticated ways if it were meaningful and worthwhile so to do. The DCf approach in common use has recognized limitations; the inability to select a meaningful discount rate being particularly significant. Financial Theory has advanced enormously over the last few years, along with computational techniques, and methods are beginning to appear which may change the way we do project evaluations in practice. The starting point for all of this was a paper by Black and Scholes, which asserts that almost all corporate liabilities can be viewed as options of varying degrees of complexity. Although the financial presentation may be unfamiliar to engineers and geoscientists, some of the concepts used will not be. This paper outlines, in plain English, the basis of option pricing theory for assessing the market value of a project. it also attempts to assess the future role of this type of approach in practical Petroleum Exploration and Engineering economics. Reference is made to relevant published Natural Resource literature

  7. String Theory on AdS Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.

    2000-01-01

    In these notes we discuss various aspects of string theory in AdS spaces. We briefly review the formulation in terms of Green-Schwarz, NSR, and Berkovits variables, as well as the construction of exact conformal field theories with AdS backgrounds. Based on lectures given at the Kyoto YITP Workshop

  8. PENTINGNYA PERANAN SKILL DAN MENU KNOWLEDGE WAITER/WAITERS TERHADAP KEPUASAN PELANGGAN DI FOOD AND BEVERAGE SERVICE DEPARTEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Earlike AS

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Background of this research from the topic is the lack of waiter/ waitress�s skills and menu knowledge when doing the food and beverage services. The purpose of this research is to know the importance of waiter /waitress�s skills and menu knowledge toward guest satisfaction. Method of the research was descriptive qualitative which was collected data by using interview, observation, documentation, quitionare and study of literature. The rusult shows that guests� satisfaction are decreased and proved by the respondents quitionare result which shows that the guests are not satified with the waiter/ waitress skills and menu knowledge.

  9. A community-based restaurant initiative to increase availability of healthy menu options in Somerville, Massachusetts: Shape Up Somerville.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economos, Christina D; Folta, Sara C; Goldberg, Jeanne; Hudson, David; Collins, Jessica; Baker, Zachariah; Lawson, Eliza; Nelson, Miriam

    2009-07-01

    Environmental factors at the community level may play a role in the development and maintenance of obesity. Because many US families frequently eat meals outside of the home, restaurants are an environmental factor that can affect their health. The purpose of this project was to test the feasibility of a community-based restaurant initiative that targets families and young children. Somerville, Massachusetts, is an ethnically diverse, densely populated city. Approximately 44% of elementary school children in Somerville are overweight or obese. The restaurant initiative described here was conducted as part of a larger community-based environmental intervention, Shape Up Somerville: Eat Smart, Play Hard (SUS), designed to improve energy balance by making small changes in all aspects of a child's environment. Restaurant initiative activities were establishing criteria for approval as an SUS restaurant; conducting brief one-on-one interviews with 15 restaurant owners and managers; recruiting restaurants; and monitoring and evaluating restaurants' ability to adhere to the criteria, using questionnaires and site visits. Establishing approval criteria for restaurants required several iterations and ongoing flexibility. Barriers to participation included lack of time and interest and concerns about potential profit losses. The strategy of publicizing approved restaurants facilitated participation in the program. Twenty-eight percent of actively recruited restaurants participated in the initiative. Approximately one-half of restaurants fully complied with all approval criteria. Despite limited feasibility, the initiative provided valuable visibility and branding of the intervention within the community as well as lessons for working with restaurants to improve health.

  10. Does a grill menu redesign influence sales, nutrients purchased, and consumer acceptance in a worksite cafeteria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiveloo, Maya K; Malik, Vasanti S; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C; Mattei, Josiemer

    2017-12-01

    Worksite cafeterias are compelling venues to improve diet quality through environmental changes. We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate how a cafeteria-initiated grill menu redesign influenced sales, revenue, and nutrient content of foods purchased. Secondly, we evaluated consumer opinions about menu changes to inform practices for worksite environment interventions. Monthly sales data (2012-2015) were used to compute gross sales and revenue of entrées and side dishes pre-post menu changes. Alternative protein sources replaced red meat; nutrient composition and nutrients purchased were compared using Food Pro software. Consumer responses were queried using online surveys; open-ended responses were analyzed using NVivo. Differences in sales and nutrient content pre-post menu redesign were tested with Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests. Gross sales of entrées (61 vs. 222 servings/month; p = 0.01) and side dishes (120 vs. 365 servings/month; p = 0.001) increased more than three-fold post-menu changes. Revenue from entrées (312 vs. 1144 USD/month; p = 0.01) and side dishes (238 vs. 914 USD/month; p = 0.001) also increased; per entrée, consumers purchased significantly more unsaturated fat (5 g), and less saturated fat (3 g) and sodium (100 mg). For side dishes, they purchased fewer calories (48 kcal) and unsaturated fat (2.9 g), but more fiber (1.8 g), and sodium (260 mg). Four themes emerged from consumer responses: the importance of 1) variety, novelty, choice; 2) cost, affordability, value; 3) health; and 4) food quality, taste. Menu redesign can improve nutrient content, while also increasing sales and revenue. Multi-dimensional assessment of the nutritional, consumer, and retailer implications is desirable practice for enacting similar environmental changes.

  11. Warped AdS3 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li Wei; Padi, Megha; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l -2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS 3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,R) x U(1)-invariant warped AdS 3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS 3 . We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS 3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS 3 . Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS 3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS 3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c R -formula and c L -formula.

  12. The importance of Real Options Theory in the analysis of investment: what is the added value to a GTL (Gas to Liquid) plant considering managerial flexibility; Qual o valor agregado a uma planta 'Gas to Liquid' considerando-se a flexibilidade gerencial: a importancia da teoria das opcoes reais na analise de investimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Marcela Lobo [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The goal of this article is to do an investment analysis applying Real Options Theory in the plant Gas to Liquid (GTL). This analysis is the most indicated, because there are several flexibilities in this plant, related to the inputs (many products can be applied) as well the outputs (there are many possible combinations to use). In order to make the analysis as close as possible of reality and the most accurate it became fundamental to calculate the value that those flexibilities add to final value of the plant. It is going to be calculated the value of switch use of inputs (possibility to each semester to choose different resources) and the value of switch use of outputs (the possibility of the plant to produce more than one combination of outputs). Although in order to be feasible the implementation of the real option of switch use it is necessary to know if the added value is bigger or lesser from the cost of implementation. In the research it is achieve the conclusion that the value of switch use of inputs is lower than the cost of its implementation. (author)

  13. Price setting under cost uncertainty and menu costs - the case of the Danish petrol market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stampe Christensen, M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper derives the optimal pricing policy for a firm facing menu costs and stochastic production cost. The pricing policy is a boundary pricing policy and numerical comparative static analysis shows how exogenous parameters - the drift and variance of the production cost, the discount factor and the menu costs - affect the boundaries. Analyzing daily data for the Danish petrol price illustrates that a boundary pricing policy indeed has been followed for the period 1988-1992, with occasional shifts in both the desired mark-up and more importantly in the width of the bounds. While the theoretical model can say nothing of the shifts in desired mark-up, changes in the width of the bounds are found to be consistent with the implications of the model. (au)

  14. Industrial Structure, Menu Costs and the Non-Neutrality of Money

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixon, Huw David; Hansen, Claus Thustrup

    by perfect competition. The mixed industrial structure implies that there is a misallocation of the input (labour) between sectors. Following a 5% monetary expansion, the menu costs required for price rigidity in the monopolistic sector can be 50 times smaller than in the symmetric case, while the ratio......New Keynesian literature assumes symmetric industrial structure when analysing explanations of monetary non-neutrality. We analyse the impact of modifying this assumption by allowing for a mixed industrial structure; some industries are characterized by monopolistic competition, and others...... of welfare gain to private loss can be as large as 200 times the corresponding symmetric case. This implies that in real world economies, menu costs may be even more significant than previously thought...

  15. Legal and public health considerations affecting the success, reach, and impact of menu-labeling laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeranz, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2008-09-01

    Because the rate of consumption of away-from-home meals has increased dramatically, the distinction between requiring nutrition information for packaged but not restaurant products is no longer reasonable. Public health necessitates that nutrition labels must be included with restaurant menus as a strategy to educate consumers and address the escalation of obesity. Menu-labeling laws are being considered at the local, state, and federal levels, but the restaurant industry opposes such action. We discuss the public health rationale and set forth the government's legal authority for the enactment of menu-labeling laws. We further aim to educate the public health community of the potential legal challenges to such laws, and we set forth methods for governments to survive these challenges by drafting laws according to current legal standards.

  16. Psychology of computer use: IX. A menu of self-administered microcomputer-based neurotoxicology tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, R. S.; Baltzley, D. R.; Wilkes, R. L.; Kuntz, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of repeated self-administration of a newly developed battery of mental acuity tests which may have application in screening for fitness-for-duty or for persons who may be exposed to environmental stress, toxic agents, or disease. 16 subjects self-administered 18 microcomputer-based tests (13 new, 5 "core"), without proctors, over 10 sessions. The hardware performed well throughout the study and the tests appeared to be easily self-administered. Stabilities and reliabilities of the tests from the "core" battery were comparable to those obtained previously under more controlled experimental conditions. Eight of the new tests exceeded minimum criteria for metric and practical requirements and can be recommended as additions to the menu. Although the average retest reliability was high, cross-correlations between tests were low, implying factorial diversity. The menu can be used to form batteries with flexible total testing time which are likely to tap different mental processes and functions.

  17. Calorie estimation accuracy and menu labeling perceptions among individuals with and without binge eating and/or purging disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Haynos, Ann F; Schwartz, Marlene B; Brownell, Kelly D; White, Marney A

    2013-09-01

    Menu labeling is a public health policy that requires chain restaurants in the USA to post kilocalorie information on their menus to help consumers make informed choices. However, there is concern that such a policy might promote disordered eating. This web-based study compared individuals with self-reported binge eating disorder (N = 52), bulimia nervosa (N = 25), and purging disorder (N = 17) and those without eating disorders (No ED) (N = 277) on restaurant calorie information knowledge and perceptions of menu labeling legislation. On average, people answered 1.46 ± 1.08 questions correctly (out of 6) (25%) on a calorie information quiz and 92% of the sample was in favor of menu labeling. The findings did not differ based on eating disorder, dieting, or weight status, or race/ethnicity. The results indicated that people have difficulty estimating the calories in restaurant meals and individuals with and without eating disorders are largely in favor of menu labeling laws.

  18. Menu labeling perception and health behaviors among immigrant and US born minority populations: assessment in two Los Angeles public markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    To analyze menu labeling perception and food choices/health behaviors in two Los Angeles public markets. Labels with food caloric content were displayed in the food court of one of these markets. Bivarate means analyses compared the surveyed population by market and by nativity status. The main predictors of menu-labeling influence were identified in the sample from the market that displayed labels. A separate analysis investigated food choices/health behaviors among immigrant cohorts by time of US residence. Reading labels when shopping was one of the main predictors associated with menu labeling influence. Longer-stayed immigrants were more likely to afford "balanced meals", but they were also more likely to eat in fast food restaurants and less likely to engage into moderate/intense physical activity. While nativity was not a significant predictor of menu labeling influence on food choices, our findings suggest food choices/behaviors convergence among immigrant and US-born populations.

  19. Trends in Nutrient Content of Children's Menu Items in U.S. Chain Restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa J; Block, Jason P; Goshev, Simo G; Bleich, Sara N; Roberto, Christina A

    2017-03-01

    Restaurant food is widely consumed by children and is associated with poor diet quality. Although many restaurants have made voluntary commitments to improve the nutritional quality of children's menus, it is unclear whether this has led to meaningful changes. Nutrients in children's menu items (n=4,016) from 45 chain restaurants were extracted from the nutrition information database MenuStat. Bootstrapped mixed linear models estimated changes in mean calories, saturated fat, and sodium in children's menu items between 2012 and 2013, 2014, and 2015. Changes in nutrient content of these items over time were compared among restaurants participating in the Kids LiveWell initiative and non-participating restaurants. Types of available children's beverages were also examined. Data were analyzed in 2016. There was a significant increase in mean beverage calories from 2012 to 2013 (6, 95% CI=0.8, 10.6) and from 2012 to 2014 (11, 95% CI=3.7, 18.3), but no change between 2012 and 2015, and no differences in nutrient content of other items over time. Restaurants participating in Kids LiveWell reduced entrée calories between 2012 and 2013 (-24, 95% CI= -40.4, -7.2) and between 2012 and 2014 (-40, 95% CI= -68.1, -11.4) and increased side dish calories between 2012 and 2015 (49, 95% CI=4.6, 92.7) versus non-participating restaurants. Sugar-sweetened beverages consistently constituted 80% of children's beverages, with soda declining and flavored milks increasing between 2012 and 2015. Results suggest little progress toward improving nutrition in children's menu items. Efforts are needed to engage restaurants in offering healthful children's meals. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Customer responses to mandatory menu labeling at full-service restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchincloss, Amy H; Mallya, Giridhar G; Leonberg, Beth L; Ricchezza, Andrew; Glanz, Karen; Schwarz, Donald F

    2013-12-01

    In 2010, Philadelphia enacted a menu-labeling law requiring full-service restaurant chains to list values for calories, sodium, fat, and carbohydrates for each item on all printed menus. The goal of the study was to determine whether purchase decisions at full-service restaurants varied depending on the presence of labeling. In August 2011, this cross-sectional study collected 648 customer surveys and transaction receipts at seven restaurant outlets of one large full-service restaurant chain. Two outlets had menu labeling (case sites); five outlets did not (control sites). Outcomes included differences in calories and nutrients purchased and customers' reported use of nutrition information when ordering. Data were analyzed in 2012. Mean age was 37 years; 60% were female; 50% were black/African-American and reported incomes ≥$60,000. Customers purchased food with approximately 1600 kcal (food plus beverage, 1800 kcal); 3200 mg sodium; and 35 g saturated fat. After adjustment for confounders, customers at labeled restaurants purchased food with 151 fewer kilocalories (95% CI=-270, -33); 224 mg less sodium (95% CI=-457, +8); and 3.7 g less saturated fat (95% CI=-7.4, -0.1) compared to customers at unlabeled restaurants (or 155 less kilocalories from food plus beverage, 95% CI=-284, -27). Those reporting that nutrition information affected their order purchased 400 fewer food calories, 370 mg less sodium, and 10 g less saturated fat. Mandatory menu labeling was associated with better food choices among a segment of the public dining at full-service restaurants. Consumer education on the availability and use of nutrition information may extend the impact of menu labeling. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine All rights reserved.

  1. DietPal: A Web-Based Dietary Menu-Generating and Management System

    OpenAIRE

    Noah, Shahrul A; Abdullah, Siti Norulhuda; Shahar, Suzana; Abdul-Hamid, Helmi; Khairudin, Nurkahirizan; Yusoff, Mohamed; Ghazali, Rafidah; Mohd-Yusoff, Nooraini; Shafii, Nik Shanita; Abdul-Manaf, Zaharah

    2004-01-01

    Background Attempts in current health care practice to make health care more accessible, effective, and efficient through the use of information technology could include implementation of computer-based dietary menu generation. While several of such systems already exist, their focus is mainly to assist healthy individuals calculate their calorie intake and to help monitor the selection of menus based upon a prespecified calorie value. Although these prove to be helpful in some ways, they are...

  2. Trends in Nutrient Content of Children's Menu Items in U.S. Chain Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Alyssa J.; Block, Jason P.; Goshev, Simo G.; Bleich, Sara N.; Roberto, Christina A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Restaurant food is widely consumed by children and is associated with poor diet quality. Although many restaurants have made voluntary commitments to improve the nutritional quality of children's menus, it is unclear whether this has led to meaningful changes. Methods Nutrients in children's menu items (n=4,016) from 45 chain restaurants were extracted from the nutrition information database MenuStat. Bootstrapped mixed linear models estimated changes in mean calories, saturated fat, and sodium in children's menu items between 2012 and 2013, 2014, and 2015. Changes in nutrient content of these items over time were compared among restaurants participating in the Kids LiveWell initiative and non-participating restaurants. Types of available children's beverages were also examined. Data were analyzed in 2016. Results There was a significant increase in mean beverage calories from 2012 to 2013 (6, 95% CI=0.8, 10.6) and from 2012 to 2014 (11, 95% CI=3.7, 18.3), but no change between 2012 and 2015, and no differences in nutrient content of other items over time. Restaurants participating in Kids LiveWell reduced entrée calories between 2012 and 2013 (−24, 95% CI= −40.4, −7.2) and between 2012 and 2014 (−40, 95% CI= −68.1, −11.4) and increased side dish calories between 2012 and 2015 (49, 95% CI=4.6, 92.7) versus non-participating restaurants. Sugar-sweetened beverages consistently constituted 80% of children's beverages, with soda declining and flavored milks increasing between 2012 and 2015. Conclusions Results suggest little progress toward improving nutrition in children's menu items. Efforts are needed to engage restaurants in offering healthful children's meals. PMID:28089130

  3. (Not) Eating for the environment: The impact of restaurant menu design on vegetarian food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Linda; Krpan, Dario

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has shown that restaurant menu design can influence food choices. However, it remains unknown whether such contextual effects on food selection are dependent on people's past behavior. In the present study, we focused on vegetarian food choices, given their important implications for the environment, and investigated whether the influence of different restaurant menus on the likelihood of selecting a vegetarian dish is moderated by the number of days on which people reported eating only vegetarian food during the previous week. In an online scenario, participants were randomly assigned to four different restaurant menu conditions-control (all dishes presented in the same manner), recommendation (vegetarian dish presented as chef's recommendation), descriptive (more appealing description of vegetarian dish), and vegetarian (vegetarian dishes placed in a separate section)-and ordered a dish for dinner. The results showed that the recommendation and descriptive menus increased the likelihood of vegetarian dish choices for infrequent eaters of vegetarian foods, whereas these effects tended to reverse for those who ate vegetarian meals more often. The vegetarian menu had no impact on the infrequent vegetarian eaters' choice but backfired for the frequent vegetarian eaters and made them less likely to order a vegetarian dish. These findings indicate that people's past behavior is an important determinant of the impact of nudging on food choices, and that achieving sustainable eating may require more personalized interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the healthiness of chain-restaurant menu items using crowdsourcing: a new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lenard I; Wu, Leslie; Matthiessen, Timothy B; Luft, Harold S

    2017-01-01

    To develop a technology-based method for evaluating the nutritional quality of chain-restaurant menus to increase the efficiency and lower the cost of large-scale data analysis of food items. Using a Modified Nutrient Profiling Index (MNPI), we assessed chain-restaurant items from the MenuStat database with a process involving three steps: (i) testing 'extreme' scores; (ii) crowdsourcing to analyse fruit, nut and vegetable (FNV) amounts; and (iii) analysis of the ambiguous items by a registered dietitian. In applying the approach to assess 22 422 foods, only 3566 could not be scored automatically based on MenuStat data and required further evaluation to determine healthiness. Items for which there was low agreement between trusted crowd workers, or where the FNV amount was estimated to be >40 %, were sent to a registered dietitian. Crowdsourcing was able to evaluate 3199, leaving only 367 to be reviewed by the registered dietitian. Overall, 7 % of items were categorized as healthy. The healthiest category was soups (26 % healthy), while desserts were the least healthy (2 % healthy). An algorithm incorporating crowdsourcing and a dietitian can quickly and efficiently analyse restaurant menus, allowing public health researchers to analyse the healthiness of menu items.

  5. The effect of menu labeling with calories and exercise equivalents on food selection and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platkin, Charles; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Hirsch, Kimberly; Wiewel, Ellen Weiss; Lin, Chang-Yun; Tung, Ho-Jui; Castellanos, Victoria H

    2014-01-01

    Better techniques are needed to help consumers make lower calorie food choices. This pilot study examined the effect of menu labeling with caloric information and exercise equivalents (EE) on food selection. Participants, 62 females, ages 18-34, recruited for this study, ordered a fast food meal with menus that contained the names of the food (Lunch 1 (L1), control meal). One week later (Lunch 2 (L2), experiment meal), participants ordered a meal from one of three menus with the same items as the previous week: no calorie information, calorie information only, or calorie information and EE. There were no absolute differences between groups in calories ordered from L1 to L2. However, it is noteworthy that calorie only and calorie plus exercise equivalents ordered about 16% (206 kcal) and 14% (162 kcal) fewer calories from Lunch 1 to Lunch 2, respectively; whereas, the no information group ordered only 2% (25 kcal) fewer. Menu labeling alone may be insufficient to reduce calories; however, further research is needed in finding the most effective ways of presenting the menu labels for general public.

  6. Menu labeling as a potential strategy for combating the obesity epidemic: a health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tony; Jarosz, Christopher J; Simon, Paul; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2009-09-01

    We conducted a health impact assessment to quantify the potential impact of a state menu-labeling law on population weight gain in Los Angeles County, California. We utilized published and unpublished data to model consumer response to point-of-purchase calorie postings at large chain restaurants in Los Angeles County. We conducted sensitivity analyses to account for uncertainty in consumer response and in the total annual revenue, market share, and average meal price of large chain restaurants in the county. Assuming that 10% of the restaurant patrons would order reduced-calorie meals in response to calorie postings, resulting in an average reduction of 100 calories per meal, we estimated that menu labeling would avert 40.6% of the 6.75 million pound average annual weight gain in the county population aged 5 years and older. Substantially larger impacts would be realized if higher percentages of patrons ordered reduced-calorie meals or if average per-meal calorie reductions increased. Our findings suggest that mandated menu labeling could have a sizable salutary impact on the obesity epidemic, even with only modest changes in consumer behavior.

  7. Mandatory menu labeling in one fast-food chain in King County, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Strombotne, Kiersten L; Chan, Nadine L; Krieger, James

    2011-02-01

    As part of a comprehensive effort to stem the rise in obesity, King County, Washington, enforced a mandatory menu-labeling regulation requiring all restaurant chains with 15 or more locations to disclose calorie information at the point of purchase beginning in January 2009. The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of the King County regulation on transactions and purchasing behavior at one Mexican fast-food chain with locations within and adjacent to King County. To examine the effect of the King County regulation, a difference-in-difference approach was used to compare total transactions and average calories per transaction between seven King County restaurants and seven control locations focusing on two time periods: one period immediately following the law until the posting of drive-through menu boards (January 2009 to July 2009) and a second period following the drive-through postings (August 2009 through January 2010). Analyses were conducted in 2010. No impact of the regulation on purchasing behavior was found. Trends in transactions and calories per transaction did not vary between control and intervention locations after the law was enacted. In this setting, mandatory menu labeling did not promote healthier food-purchasing behavior. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. [Secondary school menu in Madrid (Spain): knowledge and adherence to the Spanish National Health System recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berradre-Sáenz, Belén; Royo-Bordonada, Miguel Ángel; Bosqued, María José; Moya, María Ángeles; López, Lázaro

    2015-01-01

    To establish the degree of knowledge and adherence to the Spanish National Health System recommendations on nutrition in schools in the Autonomous Community of Madrid. Cross-sectional study of a random sample of 182 secondary schools from Madrid, during 2013-2014 school year. Information on the characteristics of the schools and the knowledge of the recommendations was collected by internet and telephone interviews, as well as a copy of the school menu. The average number of rations per week offered for each food item and the percentage of schools within the recommended range were calculated. The overall adherence was obtained as the mean of food items (0-12) within the range. 65.5% of the schools were unaware of the national recommendations. The supply of rice, pasta, fish, eggs, salad and fruit was lower than recommended, whereas for meat, accompaniment and other desserts was higher. The percentage of schools within the range for each food item varied between 13% and 95%. The mean of overall adherence was 6.3, with no differences depending on whether the menu was prepared or not at schools or there was or not a person in charge of nutrition standards. The degree of adherence to the recommendations was variable, being advised to increase the supply of cereals, eggs, fish, salad and fruit. Programs for dissemination and implementation of the recommendations, leaded by trained professionals, are required to improve the nutritional value of school menu. Copyright © 2015 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Restaurant menu labeling: impact of nutrition information on entree sales and patron attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, C L; Flora, J A; Fortmann, S P

    1990-01-01

    This study examined changes in sales of low fat/low cholesterol foods targeted in a restaurant menu labeling program. Sales of labeled items were tracked before and after the program was introduced, and a subsample of patrons were surveyed for information on visibility and comprehension of the menu labels. Two of the four restaurants had significant increases in the sales of targeted foods following labeling. Comparisons between patrons dining in restaurants which had an increase in sales (I--increase restaurants) to those dining in restaurants which had no overall shift in sales (NI--no increase restaurants) revealed no differences in patron awareness or comprehension of the menu labels. There were age and gender differences between I and NI restaurants, with I restaurants having proportionally more males, and a younger clientele. Taste was the primary reason given by patrons for their entree choice, regardless of whether or not it was labeled. In all four restaurants women and older patrons were more aware of the program and more responsive to its recommendations. These findings suggest that environmental strategies may be an effective method of encouraging dietary changes in the general population, but patron characteristics such as age and gender may influence receptivity to this type of intervention. Future studies aimed at developing effective point of purchase education programs should evaluate these patron characteristics and include more powerful behavior change strategies.

  10. A Review Of Nutritional Guidelines And Menu Compositions For School Feeding Programs In 12 Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzky eAliyar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Study objectives: To analyze the nutritional guidelines and menu compositions of school meal provision in various different countries.Background: School feeding is the provision of food on-site or to take home, which aims to increase school enrolment, attendance and retention, and exist as a social safety net for households with very low income. Home-grown school feeding (HGSF, additionally, aims to stimulate local economies by providing a source of income for local smallholder farmers. Methods: Literature searches using the Ovid MEDLINE databases, gathered information from in-country stakeholders, and accessed the programme websites of various countries. Nutrient composition of these menus was calculated from nutritional guidelines and menu compositions using a nutrition linear programming tool (NUTVAL.Country comparisons: School feeding aims differ between countries of each income group. The implementation, delivery of service and nutritional content of foods also differ considerably between countries and income groups. In high-income countries, guidelines and standards have been recommended in an attempt to combat rising levels of overweight and obesity, and to model healthier lifestyle habits. In low-income countries there is a gap in terms of guidance on nutrition standards and menu composition.Conclusions: Provision of evidence-based guidance on nutrition standards to middle and low income countries who have recently established or are planning to establish school feeding has the potential to greatly enhance and improve the quality of service and improve the life of millions of children worldwide.

  11. French programs for advanced waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvatores, M [CEA-DRN (France); Schapira, J P [CNRS-IN2P3 (France); Mouney, H [EDF-DE (France)

    1997-11-01

    Several organisms (CEA, CNRS, EdF, etc.) are cooperating in France on Accelerator-Driven Systems (ADS). The major motivation is the investigation of innovative options for the radioactive waste management. The paper describes the ongoing activities and future directions of this cooperative effort in the field of ADS. 11 refs, 3 figs.

  12. The availability and accessibility of nutrition information in fast food outlets in five states post-menu labelling legislation in New South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Havill, Michelle; Hughes, Clare; Watson, Wendy L; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    1) Explore the availability and accessibility of fast food energy and nutrient information post-NSW menu labelling legislation in states with and without menu labelling legislation. 2) Determine whether availability and accessibility differed compared with pre-menu labelling legislation in NSW. We visited 210 outlets of the five largest fast food chains in five Australian states to observe the availability and accessibility of energy and nutrient information. Results were compared with 197 outlets surveyed pre-menu labelling. Most outlets (95%) provided energy values, half provided nutrient values and 3% provided information for all menu items. The total amount of information available increased post-NSW menu labelling implementation (473 versus 178 pre-implementation, pFast food chains surveyed had voluntarily introduced menu labelling nationally. However, more nutrient information was available in-store in 2010, showing that fast food chains are able to provide comprehensive nutrition information, yet they have stopped doing so. Menu labelling legislation should compel fast food chains to provide accessible nutrition information including nutrient values in addition to energy for all menu items in-store. Additionally, public education campaigns are needed to ensure customers can use menu labelling. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  13. Fire Effects Information System: New engine, remodeled interior, added options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Kapler Smith

    2010-01-01

    Some of today's firefighters weren't even born when the Fire Effects Information System (FEIS) (Web site ) "hit the streets" in 1986. Managers might remember using a dial-up connection in the early 1990s to access information on biology, ecology, and fire offered by FEIS.

  14. AdS solutions through transgression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Kim, Nakwoo

    2008-01-01

    We present new classes of explicit supersymmetric AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity with electric four-form flux. The former are dual to two-dimensional SCFTs with (0,2) supersymmetry and the latter to supersymmetric quantum mechanics with two supercharges. We also investigate more general classes of AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity which in addition have non-vanishing three-form flux and magnetic four-form flux, respectively. The construction of these more general solutions makes essential use of the Chern-Simons or 'transgression' terms in the Bianchi identity or the equation of motion of the field strengths in the supergravity theories. We construct infinite new classes of explicit examples and for some of the type IIB solutions determine the central charge of the dual SCFTs. The type IIB solutions with non-vanishing three-form flux that we construct include a two-torus, and after two T-dualities and an S-duality, we obtain new AdS 3 solutions with only the NS fields being non-trivial.

  15. Polarised Black Holes in AdS

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel S.; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-05-03

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global $AdS_{4}$ with conformal boundary $S^{2}\\times\\mathbb{R}_{t}$. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic $AdS$ behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an $AdS$ soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the $AdS$ geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both $AdS$ soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawkin...

  16. Treatment Options for Retinoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other places in the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. What's on the menu? A review of the energy and nutritional content of US chain restaurant menus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Helen W; Sturm, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to (i) describe the availability of nutrition information in major chain restaurants, (ii) document the energy and nutrient levels of menu items, (iii) evaluate relationships with restaurant characteristics, menu labelling and trans fat laws, and nutrition information accessibility, and (iv) compare energy and nutrient levels against industry-sponsored and government-issued nutrition criteria. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression analysis of the energy, total fat, saturated fat, trans fat, sodium, carbohydrate and protein levels of 29 531 regular and 1392 children's menu items [corrected]. Energy and nutrition information provided on restaurant websites or upon request, and secondary databases on restaurant characteristics. The top 400 US chain restaurants by sales, based on the 2009 list of the Restaurants & Institutions magazine. Complete nutrition information was reported for 245 (61 %) restaurants. Appetizers had more energy, fat and sodium than all other item types. Children's menu specialty beverages had more fat, saturated fat and carbohydrates than comparable regular menu beverages. The majority of main entrées fell below one-third of the US Department of Agriculture's estimated daily energy needs, but as few as 3 % were also within limits for sodium, fat and saturated fat. Main entrées had significantly more energy, fat and saturated fat in family-style restaurants than in fast-food restaurants. Restaurants that made nutrition information easily accessible on websites had significantly lower energy, fat and sodium contents across menu offerings than those providing information only upon request. The paper provides a comprehensive view of chain restaurant menu nutrition prior to nationwide labelling laws. It offers baseline data to evaluate how restaurants respond after laws are implemented.

  18. Healthier side dishes at restaurants: an analysis of children’s perspectives, menu content, and energy impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Children consume restaurant-prepared foods at high rates, suggesting that interventions and policies targeting consumption of these foods have the potential to improve diet quality and attenuate excess energy intake. One approach to encouraging healthier dietary intake in restaurants is to offer fruits and vegetables (FV) as side dishes, as opposed to traditional, energy-dense accompaniments like French fries. The aims of the current study were to examine: children's views about healthier side dishes at restaurants; current side dish offerings on children's menus at leading restaurants; and potential energy reductions when substituting FV side dishes in place of French fries. Methods To investigate children’s attitudes, a survey was administered to a nationally representative sample of U.S. 8- to 18-year-olds (n = 1178). To examine current side dish offerings, children's menus from leading quick service (QSR; n = 10) and full service restaurant chains (FSR; n = 10) were analyzed. Energy reductions that could result from substituting commonly-offered FV side dishes for French fries were estimated using nutrition information corresponding to the children's menu items. Results Two-thirds of children reported that they would not feel negatively about receiving FV sides instead of French fries with kids' meals. Liking/taste was the most common reason that children gave to explain their attitudes about FV side dishes. Nearly all restaurants offered at least 1 FV side dish option, but at most restaurants (60% of QSR; 70% of FSR), FV sides were never served by default. Substituting FV side dishes for French fries yielded an average estimated energy reduction of at least 170 calories. Conclusions Results highlight some healthy trends in the restaurant context, including the majority of children reporting non-negative attitudes about FV side dishes and the consistent availability of FV side dish options at leading QSR and FSR. Yet the minority of

  19. 78 FR 68983 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ...-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... regulations to allow for the addition of an optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and... response to requests from the U.S. cotton industry and ICE, AMS will offer a futures classification option...

  20. ADS with HEU in the Vinca Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Sobolevsky, N.

    2000-01-01

    The 'Conceptual design of ADS' is a new project proposed in the Vin.a Institute for the next three years. In this paper, an option in the project - an idea of high-enriched uranium (HEU) - H 2 O low-flux ADS is shown. Preliminary results of design study and calculations of the beam-target interaction and neutronics of proposed sub-critical system are given. (author)

  1. Current status of AdS instability

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    arXiv:1403.6471 and thoroughly developed in arXiv:1407.6273. On the other hand the negative cosmological constant allows for the existence of stable, time-periodic, asymptotically AdS solutions of Einstein equations [arXiv:1303.3186].

  2. AdS. Klein-Gordon equation

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, Ll.

    2014-01-01

    I propose a generalization of the Klein-Gordon equation in the framework of AdS space-time and exhibit a four parameter family of solutions among which there is a two parameter family of time-dependent bound states.

  3. Building theories of knowledge translation interventions: Use the entire menu of constructs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brehaut Jamie C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the ongoing effort to develop and advance the science of knowledge translation (KT, an important question has emerged around how theory should inform the development of KT interventions. Discussion Efforts to employ theory to better understand and improve KT interventions have until recently mostly involved examining whether existing theories can be usefully applied to the KT context in question. In contrast to this general theory application approach, we propose a ‘menu of constructs’ approach, where individual constructs from any number of theories may be used to construct a new theory. By considering the entire menu of available constructs, rather than limiting choice to the broader level of theories, we can leverage knowledge from theories that would never on their own provide a complete picture of a KT intervention, but that nevertheless describe components or mechanisms relevant to it. We can also avoid being forced to adopt every construct from a particular theory in a one-size-fits-all manner, and instead tailor theory application efforts to the specifics of the situation. Using audit and feedback as an example KT intervention strategy, we describe a variety of constructs (two modes of reasoning, cognitive dissonance, feed forward, desirable difficulties and cognitive load, communities of practice, and adaptive expertise from cognitive and educational psychology that make concrete suggestions about ways to improve this class of intervention. Summary The ‘menu of constructs’ notion suggests an approach whereby a wider range of theoretical constructs, including constructs from cognitive theories with scope that makes the immediate application to the new context challenging, may be employed to facilitate development of more effective KT interventions.

  4. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHITA, Takashi; CMS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41 fb-1 with a peak luminosity of 1.5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implementation of more algorithms at a time than previously possible, allowing CMS to be more flexible in how it handles the available trigger bandwidth. Algorithms for a trigger menu, including topological requirements on multi-objects, can be realised in the Global Trigger using the newly developed trigger menu specification grammar. Analysis-like trigger algorithms can be represented in an intuitive manner and the algorithms are translated to corresponding VHDL code blocks to build a firmware. The grammar can be extended in future as the needs arise. The experience of implementing trigger menus on the upgraded Global Trigger system will be presented.

  5. Using Card-Sorting to Arrange Menu Items on an Academic Library Homepage

    OpenAIRE

    Goodson, Kymberly Anne

    2012-01-01

    Card sorting is one method for obtaining direct user feedback. It consists ofusers imposing their own organization on a set of ideas, andworks well for developing or evaluating website and menu structure. Participants are asked togroup terms or concepts in a way meaningful to them, and may also be asked to name resulting groups. Participants not only provide insight on how to arrange various items, but can also highlight terms that are confusing or ambiguous. In early 2011, the Unive...

  6. Preemption and the obesity epidemic: state and local menu labeling laws and the nutrition labeling and education act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Vernick, Jon S; Hodge, James G; Teret, Stephen P

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is widely recognized as a preventable cause of death and disease. Reducing obesity among adults and children has become a national health goal in the United States. As one approach to the obesity epidemic, public health practitioners and others have asserted the need to provide consumers with information about the foods they eat. Some state and local governments across the United States have introduced menu labeling bills and regulations that require restaurants to post information, such as calorie content, for foods offered on their menus or menu boards. A major dilemma is whether state and local menu labeling laws are preempted by the federal Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA). While few courts have addressed this issue, ongoing litigation in New York City provides an early glimpse of judicial interpretation in this area. This article explores these preemption issues, arguing that appropriately written and implemented menu labeling laws should not be preempted by the NLEA. We offer guidance for states and localities that wish to develop and implement menu labeling laws.

  7. Lorentzian AdS, Wormholes and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Arias, Raul E; Silva, Guillermo A

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the structure of two point functions for the QFT dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian AdS-wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of 5-dimensional second order Einstein Gauss Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS space times. We revisit the GKPW prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual QFT operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values phi_0^\\pm at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions, along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O^\\pm and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom leaving at each boundary. The AdS_(1+1) geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a ...

  8. Australian Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Moreno; Javier F. Navas

    2003-01-01

    We study European options on the ratio of the stock price to its average and viceversa. Some of these options are traded in the Australian Stock Exchange since 1992, thus we call them Australian Asian options. For geometric averages, we obtain closed-form expressions for option prices. For arithmetic means, we use different approximations that produce very similar results.

  9. Options with Extreme Strikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjiong Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this short paper, we study the asymptotics for the price of call options for very large strikes and put options for very small strikes. The stock price is assumed to follow the Black–Scholes models. We analyze European, Asian, American, Parisian and perpetual options and conclude that the tail asymptotics for these option types fall into four scenarios.

  10. Baby Skyrmions in AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot-Ripley, Matthew; Winyard, Thomas [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-01

    We study the baby Skyrme model in a pure AdS background without a mass term. The tail decays and scalings of massless radial solutions are demonstrated to take a similar form to those of the massive flat space model, with the AdS curvature playing a similar role to the flat space pion mass. We also numerically find minimal energy solutions for a range of higher topological charges and find that they form concentric ring-like solutions. Popcorn transitions (named in analogy with studies of toy models of holographic QCD) from an n layer to an n+1-layer configuration are observed at topological charges 9 and 27 and further popcorn transitions for higher charges are predicted. Finally, a point-particle approximation for the model is derived and used to successfully predict the ring structures and popcorn transitions for higher charge solitons.

  11. Exploring Valued-Added Options - Edge-Glued Panels and Blanks Offer Value-Added Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Smith; Philip A. Araman

    1997-01-01

    As sawmills search for new opportunities to add value to rough sawn lumber, many consider producing dimension parts as one solution. Assembling dimension parts into edge-glued panels or standard blanks can add even further value. Blanks are defined as pieces of solid wood (which may be edge-glued) that are manufactured to a predetermined size. This article discusses...

  12. The ATLAS Run-2 Trigger: Design, Menu, Performance and Operational Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Tim; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC, at design capacity, has a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz whereas the ATLAS experiment at the LHC has an average recording rate of about 1000 Hz. To reduce the rate of events but still maintain a high efficiency of selecting rare events such as physics signals beyond the Standard Model, a two-level trigger system is used in ATLAS. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. Despite the limited time available for processing collision events, the trigger system is able to exploit topological information, as well as using multi-variate methods. In total, the ATLAS trigger system consists of thousands of different individual triggers. The ATLAS trigger menu specifies which triggers are used during data taking and how much rate a given trigger is allocated. This menu reflects not only the physics goals of the collaboration but also takes the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC, the design limits of the ATLAS detector and the o...

  13. The ATLAS Run-2 Trigger Menu for higher luminosities: Design, Performance and Operational Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Montejo Berlingen, Javier; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC, at design capacity, has a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz whereas the ATLAS experiment has an average recording rate of about 1 kHz. To reduce the rate of events, but maintain high selection efficiency for rare events such as physics signals beyond the Standard Model, a two-level trigger system is used. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. Despite the limited time available for processing collision events the trigger system is able to exploit topological information, as well as using multi-variate methods. In total, the ATLAS trigger systems consists of thousands of different individual triggers. The ATLAS trigger menu specifies which triggers are used during data taking and how much rate a given trigger is allocated. This menu reflects not only the physics goals of the collaboration but also takes into consideration the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC and the design limits of the ATLAS detector and offline pro...

  14. The ATLAS Run-2 Trigger: Design, Menu, Performance and Operational Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00219584; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The LHC, at design capacity, has a bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz whereas the ATLAS experiment has an average recording rate of about 1000 Hz. To reduce the rate of events but still maintain high efficiency of selecting rare events such as physics signals beyond the Standard Model, a two-level trigger system is used in ATLAS. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. Despite the limited time available for processing collision events, the trigger system is able to exploit topological informations, as well as using multi-variate methods. In total, the ATLAS trigger systems consists of thousands of different individual triggers. The ATLAS trigger menu specifies which triggers are used during data taking and how much rate a given trigger is allocated. This menu reflects not only the physics goals of the collaboration but also takes into consideration the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC and the design limits of the ATLAS detecto...

  15. Feasibility of Integrated Menu Recommendation and Self-Order System for Small-Scale Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Tomoko; Matsumoto, Shimpei; Ishii, Hiroaki

    2010-10-01

    In recent years, point of sales (POS) systems with order function have been developed for restaurants. Since expensive apparatus and system are required for installing POS systems, usually only large-scale restaurant chains can afford to introduce them. In this research, we consider the POS management in a restaurant, which cooperates with an automatic order function by using a personal digital device aiming at the safety of the food, pursuit of service, and further operational efficiency improvements, such as foods management, accounting treatment, and ordering work. In traditional POS systems, information recommendation technology is not taken into consideration. We realize the recommendation of a menu according to the user's preference using rough sets and menu planning based on stock status by applying information recommendation technology. Therefore, we believe that this system can be used in comfort with regard to freshness of foods, allergy, diabetes, etc. Furthermore, due to the reduction of the personnel expenses by an operational efficiency improvement such technology becomes even feasible for small-scale stores.

  16. Supersymmetric AdS3, AdS2 and bubble solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Waldram, Daniel; Kim, Nakwoo

    2007-01-01

    We present new supersymmetric AdS 3 solutions of type IIB supergravity and AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity. The former are dual to conformal field theories in two dimensions with N = (0, 2) supersymmetry while the latter are dual to conformal quantum mechanics with two supercharges. Our construction also includes AdS 2 solutions of D = 11 supergravity that have non-compact internal spaces which are dual to three-dimensional N = 2 superconformal field theories coupled to point-like defects. We also present some new bubble-type solutions, corresponding to BPS states in conformal theories, that preserve four supersymmetries

  17. PENERAPAN TEKNIK PENYUSUNAN MENI DI RESTORAN BENGAWAN SOLO HOTEL SAHID JAYA, JAKARTA [The Aplication of Menu Engineering at Bengawan Solo Restaurant, Sahid Jaya Hotel Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Hubies 1

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Menu engineering (ME is a step-by-step process wich is designed to help management in evaluating the current and future menu pricing, menu composition and to set decisions about price and menu. The main objectives of ME are tomake the next menu more profitable and to attract of guest’s attention. It has two critical aspect, that are contribution margin/CM (related to profit and menu mix/MM (related to an item popularity rate amoing other item. The combination of CM and MM wll result in an item classification (star, plowhorse, question and dog, so that management can design the decision alternatives related to menu item.From the ME application for four months, Bengawan Solo Restaurant has 10 star item menu, 13 qustion items, 2 plowhorse items and 9 dog items. In this case, selling technique performed by waiters and waitresses also influence the ME result. The menegement concerns about the physical presentation and kitchen location. The quality handling should not only be conducted physically, but also pay more attention to halal aspect and food safety or HACCP (hazard analysis and certical control point, in order to produce high quality product that are safe to be consumed.

  18. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  19. New options for purchasing electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This guide is intended for small to medium commercial customers in Alberta and explains new options for purchasing electricity. Small to medium customers include corner stores, community centres, schools, small office buildings, and light industrial businesses. In the 1990s, private power producers in Alberta built 3,000 megawatts of new generation, adding 30 per cent more supply to the power grid in the province. Prices in the deregulated electricity market have fluctuated with natural gas prices, changing weather and changing power demands. The competitive electricity market was opened on January 1, 2001 in Alberta, offering consumers purchasing choices such as green power, multi-year contracts, or electricity rates under the Regulated Rate Option (RRO). The RRO was a transition mechanism that will end by December 31, 2003 at which time, small to medium commercial customers will have the option to shop around for competitive electricity contracts that provide a fixed price of power over time, or they can opt to stay with their current supplier and receive a regulated flow-through of market prices. Under the flow-through option, risk of future deferral charges is reduced, but electricity prices will probably change between billing periods. 1 fig

  20. Winding strings in AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herscovich, Estanislao; Minces, Pablo; Nunez, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Correlation functions of one-unit spectral flowed states in string theory on AdS 3 are considered. We present the modified Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov and null vector equations to be satisfied by amplitudes containing states in winding sector one and study their solution corresponding to the four point function including one w = 1 field. We compute the three point function involving two one-unit spectral flowed operators and find expressions for amplitudes of three w = 1 states satisfying certain particular relations among the spins of the fields. Several consistency checks are performed

  1. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... options....

  2. Breast Cancer: Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Treatment Options Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... can be addressed as quickly as possible. Recurrent breast cancer If the cancer does return after treatment for ...

  3. Monitoring the changes to the nutrient composition of fast foods following the introduction of menu labelling in New South Wales, Australia: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard-Cole, Lyndal; Goldsbury, David; Havill, Michelle; Hughes, Clare; Watson, Wendy L; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Chapman, Kathy

    2018-04-01

    The present study examined the energy (kilojoule) content of Australian fast-food menu items over seven years, before and after introduction of menu board labelling, to determine the impact of the introduction of the legislation. Analysis of the median energy contents per serving and per 100g of fast-food menu items. Change in energy content of menu items across the years surveyed and differences in energy content of standard and limited-time only menu items were analysed. Five of Australia's largest fast food chains: Hungry Jack's, KFC, McDonald's, Oporto and Red Rooster. All standard and limited-time only menu items available at each fast-food chain, collected annually for seven years, 2009-2015. Although some fast-food chains/menu item categories had significant increases in the energy contents of their menus at some time points during the 7-year period, overall there were no significant or systematic decreases in energy following the introduction of menu labelling (P=0·19 by +17 kJ/100 g, P=0·83 by +8 kJ/serving). Limited-time only items were significantly higher in median energy content per 100 g than standard menu items (+74 kJ/100 g, P=0·002). While reformulation across the entire Australian fast-food supply has the potential to positively influence population nutrient intake, the introduction of menu labelling legislation in New South Wales, Australia did not lead to reduced energy contents across the five fast-food chains. To encourage widespread reformulation by the fast-food industry and enhance the impact of labelling legislation, the government should work with industry to set targets for reformulation of nutrient content.

  4. Design Evolution Study - Aging Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDaniel, P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify options and issues for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel received for disposal at the Yucca Mountain Mined Geologic Repository. Some early shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel to the repository may be received with high-heat-output (younger) fuel assemblies that will need to be managed to meet thermal goals for emplacement. The capability to age as much as 40,000 metric tons of heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear he1 would provide more flexibility in the design to manage this younger fuel and to decouple waste receipt and waste emplacement. The following potential aging location options are evaluated: (1) Surface aging at four locations near the North Portal; (2) Subsurface aging in the permanent emplacement drifts; and (3) Subsurface aging in a new subsurface area. The following aging container options are evaluated: (1) Complete Waste Package; (2) Stainless Steel inner liner of the waste package; (3) Dual Purpose Canisters; (4) Multi-Purpose Canisters; and (5) New disposable canister for uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel. Each option is compared to a ''Base Case,'' which is the expected normal waste packaging process without aging. A Value Engineering approach is used to score each option against nine technical criteria and rank the options. Open issues with each of the options and suggested future actions are also presented. Costs for aging containers and aging locations are evaluated separately. Capital costs are developed for direct costs and distributable field costs. To the extent practical, unit costs are presented. Indirect costs, operating costs, and total system life cycle costs will be evaluated outside of this study. Three recommendations for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel--subsurface, surface, and combined surface and subsurface are presented for further review in the overall design re-evaluation effort. Options that were evaluated but not recommended are: subsurface aging in a new

  5. Distributed Energy Implementation Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Chandralata N [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-13

    This presentation covers the options for implementing distributed energy projects. It distinguishes between options available for distributed energy that is government owned versus privately owned, with a focus on the privately owned options including Energy Savings Performance Contract Energy Sales Agreements (ESPC ESAs). The presentation covers the new ESPC ESA Toolkit and other Federal Energy Management Program resources.

  6. An observational study of consumer use of fast-food restaurant drive-through lanes: implications for menu labelling policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Christina A; Hoffnagle, Elena; Bragg, Marie A; Brownell, Kelly D

    2010-11-01

    Some versions of restaurant menu labelling legislation do not require energy information to be posted on menus for drive-through lanes. The present study was designed to quantify the number of customers who purchase fast food through drive-in windows as a means of informing legislative labelling efforts. This was an observational study. The study took place at two McDonald's and Burger King restaurants, and single Dairy Queen, Kentucky Fried Chicken, Taco Bell and Wendy's restaurants. The number of customers entering the chain restaurants and purchasing food via the drive-through lane were recorded. A total of 3549 patrons were observed. The percentage of customers who made their purchases at drive-throughs was fifty-seven. The overall average (57 %) is likely a conservative estimate because some fast-food restaurants have late-night hours when only the drive-throughs are open. Since nearly six in ten customers purchase food via the drive-through lanes, menu labelling legislation should mandate the inclusion of menu labels on drive-through menu boards to maximise the impact of this public health intervention.

  7. Predicted Impact of the Food and Drug Administration's Menu-Labeling Regulations on Restaurants in 4 New Jersey Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruner, Jessie; DeWeese, Robin S; Lorts, Cori; Yedidia, Michael J; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2018-02-01

    To determine the proportion of restaurants that will be required to post calorie information under the Food and Drug Administration's menu-labeling regulations in 4 New Jersey cities. We classified geocoded 2014 data on 1753 restaurant outlets in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration's guidelines, which will require restaurants with 20 or more locations nationwide to post calorie information. We used multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess the association between menu-labeling requirements and census tract characteristics. Only 17.6% of restaurants will be affected by menu labeling; restaurants in higher-income tracts have higher odds than do restaurants in lower-income tracts (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55; P = .02). Restaurants in non-Hispanic Black (OR = 1.62; P = .02) and mixed race/ethnicity (OR = 1.44; P = .05) tracts have higher odds than do restaurants in non-Hispanic White tracts of being affected. Additional strategies are needed to help consumers make healthy choices at restaurants not affected by the menu-labeling law. These findings have implications for designing implementation strategies for the law and for evaluating its impact.

  8. 76 FR 30050 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 11 and 101 [Docket No. FDA-2011-F-0172] RIN 0910-AG57 Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food Establishments; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  9. 76 FR 30051 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 11 and 101 [Docket No. FDA-2011-F-0172] RIN 0910-AG57 Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food Establishments; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  10. Mathematical Approach For Serving Nutritious Menu For Secondary School Student Using “Delete-Reshuffle-Reoptimize Algorithm”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudin, Azila M.; Sufahani, Suliadi

    2018-04-01

    Secondary school student need to eat a well nutritious and healthy food that gives enough supplements for improvement, safeguarding and rebuilding the human body. In addition, with legitimate supplement, it can keep any undesirable diseases and infections. At this moment, medicinal disclosure demonstrates that by expending very much adjusted nutritious sustenance, it can anticipate and decrease the dangers of certain illness. Menu organizers, nutritionist and dietitians faced with mind boggling undertakings and inconveniences obstacles to grow human wellbeing. Serving more beneficial meal is a noteworthy step towards accomplishing one of the objectives for this study. However reorganizing a nutritious and well balanced menu by hand is difficult, insufficient and time consuming. The target of this study is to build up a mathematical technique for menu scheduling that fulfill the whole supplement prerequisite for secondary school student, reduce processing time, minimize the budget and furthermore serve assortment type of food consistently. It additionally gives the adaptability for the cook to change any favored menu even after the ideal arrangement and optimal solution has been acquired. A recalculation procedure will be performed in light of the ideal arrangement. The data was obtained from the Ministry of Health Malaysian and school specialists. The model was solved by using Binary Programming and “Delete-Reshuffle-Reoptimize Algorithm”.

  11. Applied Mathematical Optimization Technique on Menu Scheduling for Boarding School Student Using Delete-Reshuffle-Reoptimize Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufahani, Suliadi; Mohamad, Mahathir; Roslan, Rozaini; Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Che-Him, Norziha; Ali, Maselan; Khalid, Kamal; Nazri, E. M.; Ahmad, Asmala

    2018-04-01

    Boarding school student needs to eat well balanced nutritious food which includes proper calories, vitality and supplements for legitimate development, keeping in mind the end goal is to repair and support the body tissues and averting undesired ailments and disease. Serving healthier menu is a noteworthy stride towards accomplishing that goal. Be that as it may, arranging a nutritious and adjusted menu physically is confounded, wasteful and tedious. This study intends to build up a scientific mathematical model for eating routine arranging that improves and meets the vital supplement consumption for boarding school student aged 13-18 and in addition saving the financial plan. It likewise gives the adaptability for the cook to change any favoured menu even after the ideal arrangement has been produced. A recalculation procedure will be performed in view of the ideal arrangement. The information was gathered from the the Ministry of Education and boarding schools’ authorities. Menu arranging is a notable enhancement issue and part of well-established optimization problem. The model was fathomed by utilizing Binary Programming and “Delete-Reshuffle-Reoptimize Algortihm (DDRA)”.

  12. [Modern documentary research on disease menu of acupuncture-moxibustion for mental and behavioral disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, You-Ping; Chen, Yong; Xing, Lin; Niu, Bai-Lu; Zhu, Feng-Juan; Han, Jing; Wang, Yu; Bian, Wei; Liu, Cong-Sheng; Wei, Li; Du, Yuan-Hao

    2011-10-01

    Dominant disease menu of mental and behavioral disorder of acupuncture therapy was summarized and obtained in this article. Literatures on clinical treatment of mental and behavioral disorder with acupuncture were picked up from CBMdisc and CNKI during 1978 to 2007. Types of mental and behavioral disorder and report frequency of each disease treated with acupuncture were counted. And dominant diseases which were favorable to be treated with acupuncture were acquired through analysis and inductive method. Twenty-nine diseases of mental and behavioral disorder are favorable to be treated with acupuncture which were mentioned in totally 1967 related documents. It is found that the number of reports of sleep disorder, depression, hysteria aphronesia, dementia and sexual disorder are ranked as the top five. It is concluded that the preponderant diseases of mental and behavioral disorder treated by acupuncture are dementia, withdrawal syndrome, mental retardation, obsessive-compulsive disorder, sleep disorder, gastrointestinal neurosis (gastrointestinal disorders), depression, alcoholism and globus hystericus.

  13. [Texture modified diet; digestibility, nutritional value, and contributions to menu of hospitals and nursing homes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irles Rocamora, Jose Antonio; García-Luna, Pedro Pablo

    2014-01-21

    Texture modified diet is a significant loss of the organoleptic qualities of the feed, so often associated with suboptimal intake and can increase the risk of malnutrition in people with chewing or swallowing difficulties. It is known that these diets based on traditional ground, have varying nutritional adequacy. The emergence of numerous commercial products lyophilized or ready to eat, with a wide variety of nutritional value, according to the range and recipe is concerned, represent an important step in the normalization of nutritional value and food security in people with dysphagia. This review discussed the possible advantages or disadvantages compared to traditional ground, and the possibilities of inclusion in the menu of hospitals and nursing homes. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. On-screen-display (OSD) menu detection for proper stereo content reproduction for 3D TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstaya, Ekaterina V.; Bucha, Victor V.; Rychagov, Michael N.

    2011-03-01

    Modern consumer 3D TV sets are able to show video content in two different modes: 2D and 3D. In 3D mode, stereo pair comes from external device such as Blue-ray player, satellite receivers etc. The stereo pair is split into left and right images that are shown one after another. The viewer sees different image for left and right eyes using shutter-glasses properly synchronized with a 3DTV. Besides, some devices that provide TV with a stereo content are able to display some additional information by imposing an overlay picture on video content, an On-Screen-Display (OSD) menu. Some OSDs are not always 3D compatible and lead to incorrect 3D reproduction. In this case, TV set must recognize the type of OSD, whether it is 3D compatible, and visualize it correctly by either switching off stereo mode, or continue demonstration of stereo content. We propose a new stable method for detection of 3D incompatible OSD menus on stereo content. Conventional OSD is a rectangular area with letters and pictograms. OSD menu can be of different transparency levels and colors. To be 3D compatible, an OSD is overlaid separately on both images of a stereo pair. The main problem in detecting OSD is to distinguish whether the color difference is due to OSD presence, or due to stereo parallax. We applied special techniques to find reliable image difference and additionally used a cue that usually OSD has very implicit geometrical features: straight parallel lines. The developed algorithm was tested on our video sequences database, with several types of OSD with different colors and transparency levels overlaid upon video content. Detection quality exceeded 99% of true answers.

  15. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.L.; Ahrendt, M.R.

    2009-01-01

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  16. The political attack ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palma Peña-Jiménez, Ph.D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During election campaigns the political spot has a clear objective: to win votes. This message is communicated to the electorate through television and Internet, and usually presents a negative approach, which includes a direct critical message against the opponent, rather than an exposition of proposals. This article is focused on the analysis of the campaign attack video ad purposely created to encourage the disapproval of the political opponent among voters. These ads focus on discrediting the opponent, many times, through the transmission of ad hominem messages, instead of disseminating the potential of the political party and the virtues and manifesto of its candidate. The article reviews the development of the attack ad since its first appearance, which in Spain dates back to 1996, when the famous Doberman ad was broadcast, and examines the most memorable campaign attack ads.

  17. Targeting the taqueria: implementing healthy food options at Mexican American restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, Krista D; Garcia, Elan; Ellemberg, Cheryl; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2009-04-01

    As part of a 5-year community-based intervention in Salinas, California, the Steps to a Healthier Salinas team developed a taqueria intervention addressing obesity and diabetes among Mexican Americans. The authors present: (a) a comparison of service/entrée options for Salinas taquerias (n = 35) and fast-food restaurants ( n = 38) at baseline, (b) a case study of one taqueria, (c) a description of a healthy nutrition tool kit tailored to taquerias, and (d) an evaluation of the intervention at Year 3. It was found that traditional Mexican American-style menu offerings at taquerias tended to be healthier than American-style fast-food restaurant offerings. In addition, the initial response to the intervention has shown positive changes, which include the taqueria owners promoting available healthy menu items and modifying other menu offerings to reduce fats and increase fruit and vegetable availability. This, in turn, has led to a transition of the owners' perceptions of themselves as gatekeepers for a healthy community.

  18. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    Recent studies reveal that consumers respond favourably to “organic plus” products with additional ethical attributes. The aim of the current study is to explore whether consumers would notice and value further improvements in the animal welfare standards than those imposed by the organic...... regulation. The results of a qualitative concept test reveal positive attitudes towards the proposed production process. The discussions about fewer standards being sufficient or about options “in-between” conventional and organic standards indicate that the difference in production processes is noticed, yet...

  19. PEDRO (Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option) user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-11-01

    PEDRO is an electronic data communications product that simplifies filing and transmission of petroleum survey data. Your burden is significantly reduced as PEDRO eliminates paperwork, provides immediate onsite correction of data errors, and reduces the need for followup calls and survey resubmission. PEDRO provides an online error-checking process that highlights discrepancies. This permits you to enter and check data before transmitting to EIA. EIA then combines and reformats the data from different users for use by analytical and reporting programs. PEDRO is available at no cost to the user. Formal training is not required since installation, data processing, and transmission are done by interactive, user-friendly menu options. The PEDRO system is divided into three functions: (1) data processing, (2) transmitting data to EIA, and (3) EIA processing. 28 figs.

  20. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2013)152, in agreement with the results of Castro and Song http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.1948. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS 2 ×S 2 or conformally AdS 2 ×S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide

  1. The influence of menu labeling on calories selected or consumed: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Susan E; Cooper, Marcia; Mansfield, Elizabeth D

    2014-09-01

    Recent menu labeling initiatives in North America involve posting the calorie content of standard menu items, sometimes with other nutrients of public health concern, with or without contextual information (such as the recommended daily caloric intake for an average adult) or interpretive information (such as traffic light symbols). It is not clear whether this is an effective method to convey nutrition information to consumers wanting to make more-informed food choices. Of particular concern are those consumers who may be limited in their food and health literacy skills to make informed food choices to meet their dietary needs or goals. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine whether the provision of menu-based nutrition information affects the selection and consumption of calories in restaurants and other foodservice establishments. A secondary objective was to determine whether the format of the nutrition information (informative vs contextual or interpretive) influences calorie selection or consumption. Several bibliographic databases were searched for experimental or quasiexperimental studies that tested the effect of providing nutrition information in a restaurant or other foodservice setting on calories selected or consumed. Studies that recruited generally healthy, noninstitutionalized adolescents or adults were included. When two or more studies reported similar outcomes and sufficient data were available, meta-analysis was performed. Menu labeling with calories alone did not have the intended effect of decreasing calories selected or consumed (-31 kcal [P=0.35] and -13 kcal [P=0.61], respectively). The addition of contextual or interpretive nutrition information on menus appeared to assist consumers in the selection and consumption of fewer calories (-67 kcal [P=0.008] and -81 kcal [P=0.007], respectively). Sex influenced the effect of menu labeling on selection and consumption of calories, with women using the information to select and

  2. Complexity of the AdS soliton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Alan P.; Ross, Simon F.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the holographic complexity conjectures in the context of the AdS soliton, which is the holographic dual of the ground state of a field theory on a torus with antiperiodic boundary conditions for fermions on one cycle. The complexity is a non-trivial function of the size of the circle with antiperiodic boundary conditions, which sets an IR scale in the dual geometry. We find qualitative differences between the calculations of complexity from spatial volume and action (CV and CA). In the CV calculation, the complexity for antiperiodic boundary conditions is smaller than for periodic, and decreases monotonically with increasing IR scale. In the CA calculation, the complexity for antiperiodic boundary conditions is larger than for periodic, and initially increases with increasing IR scale, eventually decreasing to zero as the IR scale becomes of order the UV cutoff. We compare these results to a simple calculation for free fermions on a lattice, where we find the complexity for antiperiodic boundary conditions is larger than for periodic.

  3. AdS2 models in an embedding superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Sherry, T.N.

    2003-01-01

    An embedding superspace, whose bosonic part is the flat (2+1)-dimensional embedding space for AdS 2 , is introduced. Superfields and several supersymmetric models are examined in the embedded AdS 2 superspace

  4. Mobile ad hoc networking

    CERN Document Server

    John Wiley & Sons

    2004-01-01

    "Assimilating the most up-to-date information on research and development activities in this rapidly growing area, Mobile Ad Hoc Networking covers physical, data link, network, and transport layers, as well as application, security, simulation, and power management issues in sensor, local area, personal, and mobile ad hoc networks. Each of the book's sixteen chapters has been written by a top expert and discusses in-depth the most important topics in the field. Mobile Ad Hoc Networking is an excellent reference and guide for professionals seeking an in-depth examination of topics that also provides a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art."--Jacket.

  5. 78 FR 54970 - Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... Service 7 CFR Part 27 [AMS-CN-13-0043] RIN 0581-AD33 Cotton Futures Classification: Optional Classification Procedure AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The... optional cotton futures classification procedure--identified and known as ``registration'' by the U.S...

  6. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    It was argued in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP03(2013)028 that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically-AdS 3 ×S 3 /ℤ N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  7. Hadronization at the AdS wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Nick; French, James; Threlfall, Ed; Jensen, Kristan

    2010-01-01

    We describe hadronization events, using the AdS/CFT Correspondence, which display many of the qualitative features expected in QCD. In particular we study the motion of strings with separating end points in a back-reacted hard wall geometry. The solutions show the development of a linear QCD-like string. The end points oscillate in the absence of string breaking. We introduce string breaking by hand and evolve the new state forward in time to observe the separation of two string segments. A kink associated with this breaking evolves to the end points of the string inducing rho meson production. We explicitly compute the rho meson production at the end point.

  8. The origins of options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Richerson, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one's current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options.

  9. Americal options analyzed differently

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we analyze in a discrete-time context and with a finite outcome space American options starting with the idea that every tradable should be a martingale under a certain measure. We believe that in this way American options become more understandable to people with a good working

  10. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  11. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  12. Fast Food: Tips for Choosing Healthier Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opinion). Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Feb. 9, 2016. McDonald's USA Nutrition Facts for popular menu items. http://fastfoodnutrition.org/mcdonalds. Accessed Feb. 17, 2016. Burger King USA Nutritionals. ...

  13. The ATLAS Run-2 Trigger Menu for higher luminosities: Design, Performance and Operational Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment aims at recording about 1 kHz of physics collisions, starting with an LHC design bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. To reduce the massive background rate while maintaining a high selection efficiency for rare physics events (such as beyond the Standard Model physics), a two-level trigger system is used. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. The trigger system exploits topological information, as well as multi-variate methods to carry out the necessary physics filtering. In total, the ATLAS online selection consists of thousands of different individual triggers. A trigger menu is a compilation of these triggers which specifies the physics algorithms to be used during data taking and the bandwidth a given trigger is allocated. Trigger menus reflect not only the physics goals of the collaboration for a given run, but also take into consideration the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC and limitations from the...

  14. The ATLAS Run-2 Trigger Menu for higher luminosities: Design, Performance and Operational Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Torro Pastor, Emma; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment aims at recording about 1 kHz of physics collisions, starting with an LHC design bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. To reduce the massive background rate while maintaining a high selection efficiency for rare physics events (such as beyond the Standard Model physics), a two-level trigger system is used. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. The trigger system exploits topological information, as well as multi-variate methods to carry out the necessary physics filtering. In total, the ATLAS online selection consists of thousands of different individual triggers. A trigger menu is a compilation of these triggers which specifies the physics algorithms to be used during data taking and the bandwidth a given trigger is allocated. Trigger menus reflect not only the physics goals of the collaboration for a given run, but also take into consideration the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC and limitations from the...

  15. Associations between a voluntary restaurant menu designation initiative and patron purchasing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Erica T; Biediger-Friedman, Lesli; Banda, Martha

    2014-03-01

    Restaurant initiatives provide an efficient opportunity to impact large numbers of patrons. The purpose of this study is to measure patron purchasing behaviors during the ¡Por Vida! menu designation initiative. This study used a cross-sectional design and survey data to assess 23 restaurants throughout Bexar County and 152 restaurant patrons. The Patron Awareness Questionnaire assessed if patrons noticed the logo; believed nutrition, cost, and taste were important in making purchasing decisions; and purchased a ¡Por Vida! item. Descriptive statistics, Spearman correlations, and logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Most (93.4%) patrons considered taste very important when deciding what to eat. Cost was very important to 63.8% and nutrition was very important to 55.9% of the sample. The strongest predictors of purchasing a ¡Por Vida! item were the patrons' ages being between 18 and 35 years (odds ratio = 1.474; confidence interval = 0.017, 0.812; p designation initiatives can potentially influence patron purchasing behaviors among a segment of the population when the logo is visible.

  16. The ATLAS Trigger Menu design for higher luminosities in Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    Torro Pastor, Emma; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment aims at recording about 1 kHz of physics collisions, starting with an LHC design bunch crossing rate of 40 MHz. To reduce the large background rate while maintaining a high selection efficiency for rare physics events (such as beyond the Standard Model physics), a two-level trigger system is used. Events are selected based on physics signatures such as the presence of energetic leptons, photons, jets or large missing energy. The trigger system exploits topological information, as well as multivariate methods to carry out the necessary physics filtering for the many analyses that are pursued by the ATLAS community. In total, the ATLAS online selection consists of nearly two thousand individual triggers. A Trigger Menu is the compilation of these triggers, it specifies the physics selection algorithms to be used during data taking and the rate and bandwidth a given trigger is allocated. Trigger menus must reflect the physics goals of the collaboration for a given run, but also take into con...

  17. Method of Menu Selection by Gaze Movement Using AC EOG Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoh, Shin'ichiro; Futami, Ryoko; Yoshinobu, Tatsuo; Hoshimiya, Nozomu

    A method to detect the direction and the distance of voluntary eye gaze movement from EOG (electrooculogram) signals was proposed and tested. In this method, AC-amplified vertical and horizontal transient EOG signals were classified into 8-class directions and 2-class distances of voluntary eye gaze movements. A horizontal and a vertical EOGs during eye gaze movement at each sampling time were treated as a two-dimensional vector, and the center of gravity of the sample vectors whose norms were more than 80% of the maximum norm was used as a feature vector to be classified. By the classification using the k-nearest neighbor algorithm, it was shown that the averaged correct detection rates on each subject were 98.9%, 98.7%, 94.4%, respectively. This method can avoid strict EOG-based eye tracking which requires DC amplification of very small signal. It would be useful to develop robust human interfacing systems based on menu selection for severely paralyzed patients.

  18. Flexible trigger menu implementation on the Global Trigger for the CMS Level-1 trigger upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has continued to explore physics at the high-energy frontier in 2016. The integrated luminosity delivered by the LHC in 2016 was 41~fb$^{-1}$ with a peak luminosity of 1.5 $\\times$ 10$^{34}$ cm$^{-2}$s$^{-1}$ and peak mean pile-up of about 50, all exceeding the initial estimations for 2016. The CMS experiment has upgraded its hardware-based Level-1 trigger system to maintain its performance for new physics searches and precision measurements at high luminosities. The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS \\mbox{Level-1} trigger and implements a trigger menu, a set of selection requirements applied to the final list of objects from calorimeter and muon triggers, for reducing the 40 MHz collision rate to 100 kHz. The Global Trigger has been upgraded with state-of-the-art FPGA processors on Advanced Mezzanine Cards with optical links running at 10 GHz in a MicroTCA crate. The powerful processing resources of the upgraded system enable implemen...

  19. Environmental Intervention in Carryout Restaurants Increases Sales of Healthy Menu Items in a Low-Income Urban Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Bleich, Sara N; Kim, Hyunju; Colantuoni, Elizabeth; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-01-01

    To investigate how a pilot environmental intervention changed food sales patterns in carryout restaurants. Quasi-experimental. Low-income neighborhoods of Baltimore, Maryland. Seven carryouts (three intervention, four comparison). Phase 1, menu board revision and healthy menu labeling; phase 2, increase of healthy sides and beverages; and phase 3, promotion of cheaper and healthier combination meals. Weekly handwritten menu orders collected to assess changes in the proportion of units sold and revenue of healthy items (entrée, sides and beverages, and combined). Logistic and Poisson regression models with generalized estimating equations. In the intervention group, odds for healthy entrée units and odds for healthy side and beverage units sold significantly increased in phases 2 and 3; odds for healthy entrée revenue significantly increased in phase 1 (odds ratio [OR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.26), phase 2 (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.25-1.41), and phase 3 (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.14-1.70); and odds for healthy side and beverage revenues increased significantly in phase 2 (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.33-1.97) and phase 3 (OR 2.73, 95% CI 2.15-3.47) compared to baseline. Total revenue in the intervention group was significantly higher in all phases than in the comparison group (p selection, and competitive pricing can increase availability and sales of healthy items in carryouts.

  20. Food labeling; nutrition labeling of standard menu items in restaurants and similar retail food establishments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To implement the nutrition labeling provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act or ACA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is requiring disclosure of certain nutrition information for standard menu items in certain restaurants and retail food establishments. The ACA, in part, amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), among other things, to require restaurants and similar retail food establishments that are part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name and offering for sale substantially the same menu items to provide calorie and other nutrition information for standard menu items, including food on display and self-service food. Under provisions of the ACA, restaurants and similar retail food establishments not otherwise covered by the law may elect to become subject to these Federal requirements by registering every other year with FDA. Providing accurate, clear, and consistent nutrition information, including the calorie content of foods, in restaurants and similar retail food establishments will make such nutrition information available to consumers in a direct and accessible manner to enable consumers to make informed and healthful dietary choices.

  1. Construction of web-based nutrition education contents and searching engine for usage of healthy menu of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tae-Kyong; Chung, Hea-Jung; Park, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Ju; Nam, Hye-Seon; Jung, Soon-Im; Cho, Jee-Ye; Lee, Jin-Hee; Kim, Gon; Kim, Min-Chan

    2008-01-01

    A diet habit, which is developed in childhood, lasts for a life time. In this sense, nutrition education and early exposure to healthy menus in childhood is important. Children these days have easy access to the internet. Thus, a web-based nutrition education program for children is an effective tool for nutrition education of children. This site provides the material of the nutrition education for children with characters which are personified nutrients. The 151 menus are stored in the site together with video script of the cooking process. The menus are classified by the criteria based on age, menu type and the ethnic origin of the menu. The site provides a search function. There are three kinds of search conditions which are key words, menu type and "between" expression of nutrients such as calorie and other nutrients. The site is developed with the operating system Windows 2003 Server, the web server ZEUS 5, development language JSP, and database management system Oracle 10 g. PMID:20126375

  2. Optimization Technique With Sensitivity Analysis On Menu Scheduling For Boarding School Student Aged 13-18 Using “Sufahani-Ismail Algorithm”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudin, Azila M.; Sufahani, Suliadi

    2018-04-01

    Boarding school student aged 13-18 need to eat nutritious meals which contains proper calories, vitality and nutrients for appropriate development with a specific end goal to repair and upkeep the body tissues. Furthermore, it averts undesired diseases and contamination. Serving healthier food is a noteworthy stride towards accomplishing that goal. However, arranging a nutritious and balance menu manually is convoluted, wasteful and tedious. Therefore, the aim of this study is to develop a mathematical model with an optimization technique for menu scheduling that fulfill the whole supplement prerequisite for boarding school student, reduce processing time, minimize the budget and furthermore serve assortment type of food each day. It additionally gives the flexibility for the cook to choose any food to be considered in the beginning of the process and change any favored menu even after the ideal arrangement and optimal solution has been obtained. This is called sensitivity analysis. A recalculation procedure will be performed in light of the ideal arrangement and seven days menu was produced. The data was gathered from the Malaysian Ministry of Education and schools authorities. Menu arranging is a known optimization problem. Therefore Binary Programming alongside optimization technique and “Sufahani-Ismail Algorithm” were utilized to take care of this issue. In future, this model can be implemented to other menu problem, for example, for sports, endless disease patients, militaries, colleges, healing facilities and nursing homes.

  3. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of bank’s interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the company’s detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the company’s detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a “good host” is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the manager’s powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the

  4. 2005 resource options report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.

    2005-01-01

    This resource options report (ROR) fulfils regulatory requirements in British Columbia's two-year resource planning process. It identifies a wide range of resources and technologies that could be used to meet BC Hydro's future electricity demand. As such, it facilitates a transparent public review of resource options which include both supply-side and demand-side options. The resource options that will be used in the 2005 integrated electricity plan (IEP) were characterized. This ROR also documents where there is a general agreement or disagreement on the resource type characterization, based on the First Nations and Stakeholder engagement. BC Hydro used current information to provide realistic ranges on volume and cost to characterize environmental and social attributes. The BC Hydro system was modelled to assess the benefit and cost of various resource options. The information resulting from this ROR and IEP will help in making decisions on how to structure competitive acquisition calls and to determine the level of transmission services needed to advance certain BC Hydro projects. The IEP forecasts the nature and quantity of domestic resources required over the next 20 years. A strategic direction on how those needs will be met has been created to guide the management of BC Hydro's energy resources. Supply-side options include near-commercial technologies such as energy storage, ocean waves, tidal, fuel cells and integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. Supply-side options also include natural gas, coal, biomass, geothermal, wind, and hydro. 120 refs., 39 tabs., 21 figs., 6 appendices

  5. Expensing options solves nothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlman, William A

    2002-12-01

    The use of stock options for executive compensation has become a lightning rod for public anger, and it's easy to see why. Many top executives grew hugely rich on the back of the gains they made on their options, profits they've been able to keep even as the value they were supposed to create disappeared. The supposed scam works like this: Current accounting regulations let companies ignore the cost of option grants on their income statements, so they can award valuable option packages without affecting reported earnings. Not charging the cost of the grants supposedly leads to overstated earnings, which purportedly translate into unrealistically high share prices, permitting top executives to realize big gains when they exercise their options. If an accounting anomaly is the problem, then the solution seems obvious: Write off executive share options against the current year's revenues. The trouble is, Sahlman writes, expensing option grants won't give us a more accurate view of earnings, won't add any information not already included in the financial statements, and won't even lead to equal treatment of different forms of executive pay. Far worse, expensing evades the real issue, which is whether compensation (options and other-wise) does what it's supposed to do--namely, help a company recruit, retain, and provide the right people with appropriate performance incentives. Any performance-based compensation system has the potential to encourage cheating. Only ethical management, sensible governance, adequate internal control systems, and comprehensive disclosure will save the investor from disaster. If, Sahlman warns, we pass laws that require the expensing of options, thinking that's fixed the fundamental flaws in corporate America's accounting, we will have missed a golden opportunity to focus on the much more extensive defects in the present system.

  6. Management job ads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2014-01-01

    jobs by discursively constructing job ads that appeal to both sexes. This argument is part of the broader field of corporate social responsibility, corporate citizenship, and stakeholder management, which involves discussions of the obligations of corporations to acknowledge and mitigate...... the increasingly widespread impact that their activities have on communities and social structures. The article emphasises the need for more active engagement on the part of corporations by analysing the discursive construction of preferred candidates in a small sample of Danish management job ads. By means...... that this agreement reflects a high degree of conservatism in the system where men enjoy a considerable advantage and where procedures that ensure male dominance are perpetuated even in the linguistic and discursive construction of job ads....

  7. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Jensen, Mads Vestergaard

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  8. Early Option Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Vestergaard; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    A classic result by Merton (1973) is that, except just before expiration or dividend payments, one should never exercise a call option and never convert a convertible bond. We show theoretically that this result is overturned when investors face frictions. Early option exercise can be optimal when...... it reduces short-sale costs, transaction costs, or funding costs. We provide consistent empirical evidence, documenting billions of dollars of early exercise for options and convertible bonds using unique data on actual exercise decisions and frictions. Our model can explain as much as 98% of early exercises...

  9. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  10. Dynamic ad hoc networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rashvand, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by the exciting new application paradigm of using amalgamated technologies of the Internet and wireless, the next generation communication networks (also called 'ubiquitous', 'complex' and 'unstructured' networking) are changing the way we develop and apply our future systems and services at home and on local, national and global scales. Whatever the interconnection - a WiMAX enabled networked mobile vehicle, MEMS or nanotechnology enabled distributed sensor systems, Vehicular Ad hoc Networking (VANET) or Mobile Ad hoc Networking (MANET) - all can be classified under new networking s

  11. Thermometers: Understand the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the options Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...

  12. Options for human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauser, M.; Williams, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses options for dealing with human intrusion in terms of performance requirements and repository siting and design requirements. Options are presented, along with the advantages and disadvantages of certain approaches. At the conclusion, a conceptual approach is offered emphasizing both the minimization of subjective judgements concerning future human activity, and specification of repository requirements to minimize the likelihood of human intrusion and any resulting, harmful effects should intrusion occur

  13. Adding an extra storey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmark, Jesper; Dahl, Torben; Melgaard, Ebbe

    2007-01-01

    of them had to be renovated after a shorter period. In stead of just replacing the original roof with a new one, it is now a days rather common to ad an extra storey where that is possible according to local planning. The reason is as a rule based on economical benefits, but very often this extra storey...

  14. A restaurant-based intervention to promote sales of healthy children's menu items: the Kids' Choice Restaurant Program cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Castro, Iana A; Pickrel, Julie L; Williams, Christine B; Lin, Shih-Fan; Madanat, Hala; Jun, Hee-Jin; Zive, Michelle

    2016-03-10

    Away-from-home eating is an important dietary behavior with implications on diet quality. Thus, it is an important behavior to target to prevent and control childhood obesity and other chronic health conditions. Numerous studies have been conducted to improve children's dietary intake at home, in early care and education, and in schools; however, few studies have sought to modify the restaurant food environment for children. This study adds to this body of research by describing the development and launch of an innovative intervention to promote sales of healthy children's menu items in independent restaurants in Southern California, United States. This is a cluster randomized trial with eight pair-matched restaurants in San Diego, California. Restaurants were randomized to a menu-only versus menu-plus intervention condition. The menu-only intervention condition involves manager/owner collaboration on the addition of pre-determined healthy children's menu items and kitchen manager/owner collaboration to prepare and plate these items and train kitchen staff. The menu-plus intervention condition involves more extensive manager/owner collaboration and kitchen staff training to select, prepare, and plate new healthy children's menu items, and a healthy children's menu campaign that includes marketing materials and server training to promote the items. The primary outcome is sales of healthy children's menu items over an 18-week period. In addition, dining parties consisting of adults with children under 18 years of age are being observed unobtrusively while ordering and then interviewed throughout the 18-week study period to determine the impact of the intervention on ordering behaviors. Manager/owner interviews and restaurant audits provide additional evidence of impact on customers, employees, and the restaurant environment. Our process evaluation assesses dose delivered, dose received, and intervention fidelity. Successful recruitment of the restaurants has been

  15. A restaurant-based intervention to promote sales of healthy children’s menu items: the Kids’ Choice Restaurant Program cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe X. Ayala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Away-from-home eating is an important dietary behavior with implications on diet quality. Thus, it is an important behavior to target to prevent and control childhood obesity and other chronic health conditions. Numerous studies have been conducted to improve children’s dietary intake at home, in early care and education, and in schools; however, few studies have sought to modify the restaurant food environment for children. This study adds to this body of research by describing the development and launch of an innovative intervention to promote sales of healthy children’s menu items in independent restaurants in Southern California, United States. Methods This is a cluster randomized trial with eight pair-matched restaurants in San Diego, California. Restaurants were randomized to a menu-only versus menu-plus intervention condition. The menu-only intervention condition involves manager/owner collaboration on the addition of pre-determined healthy children’s menu items and kitchen manager/owner collaboration to prepare and plate these items and train kitchen staff. The menu-plus intervention condition involves more extensive manager/owner collaboration and kitchen staff training to select, prepare, and plate new healthy children’s menu items, and a healthy children’s menu campaign that includes marketing materials and server training to promote the items. The primary outcome is sales of healthy children’s menu items over an 18-week period. In addition, dining parties consisting of adults with children under 18 years of age are being observed unobtrusively while ordering and then interviewed throughout the 18-week study period to determine the impact of the intervention on ordering behaviors. Manager/owner interviews and restaurant audits provide additional evidence of impact on customers, employees, and the restaurant environment. Our process evaluation assesses dose delivered, dose received, and intervention

  16. Asia Pacific menu patterns in relation to lipid abnormalities: An Indonesian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walujo Soerjodibroto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Countries in the Asia-Pacific region differ widely with respect to their nutritional intake and nutritional status. The highest daily energy and proportion of fat intakes of the population is shown by the New Zealanders (total energy 3475 Kcals; fat proportion 37.2% or 1293 Kcals, while the lowest is the Siamese (total energy 2288 Kcals; fat proportion 13.1% or 300 Kcals. The Indonesian on the other hand, is at the third from the bottom (total energy 2631 Kcals; proportion of fat is 14.5% or 381.9 Kcals. Animal fat contributes to 29.7% (1033 Kcals of the total daily energy intake of the New Zealanders (total 3475 Kcals, and the mortality rate coronary heart disease (CHD is also the highest (228 per 100,000 populations for men and 173 for women. In contrast, the proportion of animal fat in Indonesian menu is only 1.47% (38.7 Kcals of the total daily energy intake, while the CHD mortality rate is still below 50 per 100,000 for both men and women. Compared to the same values fifteen years before, animal fat intake of the New Zealanders has a decrease of 90%, Australian 88%, Philippines 99%, however the Indonesian on the other hand, has an increase of 157%. In New Zealand and Australia, the proportion of mortality attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD for men accounts for over 40% of total mortality. Japan however, the proportion mortality rate for CVD is only less than 30% of total mortality. In this level, Japan places itself among less industrialized group such as Malaysia and the Philippines. In the case of cerebrovascular (stroke mortality however, Japan belongs to the highest category group. It seems that apart of high fat intake, stress and possibly also other factors play a major role in the development of stroke. The mean Indonesian total energy intake is 2631 Kcals, consisting of 8.7% protein (228.9 Kcals, 52.2 g, 76.8% carbohydrate (2020 Kcals, 505 g, and 14.5% fat (381.9 Kcals, 42.4 g. Animal fat intake is only 4.3 g/day (38.7 Kcals

  17. Nevada Transportation Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-01-01

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  18. Options Study - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wigeland; T. Taiwo; M. Todosow; W. Halsey; J. Gehin

    2010-09-01

    The Options Study has been conducted for the purpose of evaluating the potential of alternative integrated nuclear fuel cycle options to favorably address the issues associated with a continuing or expanding use of nuclear power in the United States. The study produced information that can be used to inform decisions identifying potential directions for research and development on such fuel cycle options. An integrated nuclear fuel cycle option is defined in this study as including all aspects of the entire nuclear fuel cycle, from obtaining natural resources for fuel to the ultimate disposal of used nuclear fuel (UNF) or radioactive wastes. Issues such as nuclear waste management, especially the increasing inventory of used nuclear fuel, the current uncertainty about used fuel disposal, and the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation have contributed to the reluctance to expand the use of nuclear power, even though it is recognized that nuclear power is a safe and reliable method of producing electricity. In this Options Study, current, evolutionary, and revolutionary nuclear energy options were all considered, including the use of uranium and thorium, and both once-through and recycle approaches. Available information has been collected and reviewed in order to evaluate the ability of an option to clearly address the challenges associated with the current implementation and potential expansion of commercial nuclear power in the United States. This Options Study is a comprehensive consideration and review of fuel cycle and technology options, including those for disposal, and is not constrained by any limitations that may be imposed by economics, technical maturity, past policy, or speculated future conditions. This Phase II report is intended to be used in conjunction with the Phase I report, and much information in that report is not repeated here, although some information has been updated to reflect recent developments. The focus in this Options Study was to

  19. Globally regular instability of AdS_3

    OpenAIRE

    Bizon, P.; Jałmużna, J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider three-dimensional AdS gravity minimally coupled to a massless scalar field and study numerically the evolution of small smooth circularly symmetric perturbations of the $AdS_3$ spacetime. As in higher dimensions, for a large class of perturbations, we observe a turbulent cascade of energy to high frequencies which entails instability of $AdS_3$. However, in contrast to higher dimensions, the cascade cannot be terminated by black hole formation because small perturbations have ener...

  20. Nonlinear realization of supersymmetric AdS space isometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, T. E.; Love, S. T.

    2006-01-01

    The isometries of AdS 5 space and supersymmetric AdS 5 xS 1 space are nonlinearly realized on four-dimensional Minkowski space. The resultant effective actions in terms of the Nambu-Goldstone modes are constructed. The dilatonic mode governing the motion of the Minkowski space probe brane into the covolume of supersymmetric AdS 5 space is found to be unstable and the bulk of the AdS 5 space is unable to sustain the brane. No such instability appears in the nonsupersymmetric case

  1. Treatment Options for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... come back) after it has been treated. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  2. Treatment Options for Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special light. Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options ... age and general health of the patient. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic Syndromes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... special light. Certain factors affect prognosis and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options ... age and general health of the patient. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Vulvar Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  11. Treatment Options for Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. Treatment Options for Kaposi Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  13. Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... the brain where it was first found. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  14. Foods Served in Child Care Facilities Participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program: Menu Match and Agreement with the New Meal Patterns and Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Jayna M; Cullen, Karen W

    2018-02-20

    To assess the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3- to 5-year-old children attending federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-enrolled facilities, and the degree to which the facilities met the new meal patterns and best practices. On-site observations and menu coding. Nine early care and education centers. Agreement of posted menus with foods served, and comparison of foods served and consumed with the new CACFP meal guidelines and best practices. Data were compiled for each meal (breakfast, lunch, and snacks). Frequencies and percentages of agreement with the posted menu (coded matches, substitutions, additions, and omissions) were calculated for each food component in the CACFP menu guidelines. Menu total match was created by summing the menu match plus acceptable substitutions. Menus were compared with the new CACFP meal guidelines and best practices. The match between the posted menus and foods actually served to children at breakfast, lunch, and snack was high when the acceptable menu substitutions were considered (approximately 94% to 100% total match). Comparing the menus with the new meal guidelines and best practices, the 1 guideline that was fully implemented was serving only unflavored, low-fat, or 1% milk; fruit and vegetable guidelines were partially met; fruit juice was not served often, nor were legumes; the guideline for 1 whole grain-rich serving/d was not met; and regular beef and full-fat cheese products were commonly served. Early care and education centers enrolled in CACFP provided meals that met the current CACFP guidelines. Some menu improvements are needed for the centers to meet the new guidelines and best practices. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ads in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulan Roro Retno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetics industry created the beauty myth for women through advertising. A cosmetic ad in Indonesia has spread a new concept of white skin: East Asia beauty myth. The white concept of Asia white skin basically derived from colonial legacy. The purpose of the research was analyzing the beauty myth in Indonesia ads using postcolonial perspective. The principal result brought the discourse analysis and postcolonial perspective a new insight in communication research. Particularly on media and cultural studies. Major conclusions showed that the beauty myth since the Dutch colonial period never been change. The main concept is always in colonialism’s idea: “white is better”. The West is better than the East.

  16. Availability and accessibility of healthier options and nutrition information at New Zealand fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Ashmita; Eyles, Helen; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the availability of healthier options and nutrition information at major New Zealand fast food chains. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken at 24 fast food stores (two from each of 12 major chains) using on-site visits, telephone calls, and website searches. Of available products, only 234/1126 (21%) were healthier options. Healthier options were generally cheaper and lower in energy, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, and sodium per serve than their regular counterparts. Regular options were commonly high in sugar or sodium per serve (mean sugar content of beverages=56 g (11 teaspoons) and sodium content of burgers and pasta=1095 mg and 1172 mg, respectively). Nutrition information was available at 11/12 (92%) restaurant chains (range=0% at Tank Juice to 99% at Domino's Pizza). However, nutrition in the New Zealand fast food restaurant setting. Implications of these findings for policy and food industry include: consideration of mandatory menu labelling, increasing the percentage of healthier options available, and improving the nutrient content of regular options at New Zealand fast food restaurants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Philosophia ad bellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. O. Loboda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper «Philosophia ad bellum» is being realized an attempt to classify philosophic approaches to the study of phenomenon of war by the analogy with the structure of «Just war theory» – 1. Philosophia ad bellum – «philosophy for war», where are investigated ways of using of philosophic methods of cognition in applied military sciences; 2. Philosophia supra bello – «philosophy above war», which investigates world­view, historic­philosophic, existential, logic­epistemological aspects of war; 3. Philosophia contra belli – «philosophy against war», where research of the essence of war gets its logical conclusion in grounding of the absurdity of thinking schemes which justify war as an act of violence. In the article was made historic­philosophic overview of the part «Philosophia ad bellum», where were showed tangent questions, which are considered by philosophic logic and theory of strategic intelligence. It was stated, that specialists if military intelligence admit the important role of researches in logic and theory of cognition in their professional work; were defined basic questions, which have the most essential interest for military professionals. There were analyzed ways of using of philosophic methods in developing military strategies, was made a conclusion that philosophy can be a basis of strategic failures and victories as well.

  18. The group approach to AdS space propagators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, Thorsten; Manvelyan, Ruben; Ruehl, Werner

    2003-01-01

    We show that AdS two-point functions can be obtained by connecting two points in the interior of AdS space with one point on its boundary by a dual pair of Dobrev's boundary-to-bulk intertwiners and integrating over the boundary point

  19. Parents' meal choices for their children at fast food and family restaurants with different menu labeling presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiwon; Lee, Youngmi

    2018-06-01

    This study examined the effect of nutrition labeling formats on parents' food choices for their children at different restaurant types. An online survey was conducted with 1,980 parents of children aged 3-12 years. Participants were randomly assigned to fast food or family restaurant scenarios, and one of four menu stimuli conditions: no labeling, low-calorie symbol (symbol), numeric value (numeric), and both low-calorie symbol and numeric value (symbol + numeric). Participants selected menu items for their children. Menu choices and total calories were compared by nutrition labeling formats in each type of the restaurant. Low-calorie item selections were scored and a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted for an interaction effect between restaurant and labeling type. In the fast food restaurant group, parents presented with low-calorie symbols selected the lowest calorie items more often than those not presented with the format. Parents in the symbol + numeric condition selected significantly fewer calories (653 kcal) than those in the no labeling (677 kcal) or numeric conditions (674 kcal) ( P = 0.006). In the family restaurant group, no significant difference were observed among different labeling conditions. A significant interaction between restaurant and labeling type on low-calorie selection score (F = 6.03, P restaurant type to jointly affect parents' food choices for their children. The provision of easily interpretable nutritional information format at fast food restaurants may encourage healthier food choices of parents for their children; however, the effects were negligible at family restaurants.

  20. Advocacy coalitions involved in California's menu labeling policy debate: Exploring coalition structure, policy beliefs, resources, and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Denise D; Lewis, LaVonna B; Cousineau, Michael R; Nichol, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Advocacy coalitions often play an important role in the state health policymaking process, yet little is known about their structure, composition, and behavior. In 2008, California became the first state to enact a menu labeling law. Using the advocacy coalition framework, we examine different facets of the coalitions involved in California's menu labeling policy debate. We use a qualitative research approach to identify coalition members and explore their expressed beliefs and policy arguments, resources, and strategies by analyzing legislative documents (n = 87) and newspaper articles (n = 78) produced between 1999 and 2009. Between 2003 and 2008, six menu labeling bills were introduced in the state's legislature. We found the issue received increasing media attention during this period. We identified two advocacy coalitions involved in the debate-a public health (PH) coalition and an industry coalition. State organizations acted as coalition leaders and participated for a longer duration than elected officials. The structure and composition of each coalition varied. PH coalition leadership and membership notably increased compared to the industry coalition. The PH coalition, led by nonprofit PH and health organizations, promoted a clear and consistent message around informed decision making. The industry coalition, led by a state restaurant association, responded with cost and implementation arguments. Each coalition used various resources and strategies to advance desired outcomes. PH coalition leaders were particularly effective at using resources and employing advocacy strategies, which included engaging state legislators as coalition members, using public opinion polls and information, and leveraging media resources to garner support. Policy precedence and a local policy push emerged as important policymaking strategies. Areas for future research on the state health policymaking process are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Advocacy Coalitions involved in California’s Menu Labeling Policy Debate: Exploring Coalition Structure, Policy Beliefs, Resources, and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Denise D.; Lewis, LaVonna B.; Cousineau, Michael R.; Nichol, Michael B.

    2017-01-01

    Advocacy coalitions often play an important role in the state health policymaking process, yet little is known about their structure, composition, and behavior. In 2008, California became the first state to enact a menu labeling law. Using the advocacy coalition framework, we examine different facets of the coalitions involved in California’s menu labeling policy debate. We use a qualitative research approach to identify coalition members and explore their expressed beliefs and policy arguments, resources, and strategies by analyzing legislative documents (n=87) and newspaper articles (n=78) produced between 1999 and 2009. Between 2003 and 2008, six menu labeling bills were introduced in the state’s legislature. We found the issue received increasing media attention during this period. We identified two advocacy coalitions involved in the debate—a public health (PH) coalition and an industry coalition. State organizations acted as coalition leaders and participated for a longer duration than elected officials. The structure and composition of each coalition varied. PH coalition leadership and membership notably increased compared to the industry coalition. The PH coalition, led by nonprofit PH and health organizations, promoted a clear and consistent message around informed decision making. The industry coalition, led by a state restaurant association, responded with cost and implementation arguments. Each coalition used various resources and strategies to advance desired outcomes. PH coalition leaders were particularly effective at using resources and employing advocacy strategies, which included engaging state legislators as coalition members, using public opinion polls and information, and leveraging media resources to garner support. Policy precedence and a local policy push emerged as important policymaking strategies. Areas for future research on the state health policymaking process are discussed. PMID:28161674

  2. Manifestly T-dual formulation of AdS space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuda, Machiko; Kamimura, Kiyoshi; Siegel, Warren

    2017-01-01

    We present a manifestly T-dual formulation of curved spaces such as an AdS space. For group manifolds related by the orthogonal vielbein fields the three form H=dB in the doubled space is universal at least locally. We construct an affine nondegenerate doubled bosonic AdS algebra to define the AdS space with the Ramond-Ramond flux. The non-zero commutator of the left and right momenta leads to that the left momentum is in an AdS space while the right momentum is in a dS space. Dimensional reduction constraints and the physical AdS algebra are shown to preserve all the doubled coordinates.

  3. Evaporation of large black holes in AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Jorge V

    2010-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence offers a new perspective on the long-standing black hole information paradox. However, to be able to use the available gauge/gravity machinery one is forced to consider so-called 'large' black holes in AdS, and these objects are thermodynamically stable - they do not evaporate. We describe a simple toy model that allows large AdS black holes to decay, by coupling the emitted radiation to an external scalar field propagating in an auxiliary space. This effectively changes the properties of the boundary of AdS, making it partly absorbing. We demonstrate that the evaporation process never ceases by explicitly presenting (a) the transmission coefficient for a wave scattering from the bulk into auxiliary space and (b) the greybody factor for a black 3-brane in an AdS background. Therefore, the model provides an interesting framework to address the information paradox using AdS/CFT techniques.

  4. Manifestly T-dual formulation of AdS space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsuda, Machiko [Physics Division, Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University,Chiba 270-1695 (Japan); KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kamimura, Kiyoshi [Physics Division, Faculty of Medicine, Juntendo University,Chiba 270-1695 (Japan); Siegel, Warren [C.N. Yang Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3840 (United States)

    2017-05-12

    We present a manifestly T-dual formulation of curved spaces such as an AdS space. For group manifolds related by the orthogonal vielbein fields the three form H=dB in the doubled space is universal at least locally. We construct an affine nondegenerate doubled bosonic AdS algebra to define the AdS space with the Ramond-Ramond flux. The non-zero commutator of the left and right momenta leads to that the left momentum is in an AdS space while the right momentum is in a dS space. Dimensional reduction constraints and the physical AdS algebra are shown to preserve all the doubled coordinates.

  5. Open strings on AdS2 branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Peter; Ooguri, Hirosi.; Park, Jongwon; Tannenhauser, Jonathan

    2001-01-01

    We study the spectrum of open strings on AdS 2 branes in AdS 3 in an NS-NS background, using the SL(2,R) WZW model. When the brane carries no fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum is the holomorphic square root of the spectrum of closed strings in AdS 3 . It contains short and long strings, and is invariant under spectral flow. When the brane carries fundamental string charge, the open string spectrum again contains short and long strings in all winding sectors. However, branes with fundamental string charge break half the spectral flow symmetry. This has different implications for short and long strings. As the fundamental string charge increases, the brane approaches the boundary of AdS 3 . In this limit, the induced electric field on the worldvolume reaches its critical value, producing noncommutative open string theory on AdS 2

  6. 20 CFR 416.2035 - Optional supplementation: Additional State options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional supplementation: Additional State options. 416.2035 Section 416.2035 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL... § 416.2035 Optional supplementation: Additional State options. (a) Residency requirement. A State or...

  7. Novel preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    A number of novel preventive treatment options which, as with traditional methods, can be differentiated into 3 categories of prevention (primary, secondary and tertiary), have been and are being currently investigated. Those reviewed are either commercially available or appear relatively close...... of these techniques show considerable promise and dentists should be aware of these developments and follow their progress, the evidence for each of these novel preventive treatment options is currently insufficient to make widespread recommendations. Changes in dental practice should be explored to see how oral...

  8. Tank Space Options Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOYLES, V.C.

    2001-01-01

    A risk-based priority for the retrieval of Hanford Site waste from the 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) has been adopted as a result of changes to the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1997) negotiated in 2000. Retrieval of the first three tanks in the retrieval sequence fills available capacity in the double-shell tanks (DSTs) by 2007. As a result, the HFFACO change established a milestone (M-45-12-TO1) requiring the determination of options that could increase waste storage capacity for single-shell tank waste retrieval. The information will be considered in future negotiations. This document fulfills the milestone requirement. This study presents options that were reviewed for the purpose of increasing waste storage capacity. Eight options are identified that have the potential for increasing capacity from 5 to 10 million gallons, thus allowing uninterrupted single-shell tank retrieval until the planned Waste Treatment Plant begins processing substantial volumes of waste from the double-shell tanks in 2009. The cost of implementing these options is estimated to range from less than $1 per gallon to more than $14 per gallon. Construction of new double-shell tanks is estimated to cost about $63 per gallon. Providing 5 to 10 million gallons of available double-shell tank space could enable early retrieval of 5 to 9 high-risk single-shell tanks beyond those identified for retrieval by 2007. These tanks are A-101, AX-101, AX-103, BY-102, C-107, S-105, S-106, S-108, and S-109 (Garfield et al. 2000). This represents a potential to retrieve approximately 14 million total curies, including 3,200 curies of long-lived mobile radionuclides. The results of the study reflect qualitative analyses conducted to identify promising options. The estimated costs are rough-order-of magnitude and, therefore, subject to change. Implementing some of the options would represent a departure from the current baseline and may adversely impact the

  9. Alternative energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, K.F.

    1983-01-01

    It is accepted that coal will continue to play the major role in the supply of energy to the country for the remainder of the century. In this paper, however, emphasis has been directed to those options which could supplement coal in an economic and technically sound manner. The general conclusion is that certain forms of solar energy hold the most promise and it is in this direction that research, development and implementation programmes should be directed. Tidal energy, fusion energy, geothermal energy, hydrogen energy and fuel cells are also discussed as alternative energy options

  10. Thermal test options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Keltner, N.R.; Sobolik, K.B.

    1993-02-01

    Shipping containers for radioactive materials must be qualified to meet a thermal accident environment specified in regulations, such at Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. Aimed primarily at the shipping container design, this report discusses the thermal testing options available for meeting the regulatory requirements, and states the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. The principal options considered are testing with radiant heat, furnaces, and open pool fires. The report also identifies some of the facilities available and current contacts. Finally, the report makes some recommendations on the appropriate use of these different testing methods

  11. Lighting Options for Homes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  12. Systematic uncertainties on Monte Carlo simulation of lead based ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embid, M.; Fernandez, R.; Garcia-Sanz, J.M.; Gonzalez, E.

    1999-01-01

    Computer simulations of the neutronic behaviour of ADS systems foreseen for actinide and fission product transmutation are affected by many sources of systematic uncertainties, both from the nuclear data and by the methodology selected when applying the codes. Several actual ADS Monte Carlo simulations are presented, comparing different options both for the data and for the methodology, evaluating the relevance of the different uncertainties. (author)

  13. Status of Cea spallation modules for ads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enderle, R.; Poitevin, Y.; Deffain, J.P.; Bergeron, J.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of CEA studies on ADS dedicated to waste transmutation, a liquid metal reference concept and an alternative solid target have been evaluated to produce neutrons inside the spallation module. This work examines the design (neutronic, thermohydraulic and mechanical aspects) and the performances of both options. It is shown that a liquid Pb-Bi target offers more possibilities regarding to high protons current densities (possible industrial extrapolation) but that a solid target made with tungsten particles offers also interesting ability to create a neutrons flux appropriated (strong spectrum and flat axial distribution) to an sub-critical core dedicated to incineration. (author)

  14. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View.

  15. AD/HD: POSSIBLE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl REICHELT

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to show that a more exact diagnosis and dietary intervention in AD/HD (Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Di­sor­der is possible and probable. The clinical symptom based diagnosis we suggest may be supplemented with physiological tests. A ge­netic and environmental inter-action is clearly involved and explainable using phenyl­ke­tonuria as a model.Method: Examining peer reviewed published papers on gut to blood, blood to brain inter­action and effect of interventions in AD/HD and our own studies in the field. The various treatment options are discussed.Results: It can be shown that a gut to brain activity is possible and probable, and dietary intervention is useful and probably safer than drugs. Preliminary data on a small five year follow up of dietary intervention is shown.

  16. Mixed waste management options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P.

    1992-01-01

    Currently, limited storage and treatment capacity exists for commercial mixed waste streams. No commercial mixed waste disposal is available, and it has been estimated that if and when commercial mixed waste disposal becomes available, the costs will be high. If high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and management options. Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition) no migration petition) and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly. Another option for mixed waste management that is being explored is the feasibility of Department of Energy (DOE) accepting commercial mixed waste for treatment, storage, and disposal. A study has been completed that analyzes DOE treatment capacity in comparison with commercial mixed waste streams. (author)

  17. Strategic growth options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulatilaka, N.; Perotti, E.C.

    1998-01-01

    We provide a strategic rationale for growth options under uncertainty and imperfect corn-petition. In a market with strategic competition, investment confers a greater capability to take advantage of future growth opportunities. This strategic advantage leads to the capture of a greater share of the

  18. New Options, Old Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, John

    1996-01-01

    Will greater school choice result in more responsive, higher quality schools and happier parents? Or will proliferating options further sort students and families by race, social class, and special interest? Increasingly, education is viewed as a private good. If parents become autonomous, self-interested consumers, erosion of common purposes and…

  19. Heterogeneity and option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benninga, Simon; Mayshar, Joram

    2000-01-01

    An economy with agents having constant yet heterogeneous degrees of relative risk aversion prices assets as though there were a single decreasing relative risk aversion pricing representative agent. The pricing kernel has fat tails and option prices do not conform to the Black-Scholes formula.

  20. Option Pricing and Momentum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    If managers are reluctant to fully adjust dividends to changes in earnings, stock returns and changes in the dividend yield will tend to be negatively correlated. When this is the case, stock returns will exhibit positive autocorrelation, or mo- mentum. This paper studies the pricing of options in

  1. Idaho's Energy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Neilson

    2006-03-01

    This report, developed by the Idaho National Laboratory, is provided as an introduction to and an update of the status of technologies for the generation and use of energy. Its purpose is to provide information useful for identifying and evaluating Idaho’s energy options, and for developing and implementing Idaho’s energy direction and policies.

  2. Conical singularities in AdS space time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Cristine Nunes

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In recent years, the study of conformal gauge theories from 10-D has been motivated by the AdS d+1 /CFT d correspondence, first conjectured by J. Maldacena. The aim of this work is to consider the d = 4 case by analysing the configuration of the N coincident D3 branes. In this context, the work shows that there is a duality between type IIB string theory in AdS 5 x S 5 and N = 4 SU(N) Super Yang-Mills Theory in the IR. The AdS 5 /CFT 4 correspondence brought also new approaches to the strong coupling problem in QCD. Nowadays, there is a whole line of works that focus on the low dimensional correspondence AdS 4 /CFT 3 , like the application to graphene and topological insulators, and the AdS 3 /CFT 2 correspondence, related with the entanglement entropy. In this work, we consider the vortex configuration solution to the AdS 4 and AdS 3 space-time. The most important motivation is to discuss the boundary theory resulting from these solutions. We have examined a straightforward approach to a holographic computation of the graphene and entanglement entropy in the presence of the conical singularity. After this analysis, we consider the scalar field in the bulk in the presence of this metrics and work out the compactification modes. Taking the holographic point of view, we study and discuss the resulting Green function. (author)

  3. Hawking radiation from AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubeny, Veronika E; Rangamani, Mukund; Marolf, Donald

    2010-01-01

    We study Hartle-Hawking-like states of quantum field theories on asymptotically AdS black hole backgrounds, with particular regard to the phase structure of interacting theories. By a suitable analytic continuation we show that the equilibrium dynamics of field theories on large asymptotically AdS black holes can be related to the low-temperature states of the same field theory on the AdS soliton (or pure AdS) background. This allows us to gain insight into Hartle-Hawking-like states on large-radius Schwarzschild- or rotating-AdS black holes. Furthermore, we exploit the AdS/CFT correspondence to explore the physics of strongly coupled large N theories on asymptotically AdS black holes. In particular, we exhibit a plausibly complete set of phases for the M2-brane world-volume superconformal field theory on a BTZ black hole background. Our analysis partially resolves puzzles previously raised in connection with Hawking radiation on large AdS black holes.

  4. Exploring enhanced menu labels' influence on fast food selections and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Morgan S; Thompson, Joel Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Labeling restaurant menus with calorie counts is a popular public health intervention, but research shows these labels have small, inconsistent effects on behavior. Supplementing calorie counts with physical activity equivalents may produce stronger results, but few studies of these enhanced labels have been conducted, and the labels' potential to influence exercise-related outcomes remains unexplored. This online study evaluated the impact of no information, calories-only, and calories plus equivalent miles of walking labels on fast food item selection and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions. Participants (N = 643) were randomly assigned to a labeling condition and completed a menu ordering task followed by measures of exercise-related outcomes. The labels had little effect on ordering behavior, with no significant differences in total calories ordered and counterintuitive increases in calories ordered in the two informational conditions in some item categories. The labels also had little impact on the exercise-related outcomes, though participants in the two informational conditions perceived exercise as less enjoyable than did participants in the no information condition, and trends following the same pattern were found for other exercise-related outcomes. The present findings concur with literature demonstrating small, inconsistent effects of current menu labeling strategies and suggest that alternatives such as traffic light systems should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Chuan Yang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the energy-efficient configuration of multihop paths with automatic repeat request (ARQ mechanism in wireless ad hoc networks. We adopt a cross-layer design approach and take both the quality of each radio hop and the battery capacity of each transmitting node into consideration. Under certain constraints on the maximum tolerable transmission delay and the required packet delivery ratio, we solve optimization problems to jointly schedule the transmitting power of each transmitting node and the retransmission limit over each hop. Numerical results demonstrate that the path configuration methods can either significantly reduce the average energy consumption per packet delivery or considerably extend the average lifetime of the multihop route.

  6. AdS Branes from Partial Breaking of Superconformal Symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown how the static-gauge world-volume superfield actions of diverse superbranes on the AdS d+1 superbackgrounds can be systematically derived from nonlinear realizations of the appropriate AdS supersymmetries. The latter are treated as superconformal symmetries of flat Minkowski superspaces of the bosonic dimension d. Examples include the N = 1 AdS 4 supermembrane, which is associated with the 1/2 partial breaking of the OSp(1|4) supersymmetry down to the N = 1, d = 3 Poincare supersymmetry, and the T-duality related L3-brane on AdS 5 and scalar 3-brane on AdS 5 x S 1 , which are associated with two different patterns of 1/2 breaking of the SU(2, 2|1) supersymmetry. Another (closely related) topic is the AdS/CFT equivalence transformation. It maps the world-volume actions of the codimension-one AdS d+1 (super)branes onto the actions of the appropriate Minkowski (super)conformal field theories in the dimension d

  7. Estimating the impact of various menu labeling formats on parents' demand for fast-food kids' meals for their children: An experimental auction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Lillico, Heather; Zuo, Fei; Sacco, Jocelyn; Rosella, Laura; Hammond, David

    2016-10-01

    This study experimentally tested whether parents' demand for fast-food kids' meals for their children is influenced by various menu labeling formats disclosing calorie and sodium information. The study also examined the effect of various menu labeling formats on parents' ability to identify fast-food kids' meals with higher calorie and sodium content. Online surveys were conducted among parents of children aged 3-12. Parents were randomized to view 1 of 5 menu conditions: 1) No Nutrition Information; 2) Calories-Only; 3) Calories + Contextual Statement (CS); 4) Calories, Sodium, + CS; and, 5) Calorie and Sodium in Traffic Lights + CS. Using an established experimental auction study design, parents viewed replicated McDonald's menus according to their assigned condition and were asked to bid on 4 Happy Meals. A randomly selected price was chosen; bids equal to or above this price "won" the auction, and bids less than this price "lost" the auction. After the auction, participants were asked to identify the Happy Meal with the highest calories and sodium content. Adjusting for multiple comparisons and covariates, the Calories, Sodium, + CS menu had a mean attributed value across all 4 Happy Meals which was 8% lower (-$0.31) than the Calories + CS menu (p < 0.05). Significantly more parents in the 4 menu conditions providing calories were able to correctly identify the Happy Meal with the highest calories (p < 0.0001) and significantly more parents in the 2 conditions providing sodium information were able to correctly identify the Happy Meal with the highest sodium content (p < 0.0001). Menus disclosing both calories and sodium information may reduce demand for fast-food kids' meals and better support parents in making more informed and healthier food choices for their children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Supersymmetric warped AdS in extended topologically massive supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deger, N.S.; Kaya, A.; Samtleben, H.; Sezgin, E.

    2014-01-01

    We determine the most general form of off-shell N=(1,1) supergravity field configurations in three dimensions by requiring that at least one off-shell Killing spinor exists. We then impose the field equations of the topologically massive off-shell supergravity and find a class of solutions whose properties crucially depend on the norm of the auxiliary vector field. These are spacelike-squashed and timelike-stretched AdS 3 for the spacelike and timelike norms, respectively. At the transition point where the norm vanishes, the solution is null warped AdS 3 . This occurs when the coefficient of the Lorentz–Chern–Simons term is related to the AdS radius by μℓ=2. We find that the spacelike-squashed AdS 3 can be modded out by a suitable discrete subgroup of the isometry group, yielding an extremal black hole solution which avoids closed timelike curves

  9. Management options of varicoceles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Chan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is one of the most common causes of male infertility. Treatment options for varicoceles includes open varicocelectomy performed at various anatomical levels. Laparoscopic varicocelectomy has been established to be a safe and effective treatment for varicoceles. Robotic surgery has been introduced recently as an alternative surgical option for varicocelectomy. Microsurgical varicocelectomy has gained increasing popularity among experts in male reproductive medicine as the treatment of choice for varicocele because of its superior surgical outcomes. There is a growing volume of literature in the recent years on minimal invasive varicocele treatment with percutaneous retrograde and anterograde venous embolization/sclerotherapy. In this review, we will discuss the advantages and limitations associated with each treatment modality for varicoceles. Employment of these advanced techniques of varicocelectomy can provide a safe and effective approach aiming to eliminate varicocele, preserve testicular function and, in a substantial number of men, increase semen quality and the likelihood of pregnancy.

  10. Energy options?; Energie opties?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Sark, W. (ed.)

    2006-05-15

    March 2006 the so-called Options Document was published by the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN) and the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP). The document is an overview of technical options to reduce energy consumption and emission of greenhouse gases up to 2020. Next to a brief summary of the document a few reactions and comments on the contents of the document are given. [Dutch] Maart 2006 publiceerde het Energieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN) en het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP) het zogenaamde Optiedocument energie en emissies 2010-2020. Daarin wordt een overzicht gegeven van de technische mogelijkheden voor vermindering van het energieverbruik en de uitstoot van broeikasgassen en luchtverontreinigende stoffen tot 2020. Naast een korte samenvatting van het document worden enkele reacties gegeven op de inhoud.

  11. Evaluating technology service options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, D F

    1997-05-01

    Four service and support options are available to healthcare organizations for maintaining their growth arsenals of medical and information technology. These options include maintaining and servicing all equipment using a facility-based biomedical engineering and MIS service department; using a combination of facility-based service and subcontracted service; expanding facility-based biomedical and MIS service departments to provide service to other healthcare organizations to achieve economies of scale; and outsourcing all maintenance, repair, and technical support services. Independent service companies and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) are offering healthcare organizations a wider array of service and support capabilities than ever before. However, some health systems have successfully developed their own independent service organizations to take care of their own--and other healthcare organizations'--service and support needs.

  12. Optioner eller betingede aktier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Ken L.; Thorsell, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Incitamentsaflønning – og herunder især aktieaflønning – fortsætter med at tiltrække sig stor opmærksomhed fra en lang række sider. Et spørgsmål, der ofte diskuteres, er selskabernes anvendelse af aktieaflønning, dvs. aflønning med optioner, betingede aktier o. lign. Diskussionerne har blandt andet...

  13. Shungnak Energy Configuration Options.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eddy, John P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Power systems in rural Alaska villages face a unique combination of challenges that can increase the cost of energy and lowers energy supply reliability. In the case of the remote village of Shungnak, diesel and heating fuel is either shipped in by barge or flown in by aircraft. This report presents a technical analysis of several energy infrastructure upgrade and modification options to reduce the amount of fuel consumed by the community of Shungnak. Reducing fuel usage saves money and makes the village more resilient to disruptions in fuel supply. The analysis considers demand side options, such as energy efficiency, alongside the installation of wind and solar power generation options. Some novel approaches are also considered including battery energy storage and the use of electrical home heating stoves powered by renewable generation that would otherwise be spilled and wasted. This report concludes with specific recommendations for Shungnak based on economic factors, and fuel price sensitivity. General conclusions are also included to support future work analyzing similar energy challenges in remote arctic regions.

  14. The safeguards options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Filby, E. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq`s obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state.

  15. The safeguards options study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, E.A.; Mullen, M.F.; Olinger, C.T.; Stanbro, W.D.; Olsen, A.P.; Roche, C.T.; Rudolph, R.R.; Bieber, A.M.; Lemley, J.; Filby, E.

    1995-04-01

    The Safeguards Options Study was initiated to aid the International Safeguards Division (ISD) of the DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation in developing its programs in enhanced international safeguards. The goal was to provide a technical basis for the ISD program in this area. The Safeguards Options Study has been a cooperative effort among ten organizations. These are Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mound Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Sandia National Laboratories, and Special Technologies Laboratory. Much of the Motivation for the Safeguards Options Study is the recognition after the Iraq experience that there are deficiencies in the present approach to international safeguards. While under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards at their declared facilities, Iraq was able to develop a significant weapons program without being noticed. This is because negotiated safeguards only applied at declared sites. Even so, their nuclear weapons program clearly conflicted with Iraq's obligations under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) as a nonnuclear weapon state

  16. Ad gist : Ad communication in a single eye fixation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, R.; Wedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    Most ads in practice receive no more than a single eye fixation. This study investigates the limits of what ads can communicate under such adverse exposure conditions. We find that consumers already know at maximum levels of accuracy and with high degree of certainty whether something is an ad or is

  17. B. C. Hydro's new value-added customer service: the building check-up program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepting, C.; Jung, C.; Herman, L.

    1996-01-01

    A recently initiated program of British Columbia Hydro, called 'building check-up' (BCU), which provides a package of value-added services to commercial and institutional customers, was described. The B. C. Hydro program offers a menu of services, allowing customers to select their own combinations. Type of services included in the menu range from basic billing information to energy audits, hourly energy analysis, bill calibration, energy efficiency screening and reporting. The program was instituted in response to a need to adjust demand-side management programs as the utility industry moves towards deregulation, and subsequent increased competition. The objective of the programs is not only to retain present customers but also to pursue new customers in a more competitive environment. Details of the various service components were provided. A preliminary assessment of the program found favorable customer reception. Future evaluation programs envisage formalized participant feedback, and a determination of the direct and indirect cost-effectiveness of the BCU program. 6 figs

  18. Spent fuel reprocessing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to provide an update on the latest developments in nuclear reprocessing technologies in the light of new developments on the global nuclear scene. The background information on spent fuel reprocessing is provided in Section One. Substantial global growth of nuclear electricity generation is expected to occur during this century, in response to environmental issues and to assure the sustainability of the electrical energy supply in both industrial and less-developed countries. This growth carries with it an increasing responsibility to ensure that nuclear fuel cycle technologies are used only for peaceful purposes. In Section Two, an overview of the options for spent fuel reprocessing and their level of development are provided. A number of options exist for the treatment of spent fuel. Some, including those that avoid separation of a pure plutonium stream, are at an advanced level of technological maturity. These could be deployed in the next generation of industrial-scale reprocessing plants, while others (such as dry methods) are at a pilot scale, laboratory scale or conceptual stage of development. In Section Three, research and development in support of advanced reprocessing options is described. Next-generation spent fuel reprocessing plants are likely to be based on aqueous extraction processes that can be designed to a country specific set of spent fuel partitioning criteria for recycling of fissile materials to advanced light water reactors or fast spectrum reactors. The physical design of these plants must incorporate effective means for materials accountancy, safeguards and physical protection. Section four deals with issues and challenges related to spent fuel reprocessing. The spent fuel reprocessing options assessment of economics, proliferation resistance, and environmental impact are discussed. The importance of public acceptance for a reprocessing strategy is discussed. A review of modelling tools to support the

  19. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask participants to

  20. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  1. Added masses of ship structures

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkin, Alexandr I

    2008-01-01

    This essentially self-contained reference book contains data on added masses of ships and various ship and marine engineering structures. Theoretical and experimental methods for determining added masses of these objects are described.

  2. AdS5 black holes with fermionic hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrington, Benjamin A.; Liu, James T.; Sabra, W. A.

    2005-01-01

    The study of new Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) objects in AdS 5 has led to a deeper understanding of AdS/CFT. To help complete this picture, and to fully explore the consequences of the supersymmetry algebra, it is also important to obtain new solutions with bulk fermions turned on. In this paper we construct superpartners of the 1/2 BPS black hole in AdS 5 using a natural set of fermion zero modes. We demonstrate that these superpartners, carrying fermionic hair, have conserved charges differing from the original bosonic counterpart. To do so, we find the R-charge and dipole moment of the new system, as well as the mass and angular momentum, defined through the boundary stress tensor. The complete set of superpartners fits nicely into a chiral representation of AdS 5 supersymmetry, and the spinning solutions have the expected gyromagnetic ratio, g=1

  3. Picking the Best from the All-Resources Menu: Advanced Tools for Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmintier, Bryan S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Introduces the wide range of electric power systems modeling types and associated questions they can help answer. The presentation focusses on modeling needs for high levels of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs), renewables, and inverter-based technologies as alternatives to traditional centralized power systems. Covers Dynamics, Production Cost/QSTS, Metric Assessment, Resource Planning, and Integrated Simulations with examples drawn from NREL's past and on-going projects. Presented at the McKnight Foundation workshop on 'An All-Resources Approach to Planning for a More Dynamic, Low-Carbon Grid' exploring grid modernization options to replace retiring coal plants in Minnesota.

  4. Development of a Menu Driven Materials Data Base for Use on Personal Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-07-01

    written permission. Copyright Is the responsibility of the Director Publishing and Marketing , AGPS. Enquiries should be directed to the Manager, AGPS...PROGRAM LISTING A-2-1 Program MOB; uses crt; label levell,level2,level3,shutdown,dis;play; var options,code, nlines ,nmeflitemp,i,j4,k :integer; w,chl,ch2,ch3...char; menus :array [I. .1001 of st~ring[801; nline :array [l. .100] of integer; s2 :string[21; control :string[4]; aline :string[801; inm,iflt :text

  5. Treatment Options for Actinic Keratosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends mostly on ... helped by lip balm or petroleum jelly . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Pricing American and Asian Options

    OpenAIRE

    Pat Muldowney

    2015-01-01

    An analytic method for pricing American call options is provided; followed by an empirical method for pricing Asian call options. The methodology is the pricing theory presented in "A Modern Theory of Random Variation", by Patrick Muldowney, 2012.

  9. The information content of options

    OpenAIRE

    Navon, Yonatan

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to examine the information content of stock options in financial markets. A key question in financial economics is how information diffuses across markets and how quickly it is reflected in security prices. This thesis aims at exploring this question by investigating the informational role that options play in financial markets. This is achieved by exploring the joint cross section of option and bond prices, the informational role of options in seasoned equity ...

  10. Romanian SMEs Financing Options:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan E. Nistor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most pressing problems faced by micro, small and medium sized enterprises (henceforth SMEs in Europe is the access to sufficient funds to sustain their long term growth. Romanian SMEs make no exception. In this context the present paper focuses on analyzing the extent to which external funding sources have contributed to the value added created by the Romanian SMEs between 2007 and 2011.The investigation’s results indicate the existence of a causal link between some forms of external financing (namely bank loans, leasing, factoring, guarantee products and European funds and the value added created by the Romanian micro, small and medium sized enterprises in the aforementioned period.

  11. AdS Black Hole with Phantom Scalar Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an AdS black hole solution with Ricci flat horizon in Einstein-phantom scalar theory. The phantom scalar fields just depend on the transverse coordinates x and y, which are parameterized by the parameter α. We study the thermodynamics of the AdS phantom black hole. Although its horizon is a Ricci flat Euclidean space, we find that the thermodynamical properties of the black hole solution are qualitatively the same as those of AdS Schwarzschild black hole. Namely, there exists a minimal temperature and the large black hole is thermodynamically stable, while the smaller one is unstable, so there is a so-called Hawking-Page phase transition between the large black hole and the thermal gas solution in the AdS space-time in Poincare coordinates. We also calculate the entanglement entropy for a strip geometry dual to the AdS phantom black holes and find that the behavior of the entanglement entropy is qualitatively the same as that of the black hole thermodynamical entropy.

  12. Universal regularization prescription for Lovelock AdS gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofinas, Georgios; Olea, Rodrigo

    2007-01-01

    A definite form for the boundary term that produces the finiteness of both the conserved quantities and Euclidean action for any Lovelock gravity with AdS asymptotics is presented. This prescription merely tells even from odd bulk dimensions, regardless the particular theory considered, what is valid even for Einstein-Hilbert and Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity. The boundary term is a given polynomial of the boundary extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures (also referred to as Kounterterms series). Only the coupling constant of the boundary term changes accordingly, such that it always preserves a well-posed variational principle for boundary conditions suitable for asymptotically AdS spaces. The background-independent conserved charges associated to asymptotic symmetries are found. In odd bulk dimensions, this regularization produces a generalized formula for the vacuum energy in Lovelock AdS gravity. The standard entropy for asymptotically AdS black holes is recovered directly from the regularization of the Euclidean action, and not only from the first law of thermodynamics associated to the conserved quantities

  13. Expensing stock options: a fair-value approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Palepu, Krishna G

    2003-12-01

    Now that companies such as General Electric and Citigroup have accepted the premise that employee stock options are an expense, the debate is shifting from whether to report options on income statements to how to report them. The authors present a new accounting mechanism that maintains the rationale underlying stock option expensing while addressing critics' concerns about measurement error and the lack of reconciliation to actual experience. A procedure they call fair-value expensing adjusts and eventually reconciles cost estimates made at grant date with subsequent changes in the value of the options, and it does so in a way that eliminates forecasting and measurement errors over time. The method captures the chief characteristic of stock option compensation--that employees receive part of their compensation in the form of a contingent claim on the value they are helping to produce. The mechanism involves creating entries on both the asset and equity sides of the balance sheet. On the asset side, companies create a prepaid-compensation account equal to the estimated cost of the options granted; on the owners'-equity side, they create a paid-in capital stock-option account for the same amount. The prepaid-compensation account is then expensed through the income statement, and the stock option account is adjusted on the balance sheet to reflect changes in the estimated fair value of the granted options. The amortization of prepaid compensation is added to the change in the option grant's value to provide the total reported expense of the options grant for the year. At the end of the vesting period, the company uses the fair value of the vested option to make a final adjustment on the income statement to reconcile any difference between that fair value and the total of the amounts already reported.

  14. Balancing of solar heating options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltkamp, W.B.; van Koppen, C.W.J.; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    In the field of energy conservation many options are presently competing. This study aims at providing more rational criteria for selection between these options.The options considered are; insulation of the walls, regeneration of the heat in the waste air, double glazing, attached sunspace at the

  15. Stock option repricing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, M.; Sautner, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between option repricing, firm performance and corporate governance in Europe. Our sample consists of 77 European firms that repriced their stock option between 1987 and 2003. We document that option repricing is mainly a phenomenon for young and fast growing firms

  16. A Meta-Analysis to Determine the Impact of Restaurant Menu Labeling on Calories and Nutrients (Ordered or Consumed) in U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu-Jungles, Thaisa M; McCormack, Lacey A; Slaven, James E; Slebodnik, Maribeth; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2017-09-30

    A systematic review and meta-analysis determined the effect of restaurant menu labeling on calories and nutrients chosen in laboratory and away-from-home settings in U.S. adults. Cochrane-based criteria adherent, peer-reviewed study designs conducted and published in the English language from 1950 to 2014 were collected in 2015, analyzed in 2016, and used to evaluate the effect of nutrition labeling on calories and nutrients ordered or consumed. Before and after menu labeling outcomes were used to determine weighted mean differences in calories, saturated fat, total fat, carbohydrate, and sodium ordered/consumed which were pooled across studies using random effects modeling. Stratified analysis for laboratory and away-from-home settings were also completed. Menu labeling resulted in no significant change in reported calories ordered/consumed in studies with full criteria adherence, nor the 14 studies analyzed with ≤1 unmet criteria, nor for change in total ordered carbohydrate, fat, and saturated fat (three studies) or ordered or consumed sodium (four studies). A significant reduction of 115.2 calories ordered/consumed in laboratory settings was determined when analyses were stratified by study setting. Menu labeling away-from-home did not result in change in quantity or quality, specifically for carbohydrates, total fat, saturated fat, or sodium, of calories consumed among U.S. adults.

  17. Foods served in child care facilities participating in the Child and Adult Care Food Program: Menu match and agreement with the new meal patterns and best practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to assess the agreement of posted menus with foods served to 3- to 5-year-old children attending federal Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP)-enrolled facilities, and the degree to which the facilities met the new meal patterns and best practices. On-site observations and menu...

  18. Promoting Healthy Menu Choices in Fast Food Restaurant Advertising: Influence of Perceived Brand Healthiness, Brand Commitment, and Health Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hojoon; Reid, Leonard N

    2018-01-01

    Fast food restaurants have increasingly turned to healthier choices to counter criticisms of nutritionally poor menu offerings and to differentiate themselves from the competition. However, research has yet to specifically investigate how consumers respond to advertisements for these healthier foods. To address this knowledge gap, two experiments were conducted to examine how perceived brand healthiness, brand commitment, and health consciousness influence responses to nutrient-content claimed print advertisements for healthy foods. Findings indicate that consumer responsiveness varies across the three factors but is more positive for advertisements placed by perceivably healthy restaurant brands, and that brand commitment and health consciousness play significant roles in affecting how consumer respond to such advertising. Several theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.

  19. Contemplating future energy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pooley, D.

    2005-01-01

    All political parties in the UK accept that we should move away from our reliance on fossil fuels towards a much greater use of alternative energy technologies. Nuclear power is one of these but finds minimal support in the political spectrum. The article reviews the European Commission's Advisory Group on Energy submission to the EC's report entitled 'Key Tasks for European Energy R and D'. The 'strength and weaknesses' of the various 'alternative energy' systems (including nuclear power) are summarised and then the key R and D tasks which, if they are carried out successfully, should make the eight selected technologies significantly more attractive. However, the message here is clear enough: there are no easy options, only a range of very imperfect possibilities, despite what enthusiastic proponents of each may say. Nuclear fission is certainly one of the most attractive options available, but the industry needs to continue to strive to eliminate the possibility of significant off-site releases, whether caused by plant failure or by human error or intention, and to prove beyond reasonable doubt the safety of high-level radioactive waste disposal. (author)

  20. Achalasia: Treatment Options Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willemijntje A Hoogerwerf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of all current forms of treatment of achalasia is to enable the patient to eat without disabling symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, coughing or choking. Historically, this has been accomplished by mechanical disruption of the lower esophageal sphincter fibres, either by means of pneumatic dilation (PD or by open surgical myotomy. The addition of laparoscopic myotomy and botulinum toxin (BTX injection to the therapeutic armamentarium has triggered a recent series of reviews to determine the optimal therapeutic approach. Both PD and BTX have excellent short term (less than three months efficacy in the majority of patients. New data have been published that suggest that PD and BTX (with repeat injections can potentially obtain long term efficacy. PD is still considered the first-line treatment by most physicians; its main disadvantage is risk of perforation. BTX injection is evolving as an excellent, safe option for patients who are considered high risk for more invasive procedures. Laparoscopic myotomy with combined antireflux surgery is an increasingly attractive option in younger patients with achalasia, but long term follow-up studies are required to establish its efficacy and the potential for reflux-related sequelae.

  1. Retrieval options study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval; (same as emplacement, variably slower depending on repository/canister condition).

  2. Retrieval options study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-03-01

    This Retrieval Options Study is part of the systems analysis activities of the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation to develop the scientific and technological bases for radioactive waste repositories in various geologic media. The study considers two waste forms, high level waste and spent fuel, and defines various classes of waste retrieval and recovery. A methodology and data base are developed which allow the relative evaluation of retrieval and recovery costs and the following technical criteria: safety; technical feasibility; ease of retrieval; probable intact retrieval time; safeguards; monitoring; criticality; and licensability. A total of 505 repository options are defined and the cost and technical criteria evaluated utilizing a combination of facts and engineering judgments. The repositories evaluated are selected combinations of the following parameters: Geologic Media (salt, granite, basalt, shale); Retrieval Time after Emplacement (5 and 25 years); Emplacement Design (nominal hole, large hole, carbon steel canister, corrosion resistant canister, backfill in hole, nominal sleeves, thick wall sleeves); Emplacement Configuration (single vertical, multiple vertical, single horizontal, multiple horizontal, vaults; Thermal Considerations; (normal design, reduced density, once-through ventilation, recirculated ventilation); Room Backfill; (none, run-of-mine, early, 5 year delay, 25 year delay, decommissioned); and Rate of Retrieval;

  3. The Decision Support System (DSS) Application to Determination of Diabetes Mellitus Patient Menu Using a Genetic Algorithm Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliyana, Nia; Suseno, Jatmiko Endro; Adi, Kusworo

    2018-02-01

    Composition of foods containing sugar in people with Diabetes Mellitus should be balanced, so an app is required for facilitate the public and nutritionists in determining the appropriate food menu with calorie requirement of diabetes patient. This research will be recommended to determination of food variation for using Genetic Algorithm. The data used is nutrient content of food obtained from Tabel Komposisi Pangan Indonesia (TKPI). The requirement of caloric value the patient can be used the PERKENI 2015 method. Then the data is processed to determine the best food menu consisting of energy (E), carbohydrate (K), fat (L) and protein (P) requirements. The system is comparised with variation of Genetic Algorithm parameters is the total of chromosomes, Probability of Crossover (Pc) and Probability of Mutation (Pm). Maximum value of the probability generation of crossover and probability of mutation will be the more variations of food that will come out. For example, patient with gender is women aged 61 years old, height 160 cm, weight 55 kg, will be resulted number of calories: (E=1621.4, K=243.21, P=60.80, L=45.04), with the gene=4, chromosomes=3, generation=3, Pc=0.2, and Pm=0.2. The result obtained is the three varians: E=1607.25, K=198.877, P=95.385, L=47.508), (E=1633.25, K=196.677, P=85.885, L=55.758), (E=1630.90, K=177.455, P=85.245, L=64.335).

  4. New Massive Gravity and AdS4 Counterterms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jatkar, Dileep P.; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-01-01

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS 4 ). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS 4 Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS 3 gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory.

  5. Constrained supermanifolds for AdS M-theory backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fre, Pietro; Grassi, Pietro Antonio

    2008-01-01

    A long standing problem is the supergauge completion of AdS 4 x ({G/H}) 7 or AdS 5 x ({G/H}) 5 backgrounds which preserve less then maximal supersymmetry. In parallel with the supersolvable realization of the AdS 4 x S 7 background based on κ-symmetry, we develop a technique which amounts to solving the above-mentioned problem in a way useful for pure spinor quantization for supermembranes and superstrings. Instead of gauge fixing some of the superspace coordinates using κ-symmetry, we impose an additional constraint on them reproducing the simplifications of the supersolvable representations. The constraints are quadratic, homogeneous, Sp(4,R)-covariant, and consistent from the quantum point of view in the pure spinor approach. Here we provide the geometrical solution which, in a subsequent work, will be applied to the membrane and the superstring sigma models

  6. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Jie [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    2016-07-21

    Exact solutions to Einstein’s equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution’s appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  7. Holographic description of AdS2 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Alejandra; Larsen, Finn; Grumiller, Daniel; McNees, Robert

    2008-01-01

    We develop the holographic renormalization of AdS 2 gravity systematically. We find that a bulk Maxwell term necessitates a boundary mass term for the gauge field and verify that this unusual term is invariant under gauge transformations that preserve the boundary conditions. We determine the energy-momentum tensor and the central charge, recovering recent results by Hartman and Strominger. We show that our expressions are consistent with dimensional reduction of the AdS 3 energy-momentum tensor and the Brown-Henneaux central charge. As an application of our results we interpret the entropy of AdS 2 black holes as the ground state entropy of a dual CFT.

  8. Central charge for AdS2 quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, Thomas; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Two-dimensional Maxwell-dilaton quantum gravity on AdS 2 with radius l and a constant electric field E is studied. In conformal gauge, this is equivalent to a CFT on a strip. In order to maintain consistent boundary conditions, the usual conformal diffeomorphisms must be accompanied by a certain U(1) gauge transformation. The resulting conformal transformations are generated by a twisted stress tensor, which has a central charge c = 3kE 2 l 4 /4 where k is the level of the U(1) current. This is an AdS 2 analog of the Brown-Henneaux formula c = 3l/2G for the central charge of quantum gravity on AdS 3 .

  9. New supersymmetric AdS4 type II vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsimpis, D.

    2010-01-01

    We review the supersymmetric AdS 4 x w M 6 backgrounds of type IIA/IIB supergravity constructed in[1]. In type IIA the supersymmetry is N=2, and the six-dimensional internal space is locally an S 2 bundle over a four-dimensional Kaehler-Einstein base; in IIB the internal space is the direct product of a circle and a five-dimensional squashed Sasaki-Einstein manifold. These backgrounds do not contain any sources, all fluxes (including the Romans mass in IIA) are generally non-zero, and the dilaton and warp factor are non-constant. The IIA solutions include the massive deformations of the IIA reduction of the eleven-dimensional AdS 4 x Y p,q solutions, and had been predicted to exist on the basis of the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Instantons from geodesics in AdS moduli spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggeri, Daniele; Trigiante, Mario; Van Riet, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    We investigate supergravity instantons in Euclidean AdS5 × S5/ℤk. These solutions are expected to be dual to instantons of N = 2 quiver gauge theories. On the supergravity side the (extremal) instanton solutions are neatly described by the (lightlike) geodesics on the AdS moduli space for which we find the explicit expression and compute the on-shell actions in terms of the quantised charges. The lightlike geodesics fall into two categories depending on the degree of nilpotency of the Noether charge matrix carried by the geodesic: for degree 2 the instantons preserve 8 supercharges and for degree 3 they are non-SUSY. We expect that these findings should apply to more general situations in the sense that there is a map between geodesics on moduli-spaces of Euclidean AdS vacua and instantons with holographic counterparts.

  11. Flexibility of ADS for minor actinides transmutation in different two-stage PWR-ADS fuel cycle scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shengcheng; Wu, Hongchun; Zheng, Youqi

    2018-01-01

    Highlights: •ADS reloading scheme is optimized to raise discharge burnup and lower reactivity loss. •ADS is flexible to be combined with various pyro-chemical reprocessing technologies. •ADS is flexible to transmute MAs from different spent PWR fuels. -- Abstract: A two-stage Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR)-Accelerator Driven System (ADS) fuel cycle is proposed as an option to transmute minor actinides (MAs) recovered from the spent PWR fuels in the ADS system. At the second stage, the spent fuels discharged from ADS are reprocessed by the pyro-chemical process and the recovered actinides are mixed with the top-up MAs recovered from the spent PWR fuels to fabricate the new fuels used in ADS. In order to lower the amount of nuclear wastes sent to the geological repository, an optimized scattered reloading scheme for ADS is proposed to maximize the discharge burnup and lower the burnup reactivity loss. Then the flexibility of ADS for MA transmutation is evaluated in this research. Three aspects are discussed, including: different cooling time of spent ADS fuels before reprocessing, different reprocessing loss of spent ADS fuels, and different top-up MAs recovered from different kinds of spent PWR fuels. The ADS system is flexible to be combined with various pyro-chemical reprocessing technologies with specific spent fuels cooling time and unique reprocessing loss. The reduction magnitudes of the long-term decay heat and radiotoxicity of MAs by transmutation depend on the reprocessing loss. The ADS system is flexible to transmute MAs recovered from different kinds of spent PWR fuels, regardless of UOX or MOX fuels. The reduction magnitudes of the long-term decay heat and radiotoxicity of different MAs by transmutation stay on the same order.

  12. Loops in AdS from conformal field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharony, Ofer; Alday, Luis F.; Bissi, Agnese; Perlmutter, Eric

    2017-07-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new use for conformal field theory (CFT) crossing equations in the context of AdS/CFT: the computation of loop amplitudes in AdS, dual to non-planar correlators in holographic CFTs. Loops in AdS are largely unexplored, mostly due to technical difficulties in direct calculations. We revisit this problem, and the dual 1 /N expansion of CFTs, in two independent ways. The first is to show how to explicitly solve the crossing equations to the first subleading order in 1 /N 2, given a leading order solution. This is done as a systematic expansion in inverse powers of the spin, to all orders. These expansions can be resummed, leading to the CFT data for finite values of the spin. Our second approach involves Mellin space. We show how the polar part of the four-point, loop-level Mellin amplitudes can be fully reconstructed from the leading-order data. The anomalous dimensions computed with both methods agree. In the case of ϕ 4 theory in AdS, our crossing solution reproduces a previous computation of the one-loop bubble diagram. We can go further, deriving the four-point scalar triangle diagram in AdS, which had never been computed. In the process, we show how to analytically derive anomalous dimensions from Mellin amplitudes with an infinite series of poles, and discuss applications to more complicated cases such as the N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  13. Phases of global AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Pallab; Krishnan, Chethan; Subramanian, P.N. Bala

    2016-01-01

    We study the phases of gravity coupled to a charged scalar and gauge field in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter spacetime (AdS_4) in the grand canonical ensemble. For the conformally coupled scalar, an intricate phase diagram is charted out between the four relevant solutions: global AdS, boson star, Reissner-Nordstrom black hole and the hairy black hole. The nature of the phase diagram undergoes qualitative changes as the charge of the scalar is changed, which we discuss. We also discuss the new features that arise in the extremal limit.

  14. Minimal surfaces in AdS space and integrable systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrington, Benjamin A.; Gao, Peng

    2010-04-01

    We consider the Pohlmeyer reduction for spacelike minimal area worldsheets in AdS5. The Lax pair for the reduced theory is found, and written entirely in terms of the A3 = D3 root system, generalizing the B2 affine Toda system which appears for the AdS4 string. For the B2 affine Toda system, we show that the area of the worlsheet is obtainable from the moduli space Kähler potential of a related Hitchin system. We also explore the Saveliev-Leznov construction for solutions of the B2 affine Toda system, and recover the rotationally symmetric solution associated to Painleve transcendent.

  15. AdS5 magnetized solutions in minimal gauged supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Blázquez-Salcedo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We construct a generalization of the AdS charged rotating black holes with two equal magnitude angular momenta in five-dimensional minimal gauged supergravity. In addition to the mass, electric charge and angular momentum, the new solutions possess an extra-parameter associated with a non-zero magnitude of the magnetic potential at infinity. In contrast with the known cases, these new black holes possess a non-trivial zero-horizon size limit which describes a one parameter family of spinning charged solitons. All configurations reported in this work approach asymptotically an AdS5 spacetime in global coordinates and are free of pathologies.

  16. Twistor description of spinning particles in AdS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitakis, Alex S.; Barns-Graham, Alec E.; Townsend, Paul K.

    2018-01-01

    The two-twistor formulation of particle mechanics in D-dimensional anti-de Sitter space for D = 4 , 5 , 7, which linearises invariance under the AdS isometry group Sp(4; K ) for K=R,C,H, is generalized to the massless N -extended "spinning particle". The twistor variables are gauge invariant with respect to the initial N local worldline supersymmetries; this simplifies aspects of the quantum theory such as implications of global gauge anomalies. We also give details of the two-supertwistor form of the superparticle, in particular the massive superparticle on AdS5.

  17. Holography in Lovelock Chern-Simons AdS gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Branislav; Miskovic, Olivera; Simić, Dejan

    2017-08-01

    We analyze holographic field theory dual to Lovelock Chern-Simons anti-de Sitter (AdS) gravity in higher dimensions using first order formalism. We first find asymptotic symmetries in the AdS sector showing that they consist of local translations, local Lorentz rotations, dilatations and non-Abelian gauge transformations. Then, we compute 1-point functions of energy-momentum and spin currents in a dual conformal field theory and write Ward identities. We find that the holographic theory possesses Weyl anomaly and also breaks non-Abelian gauge symmetry at the quantum level.

  18. The forecaster's added value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    skill scores of two competitive forecast. It is important to underline that the conclusions refer to the analysis of the Piemonte operational alert system, so they cannot be directly taken as universally true. But we think that some of the main lessons that can be derived from this study could be useful for the meteorological community. In details, the main conclusions are the following: - despite the overall improvement in global scale and the fact that the resolution of the limited area models has increased considerably over recent years, the QPF produced by the meteorological models involved in this study has not improved enough to allow its direct use, that is, the subjective HQPF continues to offer the best performance; - in the forecast process, the step where humans have the largest added value with respect to mathematical models, is the communication. In fact the human characterisation and communication of the forecast uncertainty to end users cannot be replaced by any computer code; - eventually, although there is no novelty in this study, we would like to show that the correct application of appropriated statistical techniques permits a better definition and quantification of the errors and, mostly important, allows a correct (unbiased) communication between forecasters and decision makers.

  19. Mixed-symmetry fields in AdS(5), conformal fields, and AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metsaev, R.R. [Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-15

    Mixed-symmetry arbitrary spin massive, massless, and self-dual massive fields in AdS(5) are studied. Light-cone gauge actions for such fields leading to decoupled equations of motion are constructed. Light-cone gauge formulation of mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows in 4d flat space is also developed. AdS/CFT correspondence for normalizable and non-normalizable modes of mixed-symmetry AdS fields and the respective boundary mixed-symmetry anomalous conformal currents and shadows is studied. We demonstrate that the light-cone gauge action for massive mixed-symmetry AdS field evaluated on solution of the Dirichlet problem amounts to the light-cone gauge 2-point vertex of mixed-symmetry anomalous shadow. Also we show that UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massive AdS field with some particular value of mass parameter evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of long mixed-symmetry conformal field, while UV divergence of the action for mixed-symmetry massless AdS field evaluated on the Dirichlet problem amounts to the action of short mixed-symmetry conformal field. We speculate on string theory interpretation of a model which involves short low-spin conformal fields and long higher-spin conformal fields.

  20. An Evaluation of the United States Air Force Menu Concerning Kilocalorie, Total Fat, Cholesterol and Sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    1 cup STUFFED CABBAGE 485 34 70 63 2 rolls STEAMED RICE 116 TRACE -- 2 5 oz. N LYONNAISE POTATOES 90 TRACE -- 5 1 potato PEAS W1 MUSHROOMS 52 TRACE...APPLE RING LYONNAISE POTATOES 90 TRACE -- 5 GREEN BEANS 17 TRACE -- 4 MIXED FRUIT 82 TRACE -- 3 ASSORTED BREAD 130 2 -- 158 MARGARINE 70 8 24 95 COCONUT...etc. There even was a point in time where weight loss mythology had convinced almost everyone that bread and potatoes were fattening. Adding foods

  1. Optional Defaultable Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed N. Abdelghani

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with defaultable markets, one of the main research areas of mathematical finance. It proposes a new approach to the theory of such markets using techniques from the calculus of optional stochastic processes on unusual probability spaces, which was not presented before. The paper is a foundation paper and contains a number of fundamental results on modeling of defaultable markets, pricing and hedging of defaultable claims and results on the probability of default under such conditions. Moreover, several important examples are presented: a new pricing formula for a defaultable bond and a new pricing formula for credit default swap. Furthermore, some results on the absence of arbitrage for markets on unusual probability spaces and markets with default are also provided.

  2. Automotive turbogenerator design options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, C. [ITC, San Diego, CA (United States); McDonald, C. [McDonald Thermal Engineering, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    For the small turbogenerator to find reception in the hybrid electric automotive market its major features must be dominated by the following considerations, low cost, high performance, low emissions, compact size and high reliability. Not meeting the first two criteria has been the nemesis of earlier attempts to introduce the small gas turbine for automotive service. With emphasis on the design for low cost and high performance, this paper presents several turbogenerator design flowpath configuration options for the major engine components. The projected evolution from today`s state-of-the-art all metallic engines, to advanced technology ceramic units for service in the early decade of the 21st century, is the major topic of this paper. (author)

  3. The Gel Generator option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    The development of a national policy for guaranteeing an ample supply of 99m Tc to nuclear medicine, involves issues which go beyond the means by which radioactivation is achieved. Indeed, in such an exercise the pragmatic dictates of business and the sensitivities of politics must also be taken into account. Furthermore where a preference towards the nuclear reactor or the potential of cyclotrons is being questioned, the debate is incomplete if the only options that are considered are the fission-based 99 Mo generator versus the direct cyclotron production of 99m Tc. There is a third option (also neutron γ-based), an alternative to the fission 99 Mo generator, which ought not be overlooked. The application of low specific activity (n,γ) 99 Mo to a new type of generator, the Gel Generator, has been the focus of much research, particularly in Australia and more recently in China. After the initial concept had been established in the laboratory, the Australian researchers then undertook a comprehensive program of tests on the Gel Generator to assess its potential, either in the clinical laboratory or the centralised radiopharmacy, for supplying 99m Tc suitable for nuclear medicine. The outcome of this program was a clear indication that the Gel Generator innovation had the capability to provide both technical and economic advantages to the nuclear medicine industry. These advantages are described. Since that time the Gel Generator has been selected for routine use in China where it now satisfies more than 30% of the 99m Tc demand. (author)

  4. AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandia, Osvaldo; Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina; Vallilo, Brenno Carlini

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS_5×S"5 around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background

  5. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    OpenAIRE

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-01-01

    This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  6. Internet Advertising. Google AdWords versus Facebook Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul PAŞCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes how to use the applications for Internet advertising, Google AdWords and Facebook Ads. Our attempt is to present the advantages and disadvantages of each of them, the costs and benefits, a useful aspect for companies that plan to start advertising campaigns on the Internet.

  7. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itkin, Igor; Oz, Yaron

    2012-01-01

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  8. Penrose inequality for asymptotically AdS spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itkin, Igor [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Oz, Yaron, E-mail: yaronoz@post.tau.ac.il [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel)

    2012-02-28

    In general relativity, the Penrose inequality relates the mass and the entropy associated with a gravitational background. If the inequality is violated by an initial Cauchy data, it suggests a creation of a naked singularity, thus providing means to consider the cosmic censorship hypothesis. We propose a general form of Penrose inequality for asymptotically locally AdS spaces.

  9. Confinement, glueballs and strings from deformed AdS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apreda, Riccardo; Crooks, David E.; Evans, Nick; Petrini, Michela

    2004-01-01

    We study aspects of confinement in two deformed versions of the AdS/CFT correspondence - the GPPZ dual of N = 1* Yang Mills, and the Yang Mills* N 0 dual. Both geometries describe discrete glueball spectra which we calculate numerically. The results agree at the 10% level with previous AdS/CFT computations in the Klebanov Strassler background and AdS Schwarzchild respectively. We also calculate the spectra of bound states of the massive fermions in these geometries and show that they are light, so not decoupled from the dynamics. We then study the behaviour of Wilson loops in the 10d lifts of these geometries. We find a transition from AdS-like strings in the UV to strings that interact with the unknown physics of the central singularity of the space in the IR. (author)

  10. Transportation Options | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation Options Transportation Options Transportation to, from, and within a research campus from business travel often enlarge the footprint more than expected. To understand options for climate

  11. ADS project in the Vinca Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Neskovic, N.; Plecas, I.

    1999-01-01

    Among the six scientific programmes proposed for future research in the Vinca Institute, the nuclear one is connected to the nuclear reactors and waste management activities. One of the projects within the nuclear programme is associated to a proposal for designing a small modern subcritical research reactor driven by an accelerator beam. The idea of this Project is based on the facts that the construction of the Tesla accelerator installation is in the final phase and that a rich experience is gained in design, construction, operation and maintenance of both research reactors in the Institute in the last 40 years. Preliminary scope of the ADS project in the Vinca Institute, including some details and options, are given (author)

  12. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase ECC and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in ECC can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  13. Impact of Flexibility Options on Grid Economic Carrying Capacity of Solar and Wind: Three Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Novacheck, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jorgenson, Jennie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Connell, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the benefits of various options of grid flexibility by measuring their impact on two measures: economic carrying capacity and system costs. Flexibility can increase economic carrying capacity and reduce overall system costs. In some cases, options that provide a limited increase in economic carrying capacity can provide significant operational savings, thus demonstrating the need to evaluate flexibility options using multiple metrics. The value of flexibility options varies regionally due to different generation mixes and types of renewables. The more rapid decline in PV value compared to wind makes PV more dependent on adding flexibility options, including transmission and energy storage.

  14. Option-implied term structures

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Erik

    2014-01-01

    The illiquidity of long-maturity options has made it difficult to study the term structures of option spanning portfolios. This paper proposes a new estimation and inference framework for these option-implied term structures that addresses long-maturity illiquidity. By building a sieve estimator around the risk-neutral valuation equation, the framework theoretically justifies (fat-tailed) extrapolations beyond truncated strikes and between observed maturities while remaining nonparametric. Ne...

  15. Portfolio insurance using traded options

    OpenAIRE

    Machado-Santos, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Literature concerning the institutional use of options indicates that the main purpose of option trading is to provide investors with the opportunity to create return distributions previously unavailable, considering that options provide the means to manipulate portfolio returns. In such a context, this study intends to analyse the returns of insured portfolios generated by hedging strategies on underlying stock portfolios. Because dynamic hedging is too expensive, we have hedged the stock po...

  16. Synroc processing options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, R.B.; Hoenig, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    Synroc is a titanate-based ceramic material currently being developed for immobilizing high-level nuclear reactor wastes in solid form. Synroc D is a unique variation of Synroc. It can contain the high-level defense wastes, particularly those in storage at the Savannah River Plant. In this report, we review the early development of the initial Synroc process, discuss modification and other options that simplify it overall, and recommend the future direction of research and development in the processing area. A reference Synroc process is described briefly and contrasted with the Savannah River Laboratory glass-based reference case. Preliminary engineering layouts show Synroc to be a more complex processing operation and, thus, more expensive than the glass-based process. However, we believe that simplifications, which will significantly reduce the cost difference, are possible. Further research and development will continue in the areas of slurry processing, fluidized bed calcination, and mineralization. This last will use sintering, hot uniaxial pressing, or hot isostatic pressing

  17. Nuclear technology options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Different strategies and motivations in different countries have led to diverse options. In Europe the SNETP (Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform) has the objective of developing R&D supporting GEN-II (present) and GEN-III nuclear systems under development; allowing sustainability and minimisation of waste burden, promoting advanced Gen-IV Fast Reactors; and accounting for a Nuclear Cogeneration Industrial Initiative. A remarkable initiative in the USA has been the promotion of small modular reactors (SMRs) – at less than 300 MWe in capacity, much smaller than typical reactors – which can be an ideal choice for (remote) areas which cannot support a larger reactor. Compact scalable design offers a host of potential safety, construction and economic benefits. More “upbeat” strategies are expected in other areas of the world where significant increase in nuclear energy demand is predicted in the next decades. If this growth materialises, future fuel cycles characteristics, feasibility and acceptability will be crucial. This paper will discuss different scenarios for future fuel cycles, resources optimisation and/or waste minimization, the range from full fast reactor deployment to phase-out, management of spent nuclear fuel and the significant potential benefits of advanced cycles. The next 45 years will be dominated by deployment of standard large or medium size plants operating for 60 years. Available resources do allow it. However, fuel cycle will be a growing and most challenging issue and early assessments will be needed for public acceptance and policy decisions.

  18. Optional carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alderson, T.; Scott, S.; Griffiths, J. [Jacobs Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    In the case of IGCC power plants, carbon capture can be carried out before combustion. The carbon monoxide in the syngas is catalytically shifted to carbon dioxide and then captured in a standard gas absorption system. However, the insertion of a shift converter into an existing IGCC plant with no shift would mean a near total rebuild of the gasification waste heat recovery, gas treatment system and HRSG, with only the gasifier and gas turbine retaining most of their original features. To reduce the extent, cost and time taken for the revamping, the original plant could incorporate the shift, and the plant would then be operated without capture to advantage, and converted to capture mode of operation when commercially appropriate. This paper examines this concept of placing a shift converter into an IGCC plant before capture is required, and operating the same plant first without and then later with CO{sub 2} capture in a European context. The advantages and disadvantages of this 'capture ready' option are discussed. 6 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Treatment Options for Narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barateau, Lucie; Lopez, Régis; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-05-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 and narcolepsy type 2 are central disorders of hypersomnolence. Narcolepsy type 1 is characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and cataplexy and is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency. On the other hand, in narcolepsy type 2, cerebrospinal fluid hypocretin-1 levels are normal and cataplexy absent. Despite major advances in our understanding of narcolepsy mechanisms, its current management is only symptomatic. Treatment options may vary from a single drug that targets several symptoms, or multiple medications that each treats a specific symptom. In recent years, narcolepsy treatment has changed with the widespread use of modafinil/armodafinil for daytime sleepiness, antidepressants (selective serotonin and dual serotonin and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors) for cataplexy, and sodium oxybate for both symptoms. Other psychostimulants can also be used, such as methylphenidate, pitolisant and rarely amphetamines, as third-line therapy. Importantly, clinically relevant subjective and objective measures of daytime sleepiness are required to monitor the treatment efficacy and to provide guidance on whether the treatment goals are met. Associated symptoms and comorbid conditions, such as hypnagogic/hypnopompic hallucinations, sleep paralysis, disturbed nighttime sleep, unpleasant dreams, REM- and non REM-related parasomnias, depressive symptoms, overweight/obesity, and obstructive sleep apnea, should also be taken into account and managed, if required. In the near future, the efficacy of new wake-promoting drugs, anticataplectic agents, hypocretin replacement therapy and immunotherapy at the early stages of the disease should also be evaluated.

  20. Perpetual Cancellable American Call Option

    OpenAIRE

    Emmerling, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the valuation of a generalized American-style option known as a Game-style call option in an infinite time horizon setting. The specifications of this contract allow the writer to terminate the call option at any point in time for a fixed penalty amount paid directly to the holder. Valuation of a perpetual Game-style put option was addressed by Kyprianou (2004) in a Black-Scholes setting on a non-dividend paying asset. Here, we undertake a similar analysis for the perpetua...

  1. Option price and market instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao

    2017-04-01

    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ...

  3. Probabilistic methods in exotic option pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderluh, J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    The thesis presents three ways of calculating the Parisian option price as an illustration of probabilistic methods in exotic option pricing. Moreover options on commidities are considered and double-sided barrier options in a compound Poisson framework.

  4. Supersymmetric AdS6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-01-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS 6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS 6 . This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing SL(3,ℝ)/SO(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) ⊂SL(3,ℝ) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity

  5. AdS gravity and the scalar glueball spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vento, Vicente [Departament de Fisica Teorica, Universitat de Valencia y Institut de Fisica Corpuscular, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)

    2017-09-15

    The scalar glueball spectrum has attracted much attention since the formulation of Quantum Chromodynamics. Different approaches give very different results for the glueball masses. We revisit the problem from the perspective of the AdS/CFT correspondence. (orig.)

  6. Smoothed transitions in higher spin AdS gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Shamik; Shenker, Stephen; Castro, Alejandra; Hellerman, Simeon; Hijano, Eliot; Lepage-Jutier, Arnaud; Maloney, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    We consider CFTs conjectured to be dual to higher spin theories of gravity in AdS 3 and AdS 4 . Two-dimensional CFTs with W N symmetry are considered in the λ = 0 (k → ∞) limit where they are conjectured to be described by continuous orbifolds. The torus partition function is computed, using reasonable assumptions, and equals that of a free-field theory. We find no phase transition at temperatures of order 1; the usual Hawking–Page phase transition is removed by the highly degenerate light states associated with conical defect states in the bulk. Three-dimensional Chern–Simons matter CFTs with vector-like matter are considered on T 3 , where the dynamics is described by an effective theory for the eigenvalues of the holonomies. Likewise, we find no evidence for a Hawking–Page phase transition at a large level k. (paper)

  7. Winding strings and AdS3 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troost, Jan

    2002-01-01

    We start a systematic study of string theory in AdS 3 black hole backgrounds. Firstly, we analyse in detail the geodesic structure of the BTZ black hole, including spacelike geodesics. Secondly, we study the spectrum for massive and massless scalar fields, paying particular attention to the connection between Sl(2,R) subgroups, the theory of special functions and global properties of the BTZ black holes. We construct classical strings that wind the black holes. Finally, we apply the general formalism to the vacuum black hole background, and formulate the boundary spacetime Virasoro algebra in terms of worldsheet operators. We moreover establish the link between a proposal for a ghost free spectrum for Sl(2,R) string propagation and the massless black hole background, thereby claryfing aspects of the AdS 3 /CFT correspondence. (author)

  8. AdS strings with torsion: Noncomplex heterotic compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frey, Andrew R.; Lippert, Matthew

    2005-01-01

    Combining the effects of fluxes and gaugino condensation in heterotic supergravity, we use a ten-dimensional approach to find a new class of four-dimensional supersymmetric AdS 4 compactifications on almost-Hermitian manifolds of SU(3) structure. Computation of the torsion allows a classification of the internal geometry, which for a particular combination of fluxes and condensate, is nearly Kaehler. We argue that all moduli are fixed, and we show that the Kaehler potential and superpotential proposed in the literature yield the correct AdS 4 radius. In the nearly Kaehler case, we are able to solve the H Bianchi identity using a nonstandard embedding. Finally, we point out subtleties in deriving the effective superpotential and understanding the heterotic supergravity in the presence of a gaugino condensate

  9. The Mixed Phase of Charged AdS Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyabut Burikham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the mixed phase of charged AdS black hole and radiation when the total energy is fixed below the threshold to produce a stable charged black hole branch. The coexistence conditions for the charged AdS black hole and radiation are derived for the generic case when radiation particles carry charge. The phase diagram of the mixed phase is demonstrated for both fixed potential and charge ensemble. In the dual gauge picture, they correspond to the mixed phase of quark-gluon plasma (QGP and hadron gas in the fixed chemical potential and density ensemble, respectively. In the nuclei and heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies, the mixed phase of exotic QGP and hadron gas could be produced. The mixed phase will condense and evaporate into the hadron gas as the fireball expands.

  10. Perturbative entanglement thermodynamics for AdS spacetime: renormalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rohit; Singh, Harvendra

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of charged excitations in the AdS spacetime on the first law of entanglement thermodynamics. It is found that ‘boosted’ AdS black holes give rise to a more general form of first law which includes chemical potential and charge density. To obtain this result we have to resort to a second order perturbative calculation of entanglement entropy for small size subsystems. At first order the form of entanglement law remains unchanged even in the presence of charged excitations. But the thermodynamic quantities have to be appropriately ‘renormalized’ at the second order due to the corrections. We work in the perturbative regime where T thermal ≪T E .

  11. Bayesian Option Pricing Framework with Stochastic Volatility for FX Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of stochastic volatility (SV models in the option pricing literature usually assumes that the market has sufficient option data to calibrate the model’s risk-neutral parameters. When option data are insufficient or unavailable, market practitioners must estimate the model from the historical returns of the underlying asset and then transform the resulting model into its risk-neutral equivalent. However, the likelihood function of an SV model can only be expressed in a high-dimensional integration, which makes the estimation a highly challenging task. The Bayesian approach has been the classical way to estimate SV models under the data-generating (physical probability measure, but the transformation from the estimated physical dynamic into its risk-neutral counterpart has not been addressed. Inspired by the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH option pricing approach by Duan in 1995, we propose an SV model that enables us to simultaneously and conveniently perform Bayesian inference and transformation into risk-neutral dynamics. Our model relaxes the normality assumption on innovations of both return and volatility processes, and our empirical study shows that the estimated option prices generate realistic implied volatility smile shapes. In addition, the volatility premium is almost flat across strike prices, so adding a few option data to the historical time series of the underlying asset can greatly improve the estimation of option prices.

  12. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coimbra, André [Institut für Theoretische Physik & Center for Quantum Engineering and Spacetime Research,Leibniz Universität Hannover,Appelstraße 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Strickland-Constable, Charles [Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-16

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [http://arxiv.org/abs/1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of E{sub d(d)}×ℝ{sup +} generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  13. ADS Bumblebee comes of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin; Grant, Carolyn S.; Thompson, Donna M.; Chyla, Roman; McDonald, Steven; Shaulis, Taylor J.; Blanco-Cuaresma, Sergi; Shapurian, Golnaz; Hostetler, Timothy W.; Templeton, Matthew R.; Lockhart, Kelly E.

    2018-01-01

    The ADS Team has been working on a new system architecture and user interface named “ADS Bumblebee” since 2015. The new system presents many advantages over the traditional ADS interface and search engine (“ADS Classic”). A new, state of the art search engine features a number of new capabilities such as full-text search, advanced citation queries, filtering of results and scalable analytics for any search results. Its services are built on a cloud computing platform which can be easily scaled to match user demand. The Bumblebee user interface is a rich javascript application which leverages the features of the search engine and integrates a number of additional visualizations such as co-author and co-citation networks which provide a hierarchical view of research groups and research topics, respectively. Displays of paper analytics provide views of the basic article metrics (citations, reads, and age). All visualizations are interactive and provide ways to further refine search results. This new search system, which has been in beta for the past three years, has now matured to the point that it provides feature and content parity with ADS Classic, and has become the recommended way to access ADS content and services. Following a successful transition to Bumblebee, the use of ADS Classic will be discouraged starting in 2018 and phased out in 2019. You can access our new interface at https://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu

  14. Noncommutative D-branes from covariant AdS superstring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, Makoto; Yoshida, Kentaroh

    2008-01-01

    We study noncommutative (NC) D-branes on AdS 5 xS 5 from κ-invariance of covariant Green-Schwarz action of an open string with a non-trivial world-volume flux. Finding boundary conditions to ensure the κ-invariance, we can see possible configurations of the NC D-branes. With this method 1/4 BPS NC D-branes are discussed. The resulting NC Dp-branes are 1/4 BPS at arbitrary position other than the p=1 case. The exceptional D-string is 1/2 BPS at the origin and 1/4 BPS outside the origin. Those are reduced to possible 1/4 BPS or 1/2 BPS AdS D-branes in the commutative limit. The same analysis is applied to an open superstring in a pp-wave and leads to 1/4 BPS configurations of NC D-branes. These D-branes are consistently obtained from AdS D-branes via the Penrose limit

  15. Supersymmetric giant graviton solutions in AdS3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Gautam; Raju, Suvrat; Smedbaeck, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    We parametrize all classical probe brane configurations that preserve four supersymmetries in (a) the extremal D1-D5 geometry, (b) the extremal D1-D5-P geometry, (c) the smooth D1-D5 solutions proposed by Lunin and Mathur, and (d) global AdS 3 xS 3 xT 4 /K3. These configurations consist of D1 branes, D5 branes, and bound states of D5 and D1 branes with the property that a particular Killing vector is tangent to the brane world volume at each point. We show that the supersymmetric sector of the D5-brane world volume theory may be analyzed in an effective 1+1 dimensional framework that places it on the same footing as D1 branes. In global AdS and the corresponding Lunin-Mathur solution, the solutions we describe are ''bound'' to the center of AdS for generic parameters and cannot escape to infinity. We show that these probes only exist on the submanifold of moduli space where the background B NS field and theta angle vanish. We quantize these probes in the near-horizon region of the extremal D1-D5 geometry and obtain the theory of long strings discussed by Seiberg and Witten

  16. Exploring AdS waves via nonminimal coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayon-Beato, Eloy; Hassaiene, Mokhtar

    2006-01-01

    We consider nonminimally coupled scalar fields to explore the Siklos spacetimes in three dimensions. Their interpretation as exact gravitational waves propagating on AdS space restrict the source to behave as a pure radiation field. We show that the related pure radiation constraints single out a unique self-interaction potential depending on one coupling constant. For a vanishing coupling constant, this potential reduces to a mass term with a mass fixed in terms of the nonminimal-coupling parameter. This mass dependence allows the existence of several free cases including massless and tachyonic sources. There even exists a particular value of the nonminimal-coupling parameter for which the corresponding mass exactly compensates the contribution generated by the negative scalar curvature, producing a genuinely massless field in this curved background. The self-interacting case is studied in detail for the conformal coupling. The resulting gravitational wave is formed by the superposition of the free and the self-interaction contributions, except for a critical value of the coupling constant where a nonperturbative effect relating the strong and weak regimes of the source appears. We establish a correspondence between the scalar source supporting an AdS wave and a pp wave by showing that their respective pure radiation constraints are conformally related, while their involved backgrounds are not. Finally, we consider the AdS waves for topologically massive gravity and its limit to conformal gravity

  17. Enthalpy and the mechanics of AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie; Ray, Sourya

    2009-01-01

    We present geometric derivations of the Smarr formula for static AdS black holes and an expanded first law that includes variations in the cosmological constant. These two results are further related by a scaling argument based on Euler's theorem. The key new ingredient in the constructions is a two-form potential for the static Killing field. Surface integrals of the Killing potential determine the coefficient of the variation of Λ in the first law. This coefficient is proportional to a finite, effective volume for the region outside the AdS black hole horizon, which can also be interpreted as minus the volume excluded from a spatial slice by the black hole horizon. This effective volume also contributes to the Smarr formula. Since Λ is naturally thought of as a pressure, the new term in the first law has the form of effective volume times change in pressure that arises in the variation of the enthalpy in classical thermodynamics. This and related arguments suggest that the mass of an AdS black hole should be interpreted as the enthalpy of the spacetime.

  18. Shock wave collisions and thermalization in AdS5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2011-01-01

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling using AdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS 5 . We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS 5 , which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling. (author)

  19. Ad skepticisms: Antecedents and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafique Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Engaging customer is the burning issue for companies especially the service sector, either online or offline. Minimizing the customer disengagement is the same like reducing dissatisfaction or churn. Customer disengagement may be caused by many factors, ad skepticism is one of them; ad skepticism has two main antecedents personality variable and consumption/influencing varia-bles. This research explores the relationship of ad skepticism with customer disengagement through personality variables which are cynicism, reactance and self-esteem. The unit of analysis is the telecom and banking industry of Pakistan which is foreseeing an era of virtual currency and both are customer oriented industries. Only offline disengagement is researched and data is collected from the Business centers of telecom and banking branches dealing with virtual curren-cy in Pakistan. Hypothetical model is given after digging the relevant literature; model is tested through confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Eight hypotheses were purposed from the connections of model, all hypotheses are accepted except the cynicism posi-tive effect on social ad skepticism. This can be due to commonality of social and charity in Paki-stani society, Muslims consider charity as a pious act and they do not think for cynic behavior in charity or social related works. The results manifest that customers in telecom industry are hav-ing ad skepticism and that is becoming the cause of their disengagement. Further, social ad skep-ticism has more impact on the customer disengagement than the general ad skepticism. While the reactance has more effect on general ad skepticism than other antecedents and cynicism has the lowest impact on social ad skepticism than other antecedents.

  20. Analysis of Options Contract, Option Pricing in Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Tamidy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Risk is an essential component in the production and sale of agricultural products. Due to the nature of agricultural products, the people who act in this area including farmers and businesspersons encounter unpredictable fluctuations of prices. On the other hand, the firms that process agricultural products also face fluctuation of price of agricultural inputs. Given that the Canola is considered as one of the inputs of product processing factories, control of unpredictable fluctuations of the price of this product would increase the possibility of correct decision making for farmers and managers of food processing industries. The best available tool for control and management of the price risk is the use of future markets and options. It is evident that the pricing is the main pillar in every trade. Therefore, offering a fair price for the options will be very important. In fact, options trading in the options market create cost insurance stopped. In this way, which can reduce the risks of deflation created in the future, if the person entitled to the benefits of the price increase occurs in the future. Unlike the futures, market where the seller had to deliver the product on time, in the options market, there is no such compulsion. In addition, this is one of the strengths of this option contract, because if there is not enough product for delivery to the futures market as result of chilling, in due course, the farmers suffer, but in the options market there will be a loss. In this study, the setup options of rape, as a product, as well as inputs has been paid for industry. Materials and Methods: In this section. The selection criteria of the disposal of asset base for valuation of European put options and call option is been introduced. That for obtain this purpose, some characteristics of the goods must considered: 1-Unpredictable fluctuations price of underlying asset 2 -large underlying asset cash market 3- The possibility

  1. Bounds for Asian basket options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelstra, Griselda; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vanmaele, Michèle

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we propose pricing bounds for European-style discrete arithmetic Asian basket options in a Black and Scholes framework. We start from methods used for basket options and Asian options. First, we use the general approach for deriving upper and lower bounds for stop-loss premia of sums of non-independent random variables as in Kaas et al. [Upper and lower bounds for sums of random variables, Insurance Math. Econom. 27 (2000) 151-168] or Dhaene et al. [The concept of comonotonicity in actuarial science and finance: theory, Insurance Math. Econom. 31(1) (2002) 3-33]. We generalize the methods in Deelstra et al. [Pricing of arithmetic basket options by conditioning, Insurance Math. Econom. 34 (2004) 55-57] and Vanmaele et al. [Bounds for the price of discrete sampled arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 185(1) (2006) 51-90]. Afterwards we show how to derive an analytical closed-form expression for a lower bound in the non-comonotonic case. Finally, we derive upper bounds for Asian basket options by applying techniques as in Thompson [Fast narrow bounds on the value of Asian options, Working Paper, University of Cambridge, 1999] and Lord [Partially exact and bounded approximations for arithmetic Asian options, J. Comput. Finance 10 (2) (2006) 1-52]. Numerical results are included and on the basis of our numerical tests, we explain which method we recommend depending on moneyness and time-to-maturity.

  2. Erweiterung des QTI-Standards zur Unterstützung von LongMenu-Fragen sowie Abbildung spezifischer Metadaten in QTI 2.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holzer, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Anlässlich der Entwicklung einer Prüfungsfragendatenbank wird die Erweiterung des wichtigsten standardisierten Austauschformats für Prüfungsfragen (QTI um einen medizinspezifischen Fragentyp (LongMenu sowie die Verschlagwortung von Prüfungsitems mit medizinspezifischen Klassifikationen beschrieben. Zur standardgemäßen Erweiterung für LongMenu-Fragen wurde die Liste der Antwortoptionen in einer eigenen Datei abgelegt und mittels einer Listen-ID und der ID des Begriffes in dieser Liste aus der QTI-Spezifikation referenziert. Zusätzlich wurde eine Klassifikation nach der „Learning Objects Metadata Specification“ (LOM in den Metadatenbereich des QTI-Datensatzes integriert, der eine Beschreibung des Fragetyps, des Fachgebietes und des Organsystems eines Items erlaubt.

  3. A menu for health: changes to New York City school food, 2001 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Sharon E; Nonas, Cathy; Lindstrom, Lauren L; Choe-Castillo, Julia; McKie, Herman; Alberti, Philip M

    2012-10-01

    The high prevalence of obesity puts children at risk for chronic diseases, increases health care costs, and threatens to reduce life expectancy. As part of the response to this epidemic, the New York City (NYC) Department of Education (DOE)--the nation's largest school district--has worked to improve the appeal and nutritional quality of school food. This article highlights some of the structural and policy changes that have improved the school food environment over the past decade, with the aim to share lessons learned and provide recommendations and resources for other districts interested in making similar modifications. This article details changes DOE has implemented over 10 years, including revised nutrition standards for school meals and competitive foods; new school food department staffing; food reformulations, substitutions, and additions; and transitions to healthier beverages. NYC's revised nutrition standards and hiring of expert staff increased availability of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and decreased sugary beverages, and foods high in saturated fats and added sugars--the major contributors to discretionary calorie intake. DOE also introduced healthier beverages: switching from high-calorie, high-fat whole milk to low-fat milk and increasing access to water. NYC has successfully improved the quality of its school food environment and shown that healthier food service is possible, even under budgetary constraints. Several broad factors facilitated these efforts: fostering community partnerships and inter-agency collaboration, implementing policies and initiatives that target multiple sectors for greater impact, and working to make incremental improvements each year. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  4. ADS-B in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bjarke Gosvig; Jensen, Morten; Birklykke, Alex

    2014-01-01

    ADS-B is increasingly used for air traffic control in areas covered by terrestrial receivers; however, its limited range makes it unsuitable for other areas such as the oceans. To overcome this limitation, it has been proposed to receive ADS-B signals from low earth orbit nano-satellites and relay...... them to the terrestrial receivers. This paper gives an overview of the GATOSS mission and of its highly-sensitive ADS-B software-defined radio receiver payload. Details of the design and implementation of the receiver's decoder are introduced. The first real-life, space-based results show that ADS......-B signals are indeed successfully received in space and retransmitted to a terrestrial station by the GATOSS nano-satellite orbiting at 700+ km altitudes, thus showing that GATOSS is capable of tracking flights, including transoceanic ones, from space....

  5. Virginia ADS consortium - thorium utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myneni, Ganapati

    2015-01-01

    A Virginia ADS consortium, consisting of Virginia Universities (UVa, VCU, VT), Industry (Casting Analysis Corporation, GEM*STAR, MuPlus Inc.), Jefferson Lab and not-for-profit ISOHIM, has been organizing International Accelerator-Driven Sub-Critical Systems (ADS) and Thorium Utilization (ThU) workshops. The third workshop of this series was hosted by VCU in Richmond, Virginia, USA Oct 2014 with CBMM and IAEA sponsorship and was endorsed by International Thorium Energy Committee (IThEC), Geneva and Virginia Nuclear Energy Consortium Authority. In this presentation a brief summary of the successful 3 rd International ADS and ThU workshop proceedings and review the worldwide ADS plans and/or programs is given. Additionally, a report on new start-ups on Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) systems is presented. Further, a discussion on potential simplistic fertile 232 Th to fissile 233 U conversion is made

  6. A closer look at two AdS4 branes in an AdS5 bulk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thambyahpillai, Shiyamala

    2005-01-01

    We investigate a scenario with two AdS 4 branes in an AdS 5 bulk. In this scenario there are two gravitons and we investigate the role played by each of them for different positions of the second brane. We show that both gravitons play a significant role only when the turn-around point in the warp factor is approximately equidistant from both branes. We find that the ultralight mode becomes heavy as the second brane approaches the turn-around point, and the physics begins to resemble that of the RS model. Thus we demonstrate the crucial role played by the turn-around in the warp factor in enabling the presence of both gravitons. (author)

  7. Nuclear Option in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K. I.

    2002-01-01

    With sixteen(16) operating nuclear units in Korea, the share of nuclear power generation reached 41% of the total electric power generation as of December 2000. A prediction is that it would further increase to 44.5% by year 2015 according to the national long term power development plan. Four units are currently under construction with 6 more units in order. With little domestic energy resource and increasing energy demand to support national economic growth, Korea has chosen nuclear power as one of the major energy sources to ensure stable power supply and to promote energy self-sufficiency. It has been recognized that nuclear power in Korea is not a selective option but rather a necessity. The Korean nuclear power development started with construction of a 600 MWe size reactor that was designed and constructed by foreign vendors. As the national grid capacity became larger, the size of nuclear units increased to 1000 MWe class. In the mean time, the need for nuclear technology self-reliance grew not only in operation and maintenance but also in construction, manufacturing and design. For this, a nuclear technology self-reliance program has been embarked with the support of the Government and utility, and the 1000 MWe class KSNP(Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant) has been developed. The KSNPs are currently being designed, manufactured, constructed and operated by relevant Korean entities themselves. To fit into a larger capacity national grid and also to improve nuclear economic competitiveness, the 1400 MWe class KNGR(Korean Next Generation Reactor) design has been developed uprating the 1000 MWe KSNP design. Its construction project is currently under contract negotiation, and is planned to be finished by 2010. In the mean time, to be ready for future electric power market deregulation, the 600 MWe class small KSNP design is being developed downsizing the KSNP. A modular small size reactor, SMART(System Integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) is also being

  8. Aluminum industry options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    In 1990, Canada's producers of aluminum (third largest in the world) emitted 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to 6.4 tonnes of greenhouse gas intensity per tonne of aluminum. In 2000, the projection is that on a business-as-usual (BAU) basis Canadian producers now producing 60 per cent more aluminum than in 1990, will emit 10.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to a GHG intensity of 4.2 tonnes per tonne of aluminum. This improvement is due to production being based largely on hydro-electricity, and partly because in general, Canadian plants are modern, with technology that is relatively GHG-friendly. The Aluminum Association of Canada estimates that based on anticipated production, and under a BAU scenario, GHG emissions from aluminum production will rise by 18 per cent by 2010 and by 30 per cent by 2020. GHG emissions could be reduced below the BAU forecast first, by new control and monitoring systems at some operations at a cost of $4.5 to 7.5 million per smelter. These systems could reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 0.8 million tonnes per year. A second alternative would require installation of breaker feeders which would further reduce perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions by 0.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Cost of the breakers feeders would be in the order of $200 million per smelter. The third option calls for the the shutting down of some of the smelters with older technology by 2015. In this scenario GHG emissions would be reduced by 2010 by 0.8 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent. However, the cost in this case would be about $1.36 billion. The industry would support measures that would encourage the first two sets of actions, which would produce GHG emissions from aluminum production in Canada of about 10.2 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent, or about two per cent above 1990 levels with double the aluminum production of 1990. Credit for

  9. ADS/CFT and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Teramond, Guy F.

    2007-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence between string theory in AdS space and conformal .eld theories in physical spacetime leads to an analytic, semi-classical model for strongly-coupled QCD which has scale invariance and dimensional counting at short distances and color confinement at large distances. Although QCD is not conformally invariant, one can nevertheless use the mathematical representation of the conformal group in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space to construct a first approximation to the theory. The AdS/CFT correspondence also provides insights into the inherently non-perturbative aspects of QCD, such as the orbital and radial spectra of hadrons and the form of hadronic wavefunctions. In particular, we show that there is an exact correspondence between the fifth-dimensional coordinate of AdS space z and a specific impact variable ζ which measures the separation of the quark and gluonic constituents within the hadron in ordinary space-time. This connection allows one to compute the analytic form of the frame-independent light-front wavefunctions, the fundamental entities which encode hadron properties and allow the computation of decay constants, form factors, and other exclusive scattering amplitudes. New relativistic lightfront equations in ordinary space-time are found which reproduce the results obtained using the 5-dimensional theory. The effective light-front equations possess remarkable algebraic structures and integrability properties. Since they are complete and orthonormal, the AdS/CFT model wavefunctions can also be used as a basis for the diagonalization of the full light-front QCD Hamiltonian, thus systematically improving the AdS/CFT approximation

  10. Pengembangan OSD (On Screen Display dengan Penambahan Menu untuk Aplikasi pada Semi Autonomous Mobile Robot dengan Lengan untuk Mengambil Objek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Saiful Hak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tugas Akhir ini membahas pengembangan OSD (On Screen Display dengan sistem FPV (First Person View yang bertujuan untuk mendukung kinerja sebuah RC (Remote Control atau mobile robot dengan cara mengambil data pada RC atau mobile robot tersebut. Penggunaan sensor pad a modul OSD ini terbatas, sehingga dilakukan sebuah pengembangan dengan penambahan pengkabelan dan pemrograman menggunakan kompiler Arduino. Dalam sistem ini, OSD yang dipakai adalah dua buah minimOSD yang telah dirancang dengan penambahan beberapa fitur menu sensor. Pada minimOSD yang pertama data GPS (Global Positioning System berupa posisi lintang dan bujur didapat dari APM (ArduPilot Mega yang diprogram menggunakan minimOSD extra. Pada minimOSD yang kedua didapat data sensor ultrasonik dan posisi lengan robot yang dikirim oleh Arduino Mega pada mobile robot menggunakan pengiriman serial. Sensor suhu, level baterai dan data waktu diperoleh dari penambahan pengkabelan pada pin-pin ATMega328. Hasil olah data sensor pada minimOSD pertama dan kedua yang berupa data visual digabung dan dikirim menuju layar monitor FPV menggunakan video transmiter. Animasi data yang ditampilkan mempunyai batas sebesar 256 data karakter, sehingga posisi lengan robot dan sensor ultrasonik hanya bisa digambarkan berupa perbandingan skala tingkatan dan data teks, sedangkan data sensor yang lain ditampilkan sesuai hasil olah data sebenarnya.

  11. Measuring implementation behaviour of menu guidelines in the childcare setting: confirmatory factor analysis of a theoretical domains framework questionnaire (TDFQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seward, Kirsty; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Finch, Meghan; Wyse, Rebecca; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Presseau, Justin; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2017-04-04

    While there are number of frameworks which focus on supporting the implementation of evidence based approaches, few psychometrically valid measures exist to assess constructs within these frameworks. This study aimed to develop and psychometrically assess a scale measuring each domain of the Theoretical Domains Framework for use in assessing the implementation of dietary guidelines within a non-health care setting (childcare services). A 75 item 14-domain Theoretical Domains Framework Questionnaire (TDFQ) was developed and administered via telephone interview to 202 centre based childcare service cooks who had a role in planning the service menu. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was undertaken to assess the reliability, discriminant validity and goodness of fit of the 14-domain theoretical domain framework measure. For the CFA, five iterative processes of adjustment were undertaken where 14 items were removed, resulting in a final measure consisting of 14 domains and 61 items. For the final measure: the Chi-Square goodness of fit statistic was 3447.19; the Standardized Root Mean Square Residual (SRMR) was 0.070; the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) was 0.072; and the Comparative Fit Index (CFI) had a value of 0.78. While only one of the three indices support goodness of fit of the measurement model tested, a 14-domain model with 61 items showed good discriminant validity and internally consistent items. Future research should aim to assess the psychometric properties of the developed TDFQ in other community-based settings.

  12. Partitioning and transmutation: Radioactive waste management option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanculescu, A.

    2005-01-01

    Growing world population with increasing energy needs, especially in the developing countries, Threat of global warming due to CO 2 emissions demands non-fossil electricity production. Nuclear will have to be part of a sustainable mix of energy production options Figures show that 350 GWe worldwide capacity is 'nuclear'. Present worldwide spent fuel (containing high Pu inventory) and HLW would need large repositories. In view of the previous facts this lecture deals Partitioning and transmutation as radioactive waste management option. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is a complex technology i.e. advanced reprocessing, and demand transuranics fuel fabrication plants, as well as innovative and/or dedicated transmutation reactors. In addition to U, Pu, and 129 I, 'partitioning' extracts from the liquid high level waste the minor actinides (MA) and the long-lived fission products (LLFP) 99-Tc, 93-Zr, 135-Cs, 107-Pd, and 79-Se). 'Transmutation' requires fully new fuel fabrication plants and reactor technologies to be developed and implemented on industrial scale. Present LWRs are not suited for MA and LLFP transmutation (safety consideration, plant operation, poor incineration capability). Only specially licensed LWRs can cope with MOX fuel; for increased Pu loadings (up to 100%), special reactor designs (e.g., ABB80+) are required; a combination of these reactor types could allow Pu inventory stabilization. Long-term waste radiotoxicity can be effectively reduced only if transuranics are 'incinerated' through fission with very hard neutron spectra. New reactor concepts (dedicated fast reactors, Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS), fusion/fission hybrid reactors) have been proposed as transmuters/incinerators. Significant Pu+MAs incineration rates can be achieved in symbiotic scenarios: LWR-MOX and dedicated fast reactors; fast neutron spectrum ADS mainly for MA incineration; very high thermal flux ADS concepts could also provide a significant transuranics

  13. Feasibility and efficacy of menu planning combined with individual counselling to improve health outcomes and dietary adherence in people with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria-Contreras, Diana C; Bell, Rhonda C; McCargar, Linda J; Chan, Catherine B

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility and efficacy of implementing a 4-week menu plan combined with individual counselling among people with type 2 diabetes. A 12-week pilot study with a pretest and post-test design was conducted among 15 participants with type 2 diabetes. The menu plan incorporated the overall recommendations of the Canadian Diabetes Association nutrition therapy guidelines and considered factors such as the accessibility, availability and acceptability of foods. Change in glycated hemoglobin (A1C) was the primary outcome, and secondary outcomes were changes in serum lipid, anthropometric and dietary measures. Mean (±SD) age of the participants was 59.3±9.9 years, and duration of diabetes was 8.1±8.3 years. After the program, A1C decreased by 1.0%±0.86% (p1.9 days a week and attended, on average, 4 of 6 counselling sessions. Menu planning and individual counselling were demonstrated to be feasible and effective for diabetes management, and they represent a simple and practical approach to implement the nutritional recommendations for diabetes in Canada. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Diabetes Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Wilson lines for AdS5 black strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristov, Kiril; Katmadas, Stefanos

    2015-01-01

    We describe a simple method of extending AdS 5 black string solutions of 5d gauged supergravity in a supersymmetric way by addition of Wilson lines along a circular direction in space. When this direction is chosen along the string, and due to the specific form of 5d supergravity that features Chern-Simons terms, the existence of magnetic charges automatically generates conserved electric charges in a 5d analogue of the Witten effect. Therefore we find a rather generic, model-independent way of adding electric charges to already existing solutions with no backreaction from the geometry or breaking of any symmetry. We use this method to explicitly write down more general versions of the Benini-Bobev black strings (http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.061601, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP06(2013)005) and comment on the implications for the dual field theory and the similarities with generalizations of the Cacciatori-Klemm black holes (http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2010)085) in AdS 4 .

  15. An AdS3 dual for minimal model CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R.; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2011-01-01

    We propose a duality between the 2d W N minimal models in the large N't Hooft limit, and a family of higher spin theories on AdS 3 . The 2d conformal field theories (CFTs) can be described as Wess-Zumino-Witten coset models, and include, for N=2, the usual Virasoro unitary series. The dual bulk theory contains, in addition to the massless higher spin fields, two complex scalars (of equal mass). The mass is directly related to the 't Hooft coupling constant of the dual CFT. We give convincing evidence that the spectra of the two theories match precisely for all values of the 't Hooft coupling. We also show that the renormalization group flows in the 2d CFT agree exactly with the usual AdS/CFT prediction of the gravity theory. Our proposal is in many ways analogous to the Klebanov-Polyakov conjecture for an AdS 4 dual for the singlet sector of large N vector models.

  16. Heavy ion collisions in AdS5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2011-01-01

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling using AdS/CFT correspondence. Heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS 5 . We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS 5 , which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  17. Supergravity one-loop corrections on AdS7 and AdS3, higher spins and AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Beccaria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As was shown earlier, the one-loop correction in 10d supergravity on AdS5×S5 corresponds to the contributions to the vacuum energy and 4d boundary conformal anomaly which are minus the values for one N=4 Maxwell supermultiplet, thus reproducing the subleading term in the N2−1 coefficient in the dual SU(N SYM theory. We perform similar one-loop computations in 11d supergravity on AdS7×S4 and 10d supergravity on AdS3×S3×T4. In the AdS7 case we find that the corrections to the 6d conformal anomaly a-coefficient and the vacuum energy are again minus the ones for one (2,0 tensor multiplet, suggesting that the total a-anomaly coefficient for the dual (2,0 theory is 4N3−9/4N−7/4 and thus vanishes for N=1. In the AdS3 case the one-loop correction to the vacuum energy or 2d central charge turns out to be equal to that of one free (4,4 scalar multiplet, i.e. is c=+6. This reproduces the subleading term in the central charge c=6(Q1Q5+1 of the dual 2d CFT describing decoupling limit of D5–D1 system. We also present the expressions for the 6d a-anomaly coefficient and vacuum energy contributions of general-symmetry higher spin field in AdS7 and consider their application to tests of vectorial AdS/CFT with the boundary conformal 6d theory represented by free scalars, spinors or rank-2 antisymmetric tensors.

  18. Small AdS black holes from SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asplund, Curtis; Berenstein, David

    2009-01-01

    We provide a characterization of the set of configurations in N=4 SYM theory that are dual to small AdS black holes. Our construction shows that the black hole dual states are approximately thermal on a SU(M) subset of degrees of freedom of a SU(N) gauge theory. M is determined dynamically and the black hole degrees of freedom are dynamically insulated from the rest. These states are localized on the S 5 and have dynamical processes that correspond to matter absorption that make them behave as black objects

  19. On attractor mechanism of AdS4 black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru

    2013-01-01

    We construct a general family of exact non-extremal 4-dimensional black holes in AdS gravity with U(1) gauge fields non-minimally coupled to a dilaton and a non-trivial dilaton potential. These black holes can have spherical, toroidal, and hyperbolic horizon topologies. We use the entropy function formalism to obtain the near horizon data in the extremal limit. Due to the non-trivial self-interaction of the scalar field, the zero temperature black holes can have a finite horizon area even if only the electric field is turned on

  20. Small black holes in global AdS spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Niko; Pönni, Arttu; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-04-01

    We study the properties of two-point functions and quasinormal modes in a strongly coupled field theory holographically dual to a small black hole in global anti-de Sitter spacetime. Our results are seen to smoothly interpolate between known limits corresponding to large black holes and thermal AdS space, demonstrating that the Son-Starinets prescription works even when there is no black hole in the spacetime. Omitting issues related to the internal space, the results can be given a field theory interpretation in terms of the microcanonical ensemble, which provides access to energy densities forbidden in the canonical description.

  1. Configurational entropy of charged AdS black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Oh Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When we consider charged AdS black holes in higher dimensional spacetime and a molecule number density along coexistence curves is numerically extended to higher dimensional cases. It is found that a number density difference of a small and large black holes decrease as a total dimension grows up. In particular, we find that a configurational entropy is a concave function of a reduced temperature and reaches a maximum value at a critical (second-order phase transition point. Furthermore, the bigger a total dimension becomes, the more concave function in a configurational entropy while the more convex function in a reduced pressure.

  2. Gravitational charges of transverse asymptotically AdS spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Using Killing-Yano symmetries, we construct conserved charges of spacetimes that asymptotically approach to the flat or anti-de Sitter spaces only in certain directions. In D dimensions, this allows one to define gravitational charges (such as mass and angular momenta densities) of p-dimensional branes/solitons or any other extended objects that curve the transverse space into an asymptotically flat or AdS one. Our construction answers the question of what kind of charges the antisymmetric Killing-Yano tensors lead to

  3. Entanglement entropy and duality in AdS4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Bakas

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Small variations of the entanglement entropy δS and the expectation value of the modular Hamiltonian δE are computed holographically for circular entangling curves in the boundary of AdS4, using gravitational perturbations with general boundary conditions in spherical coordinates. Agreement with the first law of thermodynamics, δS=δE, requires that the line element of the entangling curve remains constant. In this context, we also find a manifestation of electric–magnetic duality for the entanglement entropy and the corresponding modular Hamiltonian, following from the holographic energy–momentum/Cotton tensor duality.

  4. The AdS3 central charge in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS 3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  5. The Amnesiac Lookback Option: Selectively Monitored Lookback Options and Cryptocurrencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Chun Herbert Chang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a strategy to make the lookback option cheaper and more practical, and suggests the use of its properties to reduce risk exposure in cryptocurrency markets through blockchain enforced smart contracts and correct for informational inefficiencies surrounding prices and volatility. This paper generalizes partial, discretely-monitored lookback options that dilute premiums by selecting a subset of specified periods to determine payoff, which we call amnesiac lookback options. Prior literature on discretely-monitored lookback options considers the number of periods and assumes equidistant lookback periods in pricing partial lookback options. This study by contrast considers random sampling of lookback periods and compares resulting payoff of the call, put and spread options under floating and fixed strikes. Amnesiac lookbacks are priced with Monte Carlo simulations of Gaussian random walks under equidistant and random periods. Results are compared to analytic and binomial pricing models for the same derivatives. Simulations show diminishing marginal increases to the fair price as the number of selected periods is increased. The returns correspond to a Hill curve whose parameters are set by interest rate and volatility. We demonstrate over-pricing under equidistant monitoring assumptions with error increasing as the lookback periods decrease. An example of a direct implication for event trading is when shock is forecasted but its timing uncertain, equidistant sampling produces a lower error on the true maximum than random choice. We conclude that the instrument provides an ideal space for investors to balance their risk, and as a prime candidate to hedge extreme volatility. We discuss the application of the amnesiac lookback option and path-dependent options to cryptocurrencies and blockchain commodities in the context of smart contracts.

  6. Exotic Options: a Chooser Option and its Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial instruments traded in the markets and investors’ situation in such markets are getting more and more complex. This leads to more complex derivative structures used for hedging that are harder to analyze and which risk is harder managed. Because of the complexity of these instruments, the basic characteristics of many exotic options may sometimes be not clearly understood. Most scientific studies have been focused on developing models for pricing various types of exotic options, but it is important to study their unique characteristics and to understand them correctly in order to use them in proper market situations. The paper examines main aspects of options, emphasizing the variety of exotic options and their place in financial markets and risk management process. As the exact valuation of exotic options is quite difficult, the article deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of pricing of chooser options that suggest a broad range of usage and application in different market conditions. The calculations made in the article showed that the price of the chooser is closely correlated with the choice time and low correlated with its strike price. So the first mentioned factor should be taken into consideration when making appropriate hedging and investing decisions.

  7. 48 CFR 552.217-71 - Notice Regarding Option(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice Regarding Option(s... Notice Regarding Option(s). As prescribed in 517.208(b), insert the following provision: Notice Regarding Option(s) (NOV 1992) The General Services Administration (GSA) has included an option to [Insert...

  8. Introducing ADS 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  9. Critical gravity on AdS2 spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myung, Yun Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Young-Jai

    2011-01-01

    We study the critical gravity in two-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS 2 ) spacetimes, which was obtained from the cosmological topologically massive gravity (TMG Λ ) in three dimensions by using the Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction. We perform the perturbation analysis around AdS 2 , which may correspond to the near-horizon geometry of the extremal Banados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli (BTZ) black hole obtained from the TMG Λ with identification upon uplifting three dimensions. A massive propagating scalar mode δF satisfies the second-order differential equation away from the critical point of K=l, whose solution is given by the Bessel functions. On the other hand, δF satisfies the fourth-order equation at the critical point. We exactly solve the fourth-order equation, and compare it with the log gravity in two dimensions. Consequently, the critical gravity in two dimensions could not be described by a massless scalar δF ml and its logarithmic partner δF log 4th .

  10. AdS pure spinor superstring in constant backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandia, Osvaldo [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez,Diagonal Las Torres 2640, Peñalolén, Santiago (Chile); Bevilaqua, L. Ibiapina [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte,Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-06-05

    In this paper we study the pure spinor formulation of the superstring in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} around point particle solutions of the classical equations of motion. As a particular example we quantize the pure spinor string in the BMN background.

  11. Crystal manyfold universes in /AdS space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloper, N.

    2000-02-01

    We derive crystal braneworld solutions, comprising of intersecting families of parallel /n+2-branes in a /4+n-dimensional /AdS space. Each family consists of alternating positive and negative tension branes. In the simplest case of exactly orthogonal families, there arise different crystals with unbroken /4D Poincaré invariance on the intersections, where our world can reside. A crystal can be finite along some direction, either because that direction is compact, or because it ends on a segment of /AdS bulk, or infinite, where the branes continue forever. If the crystal is interlaced by connected /3-branes directed both along the intersections and orthogonal to them, it can be viewed as an example of a Manyfold universe proposed recently by Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, Dvali and the author. There are new ways for generating hierarchies, since the bulk volume of the crystal and the lattice spacing affect the /4D Planck mass. The low energy physics is sensitive to the boundary conditions in the bulk, and has to satisfy the same constraints discussed in the Manyfold universe. Phenomenological considerations favor either finite crystals, or crystals which are infinite but have broken translational invariance in the bulk. The most distinctive signature of the bulk structure is that the bulk gravitons are Bloch waves, with a band spectrum, which we explicitly construct in the case of a /5-dimensional theory.

  12. The PredictAD project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antila, Kari; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Thurfjell, Lennart

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia affecting 36 million people worldwide. As the demographic transition in the developed countries progresses towards older population, the worsening ratio of workers per retirees and the growing number of patients with age-related illnes...... candidates and implement the framework in software. The results are currently used in several research projects, licensed to commercial use and being tested for clinical use in several trials....... objective of the PredictAD project was to find and integrate efficient biomarkers from heterogeneous patient data to make early diagnosis and to monitor the progress of AD in a more efficient, reliable and objective manner. The project focused on discovering biomarkers from biomolecular data...

  13. Facilities Management and Added Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This paper aims to present different models of the concept of the added value of Facilities Management (FM), including the FM Value Map, which forms the basis of research group in EuroFM, and to present some of the results of this research collaboration. Approach and methodology: The paper...... is based on literature reviews of the most influential journals within the academic fields of FM, Corporate Real Estate Management and Business to Business Marketing and discussions between participants of the research group working on a further exploration and testing of the FM Value Map. Conclusions......: The research shows a number of different definitions and focus points of Added Value of FM, dependent on the academic field and the area of application. The different research perspectives explored a holistic view on the added value of FM by the integration of an external market based view (with a focus...

  14. Option Pricing using Realized Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars Peter

    dynamics to be used for option pricing purposes in this framework, and we show that our model explains some of the mispricings found when using traditional option pricing models based on interdaily data. We then show explicitly that a Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic model with Normal...... Inverse Gaussian distributed innovations is the corresponding benchmark model when only daily data is used. Finally, we perform an empirical analysis using stock options for three large American companies, and we show that in all cases our model performs significantly better than the corresponding...... benchmark model estimated on return data alone. Hence the paper provides evidence on the value of using high frequency data for option pricing purposes....

  15. Treatment Option Overview (Ewing Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ewing Sarcoma Treatment Osteosarcoma Treatment Research Ewing Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Ewing Sarcoma ... started or in another part of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Kaposi Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment Research Kaposi Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Kaposi Sarcoma ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  17. 77 FR 25319 - Commodity Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ..., merchants, SDs, commodity funds, futures industry organizations, academics and think tanks, a U.S... particular (i.e., optionality in a contract settling by physical delivery that is used to meet varying demand...

  18. Antihistamines: Understanding Your OTC Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CorrectlyPain Relievers: Understanding Your OTC OptionsAntacids and Acid Reducers: OTC Relief for Heartburn and Acid RefluxOTC Cough ... Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics ...

  19. FS65 Disposition Option Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenz, Tracy R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-25

    This report outlines the options for dispositioning the MOX fuel stored in FS65 containers at LANL. Additional discussion regarding the support equipment for loading and unloading the FS65 transport containers is included at the end of the report.

  20. Essential Tremor (ET): Surgical Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... option for severe depression, epilepsy, Tourette’s syndrome, stroke, addiction, and dementia. Top Focused Ultrasound Thalamotomy The FDA ... ultrasound but in a very different way. This technology uses multiple beams of sound focused in on ...

  1. Smooth causal patches for AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Suvrat

    2017-06-01

    We review the paradox of low energy excitations of a black hole in anti-de Sitter space (AdS). An appropriately chosen unitary operator in the boundary theory can create a locally strong excitation near the black hole horizon, whose global energy is small as a result of the gravitational redshift. The paradox is that this seems to violate a general rule of statistical mechanics, which states that an operator with energy parametrically smaller than k T cannot create a significant excitation in a thermal system. When we carefully examine the position dependence of the boundary unitary operator that produces the excitation and the bulk observable necessary to detect the anomalously large effect, we find that they do not both fit in a single causal patch. This follows from a remarkable property of position-space AdS correlators that we establish explicitly and resolves the paradox in a generic state of the system, since no combination of observers can both create the excitation and observe its effect. As a special case of our analysis, we show how this resolves the "Born rule" paradox of Marolf and Polchinski [J. High Energy Phys. 01 (2016) 008, 10.1007/JHEP01(2016)008] and we verify our solution using an independent calculation. We then consider boundary states that are finely tuned to display a spontaneous excitation outside the causal patch of the infalling observer, and we propose a version of causal patch complementarity in AdS/CFT that resolves the paradox for such states as well.

  2. Optimization of FRAP uncertainty analysis option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, S.O.

    1979-10-01

    The automated uncertainty analysis option that has been incorporated in the FRAP codes (FRAP-T5 and FRAPCON-2) provides the user with a means of obtaining uncertainty bands on code predicted variables at user-selected times during a fuel pin analysis. These uncertainty bands are obtained by multiple single fuel pin analyses to generate data which can then be analyzed by second order statistical error propagation techniques. In this process, a considerable amount of data is generated and stored on tape. The user has certain choices to make regarding which independent variables are to be used in the analysis and what order of error propagation equation should be used in modeling the output response. To aid the user in these decisions, a computer program, ANALYZ, has been written and added to the uncertainty analysis option package. A variety of considerations involved in fitting response surface equations and certain pit-falls of which the user should be aware are discussed. An equation is derived expressing a residual as a function of a fitted model and an assumed true model. A variety of experimental design choices are discussed, including the advantages and disadvantages of each approach. Finally, a description of the subcodes which constitute program ANALYZ is provided

  3. Perpetual American options within CTRWs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Miquel

    2008-06-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfill financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  4. Perpetual American options within CTRW's

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Miquel

    2007-01-01

    Continuous-time random walks are a well suited tool for the description of market behaviour at the smallest scale: the tick-to-tick evolution. We will apply this kind of market model to the valuation of perpetual American options: derivatives with no maturity that can be exercised at any time. Our approach leads to option prices that fulfil financial formulas when canonical assumptions on the dynamics governing the process are made, but it is still suitable for more exotic market conditions.

  5. 48 CFR 570.401 - Renewal options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Renewal options. 570.401... Requirements 570.401 Renewal options. (a) Exercise of options. Before exercising an option to renew, follow the... survey. Before exercising an option to renew a lease, review current market information to ensure the...

  6. Option Derivatives in Electricity Hedging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Pavlátka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the high volatility of electricity prices, there is still little demand for electricity power options, and the liquidity on the power exchanges of these power derivatives is quite low. One of the reasons is the uncertainty about how to evaluate these electricity options and about finding the right fair value of this product. Hedging of electricity is associated mainly with products such as futures and forwards. However, due to new trends in electricity trading and hedging, it is also useful to think more about options and the principles for working with them in hedging various portfolio positions and counterparties. We can quite often encounter a situation when we need to have a perfect hedge for our customer’s (end user consuming electricity portfolio, or we have to evaluate the volumetric risk (inability of a customer to predict consumption, which is very similar to selling options. Now comes the moment to compare the effects of using options or futures to hedge these open positions. From a practical viewpoint, the Black-Scholes prices appear to be the best available and the simplest method for evaluating option premiums, but there are some limitations that we have to consider.

  7. Comparison between Long-Menu and Open-Ended Questions in computerized medical assessments. A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Martin R

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-menu questions (LMQs are viewed as an alternative method for answering open-ended questions (OEQs in computerized assessment. So far this question type and its influence on examination scores have not been studied sufficiently. However, the increasing use of computerized assessments will also lead to an increasing use of this question type. Using a summative online key feature (KF examination we evaluated whether LMQs can be compared with OEQs in regard to the level of difficulty, performance and response times. We also evaluated the content for its suitability for LMQs. Methods We randomized 146 fourth year medical students into two groups. For the purpose of this study we created 7 peer-reviewed KF-cases with a total of 25 questions. All questions had the same content in both groups, but nine questions had a different answer type. Group A answered 9 questions with an LM type, group B with an OE type. In addition to the LM answer, group A could give an OE answer if the appropriate answer was not included in the list. Results The average number of correct answers for LMQs and OEQs showed no significant difference (p = 0.93. Among all 630 LM answers only one correct term (0.32% was not included in the list of answers. The response time for LMQs did not significantly differ from that of OEQs (p = 0.65. Conclusion LMQs and OEQs do not differ significantly. Compared to standard multiple-choice questions (MCQs, the response time for LMQs and OEQs is longer. This is probably due to the fact that they require active problem solving skills and more practice. LMQs correspond more suitable to Short answer questions (SAQ then to OEQ and should only be used when the answers can be clearly phrased, using only a few, precise synonyms. LMQs can decrease cueing effects and significantly simplify the scoring in computerized assessment.

  8. Smart AD and DA Converters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roermund, van A.H.M.; Hegt, J.A.; Harpe, P.J.A.; Radulov, G.I.; Zanikopoulos, A.; Doris, K.; Quinn, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a concept is proposed to solve the problems related to the embedding of AD and DA converters in system-on-chips, FPGAs or other VLSI solutions. Problems like embedded testing, yield, reliability and reduced design space become crucial bottlenecks in the integration of high-performance

  9. agradecimento aos consultores ad hoc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REA Editor

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Agradecemos aos professores Nildo Viana (UFG e Flavio Sofiati (UFG, organizadores do DOSSIÊ JUVENTUDE & SOCIEDADE, e aos Consultores Ad hoc pela leitura e apreciação crítica dos artigos submetidos e publicados nesta edição.

  10. Final Report on Two-Stage Fast Spectrum Fuel Cycle Options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Won Sik; Lin, C. S.; Hader, J. S.; Park, T. K.; Deng, P.; Yang, G.; Jung, Y. S.; Kim, T. K.; Stauff, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the performance characteristics of two ''two-stage'' fast spectrum fuel cycle options proposed to enhance uranium resource utilization and to reduce nuclear waste generation. One is a two-stage fast spectrum fuel cycle option of continuous recycle of plutonium (Pu) in a fast reactor (FR) and subsequent burning of minor actinides (MAs) in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The first stage is a sodium-cooled FR fuel cycle starting with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel; at the equilibrium cycle, the FR is operated using the recovered Pu and natural uranium without supporting LEU. Pu and uranium (U) are co-extracted from the discharged fuel and recycled in the first stage, and the recovered MAs are sent to the second stage. The second stage is a sodium-cooled ADS in which MAs are burned in an inert matrix fuel form. The discharged fuel of ADS is reprocessed, and all the recovered heavy metals (HMs) are recycled into the ADS. The other is a two-stage FR/ADS fuel cycle option with MA targets loaded in the FR. The recovered MAs are not directly sent to ADS, but partially incinerated in the FR in order to reduce the amount of MAs to be sent to the ADS. This is a heterogeneous recycling option of transuranic (TRU) elements

  11. Final Report on Two-Stage Fast Spectrum Fuel Cycle Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Won Sik [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Lin, C. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Hader, J. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Park, T. K. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Deng, P. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Yang, G. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Jung, Y. S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States); Kim, T. K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stauff, N. E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-30

    This report presents the performance characteristics of two “two-stage” fast spectrum fuel cycle options proposed to enhance uranium resource utilization and to reduce nuclear waste generation. One is a two-stage fast spectrum fuel cycle option of continuous recycle of plutonium (Pu) in a fast reactor (FR) and subsequent burning of minor actinides (MAs) in an accelerator-driven system (ADS). The first stage is a sodium-cooled FR fuel cycle starting with low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel; at the equilibrium cycle, the FR is operated using the recovered Pu and natural uranium without supporting LEU. Pu and uranium (U) are co-extracted from the discharged fuel and recycled in the first stage, and the recovered MAs are sent to the second stage. The second stage is a sodium-cooled ADS in which MAs are burned in an inert matrix fuel form. The discharged fuel of ADS is reprocessed, and all the recovered heavy metals (HMs) are recycled into the ADS. The other is a two-stage FR/ADS fuel cycle option with MA targets loaded in the FR. The recovered MAs are not directly sent to ADS, but partially incinerated in the FR in order to reduce the amount of MAs to be sent to the ADS. This is a heterogeneous recycling option of transuranic (TRU) elements

  12. Neutronic design of the XT-ADS core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Eynde, G.

    2007-01-01

    The EUROTRANS project is an integrated project in the 6th European Framework Program in the context of Partitioning and Transmutation. The objective of this project is the step-wise approach to a European Transmutation Demonstration. This project aims to deliver an advanced design of a small-scale Accelerator Driven System (ADS), XT-ADS, as well as the conceptual design of a European Facility for Industrial Transmutation (EFIT). The partners of this project accepted to use the MYRRHA Draft-2 design file as a starting basis for the design of the short-term XT-ADS demonstration machine. Instead of starting from a blank page, this allowed optimising an existing design towards the needs of XT-ADS, and this within the accepted limits of the safety requirements. Many options have been revisited and the framework is now set up. The main two objectives of the XT-ADS machine are the following: to demonstrate the feasibility of the ADS concept and to perform as a multi-purpose irradiation facility. Special attention is paid to the possibility of testing fuel dedicated to transmutation of minor actinides and long-life fission products. During the demonstration phase, the core will be loaded with MOX fuel in a clean core configuration. Since the XT-ADS must be a representative prototype, it has to operate at a reasonable power, a minimum of 50 MWth was set in the objectives. After this phase, the core will house In-Pile-Sections of different types for irradiating material samples, new types of fuel pins. We aim to be able to provide irradiation conditions that are close to EFIT conditions so XT-ADS can be used as a test-bed for EFIT parts

  13. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS 2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2015)014 and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  14. Chiral gauge theory on AdS domain wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We describe a realization of chiral gauge theories based on the domaim wall fermion construction implemented on an interval in five dimensional AdS spacetime. At semi-classical level deconstructed description of the theory is given in terms of 4-dimensional Minkowski slices supporting chiral zero modes at the ends. Energy scales warp down along the fifth dimension. When the theory is augmented by 4-dimensional neutral Majorana spinors together with the Higgs mechanism at the low energy end, we can arrange for a theory where the lightest gauge boson mode as well as chiral zero mode at the high energy end are parametrically lighter than other states. Triangle anomalies and instanton effects are expected to make gauge bosons heavy if the resulting effective theory is anomalous. Due to the strong coupling effects at the quantum level, full non-perturbative calculation will be necessary to validate this construction

  15. From free fields to AdS space: Thermal case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the reorganization of free field theory correlators to closed string amplitudes investigated in previous papers in the case of Euclidean thermal field theory and study how the dual bulk geometry is encoded on them. The expectation value of Polyakov loop, which is an order parameter for confinement-deconfinement transition, is directly reflected on the dual bulk geometry. The dual geometry of the confined phase is found to be AdS space periodically identified in Euclidean time direction. The gluing of Schwinger parameters, which is a key step for the reorganization of field theory correlators, works in the same way as in the nonthermal case. In the deconfined phase the gluing is made possible only by taking the dual geometry correctly. The dual geometry for the deconfined phase does not have a noncontractable circle in the Euclidean time direction

  16. Fine Grained Chaos in AdS_{2} Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehl, Felix M; Rozali, Moshe

    2018-03-23

    Quantum chaos can be characterized by an exponential growth of the thermal out-of-time-order four-point function up to a scrambling time u[over ^]_{*}. We discuss generalizations of this statement for certain higher-point correlation functions. For concreteness, we study the Schwarzian theory of a one-dimensional time reparametrization mode, which describes two-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS_{2}) gravity and the low-energy dynamics of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model. We identify a particular set of 2k-point functions, characterized as being both "maximally braided" and "k-out of time order," which exhibit exponential growth until progressively longer time scales u[over ^]_{*}^{(k)}∼(k-1)u[over ^]_{*}. We suggest an interpretation as scrambling of increasingly fine grained measures of quantum information, which correspondingly take progressively longer time to reach their thermal values.

  17. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  18. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasobh, C.B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V.C.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime. (orig.)

  19. Higher-derivative superparticle in AdS3 space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, Nikolay; Krivonos, Sergey; Lechtenfeld, Olaf

    2016-03-01

    Employing the coset approach we construct component actions for a superparticle moving in AdS3 with N =(2 ,0 ), D =3 supersymmetry partially broken to N =2 , d =1 . These actions may contain higher time-derivative terms, which are chosen to possess the same (super)symmetries as the free superparticle. In terms of the nonlinear-realization superfields, the component actions always take a simpler form when written in terms of covariant Cartan forms. We also consider in detail the reduction to the nonrelativistic case and construct the corresponding action of a Newton-Hooke superparticle and its higher-derivative generalizations. The structure of these higher time-derivative generalizations is completely fixed by invariance under the supersymmetric Newton-Hooke algebra extended by two central charges.

  20. Fine Grained Chaos in AdS2 Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haehl, Felix M.; Rozali, Moshe

    2018-03-01

    Quantum chaos can be characterized by an exponential growth of the thermal out-of-time-order four-point function up to a scrambling time u^*. We discuss generalizations of this statement for certain higher-point correlation functions. For concreteness, we study the Schwarzian theory of a one-dimensional time reparametrization mode, which describes two-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS2 ) gravity and the low-energy dynamics of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model. We identify a particular set of 2 k -point functions, characterized as being both "maximally braided" and "k -out of time order," which exhibit exponential growth until progressively longer time scales u^*(k)˜(k -1 )u^*. We suggest an interpretation as scrambling of increasingly fine grained measures of quantum information, which correspondingly take progressively longer time to reach their thermal values.

  1. Adiabatic pumping solutions in global AdS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carracedo, Pablo [Meteo-Galicia,Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain); Mas, Javier; Musso, Daniele; Serantes, Alexandre [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela,Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain); Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxías (IGFAE),Santiago de Compostela E-15782 (Spain)

    2017-05-26

    We construct a family of very simple stationary solutions to gravity coupled to a massless scalar field in global AdS. They involve a constantly rising source for the scalar field at the boundary and thereby we name them pumping solutions. We construct them numerically in D=4. They are regular and, generically, have negative mass. We perform a study of linear and nonlinear stability and find both stable and unstable branches. In the latter case, solutions belonging to different sub-branches can either decay to black holes or to limiting cycles. This observation motivates the search for non-stationary exactly time-periodic solutions which we actually construct. We clarify the role of pumping solutions in the context of quasistatic adiabatic quenches. In D=3 the pumping solutions can be related to other previously known solutions, like magnetic or translationally-breaking backgrounds. From this we derive an analytic expression.

  2. Thermodynamics of charged Lovelock: AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasobh, C. B.; Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the thermodynamic behavior of maximally symmetric charged, asymptotically AdS black hole solutions of Lovelock gravity. We explore the thermodynamic stability of such solutions by the ordinary method of calculating the specific heat of the black holes and investigating its divergences which signal second-order phase transitions between black hole states. We then utilize the methods of thermodynamic geometry of black hole spacetimes in order to explain the origin of these points of divergence. We calculate the curvature scalar corresponding to a Legendre-invariant thermodynamic metric of these spacetimes and find that the divergences in the black hole specific heat correspond to singularities in the thermodynamic phase space. We also calculate the area spectrum for large black holes in the model by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization to the adiabatic invariant calculated for the spacetime.

  3. Treatment Options by Stage (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  4. Treatment Options by Stage (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Treatment Options by Stage (Vulvar Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Treatment Options by Stage (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Treatment Options for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... lymphoma may come back as indolent lymphoma. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Treatment Options for Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  9. Treatment Options by Stage (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... common for Merkel cell carcinoma to recur. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  10. Treatment Options by Stage (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  11. Treatment Options by Stage (Adrenocortical Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. Treatment Options for Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... the lungs , liver , bones, or bone marrow . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  13. Treatment Options by Stage (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... examination under a microscope. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). Treatment options depend ... that does not get better with treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  14. Treatment Options for Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  15. Treatment Options for Hodgkin Lymphoma during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... examination under a microscope. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). Treatment options depend ... that does not get better with treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Soft Tissue Sarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reacts to the light. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  18. Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment Option Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a swollen spleen. Certain factors affect treatment options and prognosis (chance of recovery). The treatment options ... cell leukemia has not responded to treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Hodgkin Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Merkel Cell Carcinoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... common for Merkel cell carcinoma to recur. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... the lungs , liver , bones, or bone marrow . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  3. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... marrow , or other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Treatment Options for AIDS-Related Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... nervous system is not primary CNS lymphoma. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... marrow , or other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Treatment Options for Renal Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Treatment Options for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... body. Has not gotten better with treatment. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  9. Treatment Options by Stage (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... such as the liver or lymph nodes . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  10. Treatment Options by Stage (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  11. Treatment Options for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... of blast cells increases after a remission . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  12. Treatment Options for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... back in the blood or bone marrow . Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  13. Worldsheet dilatation operator for the AdS superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramírez, Israel [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María,Casilla 110-V, Valparaíso (Chile); Institut für Mathematik und Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,IRIS Haus, Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Vallilo, Brenno Carlini [Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Andres Bello,Republica 220, Santiago (Chile)

    2016-05-23

    In this work we propose a systematic way to compute the logarithmic divergences of composite operators in the pure spinor description of the AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} superstring. The computations of these divergences can be summarized in terms of a dilatation operator acting on the local operators. We check our results with some important composite operators of the formalism.

  14. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    CERN Document Server

    Barvinsky, A.O.

    2015-01-01

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality can be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem from the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous $O(N^0)$ tests of AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the "double-trace" deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large $N$ CFT coupled to the tower of higher spin gauge fields for t...

  15. Efficient option valuation of single and double barrier options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabaivanov, Stanimir; Milev, Mariyan; Koleva-Petkova, Dessislava; Vladev, Veselin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we present an implementation of pricing algorithm for single and double barrier options using Mellin transformation with Maximum Entropy Inversion and its suitability for real-world applications. A detailed analysis of the applied algorithm is accompanied by implementation in C++ that is then compared to existing solutions in terms of efficiency and computational power. We then compare the applied method with existing closed-form solutions and well known methods of pricing barrier options that are based on finite differences.

  16. Neutronic design of an ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cintas, A; Lopasso, E.M; Marquez Damian, J.I

    2009-01-01

    We present a LEU-ADS design based on an existing Argentine experimental facility, the RA-8 pool type zero power reactor. The versatility of this reactor allows measurement of different core configurations using different fuel enrichment, burnable poison rods, water perturbations and different control rods types in critical or subcritical configurations with an external source. To assess the feasibility of the LEU-ADS, multiplication factors, kinetic parameters, spectra, and time flux evolution were computed. Two external sources were considered: an isotopic 252 C f source, and a D-D pulsed neutron source. Parameters for different core configurations were calculated, and the feasibility of using continuous and pulsed neutron sources was verified. [es

  17. Lunar Cube Transfer Trajectory Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, David; Dichmann, Donald James; Clark, Pamela E.; Haapala, Amanda; Howell, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Numerous Earth-Moon trajectory and lunar orbit options are available for Cubesat missions. Given the limited Cubesat injection infrastructure, transfer trajectories are contingent upon the modification of an initial condition of the injected or deployed orbit. Additionally, these transfers can be restricted by the selection or designs of Cubesat subsystems such as propulsion or communication. Nonetheless, many trajectory options can b e considered which have a wide range of transfer duration, fuel requirements, and final destinations. Our investigation of potential trajectories highlights several options including deployment from low Earth orbit (LEO) geostationary transfer orbits (GTO) and higher energy direct lunar transfer and the use of longer duration Earth-Moon dynamical systems. For missions with an intended lunar orbit, much of the design process is spent optimizing a ballistic capture while other science locations such as Sun-Earth libration or heliocentric orbits may simply require a reduced Delta-V imparted at a convenient location along the trajectory.

  18. Option valuation for energy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, K.; Llerena, P.; Richard, A.

    2004-01-01

    In many industrial and economic situations, decision processes, both individual and collective, have to simultaneously face uncertainty and irreversibility of some kind. This is particularly valid for energy choices if they are linked to technological alternatives. The purpose of this book is to highlight specific aspects of these situations. This is done from the particular perspective of option valuation. The contributions to this book grew out of an international workshop on ''Option valuation in energy and environmental issues'' held at the Fraunhofer ISI in February 2003. This workshop brought together reseachers from energy economics, but also researchers working on option valuation in other empirical fields or with a more theoretical perspective. This is reflected in the organisation of the book, which starts with some theory-oriented contributions and subsequently presents more applied contributions in the field of energy economics with an extension to water infrastructure in the annex. (orig.)

  19. Accounting treatment of currency options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prošić Danica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currency options are often used to mitigate currency risk resulting from corporate activities. Their implementation can be complex, and there could be problems if the essential elements and principles are not fully understood. Although they are not the simplest financial products, currency options are interesting and useful to those who are trying to make a step forward in the area of currency risk management. This paper aims to present the general principles and specifics of accounting records and valuation of currency options used for hedging against risk. It is a complex process which, in addition to numerous conditions, also involves the implementation of accounting rules that deviate from the generally accepted accounting principles.

  20. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  1. Efficient Trajectory Options Allocation for the Collaborative Trajectory Options Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionova, Olga; Arneson, Heather; Sridhar, Banavar; Evans, Antony

    2017-01-01

    The Collaborative Trajectory Options Program (CTOP) is a Traffic Management Initiative (TMI) intended to control the air traffic flow rates at multiple specified Flow Constrained Areas (FCAs), where demand exceeds capacity. CTOP allows flight operators to submit the desired Trajectory Options Set (TOS) for each affected flight with associated Relative Trajectory Cost (RTC) for each option. CTOP then creates a feasible schedule that complies with capacity constraints by assigning affected flights with routes and departure delays in such a way as to minimize the total cost while maintaining equity across flight operators. The current version of CTOP implements a Ration-by-Schedule (RBS) scheme, which assigns the best available options to flights based on a First-Scheduled-First-Served heuristic. In the present study, an alternative flight scheduling approach is developed based on linear optimization. Results suggest that such an approach can significantly reduce flight delays, in the deterministic case, while maintaining equity as defined using a Max-Min fairness scheme.

  2. Disposition Options for Uranium-233

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahm, E.C.; Dole, L.R.; Forsberg, C.W.; Icenhour, A.S.; Storch, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program (MD), in support of the U.S. arms-control and nonproliferation policies, has initiated a program to disposition surplus weapons-usable fissile material by making it inaccessible and unattractive for use in nuclear weapons. Weapons-usable fissile materials include plutonium, high-enriched uranium (HEU), and uranium-233 (sup 233)U. In support of this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory led DOE's contractor efforts to identify and characterize options for the long-term storage and disposal of excess (sup 233)U. Five storage and 17 disposal options were identified and are described herein

  3. TMI abnormal wastes disposal options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, A.L. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    A substantial quantity of high beta-gamma/high-TRU contaminated wastes are expected from cleanup activities of Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station. Those wastes are not disposable because of present regulatory constraints. Therefore, they must be stored temporarily. This paper discusses three options for storage of those wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: (1) storage in temporary storage casks; (2) underground storage in vaults; and (3) storage in silos at a hot shop. Each option is analyzed and evaluated. Also included is a discussion of future disposal strategies, which might be pursued when a suitable federal or commercial repository is built

  4. Technetium removal: preliminary flowsheet options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eager, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results of a preliminary investigation into options for preliminary flowsheets for 99Tc removal from Hanford Site tank waste. A model is created to show the path of 99Tc through pretreatment to disposal. The Tank Waste Remediation (TWRS) flowsheet (Orme 1995) is used as a baseline. Ranges of important inputs to the model are developed, such as 99Tc inventory in the tanks and important splits through the TWRS flowsheet. Several technetium removal options are discussed along with sensitivities of the removal schemes to important model parameters

  5. Comparison between three option, four option and five option multiple choice question tests for quality parameters: A randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegada, Bhavisha; Shukla, Apexa; Khilnani, Ajeetkumar; Charan, Jaykaran; Desai, Chetna

    2016-01-01

    Most of the academic teachers use four or five options per item of multiple choice question (MCQ) test as formative and summative assessment. Optimal number of options in MCQ item is a matter of considerable debate among academic teachers of various educational fields. There is a scarcity of the published literature regarding the optimum number of option in each item of MCQ in the field of medical education. To compare three options, four options, and five options MCQs test for the quality parameters - reliability, validity, item analysis, distracter analysis, and time analysis. Participants were 3 rd semester M.B.B.S. students. Students were divided randomly into three groups. Each group was given one set of MCQ test out of three options, four options, and five option randomly. Following the marking of the multiple choice tests, the participants' option selections were analyzed and comparisons were conducted of the mean marks, mean time, validity, reliability and facility value, discrimination index, point biserial value, distracter analysis of three different option formats. Students score more ( P = 0.000) and took less time ( P = 0.009) for the completion of three options as compared to four options and five options groups. Facility value was more ( P = 0.004) in three options group as compared to four and five options groups. There was no significant difference between three groups for the validity, reliability, and item discrimination. Nonfunctioning distracters were more in the four and five options group as compared to three option group. Assessment based on three option MCQs is can be preferred over four option and five option MCQs.

  6. MYRRHA/XT-ADS primary system design and experimental devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maes, D.

    2009-01-01

    The EUROTRANS project is an integrated project in the Sixth European Framework Program in the context of Partitioning and Transmutation. The objective of this project is to work towards an ETD (European Transmutation Demonstration) in a step-wise manner. The first step is to carry out an advanced design of a small-scale XT-ADS (eXperimental Transmutation in an Accelerator Driven System) for realisation in a short-term (about 10 years) as well as to accomplish a generic conceptual design of EFIT (European Facility for Industrial Transmutation) for realisation in the long-term. The MYRRHA-2005 design served as a starting basis for the XT-ADS. Many options have been revisited and the framework is now set up. While the MYRRHA-2005 design was still a conceptual design, the intention is to get at the end of the EUROTRANS project (March 2009) an advanced design of the XT-ADS, albeit a first advanced design. While the design work performed during the first years of the project (2005-2006) was mainly devoted to optimise and enhance the primary and secondary system configuration according to the suggestions and contributions of our industrial partners (Ansaldo Nucleare, Areva, Suez-Tractebel) within the DM1 (Domain 1 D ESIGN ) , the last year work objectives mainly consisted of (1) the release of the Remote Handling Design Catalogue for XT-ADS and (2) the formulation of the specification of the experimental devices according to the XT-ADS objectives and adapted to the actual XT-ADS core and core support structure design; (3) the detailed calculations of the main XT-ADS primary and secondary system components

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  16. Delahunt Drinks Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Delahunt

    2017-01-01

    “After liquids came solids,” and our aim is to provide the best seasonal, local produce in a relaxed and welcoming setting. In keeping with the buildings Victorian origins, our menus are influenced by traditional and often overlooked cookery techniques. Home curing and smoking, slow cooked braises, savoury puddings and pies, pickles, preserves, traditional desserts and bread-making are some of our specialties.
 Championing small local producers is an essential part of our ethos. Our Head C...

  17. Delahunt Snacks Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Delahunt

    2017-01-01

    After liquids came solids,” and our aim is to provide the best seasonal, local produce in a relaxed and welcoming setting. In keeping with the buildings Victorian origins, our menus are influenced by traditional and often overlooked cookery techniques. Home curing and smoking, slow cooked braises, savoury puddings and pies, pickles, preserves, traditional desserts and bread-making are some of our specialties.
 Championing small local producers is an essential part of our ethos. Our Head Ch...

  18. Delahunt Dinner Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Delahunt

    2017-01-01

    “After liquids came solids,” and our aim is to provide the best seasonal, local produce in a relaxed and welcoming setting. In keeping with the buildings Victorian origins, our menus are influenced by traditional and often overlooked cookery techniques. Home curing and smoking, slow cooked braises, savoury puddings and pies, pickles, preserves, traditional desserts and bread-making are some of our specialties.
 Championing small local producers is an essential part of our ethos. Our Head C...

  19. Delahunt Group Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Delahunt

    2017-01-01

    After liquids came solids,” and our aim is to provide the best seasonal, local produce in a relaxed and welcoming setting. In keeping with the buildings Victorian origins, our menus are influenced by traditional and often overlooked cookery techniques. Home curing and smoking, slow cooked braises, savoury puddings and pies, pickles, preserves, traditional desserts and bread-making are some of our specialties.
 Championing small local producers is an essential part of our ethos. Our Head Ch...

  20. Delahunt Lunch Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Delahunt

    2017-01-01

    “After liquids came solids,” and our aim is to provide the best seasonal, local produce in a relaxed and welcoming setting. In keeping with the buildings Victorian origins, our menus are influenced by traditional and often overlooked cookery techniques. Home curing and smoking, slow cooked braises, savoury puddings and pies, pickles, preserves, traditional desserts and bread-making are some of our specialties.
 Championing small local producers is an essential part of our ethos. Our Head C...