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Sample records for addiction treatment services

  1. The Experiences of Service Users in Family Focused Institutional Addiction Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fritsche, Dietmar; Dhakal, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Dhakal, Sara & Fritsche, Dietmar The Experiences of Service Users in Family Focused Institutional Addiction Treatment. 36 pages, 4 appendices. Language: English. Helsinki, Autumn 2013. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences. Degree Programme in Social Services. Degree: Bachelor of Social Services. The aim of this study was to increase the knowledge about the experiences of service users in family-focused institutional addiction treatment. The research data was collected in a family focuse...

  2. Improving consistency and quality of service delivery: implications for the addiction treatment field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Anne Marie; Corredoira, Rafael; Kimberly, John

    2008-09-01

    Addiction treatment providers face serious problems in delivering consistent, high-quality services over time. Among those providers with multiple treatment sites, there is also intersite variability. This is a serious problem in the addiction field, likely to be made worse as new technologies are introduced and/or as there is industry consolidation (Corredoira, R., Kimberly, J. (2006) Industry evolution through consolidation: Implications for addiction treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31, 255-265.). Although serious, these problems in managing and monitoring to assure consistent service quality have been faced by many other industries. Here, we review evidence from research in other industries regarding three different forms of management (vertical integration, franchising, and licensing) across a chain of individual service providers. We show how each management form affects the level, consistency, and improvement of service delivery over time. In addition, we discuss how such performance advantages affect customer demand as well as regulatory endorsement of the consolidated firm and its approach.

  3. Improving consistency and quality of service delivery: implications for the addiction treatment field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Anne Marie; Corredoira, Rafael; Kimberly, John

    2008-09-01

    Addiction treatment providers face serious problems in delivering consistent, high-quality services over time. Among those providers with multiple treatment sites, there is also intersite variability. This is a serious problem in the addiction field, likely to be made worse as new technologies are introduced and/or as there is industry consolidation (Corredoira, R., Kimberly, J. (2006) Industry evolution through consolidation: Implications for addiction treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31, 255-265.). Although serious, these problems in managing and monitoring to assure consistent service quality have been faced by many other industries. Here, we review evidence from research in other industries regarding three different forms of management (vertical integration, franchising, and licensing) across a chain of individual service providers. We show how each management form affects the level, consistency, and improvement of service delivery over time. In addition, we discuss how such performance advantages affect customer demand as well as regulatory endorsement of the consolidated firm and its approach. PMID:18082996

  4. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Drug Addiction DrugFacts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2016 NOTE: This ... treatment options in your state. What is drug addiction? Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by ...

  5. Impact of Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Addiction on Medicaid Expenditures and Health Services Utilization Rates in Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlman, Mary Kate; Tanzman, Beth; Finison, Karl; Pinette, Melanie; Jones, Craig

    2016-08-01

    In the face of increasing rates of overdose deaths, escalating health care costs, and the tremendous social costs of opioid addiction, policy makers are asked to address the questions of whether and how to expand access to treatment services. In response to an upward trend in opioid abuse and adverse outcomes, Vermont is investing in statewide expansion of a medication-assisted therapy program delivered in a network of community practices and specialized treatment centers (Hub & Spoke Program). This study was conducted to test the rationale for these investments and to establish a pre-Hub & Spoke baseline for evaluating the additive impact of the program. Using a serial cross-sectional design from 2008 to 2013 to evaluate medical claims for Vermont Medicaid beneficiaries with opioid dependence or addiction (6158 in the intervention group, 2494 in the control group), this study assesses the treatment and medical service expenditures for those receiving medication-assisted treatment compared to those receiving substance abuse treatment without medication. Results suggest that medication-assisted therapy is associated with reduced general health care expenditures and utilization, such as inpatient hospital admissions and outpatient emergency department visits, for Medicaid beneficiaries with opioid addiction. For state Medicaid leaders facing similar decisions on approaches to opioid addiction, these results provide early support for expanding medication-assisted treatment services rather than relying only on psychosocial, abstinence, or detoxification interventions. PMID:27296656

  6. Treatment of internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xui-qin; Li, Meng-chen; Tao, Ran

    2010-10-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a prevalent, highly comorbid, and significantly impairing disorder. Although many psychotherapeutic approaches and psychotropic medications have been recommended and some of the psychotherapeutic approaches and a few pharmacotherapy strategies have been studied, treatment of IA is generally in its early stages. This article reviews theoretical descriptions of psychotherapy and the effects of psychosocial treatment and pharmacologic treatment. We also outline our own treatment model of IA.

  7. A critical analysis of user satisfaction surveys in addiction services: opioid maintenance treatment as a representative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trujols J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Joan Trujols,1,2 Ioseba Iraurgi,3 Eugenia Oviedo-Joekes,4,5 Joan Guàrdia-Olmos61Unitat de Conductes Addictives, Servei de Psiquiatria, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica Sant Pau (IIB Sant Pau, Barcelona, 2Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM, Madrid, 3DeustoPsych – Unidad de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación en Psicología y Salud, Universidad de Deusto, Bilbao, Spain; 4School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, 5Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, Providence Health Care Research Institute, Vancouver, Canada; 6Departament de Metodologia de les Ciències del Comportament, Facultat de Psicologia, Institut de Recerca en Cervell, Cognició i Conducta (IR3C, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, SpainBackground: Satisfaction with services represents a key component of the user's perspective, and user satisfaction surveys are the most commonly used approach to evaluate the aforementioned perspective. The aim of this discursive paper is to provide a critical overview of user satisfaction surveys in addiction treatment and harm reduction services, with a particular focus on opioid maintenance treatment as a representative case.Methods: We carried out a selective critical review and analysis of the literature on user satisfaction surveys in addiction treatment and harm reduction services.Results: Most studies that have reported results of satisfaction surveys have found that the great majority of users (virtually all, in many cases are highly satisfied with the services received. However, when these results are compared to the findings of studies that use different methodologies to explore the patient's perspective, the results are not as consistent as might be expected. It is not uncommon to find that “highly satisfied” patients report significant problems when mixed-methods studies are conducted. To understand this apparent

  8. Facts about Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opioid Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    the facts about BUPRENORPHINE for Treatment of Opioid Addiction U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance ... escape from the misery and risks of drug addiction? Most people cannot do it on their own. ...

  9. What Are the Treatments for Heroin Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter What are the treatments for heroin addiction? A variety of effective treatments are available for heroin addiction, including both behavioral and pharmacological (medications). Both approaches ...

  10. Trends in telemedicine use in addiction treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Molfenter, Todd; Boyle, Mike; Holloway, Don; Zwick, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Telemedicine use in addiction treatment and recovery services is limited. Yet, because it removes barriers of time and distance, telemedicine offers great potential for enhancing treatment and recovery for people with substance use disorders (SUDs). Telemedicine also offers clinicians ways to increase contact with SUD patients during and after treatment. Case description A project conducted from February 2013 to June 2014 investigated the adoption of telemedicine services among p...

  11. Family therapy within an adolescent addiction treatment service “In search of solutions"

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Issues and trends in relation to substance misuse normally develop in the transitional phase of adolescence, as young people begin looking towards their peers for direction and are less subject to parental authority. In relation to substance misuse it is observed that risk and protection factors exist in equal measure within different contexts, including within the individual, family, peer group, school and community settings. In response to problems relating to illicit drug use in Ireland the first adult treatment service was established in Dublin in 1969. As an approach to meeting the complex needs of an adolescent drug using population two designated out-patient treatment adolescent services were established in Dublin during the mid-1990s. Working closely with families, carers and significant others improves communication and mobilises resources in ways that enhances protection for young people especially in circumstances where there are a number of family members engaging in substance misuse.

  12. Drug Addiction Treatment in the Criminal Justice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Addiction Treatment in the Criminal Justice System Drug Addiction Treatment in the Criminal Justice System Email Facebook ... Research-Based Guide provides research-based principles of addiction treatment. The 13 principles are: Drug addiction is ...

  13. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  14. Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Addiction: Facts for Families and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment for Opioid Addiction Facts for Families and Friends U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Substance ... something that can be done to help your friend or loved one overcome this addiction? Medication-assisted ...

  15. [Addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Jacques; Grivel, Jeremy; Tomei, Alexander; Falcheri, Jean-Phillipe; Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Khazaal, Yasser

    2014-01-15

    The news in addiction medicine in 2013 are presented according to the new version of the DSM (DSM-5); new data on cannabinoid, highlight hypotheses on self-medication; a current status about treatment of the addiction via the internet is shown; and new therapeutic perspectives emerge from the knowledge on traumatic antecedents in addictive populations.

  16. Internet Addiction and Its Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozden Arisoy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of new technologies, computer and internet use have become an unavoidable necessity in our daily lives. Internet was originally designed to facilitate communication and research. However the dramatic increase in use of internet in recent years has led to its pathologic use. Turkey, as a developing country with an increasing rate of internet access and computer use is at high risk for this disorder. In our country, this disorder is especially seen in young people who are more skilled in internet and computer use. And because their excessive internet use has led to negative consequences in their academic, social and family lives, patients and their families began search of treatment for this disorder. So clinicians must be aware of this newly emerging disorder and they should be able to apply the appropriate therapeutic interventions. This paper aims to summarize the pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatment of internet addiction.

  17. Evaluation and treatment of sex addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Kenneth Paul; Carnes, Patrick; O'Connor, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    There have been several diagnostic labels for persistent, excessive sexual behaviors, often referred in the popular media as sex addiction. Two related diagnoses, Internet addictive disorder and hypersexual disorder, were considered for, but not included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, most clinicians, even those trained in sexual disorders or addiction medicine, have little to no training in treating sexual compulsivity and cybersex addiction. The authors present the historical context, proposed diagnostic criteria, evaluation protocols, comorbid disorders, speculations about the neuroscience, and treatment recommendations.

  18. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increases central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of drugs of abuse. The composition includes GVG, gabapentin, valproic acid, progabide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, fengabine, cetylGABA, topiramate or tiagabine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof.

  19. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program that combines motivational incentives with cognitive-behavioral therapy. "Marijuana remains one of the most widely used drugs ...

  20. Food addiction-diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Ivan; Popović, Nada; Sabljak, Vera; Škodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Dimitrijević, Nina

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarized the recent research of the food addiction, diagnosis, treatment and prevention, which is carried out in this area. The concept of food addiction is new and complex, but proven to be very important for understanding and solving the problem of obesity. First part of this paper emphasizes the neurological studies, whose results indicate the similarity of brain processes that are being activated during drug abuse and during eating certain types of food. In this context, different authors speak of "hyper-palatable", industrial food, saturated with salt, fat and sugar, which favor an addiction. In the section on diagnostic and instruments constructed for assessing the degree of dependence, main diagnostic tool is standardized Yale Food Addiction Scale constructed by Ashley Gearhardt, and her associates. Since 2009, when it was first published, this scale is used in almost all researches in this area and has been translated into several languages. Finally, distinguish between prevention and treatment of food addiction was made. Given that there were similarities with other forms of addictive behavior, the researchers recommend the application of traditional addiction treatment. PMID:25751444

  1. Naltrexone: A Pan-Addiction Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael O

    2016-08-01

    Addiction is a major public health problem with few efficacious and safe treatments. The goal of this review is to provide an evidence-based assessment of the therapeutic role of the opioid antagonist naltrexone across the addiction spectrum-substance-based and behavioral. The PubMed database was searched for randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials that investigated the oral or intramuscular long-acting formulation of naltrexone in substance use disorders or behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling, kleptomania, and trichotillomania. Thirty-nine efficacy studies were retrieved, covering alcohol use disorder (n = 22), opioid use disorder (n = 6), nicotine use disorder (n = 5), stimulant use disorder (n = 2), gambling disorder (n = 2), trichotillomania (n = 1), and kleptomania (n = 1). Despite the very different presentations within and between both addiction categories, the data, as a whole, show consistency in favor of naltrexone's relative efficacy and safety. Given the potential benefit and good tolerability revealed in the studies, the high morbidity associated with addiction, and the dearth of alternate treatments, naltrexone would seem like an underutilized treatment option. Further, naltrexone's seemingly broad anti-addiction efficacy supports a shared role for brain opioid pathways in the pathophysiology of addiction, broadly defined. More studies investigating the efficacy and tolerability of naltrexone and other opioid modulators are warranted. Studies should also further examine the effect of combining psychotherapy with naltrexone, as well as the potential role of naltrexone in treating comorbid addictions. PMID:27401883

  2. Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Johnson, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a meta-analysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of high-dose LSD. Recent pilot studies of psilocybin-assisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects. Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction. PMID:25784600

  3. Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Johnson, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a meta-analysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of high-dose LSD. Recent pilot studies of psilocybin-assisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects. Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction.

  4. [Pharmacogenetics and the treatment of addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    - This article describes the current scientific knowledge regarding pharmacogenetic predictors of treatment outcome for substance-dependent patients.- PubMed was searched for articles on pharmacogenetics and addiction. This search yielded 53 articles, of which 27 were selected.- The most promising p

  5. Opiate addiction - current trends and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achal Bhatt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Opioids are widely used drugs for treatment of pain and related disorders. Opiate addiction is a major public health concern in the United States causing significant increase in healthcare expenditure. They produce euphoria and sense of well-being which makes them addictive to some people. Used in higher doses they can lead to cardiac or respiratory compromise. They also impair cognition leading to impaired decision making. Opioids exert their effects by acting on three different types of receptors mu, delta, and kappa located on neuronal cell membranes causing inhibition of neurotransmitter release. Prolonged use of these drugs can lead to physical dependence causing withdrawal symptoms if a person stops using them. Commonly used medications to treat opiate addiction are methadone, LAAM (longer acting derivative of methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2503-2507

  6. Policy Progress for Physician Treatment of Opiate Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, Joseph O

    2002-01-01

    Medical treatment of heroin addiction with methadone and other pharmacotherapies has important benefits for individuals and society. However, regulatory policies have separated this treatment from the medical care system, limiting access to care and contributing to the social stigma of even effective addiction pharmacotherapy. Increasing problems caused by heroin addiction have added urgency to the search for policies and programs that improve the access to and quality of opiate addiction tre...

  7. Treatment of addiction to ethanol and addictive-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating alcohol addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from alcohol addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increase central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of alcohol.

  8. Scientific and conceptual flaws of coercive treatment models in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, Susanne; van der Eijk, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    In conceptual debates on addiction, neurobiological research has been used to support the idea that addicted drug users lack control over their addiction-related actions. In some interpretations, this has led to coercive treatment models, in which, the purpose is to 'restore' control. However, neurobiological studies that go beyond what is typically presented in conceptual debates paint a different story. In particular, they indicate that though addiction has neurobiological manifestations that make the addictive behaviour difficult to control, it is possible for individuals to reverse these manifestations through their own efforts. Thus, addicted individuals should not be considered incapable of making choices voluntarily, simply on the basis that addiction has neurobiological manifestations, and coercive treatment models of addiction should be reconsidered in this respect. PMID:26463621

  9. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  10. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2003-07-15

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to a combination of abused drugs. The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of the combination of abused drugs.

  11. Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

  12. Pharmacological maintenance treatments of opiate addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James

    2014-02-01

    For people seeking treatment, the course of heroin addiction tends to be chronic and relapsing, and longer duration of treatment is associated with better outcomes. Heroin addiction is strongly associated with deviant behaviour and crime, and the objectives in treating heroin addiction have been a blend of humane support, rehabilitation, public health intervention and crime control. Reduction in street heroin use is the foundation on which all these outcomes are based. The pharmacological basis of maintenance treatment of dependent individuals is to minimize withdrawal symptoms and attenuate the reinforcing effects of street heroin, leading to reduction or cessation of street heroin use. Opioid maintenance treatment can be moderately effective in suppressing heroin use, although deviations from evidence-based approaches, particularly the use of suboptimal doses, have meant that treatment as delivered in practice may have resulted in poorer outcomes than predicted by research. Methadone treatment has been 'programmatic', with a one-size-fits-all approach that in part reflects the perceived need to impose discipline on deviant individuals. However, differences in pharmacokinetics and in side-effects mean that many patients do not respond optimally to methadone. Injectable diamorphine (heroin) provides a more reinforcing medication for some 'nonresponders' and can be a valuable option in the rehabilitation of demoralized, socially excluded individuals. Buprenorphine, a partial agonist, is a less reinforcing medication with different side-effects and less risk of overdose. Not only is it a different medication, but also it can be used in a different paradigm of treatment, office-based opioid treatment, with less structure and offering greater patient autonomy.

  13. Gambling disorder and other behavioral addictions: recognition and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Addiction professionals and the public are recognizing that certain nonsubstance behaviors--such as gambling, Internet use, video-game playing, sex, eating, and shopping--bear resemblance to alcohol and drug dependence. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions and has led to the newly introduced diagnostic category "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders" in DSM-5. At present, only gambling disorder has been placed in this category, with insufficient data for other proposed behavioral addictions to justify their inclusion. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of behavioral addictions, describes treatment considerations, and addresses future directions. Current evidence points to overlaps between behavioral and substance-related addictions in phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidity, neurobiological mechanisms, genetic contributions, responses to treatments, and prevention efforts. Differences also exist. Recognizing behavioral addictions and developing appropriate diagnostic criteria are important in order to increase awareness of these disorders and to further prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:25747926

  14. The readiness of addiction treatment agencies for health care reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molfenter Todd

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA aims to provide affordable health insurance and expanded health care coverage for some 32 million Americans. The PPACA makes provisions for using technology, evidence-based treatments, and integrated, patient-centered care to modernize the delivery of health care services. These changes are designed to ensure effectiveness, efficiency, and cost-savings within the health care system. To gauge the addiction treatment field’s readiness for health reform, the authors developed a Health Reform Readiness Index (HRRI survey for addiction treatment agencies. Addiction treatment administrators and providers from around the United States completed the survey located on the http://www.niatx.net website. Respondents self-assessed their agencies based on 13 conditions pertinent to health reform readiness, and received a confidential score and instant feedback. On a scale of “Needs to Begin,” “Early Stages,” “On the Way,” and “Advanced,” the mean scores for respondents (n = 276 ranked in the Early Stages of health reform preparation for 11 of 13 conditions. Of greater concern was that organizations with budgets of  $5 million to have information technology (patient records, patient health technology, and administrative information technology, evidence-based treatments, quality management systems, a continuum of care, or a board of directors informed about PPACA. The findings of the HRRI indicate that the addiction field, and in particular smaller organizations, have much to do to prepare for a future environment that has greater expectations for information technology use, a credentialed workforce, accountability for patient care, and an integrated continuum of care.

  15. Socially sanctioned coercion mechanisms for addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Edgar P; Birkmayer, Florian; Sullivan, Maria A; Galanter, Marc; Fromson, John A; Frances, Richard J; Levin, Frances R; Lewis, Collins; Suchinsky, Richard T; Tamerin, John S; Westermeyer, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Coercion as a strategy for treatment of addiction is an effective but often negatively perceived approach. The authors review current policies for involuntary commitments and explore coercive dimensions of treating alcohol and drug dependence in the workplace, sports, and through professional licensure. Gender-specific issues in coercion are considered, including evidence for improved treatment retention among pregnant and parenting women coerced via the criminal justice system. Social security disability benefits represent an area where an opportunity for constructive coercion was missed in the treatment of primary or comorbid substance use disorders. The availability of third-party funding for the voluntary treatment of individuals with substance use disorders has decreased. This unmet need, coupled with the evidence for positive clinical outcomes, highlights the call for implementing socially sanctioned mechanisms of coercion.

  16. Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet can function as a resource for counselors, counselors in training, or anyone else who works with or knows someone who is addicted to drugs. It begins by identifying 13 principles of effective treatment for drug abusers. It then provides answers to 11 frequently asked questions regarding drug addiction treatment. Next it discusses drug…

  17. Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on

  18. Treatment of drug addiction and psychopathology: A field study

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Souto; Luis Fernandez-Rios; Manuel Isorna

    2010-01-01

    Field study to assess the concurrence of the psychopathology of drug addiction, and to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatment versus drug-free treatments for the psychopathology of drug addiction. A total of 261 patients treated for drug addiction, 131 on a drug-free treatment and the remaining 130 patients received a drug regime, of which 113 were, according to the Prochaska and Decrement’s Transtheorical Model, in a initial phase of the treatment (from 15 days to 6 months of tre...

  19. Facts about Naltrexone for Treatment of Opioid Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How do you return from the ruin of drug addiction? Most people cannot do it alone. They need ... home, or spending time with people who use drugs. In short, treatment helps you move into a healthy, addiction-free lifestyle—into a way of living referred ...

  20. Virtual reality as a complementary therapy to sexual addiction treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cismaru Inescu, Adina; Andrianne, Robert; Triffaux, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality has gained traction as a research, education and treatment tool. Virtual reality is a system that immerses people in virtual worlds and improves clinicians’ traditional treatments for addictive disorders, eating disorders, phobias, and stroke rehabilitation. Sex addiction is a dysregulation of sexual desire, characterized by excessive sexual behavior (between 5-15 sexual activities/day, for more than 6 months, after the age of 15). Hypersexuality highlights disturbances in hum...

  1. Cognitive behavior therapy with Internet addicts: treatment outcomes and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S

    2007-10-01

    Research over the last decade has identified Internet addiction as a new and often unrecognized clinical disorder that impact a user's ability to control online use to the extent that it can cause relational, occupational, and social problems. While much of the literature explores the psychological and social factors underlying Internet addiction, little if any empirical evidence exists that examines specific treatment outcomes to deal with this new client population. Researchers have suggested using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as the treatment of choice for Internet addiction, and addiction recovery in general has utilized CBT as part of treatment planning. To investigate the efficacy of using CBT with Internet addicts, this study investigated 114 clients who suffered from Internet addiction and received CBT at the Center for Online Addiction. This study employed a survey research design, and outcome variables such as client motivation, online time management, improved social relationships, improved sexual functioning, engagement in offline activities, and ability to abstain from problematic applications were evaluated on the 3rd, 8th, and 12th sessions and over a 6-month follow-up. Results suggested that Caucasian, middle-aged males with at least a 4-year degree were most likely to suffer from some form of Internet addiction. Preliminary analyses indicated that most clients were able to manage their presenting complaints by the eighth session, and symptom management was sustained upon a 6-month follow-up. As the field of Internet addiction continues to grow, such outcome data will be useful in treatment planning with evidenced-based protocols unique to this emergent client population.

  2. NMDA Receptor Modulators in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Foster Olive, M.; Natali E. Nemirovsky; Tomek, Seven E.; LaCrosse, Amber L.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction, and the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subtype serves as a molecular target for several drugs of abuse. In this review, we will provide an overview of NMDA receptor structure and function, followed by a review of the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and side effect profile of NMDA receptor ligands that are currently in use or being explored for the treatment of drug addiction. These ligands include the NMDA receptor modu...

  3. Pharmacodynamics of nicotine: implications for rational treatment of nicotine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, N L

    1991-05-01

    Rational treatment of the pharmacologic aspects of tobacco addiction includes nicotine substitution therapy. Understanding the pharmacodynamics of nicotine and its role in the addiction process provides a basis for rational therapeutic intervention. Pharmacodynamic considerations are discussed in relation to the elements of smoking cessation therapy: setting objectives, selecting appropriate medication and dosing form, selecting the optimal doses and dosage regimens, assessing therapeutic outcome, and adjusting therapy to optimize benefits and minimize risks. PMID:1859911

  4. Benefits of peer support groups in the treatment of addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kathlene Tracy,1,2 Samantha P Wallace3 1Community Research and Recovery Program (CRRP, Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 2New York Harbor Healthcare System (NYHHS, New York, 3Department of Community Health Sciences, State University of New York Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn, NY, USA Objective: Peer support can be defined as the process of giving and receiving nonprofessional, nonclinical assistance from individuals with similar conditions or circumstances to achieve long-term recovery from psychiatric, alcohol, and/or other drug-related problems. Recently, there has been a dramatic rise in the adoption of alternative forms of peer support services to assist recovery from substance use disorders; however, often peer support has not been separated out as a formalized intervention component and rigorously empirically tested, making it difficult to determine its effects. This article reports the results of a literature review that was undertaken to assess the effects of peer support groups, one aspect of peer support services, in the treatment of addiction.Methods: The authors of this article searched electronic databases of relevant peer-reviewed research literature including PubMed and MedLINE.Results: Ten studies met our minimum inclusion criteria, including randomized controlled trials or pre-/post-data studies, adult participants, inclusion of group format, substance use-related, and US-conducted studies published in 1999 or later. Studies demonstrated associated benefits in the following areas: 1 substance use, 2 treatment engagement, 3 human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus risk behaviors, and 4 secondary substance-related behaviors such as craving and self-efficacy. Limitations were noted on the relative lack of rigorously tested empirical studies within the literature and inability to disentangle the effects of the group treatment that is often included as a component of other services

  5. New trends in the treatment of nicotine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Zieleń, Iwona; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the therapeutic substances used to treat nicotine addiction, not registered in Poland. This paper presents the results of the latest clinical trials and the possibility of their use in the treatment of nicotine addiction. The first two discussed drugs clonidine and nortriptyline are recommended by clinical practice guidelines AHRQ (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality) as the substance of the second line in the fight against addiction. Nortriptyline belongs to tricyclic antidepressants. Its mechanism of action is the inhibition of the reuptake of norepinephrine. It is suggested as the antagonist of activity of nicotinic receptors. The results confirm its efficacy in the treatment of nicotine addiction, but many side effects limit its use. Clonidine acts presumably by inhibition of sympathetic hyperactivity characteristic of symptoms associated with nicotine rehab. The remaining compounds under discussion, such as: venlafaxine, fluoxetine, moclobemide and rimonabant, are not registered in any country with an indication to use in the treatment of nicotine addiction, however, due to the mechanism in which they act, the possibility of their use in the treatment of this disease is considered. The possibility of using anxiolytics such as: buspirone, diazepam, meprobamate and beta-blockers: metoprolol and oxprenolol is also considered in order to treat the anxiety appearing as one of the symptoms of abstinence. An interesting proposal to combat nicotine addiction are vaccines--NicVAX, CYT002-NicQb and TA-NIC. Currently, they are in clinical phase I and II of their development. Their operation would be based on the induction of specific antibodies that bind nicotine in the plasma, thus prevent it reaching the nicotinic receptors. Preliminary results confirm the possible positive effects in the prevention and treatment of nicotine addiction. PMID:25272878

  6. Re-envisioning Addiction Treatment: A Six-Point Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Scott H; Tatarsky, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This article is focused on improving the quality of addiction treatment. Based on observations that patients are leaving treatment too early and/or are continuing to use substances during their care, the authors propose six actions that could help reorient and revitalize this kind of clinical work: (1) conceptualize and treat addictive disorders within a psychiatric/mental health framework; (2) make the creation of a strong therapeutic alliance a core part of the healing process; (3) understand patients' addictions and other problems using models based on multiple internal parts, voices, or modes; (4) make contingency management and the use of positive reinforcement systems a standard and central practice in all treatment settings; (5) envision long-term change and healing through the lens of identity theory; and (6) integrate the growing developments in recovery culture with formal treatment. PMID:22754086

  7. Is immunotherapy an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga

    2015-11-27

    Immunotherapy has a great potential of becoming a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of addiction to psychoactive drugs. It may be used to treat addiction but also to prevent neurotoxic complications of drug overdose. In preclinical studies two immunological methods have been tested; active immunization, which relies on the administration of vaccines and passive immunization, which relies on the administration of monoclonal antibodies. Until now researchers have succeeded in developing vaccines and/or antibodies against addiction to heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine and phencyclidine. Their effectiveness has been confirmed in preclinical studies. At present, clinical studies are being conducted for vaccines against nicotine and cocaine and also anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody. These preclinical and clinical studies suggest that immunotherapy may be useful in the treatment of addiction and drug overdose. However, there are a few problems to be solved. One of them is controlling the level of antibodies due to variability between subjects. But even obtaining a suitable antibody titer does not guarantee the effectiveness of the vaccine. Additionally, there is a risk of intentional or unintentional overdose. As vaccines prevent passing of drugs through the blood/brain barrier and thereby prevent their positive reinforcement, some addicted patients may erroneously seek higher doses of psychoactive substances to get "high". Consequently, vaccination should be targeted at persons who have a strong motivation to free themselves from drug dependency. It seems that immunotherapy may be an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction if directed to adequate candidates for treatment. For other addicts, immunotherapy may be a very important element supporting psycho- and pharmacotherapy. PMID:26432911

  8. Uses of coercion in addiction treatment: clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Maria A; Birkmayer, Florian; Boyarsky, Beth K; Frances, Richard J; Fromson, John A; Galanter, Marc; Levin, Frances R; Lewis, Collins; Nace, Edgar P; Suchinsky, Richard T; Tamerin, John S; Tolliver, Bryan; Westermeyer, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Coerced or involuntary treatment comprises an integral, often positive component of treatment for addictive disorders. By the same token, coercion in health care raises numerous ethical, clinical, legal, political, cultural, and philosophical issues. In order to apply coerced care effectively, health care professionals should appreciate the indications, methods, advantages, and liabilities associated with this important clinical modality. An expert panel, consisting of the Addiction Committee of the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, listed the issues to be considered by clinicians in considering coerced treatment. In undertaking this task, they searched the literature using Pubmed from 1985 to 2005 using the following search terms: addiction, alcohol, coercion, compulsory, involuntary, substance, and treatment. In addition, they utilized relevant literature from published reports. In the treatment of addictions, coercive techniques can be effective and may be warranted in some circumstances. Various dimensions of coercive treatment are reviewed, including interventions to initiate treatment; contingency contracting and urine testing in the context of psychotherapy; and pharmacological methods of coercion such as disulfiram, naltrexone, and the use of a cocaine vaccine. The philosophical, historical, and societal aspects of coerced treatment are considered.

  9. Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms for Assessing Client Needs and Functioning in Addiction Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    SIMPSON, D. DWAYNE; Joe, George W.; KNIGHT, KEVIN; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; GRAY, JULIE S.

    2012-01-01

    The TCU Short Forms contain a revised and expanded set of assessments for planning and managing addiction treatment services. They are formatted as brief (1-page) forms to measure client needs and functioning, including drug use severity and history (TCUDS II), criminal thinking and cognitive orientation (CTSForm), motivation and readiness for treatment (MOTForm), psychological functioning (PSYForm), social relations and functioning (SOCForm), and therapeutic participation and engagement (ENG...

  10. Industry evolution through consolidation: Implications for addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corredoira, Rafael A; Kimberly, John R

    2006-10-01

    Drawing on experiences in other industries, this article argues that the business of addiction treatment is likely to be transformed by the advent of a period of consolidation, in which a number of small independent programs will be acquired by larger, better capitalized, and managerially more sophisticated enterprises. Consolidation will be driven by opportunities to leverage new technologies, to exploit new regulatory initiatives, and to introduce economies of scale and scope into an industry that is currently highly fragmented. The process is likely to result in segmentation of the market, with the coexistence of large, generalist, highly standardized firms and a number of small highly specialized firms. When an industry consolidates, the types and quality of services provided can improve through the adoption of best practices and through increased competition among larger providers. If these larger providers are publicly traded, however, efforts to improve will inevitably be influenced by pressures to maintain or increase quarter-to-quarter earnings and share prices, leaving open the long-term impact on service quality. PMID:16996388

  11. Treatment Approaches for Interoceptive Dysfunctions in Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Paulus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that individuals with drug addiction have dysfunctions in brain systems that are important for interoceptive processing, which include, among others, the insular and the anterior cingulate cortices. These individuals may not be expending sufficient neural resources to process perturbations of the interoceptive state but may exert over-activation of these systems when processing drug-related stimuli. As a consequence, insufficient detection and processing of interoceptive state changes may result in inadequate anticipation and preparation to adapt to environmental challenges, e.g. adapt to abstinence in the presence of withdrawal symptoms. Here, we integrate interoceptive dysfunction in drug-addicted individuals, with the neural basis for meditation and exercise to develop a heuristic to target the interoceptive system as potential treatments for drug addiction. First, it is suggested that mindfulness-based approaches can modulate both interoceptive function and insular activation patterns. Second, there is an emerging literature that the regulation of physical exercise in the brain involves the insula and anterior cingulate cortex and that intense physical exercise is associated with a state-dependent activation difference in the insula that may provide a window to attenuate the increased interoceptive response drug related stimuli. It is concluded that the conceptual framework of interoceptive dysfunctions in drug addiction and the experimental findings in meditation and exercise provide a useful approach to develop new interventions for drug addiction.

  12. A role for pharmacotherapy in the treatment of "internet addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camardese, Giovanni; De Risio, Luisa; Di Nicola, Marco; Pizi, Giusy; Janiri, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the Internet is among the most significant changes in recent decades and has greatly affected the entire range of human experience. However, it has, in turn, led to the emergence of psychopathological features of addiction linked to its use. Literature on the clinical management of the distress related to Internet use systematically measures up to an evolving nosography, with ambiguous definitions of the phenomenon and a diversity of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic criteria. To date, case studies on "Internet addiction" treatment are rather limited, and no standard clinical treatment protocols exist. With regard to pharmacological treatment options, empirical or anecdotal assessments are mostly referred to. The aim of this article was to review current literature on Internet addiction treatment and assess the extent to which specific pharmacological interventions alleviate these patients' symptomatic burden, to propose a rationale that may guide the therapeutic approach. To this end, we also explored pharmacological interventions that target patterns of comorbidity and underlying psychopathological dimensions shared with other behavioral or substance addictions.

  13. Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of opiate addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie SHI; Yan-li LIU; Yu-xia FANG; Guo-zhu XU; Hai-fen ZHAI; Lin LU

    2006-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Chinese medicine consists of natural products including plants, animals and minerals. TCM has been practiced in China for more than 2000 years, and for the past 200 years has been used in treatment of drug addiction. Ten Chinese medicines for the treatment of opiate addiction have been approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), and at least 6 are in clinical trials. The general therapeutic principle of Chinese medicine developed was based on its unique theory of "reinforcing healthy Qi and resolving and removing effects of toxicity". Acupuncture, another essential part of TCM, which was developed based on the principle that "functions of the human body are controlled by the 'Jing-Luo' and 'Qi-Xue' system", has been used not only in China, but also in Europe, the USA and other countries, for controlling opiate addiction. There are some advantages in using TCM for opiate detoxification, including less harmful side effects, high safety and ideal effects in the inhibition of protracted withdrawal symptoms and relapse. Co-administration of TCM with modern medicine shows some synergistic effects in detoxification. Many TCM for detoxification also have efficacy in the rehabilitation of abnormal body functions induced by chronic drug use, including improving immune function, increasing working memory and preventing neurological disorder. Given that TCM is effective in the prevention of relapse and causes fewer side effects, it may be used widely in the treatment of opiate addiction.

  14. Internet addiction: Coping Styles, Expectancies, and Treatment Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eBrand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of Internet addiction, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users showed that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test (s-IAT. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations increased the risk for generalized Internet addiction. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of generalized Internet addiction and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

  15. Addiction and Women Gender Differences Concerning Drug Abuse and its Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Safari

    2003-01-01

    This article focuses on the quantitative grounds for the emergence and spread of addiction among women, its medical, social and psychological problems, impediments for the treatment of addiction among women as well as gender differences concerning drug abuse and its treatment. This article is a translation of a statistical research on addiction among women and a number of other researches. Based on conclusions drawn from the said researches, women become inclined to addiction mostly by th...

  16. Training the Staff of a Drug Addiction Treatment Facility: A Case Study of Hogar De Encuentro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Andrew A.; Leske, M. Cristina

    1977-01-01

    This paper, presented at the American Public Health Association meeting; Chicago, November 1975, discusses a staff training program at a drug addiction treatment facility established for Spanish-speaking (and other) drug addicts. Staff improved counseling skills and knowledge of drug addiction, but changed little in attitudes toward drug use and…

  17. Community-Based Addiction Treatment Staff Attitudes about the Usefulness of Evidence-Based Addiction Treatment and CBO Organizational Linkages to Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lena; Krull, Ivy; Zerden, Lisa de Saxe; McCarty, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This national study of community-based addiction-treatment organizations' (CBOs) implementation of evidence-based practices explored CBO Program Directors' (n = 296) and clinical staff (n = 518) attitudes about the usefulness of science-based addiction treatment. Through multivariable regression modeling, the study identified that identical…

  18. Addressing Trauma Among Women With Serious Addictive Disorders: Treatment Models, Program Factors, And Potential Mediators

    OpenAIRE

    Polcin, Douglas L.; Nayak, Madhabika B.; Blacksher, Susan

    2008-01-01

    A large majority of women entering addiction treatment present significant symptoms of trauma related to physical or sexual abuse. Despite research indicating that trauma interventions are integral to women’s successful recovery from addiction, many programs do not adequately address violence-related trauma. This chapter provides a review of the literature on trauma among women with addictive disorders and several manual based interventions developed to address co-occurring addiction and trau...

  19. [Assertive community treatment: promoting engagement with care of people suffering severe addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Stéphane; Silva, Benedetta; Monnat, Martine; Bonsack, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Despite the increasing number of specialized addiction services and the constant deployment of health care resources, a coordinated needs-based treatment is not always available for people with severe drugs and/or alcohol problems. Too often the involved health care professionals feel helpless and overwhelmed by the complexity of the situation. In order to promote the treatment engagement of the hard-to-reach substance users, a multidisciplinary mobile team project for addiction (SIMA) was developed in Lausanne, Switzerland, in 20174. This paper describes the model of intervention, the profile of the population followed during the first year of intervention and illustrates, through two clinical cases, the advantages of this approach. PMID:27451516

  20. NMDA Receptor Modulators in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Foster Olive

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction, and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor subtype serves as a molecular target for several drugs of abuse. In this review, we will provide an overview of NMDA receptor structure and function, followed by a review of the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and side effect profile of NMDA receptor ligands that are currently in use or being explored for the treatment of drug addiction. These ligands include the NMDA receptor modulators memantine and acamprosate, as well as the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine. Data collected to date suggest that direct NMDA receptor modulators have relatively limited efficacy in the treatment of drug addiction, and that partial agonism of NMDA receptors may have some efficacy with regards to extinction learning during cue exposure therapy. However, the lack of consistency in results to date clearly indicates that additional studies are needed, as are studies examining novel ligands with indirect mechanisms for altering NMDA receptor function.

  1. NMDA Receptor Modulators in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Seven E.; LaCrosse, Amber L.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Olive, M. Foster

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction, and the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subtype serves as a molecular target for several drugs of abuse. In this review, we will provide an overview of NMDA receptor structure and function, followed by a review of the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and side effect profile of NMDA receptor ligands that are currently in use or being explored for the treatment of drug addiction. These ligands include the NMDA receptor modulators memantine and acamprosate, as well as the partial NMDA agonist d-Cycloserine. Data collected to date suggest that direct NMDA receptor modulators have relatively limited efficacy in the treatment of drug addiction, and that partial agonism of NMDA receptors may have some efficacy with regards to extinction learning during cue exposure therapy. However, the lack of consistency in results to date clearly indicates that additional studies are needed, as are studies examining novel ligands with indirect mechanisms for altering NMDA receptor function. PMID:24275950

  2. Addiction Treatment in America: After Money or Aftercare?

    OpenAIRE

    David Miller; Merlene Miller; Kenneth Blum; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Marcelo Febo

    2015-01-01

    There are approximately 14,500 clinics and programs in America that provide treatment for all types of addictive behaviors we call “Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)”. While most of these have good intentions to provide needed help to the victims of RDS, we propose herein that most of their efforts, especially during periods of aftercare, are not based on the existing scientific evidence. We use “aftercare” to refer to any form of program or therapy following primary treatment including 12-Ste...

  3. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person's specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient's coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

  4. Factors associated with inability to access addiction treatment among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Prangnell, Amy; Daly-Grafstein, Ben; Dong, Huiru; Nolan, Seonaid; Milloy, M-J; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Hayashi, Kanna

    2016-01-01

    Background Addiction treatment is an effective strategy used to reduce drug-related harm. In the wake of recent developments in novel addiction treatment modalities, we conducted a longitudinal data analysis to examine factors associated with inability to access addiction treatment among a prospective cohort of persons who inject drugs (PWID). Methods Data were derived from two prospective cohorts of PWID in Vancouver, Canada, between December 2005 and November 2013. Using multivariate genera...

  5. Survival Analysis of Drug Abuse Relapse in Addiction Treatment Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Drug abuse is a chronic and enduring phenomenon, which is among the important challenging public health problems. One of the main aspects in drug abuse is the relapse. Objectives The aims of this study were to estimate the time to relapse (survival rate and to evaluate some of its associated variables by survival analysis. Patients and Methods This research was conducted in four addiction treatment centers on 140 self-referred addicts in Ilam city, Iran, in 2012. Cluster sampling method was used for selecting the samples and data were collected by interview and referring to the subjects’ records. The gathered data were analyzed through the life table, Kaplan-Meier analysis, log rank test, and Cox regression. Results The relapse rate was 30.42%, mean and median of the time to relapse (survival time were 27.40 ± 1.63 months (CI 95%: 24.19 - 30.60 and 25 ± 2.25 months (CI 95%: 22.5 - 27.5, respectively. In the first six months, the cumulative survival rate was 83%, while in the 24th month it was 46% and the following time was consistent. Job status (OR = 2.64, marital status (OR = 1.55, family size (OR = 1.20 and age (OR = 0.23 were statistically significant in Cox regression model. Conclusions In the initial treatment, it seems necessary to supervise and monitor the treatment process through staff in addiction treatment centers together with the company of the addicts’ families to reduce relapse rate.

  6. [Treatment approaches for synthetic drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ohji

    2015-09-01

    In Japan, synthetic drugs have emerged since late 2000s, and cases of emergency visits and fatal traffic accidents due to acute intoxication have rapidly increased. The synthetic drugs gained popularity mainly because they were cheap and thought to be "legal". The Japanese government restricted not only production and distribution, but also its possession and use in April 2014. As the synthetic drug dependent patients have better social profiles compared to methamphetamine abusers, this legal sanction may have triggered the decrease in the number of synthetic drug dependent patient visits observed at Kanagawa Psychiatric Center since July 2014. Treatment of the synthetic drug dependent patients should begin with empathic inquiry into the motives and positive psychological effects of the drug use. In the maintenance phase, training patients to trust others and express their hidden negative emotions through verbal communications is essential. The recovery is a process of understanding the relationship between psychological isolation and drug abuse, and gaining trust in others to cope with negative emotions that the patients inevitably would face in their subsequent lives. PMID:26394511

  7. Meditation Awareness Training for the Treatment of Sex Addiction: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Background Sex addiction is a disorder that can have serious adverse functional consequences. Treatment effectiveness research for sex addiction is currently underdeveloped, and interventions are generally based on the guidelines for treating other behavioral (as well as chemical) addictions. Consequently, there is a need to clinically evaluate tailored treatments that target the specific symptoms of sex addiction. It has been proposed that second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) may be an appropriate treatment for sex addiction because in addition to helping individuals increase perceptual distance from craving for desired objects and experiences, some SG-MBIs specifically contain meditations intended to undermine attachment to sex and/or the human body. The current study conducts the first clinical investigation into the utility of mindfulness for treating sex addiction. Case presentation An in-depth clinical case study was conducted involving an adult male suffering from sex addiction that underwent treatment utilizing an SG-MBI known as Meditation Awareness Training (MAT). Following completion of MAT, the participant demonstrated clinically significant improvements in addictive sexual behavior, as well as reductions in depression and psychological distress. The MAT intervention also led to improvements in sleep quality, job satisfaction, and non-attachment to self and experiences. Salutary outcomes were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Discussion and conclusion The current study extends the literature exploring the applications of mindfulness for treating behavioral addiction, and findings indicate that further clinical investigation into the role of mindfulness for treating sex addiction is warranted. PMID:27348560

  8. Meditation Awareness Training for the Treatment of Sex Addiction: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Background Sex addiction is a disorder that can have serious adverse functional consequences. Treatment effectiveness research for sex addiction is currently underdeveloped, and interventions are generally based on the guidelines for treating other behavioral (as well as chemical) addictions. Consequently, there is a need to clinically evaluate tailored treatments that target the specific symptoms of sex addiction. It has been proposed that second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) may be an appropriate treatment for sex addiction because in addition to helping individuals increase perceptual distance from craving for desired objects and experiences, some SG-MBIs specifically contain meditations intended to undermine attachment to sex and/or the human body. The current study conducts the first clinical investigation into the utility of mindfulness for treating sex addiction. Case presentation An in-depth clinical case study was conducted involving an adult male suffering from sex addiction that underwent treatment utilizing an SG-MBI known as Meditation Awareness Training (MAT). Following completion of MAT, the participant demonstrated clinically significant improvements in addictive sexual behavior, as well as reductions in depression and psychological distress. The MAT intervention also led to improvements in sleep quality, job satisfaction, and non-attachment to self and experiences. Salutary outcomes were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Discussion and conclusion The current study extends the literature exploring the applications of mindfulness for treating behavioral addiction, and findings indicate that further clinical investigation into the role of mindfulness for treating sex addiction is warranted.

  9. Cocaine abuse among opioid addicts: demographic and diagnostic factors in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosten, T R; Gawin, F H; Rounsaville, B J; Kleber, H D

    1986-01-01

    Cocaine is becoming a major drug of abuse among the general population and among opiate addicts. Reports from the early 1970s found that most abusers were older Black males with some antisocial characteristics. Cocaine abuse at that time was reported by about 17% of opiate addicts seeking treatment and by 7 to 11% of ex-addicts on methadone maintenance. However, that rate increased dramatically during the 1970s, and in our 1980 study of 533 addicts we found that 74% of opiate addicts applying for treatment used cocaine. It was the second most abused nonopioid drug after marijuana, surpassing alcohol intoxication. Although the mean number of days of abuse over the previous 30 days was substantially lower among the addicts on our methadone maintenance program (mean = 1.4 days, n = 120) than among the addicts applying for treatment (mean = 9 days, n = 204), the following associations with cocaine abuse were consistent in both subsamples. Cocaine abuse was more frequent among Blacks. It was associated with a variety of antisocial indices including Research Diagnostic Criteria antisocial personality disorder, number of arrests, and legal, family, employment, and drug abuse problems as assessed by the Addiction Severity Index and the Social Adjustment Scale. Several differences emerged between Black and White cocaine-abusing addicts, the most interesting being an increased rate of anxiety disorders among White cocaine abusers. Based on these associations, we offer several guidelines for treating cocaine abuse in opiate addicts. PMID:3788892

  10. Trends in comprehensive service availability in outpatient drug abuse treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Friedmann, Peter D; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Durkin, Elizabeth M.; D’Aunno, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Comprehensive medical and psychosocial services are essential to quality addiction treatment, but their availability declined in the 1980s. To determine whether this downward trend in the availability of comprehensive services continued in the 1990s, we analyzed data from a national panel study of outpatient substance abuse treatment units in 1990, 1995, and 2000. Response rates were greater than 85%. Regarding the availability of comprehensive services, including physical examinations, routi...

  11. Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

  12. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.

    2015-01-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature sup...

  13. rTMS in the Treatment of Drug Addiction: An Update about Human Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Bellamoli; Paolo Manganotti; Schwartz, Robert P.; Claudia Rimondo; Maurizio Gomma; Giovanni Serpelloni

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Becau...

  14. Diagnostic Stability of Internet Addiction in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: Data from a Naturalistic One-year Treatment Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bipeta, Rajshekhar; Yerramilli, Srinivasa SRR; Karredla, Ashok Reddy; Gopinath, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    Whether internet addiction should be categorized as a primary psychiatric disorder or the result of an underlying psychiatric disorder still remains unclear. In addition, the relationship between internet addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder remains to be explored. We hypothesized that internet addiction is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, the treatment of which will improve internet addiction. We enrolled 34 control subjects (with or without internet addiction) and compa...

  15. Is Internet Addiction Prevalent Among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients? Data from Las Vegas and Tel Aviv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Linzy, Shirley; Sason, Anat; Tene, Oren; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction is known to be associated with depression. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) for depression were studied among non-selective methadone maintenance treatment patients from the United States (n = 164) and Israel (n = 113). Thirty percent were not exposed to the internet, and 2.9% (n = 8) had an "occasional/frequent problem." The IAT and CES-D scores correlated significantly (p = .03). The non-exposed group was older, less educated, and had more benzodiazepine abusers. Unlike other behavioral addictions that characterized these patients, the internet addiction problem is rare, but should not be ignored. PMID:26284288

  16. Is Internet Addiction Prevalent Among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients? Data from Las Vegas and Tel Aviv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Linzy, Shirley; Sason, Anat; Tene, Oren; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction is known to be associated with depression. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) for depression were studied among non-selective methadone maintenance treatment patients from the United States (n = 164) and Israel (n = 113). Thirty percent were not exposed to the internet, and 2.9% (n = 8) had an "occasional/frequent problem." The IAT and CES-D scores correlated significantly (p = .03). The non-exposed group was older, less educated, and had more benzodiazepine abusers. Unlike other behavioral addictions that characterized these patients, the internet addiction problem is rare, but should not be ignored.

  17. Improving Coordination of Addiction Health Services Organizations with Mental Health and Public Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Andrews, Christina; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Kong, Yinfei; M S W, Karissa Fenwick

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we examined coordination of mental health and public health services in addiction health services (AHS) in low-income racial and ethnic minority communities in 2011 and 2013. Data from surveys and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate the extent to which environmental and organizational characteristics influenced the likelihood of high coordination with mental health and public health providers among outpatient AHS programs. Coordination was defined and measured as the frequency of interorganizational contact among AHS programs and mental health and public health providers. The analytic sample consisted of 112 programs at time 1 (T1) and 122 programs at time 2 (T2), with 61 programs included in both periods of data collection. Forty-three percent of AHS programs reported high frequency of coordination with mental health providers at T1 compared to 66% at T2. Thirty-one percent of programs reported high frequency of coordination with public health services at T1 compared with 54% at T2. Programs with culturally responsive resources and community linkages were more likely to report high coordination with both services. Qualitative analysis highlighted the role of leadership in leveraging funding and developing creative solutions to deliver coordinated care. Overall, our findings suggest that AHS program funding, leadership, and cultural competence may be important drivers of program capacity to improve coordination with health service providers to serve minorities in an era of health care reform. PMID:26350114

  18. Improving Coordination of Addiction Health Services Organizations with Mental Health and Public Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Andrews, Christina; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Kong, Yinfei; M S W, Karissa Fenwick

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we examined coordination of mental health and public health services in addiction health services (AHS) in low-income racial and ethnic minority communities in 2011 and 2013. Data from surveys and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate the extent to which environmental and organizational characteristics influenced the likelihood of high coordination with mental health and public health providers among outpatient AHS programs. Coordination was defined and measured as the frequency of interorganizational contact among AHS programs and mental health and public health providers. The analytic sample consisted of 112 programs at time 1 (T1) and 122 programs at time 2 (T2), with 61 programs included in both periods of data collection. Forty-three percent of AHS programs reported high frequency of coordination with mental health providers at T1 compared to 66% at T2. Thirty-one percent of programs reported high frequency of coordination with public health services at T1 compared with 54% at T2. Programs with culturally responsive resources and community linkages were more likely to report high coordination with both services. Qualitative analysis highlighted the role of leadership in leveraging funding and developing creative solutions to deliver coordinated care. Overall, our findings suggest that AHS program funding, leadership, and cultural competence may be important drivers of program capacity to improve coordination with health service providers to serve minorities in an era of health care reform.

  19. Assessing clinical trials of Internet addiction treatment: a systematic review and CONSORT evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D; Gradisar, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Although there is ongoing debate concerning the clinical status of Internet addiction, and the quality of the extant literature in this emerging field is not optimal, several clinical trials of both pharmacological and psychological treatments for Internet addiction have been published in recent years. A systematic review investigating the reporting quality of eight treatment studies is presented. Reporting quality was defined according to the 2010 Consolidating Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. An evaluation of the reviewed studies highlighted several key limitations, including (a) inconsistencies in the definition and diagnosis of Internet addiction, (b) a lack of randomization and blinding techniques, (c) a lack of adequate controls or other comparison groups, and (d) insufficient information concerning recruitment dates, sample characteristics, and treatment effect sizes. It is concluded that improvements in future studies' design and reporting would be of significant benefit to both researchers and clinicians, and to the overall positioning of Internet addiction in the behavioral addiction field.

  20. Therapeutic mechanisms of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions: from indirect evidence to testable hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Pommy, Jessica M

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol and drug addiction are major public health problems, and existing treatments are only moderately effective. Although there has been interest for over half a century in the therapeutic use of classic hallucinogens to treat addictions, clinical research with these drugs was halted at an early stage in the early 1970s, leaving many fundamental questions unanswered. In the past two decades, clinical research on classic hallucinogens has resumed, although addiction treatment trials are only now beginning. The purpose of this paper is to provide a targeted review of the research most relevant to the therapeutic potential of hallucinogens, and to integrate this information with current thinking about addiction and recovery. On the basis of this information, we present a heuristic model which organizes a number of hypotheses that may be tested in future research. We conclude that existing evidence provides a convincing rationale for further research on the effects of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction. PMID:22761106

  1. Gambling Disorder and Other Behavioral Addictions: Recognition and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Yau, Yvonne H. C.; POTENZA, MARC N.

    2015-01-01

    Addiction professionals and the public are recognizing that certain nonsubstance behaviors—such as gambling, Internet use, video-game playing, sex, eating, and shopping—bear resemblance to alcohol and drug dependence. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or “behavioral” addictions and has led to the newly introduced diagnostic category “Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders” in DSM-5. At present, only gambling disorder has been placed in thi...

  2. Addiction Treatment in America: After Money or Aftercare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately 14,500 clinics and programs in America that provide treatment for all types of addictive behaviors we call “Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS”. While most of these have good intentions to provide needed help to the victims of RDS, we propose herein that most of their efforts, especially during periods of aftercare, are not based on the existing scientific evidence. We use “aftercare” to refer to any form of program or therapy following primary treatment including 12-Step programs. Very few programs actually provide any evidenced-based treatment approaches during this most vulnerable period in recovery. In this trieste we are suggesting that a hypodopaminergic trait (genetic and/or state (epigenetic is critical in terms of continued motivation to use/abuse of alcohol or other drugs and can lead to relapse. While there is evidence for the approved FDA drugs to treat drug addiction (e.g. alcohol, opiates, nicotine these drugs favor a short-term benefit by blocking dopamine. We argue instead for the utilization of long-term benefits that induce “dopamine homeostasis”, or in simpler terms “normalcy”. We suggest that this could be accomplished through a number of holistic modalities including, but not limited to, dopamine-boosting diets, hyper-oxygenation, heavy metal detoxification, exercise, meditation, yoga, and most importantly, brain neurotransmitter balancing with nutraceuticals such as KB220 variants. We embrace 12-step programs and fellowships but not as a stand-alone modality, especially during aftercare. We also provide some scientific basis for why resting state functional connectivity (rsfMRI is so important and may be the cornerstone in terms of how to treat RDS. We postulate that since drugs, food, smoking, gambling, and even compulsive sexual behavior could reduce rsfMRI then modalities (following required research, that can restore this impaired cross talk between various brain regions (e

  3. 20 CFR 416.1326 - Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1326 Section 416.1326 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1326 Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Basis for suspension. If you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  4. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction to alcohol (alcohol abuse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments.

  5. Addiction and Women Gender Differences Concerning Drug Abuse and its Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Safari

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the quantitative grounds for the emergence and spread of addiction among women, its medical, social and psychological problems, impediments for the treatment of addiction among women as well as gender differences concerning drug abuse and its treatment. This article is a translation of a statistical research on addiction among women and a number of other researches. Based on conclusions drawn from the said researches, women become inclined to addiction mostly by their husbands due to their cordial relationships. Moreover, the negative attitudes of peer groups can overshadow girls and women more than boys and men. From the viewpoint of psychological disorders, the relationship between disorders resulting from psychological pressure after an incident and addiction is stronger among girls and women compared to boys and men. Addiction among women in addition to certain ailments such as malnutrition, hypertension and cancer, can expose them to dangerous diseases such as Hepatitis and AIDS. There is more possibility for addicted women to be infected with AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases compared to men and they are more exposed to female ailments compared to other women. As far as treatment impediments are concerned, women face a greater social stigma due to their addiction compared to men. Social approach considering addicted women as an indecent person is a major impediment for their treatment. Taking care of the child is also another obstacle for their treatment. There is less possibility for women to receive support from their families for quitting their addiction compared to men. Treatment programs also unwantedly may create obstacles for the treatment of women such as financial constraints, administrative bureaucracy, concentration of treatment programs for men and lack of sensitivity towards women’s addiction. The psychological impediments to treatment include internalizing the notion that addiction is a

  6. Treatment of internet addiction: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Alexander; Dörsing, Beate; Rief, Winfried; Shen, Yuhui; Glombiewski, Julia A

    2013-03-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a widespread and problematic phenomenon. Little is known about the efficacy of treatment approaches for IA. Therefore, our objective was to perform an effect size analysis of psychological and pharmacological interventions for IA. We conducted a literature search using PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PQDT OPEN, WorldCat, Cochrane Clinical Trials Library, and manual searches. Our meta-analysis was based on 16 studies, covered a total of 670 participants, and used a random effects model. Special emphasis was given to the inclusion of studies from "non-western" countries. Effect size estimates suggest that psychological and pharmacological interventions were highly effective for improving IA (g=1.61), time spent online (g=0.94), depression (g=0.90) and anxiety (g=1.25) from pre- to post-treatment in the overall sample. Moderator analyses revealed that studies including individual treatments, a higher number of female participants, older patients, or a North-American sample had larger effect sizes for some outcome variables. Most effect sizes were high, robust, unrelated to study quality or design, and maintained over follow-up. Due to a small number of included studies and methodological limitations the results of this meta-analysis should be regarded as preliminary.

  7. Severity of anxiety in mental health versus addiction treatment settings when social anxiety and substance abuse are comorbid

    OpenAIRE

    Book, Sarah W.; Thomas, Suzanne E.; Joshua P. Smith; Miller, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the co-occurrence of social anxiety and addiction. Each investigation has a specific vantage point, e.g. the effect social anxiety has in a population with addiction or that of addiction in a population with social anxiety, which could create unique findings. Among comorbid individuals, is social anxiety more severe in people seeking treatment for anxiety, as compared to those seeking treatment for addiction? This report compares social anxiety severity between...

  8. Can antipsychotic treatment contribute to drug addiction in schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaha, Anne-Noël

    2014-07-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia are at very high risk for drug abuse and addiction. Patients with a coexisting drug problem fare worse than patients who do not use drugs, and are also more difficult to treat. Current hypotheses cannot adequately account for why patients with schizophrenia so often have a co-morbid drug problem. I present here a complementary hypothesis based on evidence showing that chronic exposure to antipsychotic medications can induce supersensitivity within the brain's dopamine systems, and that this in turn can enhance the rewarding and incentive motivational effects of drugs and reward cues. At the neurobiological level, these effects of antipsychotics are potentially linked to antipsychotic-induced increases in the striatal levels of dopamine D2 receptors and D2 receptors in a high-affinity state for dopamine, particularly at postsynaptic sites. Antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity and enhanced reward function are not inevitable consequences of prolonged antipsychotic treatment. At least two parameters appear to promote these effects; the use of antipsychotics of the typical class, and continuous rather than intermittent antipsychotic exposure, such that silencing of dopaminergic neurotransmission via D2/3 receptors is unremitting. Thus, by inducing forms of neural plasticity that facilitate the ability of drugs and reward cues to gain control over behaviour, some currently used treatment strategies with typical antipsychotics might contribute to compulsive drug seeking and drug taking behaviours in vulnerable schizophrenia patients. PMID:23793001

  9. Sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol: Role in drug addiction and novel treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn E. Carroll

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as: 1 using natural consequences such as nondrug rewards (e.g., exercise to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, 2 targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and 3 combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  10. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments. PMID:26903885

  11. What works in addiction treatment and what doesn't: is the best therapy no therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peele, S

    The current trend toward treating drug and alcohol (and other) addictions in disease-oriented, 12-step programs has had less success than most people believe. Treatments that teach coping skills, mobilize community forces, and instill values toward prosocial behavior have had success rates far superior to therapies that instruct individuals that they take drugs or drink excessively because they have a disease or because drugs are inherently addictive. Successful treatments instead deal with addicts' interactions with their environments and help them develop beliefs in their self-efficacy. Nonetheless, even addiction treatments which have demonstrated success face limitations in their ability to confront individual intentions and values, community standards, and environmental pressures and opportunities. At the same time, more individuals have quit addictions on their own than have been successfully treated by even the best therapies. Put simply, no therapy will ever be able in itself to make a substantial impact on our drug and alcohol or other addictive problems. In the meantime, addiction treatment is becoming more pervasive and coercive, and today holds out the possibility of corrupting our society and the self-conceptions of its members.

  12. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekarchizadeh Hajar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810 in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%, more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education, and employed (>70%. The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69% and crystalline heroin (24%. The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%, crystalline heroin (28%, cannabis (16%, amphetamines (15%, and other drugs (33%. Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men.

  13. Improving Consumer Satisfaction with Addiction Treatment: An Analysis of Alumni Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Sanghani, Ruchi M.; Moler, Alexander K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The primary objective of this investigation is to determine which individual and aggregate factors of residential addiction treatment centers are most significant influencers of alumni satisfaction. Design. Survey targeted alumni of residential addiction treatment facilities. Alumni were queried through a survey, which utilized Likert-scale matrices and binary response options: 379 respondents met the completion threshold. Alumni rated amenities and individual and group counseling ...

  14. Treatment of Child/Adolescent Obesity Using the Addiction Model: A Smartphone App Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Pretlow, Robert A.; Stock, Carol M.; Allison, Stephen; Roeger, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to test a weight loss program for young people based on an addiction treatment approach. Methods: A pilot study (n=43) was conducted of a 20-week child/adolescent obesity intervention based on an addiction treatment model (staged, incremental withdrawal from problem foods, snacking/grazing, and excessive amounts at meals) and implemented by a server-integrated smartphone app with health professional support. The primary outcome was standardized %...

  15. Public Views on Food Addiction and Obesity: Implications for Policy and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia M Lee; Jayne Lucke; Hall, Wayne D; Carla Meurk; Boyle, Frances M; Adrian Carter

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to their advocates, neurobiological explanations of overeating, or "food addiction", have the potential to impact public understanding and treatment of obesity. In this study, we examine the public's acceptance of the concept of food addiction as an explanation of overeating and assess its effects upon their attitudes toward obese persons and the treatment of obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an online survey of 479 adults from the US (n = 215) and Australia (n...

  16. Examine the Relationship between Mindfulness and Drug Craving in Addicts Undergoing Methadone Maintenance Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ardame

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was examination the relationship between mindfulness and drug craving in addicts undergoing methadone maintenance treatment.The subjects of this research were 80 addicts undergoing methadone maintenance treatment selected through available sampling from four addiction treatment center in Ahvaz from March 2012 to September 2012. Two questionnaires to examine the variables of this study were the five facets mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ and hero-in craving questionnaire (HCQ. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.The Pearson correlational results indicated significant reverse relation between mindfulness factors and craving sub scales (P<0.05. Besides, the regression results indicated that four factors of mindfulness such as observation, describing, acting with awareness and non-reactivity to inner experience can totally predict 48 percent of craving variance (P<0.01 .There is a reverse relation between mindfulness and craving. Therefore we advise the researchers in addiction fields that in line with various studies that indicated effectiveness of mindfulness based interventions in improving various psychological problems, be researcher in effectiveness of this intervention in addiction fields. Moreover, we advise the addiction therapists to use mindfulness based interventions and technics in order to reduction of emotional and cognitive problems co morbidities with addiction such as craving that is one of potential factors affecting survival and relapse to drug abuse.

  17. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  18. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanal...

  19. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction toalcohol (alcohol abuse)

    OpenAIRE

    Brian eJohnson

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary ...

  20. Shifting blame: Buprenorphine prescribers, addiction treatment, and prescription monitoring in middle-class America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Sonia; Rivera-Cabrero, Allyssa S; Hansen, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Growing nonmedical prescription opioid analgesic use among suburban and rural Whites has changed the public's perception of the nature of opioid addiction, and of appropriate interventions. Opioid addiction has been recast as a biological disorder in which patients are victims of their neurotransmitters and opioid prescribers are irresponsible purveyors of dangerous substances requiring controls. This framing has led to a different set of policy responses than the "War on Drugs" that has focused on heroin trade in poor urban communities; in response to prescription opioid addiction, prescription drug monitoring programs and tamper-resistant opioid formulations have arisen as primary interventions in place of law enforcement. Through the analysis of preliminary findings from interviews with physicians who are certified to manage opioid addiction with the opioid pharmaceutical buprenorphine, we argue that an increase in prescriber monitoring has shifted the focus from addicted people to prescribers as a threat, paradoxically driving users to illicit markets and constricting their access to pharmaceutical treatment for opioid addiction. Prescriber monitoring is also altering clinical cultures of care, as general physicians respond to heightened surveillance and the psychosocial complexities of treating addiction with either rejection of opioid dependent patients, or with resourceful attempts to create support systems for their treatment where none exists. PMID:27488225

  1. Treatment outcomes using CBT-IA with Internet-addicted patients

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Kimberly S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Internet Gaming Disorder, a subtype of Internet Addiction, is now classified in Section 3 of the DSM-5. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been suggested in treating Internet addiction as this modality has been shown to be an effective treatment for similar impulse control disorders. Given the daily and necessary use of the Internet and technology in general compared to other compulsive syndromes, a specialized form of CBT has been developed called Cognitive-Behaviora...

  2. What does addiction medicine expect from neuroscience? From genes and neurons to treatment responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    The field of neuroscience is rapidly growing as evidenced by the mapping of the human genome, the progress in brain imaging technologies, and the refinement of sophisticated molecular tools that can be combined with innovative preclinical models. With these advances, it seems that our understanding of processes underlying addiction has never been so great. In comparison, the clinical domain has evolved at a much slower pace. Nonetheless, the addiction medical field has seen some gradual improvements in clinical care with the availability of a larger range of pharmacological options. Notably, several therapeutic alternatives are now offered for the treatment of nicotine, alcohol, and opioid use disorders. Some of these developments in treatment regimens have directly emerged from basic neuroscience research and represent a success story for the bench to beside translational approach. However, the clinical and research needs in addiction medicine are huge. There are still no pharmacological interventions available for psychostimulant and cannabis use disorders. Further, major questions remain unanswered: Would a better understanding of the neurocircuitry of addiction lead to therapeutic intervention? Would a better understanding of the neurochemical signature of addiction lead to the validation of a therapeutic target? Will pharmacogenetics hold its promise as a personalized medicine treatment approach? Using recent research developments, we will illustrate the potential of neuroscience to address some of the pressing questions in Addiction Medicine. PMID:26822369

  3. Peer-Delivered Recovery Support Services for Addictions in the United States: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuk, Ellen L; Hanson, Justine; Greene, R Neil; Richard, Molly; Laudet, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review identifies, appraises, and summarizes the evidence on the effectiveness of peer-delivered recovery support services for people in recovery from alcohol and drug addiction. Nine studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. They were assessed for quality and outcomes including substance use and recovery-related factors. Despite significant methodological limitations found in the included studies, the body of evidence suggests salutary effects on participants. Current limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26882891

  4. Exploring the Limits and Utility of Operant Conditioning in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a research program to develop an operant treatment for cocaine addiction in low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. The treatment's central feature is an abstinence reinforcement contingency in which patients earn monetary reinforcement for providing cocaine-free urine samples. Success and failure of this…

  5. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoying S; Chen, Jessica S; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-09-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits.

  6. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoying S; Chen, Jessica S; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-09-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits. PMID:26339215

  7. Analyzing the relationship between social networking addiction, interaction anxiousness and levels of loneliness of pre-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Özgür

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to analyze the social networking addiction of pre-service teachers in terms of various variables and evaluate the relationship between social networking addiction and loneliness and interaction anxiousness. The research was designed according to the relational screening model. The study sample included 349 pre-service teachers studying at Trakya University Faculty of Education in 2012-2013 academic year fall term. The data were obtained using Facebook Addiction Scale, Interaction Anxiousness Scale, the UCLA-Loneliness Scale III and personal information form. In analysis of data, descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U-Test, Kruskal-Wallis H and correlation tests were benefited. The research findings revealed that social networking addiction of pre-service teachers was at a low level, the relationship between interaction anxiousness and social networking addiction was high, and the relationship between the level of loneliness and social networking addiction was at a mid-level. Moreover, in the research a statistically significant difference was obtained between the variables of social networking addiction and frequency of using social networking, gender and the level of grade they study.

  8. A systematic review of Internet-based therapy for the treatment of addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2011-04-01

    Traditional therapies for addictions are underutilized and characterized by high attrition rates suggesting they may not meet the needs of a proportion of individuals with addiction-related problems including problem drinking, smoking, substance use and problem gambling. Internet-based therapy has emerged as a new treatment modality for psychological disorders and health issues and this review is the first attempt to summarize and evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of Internet therapy for addictions. Extensive literature searches were conducted to identify studies meeting the criteria of delivering structured Internet-based treatment programs for addictions that incorporated a component of trained therapist interaction. Only nine studies met criteria for inclusion with seven representing a randomized controlled trial. These included seven papers reporting on tobacco-cessation programs, one Internet-based therapy for pathological gambling, and one treatment program for substance abuse. A range of therapeutic models, treatment components and outcome measures was included across these studies. Positive treatment effects were reported following completion of therapy and at longer-term follow-up. The review concluded that Internet-based therapies for addictions are effective in achieving positive behavioral changes but that more research is required to determine the comparative effectiveness of various Internet-based therapies and their components.

  9. A systematic review of Internet-based therapy for the treatment of addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2011-04-01

    Traditional therapies for addictions are underutilized and characterized by high attrition rates suggesting they may not meet the needs of a proportion of individuals with addiction-related problems including problem drinking, smoking, substance use and problem gambling. Internet-based therapy has emerged as a new treatment modality for psychological disorders and health issues and this review is the first attempt to summarize and evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of Internet therapy for addictions. Extensive literature searches were conducted to identify studies meeting the criteria of delivering structured Internet-based treatment programs for addictions that incorporated a component of trained therapist interaction. Only nine studies met criteria for inclusion with seven representing a randomized controlled trial. These included seven papers reporting on tobacco-cessation programs, one Internet-based therapy for pathological gambling, and one treatment program for substance abuse. A range of therapeutic models, treatment components and outcome measures was included across these studies. Positive treatment effects were reported following completion of therapy and at longer-term follow-up. The review concluded that Internet-based therapies for addictions are effective in achieving positive behavioral changes but that more research is required to determine the comparative effectiveness of various Internet-based therapies and their components. PMID:21146272

  10. Treatment of internet addiction in patient with panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veruska; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia Spear

    2015-01-01

    Problematic Internet use is a worldwide social issue and it can be found in any age, social, educational, or economic range. In some countries like China and South Korea internet addiction (IA) is considered a public health condition and this governments support research, education and treatment. Internet addiction has been associated with others psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are anxiety disorders that involve a lot of damages in patient's life. We report a treatment of a patient with Panic Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and internet addition involving pharmacotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy was conducted 1 time per week during 10 weeks and results suggest that the treatment was an effective treatment for the anxiety and for the internet addiction.

  11. Chronic disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among alcohol and drug dependent adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic medical diseases require regular and longitudinal care and self-management for effective treatment. When chronic diseases include substance use disorders, care and treatment of both the medical and addiction disorders may affect access to care and the ability to focus on both conditions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the association between the presence of chronic medical disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among adults with substance dependence. Methods Cross-sectional secondary data analysis of self-reported baseline data from alcohol and/or drug-dependent adults enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a disease management program for substance dependence in primary care. The main independent variable was chronic medical disease status, categorized using the Katz Comorbidity Score as none, single condition of lower severity, or higher severity (multiple conditions or single higher severity condition, based on comorbidity scores determined from self-report. Asthma was also examined in secondary analyses. The primary outcome was any self-reported addiction treatment utilization (excluding detoxification in the 3 months prior to study entry, including receipt of any addiction-focused counseling or addiction medication from any healthcare provider. Logistic regression models were adjusted for sociodemographics, type of substance dependence, recruitment site, current smoking, and recent anxiety severity. Results Of 563 subjects, 184 (33% reported any chronic disease (20% low severity; 13% higher severity and 111 (20% reported asthma; 157 (28% reported any addiction treatment utilization in the past 3 months. In multivariate regression analyses, no significant effect was detected for chronic disease on addiction treatment utilization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.88 lower severity vs. none, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60, 1.28; AOR 1.29 higher severity vs. none, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.88 nor for

  12. Program Capacity to Eliminate Outcome Disparities in Addiction Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Aarons, Gregory A; Grella, Christine E; Garner, Bryan R; Cook, Benjamin; Vega, William A

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated program capacity factors associated with client outcomes in publicly funded substance abuse treatment organizations in one of the most populous and diverse regions of the United States. Using multilevel cross-sectional analyses of program data (n = 97) merged with client data from 2010 to 2011 for adults (n = 8,599), we examined the relationships between program capacity (leadership, readiness for change, and Medi-Cal payment acceptance) and client wait time and treatment duration. Acceptance of Medi-Cal was associated with shorter wait times, whereas organizational readiness for change was positively related to treatment duration. Staff attributes were negatively related to treatment duration. Overall, compared to low program capacity, high program capacity was negatively associated with wait time and positively related to treatment duration. In conclusion, program capacity, an organizational indicator of performance, plays a significant role in access to and duration of treatment. Implications for health care reform implementation in relation to expansion of public health insurance and capacity building to promote health equities are discussed. PMID:25450596

  13. 77 FR 72752 - Opioid Drugs in Maintenance and Detoxification Treatment of Opiate Addiction; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... effect of reducing the abuse and diversion of buprenorphine addiction and pain treatment products. SAMHSA... professionals expressed great concern about ``the potential negative effect the proposed change in regulation... dispensed by treatment programs to individuals who are dependent on heroin or on certain prescription...

  14. Systematic review of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson Asevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct the first systematic literature review of clinical trials of N-acetylcysteine (NAC for the treatment of substance abuse disorders and addictive behaviors. Methods: A search of the MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO databases was conducted. The inclusion criteria for the review were clinical trials that used NAC in the treatment of a disorder related to substance use and/or addictive behaviors, limited to texts in English, Spanish, or French. The selected studies were evaluated with respect to type of trial, sample size, diagnostic input, intervention, length of follow-up, outcome variables, and results. Results: Nine studies analyzing a total of 165 patients met the eligibility criteria and were included in qualitative analysis. These studies evaluated the role of NAC in cocaine dependence (three studies, cannabis dependence (two studies, nicotine dependence (two studies, methamphetamine addiction (one study, and pathological gambling (one study. Five of these trials were double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Conclusions: The studies analyzed suggest a potential role for NAC in the treatment of addiction, especially of cocaine and cannabis dependence. These results are concordant with the hypothesis of the involvement of glutamatergic pathways in the pathophysiology of addiction.

  15. Scientific Evidence in the Study and Treatment of Addictive Behaviours in Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life

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    Itziar Iruarrizaga Díez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, the importance and relevance of substance dependence and other addictive behaviours has generated great interest among the scientific community. Since its creation in 1992, Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life has transmitted the needs and training demands of psychologists, paying special attention to those aspects related to prevention, health outcomes and psychosocial factors involved in the onset and maintenance of drug addiction, psychosocial intervention and the treatment of addictive behaviours. As an introduction to this report on the Scientific evidence in the study and treatment of addictive behaviours, all topics covered by this journal throughout the years will be addressed.

  16. Diet and Body Composition Outcomes of an Environmental and Educational Intervention among Men in Treatment for Substance Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jennifer A.; Devine, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of an educational and environmental intervention on diet, body mass index, and waist circumference of men in substance addiction treatment. Methods: One hundred three racially/ethnically diverse men in 6 urban substance addiction residential treatment facilities in Upstate New York participated in weekly…

  17. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Persons Eligible for Supplemental Security Income to Other Agencies Referral for Treatment of Alcoholism... drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  18. An Investigation of the Relationship between Religious Orientation and Quality of Life of Male Addicts Referring to Addiction Treatment Centers in Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiseh Habibian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Addicts are among the socially disadvantaged people whose quality of life has been changed and damaged due to drug abuse. This in turn has influenced their physical, psychological and social health. Addiction is a phenomenon that has long existed in different human societies; and now again, it is still expanding despite the scientific advances and indisputable increase in people’s level of understanding and awareness. As such, this study aimed to examine the relationship between religious orientation and quality of life of the addicts. Methods: This is a descriptive-correlational study in which Alport religious orientation questionnaire and  SF-12 quality of life questionnaire were used for data collection and analysis. The population consisted of the addicted men who  had referred to 8 drug treatment centers in the  city of Qom in 2013-14, out of whom 190 subjects were selected. The data were analyzed using SPSS software and correlation coefficient test.  Results: The findings showed that there was a significant relationship between religious orientation and quality of life of addicts (p<0/05. Conclusion: The findings suggest that external religious orientation in people being treated from the drug addiction can be used as a defense and supporting mechanism to improve the quality of life in them. Therefore, the likelihood of successful treatment will be increased by strengthening the external religious orientation.

  19. Meta-Analyses of Seven of NIDA’s Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Frank S.; Prendergast, Michael L.; Podus, Deborah; Vazan, Peter; Greenwell, Lisa; Hamilton, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Seven of the 13 Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment disseminated by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were meta-analyzed as part of the Evidence-based Principles of Treatment (EPT) project. By averaging outcomes over the diverse programs included in EPT, we found that five of the NIDA principles examined are supported: matching treatment to the client’s needs; attending to the multiple needs of clients; behavioral counseling interventions; treatment plan reassessment; and counsel...

  20. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction toalcohol (alcohol abuse

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    Brian eJohnson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org. The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003. In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery.Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9 year followup.

  1. The Effect of Methadone Maintenance Treatment on Health Psyche and Having Hope in Drug Addicted Persons

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    Aazam Shahmoradi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of the present study was the survey of methadone maintenance treatment on health psyche and having hope in drug addicted persons. Method: the sample population was 60, 30 people were under Methadone Maintenance Treatment and 30 people who were waiting to receive methadone maintenance treatment. The range of their age was about 19-55 who were selected by in-hand sampling, according to Minoudasht city clinics. Sample group surveyed by general health and Sneider questionnaire. Findings: the results showed that between health psyche and being hopeful in people who are under methadone maintenance treatment and people who were waiting to receive methadone maintenance treatment, there is a significant meaning. Conclusion: methadone maintenance treatment can be counted as one of the ways to be used in quitting drug addiction.

  2. When Problem Gambling Is the Primary Reason for Seeking Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, John; Mazmanian, Dwight; Penney, Alexander; Black, Nancy; Nguyen, An

    2011-01-01

    An existing database was used to compare problem gamblers (N = 138) who presented for treatment of their gambling problem to two other groups: alcohol and/or drug addiction clients who also had a gambling problem (N = 280) or who did not have a gambling problem (N = 2178). Clients with gambling as their primary problem were more likely to be…

  3. Methadone: The Drug and Its Therapeutic Uses In the Treatment of Addiction. Series 31, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, James R.; Zerkin, E. Lief

    This fact sheet from the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information discusses methadone, a therapeutic drug for the treatment of narcotic addiction. It reviews the pharmacology of the drug as well as physiological and psychological effects, patterns of use, and adverse effects (toxicity and poisoning). It examines the success rates of…

  4. Addiction treatment and stable housing among a cohort of injection drug users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Palepu

    Full Text Available Unstable housing and homelessness is prevalent among injection drug users (IDU. We sought to examine whether accessing addiction treatment was associated with attaining stable housing in a prospective cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada.We used data collected via the Vancouver Injection Drug User Study (VIDUS between December 2005 and April 2010. Attaining stable housing was defined as two consecutive "stable housing" designations (i.e., living in an apartment or house during the follow-up period. We assessed exposure to addiction treatment in the interview prior to the attainment of stable housing among participants who were homeless or living in single room occupancy (SRO hotels at baseline. Bivariate and multivariate associations between the baseline and time-updated characteristics and attaining stable housing were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models.Of the 992 IDU eligible for this analysis, 495 (49.9% reported being homeless, 497 (50.1% resided in SRO hotels, and 380 (38.3% were enrolled in addiction treatment at the baseline interview. Only 211 (21.3% attained stable housing during the follow-up period and of this group, 69 (32.7% had addiction treatment exposure prior to achieving stable housing. Addiction treatment was inversely associated with attaining stable housing in a multivariate model (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=0.71; 95% CI: 0.52-0.96. Being in a partnered relationship was positively associated with the primary outcome (AHR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.88. Receipt of income assistance (AHR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.44-0.96, daily crack use (AHR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.51-0.93 and daily heroin use (AHR=0.63; 95% CI: 0.43-0.92 were negatively associated with attaining stable housing.Exposure to addiction treatment in our study was negatively associated with attaining stable housing and may have represented a marker of instability among this sample of IDU. Efforts to stably house this vulnerable group may be occurring in contexts

  5. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability (as described in §...

  6. Perspectives on neurocognitive rehabilitation as an adjunct treatment for addictive disorders: From cognitive improvement to relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour, Tara; DeVito, Elise E; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Addiction, as a brain disorder, can be defined with two distinct but interacting components: drug dependency and neurocognitive deficits. Most of the therapeutic interventions in addiction medicine, including pharmacological or psychosocial therapies, that are in clinical use have been mainly focused on directly addressing addictive behaviors, especially drug use and urges to use drugs. In the field of addiction treatment, it is often presumed that drug users' neurocognitive deficits will reverse following abstinence. However, in many cases, neurocognitive deficits are not fully ameliorated following sustained abstinence, and neurocognitive function may further deteriorate in early abstinence. It can be argued that many cognitive functions, such as sustained attention and executive control, are essential for full recovery and long-term abstinence from addiction. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience have provided scientific foundations for neurocognitive rehabilitation as a means of facilitating recovery from drug addiction. Neurocognitive rehabilitation for drug addicted individuals could be implemented as part of addiction treatment, with highly flexible delivery methods including traditional "paper and pencil" testing, or computer-based technology via laptops, web-based, or smartphones in inpatient and outpatient settings. Despite this promise, there has been limited research into the potential efficacy of neurocognitive rehabilitation as a treatment for drug addiction. Further, many questions including the optimum treatment length, session duration, and necessary treatment adherence for treatment efficacy remain to be addressed. In this chapter, we first introduce cognitive rehabilitation as one of the potential areas to bridge the gap between cognitive neuroscience and addiction medicine, followed by an overview of current challenges and future directions.

  7. ABUSE OF INTERNET SERVICES IN THE WORKPLACE AND THE EMERGENCE OF ADDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gorenc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Employees who abuse Internet privileges have become a major concern among today's employers. Employees misuse Internet at the workplace due to the overcrowded schedule, pressures at work, etc. Internet for private purposes is also used as a release or escape from work, escape from the reality of the workplace or due to poor organizational climate; it can be used as an efficient use of time at work but it can also be excessively used when the employees are not monitored. The survey results show that there is a correlation between Internet addiction and misuse of the Internet in the workplace. Electronic monitoring has a strong impact on the abuse of the Internet. More electronic monitoring will decrease the abuse of the internet services in the workplace and vice versa. Organizational climate, relations in the working organization, the Internet policy and demographic factors do not affect the abuse of Internet services in the workplace.

  8. Continuity of care in addictions treatment: the role of advocacy and coordination in case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, K; Timney, C B; Bois, C; Wedgerfield, K

    1995-11-01

    Although advocacy and coordination are recognized as important aspects of the addictions treatment process, little research has been done in these areas. The present study examined advocacy and coordination at two programs where the mandate was assessment, referral, and case management. Both programs spent a similar proportion of client-related effort on advocacy and/or coordination (about 25% of contact time, accounting for about half of contacts made regarding clients). The majority of advocacy and coordination contacts were with other agencies about clients (the remainder with family and friends of clients). A framework for advocacy and coordination was developed that allowed contacts to be categorized into mutually exclusive advocacy or coordination activities. Advocacy was defined as any activity undertaken to obtain something for clients; coordination involved the giving or receiving of information regarding specific clients. Sources of variability in the provision of advocacy and coordination were found between the programs that could be attributed to differences between the systems within which the programs operated, as well as differences in program clientele. In terms of client characteristics, it was found that females were more likely than males to receive advocacy; those over 65 years were most likely to receive both advocacy and coordination; those who were referred by school or employer or by corrections were most likely to receive coordination; those with no prior treatment were most likely to receive advocacy; and self-referrals and those who had had prior treatment were most likely to receive neither advocacy nor coordination. Receiving advocacy or coordination was not found to reduce the need by clients for other case management services, such as supportive counseling. The findings are discussed in terms of the need for knowledge regarding highly variable aspects of treatment such as advocacy and coordination. New research approaches (as taken in

  9. Bioethical differences between drug addiction treatment professionals inside and outside the Russian Federation

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    Mendelevich Vladimir D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview of a sociological study of the views of 338 drug addiction treatment professionals. A comparison is drawn between the bioethical approaches of Russian and foreign experts from 18 countries. It is concluded that the bioethical priorities of Russian and foreign experts differ significantly. Differences involve attitudes toward confidentiality, informed consent, compulsory treatment, opioid agonist therapy, mandatory testing of students for psychoactive substances, the prevention of mental patients from having children, harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange, euthanasia, and abortion. It is proposed that the cardinal dissimilarity between models for providing drug treatment in the Russian Federation versus the majority of the countries of the world stems from differing bioethical attitudes among drug addiction treatment experts.

  10. Time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years

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    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cannabis continues to be the most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance globally. The National Survey in India conducted in the year 2004 also reported it to be the most commonly used illicit substance in the country. Furthermore, it was reported to be the second most commonly used psychoactive substance by the treatment seekers at de-addiction centers in the country. Objectives: To assess time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years. Materials and Methods: The study utilized data collected through Drug Abuse Monitoring System across India. The data of treatment seekers from de-addiction centers established under the Drug De-addiction Program, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and supported by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India (122 in number across the country were analyzed. Results: A total of 107,469 individuals sought treatment from government de-addiction centers over the 7 years (2007–2013 period. With the exception of an aberration for the year 2012, there has been a steady decline in the proportion of treatment seekers who are not current cannabis users. A significantly greater proportion (Chi-square: 586.30, df: 1, P < 0.001 of individuals with current cannabis use alone or along with tobacco (20.4% tend to have a co-morbid psychiatric disorder as compared to treatment seekers with current use of substances other than cannabis (6.1%. Conclusions: It is important to focus on cannabis in clinical service delivery and research in the country.

  11. The "new masculinity": addiction treatment as a reconstruction of gender in Puerto Rican evangelist street ministries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Helena

    2012-06-01

    This article, based on ethnographic fieldwork including twelve months of participant observation and 428 interviews with 84 converts and leaders in Pentecostal ministries founded and run by former addicts in Puerto Rico, describes redefined masculinity as a treatment for addiction. Industrial disinvestment and resulting unemployment and drug trade in urban North and Latin America have led to narcotic addiction among Latino and African American men and attendant homicide, infection, and incarceration. Pentecostal-evangelical street ministries are prevalent in these regions. Their alternative vision of masculine honor and power addresses a cultural crisis of men's social space. They replace the unachievable ideal of the male breadwinner with an image of male spiritual power. In place of the violence of the drug trade, they cultivate male domesticity and responsibility for the home. In place of a deleterious drug economy, they offer the social and cultural capital of ministry networks and biblical knowledge. Yet the trajectories of ministry converts reveal the limits, as well as the promise, of evangelist masculinity as a treatment for addiction. In the course of building leadership among their converts, the ministries create their own, internal hierarchies, fall short of the spiritual democracy they espouse, and lead to relapse among those left at the bottom.

  12. Introduction to The Special Issue on The Behavior Analysis and Treatment of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Kenneth; Roll, John M.; Higgins, Stephen T

    2008-01-01

    Extensive evidence from the laboratory and the clinic suggests that drug addiction can be viewed as operant behavior and effectively treated through the application of principles of operant conditioning. Contingency management interventions that arrange for the direct reinforcement of drug abstinence or of other therapeutically important target behaviors (e.g., regular use of drug abuse treatment medications) are among the most studied type of operant treatments. Behavior analysts have contri...

  13. Public Views on Food Addiction and Obesity: Implications for Policy and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia M. Lee; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne D.; Meurk, Carla; Boyle, Frances M.; Carter, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Background According to their advocates, neurobiological explanations of overeating, or “food addiction”, have the potential to impact public understanding and treatment of obesity. In this study, we examine the public’s acceptance of the concept of food addiction as an explanation of overeating and assess its effects upon their attitudes toward obese persons and the treatment of obesity. Methods and Findings We conducted an online survey of 479 adults from the US (n = 215) and Australia (n =...

  14. Bio-psycho-social model of treatment and rehabilitation of addicts during the conduction of safety measure of obligatory psychiatric treatment in prison hospital Zagreb

    OpenAIRE

    Sušić, Esta; Ničea Gruber, Ema; Guberina Korotaj, Blaženka

    2014-01-01

    Addicts are a specific category of offenders or prisoners. Although some of them are primarily criminalized, the largest number of sentences for drug abuse crimes seem just as direct or indirect consequences of these disorders. Therefore, the application of a special program is needed for the treatment of addicts, lead by multi-disciplinary team of experts and focused on the prevention of future addiction behavior, and therefore criminal relapse. Authors are presenting the bio-psycho-so...

  15. Efficacy of treatment in an opioid -dependent population group using the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP) tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ruth; Boggs, Bob; Taggart, Noel; Kelly, Martin; Drillington, Aileen; Swanton, Ivy; Patterson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to assess the effectiveness of treatment in an opioid dependent population using the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP) tool1.The primary outcome of the study was to assess if treatment had an effect on 1. Substance use (quantity and frequency of use), 2. Health risk behaviour (injecting and sharing injecting equipment), 3. Health symptoms (physical and psychological) and 4. Personal /Social functioning (relationships, employment and crime). A secondary outcome was also sought.The study took place in 2007 in an inner city Belfast hospital specialising in the treatment of addiction, over a two month period. Fifteen patients, all opioid dependent and receiving outpatient community treatment, were interviewed at baseline (prior to the commencement of treatment) and at eight weeks follow up.Three patients were lost to follow up. Two patients stopped using altogether. Of the remaining patients, improvements were seen in most areas. There was a decrease in the use of heroin (71.28%), cocaine (99.72%), crack cocaine (100%), cannabis (99.94%) and alcohol (33.17%). There was a reduction in injecting behaviour (60.93%). Improvements were observed in health with a reduction in physical (41.35%) and psychological (35%) symptoms. Overall personal and social functioning improved regarding interactions with family and friends. A reduction in crime was also observed (75%).Opinions and views of staff involved in the study were generally positive.This patient population presents with multiple and complex needs. Effective treatment needs to address these needs and not just drug addiction alone. The Maudsley Addiction Profile tool highlights this. PMID:19252726

  16. Pattern of illicit drug use in patients referred to addiction treatment centres in Birjand, Eastern Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the pattern of use of opioid and other illegal drugs in patients seeking addiction treatment in Birjand, eastern Iran. Methods: The prospective study was conducted from March 21, 2009 to March 21, 2010, and comprised all patients referred to the seven addiction treatment centres in Birjand. Data was obtained through pre-designed questionnaires and it was analysed using SPSS 16. Results: Of the 700 substance users referred to the 7 centres and who volunteered to participate, 632 (90.3%) were males and 68 (9.7%) were females. The male/female ratio was approx 9.3/1. Mean age was 34+-10.2 (range: 10-75) years. The type of drugs used included traditional drugs (n= 342; 48.9%) and newer modern drugs (n=314; 44.9 %). The mean age of the first experience with drugs was 21.91+-7.1 (range=0-60) years. There was significant different between the type of drugs used and the place of residence (p<0.019), age (p<0.0001), martial status (p<0.0001), occupation (p<0.006) and education (p<0.017). Conclusion: The prevalence of illicit drug addiction was quite high. There seemed to have been a change in the pattern of drug use and in the type of illegal drugs used in the study area, from traditional drugs to new and modern drugs. As such, identifying risk factors related to addiction and the prevention of addiction should be one of the most important health priorities for the authorities. (author)

  17. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maremmani Icro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90, we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. Results A total of 150 (14.2% patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4% had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4% interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3% panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7% violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology.

  18. Vitamin D as an Effective Treatment Approach for Drug abuse and Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Jaqueline Kalleian Eserian

    2013-01-01

    Effective pharmacological treatments for drug abuse and addiction have not yet been identified. Evidences show that vitamin D may be involved in neurodevelopment and may have a neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic pathways in the adult brain. The fact that vitamin Dincreases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase expression implies that vitamin D could modulate dopa- minergic processes. Drugs of abuse act through different mechanisms of action and on differentlocations in the brain reward syste...

  19. Addiction and the brain: the role of neurotransmitters in the cause and treatment of drug dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Tomkins, Denise M.; Sellers, Edward M.

    2001-01-01

    RECENT SCIENTIFIC ADVANCES HAVE LED to a greater understanding of the neurobiological processes that underlie drug abuse and addiction. These suggest that multiple neurotransmitter systems may play a key role in the development and expression of drug dependence. These advances in our knowledge promise not only to help us identify the underlying cause of drug abuse and dependence, but also to aid the development of effective treatment strategies.

  20. Partial MHC/neuroantigen peptide constructs: a potential neuroimmune-based treatment for methamphetamine addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Loftis

    Full Text Available Relapse rates following current methamphetamine abuse treatments are very high (∼40-60%, and the neuropsychiatric impairments (e.g., cognitive deficits, mood disorders that arise and persist during remission from methamphetamine addiction likely contribute to these high relapse rates. Pharmacotherapeutic development of medications to treat addiction has focused on neurotransmitter systems with only limited success, and there are no Food and Drug Administration approved pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine addiction. A growing literature shows that methamphetamine alters peripheral and central immune functions and that immune factors such as cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules play a role in the development and persistence of methamphetamine induced neuronal injury and neuropsychiatric impairments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new immunotherapy, partial MHC/neuroantigen peptide construct (RTL551; pI-A(b/mMOG-35-55, in treating learning and memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to two different methamphetamine treatment regimens (using repeated doses of 4 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, s.c.. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Morris water maze and CNS cytokine levels were measured by multiplex assay. Immunotherapy with RTL551 improved the memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure in both mouse models of chronic methamphetamine addiction. Treatment with RTL551 also attenuated the methamphetamine induced increases in hypothalamic interleukin-2 (IL-2 levels. Collectively, these initial results indicate that neuroimmune targeted therapies, and specifically RTL551, may have potential as treatments for methamphetamine-induced neuropsychiatric impairments.

  1. Treatment provision for gambling disorder in Britain: call for an integrated addictions treatment and commissioning model

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sanju; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-01-01

    Treatment provision for individuals with gambling problems in Britain is at best inadequate. Here we call for gambling treatment provision to be integrated into mainstream drug and alcohol services, and for its commissioning responsibilities to fall under local public health departments. PMID:27280028

  2. Treatment provision for gambling disorder in Britain: call for an integrated addictions treatment and commissioning model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sanju; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Treatment provision for individuals with gambling problems in Britain is at best inadequate. Here we call for gambling treatment provision to be integrated into mainstream drug and alcohol services, and for its commissioning responsibilities to fall under local public health departments. PMID:27280028

  3. NIDA-Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) Relapse as a Function of Spirituality/Religiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J.; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Giordano, John; Thompson, Ben; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Madigan, Margaret A.; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Waite, Roger L.; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie), and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds. Impairments in brain reward circuitry, as observed in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), may also result in deviance and as such we wondered if stronger belief in spirituality practice and religious belief could lower relapse from drugs of abuse. Methods The NIDA Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study data set was used to examine post hoc relapse rates among 2,947 clients who were interviewed at 12 months after intake broken down by five spirituality measures. Results Our main findings strongly indicate, that those with low spirituality have higher relapse rates and those with high spirituality have higher remission rates with crack use being the sole exception. We found significant differences in terms of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and marijuana relapse as a function of strength of religious beliefs (x2 = 15.18, p = 0.028; logistic regression = 10.65, p = 0.006); frequency of attending religious services (x2 = 40.78, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 30.45, p < 0.0005); frequency of reading religious books (x2 = 27.190, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 17.31, p < 0.0005); frequency of watching religious programs (x2 = 19.02, p = 0.002; logistic regression = ns); and frequency of meditation/prayer (x2 = 11.33, p = 0.045; logistic regression = 9.650, p = 0.002). Across the five measures of spirituality, the spiritual participants reported between 7% and 21% less alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and marijuana use than the non-spiritual subjects. However, the crack users who reported that religion was not important reported significantly less crack use than the spiritual participants. The strongest association between remission and spirituality

  4. NIDA-Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS Relapse as a Function of Spirituality/Religiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Schoenthaler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie, and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds. Impairments in brain reward circuitry, as observed in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS, may also result in deviance and as such we wondered if stronger belief in spirituality practice and religious belief could lower relapse from drugs of abuse. Methods: The NIDA Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study data set was used to examine post hoc relapse rates among 2,947 clients who were interviewed at 12 months after intake broken down by five spirituality measures. Results: Our main findings strongly indicate, that those with low spirituality have higher relapse rates and those with high spirituality have higher remission rates with crack use being the sole exception. We found significant differences in terms of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and marijuana relapse as a function of strength of religious beliefs (x2 = 15.18, p = 0.028; logistic regression = 10.65, p = 0.006; frequency of attending religious services (x2 = 40.78, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 30.45, p < 0.0005; frequency of reading religious books (x2 = 27.190, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 17.31, p < 0.0005; frequency of watching religious programs (x2 = 19.02, p = 0.002; logistic regression = ns; and frequency of meditation/prayer (x2 = 11.33, p = 0.045; logistic regression = 9.650, p = 0.002. Across the five measures of spirituality, the spiritual participants reported between 7% and 21% less alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and marijuana use than the non-spiritual subjects. However, the crack users who reported that religion was not important reported significantly less crack use than the spiritual participants. The strongest association between remission

  5. A proposal to evaluate mechanistic efficacy of hallucinogens in addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Brittany Vasae; Adinoff, Bryon

    2013-09-01

    Current treatments for addiction are frequently ineffective. Hallucinogenic therapy has been indicated as helpful for a range of substance use disorders, yet this approach remains understudied and publicly unavailable. It is nonetheless a promising treatment, which has significant, long-term beneficial effects with single doses and a profile characterized by general safety, low toxicity, and non-addictiveness. However, pharmacological interventions, such as hallucinogens, should not be offered if the same effects (e.g. psychological insights/mystical experiences) and outcomes (e.g. decreased drug use) could be achieved absent pharmacological intervention. To date, there have been no clinical comparisons of drug-induced altered states with non-drug-induced states for addiction treatment. We propose and then outline a clinical trial to address this gap in knowledge. The proposed design would evaluate abstinence outcomes in a population of prescription opioid abusers after exposure to one of three conditions: a drug-induced altered state using psilocybin, a non-drug-induced altered state via hyperventilation (Holotropic Breathwork), and an active placebo with niacin. The outcomes of such a study would reveal important differences in therapeutic potential by discriminating hallucinogen-dependent effects from those psychological effects resulting from altered states.

  6. Treatment of computer addicts with complex co-morbid psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzack, M H; Orzack, D S

    1999-01-01

    Computer technology is expanding at an exponential rate, and its effect on society and individuals is being observed in many locations and by many professionals. Computer-addictive behavior is characterized by excessive and inappropriate use of the computer that has repercussions on an individual's real life obligations and relationships. Currently, these unanticipated consequences have been variously classified as computer addiction, Internet addiction disorder, problematic internet use, pathological internet use, and as a new symptom to be added to other psychiatric conditions. Mounting evidence indicates that those who are vulnerable to these problems suffer from multiple co-morbid psychiatric disorders. The problem is further complicated because computer usage is so pervasive in our society that the aim of treatment cannot be abstinence. It must be treated as an eating disorder where the goal is to normalize computer activities in order to survive. Assessment of each patient consists of the measurement of problematic computer behavior and definition of the expectations they have for the effects of these activities. Because of the complexity of these patients' problems, treatment needs to be multidisciplinary and include cognitive behavior therapy, psychotropic medication, family therapy, and case managers. Teamwork is emphasized. Also, regular assessments at 3-month intervals are important both for the patient and the team. The aim of the treatment is to help the patient manage the inappropriate behavior and still be able to use the technology. PMID:19178219

  7. On the Comparison of Cognitive Function in Substance Abusers and Addicts under Methadone Treatment with Normal Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    reza mohammadzadeghan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to compare cognitive functioning in substance abusers and addicts under methadone treatment with normal individuals. Method: The current study was a causal-comparative one. The statistical population of this research consisted of all male substance abusers who had referred to addiction treatment centers of Khoy city in 2013. The total of 40 addicts under methadone treatment, 40 active drug users, and 40 non-addicts were selected as the participants of this study via convenience sampling method. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Wechsler Memory Scale were administered to the three groups for data collection purposes. Results: The results showed that the substance abusers’ scores in Wisconsin card sorting test and Wechsler memory scale were significantly different from those of addicts under methadone treatment and normal individuals. In the same way, there was a significant difference between addicts under methadone treatment and normal individuals in terms of cognitive function however, there was no significant difference between these two groups in terms of perseveration error. Conclusion: It can be concluded that chronic use of psychoactive substances causes damage to multiple brain regions such as prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and, thereby, it leads to cognitive malfunctioning in these areas.

  8. Surviving Drug Addiction: The Effect of Treatment and Abstinence on Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Michael L.; Laudet, Alexandre; Funk, Rodney R.; Simeone, Ronald S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationships between substance abuse treatment, abstinence, and mortality in a sample of individuals entering treatment. We also estimated overall mortality rates and the extent to which they varied according to demographic, clinical severity, and treatment variables. Methods. We used data from a 9-year longitudinal study of 1326 adults entering substance abuse treatment on the west side of Chicago, of whom 131 died (11.0 per 1000 person-years). Baseline predictors, initial and long-term treatment response, and substance use patterns were used to predict mortality rates and time to mortality. Results. Older age, health problems, and substance use were associated with an increased risk of mortality, and higher percentages of time abstinent and longer durations of continuous abstinence were associated with a reduced risk of mortality. Treatment readmission in the first 6 months after baseline was related to an increased likelihood of abstinence, whereas readmission after 6 months was related to a decreased likelihood of abstinence, suggesting that treatment timing is significant. Conclusions. Our findings suggest the need to shift the addiction treatment field from an acute care model to a chronic disease management paradigm and the need for more aggressive screening, intervention, and addiction management over time. PMID:21330586

  9. Religious treatments for drug addiction: an exploratory study in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer Sanchez, Zila; Nappo, Solange A

    2008-08-01

    The main objective of the present work is to understand the processes used in emerging Catholic and Protestant religious interventions for recovery from drug dependence, from the vantage point of individuals subjected to them. A qualitative method and an intentional sample selected by criteria were adopted for this investigation, which was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. An in-depth semi-structured interview was conducted with 57 predominantly male former drug users who fit the criteria: they had been submitted to non-medical religious treatments to treat dependence and were abstinent for at least 6 months. Crisis was found to be the main reason leading interviewees to seek treatment; this includes, losing family, losing employment, and experiencing severe humiliation. Evangelicals most used religious resources exclusively as treatment, showing strong aversion to the role of doctors and to any type of pharmacological treatment. A common feature of Catholic and Protestant groups is the importance ascribed to praying and talking to God, described by subjects as strongly anxiolytic, and a means to control drug craving. Confession and forgiveness, through faith conversion or penitences, respectively, appeal strongly to the restructuring of life and increase of self-esteem. Religious interventions were considered effective by the individuals who underwent them and were seen as attractive for the humane, respectful treatment they delivered. The key aspects of this type of treatment are social support provided by the receiving group, equal treatment, and instant, judgment-free acceptance. The success of these actions, then, is not only due to some "supernatural" aspect, as might be assumed, but also more to the unconditional dedication of human beings to their peers. Given the difficulty in treating drug dependence, religious interventions could be used as a complementary treatment for conventional therapies. PMID:18501491

  10. The Case for Considering Quality of Life in Addiction Research and Clinical Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Laudet, Alexandre B.

    2011-01-01

    Substance use disorders are increasingly viewed as chronic conditions, and addiction treatment services are beginning to adopt models that were developed to address other chronic conditions. These models address the impact of disease and services on the patient’s overall well-being. From this perspective, treatment for addiction aims for the broad goal of recovery, which is defined as abstinence plus improved quality of life. However, the addiction field has come late to the chronic disease p...

  11. Barriers to successful treatment of alcohol addiction as perceived by healthcare professionals in Thailand – a Delphi study about obstacles and improvement suggestions

    OpenAIRE

    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree; Eriksson, Henrik; Kijsomporn, Jureerat; Östlund, Gunnel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many Thai people experiencing alcohol addiction do not seek help, and those who do often have inadequate access to treatment. There are few research studies focusing on alcohol addiction treatment in Thailand.Objective: The purpose of the current study was to identify barriers to the treatment of alcohol addiction and to collect experts’ suggestions for improving treatment in Thailand. The Delphi technique was used to achieve consensual agreement among an expert panel within the f...

  12. Quality of life in studies with patients under treatment for substance abuse and addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selva Rios Campêlo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find Quality of Life (QoL instruments and their purpose in studies with patients under treatment for substance abuse and addiction. This is an integrative review, whose articles were available on the Virtual Health Library (VHL and published between 2010 and 2015 with the associated descriptors "Substance-Related Disorders" and "Quality of Life". Twenty-nine texts were analyzed and the instruments were grouped into four possible uses of measurement of Quality of Life. The majority used generic instruments such as WHOQOL-Bref for general Quality of Life and the SF-36 of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL. It is recommended that further studies be carried out on the use of Quality of Life instruments in relation to addiction, especially with specific instruments that are beginning to appear in some studies and which have not been consolidated in the field.

  13. Redox-based Epigenetic status in Drug Addiction: Potential mediator of drug-induced gene priming phenomenon and use of metabolic intervention for symptomatic treatment in drug addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malav Suchin Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants and opioids, can induce epigenetic changes: a contributing factor for drug addiction, tolerance and associated withdrawal symptoms. DNA methylation is the major epigenetic mechanism and it is one of more than 200 methylation reactions supported by methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM. The levels of SAM are controlled by cellular redox status via the folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS, for example; under oxidative conditions MS is inhibited, diverting its substrate homocysteine (HCY to the transsulfuration pathway. Alcohol, dopamine and morphine, can alter intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH-based cellular redox status, subsequently affecting S-adenosylmethionine (SAM levels and DNA methylation status. In this discussion, we compile this and other existing evidence in a coherent manner to present a novel hypothesis implicating the involvement of redox-based epigenetic changes in drug addiction. Next, we also discuss how gene priming phenomenon can contribute to maintenance of redox and methylation status homeostasis under various stimuli including drugs of abuse. Lastly, based on our hypothesis and some preliminary evidence, we discuss a mechanistic explanation for use of metabolic interventions / redox-replenishers as symptomatic treatment of alcohol addiction and associated withdrawal symptoms. Hence, the current review article strengthens the hypothesis that neuronal metabolism has a critical bidirectional coupling with epigenetic changes in drug addiction and we support this claim via exemplifying the link between redox-based metabolic changes and resultant epigenetic consequences under the effect of drugs of abuse.

  14. Opiate addicts in and outside of treatment; Different populations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Goossensen (Anne)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe core of this study is related to the insight that the population of opiate addicls is quite an invisible group. Some paris of this group can be identified at treatment institutions and in prisons. However, a large pari of the opiate addicls is hard to detect. This is because their il

  15. [Physical exercise and yoga in prevention and treatment of addictive diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespor, K

    2005-01-01

    Prevention of addictive diseases should be complex and systematic and it should include training of social skills, decision-making skills, family intervention, etc. Similarly, effective treatment is usually long-term, systematic and complex. Physical exercise and yoga can be useful components of comprehensive prevention and treatment programmes. On the other hand, competitive professional sport rather increases the number of risk factors for substance-related problems. Practical experience with the use of yoga in substance dependent patients and pathological gambles are mentioned. One of the advantages of yoga is the integration of physical exercise and relaxation.

  16. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  17. The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latypov Alisher B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1]. Additional file 1 Abstract. The Soviet

  18. Genetic influence on methadone treatment outcomes in patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment for opioid addiction: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaan Z

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zainab Samaan,1–4 Monica Bawor,3,4 Brittany B Dennis,2,3 Carolyn Plater,5 Michael Varenbut,5 Jeffrey Daiter,5 Andrew Worster,5,6 David C Marsh,5,7 Charlie Tan,8 Dipika Desai,3 Lehana Thabane,2,9,10 Guillaume Pare11 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 3Population Genomics Program, Chanchlani Research Centre, 4MiNDS Neuroscience Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 5Ontario Addiction Treatment Centres, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada; 6Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 7Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 8Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, 9Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Evaluation of Medicine, 10System Linked Research Unit, 11Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Introduction: Treatment of opioid addiction with methadone is effective; however, it is known to produce interindividual variability. This may be influenced in part by genetic variants, which can increase the initial risk of developing opioid addiction as well as explain differences in response to treatment. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a full-scale genetic analysis to identify genes that predict methadone treatment outcomes in this population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study of patients admitted to a methadone maintenance treatment program for opioid addiction. We obtained demographic and clinical characteristics in addition to blood and urine samples, for the assessment of treatment outcomes. Results: The recruitment process yielded 252 patients, representing a 20% recruitment rate. We conducted genetic testing based on a 99.6% rate of provision of DNA samples. The average retention in treatment was 3.4 years, and >50% of the participants reported psychiatric and

  19. Update on treatment of craving in patients with addiction using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria da Silva Roggi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The craving is a strong desire to consume a psychotropic substance and is one of the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in drug addiction. As a theoretical construct, craving is complex and described by different authors, which results in various theoretical models, but there is a consensus on the importance of its treatment. This paper conducted a literature review to identify and describe the most widely used techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for the management of craving and to verify the impact of applying these techniques on outcome variables, specifically the craving. Method: Searches were conducted in the databases of PubMed and PsycInfo using the following descriptors in association: “craving”, “cognitive therapy” “behavior therapy” and “cognitive behavior therapy”. Results: 198 papers were found, out of which thirty four were selected for analysis. The cognitive behavior therapy treatment includes various techniques such as Relapse Prevention, Psychoeducational, Humor and Stress Management, Motivational Interviewing, Exposure to the Relapse Prevention and Relaxation techniques. The manual for Project MATCH is one of the most cited and used for the treatment of drug addicts. Cue Exposure Therapy (CET, Attentional Bias Modification (ABM and newer “mindfulness” therapeutic methods are studied, and have shown promising results, but still need to be further investigated. Conclusion: Various treatments have been proposed and have allowed the achievement of significant improvements in the reduction of craving.

  20. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among individuals presenting to an addiction treatment program for alcohol dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective patient record review was conducted to examine comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and comorbid substance use, among 465 patients below 45 years of age, presenting to a national alcohol addiction treatment unit in Dublin, between 1995 and 2006. Rates were high for depressive disorder (25.3%) particularly among females (35.4%). Lifetime reported use of substances other than alcohol was 39.2%, and further analysis showed significantly higher rates of deliberate self-harm among this group. Lifetime reported use of ecstasy was also significantly associated with depression in this alcohol-dependent population using logistic regression analysis. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  1. Cue exposure and relapse prevention in the treatment of addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlatt, G A

    1990-01-01

    Cue exposure techniques have been increasingly applied in the treatment of addictive behaviors. The role of cue exposure in a comprehensive approach to relapse prevention is considered from several theoretical perspectives. Issues discussed include the optimal definition of both cue and response variables in cue exposure, the relation between exposure to drug-taking cues and elicitation of outcome expectancies, and the combination of extinction-based cue exposure methods and skill training in relapse prevention programs. Whether cue exposure effects are mediated by extinction of appetitive craving responses and/or by the modification of efficacy and outcome expectancies is discussed. PMID:2248112

  2. Essential elements of treatment: a comparative study between European and American therapeutic communities for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Ilse; Soyez, Veerle; Melnick, Gerald; De Leon, George; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether European and American therapeutic communities (TCs) for addiction, both traditional and modified, share a common perspective on what is essential in treatment using the Survey of Essential Elements Questionnaire (SEEQ). The European sample (N = 19) was gathered in 2009. For the American sample (N = 19), we used previously published research data. Despite comparable perspectives, European traditional TCs (N = 11) scored significantly higher than their American predecessors (N = 11) on four SEEQ domains. Cluster differences were more pronounced in Europe than in America. PMID:21235341

  3. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF A TREATMENT MANUAL FOR VIDEO GAME ADDICTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Ståle; Lorvik, Ingjerd Meen; Bu, Eli Hellandsjø; Molde, Helge

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a manualized therapy for video game addiction in 12 males, ages 14-18 yr. The manual was based on cognitive-behavioral therapy, short-term strategic family therapy, solution-focused therapy, and motivational interviewing. Treatment response was reported by the patients, their mothers, and the therapists. The patients reported moderate (but statistically non-significant) improvement from pre- to post-treatment. The mothers, however, reported large effects and statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-treatment. The therapists reported marked or moderate treatment response in six of the 12 patients. The ratings of change by mothers converged well with the views of change of both the patients and therapists, whereas the convergence of views on change between the two latter sources was far lower.

  4. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF A TREATMENT MANUAL FOR VIDEO GAME ADDICTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Ståle; Lorvik, Ingjerd Meen; Bu, Eli Hellandsjø; Molde, Helge

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a manualized therapy for video game addiction in 12 males, ages 14-18 yr. The manual was based on cognitive-behavioral therapy, short-term strategic family therapy, solution-focused therapy, and motivational interviewing. Treatment response was reported by the patients, their mothers, and the therapists. The patients reported moderate (but statistically non-significant) improvement from pre- to post-treatment. The mothers, however, reported large effects and statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-treatment. The therapists reported marked or moderate treatment response in six of the 12 patients. The ratings of change by mothers converged well with the views of change of both the patients and therapists, whereas the convergence of views on change between the two latter sources was far lower. PMID:26340051

  5. Improving Consumer Satisfaction with Addiction Treatment: An Analysis of Alumni Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi M. Sanghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The primary objective of this investigation is to determine which individual and aggregate factors of residential addiction treatment centers are most significant influencers of alumni satisfaction. Design. Survey targeted alumni of residential addiction treatment facilities. Alumni were queried through a survey, which utilized Likert-scale matrices and binary response options: 379 respondents met the completion threshold. Alumni rated amenities and individual and group counseling factors; additionally, respondents provided feedback on two satisfaction proxies: cost worthiness and future recommendations. Descriptive and relational analyses were conducted, with the latter utilizing logistic regression models. Results. Individual factors’ scores of group counseling, and overall aggregate group counseling score, are most enthusiastically positive. Group counseling is also the most significant influencer of satisfaction. Other significant influencers of satisfaction are met expectations for individual counseling and psychiatric care offerings. Conclusions. While individual counseling and facility amenities should not be ignored, group counseling may be the most significant influencer of alumni satisfaction. Long-term outcomes are not single-faceted; however, treatment providers should be encouraged to invest in high-quality group counseling offerings in order to best satisfy, and thereby empower, clients.

  6. The mental status of 1090 heroin addicts at entry into treatment: should depression be considered a 'dual diagnosis'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perugi Giulio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental symptoms are common in heroin addiction and may arise from issues of addiction and withdrawal, raising doubts about the patients truly having co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses. Methods We studied the mental status of 1090 heroin addicts (831 males and 259 females aged between 16 and 51 years at the beginning of treatment, and its relationship to relevant demographic and clinical data through the use of standardised instruments. Results A total of 506 (46.42% heroin addicts showed depressive-anxious symptomatology, 421 (38.62% had psychomotor excitement and 163 (14.95% demonstrated a psychotic state. Patients with depressive-anxious symptomatology on the whole had a less severe addictive illness compared to those demonstrating excited and psychotic symptoms. The presence of depressive-anxious features was felt to not necessarily be indicative of the presence of a dual diagnosis. Conclusion The presence of depressive-anxious symptomatology in the clinical presentation in heroin addicts appears to be unrelated to 'dual diagnosis'.

  7. A review of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of addictions: historical perspectives and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liester, Mitchell B

    2014-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a semisynthetic compound with strong psychoactive properties. Chemically related to serotonin, LSD was initially hypothesized to produce a psychosislike state. Later, LSD was reported to have benefits in the treatment of addictions. However, widespread indiscriminate use and reports of adverse affects resulted in the classification of LSD as an illicit drug with no accepted medical use. This article reviews LSD's storied history from its discovery, to its use as a research tool, followed by its widespread association with the counterculture movement of the 1960s, and finally to its rebirth as a medicine with potential benefits in the treatment of addictions. LSD's pharmacology, phenomenology, effects at neurotransmitter receptors, and effects on patterns of gene expression are reviewed. Based upon a review of the literature, it is concluded that further research into LSD's potential as a treatment for addictions is warranted.

  8. Addiction treatment and community mental health in Africa: The implication of policy and institutional gaps for effective intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ong'ayo, A.O.O.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, most countries in Africa have seen a steep rise in the use of addictive substances beyond relatively basic forms of traditional drug use. At the same time majority of countries are witnessing a gradual decline in quality of health services particularly in the public health sector du

  9. Heroin Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... collaborations that involve scientists working together with public health and safety personnel will help overcome barriers to adoption of these proven effective treatments. These advances will have a global impact not just on heroin addiction but on the spread of HIV, particularly ...

  10. Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences in the treatment of tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Griffiths, Roland R; Johnson, Matthew W

    2014-01-01

    Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences have been linked to persisting effects in healthy volunteers including positive changes in behavior, attitudes, and values, and increases in the personality domain of openness. In an open-label pilot-study of psilocybin-facilitated smoking addiction treatment, 15 smokers received 2 or 3 doses of psilocybin in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation. Twelve of 15 participants (80%) demonstrated biologically verified smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up. Participants who were abstinent at 6 months (n=12) were compared to participants still smoking at 6 months (n=3) on measures of subjective effects of psilocybin. Abstainers scored significantly higher on a measure of psilocybin-occasioned mystical experience. No significant differences in general intensity of drug effects were found between groups, suggesting that mystical-type subjective effects, rather than overall intensity of drug effects, were responsible for smoking cessation. Nine of 15 participants (60%) met criteria for "complete" mystical experience. Smoking cessation outcomes were significantly correlated with measures of mystical experience on session days, as well as retrospective ratings of personal meaning and spiritual significance of psilocybin sessions. These results suggest a mediating role of mystical experience in psychedelic-facilitated addiction treatment.

  11. Effect of subcutaneous thymopentin treatment in drug addicts with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellini, Wilma; Meroni, P. L.; Frasca, Daniela; Sguotti, Chiara; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Buzzetti, P.; Lazzarin, A.; Doria, G.; Moroni, M.; Zanussi, C.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of thymopentin treatment on the immune defects in drug addicts with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy and HTLV-III infection was investigated. Thymopentin was administered subcutaneously at two different dose schedules: 50 mg three times a week for 3 weeks (first cycle) and 50 mg/week for 3 months (second cycle). After the first cycle an increased number of OKT4+ lymphocytes and an improvement of PWM-induced blastogenesis and IgG synthesis in vitro was observed. The second cycle was unable to modify the same immune parameters in vitro. The treatment had no effect on the PHA responsiveness and on PHA-induced interleukin 2 production. The significance and the prognostic value of these findings are discussed in terms of the clinical evolution of the syndrome. PMID:3301099

  12. American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) National Practice Guideline for the Use of Medications in the Treatment of Addiction Involving Opioid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, Kyle; Jarvis, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control have recently described opioid use and resultant deaths as an epidemic. At this point in time, treating this disease well with medication requires skill and time that are not generally available to primary care doctors in most practice models. Suboptimal treatment has likely contributed to expansion of the epidemic and concerns for unethical practices. At the same time, access to competent treatment is profoundly restricted because few physicians are willing and able to provide it. This "Practice Guideline" was developed to assist in the evaluation and treatment of opioid use disorder, and in the hope that, using this tool, more physicians will be able to provide effective treatment. Although there are existing guidelines for the treatment of opioid use disorder, none have included all of the medications used at present for its treatment. Moreover, few of the existing guidelines address the needs of special populations such as pregnant women, individuals with co-occurring psychiatric disorders, individuals with pain, adolescents, or individuals involved in the criminal justice system. This Practice Guideline was developed using the RAND Corporation (RAND)/University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Method (RAM) - a process that combines scientific evidence and clinical knowledge to determine the appropriateness of a set of clinical procedures. The RAM is a deliberate approach encompassing review of existing guidelines, literature reviews, appropriateness ratings, necessity reviews, and document development. For this project, American Society of Addiction Medicine selected an independent committee to oversee guideline development and to assist in writing. American Society of Addiction Medicine's Quality Improvement Council oversaw the selection process for the independent development committee. Recommendations included in the guideline encompass a broad range of topics, starting with the initial evaluation of the

  13. The Neurobiology of "Food Addiction" and Its Implications for Obesity Treatment and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Adrian; Hendrikse, Joshua; Lee, Natalia; Yücel, Murat; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio; Andrews, Zane; Hall, Wayne

    2016-07-17

    There is a growing view that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, are addictive and that some forms of obesity can usefully be treated as a food addiction. This perspective is supported by a growing body of neuroscience research demonstrating that the chronic consumption of energy-dense foods causes changes in the brain's reward pathway that are central to the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Obese and overweight individuals also display patterns of eating behavior that resemble the ways in which addicted individuals consume drugs. We critically review the evidence that some forms of obesity or overeating could be considered a food addiction and argue that the use of food addiction as a diagnostic category is premature. We also examine some of the potential positive and negative clinical, social, and public policy implications of describing obesity as a food addiction that require further investigation. PMID:27296500

  14. The clustering of psychopathology among adults seeking treatment for alcohol and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanoski, Karen; Kenaszchuk, Chris; Veldhuizen, Scott; Rush, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Beyond the high prevalence of co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, little is known about more complex patterns of psychopathology and multimorbidity, particularly in treatment populations. We sought to identify a parsimonious set of latent classes to describe the structure of mental disorder comorbidity among adults entering outpatient addiction treatment, and explore differences in the structure and prevalence of classes across sociodemographic characteristics. Participants (N=544) completed the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire at treatment admission. We used latent class analysis to identify classes of clients with specific patterns of co-occurring mental disorders. The best-fitting solution identified 3 classes, characterized by no comorbidity (i.e., substance use disorders only), co-occurring major depression, and multimorbidity or a high degree of psychopathology. Older age was associated with lower probability of being in the class with co-occurring major depression, women were more likely than men to be in the multimorbid class, and being married or partnered was associated with a lower probability of being in either of the comorbid classes. These results are consistent with general population research on the patterning of psychiatric disorders, implying that while clients in addiction treatment may have extraordinarily high levels of psychopathology, the patterns of symptoms and the groups most affected are not markedly different than in other settings. By capturing the complexity of interrelationships among the many factors that are known to influence prognosis and outcomes, latent class analysis offers a useful way to examine and represent case-mix in clinical populations. PMID:25124260

  15. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  16. The effects of methadone maintenance treatment on heroin addicts with response inhibition function impairments: Evidence from event-related potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Response inhibition has been a core issue in addictive behavior. Many previous studies have found that response inhibition abilities are damaged in those with drug dependence. However, whether heroin addicts who are treated with methadone maintenance have an abnormal response inhibition ability is not clear. In order to investigate the response inhibition functions in heroin addicts who were treated with methadone maintenance, electroencephalography (EEG was used to examine 14 heroin addicts treated with methadone maintenance (HDM, 17 heroin addicts (HD, and 18 healthy controls (HC in an equiprobability Go∖NoGo task. The reaction times (RTs for the Go stimuli in the HD group were slower than those in the HDM and HC groups. Event-related potential (ERP measurements showed that NoGo stimuli elicited larger N2 amplitudes than Go stimuli in the HDM and HC groups. However, for the HD group, the N2 amplitudes were similar for the two conditions. In addition, the HDM and HD groups were associated with longer P3 latencies. Our results demonstrated that methadone maintenance treatment might ease the deficits in response inhibition that result from long-term drug abuse. However, compared to normal people, HDM patients have serious problems evaluating and inhibiting inappropriate behaviors.

  17. The Effectiveness of Life Skills Training on Enhancement of Self-Esteem and Marital Satisfaction among Addicts in Treatment Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nooripour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study has been done to determine the impact of life skills training on enhancement of self-esteem and marital satisfaction among addicts in treatment period. Method: The research design was semi experimental pretest-posttest with witness group. For each group 12men addicts in treatment period in Qazvin city were selected by available sampling. Rosenberg self-esteem and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaires were administered among selected samples. Training workshop was conducted on role playing, questioning and answering which was taught by psychology professors in experimental group. Results: Results showed life skills training improved self-esteem and marital satisfaction of addicts in treatment period. Conclusion: Life skills training have a positive impact on self-esteem and marital satisfaction of individuals especially on addicts in treatment period, also life skills training in the field of smoking prevention enhances individuals’ skills (such as self-esteem, marital satisfaction, etc…. Life skills training empower person to actualize his knowledge, attitudes and values, and enable him to have motivation for healthy behavior which this will have significant impact on his relationship with his wife.

  18. Clinical psychology of Internet addiction: a review of its conceptualization, prevalence, neuronal processes, and implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes HM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Halley M Pontes, Daria J Kuss, Mark D Griffiths International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK Abstract: Research into Internet addiction (IA has grown rapidly over the last decade. The topic has generated a great deal of debate, particularly in relation to how IA can be defined conceptually as well as the many methodological limitations. The present review aims to further elaborate and clarify issues that are relevant to IA research in a number of areas including: definition and characterization, incidence and prevalence rates, associated neuronal processes, and implications for treatment, prevention, and patient-specific considerations. It is concluded that there is no consensual definition for IA. Prevalence rates among nationally representative samples across several countries vary greatly (from 1% to 18.7%, most likely reflecting the lack of methodological consistency and conceptual rigor of the studies. The overlaps between IA and other more traditional substance-based addictions and the possible neural substrates implicated in IA are also highlighted. In terms of treatment and prevention, both psychological and pharmacological treatments are examined in light of existing evidence alongside particular aspects inherent to the patient perspective. Based on the evidence analyzed, it is concluded that IA may pose a serious health hazard to a minority of people. Keywords: Internet addiction, review, behavioral addictions, prevalence, neuronal processes, treatment

  19. Meta-Analyses of Seven of NIDA’s Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Frank S.; Prendergast, Michael L.; Podus, Deborah; Vazan, Peter; Greenwell, Lisa; Hamilton, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Seven of the 13 Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment disseminated by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were meta-analyzed as part of the Evidence-based Principles of Treatment (EPT) project. By averaging outcomes over the diverse programs included in EPT, we found that five of the NIDA principles examined are supported: matching treatment to the client’s needs; attending to the multiple needs of clients; behavioral counseling interventions; treatment plan reassessment; and counseling to reduce risk of HIV. Two of the NIDA principles are not supported: remaining in treatment for an adequate period of time and frequency of testing for drug use. These weak effects could be the result of the principles being stated too generally to apply to the diverse interventions and programs that exist or of unmeasured moderator variables being confounded with the moderators that measured the principles. Meta-analysis should be a standard tool for developing principles of effective treatment for substance use disorders. PMID:22119178

  20. Organizational structure, leadership and readiness for change and the implementation of organizational cultural competence in addiction health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Kim, Ahraemi

    2013-10-01

    Increasing representation of racial and ethnic minorities in the health care system and on-going concerns about existing health disparities have pressured addiction health services programs to enhance their cultural competence. This study examines the extent to which organizational factors, such as structure, leadership and readiness for change contribute to the implementation of community, policy and staffing domains representing organizational cultural competence. Analysis of a randomly selected sample of 122 organizations located in primarily Latino and African American communities showed that programs with public funding and Medicaid reimbursement were positively associated with implementing policies and procedures, while leadership was associated with staff having greater knowledge of minority communities and developing a diverse workforce. Moreover, program climate was positively associated with staff knowledge of communities and having supportive policies and procedures, while programs with graduate staff and parent organizations were negatively associated with knowledge of and involvement in these communities. By investing in funding, leadership skills and a strategic climate, addiction health services programs may develop greater understanding and responsiveness of the service needs of minority communities. Implications for future research and program planning in an era of health care reform in the United States are discussed.

  1. Midkine and Pleiotrophin in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, Luis F; Herradón, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) and Midkine (MK) are neurotrophines with documented protective actions in experimental models of neurodegenerative diseases and beneficial effects on toxicity and addictive behaviours related to drug abuse. Concerning the latter, both PTN and MK prevent the neurotoxic effects of amphetamine on nigrostriatal pathways and endogenous PTN also limits amphetamine reward. Moreover, endogenous PTN overexpression in the prefontral cortex abolishes alcohol- induced conditioned place preference. This review summarizes the existing patents for using PTN and MK in the treatment and diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders with a focus on neurotoxicity, neurodegeneration and substance use disorders. We have also reviewed the mechanism of action of PTN and MK and summarized existing patents on downstream modulators in their signaling pathways for the same indications. PMID:25808239

  2. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Dramatherapy for Clients with Addiction under Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenta M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the means of dramatherapy intervention at two sites - at the Centre for secondary prevention and treatment of addictions Military Hospital in Olomouc and Toxicological rehabilitation department 17B (community Mandala Psychiatric Hospital in Kroměříž. The first workplace has a detoxifying and short-term intervention program (month, while the Mandala is implemented medium-term dramatherapy program (up to a half-year. The second part gives the results of the investigation, which was focused on finding differences (relations between the client and the perception of the benefits of the concept dramatherapy intervention at the aforementioned sites - nvestigation did not show differences between evaluation intervention customers of both institutions.

  3. Addiction treatment provider attitudes on staff capacity and evidence-based clinical training: results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lena; Amodeo, Maryann; Krull, Ivy; Chassler, Deborah; Weidenfeld, Rachel; de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; Gowler, Rebekah; Lederer, Jaime; Cohen, Alexander; Beltrame, Clelia

    2011-01-01

    This national study of addiction-treatment organizations' implementation of evidence-based practices examines: (1) organizational/leadership factors associated with director (n = 212) attitudes regarding staff resistance to organizational change, and (2) organizational/staff factors associated with staff (n = 312) attitudes regarding evidence-based clinical training. Linear regression analyses, controlling for type of treatment unit, leadership/staff characteristics and organizational readiness to change, identified that directors who perceived their organization needed more guidance and had less staff cohesion and autonomy rated staff resistance to organizational change significantly higher. Staff with higher levels of education and greater agreement that their organization supported change had greater preference for evidence-based trainings. Federal addiction treatment policy should both promote education and training of treatment staff and organizational development of treatment CBOs.  PMID:21477056

  4. Mobile Service Affordability for the Needy, Addiction, and ICT Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper links communications and media usage to social and household economics boundaries. It highlights that in present day society, communications and media are a necessity, but not always affordable, and that they furthermore open up for addictive behaviours which raise additional

  5. Pilot study of the 5-HT2AR agonist psilocybin in the treatment of tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Cosimano, Mary P; Griffiths, Roland R

    2014-11-01

    Despite suggestive early findings on the therapeutic use of hallucinogens in the treatment of substance use disorders, rigorous follow-up has not been conducted. To determine the safety and feasibility of psilocybin as an adjunct to tobacco smoking cessation treatment we conducted an open-label pilot study administering moderate (20 mg/70 kg) and high (30 mg/70 kg) doses of psilocybin within a structured 15-week smoking cessation treatment protocol. Participants were 15 psychiatrically healthy nicotine-dependent smokers (10 males; mean age of 51 years), with a mean of six previous lifetime quit attempts, and smoking a mean of 19 cigarettes per day for a mean of 31 years at intake. Biomarkers assessing smoking status, and self-report measures of smoking behavior demonstrated that 12 of 15 participants (80%) showed seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 6-month follow-up. The observed smoking cessation rate substantially exceeds rates commonly reported for other behavioral and/or pharmacological therapies (typically psilocybin, these findings suggest psilocybin may be a potentially efficacious adjunct to current smoking cessation treatment models. The present study illustrates a framework for future research on the efficacy and mechanisms of hallucinogen-facilitated treatment of addiction.

  6. Can Food Be Addictive? Insights on Obesity from Neuroimaging and Substance Abuse Treatment and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Baicy, Kate

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of obesity is multi-factorial; both genetics and the environment influence the many variables that regulate body weight, metabolism, and eating behavior. The loss of control of eating behavior associated with obesity is analogous to the compulsive drug taking behavior observed in drug-addicted individuals. The American Society of Addiction Medicine first proposed the hypothesis of a food addiction over 10 years ago. Evidence from clinical observations and experimental resea...

  7. Navigating the poverty of heroin addiction treatment and recovery opportunity in Kenya: access work, self-care and rationed expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Tim; Ndimbii, James; Guise, Andy; Cullen, Lucy; Ayon, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the analyses of qualitative interview accounts of people who inject heroin in Kenya, we describe the narration of addiction treatment access and recovery desire in conditions characterised by a 'poverty of drug treatment opportunity'. We observe the performance of addiction recovery narrative in the face of heavy social constraints limiting access to care. Fee-based residential rehabilitation ('rehab') is the only treatment locally available and inaccessible to most. Its recovery potential is doubted, given normative expectations of relapse. Treating drug use is a product of tightly bounded agency. Individuals enact strategies to maximise their slim chances of treatment access ('access work'), develop self-care alternatives when these fail to materialise and ration their care expectations. The use of rehab as a primary means of respite and harm reduction rather than recovery and the individuation of care in the absence of an enabling recovery environment are key characteristics of drug treatment experience. The recent incorporation of 'harm reduction' into policy discourses may trouble the primacy of recovery narrative in addiction treatment and in how treatment desires are voiced. The diversification of drug treatments in combination with social interventions enabling their access are fundamental. PMID:26089184

  8. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  9. Assessing Addiction: Concepts and Instruments

    OpenAIRE

    Samet, Sharon; Waxman, Rachel; Hatzenbuehler, Mark; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient, organized assessment of substance use disorders is essential for clinical research, treatment planning, and referral to adjunctive services. In this article, we discuss the basic concepts of formalized assessment for substance abuse and addiction, as established by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision, and describe six widely used structured assessment instruments. Our aim is to help researchers and clinical programs identify the ins...

  10. Gambling Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Gambling Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Gambling Addiction Print A A ... worth my time?" "What are the risks?" Gambling Addiction Some people have a higher chance of becoming ...

  11. Exercise addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  12. Addiction and Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eJohnson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ADDICTION AND WILLA hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING.The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted.Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness.

  13. Oral health behavior of in-treatment female drug addicts in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ghane

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health behaviors in women with addiction history. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in women drug treatment centers under the supervision of Welfare Organization of Tehran province in Iran. Data collection process was conducted in three centers including a questionnaire with an interview format, clinical examination, and Chi-Square test and MANOVA for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of 95 women participating in this study was less than forty, whereas the age of starting drugs was twenty two. A majority of the patients were unemployed (71% and more than that of two-third did not have a diploma education. Almost half of dentate participants had never or rarely brushed their teeth. Most of them had never used dental floss, while more than half had three or more times snacks or sweet drinks and more than three-fourth were daily smokers. The MANOVA analysis showed that the type of clinic to be visited, age, used stimulant, drug dependency length, the last time a dentist being visited and the brushing period had a statistically significant relationship with Decayed Teeth (DT, Missing Teeth (MT and Filled Teeth (FT (P<0.05. Conclusion: Women with the prior drug addiction history had an unpromising oral health status which was obvious in their self-perceived oral health. Taking the appropriate preventive and therapeutic actions aiming for promoting oral health status of them seems to be necessary.

  14. Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System: Vulnerability Factor and New Treatment Target for Stimulant Addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie eOlière

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit substance among users of stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Interestingly, recent accumulating evidence points toward the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECBS in the neurobiological processes related to stimulant addiction. This article presents an up-to-date review with deep-insights into the pivotal role of the ECBS in the neurobiology of stimulant addiction and the effects of its modulation on addictive behaviors. The aims of this article are to: 1 review the role of cannabis use and ECBS modulation in the neurobiological substrates of psychostimulant addiction and 2 evaluate the potential of cannabinoid-based pharmacological strategies to treat stimulant addiction. A growing number of studies support a critical role of the ECBS and its modulation by synthetic or natural cannabinoid in various neurobiological and behavioral aspects of stimulants addiction. Thus, cannabinoids modulate brain reward systems closely involved in stimulants addiction, and provide further evidence that the cannabinoid system could be explored as a potential drug discovery target for treating addiction across different classes of stimulants.

  15. The therapeutic community for addicts : intimacy, perent involvment and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kooyman (Martien)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractTherapeutic communities for addicts developed since the Sixties without a clear theory on what made them therapeutic. There have also been some doubts on their long term outcome results. Part I of this book describes how therapeutic communities for addicts have roots in the self-help mov

  16. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use and Addictive Behaviors: Prevention and Treatment Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels...

  17. Using Relational-Cultural Theory to Conceptualize Couple Interventions in the Treatment of Sex Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Joanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Sex addictions have become an increasing concern since the growth of the sex industry, sex in advertising, and the ease of Internet access to sex. This article uses the foundational principles of Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) to conceptualize sexual addiction and its relational impact. Particular attention is paid to the principles of…

  18. Application of Neurolinguistic Programming for Treatment and Relapse Prevention of Addictive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Daya Singh

    The dilemma of relapse exists for a number of addictive behaviors, and mental health authorities agree that keeping addictive behaviors off permanently is much more difficult than treating the behaviors initially. Several relapse prevention models have been posited and environmental, physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and affective factors have…

  19. Implementation of Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) Processes in Substance Use Disorder Treatment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Dail; Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Internal process improvements embedded within the Network for Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) program are promising innovations for improving substance use disorder (SUD) treatment performance, such as engagement and retention. To date, few studies have examined the variables that may increase diffusion and implementation of NIATx innovations. This study investigates organizational characteristics associated with SUD treatment center utilization of NIATx process improvements in a sample of 458 treatment programs. Overall, 19% had utilized NIATx process improvements. After statistically controlling environmental factors, five organizational variables were associated with the likelihood that treatment centers used NIATx processes. Organization size, administrative intensity, membership in a provider association, and participation in National Institute on Drug Abuse's Clinical Trials Network were positively associated with the odds of utilizing NIATx processes, while the association for the level of slack resources was negative. The findings suggest that policies and related supportive efforts may be required to facilitate diffusion and implementation of NIATx processes to affect SUD treatment center performance and capacity. PMID:25934355

  20. Mobile Service Affordability for the Needy, Addiction, and ICT Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Pau, Louis-François

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper links communications and media usage to social and household economics boundaries. It highlights that in present day society, communications and media are a necessity, but not always affordable, and that they furthermore open up for addictive behaviours which raise additional financial and social risks. A simple and efficient methodology compatible with state-of-the-art social and communications business statistics is developed, which produces the residual communication...

  1. Existing and Future Drugs for the Treatment of the Dark Side of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, George F; Mason, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a heuristic framework for the stages of the addiction cycle that are linked to neurocircuitry changes in pathophysiology includes the binge/intoxication stage, the withdrawal/negative affect stage, and the preoccupation/anticipation (craving) stage, which represent neuroadaptations in three neurocircuits (basal ganglia, extended amygdala, and frontal cortex, respectively). The identification of excellent and validated animal models, the development of human laboratory models, and an enormous surge in our understanding of neurocircuitry and neuropharmacological mechanisms have provided a revisionist view of addiction that emphasizes the loss of brain reward function and gain of stress function that drive negative reinforcement (the dark side of addiction) as a key to compulsive drug seeking. Reversing the dark side of addiction not only explains much of the existing successful pharmacotherapies for addiction but also points to vast new opportunities for future medications to alleviate this major source of human suffering. PMID:26514207

  2. Clinical potential of methylphenidate in the treatment of cocaine addiction: a review of the current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dürsteler KM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth M Dürsteler,1,2 Eva-Maria Berger,1 Johannes Strasser,1 Carlo Caflisch,2 Jochen Mutschler,2 Marcus Herdener,2 Marc Vogel1 1Center for Addictive Disorders, Psychiatric University Clinics Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Center for Addictive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Psychiatric Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Cocaine use continues to be a public health problem, yet there is no proven effective pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence. A promising approach to treating cocaine dependence may be agonist-replacement therapy, which is already used effectively in the treatment of opioid and tobacco dependence. The replacement approach for cocaine dependence posits that administration of a long-acting stimulant medication should normalize the neurochemical and behavioral perturbations resulting from chronic cocaine use. One potential medication to be substituted for cocaine is methylphenidate (MPH, as this stimulant possesses pharmacobehavioral properties similar to those of cocaine. Aim: To provide a qualitative review addressing the rationale for the use of MPH as a cocaine substitute and its clinical potential in the treatment of cocaine dependence. Methods: We searched MEDLINE for clinical studies using MPH in patients with cocaine abuse/dependence and screened the bibliographies of the articles found for pertinent literature. Results: MPH, like cocaine, increases synaptic dopamine by inhibiting dopamine reuptake. The discriminative properties, reinforcing potential, and subjective effects of MPH and cocaine are almost identical and, importantly, MPH has been found to substitute for cocaine in animals and human volunteers under laboratory conditions. When taken orally in therapeutic doses, its abuse liability, however, appears low, which is especially true for extended-release MPH preparations. Though there are promising data in the literature, mainly from case reports and

  3. Efficacy of treatment in an opioid –dependent population group using the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP) tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ruth; Boggs, Bob; Taggart, Noel; Kelly, Martin; Drillington, Aileen; Swanton, Ivy; Patterson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to assess the effectiveness of treatment in an opioid dependent population using the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP) tool1. The primary outcome of the study was to assess if treatment had an effect on 1. Substance use (quantity and frequency of use), 2. Health risk behaviour (injecting and sharing injecting equipment), 3. Health symptoms (physical and psychological) and 4. Personal /Social functioning (relationships, employment and crime). A secondary outcome was also sought. The study took place in 2007 in an inner city Belfast hospital specialising in the treatment of addiction, over a two month period. Fifteen patients, all opioid dependent and receiving outpatient community treatment, were interviewed at baseline (prior to the commencement of treatment) and at eight weeks follow up. Three patients were lost to follow up. Two patients stopped using altogether. Of the remaining patients, improvements were seen in most areas. There was a decrease in the use of heroin (71.28%), cocaine (99.72%), crack cocaine (100%), cannabis (99.94%) and alcohol (33.17%). There was a reduction in injecting behaviour (60.93%). Improvements were observed in health with a reduction in physical (41.35%) and psychological (35%) symptoms. Overall personal and social functioning improved regarding interactions with family and friends. A reduction in crime was also observed (75%). Opinions and views of staff involved in the study were generally positive. This patient population presents with multiple and complex needs. Effective treatment needs to address these needs and not just drug addiction alone. The Maudsley Addiction Profile tool highlights this. PMID:19252726

  4. Reliability and Validity of Addiction Severity Index in Drug Users with Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO LIANG; EN-WU LIU; HUA ZHONG; BING WANG; LI-MEI SHEN; ZHENG-LAI WU

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of addiction severity index (ASl)-5th version (ASI-C-5), in illegal drug users receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in China. Methods One hundred and eighty-six heroin addicts (144 men and 42 women) receiving MMT at three clinics in Guizhou province, southwest China, were recruited. They were all interviewed with a questionnaire of ASI-C-5 and 35 were re-interviewed at an interval of seven days to assess its test-retest reliability. Results Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency of CSs varied from 0.60 to 0.81 in all domains. Test-retest reliability of composite scores (CSs) of ASI-C-5 were satisfactory (r=0.38-0.97). Based on item analysis and expert's suggestions, five items were deleted and one item was modified in ASI-C-5. Criterion validity of ASI-C-5 was found acceptable, as compared to addicts' self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) (r=0.59 and 0.45) except for social support rating scale (SSRS). Conclusions ASI-C-5 can be used for heroin addicts receiving MMT with acceptable reliability and validity.

  5. Addiction and will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud's concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  6. Addiction Treatment Within U.S. Correctional Facilities: Bridging the Gap Between Current Practice and Evidence-Based Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Sarah E; Rich, Josiah D

    2015-01-01

    The United States leads the world in creating prisoners. This epidemic of incarceration is largely due to the "War on Drugs," which has resulted in criminalization of the disease of addiction. Half of prisoners have an active substance use disorder yet a minority receives formal treatment. Opioid agonist maintenance is among the most effective treatments for opioid use disorder. Maintenance treatment reduces illicit opioid use, crime, recidivism, and cost, yet few correctional facilities provide this lifesaving treatment. Increased access to opioid agonist maintenance as well as reexamination of drug policy is necessary to address this costly and morbid incarceration epidemic. PMID:26076211

  7. Hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of ayahuasca in the treatment of addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liester, Mitchell B; Prickett, James I

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a medicinal plant mixture utilized by indigenous peoples throughout the Amazon River basin for healing purposes. The "vine of the soul" or "vine of death," as it is known in South America, contains a combination of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). When ingested together, these medicines produce profound alterations in consciousness. Increasingly, ayahuasca is being utilized to treat addictions. However, the mechanism of action by which ayahuasca treats addictions remains unclear. We offer four hypotheses to explain possible biochemical, physiological, psychological, and transcendent mechanisms by which ayahuasca may exert its anti-addiction effects. PMID:23061319

  8. Evaluation of an Internet addiction treatment program for Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Tang, Vera M Y; Lo, C Y

    2009-01-01

    This paper described an indigenous multi-level counseling program designed for young people with Internet addiction problems based on the responses of 59 clients. Regarding objective outcome evaluation, pretest and posttest data generally showed that the Internet addiction problems of the participants decreased after joining the program and there were some slight positive changes in the parenting attributes. For the subjective outcome evaluation findings, participants generally perceived that the program was helpful. Findings based on these two evaluation strategies suggest this multi-level indigenous counseling program has promise for helping young people with Internet addiction problems.

  9. Cognitive-behavioral approaches to outpatient treatment of internet addiction in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D; Gradisar, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Excessive and potentially addictive use of the Internet among children and adolescents has emerged as a major concern in recent times. Internet addiction is often conceptualized as an impulse control disorder, with features similar to pathological gambling. However, there remains considerable debate about the core components, etiological processes, course, and maintaining factors of the disorder. This article presents a case study of a 16-year-old male with generalized pathological Internet use. Critical issues relevant to case conceptualization, assessment, and choice of therapy are examined. Although the evidence base is limited in this emerging area of clinical psychology, we provide a summary of empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques for Internet addiction.

  10. A Review of Computer-Based Interventions Used in the Assessment, Treatment, and Research of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Warren K.; Christensen, Darren R.; Marsch, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-based interventions are cost-efficient methods that may result in greater access to drug addiction treatment. We review recent findings from our laboratory where computer-based interventions have produced outcomes that are comparable to therapist-delivered interventions. We also examine how computer-based interventions targeting substance abuse disorders relate to cognitive functioning. This review will suggest that not only are computer-based interventions cost-efficient and accessible but that they are also effective methods for the motivation, engagement, and treatment of drug-dependent individuals. Moreover, computer-based interventions are compatible with a recently proposed biological mechanism implicated as the basis for drug addiction. PMID:21190401

  11. A Review of Computer-Based Interventions Used in the Assessment, Treatment, and Research of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Bickel, Warren K.; Christensen, Darren R.; Marsch, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-based interventions are cost-efficient methods that may result in greater access to drug addiction treatment. We review recent findings from our laboratory where computer-based interventions have produced outcomes that are comparable to therapist-delivered interventions. We also examine how computer-based interventions targeting substance abuse disorders relate to cognitive functioning. This review will suggest that not only are computer-based interventions cost-efficient and accessi...

  12. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess ad...

  13. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treat...

  14. CRIMINAL POLICY AND PREVENTION OF DRUG ADDICTION AMONG YOUTH

    OpenAIRE

    Jadranka Ivandić Zimić; Sanja Mikulić

    2010-01-01

    Contribution of the criminal policy in the development of the integrated prevention-social policy related to drug addiction is highlyimportant because of the fact that it aims are reducing of the drug related crimes, protecting the victims and community. The paperconsiders interventions of the criminal policy into fi elds of treatment and prevention of drug addiction among youth. This relationrepresent challenge for policymakers because interconnections between different service, who do not a...

  15. Common and distinct neural targets of treatment: changing brain function in substance addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Konova, Anna B.; Moeller, Scott J.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroimaging offers an opportunity to examine the neurobiological effects of therapeutic interventions for human drug addiction. Using activation likelihood estimation, the aim of the current meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize functional neuroimaging studies of pharmacological and cognitive-based interventions for drug addiction, with an emphasis on their common and distinct neural targets. More exploratory analyses also contrasted subgroups of studies based on specific study and s...

  16. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol d...

  17. Targeting Endogenous Mu- and Delta-Opioid Receptor Systems for the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Shippenberg, T S; LeFevour, A.; Chefer, V.I.

    2008-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder that is characterized by a compulsion to take drug regardless of the adverse consequences that may ensue. Although the involvement of mesoaccumbal dopamine neurons in the initiation of drug abuse is well-established, neuroadaptations within the limbic cortical- striatopallidal circuit that occur as a consequence of repeated drug use are thought to lead to the behavioral dysregulation that characterizes addiction. Opioid receptors and their endog...

  18. Sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol: Role in drug addiction and novel treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontro...

  19. Psychopharmacology of Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Toker Ugurlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is a primary, chronic, neurobiological disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development. Developments in the psychopharmacology of addiction is much slower than the other disciplines of psychiatry. For a long time, social and behavioral therapeutic approaches are the only choices for the treatment of addictive disorders. Disulfiram was the only pharmacological agent approved for addiction treatment until the end of 20th century. Pharmacological treatment options available for treatment have grown along with our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development and persistence of addiction. Several new medications like naltrexone, acamprosate, methadone and buprenoprhine have been approved for the treatment of alcohol and opioid use disorders ever since. Based on ever-increasing information about neurotransmitter and receptors, many studies have been performed concerning craving and relapse prevention in recent years. Besides many other pharmacological agents have been focus of new researches for treatment of different types of addiction. The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on psychopharmacology of addictive disorders and recent developments in this area.

  20. An Evaluation of the Italian Version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale in Obese Adult Inpatients Engaged in a 1-Month-Weight-Loss Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarini, Martina; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Addiction is a compulsive need for and use of a specific substance leading to a habit, tolerance, and psychophysiological symptoms. Excessive food consumption is similar to that of substance addiction. Some individuals who have trouble losing weight display addictive eating symptoms. To investigate food addiction in a sample of obese adults referred to hospital for a 1-month-weight-loss treatment. The Italian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS-16) was used as a screening tool in 88 obese inpatients. The construct validity of the YFAS-16 was assessed by testing its correlations with measures of binge eating (Binge Eating Scale), impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), and emotional dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale). 34.1% of our sample was diagnosed with YFAS food addiction. Such diagnosis was also supported by strong associations between FA and psychological and behavioral features, typically descriptive of classic addiction. Patients who endorsed the YFAS-16 criteria for food addiction (FA) had significantly higher binge eating levels, greater emotional dysregulation, and nonacceptance of negative feelings; they lacked goal-oriented behavior, had little impulse control, had difficulty in emotion recognition, and attentional impulsivity; and they were unable to concentrate and lacked inhibitory control behavior, unlike participants who did not meet the FA criteria. Further research is needed to support the reliability of the YFAS-16. This measure has the potential to be applied in epidemiological research, estimating the prevalence of FA within the Italian population and to assess new treatments' efficacy for obese patients with food addiction symptoms seeking weight-loss treatments. PMID:26267366

  1. Attitudes towards 12-step groups and referral practices in a 12-step naive treatment culture; a survey of addiction professionals in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudet Alexandre

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addressing substance use disorders effectively requires a long-term approach. Substance abuse treatment is typically of short duration; referring patients to Twelve Step based self-help groups (TSGs – e.g. Narcotics Anonymous, represents a promising complementary recovery resource. Clinicians' attitudes and referral practices towards the TSGs have mainly been studied in countries with high integration of the 12-step philosophy in their substance abuse services and where the TSGs are widely available, such as the US. In Norway, there are currently 294 weekly TSG meetings (6 per 100,000 inhabitants. This study describes clinicians' attitudes and referral practices to TSGs in Norway where health authorities seek to promote self-help participation, but where the treatment culture is unfamiliar with 12-step fellowships. Methods Data collected by a self-administered questionnaire, adapted from established US and UK instruments. Information covered the attitudes, knowledge and referral practices towards TSGs among addiction treatment professionals in Norway in mid 2008. Results The return rate was 79.7% (n = 291. Participants had moderately positive attitude scores towards TSGs, but referral to these groups among Norwegian addiction professionals was low, as was the level of knowledge about TSGs. More than six out of ten did not refer any patients to TSGs in the previous week. Local variation with more referrals to TSGs in the county with the one established 12-step treatment facility was observed. Respondents' integration of the 12-steps in their own treatment work, higher self-efficacy for making a successful referral, and greater TSG knowledge were associated with referring patients. Conclusion Low referral rates to TSGs point to the need for education and training to raise the awareness and knowledge about it among addiction professionals unfamiliar with these 12-step fellowships. Training should focus on the usefulness of

  2. Addiction treatment intervention: an uncontrolled prospective pilot study of Spiritual Self-Schema therapy with Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; Magno-Gatmaytan, Cielo; Meléndez, Michael; Cortés, Dharma E; Arevalo, Sandra; Margolin, Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Spiritual Self-Schema (3-S) is a weekly 8-session, mindfulness-based, manual-guided, individual intervention targeting addiction and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors that integrates cognitive behavioral strategies with Buddhist principles and clients' religious/spiritual beliefs. 3-S is efficacious for reducing drug use and HIV risk behaviors among mixed-gender, methadone-maintained outpatients. The study goal was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of 3-S therapy among urban, low-income Latinas (n = 13) in residential addiction treatment. Data gathered via in-person interviews (baseline, 8 and 20 weeks postentry) showed high rates of 3-S acceptability and positive changes in a number of outcomes relevant to recovery from addiction and to HIV prevention, including impulsivity, spirituality, motivation for change, and HIV prevention knowledge. The study findings are promising; however, a controlled study with longer follow-up is needed to rigorously assess the efficacy of 3-S therapy with Latinas in substance abuse treatment.

  3. ADATSA Treatment Outcomes: Employment and Cost Avoidance: An Eighteen Month Follow-Up Study of Indigent Persons Served by Washington State's Alcoholism and Drug Addiction Treatment and Support Act. Report No. 4-19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Dario; And Others

    This report provides a cost-benefit analysis of a program that provides publicly-funded treatment and support for persons who are addicted to alcohol or other drugs and who are judged to be indigent, unemployable, and incapacitated due to their addiction. The study focused on two client outcomes: (1) determine employment outcomes during an 18…

  4. Discuss on Prevention and Treatment of Sports Activities for Internet Addiction%试述体育活动对网络成瘾的防治作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜; 张艺宏; 杜会娟

    2014-01-01

    通过网络成瘾定义、症状与危害、诊断、干预与治疗等方面的综述,全面认识与了解网络成瘾,并试图阐述体育活动对预防、控制、治疗网络成瘾的作用以及体育活动防治网络成瘾的途径。%The paper aims to let people get comprehensive knowledge and understanding of Internet addiction by overall review of definition and symptoms of Internet addiction, along with harm, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment. It also attempts to illustrate the advantages of sports activities for the prevention, control, and treatment of Internet addiction and solutions to deal with Internet addiction.

  5. 试述体育活动对网络成瘾的防治作用%Discuss on Prevention and Treatment of Sports Activities for Internet Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜; 张艺宏; 杜会娟

    2014-01-01

    通过网络成瘾定义、症状与危害、诊断、干预与治疗等方面的综述,全面认识与了解网络成瘾,并试图阐述体育活动对预防、控制、治疗网络成瘾的作用以及体育活动防治网络成瘾的途径。%The paper aims to let people get comprehensive knowledge and understanding of Internet addiction by overall review of definition and symptoms of Internet addiction, along with harm, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment. It also attempts to illustrate the advantages of sports activities for the prevention, control, and treatment of Internet addiction and solutions to deal with Internet addiction.

  6. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. PMID:27623834

  7. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Improving Quality of Life in Opiate Addicts under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Momeni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of cognitive- behavioral group therapy on improvement of quality of life in opiate patients under methadone maintenance treatment. Method: This was a semi experimental study using control group also pre-test, post-test and follow-up. Thirty six patients on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies within judgmental sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. They were all administered the WHOQOL-BREF. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions and the control group was registered in the waiting list for the CBGT. Findings: Data analysis revealed that the mean WHOQOL-BREF score in the experimental group had significant higher increase when compared with that of the control group. But it wasn’t significant in follow up. Conclusion: Results demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive–behavior group therapy On improvement of quality of life of opiate addicts on MMT in short term but didn’t seem to be effective in long term.

  8. Addiction Science: A Rationale and Tools for a Public Health Response to Drug Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Rawson, Richard A.; Rieckmann, Traci; Gust, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    New scientific knowledge and effective, evidence-based interventions have provided health leaders and policymakers a remarkable paradigm to guide the development of addiction treatment services around the world. The definition of addiction as a brain disease, validated screening and assessment tools, medication-assisted treatment, and effective behavioral treatments have served as vehicles for both the United States and other countries to guide the transformation of their substance abuse trea...

  9. Overcoming Addiction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as an addiction. And it seems to be one of the hardest addictions to overcome. Bill Saxby: ... who smoke are first and foremost individuals and one thing we've learned is that there's not ...

  10. Health-related quality of life among veterans in addictions treatment: identifying behavioral targets for future intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppezzo, Marily A.; Michalek, Anne K.; Delucchi, Kevin; Baiocchi, Michael T. M.; Barnett, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background US veterans report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) relative to the general population. Identifying behavioral factors related to HRQoL that are malleable to change may inform interventions to improve well-being in this vulnerable group. Purpose The current study sought to characterize HRQoL in a largely male sample of veterans in addictions treatment, both in relation to US norms and in association with five recommended health behavior practices: regularly exercising, managing stress, having good sleep hygiene, consuming fruits and vegetables, and being tobacco free. Methods We assessed HRQoL with 250 veterans in addictions treatment (96 % male, mean age 53, range 24–77) using scales from four validated measures. Data reduction methods identified two principal components reflecting physical and mental HRQoL. Model testing of HRQoL associations with health behaviors adjusted for relevant demographic and treatment-related covariates. Results Compared to US norms, the sample had lower HRQoL scores. Better psychological HRQoL was associated with higher subjective social standing, absence of pain or trauma, lower alcohol severity, and monotonically with the sum of health behaviors (all p management, and sleep hygiene. Regular exercise also related to better physical HRQoL. The models explained >40 % of the variance in HRQoL. Conclusions Exercise, sleep hygiene, and stress management are strongly associated with HRQoL among veterans in addictions treatment. Future research is needed to test the effect of interventions for improving well-being in this high-risk group. PMID:26886926

  11. The case for considering quality of life in addiction research and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudet, Alexandre B

    2011-07-01

    Substance use disorders are increasingly viewed as chronic conditions, and addiction treatment services are beginning to adopt models that were developed to address other chronic conditions. These models address the impact of disease and services on the patient's overall well-being. From this perspective, treatment for addiction aims for the broad goal of recovery, which is defined as abstinence plus improved quality of life. However, the addiction field has come late to the chronic disease perspective, and the concept of quality of life in addiction is relatively undeveloped. This article reviews the evidence for the relevance of quality of life in substance use disorder treatment and recovery and discusses the importance of incorporating quality-of-life indices into research and services. PMID:22003421

  12. Issues In-Depth: Advancing Understanding of Drug Addiction and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2009-01-01

    While most school districts utilize a drug abuse resistance curriculum, as science teachers, it is our responsibility to understand the science behind drug addiction in order to most effectively educate our students against drug abuse. In the last two decades, increases in scientific technology have permitted significant discoveries surrounding…

  13. Coexisting addiction and pain in people receiving methadone for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Marie, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the narratives of people who experience chronic pain (lasting 6 months or more) and were receiving methadone for the treatment of their opiate addiction through a major methadone clinic. This paper featured the pathway of how the participants developed chronic pain and addiction, and their beliefs of how prescription opioids would impact their addiction in the future. Thirty-four participants who experienced chronic pain and received methadone for treatment of opiate addiction were willing to tell the story of their experiences. The findings in three areas are presented: (a) whether participants experienced addiction first or pain first and how their exposures to addictive substances influenced their experiences, (b) the significance of recreational drug use and patterns of abuse behaviors leading to chronic pain, and (c) participants' experiences and beliefs about the potential for abuse of prescription opioid used for treatment of pain.

  14. Cocaine Addiction Treatments to improve Control and reduce Harm (CATCH: New Pharmacological Treatment Options for Crack-Cocaine Dependence in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Brink Wim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cocaine, particularly in its base form ('crack', has become one of the drugs of most concern in the Netherlands, being associated with a wide range of medical, psychiatric and social problems for the individual, and with significant public order consequences for society. Available treatment options for cocaine dependent users are limited, and a substantial part of the cocaine dependent population is not reached by the addiction treatment system. Psychosocial interventions for cocaine dependence generally show modest results, and there are no registered pharmacological treatments to date, despite the wide range of medications tested for this type of dependence. The present study (Cocaine Addiction Treatments to improve Control and reduce Harm; CATCH investigates the possibilities and problems associated with new pharmacological treatments for crack dependent patients. Methods/Design The CATCH-study consists of three separate randomised controlled, open-label, parallel-group feasibility trials, conducted at three separate addiction treatment institutes in the Netherlands. Patients are either new referrals or patients already in treatment. A total of 216 eligible outpatients are randomised using pre-randomisation double-consent design and receive either 12 weeks treatment with oral topiramate (n = 36; Brijder Addiction Treatment, The Hague, oral modafinil (n = 36; Arkin, Amsterdam, or oral dexamphetamine sustained-release (n = 36; Bouman GGZ, Rotterdam as an add-on to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT, or receive a 12-week CBT only (controls: n = 3 × 36. Primary outcome in these feasibility trials is retention in the underlying psychosocial treatment (CBT. Secondary outcomes are acceptance and compliance with the study medication, safety, changes in cocaine (and other drug use, physical and mental health, social functioning, and patient satisfaction. Discussion To date, the CATCH-study is the first study in the Netherlands

  15. Application of the principles of evidence-based practice in decision making among senior management in Nova Scotia’s addiction services agencies

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Matthew; MacCarthy, M Jayne; McAllister, Lynda; Gilbert, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background Competency profiles for occupational clusters within Canada’s substance abuse workforce (SAW) define the need for skill and knowledge in evidence-based practice (EBP) across all its members. Members of the Senior Management occupational cluster hold ultimate responsibility for decisions made within addiction services agencies and therefore must possess the highest level of proficiency in EBP. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of the principles of EBP, and use ...

  16. [Internet addiction and web-mediated psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonioni, Federico; Corvino, Stefano

    2011-11-01

    The development of the Internet and its gradual mass distribution in the last 20 years have marked the beginning of a global revolution in the way of communicating and thinking. In this context, emerged disorders related to a pathological use of the network, up to forms of real addiction (Internet Addiction Disorder), similar to the use of psychotropic substances. The abuse of the Internet can seriously aggravate pre-existing psychopathological traits, which are the basis of addiction, resulting in a continuous process of disconnection from reality. The loss of interpersonal relationships, the change of mood, cognition completely oriented to the use of the network and disruption of temporal experience are common features in patients addicted to the Internet. There are also clear signs of intoxication and abstinence. Teenagers are particularly at risk, maybe because born in the "new virtual world" and therefore less aware of the risks that may ensue. At the Gemelli Hospital in Rome it's active an out-patient service for Internet Addiction Disorder with a treatment protocol that includes individual interviews, group rehabilitation and self-help groups for family members.

  17. A case-control study on the causes of new HIV infection among heroin addicts attendees at the methadone maintenance treatment clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王常合

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the routes and factors associated with HIV new infection of heroin addicts who had been attending the methadone maintenance treatment(MMT)program.Methods A 1∶1 nested case-control study was implemented with the cases(new HIV infections)and controls(HIV negative)selected from the treatment cohort of China MMT clients.Questionnaire

  18. Modeling stress and drug craving in the laboratory: implications for addiction treatment development

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita

    2008-01-01

    Addition is a chronic relapsing illness affected by multiple social, individual and biological factors that significantly impact course and recovery of the illness. Stress interacts with these factors and increases addiction vulnerability and relapse risk, thereby playing a significant role in the course of the illness. This paper reviews our efforts in developing and validating laboratory models of stress and drug cue-related provocation to assess stress responses and stress-related adaptati...

  19. The effects of methadone maintenance treatment on heroin addicts with response inhibition function impairments: Evidence from event-related potentials

    OpenAIRE

    Ling Yang; Qiongying Xu; Shifeng Li; Xin Zhao; Li Ma; Youfen Zheng; Juanjuan Zhang; Yi Li

    2015-01-01

    Response inhibition has been a core issue in addictive behavior. Many previous studies have found that response inhibition abilities are damaged in those with drug dependence. However, whether heroin addicts who are treated with methadone maintenance have an abnormal response inhibition ability is not clear. In order to investigate the response inhibition functions in heroin addicts who were treated with methadone maintenance, electroencephalography (EEG) was used to examine 14 heroin addicts...

  20. PATTERN OF SHIFTING OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG DRUG ADDICTS UNDERGOING TREATMENT AT DDCS (DRUG DEADDICTION CENTERS IN PUNJAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: In India , drug addiction has reached very alarming levels in the state of Punjab . The data from a cross - sectional study in two of the DDCs in district Gurdaspur and three of the DDCs in district Hoshiarpur revealed that about 26 patients had history of shifting pattern of substance abuse . The reasons cited by the patients were of affordability , the ease of availability , the job plac e , the locality and the peer groups , in which they were hanging out . Studies also confirm the fact , that tighter control over one drug in India forced some drug users to switch to use other drugs . So , uprooting of this evil from any society needs multipron ged strategy comprising of , total supply breakdown of all types of drugs , breaking down the nexus of suppliers and the drug peddlers , support of the family and the community towards addicts , encouraging them to come out in the open for deaddiction , improvi sation of the services at DDCs , vocational rehabilitation wherever needed and integration in mainstream of the society with open arms and hearts .

  1. A Comparison of Attentional Bias Towards Drug Cues in Addicts and Non-Addicts

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Seyedeh Narjes; Mansouri, Houri; Fazilatpour, Masoud; Shamsai, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: According to recent theories on addiction, attentional bias towards drug-related stimuli plays a pivotal role in the initiation of drug abuse. Objectives: The present study attempted to investigate attentional bias towards drug-related words in addicts and non-addicts. Patients and Methods: To attain the objectives, following a causal-comparative study, a number of 15 addicts under treatment in anonymous groups, and 15 non-addicts from among students at Isfahan University were sel...

  2. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask;

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short...

  3. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu31Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The fields of addiction medicine and addiction research have long sought an efficient yet comprehensive instrument to assess patient progress in treatment and recovery. Traditional tools are expensive, time consuming, complex, and based on topics that clinicians or researchers think are important. Thus, they typically do not provide patient-centered information that is meaningful and relevant to the lives of patients with substance use disorders. To improve our ability to understand patients’ progress in treatment from their perspectives, the authors and colleagues developed a patient-oriented assessment instrument that has considerable advantages over existing instruments: brevity, simplicity, ease of administration, orientation to the patient, and cost (none. The resulting Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA elicits patient responses that help the patient and the clinician quickly gauge patient progress in treatment and in recovery, according to the patients’ sense of what is important within four domains established by prior research. Patients provide both numerical responses and representative details on their substance use, health, lifestyle, and community. No software is required for data entry or scoring, and no formal training is required to administer the TEA. This article describes the development of the TEA and the initial phases of its application in clinical practice and in research.Keywords: substance use disorders, global treatment progress, brief instrument, patient-centered

  4. Malaria treatment services in Nigeria: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin SC Uzochukwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major Public Health problem in Nigeria and causes death and illness in children and adults, especially pregnant women. Malaria case management remains a vital component of the malaria control strategies. This entails early diagnosis and prompt treatment with effective antimalarial medicines. The objectives of this review is to enable health professionals to understand the magnitude of malaria treatment services in Nigeria, to improve knowledge for rational malaria management within different health system contexts with a view to improving access to malaria treatment. The review therefore looks at the following areas: clinical disease and epidemiology; the burden of malaria in Nigeria; objectives of treatment; antimalarial treatment policy; malaria diagnosis, treatment strategies/ National responses; treatment sources. The review concludes that for improved malaria treatment services in Nigeria, there is an urgent need to develop adequate strategies that will ensure better access to medicines by getting evidence-based and effective medicines to the people who need them, whether by reducing their costs, promoting equity in access, improving their distribution, increasing their efficacy and acceptability, or slowing down the development of antimicrobial resistance.

  5. Effective Treatment in Home-Based Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simboli, Tim; Darou, Wes G.

    The use of home-based treatment programs has become increasingly popular over the last few years. Such a program is offered by the Youth Services Bureau of Ottawa-Carleton through its Detached Worker Program. This program uses paraprofessionals who employ an eclectic combination of behavioral, client-centered, family and reality therapies. Two…

  6. Dopamine D3 receptor ligands for drug addiction treatment: update on recent findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Bernard; Collo, Ginetta; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Boileau, Isabelle; Merlo Pich, Emilio; Sokoloff, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor is located in the limbic area and apparently mediates selective effects on motivation to take drugs and drug-seeking behaviors, so that there has been considerable interest on the possible use of D3 receptor ligands to treat drug addiction. However, only recently selective tools allowing studying this receptor have been developed. This chapter presents an overview of findings that were presented at a symposium on the conference Dopamine 2013 in Sardinia in May 2013. Novel neurobiological findings indicate that drugs of abuse can lead to significant structural plasticity in rodent brain and that this is dependent on the availability of functional dopamine D3 autoreceptor, whose activation increased phosphorylation in the ERK pathway and in the Akt/mTORC1 pathway indicating the parallel engagement of a series of intracellular signaling pathways all involved in cell growth and survival. Preclinical findings using animal models of drug-seeking behaviors confirm that D3 antagonists have a promising profile to treat drug addiction across drugs of abuse type. Imaging the D3 is now feasible in human subjects. Notably, the development of (+)-4-propyl-9-hydroxynaphthoxazine ligand used in positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans allows to measure D3 and D2 receptors based on the area of the brain under study. This PET ligand has been used to confirm up-regulation of D3 sites in psychostimulant users and to reveal that tobacco smoking produces elevation of dopamine at the level of D3 sites. There are now novel antagonists being developed, but also old drugs such as buspirone, that are available to test the D3 hypothesis in humans. The first results of clinical investigations are now being provided. Overall, those recent findings support further exploration of D3 ligands to treat drug addiction. PMID:24968784

  7. The Gap between Tobacco Treatment Guidelines, Health Service Organization, and Clinical Practice in Comprehensive Cancer Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mazza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation is necessary to reach a higher quality of life, and, for a cancer patient, it represents an important step in improving the outcome of both prognosis and therapy. Being a cancer patient addicted to nicotine may be a critical situation. We conducted a survey to monitor how many comprehensive cancer centres in Italy have an outpatient smoker clinic and which kinds of resources are available. We also inquired about inpatient services offering psychological and pharmacological support for smoking cessation, reduction, or care of acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms. What we have witnessed is a significant gap between guidelines and services. Oncologists and cancer nurses are overscheduled, with insufficient time to engage in discussion on a problem that they do not consider directly related to cancer treatment. Furthermore, smoking habits and limited training in tobacco dependence and treatment act as an important barrier and lead to the undervaluation of smokers' needs.

  8. Acupuncture treatment of substance-induced psychosis, addiction and pain: A review with case study

    OpenAIRE

    Tzafrir Nachmani

    2015-01-01

    Substance-induced psychosis is an extreme mental disorder that is relevant to up to 25% of individuals presenting with first episode of psychosis. One out of three of those continuing the drug abuse will have a recurrent psychosis. In order to treat the psychosis and prevent recurrent drug abuse which might lead to another psychosis, the therapist should understand all parts of the process leading up to psychosis, including the root causes for the drug abuse and the addiction, the effect of t...

  9. The Effectiveness of Marlaat’s Cognitive Behavior Intervention and Group Treatment Based on Change Stages for Recovery and Relapse Prevention Rates in Male Heroin Crack Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khodadust

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the Study of effectiveness of Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention and group treatment based on change stages for recovery and relapse rates in male heroin crack addictions. Method: In a experimental research design, 45 men addictions, who were diagnosed as the dependence of the heroin crack on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, were chosen after successfully detoxified. They were divided two experimental groups (30 participants and a control group (15 participants that have been selected by random sampling. The first experimental group was undergone group treatment based on change stages underwent 16 sessions of 1.5 hours, totally 24 hours and the second experimental groups who were undergone Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention has been held 15 sessions of 2 hours, totally 24 hours. The control group were just received MMT without any psychotherapy. All participants were assessed by structured interview, urine test, before treatment, after treatment and after 3 months follow up. Results: Results showed that both psychotherapy treatments were affected on recovery and relapse rates. Conclusion: It seems that psychological problems and conflicts before addiction and after addiction could be caused for individuals’ tendency to narcotics consumption. Therefore, applying of psychotherapy could be useful in relapse prevention.

  10. Engagement and Substance Dependence in a Primary Care-Based Addiction Treatment Program for People Infected with HIV and People at High-Risk for HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Alexander Y; Palmisano, Joseph; Sorensen-Alawad, Amy; Chaisson, Christine; Raj, Anita; Samet, Jeffrey H; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2015-12-01

    To improve outcomes for people with substance dependence and HIV infection or at risk for HIV infection, patients were enrolled in a primary care-based addiction treatment program from 2008-2012 that included a comprehensive substance use assessment, individual and group counseling, addiction pharmacotherapy and case management. We examined whether predisposing characteristics (depression, housing status, polysubstance use) and an enabling resource (buprenorphine treatment) were associated with engagement in the program and persistent substance dependence at 6 months. At program enrollment 61% were HIV-infected, 53% reported heroin use, 46% reported alcohol use, 37% reported cocaine use, and 28% reported marijuana use in the past 30 days, 72% reported depression, 19% were homeless, and 53% had polysubstance use. Within 6-months 60% had been treated with buprenorphine. Engagement (defined as 2 visits in first 14 days and 2 additional visits in next 30 days) occurred in 64%; 49% had substance dependence at 6-months. Receipt of buprenorphine treatment was associated with engagement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 8.32 95% CI: 4.13-16.77). Self-reported depression at baseline was associated with substance dependence at 6-months (AOR 3.30 95% CI: 1.65-6.61). Neither housing status nor polysubstance use was associated with engagement or substance dependence. The FAST PATH program successfully engaged and treated patients in a primary care-based addiction treatment program. Buprenorphine, a partial opioid agonist, was a major driver of addiction treatment engagement. Given depression's association with adverse outcomes in this clinical population, including mental health treatment as part of integrated care holds potential to improve addiction treatment outcomes. PMID:26298399

  11. Pharmacogenetic aspects of addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, Nadia S

    2007-01-01

    Addictions are illnesses of complex causation, including inheritance and a role for gene/environment interactions. Functional alleles influencing pharmacodynamic (tissue response) and pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, and metabolism) play a role, but these interact with diverse environmental factors including early life stress, underage drug exposure, availability of addictive agents, and response to clinical interventions including pharmacotherapies. Identification of genetic factors in addiction thus plays an important role in the understanding of processes of addiction and origins of differential vulnerabilities and treatment responses. PMID:18286803

  12. Overcoming Addiction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Announcer: It's been well-known for a long time that smoking is bad for your health, but it was only ten years ago that the Surgeon General identified cigarette smoking as an addiction. And it seems to be one of the hardest addictions ...

  13. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan. PMID:26394521

  14. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan.

  15. Redox-based Epigenetic status in Drug Addiction: Potential mediator of drug-induced gene priming phenomenon and use of metabolic intervention for symptomatic treatment in drug addiction.

    OpenAIRE

    Malav Suchin Trivedi; Richard eDeth

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants and opioids, can induce epigenetic changes: a contributing factor for drug addiction, tolerance and associated withdrawal symptoms. DNA methylation is the major epigenetic mechanism and it is one of more than 200 methylation reactions supported by methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). The levels of SAM are controlled by cellular redox status via the folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS), for example; un...

  16. Experiences with an outpatient relapse program (CRA) combined with naltrexone in the treatment of opioid dependence: effect on addictive behaviours and the predictive value of psychiatric comorbidity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, H.G.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Brink, van den W.

    2003-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, in the treatment of opiate addicts. The effects of naltrexone are often compromised by a lack of compliance and drop-out. The effects of this compound are probably more favorable when combined with a psychosocial intervent

  17. Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Internet Addiction: A Clinical Pilot Study on the Effects of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wölfling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction is regarded as a growing health concern in many parts of the world with prevalence rates of 1-2% in Europe and up to 7% in some Asian countries. Clinical research has demonstrated that Internet addiction is accompanied with loss of interests, decreased psychosocial functioning, social retreat, and heightened psychosocial distress. Specialized treatment programs are needed to face this problem that has recently been added to the appendix of the DSM-5. While there are numerous studies assessing clinical characteristics of patients with Internet addiction, the knowledge about the effectiveness of treatment programs is limited. Although a recent meta-analysis indicates that those programs show effects, more clinical studies are needed here. To add knowledge, we conducted a pilot study on the effects of a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy program for IA. 42 male adults meeting criteria for Internet addiction were enrolled. Their IA-status, psychopathological symptoms, and perceived self-efficacy expectancy were assessed before and after the treatment. The results show that 70.3% of the patients finished the therapy regularly. After treatment symptoms of IA had decreased significantly. Psychopathological symptoms were reduced as well as associated psychosocial problems. The results of this pilot study emphasize findings from the only meta-analysis conducted so far.

  18. Treatment outcomes in patients with internet addiction: a clinical pilot study on the effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, K; Beutel, M E; Dreier, M; Müller, K W

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction is regarded as a growing health concern in many parts of the world with prevalence rates of 1-2% in Europe and up to 7% in some Asian countries. Clinical research has demonstrated that Internet addiction is accompanied with loss of interests, decreased psychosocial functioning, social retreat, and heightened psychosocial distress. Specialized treatment programs are needed to face this problem that has recently been added to the appendix of the DSM-5. While there are numerous studies assessing clinical characteristics of patients with Internet addiction, the knowledge about the effectiveness of treatment programs is limited. Although a recent meta-analysis indicates that those programs show effects, more clinical studies are needed here. To add knowledge, we conducted a pilot study on the effects of a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy program for IA. 42 male adults meeting criteria for Internet addiction were enrolled. Their IA-status, psychopathological symptoms, and perceived self-efficacy expectancy were assessed before and after the treatment. The results show that 70.3% of the patients finished the therapy regularly. After treatment symptoms of IA had decreased significantly. Psychopathological symptoms were reduced as well as associated psychosocial problems. The results of this pilot study emphasize findings from the only meta-analysis conducted so far.

  19. 强制戒毒人群HIV和梅毒感染及影响因素%HIV and syphilis infections and influence factors among drug addicts under compulsory addiction treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金英; 卢次勇; 黄晋飞; 黄桂锋; 邓琳; 孙小康; 曾茜茜

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解广东省清远市强制戒毒人群HIV和梅毒的感染状况及影响因素.方法 于2007-2008年对清远市3个强制戒毒所的强制戒毒者进行问卷调查,内容包括社会人口学、吸毒和性行为特征并采集血样检测HIV和梅毒抗体.结果 共调查强制戒毒者740人,HIV和梅毒感染率分别为4.59%、12.57%;二重感染率为1.22%;多因素Logistic回归分析表明,注射吸毒和感染梅毒是HIV感染的危险因素;来自农村和乡镇、累计人戒毒所次数多以及商业性行为是梅毒感染的危险因素.结论 清远市强制戒毒人群HIV、梅毒及重叠感染率高于一般人群,注射吸毒和商业性行为是主要危险因素.%Objective To investigate HIV and syphilis infections and influence factors among drug addicts under compulsory rehabilitation in Qingyuan city. Methods From 2007 to 2008, a cross-sectional study was conducted among drug addicts selected with cluster sampling from three compulsory addiction treatment centers in Qingyuan city. Questionnaire survey was conducted to collect information on demographics and characteristics of drug use and sexual behavior, and blood samples were collected for tests of HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results Among 740 drug addicts investigated, the infection rates of HIV and syphilis were 4. 59% and 12.57% ,and the co-infection infection rate was 1.22%. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that drug injection and syphilis infection were risk factors for HIV infection. Drug users from rural and town,with more accumulated times of drug detoxification and commercial sex behavior had a higher risk of syphilis infection. Conclusion The infection rates of HIV and syphilis in drug addicts under compulsory addiction are higher than those of in general people as well as the co-infection. Drug injection and commercial sex behaviors are main risk factors for infections of HIV and syphilis.

  20. Immunological Assessment of addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Gamal El-Din Zaki(1 ,Kouka Saad Eldin Abdel-Wahab

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate some aspects of immunologic response among Egyptian addicts. The study was conducted on 33 drug addicts who were admitted to hospital for treatment. They were males with age range (19-30; mean 24.73 years. They were followed up at 2-weeks intervals for one month. Blood samples from 18 addicts and 10 non-drug-user control blood donors were evaluated for some lymphocyte immunophenotypic markers by flow cytometric analysis. Addicts showed significantly (P < 0.001 decreased percentages of both T-helper (CD4+ and T-cytotoxic (CD8+ compared with controls. There was also significant (P < 0.05 reduction of CD4+/CD8+ lymphocyte ratio. Sera from all addicts, whether on hospital admission or follow-up samples were subjected to the following investigations. Some blood-borne viral infections were investigated; hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg was present in 1/33 (3% addicts. Hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV were detected in 11/33 (33.3% addicts versus 1/10 (10% of controls. Human immunodeficiency virus antibodies (anti-HIV were present in one serum out of 33 (3% addicts. Reactivation of cytomegalovirus (CMV latent infection was assessed by detection of anti-CMV IgM in 1/33 (3% of addicts on hospital admission, which persisted during the first two weeks, then disappeared on the 4th week. Antibody activity as neutralizing antibodies to polioviruses 1,2 and 3 were tested in cell culture, the antibody titer was higher in follow-up samples than on the time of hospital admission. Antistreptolysin O (ASO was detected in serum of one addict (3% on hospital admission and in another addict 2-weeks later which indicated streptococcal infection. The acute inflammation phase C-reactive protein (CRP was high in 7/33 (21.2%, 3/33 (9.1% and 1/33 (3% upon hospital admission, 2-weeks and 4-weeks, after cessation of drug use respectively.

  1. Addicts\\\\\\' Quality of Life and Psychological Disorders (depression, anxiety, and stress in two Treatment Methods: Narcotics Anonymous vs. Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Haj Hosseini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at comparing addicts' quality of life and psychological disorders based on two methods, i.e. an educational method (Narcotics Anonymous and a medical method (Methadone Maintenance Treatment. Method: An ex post facto research design was used in this study. Using purposive sampling, the number of 217 male addict (110 NA, 107 MMT was selected from Shahrekord City. Quality of Life Questionnaire and Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-42 were utilized to collect data. Results: According to the results of multivariate analysis of covariance, in terms of life quality, status of NA group members was more desirable as compared with the MMT group. Considering the three psychological disorders, NA group members were in a better condition than the methadone treatment group. An increase in the membership duration in NA was associated with lower level of depression and physical pain and higher level of general health and positive emotions. Conclusion: Therapeutic community approach was revealed to be more adequate in improving the quality of life and reducing psychological disorders, and may be considered as a desired method of treatment.

  2. What's in the 'treatment gap'? Ethnographic perspectives on addiction and global mental health from China, Russia, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Nicholas; Garriott, William; Raikhel, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a 'global mental health' agenda, focused on providing evidence-based interventions for mental illnesses in low- and middle-income countries. Anthropologists and cultural psychiatrists have engaged in vigorous debates about the appropriateness of this agenda. In this article, we reflect on these debates, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork on the management of substance use disorders in China, Russia, and the United States. We argue that the logic of 'treatment gaps,' which guides much research and intervention under the rubric of global mental health, partially obscures the complex assemblages of institutions, therapeutics, knowledges, and actors framing and managing addiction (as well as other mental health issues) in any particular setting.

  3. Research to practice in addiction treatment: key terms and a field-driven model of technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The transfer of new technologies (e.g., evidence-based practices) into substance abuse treatment organizations often occurs long after they have been developed and shown to be effective. Transfer is slowed, in part, due to a lack of clear understanding about all that is needed to achieve full implementation of these technologies. Such misunderstanding is exacerbated by inconsistent terminology and overlapping models of an innovation, including its development and validation, dissemination to the public, and implementation or use in the field. For this reason, a workgroup of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network developed a field-driven conceptual model of the innovation process that more precisely defines relevant terms and concepts and integrates them into a comprehensive taxonomy. The proposed definitions and conceptual framework will allow for improved understanding and consensus regarding the distinct meaning and conceptual relationships between dimensions of the technology transfer process and accelerate the use of evidence-based practices.

  4. A Meaning-Centered Therapy for Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a treatment for addictions, based on the idea that addiction is a response to living a life that has little personal meaning. First, it presents the theory of Meaning-Centered Therapy (MCT) as developed by Paul Wong, particularly the need to understand intoxication from the addict's perspective. Next, it presents the…

  5. Can persons with a history of multiple addiction treatment episodes benefit from technology delivered behavior therapy? A moderating role of treatment history at baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunny Jung; Marsch, Lisa A; Acosta, Michelle C; Guarino, Honoria; Aponte-Melendez, Yesenia

    2016-03-01

    A growing line of research has shown positive treatment outcomes from technology-based therapy for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, little is known about the effectiveness of technology-based SUD interventions for persons who already had numerous prior SUD treatments. We conducted a secondary analysis on a 12-month trial with patients (N=160) entering methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Patients were randomly assigned to either standard MMT treatment or a model in which half of standard counseling sessions were replaced with a computer-based intervention, called Therapeutic Education System (standard+TES). Four treatment history factors at baseline, the number of lifetime SUD treatment episodes, detoxification episodes, and inpatient/outpatient treatment episodes were categorized into three levels based on their tertile points, and analyzed as moderators. Dependent variables were urine toxicology results for opioid and cocaine abstinence for 52-weeks. The standard+TES condition produced significantly better opioid abstinence than standard treatment for participants with 1) a moderate or high frequency of lifetime SUD treatment episodes, and 2) those with all three levels (low, moderate and high) of detoxification and inpatient/outpatient treatment episodes, pshistory, pstechnology-based behavioral therapy as part of treatment can be more effective than MMT alone, even among patients with a history of multiple addiction treatment episodes.

  6. Stent-Graft Placement with Early Debridement and Antibiotic Treatment for Femoral Pseudoaneurysms in Intravenous Drug Addicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Qining, E-mail: cqmufqn@163.com; Meng, Xiyun, E-mail: 383274177@qq.com; Li, Fenghe, E-mail: lfh-cqmu@gmail.com; Wang, Xuehu, E-mail: 184037696@qq.co; Cheng, Jun, E-mail: cqdcj@163.com; Huang, Wen, E-mail: dhuangwen@hotmail.com; Ren, Wei, E-mail: renwei9771@yahoo.com.cn; Zhao, Yu, E-mail: zhaoyu-cqmu@126.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Department of Vascular Surgery (China)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeExplore the application of endovascular covered stent-graft (SG) placement in femoral pseudoaneurysms in intravenous drug addicts.Materials and MethodsWe evaluated a consecutive series of pseudoaneurysm in intravenous drug addicts treated with SGs from August 2010 to December 2013.Results15 patients with 16 arterial pseudoaneurysms were enrolled in this study. All were males with a mean age of 36.9 years. Hemorrhage was the most common reason (93.8 %) for seeking medical care, and 3 of these patients were in hemorrhagic shock at admission. All patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics, and debridement and drainage were implemented after SG placement. 7 of the 13 cases which had microbiologic results showed mixed infections, while gram-negative bacteria were the major pathogens. Except for 2 patients, who were lost to follow-up, two new pseudoaneurysms formed due to delayed debridement, and one stent thrombosis occurred, none of the remaining cases had SG infection or developed claudication.ConclusionsSG placement controls massive hemorrhage rapidly, gives enough time for subsequent treatment for pseudoaneurysms due to intravenous drug abuse, and reduces the incidence of postoperative claudication. With appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics and early debridement, the incidence of SG infection is relatively low. It is an effective alternative especially as temporary bridge measure for critical patients. However, the high cost, uncertain long-term prospects, high demand for medical adherence, and the risk of using the conduits for re-puncture call for a cautious selection of patients. More evidence is required for the application of this treatment.

  7. The Role of Gender in Factors Associated With Addiction Treatment Satisfaction Among Long-Term Opioid Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Kirsten; Palis, Heather; Peng, Defen; Fikowski, Jill; Harrison, Scott; Spittal, Patricia; Schechter, Martin T.; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify factors associated with Opioid Agonist Treatment (OAT) satisfaction and to determine whether these relationships are gender specific. Methods: This study was based on data collected in a cross-sectional study among long-term opioid-dependent individuals (n = 160; 46.3% women). Participants completed the Client Satisfaction Questionnaire in reference to OAT episodes. Sociodemographic, illicit substance use, health, and addiction treatment history data were collected. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the relationship between these variables and treatment satisfaction. To explore the potential role of gender in these identified relationships stratified multivariable models were tested. Additional open-ended questions regarding positive and negative perceptions of treatment were collected, and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results: In the multivariable linear regression model, participants who were older, of Aboriginal ancestry, and currently receiving OAT had higher OAT satisfaction scores, whereas participants who had methadone dose preferences of 30 mg or less had lower OAT satisfaction. In stratified analyses among women, the relationship between preferred methadone dose and current OAT remained significantly associated with satisfaction. Open-ended positive and negative perceptions complemented and provided further valuable data to interpret these identified relationships. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore the potential role of gender in factors associated with OAT satisfaction. These findings provide valuable information to health care providers working in OAT settings regarding how to address women and men's OAT needs and improve treatment satisfaction. PMID:26335006

  8. Addiction therapy. Refining deep brain stimulation to emulate optogenetic treatment of synaptic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Meaghan; Pascoli, Vincent Jean; Lüscher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    Circuit remodeling driven by pathological forms of synaptic plasticity underlies several psychiatric diseases, including addiction. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied to treat a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions, although its effects are transient and mediated by largely unknown mechanisms. Recently, optogenetic protocols that restore normal transmission at identified synapses in mice have provided proof of the idea that cocaine-adaptive behavior can be reversed in vivo. The most efficient protocol relies on the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluRs, which depotentiates excitatory synaptic inputs onto dopamine D1 receptor medium-sized spiny neurons and normalizes drug-adaptive behavior. We discovered that acute low-frequency DBS, refined by selective blockade of dopamine D1 receptors, mimics optogenetic mGluR-dependent normalization of synaptic transmission. Consequently, there was a long-lasting abolishment of behavioral sensitization.

  9. Attentional Bias to Drug- and Stress-Related Pictorial Cues in Cocaine Addiction Comorbid with PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Sokhadze, Estate; Singh, Shraddha; Stewart, Christopher; Hollifield, Michael; El-Baz, Ayman; TASMAN, ALLAN

    2008-01-01

    Cocaine addiction places a specific burden on mental health services through its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. Treatment of patients with cocaine abuse is more complicated when addiction is co-occurring with PTSD. This study used dense-array event-related potential (ERP) technique to investigate whether the patients with this form of dual diagnosis display excessive reactivity to both trauma and drug cues as compared to neutral cues. Cue reactivity refers to a phenomenon in wh...

  10. The Globalization of Addiction Research: Capacity Building Mechanisms and Selected Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Richard A.; Woody, George; Kresina, Thomas F.; Gust, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the amount and variety of addiction research around the world has increased substantially. Researchers in the United States, Western Europe, United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia have significantly contributed to knowledge about addiction and its treatment. However, the nature and context of substance use disorders (SUDs) and the populations using drugs are far more diverse than is reflected in studies done in Western cultures. To stimulate new research from a diverse set of cultural perspectives, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has promoted the development of addiction research capacity and skills around the world for over 25 years. This review will describe the programs NIDA has developed to sponsor international research and research fellows and will provide some examples of the work NIDA has supported. NIDA fellowships have allowed 496 individuals from 96 countries to be trained in addiction research. The United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia have recently developed funding to support addiction research to study SUD problems that impact their societies with NIDA guidance.. Examples from Malaysia, Tanzania, Brazil, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Republic of Georgia, Iceland, China, and Vietnam are used to illustrate research being conducted with NIDA support. Health services research, collaboratively funded by NIH and the Department of State, addresses a range of addiction service development questions in low- and middle-income countries. Findings have expanded the understanding of addiction and its treatment and are enhancing the ability of practitioners and policy makers to address SUDs using data to guide their decision-making. PMID:25747927

  11. The globalization of addiction research: capacity-building mechanisms and selected examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Richard A; Woody, George; Kresina, Thomas F; Gust, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, the amount and variety of addiction research around the world has increased substantially. Researchers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, United States, and western Europe have significantly contributed to knowledge about addiction and its treatment. However, the nature and context of substance use disorders and the populations using drugs are far more diverse than is reflected in studies done in Western cultures. To stimulate new research from a diverse set of cultural perspectives, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has promoted the development of addiction research capacity and skills around the world for over 25 years. This review will describe the programs NIDA has developed to sponsor international research and research fellows and will provide some examples of the work NIDA has supported. NIDA fellowships have allowed 496 individuals from 96 countries to be trained in addiction research. The United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia have recently developed funding to support addiction research to study, with advice from NIDA, the substance use disorder problems that affect their societies. Examples from Malaysia, Tanzania, Brazil, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Republic of Georgia, Iceland, China, and Vietnam are used to illustrate research being conducted with NIDA support. Health services research, collaboratively funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and Department of State, addresses a range of addiction service development questions in low- and middle-income countries. Findings have expanded the understanding of addiction and its treatment, and are enhancing the ability of practitioners and policy makers to address substance use disorders.

  12. Safety and efficacy of oral slow release morphine for maintenance treatment in heroin addicts: a 6-month open noncomparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Georgi N; Alexieva, Daniela Z; Pavlova, Rositsa Z

    2006-01-01

    This open-label, noncomparative, single-center trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of once-daily treatment with slow release oral morphine (SROM) capsules for the maintenance treatment of 20 outpatients with heroin dependency over 6 months at the National Institute for Addictions in Sofia, Bulgaria. Doses were individually titrated up to a mean daily maintenance dose of 760 mg (range 440-1,200 mg). SROM was effective in significantly reducing the signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal and craving for heroin, with stabilization generally evident within two weeks. Nineteen patients completed 6 months of treatment and illicit opioid use was virtually eliminated. One patient withdrew voluntarily at 22 weeks. Validated questionnaires and tests indicated improvements in patients' well-being from baseline assessments. These included significant improvements with regard to suicidal depression (85%), anxiety and dysphoria (66%), general illness (58%), social dysfunction (54%), sense of hopelessness (34%), attention (25%), and self-reported typical depressive (27%) and disease-related (11%) symptoms. No deaths, serious adverse events, or withdrawals due to adverse events occurred. Five episodes of constipation and one episode of sweating (all nonserious and of mild or moderate severity) were reported. Vital signs were unaffected by SROM and no weight change was evident over the study period. The observations made in this study indicate a promising role for once-daily treatment with SROM in the clinical management of heroin dependency.

  13. Internet addiction in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren

    2014-07-01

    In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families. PMID:25142474

  14. Internet addiction in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren

    2014-07-01

    In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families.

  15. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS USED FOR ACCOUNTING SERVICES PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain through a thorough and detailed approach as different sides (conceptual and practical looking projections of accounting issues related to regulatory developments and practices in the field. This paper addresses various concepts, accounting treatments, and books and accounting documents used both freelancers in providing accounting services and legal persons authorized accounting profession. In terms of methodology and research perspective, the whole scientific approach combined with quantitative and qualitative research theoretical perspective (descriptive-conceptual with practice perspective (empirical analyzing the main contributions of various authors (Romanian and foreign to knowledge in the field. Following the survey believe that the amendments to the national legislation will support entities providing accounting services, by cutting red tape on Administrative Burdens, and consequently will increase profitability and increase service quality.

  16. Overcoming Addiction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... been well-known for a long time that smoking is bad for your health, but it was ... years ago that the Surgeon General identified cigarette smoking as an addiction. And it seems to be ...

  17. Overcoming Addiction

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a habit, it's addictive. The sad part is after you've smoked as long as I do you ... that's definitely up there. Within a few hours after you quit, that will start to come down. Bill: ...

  18. 76 FR 81899 - TRICARE; Removal of the Prohibition to Use Addictive Drugs in the Maintenance Treatment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... potential for a drug of addiction (e.g. the ] substitution of methadone for heroin). The current regulation... the public is to make these submissions available for public viewing on the Internet at http://www... drug of addiction. However, medicine is constantly evolving including in the area of drug...

  19. Dealing with Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Dealing With Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Dealing With Addiction Print A ... is even harder. What Are Substance Abuse and Addiction? The difference between substance abuse and addiction is ...

  20. Brain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Teens / Drug Facts / Brain and Addiction Brain and Addiction Print Your Brain Your brain is who you ... is taken over and over. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes ...

  1. Cocaine – Characteristics and addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4:537–544

  2. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-12-31

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction.

  3. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction. PMID:24409425

  4. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  5. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  6. Behavioral addictions: a novel challenge for psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Presta, Silvio; Baroni, Stefano; Silvestri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-12-01

    Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology. It is, however, controversial whether all or at least some of them should be considered real disorders or just normal, albeit extreme, behaviors. The aim of this article is to review current data on pharmacological treatment of behavioral addictions. As no specific and validated treatment algorithms are currently available, only an improved knowledge on their psychopathological, clinical, and neurobiological features may have relevant implications for more focused preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  7. First Consumers, Then Socially Integrated: Results of a Study on 100 Italian Drug Users Who Had Never Turned to Public or Private Addiction Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarin, Raimondo Maria

    2016-06-01

    This study, which addressed a per quota sample of 100 socially integrated drug users (SID) residing in Emilia Romagna (Italy) who have never referred to a public/private Addiction Service, has four main aims: (1) to describe the phenomenology of substance use in all its different facets; (2) to identify feared unwanted consequences due to the use of illegal substances and possible behaviors finalized to preventing them; (3) to identify possible common consumption rules; (4) to identify any differences among the SID. Two types of consumers have been compared: the "law-breakers" (i.e. those who have committed an illegal activity to procure money) and the "law-abiders" (no such action).From the interviewees some discontinuous consumption trajectories over time are reported in relation to the different levels of disposable income and the change in the relationship with the substances. Most of these consumers fear being stigmatized or labeled as drug-addicts, and cause themselves physical, psychological or economic harm; instead only a minority fear developing addiction. The most widespread protective behavior is to purchase through trusted direct channels, followed by the attempt to limit the doses and to consume only in positive emotional states. Rules of conduct implemented at a general level by all the consumers were evidenced, which the law-breakers finalize towards a greater attention to their own psycho-physical health and to better handling the effects produced by the substances, while the law-abiders seek to keep their status as consumers secret. PMID:27144812

  8. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  9. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment. PMID:22641961

  10. New Progresses in the Treatment of Adolescent Internet Addiction%青少年网络成瘾治疗研究的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏斌原; 李江雪; 叶婷婷; 张卫

    2014-01-01

    青少年网络成瘾问题逐渐成为一个世界性的心理行为问题,在我国该问题尤其受关注。近年来国内外围绕网络成瘾展开大量的研究,但很少涉及不同治疗方法疗效的比较分析。本研究回顾了有实证实验支持的网络成瘾治疗方法及其成效,并对认知行为疗法、现实疗法、接受与承诺疗法、药物疗法和综合疗法进行了分析和总结,反映了网络成瘾治疗方法研究的新进展:研究者们从最初关注网络成瘾的行为本身到更多地关注成瘾问题背后存在的情绪、家庭、人际等深层次心理问题,治疗方法从靠单纯的禁止与隔离、认知的改变及行为的训练,到最近的接纳、选择与改变,治疗的动力也从外界转向自身。研究发现:心理与药物疗法对网络成瘾治疗均有显著作用,不同疗法在改善网瘾、抑郁、焦虑等症状,减少上网时间等结果变量上均呈现出混杂的效应,但不同疗法间的功效还有待进一步验证。%Internet addiction ( IA) is becoming a widespread and problematic phenomenon.In recent years, much research has been done about internet addiction, but relatively little on the therapeutic aspects and compara-tive analysis of the efficacy of different treatment methods.This study reviews the network addiction treatment meth-ods and their effectiveness supported by empirical experiments, and analyzes Cognitive Behavioral Therapy( CBT) , Reality Therapy(RT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy(ACT), medication, and Multi -level Counseling Programs.Research methods of new progresses of internet addiction treatment are presented.Researches shift from the initial concern of internet addiction itself to deep-seated psychological problems of emotion, family,and relation-ships behind the addiction, and treatments shift from relying on simple prohibition and isolation, changes of cogni-tive and behavioral training, to the acceptation, choice

  11. Comparing life experiences in active addiction and recovery between veterans and non-veterans: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudet, Alexandre; Timko, Christine; Hill, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The costs of addiction are well documented, but the potential benefits of recovery are less well known. Similarly, substance use issues among both active duty military personnel and veterans are well known but their recovery experiences remain underinvestigated. Furthermore, little is known about whether and how addiction and recovery experiences differ between veterans and non-veterans. This knowledge can help refine treatment and recovery support services. Capitalizing on a national study of individuals in recovery (N = 3,208), we compare addiction and recovery experiences among veterans (n = 481) and non-veterans. Veterans' addiction phase was 4 years longer than non-veterans and they experienced significantly more financial and legal problems. Dramatic improvements in functioning were observed across the board in recovery with subgroup differences leveling off. We discuss possible strategies to address the specific areas where veterans are most impaired in addiction and note study limitations including the cross-sectional design. PMID:24783976

  12. Outcome of long-term heroin-assisted treatment offered to chronic, treatment-resistant heroin addicts in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Blanken; V.M. Hendriks; J.M. van Ree; W. van den Brink

    2010-01-01

    Aims To describe 4-year treatment retention and treatment response among chronic, treatment-resistant heroin-dependent patients offered long-term heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) in the Netherlands. Design Observational cohort study. Setting and intervention Out-patient treatment in specialized heroi

  13. Innovation Attributes and Adoption Decisions: Perspectives from Leaders of a National Sample of Addiction Treatment Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Hannah K.; Roman, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on diffusion theory to further knowledge about evidence-based practices (EBPs) in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs), this study describes the perceived importance of innovation attributes in adoption decisions within a national sample of SUD treatment organizations. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with leaders of 307 organizations. A typology differentiated organizations reporting: (1) adoption of a treatment innovation in the past year (“recent adoption”), (2) pl...

  14. Bupropion sustained release treatment decreases craving for video games and cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Hwang, Jun Won; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-08-01

    Bupropion has been used in the treatment of patients with substance dependence based on its weak inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake. We hypothesized that 6 weeks of bupropion sustained release (SR) treatment would decrease craving for Internet game play as well as video game cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction (IAG). Eleven subjects who met criteria for IAG, playing StarCraft (>30 hr/week), and eight healthy comparison subjects (HC) who had experience playing StarCraft (treatment, brain activity in response to StarCraft cue presentation was assessed using 1.5 Tesla functional MRI. In addition, symptoms of depression, craving for playing the game, and the severity of Internet addiction were evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory, self-report of craving on a 7-point visual analogue scale, and Young's Internet Addiction Scale, respectively. In response to game cues, IAG showed higher brain activation in left occipital lobe cuneus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parahippocampal gyrus than HC. After a 6 week period of bupropion SR, craving for Internet video game play, total game play time, and cue-induced brain activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were decreased in the IAG. We suggest that bupropion SR may change craving and brain activity in ways that are similar to those observed in individuals with substance abuse or dependence.

  15. Effectively addressing addiction requires changing the language of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2014-02-01

    Public knowledge and attitudes about addiction are largely inconsistent with scientific evidence. The gap between the facts and public and professional perceptions is due in part to the language used to describe the disease and those who have it. A key step in modifying public attitudes and improving how health professionals and policymakers address addiction is to better align the language of addiction with the scientific evidence. Unless we clarify the language, those with the disease will continue to experience the stigma associated with it and attempts to deliver comprehensive and effective evidence-based prevention, treatment, and disease management will be profoundly compromised. PMID:24226552

  16. RESEARCH ON KNOWLEDGE OF METHADONE MAINTENANCE TREATMENT AMONG DRUG ADDICTS IN COMPULSORY DETOXIFICATION CENTERS%强制隔离戒毒人员中美沙酮维持治疗的认知相关因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段琳; 王志锋; 郑振玉; 阿尔帕提·沙迪克; 荣念赫; 贾金忠; 杨震; 郭伟龙; 张和龙; 杨蕾

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To learn about the knowledge of methadone maintenance treatment ( MMT) and related risk factors among drug addicts, hence to provide evidence to targeted health education. Methods-1015 drug addicts from five compulsory detoxification centers in Sichuan,Hunan and Guangxi Province were typically sampled and investigated with self - designed questionnaires. Results: (1) The knowledge level of MMT among drug addicts in compulsory detoxification centers was low with average rate of awareness 48.0%. (2)The associated factors of knowledge level of MMT among drug addicts in compulsory detoxification centers included gender, educational level and history of drug abuse. The level was higher among the people who are female, highly educated or with drug abuse history of 10 to 20 years. In addition,drug addicts who had been involved in MMT before as well as those who had been provided MMT related services in compulsory detoxification centers had much higher knowledge level of MMT. Conclusion: Compulsory detoxification centers have to emphasize on the education of MMT for drug addicts. Great emphasis should be placed on the female, the Han and the addicts with low educational level and very long or short drug abuse history , and the minority should continue to be concerned. Moreover, MMT referral model should be expanded across the country and gradually explored to bring it into compulsory detoxification centers.%目的:研究强制隔离戒毒人员对美沙酮维持治疗相关知识的认知情况及其相关因素,为针对性地开展健康宣传教育工作提供依据.方法:采用典型抽样与整群抽样结合的方法,使用自行设计的问卷对四川、湖南、广西三省共5家强制隔离戒毒所的1015名戒毒人员进行调查.结果:(1)强制隔离戒毒人员对美沙酮维持治疗相关知识的总体认知水平尚低,平均知晓率仅为48.0%.(2)认知情况男性好于女性,文化程度高者好于文化程度低者,吸毒史为10

  17. Changes In QTc Interval Duration Among Heroin Addicts On Methadone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic Mirjana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to collect and unite facts known about the effect of methadone treatment on QTc interval prolongation that could determine precipitating factors in the development of heart arrhythmias and their consequences (Torsade de Pointes and sudden cardiac death, and to raise the methadone treatment safety level.

  18. Heroin addiction: the past and future

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Noorzurani; H , Hussain; AR, Rusdi; AZ, Muhammad Muhsin

    2008-01-01

    Substance misuse, in particular heroin addiction contributes to health and social problems. Although effective medical treatment was available, earlier efforts confined the treatment of heroin addicts to in-house rehabilitation which required them to be estranged from the community and their families for 2 years. The in-house rehabilitative programme, implemented for at least three decades has produced low abstinence rates. On the other hand, being ‘away’ meant that many heroin addicts faced ...

  19. METODO, a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in heroin-addicted patients undergoing a methadone maintenance treatment: preliminary results at baseline evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Egidio, Pietro Fausto; Bignamini, Emanuele; De Vivo, Enrico; Leonardi, Claudio; Pieri, Maria Chiara; González-Saiz, Francisco; Lucchini, Alfio

    2013-12-01

    METODO (methadone efficacy therapy optimization dosage on-going) is a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in 500 heroin-addicted patients taking a methadone maintenance treatment, enrolled through 2010 to 2011 in five Italian sites, observed over 2 years. The Opiate Dosage Adequacy Scale has been used for the evaluation of the "adequacy" of the methadone dosage and to stratify patients in adequate and not adequate groups. The treatment efficacy has been evaluated in correlation to the dosage adequacy during the visits. Moreover, patients have been evaluated according to the retention rate and duration of retention in treatment and a series of questionnaires.

  20. Opiate versus psychostimulant addiction: the differences do matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Aldo; Belin, David; Epstein, David; Calu, Donna; Shaham, Yavin

    2011-10-05

    The publication of the psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction in 1987 and the finding that addictive drugs increase dopamine concentrations in the rat mesolimbic system in 1988 have led to a predominance of psychobiological theories that consider addiction to opiates and addiction to psychostimulants as essentially identical phenomena. Indeed, current theories of addiction - hedonic allostasis, incentive sensitization, aberrant learning and frontostriatal dysfunction - all argue for a unitary account of drug addiction. This view is challenged by behavioural, cognitive and neurobiological findings in laboratory animals and humans. Here, we argue that opiate addiction and psychostimulant addiction are behaviourally and neurobiologically distinct and that the differences have important implications for addiction treatment, addiction theories and future research.

  1. Drug addiction and social discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos Canabarro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the various discursive positions found in the phenomenon of addiction. The relations these discursive positions establish with the discourses of the master, the hysteric, the university and the capitalist are discussed. By analyzing material from clinical listening at a public outpatient drug and alcohol rehab center, it was seen that addiction can be described in different discourses. This article shows that the shift of focus from the symptom to the discursive position of the subject is an indicator for the clinical treatment of addiction.

  2. Comparing life experiences in active addiction and recovery between veterans and non-veterans: A national study

    OpenAIRE

    Laudet, Alexandre; Timko, Christine; Hill, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The costs of addiction are well documented but the potential benefits of recovery are less well known. Similarly, substance use issues among both active duty military personnel and veterans are well known but their recovery experiences remain under-investigated. Further, little is known about whether and how addiction and recovery experiences differ between veterans and non veterans. This knowledge can help refine treatment and recovery support services. Capitalizing on a national study of pe...

  3. [Exercise addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed.

  4. Tobacco Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Those cravings have less to do with nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of smoking. Will I gain weight when I quit? Some people gain a few pounds. Other people lose weight. The main reason some people gain weight is because they eat more food as a substitute for smoking. You can avoid ...

  5. Bupropion sustained release treatment decreases craving for video games and cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Hwang, Jun Won; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-08-01

    Bupropion has been used in the treatment of patients with substance dependence based on its weak inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake. We hypothesized that 6 weeks of bupropion sustained release (SR) treatment would decrease craving for Internet game play as well as video game cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction (IAG). Eleven subjects who met criteria for IAG, playing StarCraft (>30 hr/week), and eight healthy comparison subjects (HC) who had experience playing StarCraft (depression, craving for playing the game, and the severity of Internet addiction were evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory, self-report of craving on a 7-point visual analogue scale, and Young's Internet Addiction Scale, respectively. In response to game cues, IAG showed higher brain activation in left occipital lobe cuneus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parahippocampal gyrus than HC. After a 6 week period of bupropion SR, craving for Internet video game play, total game play time, and cue-induced brain activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were decreased in the IAG. We suggest that bupropion SR may change craving and brain activity in ways that are similar to those observed in individuals with substance abuse or dependence. PMID:20695685

  6. Clinical Anesthesia Treatments in Common Drug Addiction%常见吸毒患者的临床麻醉处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳培雨; 田毅

    2011-01-01

    Drug abuse patients bring complexity and specificity to medical management and clinical work. Perioperative anaesthetic treatments of drug addicts should give consideration to both surgical diseases and physical and psychological effects of narcotics bring to drug addicts, withdrawal symptoms and toxic reactions should be controlled efficiently. Both comprehensive assessment and dialectic thinking are necessary.%毒品滥用患者给医疗管理和临床工作带来诸多复杂性和特殊性.对吸毒患者国术期麻醉诊疗要兼顾所患外科疾患与毒品对吸食者的身心影响,有效地控制戒断症状和毒性反应,综合评估,辨证施为.

  7. Design paper: The CapOpus trial: A randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluud Christian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optimal way to treat cannabis abuse among patients with psychosis. Objectives The major objective for the CapOpus trial is to evaluate the additional effect on cannabis abuse of a specialized addiction treatment program adding group treatment and motivational interviewing to treatment as usual. Design The trial is designed as a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1 specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2 treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient. The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302.

  8. Application of Level of Care Utilization System for Psychiatric and Addiction Services (LOCUS) to psychiatric practice in Japan: a preliminary assessment of validity and sensitivity to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Taku; Yagi, Fukashi; Yoshizumi, Akira

    2013-08-01

    We applied an American medical necessity scale, Level of Care Utilization System for Psychiatric and Addiction Services (LOCUS), to psychiatric practice in Japan. This is an exploratory analysis of empirical data of 272 patients. We examined the relationships between levels of care of LOCUS and clinical variables, contribution of care levels on admission decision, and changes in care levels over time. Inpatients showed significantly higher levels of care than outpatients. Levels of care showed significant strong inverse correlations to Global Assessment Scale (GAS) scores, and significant moderate correlations to admission types, care environment, and diagnostic subgroups in almost all groups. Levels of care contributed as much to the admission decision as GAS scores. Levels of care significantly decreased from the time of admission to discharge. Our preliminary evidence indicates that LOCUS is valid and sensitive to change, and applicable for clinical use in Japan.

  9. 45 CFR 96.131 - Treatment services for pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment services for pregnant women. 96.131... Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Block Grant § 96.131 Treatment services for pregnant women. (a) The State is required to, in accordance with this section, ensure that each pregnant woman in the State...

  10. Prevalence of HCV Infections and Co-Infection With HBV and HIV and Associated Risk Factors Among Addicts in Drug Treatment Centers, Lorestan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzian, Hossein; Gholami, Mohammadreza; Shakib, Pegah; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Ghobadian Diali, Hamze; Rezvani, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by blood-borne pathogen, hepatitis C virus (HCV). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HCV infection and associated risk factors among addicts in drug treatment centers in Lorestan Province, Iran. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey was given to drug addicts in the drug treatment centers of Khorramabad, Lorestan Province, Iran during June 2012 - March 2013. Drug addicts were interviewed using a standard questionnaire including demographic, imprisonment history, and HCV-related risk behavior items. Thereafter, the sera drawn from the participants were tested for anti-HCV antibody (Ab), anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Ab, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Results: The mean age of the cohorts was 31.7. Up to 60.2% of drug users had educational levels less than high school, 67.5% were self-employed, and 32.5% were office workers. The mean duration of drug injection was 6.8 years. Statistical analyses indicated that the prevalence of HCV among drug addicts was positively associated with age, past incarceration, drug injection history, the duration of drug use, and tattooing. In addition, 16.23% of volunteers were HCV-positive. Of those infected with HCV, 1.10% was co-infected with HBV, 2.95% were positive for HIV, and 0.36% of HCV-positive cases were infected with all three viruses. Conclusions: The high prevalence of HCV infection among this group implies a high rate of transmission and exposure to the risk of serious diseases. It is important that the high prevalence of HCV infection be taken into consideration to control further transmission of this infection. PMID:27162762

  11. Effects of a manualized short-term treatment of internet and computer game addiction (STICA: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäger Susanne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years, excessive internet use and computer gaming have increased dramatically. Salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflict, and relapse have been defined as diagnostic criteria for internet addiction (IA and computer addiction (CA in the scientific community. Despite a growing number of individuals seeking help, there are no specific treatments of established efficacy. Methods/design This clinical trial aims to determine the effect of the disorder-specific manualized short-term treatment of IA/CA (STICA. The cognitive behavioural treatment combines individual and group interventions with a total duration of 4 months. Patients will be randomly assigned to STICA treatment or to a wait list control group. Reliable and valid measures of IA/CA and co-morbid mental symptoms (for example social anxiety, depression will be assessed prior to the beginning, in the middle, at the end, and 6 months after completion of treatment. Discussion A treatment of IA/CA will establish efficacy and is desperately needed. As this is the first trial to determine efficacy of a disorder specific treatment, a wait list control group will be implemented. Pros and cons of the design were discussed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials (NCT01434589

  12. Classification and identification of opioid addiction in chronic pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsted, Jette; Nielsen, Per Rotbøll; Guldstrand, Sally Kendall;

    2010-01-01

    Addiction is a feared consequence of long-term opioid treatment of chronic pain patients. The ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic addiction criteria may not be appropriate in these patients. Therefore Portenoy's criteria (PC) were launched. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of addiction, to investi......Addiction is a feared consequence of long-term opioid treatment of chronic pain patients. The ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic addiction criteria may not be appropriate in these patients. Therefore Portenoy's criteria (PC) were launched. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of addiction...

  13. US Forest Service Hazardous Fuel Treatment Reduction

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting select activities that help reduce hazardous fuels on the landscape. This includes features representing Rx Fire, Wildfire,...

  14. Day Hospital and Residential Addiction Treatment: Randomized and Nonrandomized Managed Care Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbrodt, Jane; Bond, Jason; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Weisner, Constance; Jaeger, Gary; Pating, David; Moore, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Male and female managed care clients randomized to day hospital (n=154) or community residential treatment (n=139) were compared on substance use outcomes at 6 and 12 months. To address possible bias in naturalistic studies, outcomes were also examined for clients who self-selected day hospital (n=321) and for clients excluded from randomization…

  15. The Effect of Matrix Method on Anxiety and Attitude Toward Methamphetamine and Crack Abuse in Males Referring to Addiction Treatment Centers in Tonkabon, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmati Sabet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Drug abuse is a major problem in the communities and has many harmful effects on human body. Objectives The current study aimed to compare the efficacy of matrix method on anxiety and attitude of male crack abusers referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon, Iran, in 2014. Patients and Methods The current semi -experimental study included 1,000 males referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon with crack abuse history in 2014. Based on Morgan sample volume formula, 278 males with anxiety and higher attitude to drug abuse were randomly selected from 1,000 males referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon. Then, 30 subjects were reselected out of them and equally assigned into two groups of experimental and control, 15 subjects in each group. The experimental group received 24 sessions of 30 - 60 minutes matrix treatment method in group, but the control group received no training. At the end of training period the post-test was carried out. The research findings confirmed the efficacy of matrix method on anxiety and attitude to crack abuse among those referring to the addition treatment center. Results The single covariance analysis of ANCOVA indicated that the value of Eta about 72% of variance of anxiety variable and about 76% of variance of drug abuse variable are taken in to account for variable of group. The intervention was effective in reducing anxiety and attitude to crack in males. Evaluating the adjusted mean showed the effectiveness of matrix method on anxiety and attitude to crack abuse in males. Conclusions The research result showed that matrix method affected the reduction of methamphetamine and attitude to crack abuse in males referred to the addition treatment center.

  16. On the Comparison of Public Health and Social Support in Addicts and Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    touraj hashemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at comparing the degree of public health and social support in addicted and non-addicted people. Method: This study was causative-comparative and all addicts who had referred to addiction treatment centers in city of Khoy in 2012 constituted its population. From among this population, 60 addicts through convenience sampling method were selected and then peered with 60 normal subjects by age, gender, and education. The measurement tools were Goldberg Public Health (Ghq-28 and Social Support (Fleming questionnaires. Results: The results showed That Addicts enjoy a lower degree of Mental Health and Social Support. Conclusion: Providing social support for the addicts under treatment programs is one of the important factors in withdrawal from drug use.

  17. Drug Interactions between Antiretroviral Medications and Medications Used in the Treatment of Drug Addiction: Research Needs

    OpenAIRE

    Khalsa, Jag H.; Elkashef, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Today substance dependence is one of the major public health problems in the world with millions of people abusing legal and illegal drugs. In addition, almost one-third of the world’s population suffers with one or more infections. Both drugs of abuse and infections are associated with serious medical and health consequences, some of which may be exacerbated by the occurrence of pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions between medications used in the treatment of these conditions ...

  18. Predictors of Staff Turnover and Turnover Intentions within Addiction Treatment Settings: Change Over Time Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Garner, Bryan R.; Hunter, Brooke D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which changes over time in clinicians’ responses to measures of work attitude (eg, job satisfaction) and psychological climate (eg, supervisor support) could predict actual turnover and turnover intentions above and beyond absolute levels of these respective measures. Longitudinal data for this study were collected from a sample of clinicians (N = 96) being trained to implement an evidence-based treatment for adolescent substance use disorders. Supporting fin...

  19. Delivering Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Comparison of Public and Private Treatment Centres by Service Users and Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, quality of care has now been placed at the centre of the National Health Service (NHS) modernisation programme. To date, there has been little research on the service quality delivery of alcohol treatment services from the perspective of both the service user and service provider. Therefore, this qualitative study explored the…

  20. How can we Improve on Modeling Nicotine Addiction to Develop Better Smoking Cessation Treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, M; Buhidma, Y

    2016-01-01

    Clinically effective smoking cessation treatments are few in number, mainly varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement therapy being prescribed by health organizations. Of the many compounds tested for smoking cessation, a good proportion fail in human trials despite positive findings in rodents. This chapter aims to cover the uses and some pit falls of current methodologies employed to discover clinical treatments in the laboratory. Complicating factors include the complex nature of genetics in tobacco smoking and the comorbidity associated with other psychiatric disorders, which has not been addressed fully in the rodent laboratory. This chapter reviews the evidence from intravenous nicotine self-administration studies and proposes modifications on how we can improve the validity of the animal models by incorporating clinically relevant factors considered to be critical in tobacco smoking. For example, choice procedures that incorporate alternative reinforcers, use of reinstatement models, and second-order schedules of reinforcement are proposed to have better scientific validity that may lead to better clinical outcomes. Furthermore, improved experimental methods will also improve our chances of discovering effective treatments that ultimately may mitigate the effects of tobacco smoking with regard to health worldwide.

  1. Comparison of Four Search Engines and their efficacy With Emphasis on Literature Research in Addiction (Prevention and Treatment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadzadeh, Gholam Reza; Rigi, Tahereh; Ganjali, Ali Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Surveying valuable and most recent information from internet, has become vital for researchers and scholars, because every day, thousands and perhaps millions of scientific works are brought out as digital resources which represented by internet and researchers can’t ignore this great resource to find related documents for their literature search, which may not be found in any library. With regard to variety of documents presented on the internet, search engines are one of the most effective search tools for finding information. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the three criteria, recall, preciseness and importance of the four search engines which are PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and federated search of Iranian National Medical Digital Library in addiction (prevention and treatment) to select the most effective search engine for offering the best literature research. Materials and Methods This research was a cross-sectional study by which four popular search engines in medical sciences were evaluated. To select keywords, medical subject heading (Mesh) was used. We entered given keywords in the search engines and after searching, 10 first entries were evaluated. Direct observation was used as a mean for data collection and they were analyzed by descriptive statistics (number, percent number and mean) and inferential statistics, One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey in Spss. 15 statistical software. P Value Science Direct and Google Scholar were the best in recall, preciseness and importance respectively. Conclusions As literature research is one of the most important stages of research, it's better for researchers, especially Substance-Related Disorders scholars to use different search engines with the best recall, preciseness and importance in that subject field to reach desirable results while searching and they don’t depend on just one search engine. PMID:24971257

  2. Design paper: The CapOpus trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan; Larsen, Anne-Mette;

    2008-01-01

    ) treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient.The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount...... of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302....

  3. Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Justinova, Zuzana; Panlilio, Leigh V; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    Many drugs of abuse, including cannabinoids, opioids, alcohol and nicotine, can alter the levels of endocannabinoids in the brain. Recent studies show that release of endocannabinoids in the ventral tegmental area can modulate the reward-related effects of dopamine and might therefore be an important neurobiological mechanism underlying drug addiction. There is strong evidence that the endocannabinoid system is involved in drug-seeking behavior (especially behavior that is reinforced by drug-...

  4. [Internet addiction - between enter and escape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Hubert

    2014-12-01

    Internet addiction, a non-substantial addiction, is to be regarded as a highly complex mental disorder which requires complex and diverse treatment options. Initially smiled at, it shows, if it were severe, a typical addictive behaviour pattern, similar to pathological gambling, oniomanie and workaholism. In the International Classification of mental disorders (ICD-10) only pathological gambling in the category of impulse control disorders (F63.0) is specified.

  5. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use and Addiction DrugFacts: Understanding Drug Use and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised August 2016 Many people ... addiction and lead productive lives. What Is drug addiction? Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug ...

  6. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF NICOTINE ADDICTION TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH ANGINA REQUIRING CARDIAC SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a major risk factor in patients with angina pectoris. Interventions that facilitate the rejection of it are an important part of the treatment. Aim. To analyze the cost effectiveness of the partial agonist of nicotinic receptors, varenicline, in patients with angina who require cardiac interventions. Material and methods. The estimation was conducted using a Markov model based on the results of clinical trials and epidemiological studies. The cost of treatment of complications were calculated on the basis of compulsory medical insurance rates for St. Petersburg in 2011. Results. The varenicline therapy in 70-year-old patients before cardiac surgery reduces hospital mortality at an extremely high cost-effectiveness (the cost of preventing one death - 148.8 thousand rubles. The cost/effectiveness ratio in the analysis for the period of survival of patients in this situation was 31.3 thousand rubles for 1 additional year of life. Life expectancy will be increased by an average of 0.147 years. Analysis for the period of survival of 50-year-old patients has shown that in patients after cardiac surgery cost-effectiveness of varenicline is extremely high (in the analysis from the perspective of the health care system the cost/effectiveness ratio was 36.0 thousand rubles for 1 additional year of life, in the analysis, taking into account the social perspective – 17.9 thousand rubles for 1 additional year of life. Increase in the life expectancy of 50 year-old patients will be 0.291 year in average. Conclusion. Varenicline therapy of patients with angina pectoris is the economy before cardiac surgery , and after their execution, and this applies not only young, but older patients. The desirability of varenicline including to federal and regional programs to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is shown.

  7. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF NICOTINE ADDICTION TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH ANGINA REQUIRING CARDIAC SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a major risk factor in patients with angina pectoris. Interventions that facilitate the rejection of it are an important part of the treatment. Aim. To analyze the cost effectiveness of the partial agonist of nicotinic receptors, varenicline, in patients with angina who require cardiac interventions. Material and methods. The estimation was conducted using a Markov model based on the results of clinical trials and epidemiological studies. The cost of treatment of complications were calculated on the basis of compulsory medical insurance rates for St. Petersburg in 2011. Results. The varenicline therapy in 70-year-old patients before cardiac surgery reduces hospital mortality at an extremely high cost-effectiveness (the cost of preventing one death - 148.8 thousand rubles. The cost/effectiveness ratio in the analysis for the period of survival of patients in this situation was 31.3 thousand rubles for 1 additional year of life. Life expectancy will be increased by an average of 0.147 years. Analysis for the period of survival of 50-year-old patients has shown that in patients after cardiac surgery cost-effectiveness of varenicline is extremely high (in the analysis from the perspective of the health care system the cost/effectiveness ratio was 36.0 thousand rubles for 1 additional year of life, in the analysis, taking into account the social perspective – 17.9 thousand rubles for 1 additional year of life. Increase in the life expectancy of 50 year-old patients will be 0.291 year in average. Conclusion. Varenicline therapy of patients with angina pectoris is the economy before cardiac surgery , and after their execution, and this applies not only young, but older patients. The desirability of varenicline including to federal and regional programs to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is shown.

  8. Penn/VA center for studies of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Charles P; McLellan, A Thomas; Childress, Anna Rose; Woody, George E

    2009-01-01

    The Penn/VA Center was founded in 1971 because of great concern over the number of Vietnam veterans returning home addicted to heroin. At that time little was known about the science of addiction, so our program from the very beginning was designed to gather data about the nature of addiction and measure the effects of available treatments. In other words, the goals were always a combination of treatment and research. This combination has continued to the present day. A human laboratory for the study of addiction phenomena such as conditioned responses was also founded in 1971. The key clinician investigators in this group have remained in the Center since the 1970s with most of the research staff continuing to work together. Important new investigators have been added over the years. Treatment was empirically based with randomized, controlled clinical trials as the gold standard for determining evidence-based treatment. The patients coming to treatment do not distinguish between abuse of alcohol and other drugs, so the treatment and research programs have always focused on all drugs including ethyl alcohol and the combination of ethyl alcohol with other drugs such as cocaine and opioids. Most of the patients coming for treatment also suffered from additional psychiatric disorders such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Thus, the addiction treatment program in 1980 absorbed the rest of the VA Psychiatry Service into the Substance Abuse Program forming a new Behavioral Health Service with responsibility for over 9000 patients. The integration of substance abuse treatment with overall mental health care was the most efficient way to handle patients with complicated combinations of disorders. While this continues to be the best way to treat patients, it has proven difficult in practice. The main reason for this difficulty is that most mental health therapists whether they are psychiatrists, psychologists or social workers feel very inadequate

  9. Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model to Study the Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Engleman, Eric A.; Katner, Simon N.; Neal-Beliveau, Bethany S.

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction takes a massive toll on society. Novel animal models are needed to test new treatments and understand the basic mechanisms underlying addiction. Rodent models have identified the neurocircuitry involved in addictive behavior and indicate that rodents possess some of the same neurobiologic mechanisms that mediate addiction in humans. Recent studies indicate that addiction is mechanistically and phylogenetically ancient and many mechanisms that underlie human addiction are also p...

  10. Differences in Addiction Severity between Social and Probable Pathological Gamblers among Substance Abusers in Treatment in Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Ana Carolina R.; Vargens, Renata W.; Kessler, Felix H.; Cruz, Marcelo S.

    2009-01-01

    There is a strong association between pathological gambling and substance abuse. The objective of this study is to identify the differences between substance abusers with and without gambling problems. A cross sectional study was conducted interviewing with Addiction Severity Index (ASI) and South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), alcohol and drug…

  11. Entry Point for Entrepreneurship Training in the Treatment of Drug Addicts: A Case Study of Rehabilitation Centres in Kiambu County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Wairimu M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was concerned with assessing the entry point at which entrepreneurship can be incorporated in drug addiction treatment centres. Drug addiction is a major problem in the country Kenya and there is a need to empower those who seek treatment in the rehabilitation centres with entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and attitudes. Kiambu County was selected due to the fact that it is well known for high rates of drug and substance abuse. The objective of the study was to identify the current treatment methodologies practiced in the treatment centres. The target population of the study composed of clients who are in treatment centres in Kiambu county and administrators in the centres. The sample size consisted of 42 respondents and the sampling technique used to achieve this number was random sampling. The instruments of data collection were questionnaires. Descriptive analysis was used to describe and highlight the variables, the results show that a majority of the clients in the treatment centres were in the age group 20-30 years and that none of the members of staff have been trained in entrepreneurship. The research also found that a majority of the clients lived with their parents thus depending on them. In conclusion the study found that dependency on family members lessens the chances of an individual to become a more productive member of the community. Treatment centres should seek to treat the person holistically, where they are able to also treat their clients to become economically independent. Treatment centres should require clients to be responsible, conscientious and provide entrepreneurial oriented activities. Treatment centres should therefore include entrepreneurial training as part of their curriculum to assist the clients’ live normal and productive lives once they are out of the treatment centres.

  12. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss DJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive

  13. "Kitchen cupboard drinking": a review of South African women's secretive alcohol addiction, treatment history, and barriers to accessing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Liezille; Naidoo, Av; Reddy, S P

    2009-01-01

    How Black women are represented, conceptualized, and researched in the field of psychology has dramatic and far-reaching effects on arriving at an understanding of personality and psychopathology. This point becomes especially salient as researchers try to develop alternative strategies for researching gendered experiences and for generating meaningful information about African women's experiences of alcohol misuse. On the African continent, there is a paucity of research on Black women's access to alcohol treatment. Therefore, this review has implications for research and practice with the potential to stimulate future health disparities research affecting Black African women. The article focuses on a South African population and explores the importance of theorizing alcohol misuse and sex by discussing the history of alcohol misuse in South Africa, women and alcohol misuse in South Africa, and women's treatment history; interpreting women's experiences of treatment; and addressing recommendations for future research.

  14. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  15. [Development of transmural myocardial infarction in young persons with intact coronary arteries during methadone use for the treatment of heroine addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioseliani, D G; Semitko, S P; Gromov, D G; Kostianiov, I Iu; Klochko, M A; Koledinskiĭ, A G; Topchian, I S

    2004-01-01

    Linkage between acute coronary syndrome and narcotic drug (cocaine) intake was first described by D. Colleman in 1982. However risk of development of acute myocardial infarction during replacement therapy after opioid withdrawal has not been elucidated. The paper contains description of two cases of development of myocardial infarction in young persons with intact coronary arteries who received synthetic opioid methadone for facilitation of heroine discontinuation. These clinical cases should draw attention of physicians to side effects of the use of methadone for the treatment of heroine addiction.

  16. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  17. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further

  18. National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NAHDAP acquires, preserves and disseminates data relevant to drug addiction and HIV research. By preserving and making available an easily accessible library of...

  19. Substitute Addiction: A Concern for Researchers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of the role of substitute addictions remains unclear. This article examines the range and possible reward functions of substitute addictions. We suggest that prevention education and treatment need to take into account substitute addictions as an influential aspect of recovery. Research is needed to better understand the…

  20. The Consequences of Internet Addiction: Implications for Counseling Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle; Minatrea, Neresa B.

    2001-01-01

    With an increase in Internet use has come the potential problem of excessive Internet usage or "Internet addiction." It is important that counselors recognize the signs and symptoms of Internet addiction. The purpose of this article is to present the characteristics, the consequences, and the emerging treatment approaches of Internet addiction.…

  1. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  2. Neural and psychological mechanisms underlying compulsive drug seeking habits and drug memories – indications for novel treatments of addiction*

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Barry J.

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the evidence for the hypothesis that the development of drug addiction can be understood in terms of interactions between Pavlovian and instrumental learning and memory mechanisms in the brain that underlie the seeking and taking of drugs. It is argued that these behaviours initially are goal-directed, but increasingly become elicited as stimulus–response habits by drug-associated conditioned stimuli that are established by Pavlovian conditioning. It is further argued th...

  3. Extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues in animal models: Relevance to the treatment of addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Karyn M.; Carlezon, William A

    2010-01-01

    Conditioned drug craving and withdrawal elicited by cues paired with drug use or acute withdrawal are among the many factors contributing to compulsive drug taking. Understanding how to stop these cues from having these effects is a major goal of addiction research. Extinction is a form of learning in which associations between cues and the events they predict are weakened by exposure to the cues in the absence of those events. Evidence from animal models suggests that conditioned responses t...

  4. Clinical psychology of Internet addiction: a review of its conceptualization, prevalence, neuronal processes, and implications for treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pontes HM; Kuss DJ; Griffiths MD

    2015-01-01

    Halley M Pontes, Daria J Kuss, Mark D Griffiths International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK Abstract: Research into Internet addiction (IA) has grown rapidly over the last decade. The topic has generated a great deal of debate, particularly in relation to how IA can be defined conceptually as well as the many methodological limitations. The present review aims to further elaborate and clarify issues that are relevant to IA research in ...

  5. Circadian Rhythms, the Mesolimbic Dopaminergic Circuit, and Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    McClung, Colleen A.

    2007-01-01

    Drug addiction is a devastating disease that affects millions of individuals worldwide. Through better understanding of the genetic variations that create a vulnerability for addiction and the molecular mechanisms that underlie the progression of addiction, better treatment options can be created for those that suffer from this condition. Recent studies point to a link between abnormal or disrupted circadian rhythms and the development of addiction. In addition, studies suggest a role for spe...

  6. The Shame of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is a person-level phenomenon that involves twin normative failures. A failure of normal rational effective agency or self-control with respect to the substance; and shame at both this failure, and the failure to live up to the standards for a good life that the addict himself acknowledges and aspires to. Feeling shame for addiction is not a mistake. It is part of the shape of addiction, part of the normal phenomenology of addiction, and often a source of motivation for the addict to heal. Like other recent attempts in the addiction literature to return normative concepts such as “choice” and “responsibility” to their rightful place in understanding and treating addiction, the twin normative failure model is fully compatible with investigation of genetic and neuroscientific causes of addiction. Furthermore, the model does not re-moralize addiction. There can be shame without blame. PMID:24115936

  7. Violent Behaviors in Drug Addiction: Differential Profiles of Drug-Addicted Patients with and without Violence Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of violent behaviors in patients who are addicted to drugs. A sample of 252 addicted patients (203 male and 49 female) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed. Information on violent behaviors, sociodemographic factors, consumption factors (assessed by the European version of the Addiction Severity Index…

  8. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples. PMID:24001298

  9. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples.

  10. What is sexual addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by a 6-category spectrum: (a) no sexual excess beyond breaking the spouse's restrictive rules (n = 2), (b) discovery of husband's longstanding sexual secrets (n = 5), (c) new discovery of the joys of commercial sex (n = 4), (d) the bizarre or paraphilic (n = 7), (e) alternate concept of normal masculinity (n = 5), and (f) spiraling psychological deterioration (n = 7). Only the men with a spiraling psychological deterioration-about 25% of the sample with sexual issues-could reasonably be described as having a sexual addiction. This group experienced significant psychological failures before the onset of their deterioration. Another 25% were adequately defined as paraphilic. Half of the sample was not adequately described using addiction, compulsivity, impulsivity, and relationship incapacity models. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for DSM-5 and treatment. PMID:20432125

  11. Etiology of Food Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Demet Gulec Oyekcin; Artuner Deveci

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some s...

  12. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS USED FOR ACCOUNTING SERVICES PROVIDERS

    OpenAIRE

    ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA; AVRAM MARIOARA; AVRAM COSTIN DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain thr...

  13. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  14. [Epidemiology of addictive disorders and behaviors in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kinjo, Aya

    2015-09-01

    Nationwide surveys to clarify the characteristics and trends of the addictive disorders and behaviors including alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence, internet addiction and pathological gambling among Japanese adults were carried out in 2003, 2008, and 2013. At the part of the surveys on addictive behaviors in disaster stricken area by the Great East Japan Earthquake, the nationwide survey on benzodiazepine dependence was conducted in 2013. Epidemiological features of prevalent addictive disorders and behaviors were described. We observed large number of estimated patients with addictive disorders or behaviors in Japan, and the considerable proportion of them was not connect to appropriate medical services. PMID:26394504

  15. Temperament and Character Dimensions in Narcotics Addicts and Normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abolghasemi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the temperament and character dimensions in narcotics addicted and normal persons. Method: The method of research was causative-comparative. The study sample consisted of 120 addicts and non addicts who had referred to 3 narcotics addicts treatment centers in Ardabil city. The subjects were selected through simple random sampling. To collect data, temperament/character inventory were used. Findings: The results showed that novelty seeking and harm avoidance in addicts is significantly greater than normal persons. Also, results showed that reward dependence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness in narcotics addicts is significantly lower than normal persons. Conclusion: The results show that temperament and character dimensions determine the addiction intensity in addicted people.

  16. Mixing Oil and Water: Integrating Mental Health and Addiction Services to Treat People with a Co-Occurring Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    Treatments for people with the co-occurring disorders of mental illness and substance use (abuse or dependence) have been evolving and improving since the mid 1980s. During this period substance abuse treatment programs reported between 50 and 75% of the people they served also had a mental health problem. At the same time, mental health programs…

  17. Text Messaging for Addiction: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Keoleian, Victoria; Polcin, Douglas; Galloway, Gantt P.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals seeking treatment for addiction often experience barriers due to cost, lack of local treatment resources, or either school or work schedule conflicts. Text messaging-based addiction treatment is inexpensive and has the potential to be widely accessible in real time. We conducted a comprehensive literature review identifying 11 published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating text messaging-based interventions for tobacco smoking, 4 studies for reducing alcohol consumption,...

  18. Epigenetic mechanisms of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues, including brain. This has prompted recent research aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the lasting effects of drugs of abuse on the brain in animal models of drug addiction. This review provides a progress report of this still early work in the field. As will be seen, there is robust evidence that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces changes within the brain's reward regions in three major modes of epigenetic regulation-histone modifications such as acetylation and methylation, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs. In several instances, it has been possible to demonstrate directly the contribution of such epigenetic changes to addiction-related behavioral abnormalities. Studies of epigenetic mechanisms of addiction are also providing an unprecedented view of the range of genes and non-genic regions that are affected by repeated drug exposure and the precise molecular basis of that regulation. Work is now needed to validate key aspects of this work in human addiction and evaluate the possibility of mining this information to develop new diagnostic tests and more effective treatments for addiction syndromes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23643695

  19. [The place of cyber addiction in teenagers' addictive behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleur, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The easy access which modern teenagers have to new technologies favours their excessive use of video games, as they seek to escape potential existential difficulties. This harmful aspect should not mask the creative potential of games for the majority of teenagers. Treatment for young people with a gaming addiction is based on psychotherapy and takes into account the family dimension of the problem. This article presents an interview with Marc Valleur, a psychiatrist and head physician at Marmottan hospital specialising in the care and support of people with addictions.

  20. Behavioural addiction-A rising tide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J; Goudriaan, Anna E; van Holst, Ruth Janke; Zohar, Joseph; Grant, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    The term 'addiction' was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss of control (spiralling engagement over time), persistence despite untoward functional consequences, and physical dependence (evidenced by withdrawal symptoms when intake of the substance diminishes). It has been suggested that certain psychiatric disorders characterized by maladaptive, repetitive behaviours share parallels with substance addiction and therefore represent 'behavioural addictions'. This perspective has influenced the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which now has a category 'Substance Related and Addictive Disorders', including gambling disorder. Could other disorders characterised by repetitive behaviours, besides gambling disorder, also be considered 'addictions'? Potential examples include kleptomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, 'Internet addiction', trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), and skin-picking disorder. This paper seeks to define what is meant by 'behavioural addiction', and critically considers the evidence for and against this conceptualisation in respect of the above conditions, from perspectives of aetiology, phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurobiology, and treatment. Research in this area has important implications for future diagnostic classification systems, neurobiological models, and novel treatment directions. PMID:26585600

  1. [The therapeutic alliance as a main factor of building cooperation during the treatment of patients with opiate addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agibalova, T V; Tuchin, P V; Shustov, D I; Buzik, O Zh

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess an alliance-centred method of short-term psychotherapy (AP) in the formation of compliance in patients with opiate addiction. Material and methods. Authors studied 100 male inpatients with ICD-10 diagnosis Opioid Dependence (F11.2). Patients were stratified into main (with use of AP) and control groups. The tasks of short-term psychotherapy were to determine mutual goals for the patient and the physician and the interaction between them. Results and Conclusion. Based on some special quantitative psychological tests and correlation analysis, it was identified that AP stimulated compliance behaviour in patients with opioid dependence more effectively than traditional recommendations.

  2. Development of Child-Teen Obesity Treatment Service Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kahyun; Lee, Byung Mun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to develop an effective and efficient obesity treatment and management service platform for obese children/teenagers. Methods The integrated smart platform was planned and established through cooperation with service providers such as hospitals and public health centers, obese children/teenagers who constitute the service's user base, and IT development and policy institutions and companies focusing on child-teen obesity management and treatment. Results Based on guidelines on intervention strategies to manage child-teen obesity, we developed two patient/parent mobile applications, one web-monitoring service for medical staff, one mobile application for food-craving endurance, and one mobile application for medical examinations. Conclusions The establishment of the integrated service platform was successfully completed; however, this study was restrictively to the hospital where the pilot program took place. The effectiveness of the proposed platform will be verified in the future in tests involving other organizations. PMID:27525166

  3. Utilization of outpatient mental health services after inpatient alcoholism treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, B M; Cook, C A; Blow, F C; Bunn, J Y

    1992-01-01

    It is generally agreed that use of aftercare services following discharge from alcoholism treatment is optimum for patients to achieve long-term recovery. However, the quantity and duration of utilization of such services in non-experimental settings are generally unknown. Using secondary data sources, we studied 5,635 alcoholics completing formal extended inpatient treatment and 1,860 alcoholics discharged from brief inpatient hospitalizations in Department of Veterans Affairs medical centers. Weekly use of outpatient mental health services (OPMH) prior to hospital admission was equally low for both patient groups (approximately 2-3% of patients) until four weeks prior to admission, at which time OPMH use increased, particularly for the extended treatment group. In the four weeks after discharge, use of OPMH services was substantially higher for patients with extended treatment compared to those with brief hospitalizations (40% vs. 18%), with 22% of patients completing treatment utilizing such services in the first week after discharge. Utilization steadily decreased until only 8% and 4% of both groups, respectively, were using OPMH services at the end of six months after discharge. Study results suggest the need to examine barriers to outpatient mental health utilization after discharge as well as interventions to increase compliance with long-term aftercare.

  4. Etiology of Food Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Gulec Oyekcin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some studies still emphasizes the differences between two. The aim of this article was to review clinical and biological aspects of etiological perspectives of food addiction via available clinical, preclinical and genetic studies.

  5. Femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Rørdam, Peter; Jensen, L P;

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts. METHODS: The records of eight patients undergoing vascular surgery for femoral pseudoaneurysms from substance abuse identified from a vascular database were reviewed. RESULTS: Were good in four out of five...

  6. Inhibition of FAAH and activation of PPAR: New approaches to the treatment of cognitive dysfunction and drug addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panlilio, Leigh V.; Justinova, Zuzana; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing the effects of endogenously-released cannabinoid ligands in the brain might provide therapeutic effects more safely and effectively than administering drugs that act directly at the cannabinoid receptor. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) prevent the breakdown of endogenous ligands for cannabinoid receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), prolonging and enhancing the effects of these ligands when they are naturally released. This review considers recent research on the effects of FAAH inhibitors and PPAR activators in animal models of addiction and cognition (specifically learning and memory). These studies show that FAAH inhibitors can produce potentially therapeutic effects, some through cannabinoid receptors and some through PPAR. These effects include enhancing certain forms of learning, counteracting the rewarding effects of nicotine and alcohol, relieving symptoms of withdrawal from cannabis and other drugs, and protecting against relapse-like reinstatement of drug self-administration. Since FAAH inhibition might have a wide range of therapeutic actions but might also share some of the adverse effects of cannabis, it is noteworthy that at least one FAAH-inhibiting drug (URB597) has been found to have potentially beneficial effects but no indication of liability for abuse or dependence. Although these areas of research are new, the preliminary evidence indicates that they might lead to improved therapeutic interventions and a better understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying addiction and memory. PMID:23333350

  7. Water treatment solution. Operation supporting service; Mizushori solution. Gyomu shien service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    This is the service for the business operation supporting system for water supply business as performed by the water treatment solution 'Aqua-MEISTER'. The service consists of a package group supporting financial and accounting works in the water supply business including charge calculation, corporate accounting, and fixed asset management, and a package group supporting maintenance and control works including device control, facility control and drawing control, the packages being referred collectively to as the Aqua-Surfin series, as well as the following major services: (1) planning and design consulting service, which plans new business ideas including business analysis, new business planning and package selection in the business operation supporting system; (2) structuring service, which supports and customizes the system design and introduction of the business operation supporting system for structuring ; and (3) operation service which performs remote maintenance of the system and provides Q and A service. (translated by NEDO)

  8. [Psychophysiology of sports addiction (exercises addiction)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoshchekov, S G; Lushnikov, O N

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is a prevalent and growing concern in all aspects of our modern society. There are considerable concerns for the growing frequency of addictions to drugs, alcohol, gambling, eating, and even sex. Though exercise is generally accepted as a positive behaviour that has many benefits associated with enhanced physical and psychological wellbeing, there is an increasing awareness that exercise addiction is becoming a common phenomenon. Theories regarding how exercise can become addictive, and studies of withdrawal from exercise are reviewed. Several physiological mechanisms, including endogenous opioids, catecholamines, functional asymmetry of brain activity and thermoregulation have been implicated in exercise dependence.

  9. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers.

  10. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers. PMID:27294452

  11. Systems Level Neuroplasticity in Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltenstein, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder for which research has been dedicated to understand the various factors that contribute to development, loss of control, and persistence of compulsive addictive behaviors. In this review, we provide a broad overview of various theories of addiction, drugs of abuse, and the neurobiology involved across the addiction cycle. Specific focus is devoted to the role of the mesolimbic pathway in acute drug reinforcement and occasional drug use, the mesocortical pathway and associated areas (e.g., the dorsal striatum) in escalation/dependence, and the involvement of these pathways and associated circuits in mediating conditioned responses, drug craving, and loss of behavioral control thought to underlie withdrawal and relapse. With a better understanding of the neurobiological factors that underlie drug addiction, continued preclinical and clinical research will aid in the development of novel therapeutic interventions that can serve as effective long-term treatment strategies for drug-dependent individuals. PMID:23580792

  12. Cocaine abuse among heroin addicts in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, M; San, L; Peri, J M; Olle, J M

    1991-01-01

    Abuse of cocaine is becoming a major problem among heroin addicts in Spain. Between 1987 and 1988, 75% of patients admitted as inpatients for detoxification from opiate dependence had consumed cocaine during the 6 months prior to admission and 25% had abused cocaine daily or several times/week. These cocaine abusers showed more toxicologic and psychopathologic problems than opiate addicts who did not abuse cocaine. The opiate addicts who also abused cocaine had begun using illicit drugs earlier and showed a higher frequency of anti-HIV antibodies. They also had more antisocial personality disorders and persistence of depressive symptoms during opiate detoxification than heroin addicts who did not abuse cocaine. Based on these findings, we insist on the need to develop different treatments for detoxifying patients with this dual addiction. PMID:2029857

  13. The Westgate Service and Related Referral, Assessment, and Treatment Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Alice L

    2015-12-01

    The formerly named "Dangerous and Severe Personality Disorder" (DSPD) units are no longer standalone services within the criminal justice system in England and Wales. These sites now provide personality disorder treatment services in the high-security prison estate as part of the new national Offender Personality Disorder (OPD) Pathway Strategy. The OPD Pathway intends to take responsibility for the assessment, treatment, and management of offenders who are likely to have a personality disorder and who present a high risk of re-offending (men and women) and serious harm to others (men). Further PD treatment and progression services are being commissioned in lower security prisons and in the community as part of the new PD Strategy. While the suitability criteria for the two male high-security PD treatment sites are the same, the individual units have their own assessment and treatment methods. This article aims to communicate the referral, assessment, and treatment methods employed within the prison-based Westgate Personality Disorder Treatment Service, HMP Frankland. PMID:24927739

  14. Network-Assisted Prediction of Potential Drugs for Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchun Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a chronic and complex brain disease, adding much burden on the community. Though numerous efforts have been made to identify the effective treatment, it is necessary to find more novel therapeutics for this complex disease. As network pharmacology has become a promising approach for drug repurposing, we proposed to apply the approach to drug addiction, which might provide new clues for the development of effective addiction treatment drugs. We first extracted 44 addictive drugs from the NIDA and their targets from DrugBank. Then, we constructed two networks: an addictive drug-target network and an expanded addictive drug-target network by adding other drugs that have at least one common target with these addictive drugs. By performing network analyses, we found that those addictive drugs with similar actions tended to cluster together. Additionally, we predicted 94 nonaddictive drugs with potential pharmacological functions to the addictive drugs. By examining the PubMed data, 51 drugs significantly cooccurred with addictive keywords than expected. Thus, the network analyses provide a list of candidate drugs for further investigation of their potential in addiction treatment or risk.

  15. Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment: A Neuroscience-Based Framework for Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwako, Laura E; Momenan, Reza; Litten, Raye Z; Koob, George F; Goldman, David

    2016-08-01

    This article proposes a heuristic framework for the Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment that incorporates key functional domains derived from the neurocircuitry of addiction. We review how addictive disorders (ADs) are presently diagnosed and the need for new neuroclinical measures to differentiate patients who meet clinical criteria for addiction to the same agent while differing in etiology, prognosis, and treatment response. The need for a better understanding of the mechanisms provoking and maintaining addiction, as evidenced by the limitations of current treatments and within-diagnosis clinical heterogeneity, is articulated. In addition, recent changes in the nosology of ADs, challenges to current classification systems, and prior attempts to subtype individuals with ADs are described. Complementary initiatives, including the Research Domain Criteria project, that have established frameworks for the neuroscience of psychiatric disorders are discussed. Three domains-executive function, incentive salience, and negative emotionality-tied to different phases in the cycle of addiction form the core functional elements of ADs. Measurement of these domains in epidemiologic, genetic, clinical, and treatment studies will provide the underpinnings for an understanding of cross-population and temporal variation in addictions, shared mechanisms in addictive disorders, impact of changing environmental influences, and gene identification. Finally, we show that it is practical to implement such a deep neuroclinical assessment using a combination of neuroimaging and performance measures. Neuroclinical assessment is key to reconceptualizing the nosology of ADs on the basis of process and etiology, an advance that can lead to improved prevention and treatment. PMID:26772405

  16. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders. PMID:24459410

  17. Food Addiction: An Evolving Nonlinear Science

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Shriner; Mark Gold

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to familiarize readers with the role that addiction plays in the formation and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and disorders of eating. We will outline several useful models that integrate metabolism, addiction, and human relationship adaptations to eating. A special effort will be made to demonstrate how the use of simple and straightforward nonlinear models can and are being used to improve our knowledge and treatment of patients suffering from nutrition...

  18. Demographic and clinical profile of substance abusing women seeking treatment at a de-addiction center in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Nebhinani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent decades increasing number of women have been seeking deaddiction services. Despite that the report data is very limited from India. Objectives: The present research aimed to study the demographic and clinical profile of women seeking deaddiction treatment at a tertiary care center in North India. Materials and Methods: Retrospective structured chart review of 100 women substance abusers seeking treatment at a deaddiction center between September 1978 and December 2011. Results: A typical case was of 36.3 years age, married (65%, urban (61%, nuclear family (59% based housewife (56%, with good to fair social support (69%. The commonest substance of abuse was tobacco (60%, followed by opioids (27%, alcohol (15%, and benzodiazepines (13%. The common reasons for initiation of substance use were to alleviate frustration or stress (49% and curiosity (37%. Family history of drug dependence (43%, comorbidity (25%, and impairments in health (74%, family (57%, and social domains (56% were common. Only a third of the sample paid one or more follow visit, and of those 58% were abstinent at the last follow-up. Significant predictors identified were being non-Hindu and higher educational years for abstinent status at follow-up. Conclusion: The common substances of abuse were tobacco, opioids, and alcohol and benzodiazepines; and family history of drug abuse and comorbidity were common. The follow-up and outcome were generally poor. This profile gives us some clues to address a hidden health problem of the community.

  19. Addiction as excessive appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orford, J

    2001-01-01

    The excessive appetite model of addiction is summarized. The paper begins by considering the forms of excessive appetite which a comprehensive model should account for: principally, excessive drinking, smoking, gambling, eating, sex and a diverse range of drugs including at least heroin, cocaine and cannabis. The model rests, therefore, upon a broader concept of what constitutes addiction than the traditional, more restricted, and arguably misleading definition. The core elements of the model include: very skewed consumption distribution curves; restraint, control or deterrence; positive incentive learning mechanisms which highlight varied forms of rapid emotional change as rewards, and wide cue conditioning; complex memory schemata; secondary, acquired emotional regulation cycles, of which 'chasing', 'the abstinence violation effect' and neuroadaptation are examples; and the consequences of conflict. These primary and secondary processes, occurring within diverse sociocultural contexts, are sufficient to account for the development of a strong attachment to an appetitive activity, such that self-control is diminished, and behaviour may appear to be disease-like. Giving up excess is a natural consequence of conflict arising from strong and troublesome appetite. There is much supportive evidence that change occurs outside expert treatment, and that when it occurs within treatment the change processes are more basic and universal than those espoused by fashionable expert theories. PMID:11177517

  20. Closing the Need–Service Gap: Gender Differences in Matching Services to Client Needs in Comprehensive Substance Abuse Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Cao, Dingcai; Shin, Hee-Choon

    2009-01-01

    Despite the broad recognition in social work that services are more effective when they are tailored to individual client needs, we have only limited evidence of the impact that services matched to client needs have on treatment outcomes. This study examines gender differences in the impact of matched services, access services, and outcome-targeted services on substance abuse treatment outcomes by using data collected from 1992 through 1997 for the National Treatment Improvement Evaluation St...

  1. The Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted And Non-Addicted Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Saber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction: The goal of this study was to compare the personality characteristics and problem solving styles of addicted and non-addicted men. Method: This study is a causal comparative design survey. In this study 180 addicted men was selected through convenience sampling method from addicted men that refered to addiction treatment centers of Rasht city and matched in gender, age, education and job with 180 non addicted men and then two groups compared with each other. All participants completed the NEO-FFI-R and problem solving styles questionnaires. The gathered data were analyzed through SPSS software. Findings: The results showed that an addicted man in comparison with non-addicted men was upper in neuroticism and lower in agreeableness, extraversion and consciousness dimensions. Also there was no difference in openness dimension between two groups. Conclusion: The finding of present study suggests that educating efficient problem solving styles to people to cope with life stressful events could restrain and prevent addiction and other psychosocial disorders.

  2. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. Methods College students (N = 448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young’s Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. Results The risk factors for smartphone addiction were female gender, Internet use, alcohol use, and anxiety, while the protective factors were depression and temperance. In contrast, the risk factors for Internet addiction were male gender, smartphone use, anxiety, and wisdom/knowledge, while the protective factor was courage. Discussion These differences may result from unique features of smartphones, such as high availability and primary use as a tool for interpersonal relationships. Conclusions Our findings will aid clinicians in distinguishing between predictive factors for smartphone and Internet addiction and can consequently be utilized in the prevention and treatment of smartphone addiction. PMID:26690626

  3. Food Addiction and Its Impact on Weight-Based Stigma and the Treatment of Obese Individuals in the U.S. and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia M Lee; Hall, Wayne D; Jayne Lucke; Cynthia Forlini; Adrian Carter

    2014-01-01

    It is argued that food addiction explanations of obesity may reduce the significant stigma levelled at obese and overweight individuals. We surveyed 479 adults to determine the prevalence of food addiction in the U.S. (n = 215) and, for the first time, in Australia (n = 264) using the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). We also assessed the level of weight-based stigma in this population. The prevalence of food addiction in our Australian sample was 11%, similar to U.S. participants and consi...

  4. Addiction, ethics and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, R

    1997-09-01

    Addiction affects the lives of all of human kind, either directly or indirectly. The cost to individuals and societies is immense and tackling the problem is as much one for policy makers as clinicians, counsellors and scientists. Ethical issues permeate much of the work of all these groups. The issue of what is right and wrong, morally defensible or morally unacceptable arises at both an individual and societal level. This special issue contains 21 commissioned articles from leading figures in addiction research. To set the scene for these in-depth analyses, this article reports the results of an expert panel survey on addiction, ethics and public policy. A total of 199 people from 24 countries identified as first authors of research papers abstracted in Addiction Abstracts in 1994 and 1995 completed a postal questionnaire asking their views on a range of issues. They were asked to state their position on the issue and to identify what they considered to be the most important factors in the decision. Among the findings of interest were: a majority believed that possession of cannabis should be legal but that possession of 'hard drugs' should be illegal. An overwhelming majority believed that tobacco advertising should be banned, that smoking should be prohibited in public buildings and offices and that the legal age for tobacco sales should be 18 or more. A majority believed that researchers should not accept backing from tobacco companies; opinion on accepting backing from the alcohol industry was more evenly divided. An overwhelming majority believed that drug addicts should be able to attend treatment centres on demand and that some form of methadone maintenance should be available to addicts who want it. The survey should prove a useful resource when debating the issues in policy and research arenas.

  5. Behavioral addictions: a novel challenge for psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Presta, Silvio; Baroni, Stefano; Silvestri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-12-01

    Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology. It is, however, controversial whether all or at least some of them should be considered real disorders or just normal, albeit extreme, behaviors. The aim of this article is to review current data on pharmacological treatment of behavioral addictions. As no specific and validated treatment algorithms are currently available, only an improved knowledge on their psychopathological, clinical, and neurobiological features may have relevant implications for more focused preventive and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24589040

  6. Failing to diagnose and failing to treat an addicted client: Two potentially life-threatening clinical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Bruce S; Reis, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    Psychotherapists risk making 2 types of errors with clients who struggle with addictive behaviors: failure to addictive behaviors and failure to effectively addictive behaviors. Given the high prevalence of addictive behaviors in clinical populations, therapists are in a unique position to assist individuals with these problems. It is assumed that therapists possess general diagnostic and treatment skills and yet many do not diagnose or do not treat addictive behaviors. Reasons for making these errors include prohibitive beliefs and limited knowledge about addictive behaviors. We offer specific recommendations to reduce these psychotherapy errors. These include: (a) more deliberate screening and diagnosis of addictive behaviors, (b) increased application of empirically supported addiction treatments, (c) required education and training in addictive behaviors, (d) modification of prohibitive attitudes about addressing addictive behaviors, and (e) increased attention paid to the addictive behaviors by professional psychotherapy organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27631864

  7. Failing to diagnose and failing to treat an addicted client: Two potentially life-threatening clinical errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Bruce S; Reis, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    Psychotherapists risk making 2 types of errors with clients who struggle with addictive behaviors: failure to addictive behaviors and failure to effectively addictive behaviors. Given the high prevalence of addictive behaviors in clinical populations, therapists are in a unique position to assist individuals with these problems. It is assumed that therapists possess general diagnostic and treatment skills and yet many do not diagnose or do not treat addictive behaviors. Reasons for making these errors include prohibitive beliefs and limited knowledge about addictive behaviors. We offer specific recommendations to reduce these psychotherapy errors. These include: (a) more deliberate screening and diagnosis of addictive behaviors, (b) increased application of empirically supported addiction treatments, (c) required education and training in addictive behaviors, (d) modification of prohibitive attitudes about addressing addictive behaviors, and (e) increased attention paid to the addictive behaviors by professional psychotherapy organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Supporting Mothers’ Engagement in a Community-Based Methadone Treatment Program

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Letourneau; Mary Ann Campbell; Jennifer Woodland; Jennifer Colpitts

    2013-01-01

    Unmanaged maternal opioid addiction poses health and social risks to both mothers and children in their care. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is a targeted public health service to which nurses and other allied health professionals may refer these high risk families for support. Mothers participating in MMT to manage their addiction and their service providers were interviewed to identify resources to maximize mothers’ engagement in treatment and enhance mothers’ parenting capacity. Twe...

  9. CRIMINAL POLICY AND PREVENTION OF DRUG ADDICTION AMONG YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Ivandić Zimić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Contribution of the criminal policy in the development of the integrated prevention-social policy related to drug addiction is highlyimportant because of the fact that it aims are reducing of the drug related crimes, protecting the victims and community. The paperconsiders interventions of the criminal policy into fi elds of treatment and prevention of drug addiction among youth. This relationrepresent challenge for policymakers because interconnections between different service, who do not always have the same point ofview how to approach to the problem, is strongly needed and expected. Thru the comparing of the implementation of prevention andcriminal policy in Great Britain, Netherlands, Sweden and Croatia, aim of the paper is to detected concepts and models of infl uenceof the criminal policy on the reducing use of drugs among youth and effectiveness of prevention programs. Lack of the support andsocial care for the drug addiction offenders within the criminal policy, have effects of the success of the social reintegration and appearanceof recidivism. There is a strong connection between prevention and criminal policy in the fi led of combating drug problem;on one side good prevention policy could infl uence on the reduction of number of youth who will committee drug crimes and enteredin the criminal justice system, but at the same time the criminal policy have the important role in the preventing of the drug abuse thruthe involving minor drug offenders in the treatment while there are in the criminal proceedings.

  10. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study examines the…

  11. The Influence of an Educational Course on Language Expression and Treatment of Gaming Addiction for Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyoung Won; Kim, Seo Young; Shim, Miseon; Im, Chang-Hwan; Shon, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) among juveniles has become a serious problem in Korea and has led to legislation prohibiting juveniles from playing games after midnight. One key factor in gaming addiction is the so-called narrative, or story, gamers create for themselves while playing. This study investigated how…

  12. Extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues in animal models: relevance to the treatment of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Karyn M; Carlezon, William A

    2010-11-01

    Conditioned drug craving and withdrawal elicited by cues paired with drug use or acute withdrawal are among the many factors contributing to compulsive drug taking. Understanding how to stop these cues from having these effects is a major goal of addiction research. Extinction is a form of learning in which associations between cues and the events they predict are weakened by exposure to the cues in the absence of those events. Evidence from animal models suggests that conditioned responses to drug cues can be extinguished, although the degree to which this occurs in humans is controversial. Investigations into the neurobiological substrates of extinction of conditioned drug craving and withdrawal may facilitate the successful use of drug cue extinction within clinical contexts. While this work is still in the early stages, there are indications that extinction of drug- and withdrawal-paired cues shares neural mechanisms with extinction of conditioned fear. Using the fear extinction literature as a template, it is possible to organize the observations on drug cue extinction into a cohesive framework. PMID:20109490

  13. Regulate Internet Addiction Treatment Programs%应该对网瘾戒除活动进行规范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨守建

    2007-01-01

    尽管青少年网络成瘾已经是一个引起广泛关注的问题,但关于网络成瘾的概念,心理学界尚有争议。对这种成瘾有多种称谓,如互联网成瘾综合症(Intemet Addiction Disorder;简称IAD)、网络行为依赖(Internet Behavior Dependence;简称IBD)、病理性互联网使用(Pathological Intemet Use,简称PIU)等。但不管如何称呼,这些说法都至少包含两个方面的含义:一是对互联网的过度使用,也就是上瘾了;二是这种过度使用已经造成了使用者“明显的社会、心理功能损害”,也就是说,产生了显而易见的负面影响。

  14. Striatal signal transduction and drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Philibin, Scott D.; Adan eCortes; Self, David W.; Bibb, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and unde...

  15. Differentiation of personality types among opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, S J; Berman, W H

    1990-01-01

    A wide range of studies indicate that although sociopathic characteristics are predominant in opiate addiction, depressive and psychotic features are also frequently observed. To test the hypothesis that there are really three types of individuals who become addicted to opiates (rather than a single, predominant personality style), fifty-three opiate addicts were given the Loevinger Sentence Completion Test, the Bellak Ego Functions Interview, and the Rorschach. Variables derived from these three procedures were submitted to cluster and discriminant function analyses. Three groups of addicts were identified--those primarily with impaired interpersonal relationships and affective lability (42%), those primarily characterized by thought disorder and impaired ego functioning (30%), and a group with diminished ideational and verbal activity (28%). Comparison of the assessment of these three groups with independently defined normal, neurotic, and schizophrenic samples provided support for three opiate-addicted personality types, each respectively characterized as character disordered, borderline psychotic, and depressed. Although there seems to be a predominance of character-disordered individuals who become addicted to opiates, the data indicate several additional types of opiate addicts with different types of psychopathology who may require different approaches to management and treatment.

  16. Adult heavy and low users of dental services: treatment provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihtilä, Annamari; Widström, Eeva; Elonheimo, Outi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare treatment provided to adult heavy and low users of dental services in the Finnish Public Dental Service (PDS) and to analyse changes in patients' oral health status. We assigned all adults who attended the PDS in Espoo in 2004 to a group of heavy users (n = 3,173) if they had made six or more dental visits and to a comparison group of low users (n = 22,820), if they had made three or fewer dental visits. Data were obtained from the patient register of the PDS. A sample of 320 patients was randomly selected from each group. Baseline information (year 2004) on age, sex, number and types of visits, oral health status and treatment provided was collected from treatment records. Both groups were followed-up for five years. Restorative treatment measures dominated the heavy and low users'treatments; 88.8% of heavy users and 79.6% low users had received restorations during the five-year period. Fixed prosthetic treatments were provided to just 2% of the heavy users and 0.8% of the low users. Emergency visits were more common for heavy users (74.8%) than for low users (21.6%) (p < 0.001). Fewer than half of the heavy (46.1%) or low (46.5%) users were examined twice. Typical for heavy use of oral health services was a cycle of repetitive repair or replacement of restorations, often as emergency treatment, a lack of proper examinations and preventive care; crown therapy was seldom used. Immediately after the major dental care reform in Finland, the PDS in Espoo had problems providing good quality dental care for the new adult patients. Older patients with lower social class background were not accustomed to regular dental care and the PDS did not actively propose proper comprehensive regular care for adults. PMID:27464379

  17. Acupuncture therapy for drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Farid Esmaeili; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Rashid, Rusdi Abd; Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture therapy has been used to treat substance abuse. This study aims to review experimental studies examining the effects of acupuncture on addiction. Research and review articles on acupuncture treatment of substance abuse published between January 2000 and September 2014 were searched using the databases ISI Web of Science Core Collection and EBSCO's MEDLINE Complete. Clinical trial studies on the efficacy of acupuncture therapy for substance abuse were classified according to substance (cocaine, opioid, nicotine, and alcohol), and their treatment protocols, assessments, and findings were examined. A total of 119 studies were identified, of which 85 research articles addressed the efficacy of acupuncture for treating addiction. There were substantial variations in study protocols, particularly regarding treatment duration, frequency of electroacupuncture, duration of stimulation, and choice of acupoints. Contradictory results, intergroup differences, variation in sample sizes, and acupuncture placebo effects made it difficult to evaluate acupuncture effectiveness in drug addiction treatment. This review also identified a lack of rigorous study design, such as control of confounding variables by incorporating sham controls, sufficient sample sizes, reliable assessments, and adequately replicated experiments. PMID:27053944

  18. Take Action against Hepatitis C (for People in Recovery from Mental Illness or Addiction)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For People in Recovery From Mental Illness or Addiction Attention treatment providers in behavioral health programs! This ... hepatitis C. If you have a history of addiction, you are at higher risk for hepatitis C. ...

  19. Internet Addiction and Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management. PMID:27338971

  20. How addicts think about addiction and community problems?

    OpenAIRE

    Meysamie, A; B. Faramarzi; K Holakouie Naieni

    2006-01-01

    Background: addiction and drug abuse have many risk factors in community and individual attitude; also causes much diversity in community perception and attitude toward addiction. Methods: in this study we assessed attitude toward an addict in 42 addict men and asked about problems in their community and recreational behaviors. They were residents of a rural area in Babol city. In the control group we assessed the same parameters in 268 non addicts in the same area. All of the addicts have be...

  1. Striatal Signal Transduction and Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibin, Scott D.; Hernandez, Adan; Self, David W.; Bibb, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the formation of the addicted state are being delineated. Thus we may now consider the role of striatal signal transduction in addiction from a more integrative neurobiological perspective. Drugs of abuse alter dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Dopamine receptors important for reward serve as principle targets of drugs abuse, which interact with glutamate receptor signaling critical for reward learning. Complex networks of intracellular signal transduction mechanisms underlying these receptors are strongly stimulated by addictive drugs. Through these mechanisms, repeated drug exposure alters functional and structural neuroplasticity, resulting in transition to the addicted biological state and behavioral outcomes that typify addiction. Ca2+ and cAMP represent key second messengers that initiate signaling cascades, which regulate synaptic strength and neuronal excitability. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are fundamental mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity that are dysregulated by drugs of abuse. Increased understanding of the regulatory mechanisms by which protein kinases and phosphatases exert their effects during normal reward learning and the addiction process may lead to novel targets and pharmacotherapeutics with increased efficacy in promoting abstinence and decreased side effects, such as interference with natural reward, for drug addiction. PMID

  2. Department of Health and Human Services Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration--Final Rule Stage Regulation Sequence Title Identifier Number Number 122 Opioid Drugs in Maintenance or Detoxification Treatment of Opiate Addiction (Section 0930-AA14 610 Review) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration--Long-Term...

  3. What is addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances--that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes "addiction." The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24-25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a "formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master." This notion of relinquishment of control by the addicted person is the central feature of many lay and professional definitions of the term. The study of addictive behavior crosses several disciplines, including, among others, behavioral neuroscience, epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Articles in this issue examine aspects of AOD use disorders from the perspective of some of these varied disciplines. PMID:23584810

  4. Training the next generation of providers in addiction medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyidi, Ernest; Wilkins, Jeffery N; Danovitch, Itai

    2012-06-01

    Within the United States there exists a profound discrepancy between the significant public health problem of substance abuse and the access to treatment for addicted individuals. Part of the insufficient access to treatment is a function of relatively low levels or professional experts in addiction medicine. Part of the low levels of professional addiction experts is the result of inadequate addiction medicine training of medical students and residents. This article outlines deficits in addiction medicine training among medical students and residents, yet real change in the addiction medicine training process will always be subject to the complexity of producing alterations across multiple credentialing institutions as well as the keen competition between educators for “more time” for their particular subject. Other hurdles include the broad-based issue of stigma regarding alcoholism and other substance abuse that likely impact all systems that regulate physician addiction medicine training. As noted in the discussion of psychiatry residency, even psychiatry residents manifest stigma regarding substance abusing patients. Five currently active processes may allow for fundamental change to the inertia in physician addiction medicine training while also potentially impacting stigma: 1. We appear to be at the beginning of the integration of addiction into traditional medicine through the formation of a legitimized addiction medicine subspecialty. 2. The training of primary care trainees and practitioners in the use of SBIRT is accelerating, thus creating another process of addiction integration into traditional medicine. 3. The PCMH is being established as a model for primary care 4. The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (MHPAEA) became effective for group health care plan years beginning on or after July 1, 2010; thereby, substance abuse benefits and cost are to be the same as general medical or surgical

  5. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  6. Causes of Internet Addiction Disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Internet Addiction Disorder diagnostic manual approved by psychologists on November 8 divides Internet addiction into five categories,which are addiction to online games,pornography,social networking,Internet information and Internetshopping.

  7. Closing the Need-Service Gap: Gender Differences in Matching Services to Client Needs in Comprehensive Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jeanne C.; Cao, Dingcai; Shin, Hee-Choon

    2009-01-01

    Despite the broad recognition in social work that services are more effective when they are tailored to individual client needs, we have only limited evidence of the impact that services matched to client needs have on treatment outcomes. This study examines gender differences in the impact of matched services, access services, and…

  8. Acupuncture therapy for drug addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Motlagh, Farid Esmaeili; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Rashid , Rusdi Abd.; SEGHATOLESLAM, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture therapy has been used to treat substance abuse. This study aims to review experimental studies examining the effects of acupuncture on addiction. Research and review articles on acupuncture treatment of substance abuse published between January 2000 and September 2014 were searched using the databases ISI Web of Science Core Collection and EBSCO’s MEDLINE Complete. Clinical trial studies on the efficacy of acupuncture therapy for substance abuse were classified according to substa...

  9. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kuss DJ

    2013-01-01

    Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal o...

  10. Anti-addiction vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.; Kosten, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It ...

  11. CIMP Internet Addiction Guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Azizah Zainudin; Marina Md Din; Marini Othman

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, Internet addiction has become a major problem to the university students. The purpose of this study is to present a guideline to helps people to overcome their Internet addiction especially for students. There were 653 university students (341 females and 312 males) from five different universities in Malaysia have completed related survey. The survey questionnaires were taken from Young?s Addiction Scale (1996) and some questions were created by the researcher. In this paper, there...

  12. Plasticity of Addiction: a Mesolimbic Dopamine Short-Circuit?

    OpenAIRE

    Niehaus, Jason L.; Cruz-Bermúdez, Nelson D.; Kauer, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    The development of drug addiction progresses along a continuum from acute drug use to compulsive use and drug seeking behavior. Many researchers have focused on identifying the physiological mechanisms involved in drug addiction in order to develop effective pharmacotherapies. Neuroplasticity, the putative mechanism underlying learning and memory, is modified by drugs of abuse and may contribute to the development of the eventual addicted state. Innovative treatments directly targeting these ...

  13. Addiction circuitry in the human brain (*).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.

    2011-09-27

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders.

  14. Women and drug addiction: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandall, Stephen R

    2010-04-01

    The history of women and addiction in America extends back more than 150 years. Although the true epidemiology of women and addiction has always been difficult to determine, the spectrum of female addicts extends well beyond those women who make sensationalistic headlines by "abandoning" or "battering" their children. Historically, female addiction has been largely the result of inappropriate overmedication practices by physicians and pharmacists, media manipulation, or individuals own attempts to cope with social or occupational barriers preventing equality and self-fulfillment. From the mid-nineteenth century, uneasy tolerance, social ostracism, vilification, persecution, and legal prosecution have grudgingly, but not completely, given way to more humane treatment opportunities in the setting of more enlightened comprehensive care. PMID:20407971

  15. Sexual addiction or hypersexual disorder: different terms for the same problem? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Wéry, Aline; Weinstein, Aviv; Cottencin, Olivier; Petit, Aymeric; Reynaud, Michel; Billieux, Jöel

    2014-01-01

    Sexual addiction, which is also known as hypersexual disorder, has largely been ignored by psychiatrists, even though the condition causes serious psychosocial problems for many people. A lack of empirical evidence on sexual addiction is the result of the disease's complete absence from versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, people who were categorized as having a compulsive, impulsive, addictive sexual disorder or a hypersexual disorder reported having obsessive thoughts and behaviors as well as sexual fantasies. Existing prevalence rates of sexual addiction-related disorders range from 3% to 6%. Sexual addiction/ hypersexual disorder is used as an umbrella construct to encompass various types of problematic behaviors, including excessive masturbation, cybersex, pornography use, sexual behavior with consenting adults, telephone sex, strip club visitation, and other behaviors. The adverse consequences of sexual addiction are similar to the consequences of other addictive disorders. Addictive, somatic and psychiatric disorders coexist with sexual addiction. In recent years, research on sexual addiction has proliferated, and screening instruments have increasingly been developed to diagnose or quantify sexual addiction disorders. In our systematic review of the existing measures, 22 questionnaires were identified. As with other behavioral addictions, the appropriate treatment of sexual addiction should combine pharmacological and psychological approaches. Psychiatric and somatic comorbidities that frequently occur with sexual addiction should be integrated into the therapeutic process. Group-based treatments should also be attempted. PMID:24001295

  16. Anti-addiction vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It also outlines the development challenges, ethical concerns, and likely future intervention for anti-addiction vaccines. PMID:22003367

  17. Genetics of opiate addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Butelman, Eduardo R; Yuferov, Vadim; Randesi, Matthew; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-11-01

    Addiction to MOP-r agonists such as heroin (and also addiction to prescription opioids) has reemerged as an epidemic in the twenty first century, causing massive morbidity. Understanding the genetics contributing to susceptibility to this disease is crucial for the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and also for discovery of genetic markers which would indicate relative protection or vulnerability from addiction, and relative responsiveness to pharmacotherapy. This information could thus eventually inform clinical practice. In this review, we focus primarily on association studies of heroin and opiate addiction, and further describe the studies which have been replicated in this field, and are thus more likely to be useful for translational efforts.

  18. Gender-Specific Barriers to Self-Sufficiency among Former Supplemental Security Income Drug Addiction and Alcoholism Beneficiaries: Implications for Welfare-To-Work Programs and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Sean R; Unick, George J; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines barriers to economic self-sufficiency among a panel of 219 former Supplemental Security Income (SSI) drug addiction and alcoholism (DA&A) recipients following elimination of DA&A as an eligibility category for SSI disability benefits. Study participants were comprehensively surveyed at six measurement points following the policy change. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine full-sample and gender-specific barriers to economic self-sufficiency. Results indic...

  19. Impulsivity in internet addiction: a comparison with pathological gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hae Woo; Choi, Jung-Seok; Shin, Young-Chul; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2012-07-01

    Internet addiction has been considered to be associated with poor impulse control. The aim of this study is to compare the trait impulsivity of those suffering from Internet addiction with that of individuals suffering from pathological gambling. Twenty-seven patients diagnosed with Internet addiction (age: 24.78±4.37 years), 27 patients diagnosed with pathological gambling (age: 25.67±3.97 years), and 27 healthy controls (age: 25.33±2.79 years) were enrolled in this study. All patients were men seeking treatment. Trait impulsivity and the severity of the Internet addiction and pathological gambling were measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the Young's Internet Addiction Test, and the South Oaks Gambling Screen, respectively. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were also administered to all subjects. Our results show that those suffering from Internet addiction showed increased levels of trait impulsivity which were comparable to those of patients diagnosed with pathological gambling. Additionally, the severity of Internet addiction was positively correlated with the level of trait impulsivity in patients with Internet addiction. These results state that Internet addiction can be conceptualized as an impulse control disorder and that trait impulsivity is a marker for vulnerability to Internet addiction.

  20. Preservice Teachers’ Internet Addiction in Terms of Gender, Internet Access, Loneliness and Life Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Demirer, Veysel; Bozoglan, Bahadir; Sahin, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate pre-service teachers’ Internet addiction in terms of gender, Internet accessibility, loneliness and life satisfaction. Statistical analyses were completed on the data by the 247 pre-service teachers that filled the surveys completely. According to findings, pre-service teachers’ level of loneliness and Internet addiction scores is low while their life satisfaction scores are high.  Male participants are more addicted to the Internet than female particip...

  1. Pleasure and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Marie Kennett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savalescu (2010 have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behaviour. They describe addiction as ‘strong appetites toward pleasure’ and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction.

  2. Turnover intention and emotional exhaustion "at the top": adapting the job demands-resources model to leaders of addiction treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Ducharme, Lori J; Roman, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Compared with the large literature on subordinate employees, there are few studies of emotional exhaustion and turnover intention for organizational leaders. There is little research that has extended the job demands-resources (JD-R) model of emotional exhaustion to leaders. In this study, the authors adapted the JD-R framework to analyze data collected from a sample of 410 leaders of addiction treatment organizations. The authors considered whether two job demands (performance demands and centralization) and two job resources (innovation in decision making and long-range strategic planning) were associated with emotional exhaustion and turnover intention. The authors also examined whether emotional exhaustion fully or partially mediated the associations between the job-related measures and turnover intention. The results supported the partially mediated model. Both job demands were positively associated with emotional exhaustion, and the association for long-range strategic planning was negative. Emotional exhaustion was positively associated with turnover intention. Centralization and innovation in decision making were also directly associated with turnover intention. Future research should continue to examine this theoretical framework among leaders of other types of organizations using more refined measures of demands and resources.

  3. Verification of the Addiction Severity Index Japanese Version (ASI-J as a Treatment-Customization, Prediction, and Comparison Tool for Alcohol-Dependent Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Higuchi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To demonstrate the usefulness of the Addiction Severity Index Japanese Version (ASI-J in Japanese alcohol-dependent individuals. The ASI is a frequently used clinical and research instrument that measures severities in seven functional domains in people with substance abuse disorders. Methods: A total of 370 male inpatients with a history of alcohol dependence participated in the study. Forty-nine participants were excluded in the final analysis due to lack of reliability (i.e., patient misrepresentation or inability to understand. We used the ASI-J and a series of indexes that determined patient states during and post-treatment. Results: The correlations between ASI Composite Scores (CSs, which were calculated through a weighted formula and indicated the severity of each problem area, were significant but low in eight relations and not significant in 13 relations, indicating substantial independence of the problem areas. Significant differences were found in Family/Social CSs between abstinent and relapsed alcohol-dependent individuals. The questions of undesirable attitude were significantly related to the CSs of Employment, Drug use, Family/Social, and Psychiatric sections. Significant differences were observed in patient demographics, CS, and ASI Severity Rating (SR and interviewer’s subjective scoring between alcohol-dependent individuals and drug abusers. CSs in Japanese alcohol-dependent individuals were generally similar to corresponding CSs in individuals from other countries, with the exception of The Netherlands. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the ASI-J is useful for understanding individual profiles of problems for each patient and planning customized treatment. The ASI-J served as a predictive tool for relapse and compliance to treatment afterward and was shown to be useful as a comparison tool in clarifying similarities and differences between substance abuser groups.

  4. Young adults, social networks, and addiction recovery: post treatment changes in social ties and their role as a mediator of 12-step participation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F Kelly

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Social factors play a key role in addiction recovery. Research with adults indicates individuals with substance use disorder (SUD benefit from mutual-help organizations (MHOs, such as Alcoholics Anonymous, via their ability to facilitate adaptive network changes. Given the lower prevalence of sobriety-conducive, and sobriety-supportive, social contexts in the general population during the life-stage of young adulthood, however, 12-step MHOs may play an even more crucial recovery-supportive social role for young adults, but have not been investigated. Greater knowledge could enhance understanding of recovery-related change and inform young adults' continuing care recommendations. METHODS: Emerging adults (N = 302; 18-24 yrs; 26% female; 95% White enrolled in a study of residential treatment effectiveness were assessed at intake, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months on 12-step attendance, peer network variables ("high [relapse] risk" and "low [relapse] risk" friends, and treatment outcomes (Percent Days Abstinent; Percent Days Heavy Drinking. Hierarchical linear models tested for change in social risk over time and lagged mediational analyses tested whether 12-step attendance conferred recovery benefits via change in social risk. RESULTS: High-risk friends were common at treatment entry, but decreased during follow-up; low-risk friends increased. Contrary to predictions, while substantial recovery-supportive friend network changes were observed, this was unrelated to 12-step participation and, thus, not found to mediate its positive influence on outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Young adult 12-step participation confers recovery benefit; yet, while encouraging social network change, 12-step MHOs may be less able to provide social network change directly for young adults, perhaps because similar-aged peers are less common in MHOs. Findings highlight the importance of both social networks and 12-step MHOs and raise further questions as to how young adults benefit

  5. New Dimensions, New Addictions: The Internet Sex Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sánchez Zaldívar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The network is endless: going anywhere, finding anything, being anyone. Typing the word sex on Google gives a figure of 96 million results. The network is changing our way of communication and relation; we can construct space-time coordinates before incompatible. Internet addiction is not recognized as a disorder in DSM-IV-TR or ICD-10. Both types of Internet addiction with sexual content are cybersex and pornography. Cybersex consists in experiencing sexual stimulation while maintaining sexual contact with other person. There is no user profile, it is a widespread behaviour and might have a positive aspect (in some communities, persons with fewer social skills, to spice sex life and a negative aspect (addiction, loss of control, marital and family problems. Sex is safe, anonymous and without complications. Internet pornography voyeurism allows the visualization of all types of practices, the use of real models not professional and to spy our behaviour through the IP code. These sexual activities on the network seems to be powered by the “Triple A” engine: accessibility, anonymity, affordability. We must assess the individual, the couples and the Internet activities. There is no proven pharmacological or psychological treatment but cognitive behavioural programs and techniques used in other addictions are helpful. There is large comorbidity. The goal of treatment refers to the adaptive use of Internet. Health professionals should be in advance and learn about this kind of behaviours, as well as to disseminate the information appropriately not launching simplistic messages, providing markers and developing studies, research and prevention programs.

  6. Adult heavy and low users of dental services: treatment provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihtilä, Annamari; Widström, Eeva; Elonheimo, Outi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare treatment provided to adult heavy and low users of dental services in the Finnish Public Dental Service (PDS) and to analyse changes in patients' oral health status. We assigned all adults who attended the PDS in Espoo in 2004 to a group of heavy users (n = 3,173) if they had made six or more dental visits and to a comparison group of low users (n = 22,820), if they had made three or fewer dental visits. Data were obtained from the patient register of the PDS. A sample of 320 patients was randomly selected from each group. Baseline information (year 2004) on age, sex, number and types of visits, oral health status and treatment provided was collected from treatment records. Both groups were followed-up for five years. Restorative treatment measures dominated the heavy and low users'treatments; 88.8% of heavy users and 79.6% low users had received restorations during the five-year period. Fixed prosthetic treatments were provided to just 2% of the heavy users and 0.8% of the low users. Emergency visits were more common for heavy users (74.8%) than for low users (21.6%) (p therapy was seldom used. Immediately after the major dental care reform in Finland, the PDS in Espoo had problems providing good quality dental care for the new adult patients. Older patients with lower social class background were not accustomed to regular dental care and the PDS did not actively propose proper comprehensive regular care for adults.

  7. How to study sex differences in addiction using animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Lynch, Wendy J

    2016-09-01

    The importance of studying sex as a biological variable in biomedical research is becoming increasingly apparent. There is a particular need in preclinical studies of addiction to include both sexes, as female animals are often excluded from studies, leaving large gaps in our knowledge of not only sex differences and potential prevention and treatment strategies but also with regard to the basic neurobiology of addiction. This review focuses on methodology that has been developed in preclinical studies to examine sex differences in the behavioral aspects and neurobiological mechanisms related to addiction across the full range of the addiction process, including initiation (acquisition), maintenance, escalation, withdrawal, relapse to drug seeking and treatment. This review also discusses strategic and technical issues that need to be considered when comparing females and males, including the role of ovarian hormones and how sex differences interact with other major vulnerability factors in addiction, such as impulsivity, compulsivity and age (adolescent versus adult). Novel treatments for addiction are also discussed, such as competing non-drug rewards, repurposed medications such as progesterone and treatment combinations. Practical aspects of conducting research comparing female and male animals are also considered. Making sex differences a point of examination requires additional effort and consideration; however, such studies are necessary given mounting evidence demonstrating that the addiction process occurs differently in males and females. These studies should lead to a better understanding of individual differences in the development of addiction and effective treatments for males and females. PMID:27345022

  8. Addictions and Personality Traits: Impulsivity and Related Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Marci R.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral tendencies that might be captured through self-report measures may provide insight into personality features that are associated with substance addictions. Recently, impulsivity and related constructs, such as sensation-seeking, have been examined to help better understand their relationships with addictions. Here, we review recent findings that show links over developmental epochs between addictive behaviors and impulsivity, sensation-seeking, and other constructs that are theoretically linked. These findings have significant implications for generating improved treatments and interventions aimed at preventing the development of addictive disorders. PMID:24772382

  9. Categorising methadone: Addiction and analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Helen

    2013-11-01

    While methadone was first developed as an analgesic, and used for this purpose before it was adopted as a therapy for drug dependence, it is this latter use which has saturated its identity. Most of the literature and commentary on methadone discusses it in the context of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). But one of the effects of the liberalization of opiate prescription for chronic pain which took place in the 1990s was the re-emergence of methadone as a painkiller. This article examines the relationship between methadone the painkiller and methadone the addiction treatment as it is constituted in recent medical research literature and treatment guidelines. It highlights the way medical discourse separates methadone into two substances with different effects depending on the problem that is being treated. Central to this separation is the classification of patients into addicts and non-addicts; and pain sufferers and non-pain sufferers. The article argues that despite this work of making and maintaining distinctions, the similarities in the way methadone is used and acts in these different medical contexts complicates these categories. The difficulties of keeping the 'two methadones' separate becomes most apparent in cases of MMT patients also being treated for chronic pain.

  10. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  11. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  12. 海洛因成瘾者美沙酮维持治疗心理矫治综述%On the overview of psychological treatment of Heroin addicts"methadone maintenance treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙莉

    2009-01-01

    对海洛因成瘾者的戒毒需要药物治疗,更需要心理干预与社会支持.美沙酮维持治疗门诊要有效提高维持率,保证维持治疗效果,对受治者进行综合干预是必不可少的.加强在治疗初期对戒毒者的心理干预力度,戒毒者才能长期坚持治疗,达到美沙酮维持治疗效果.%The treatment of heroin addicts need medical treatment as well as psychological intervention and social support. The integrated intervention is essential for Out-patient departments of methadone maintenance treatment to effectively increase maintenance and ensure its effect. Strengthening psychological intervention of patients at early treatment stage, the patient can adhere to the treatment and therefore ensure the treatment effect.

  13. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  14. What Virtual Reality Research in Addictions Can Tell Us about the Future of Obesity Assessment and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Carter, Brian L.; Traylor, Amy C.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR), a system of human–computer interaction that allows researchers and clinicians to immerse people in virtual worlds, is gaining considerable traction as a research, education, and treatment tool. Virtual reality has been used successfully to treat anxiety disorders such as fear of flying and post-traumatic stress disorder, as an aid in stroke rehabilitation, and as a behavior modification aid in the treatment of attention deficit disorder. Virtual reality has also been emp...

  15. Using Experiential Activities to Prepare Counselors-in-Training to Understand the Power of Cravings when Addressing Clients with Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrawood, Laura K.; McClure, Cristen C.; Nelson, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Providing skilled treatment options for clients experiencing addiction is imperative to positive client treatment outcomes. As a prerequisite to providing efficacious addiction treatment, counselors-in-training are charged with the responsibility of understanding the affect of cravings on addiction relapse. This article presents 3 experiential,…

  16. Addiction to opioids in chronic pain patients: a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsted, Jette; Sjøgren, Per

    2007-01-01

    Opioids have proven very useful for treatment of acute pain and cancer pain, and in the developed countries opioids are increasingly used for treatment of chronic non-malignant pain patients as well. This literature review aims at giving an overview of definitions, mechanisms, diagnostic criteria......, incidence and prevalence of addiction in opioid treated pain patients, screening tools for assessing opioid addiction in chronic pain patients and recommendations regarding addiction problems in national and international guidelines for opioid treatment in cancer patients and chronic non-malignant pain...... patients. The review indicates that the prevalence of addiction varied from 0% up to 50% in chronic non-malignant pain patients, and from 0% to 7.7% in cancer patients depending of the subpopulation studied and the criteria used. The risk of addiction has to be considered when initiating long-term opioid...

  17. Carrots and sticks fail to change behavior in cocaine addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ersche, K.D.; Gillan, C.M.; Jones, P.S.; Williams, G.B.; Ward, L.H.E.; Luijten, M.; Wit, S. de; Sahakian, B.J.; Bullmore, E.T.; Robbins, T.W.

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a major public health problem that is particularly difficult to treat. Without medically proven pharmacological treatments, interventions to change the maladaptive behavior of addicted individuals mainly rely on psychosocial approaches. Here we report on impairments in cocaine-a

  18. Integrating Shamanic Methodology into the Spirituality of Addictions Recovery Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Marcia L.

    2012-01-01

    Responding to an increased recognition of the importance of spirituality in the aetiology and treatment of addictions, this article provides an overview of the potential contributions of both transpersonal psychology and shamanic methodology for the addictions field. A case study is provided to illustrate the integration of conventional,…

  19. Addiction Counsellors in the Republic of Ireland: Exploring the Emergence of a New Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Shane

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the emergence and expansion of addiction counselling as a specialist form of professional practice with problem drinkers and drug users in Ireland, over the past 30 years. It sees addiction counselling as having its roots in a widely shared disenchantment with the "medical model" of addiction treatment, and identifies the main…

  20. Addressing the question of disorder-specific risk factors of internet addiction: a comparison of personality traits in patients with addictive behaviors and comorbid internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Koch, A; Dickenhorst, U; Beutel, M E; Duven, E; Wölfling, K

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.

  1. Addressing the Question of Disorder-Specific Risk Factors of Internet Addiction: A Comparison of Personality Traits in Patients with Addictive Behaviors and Comorbid Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. W. Müller

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.

  2. Survey on the personality disorder and self-esteem in drug addicts under compulsory treatment%强制戒毒人员人格障碍调查及其自尊相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀; 刘新民; 韦克诚; 许东彪; 张婷

    2013-01-01

    目的:调查强制戒毒人员的人格障碍水平,探讨自尊水平与人格障碍的关系.方法:采用一般情况调查问卷、人格障碍诊断问卷(PDQ-4)和自尊量表 (SES)对353名强制戒毒人员进行问卷调查.结果:①强制戒毒人员PDQ-4总分和各因子分均高于正常人群;②不同自尊水平强制戒毒人员人格障碍各维度得分差异显著,低自尊组强制戒毒人员PDQ-4各因子分均高于高自尊组.结论:强制戒毒人员人格障碍水平高于正常人群,自尊水平对人格障碍形成有显著影响,低自尊可能与吸毒行为有关.%Objective :To investigate the relationship between personality disorder and sell-esteem by a purvey on the personality disorder in drug addicts under compulsory treatment. Methods : A survey was conducted in 353 drug addicts under compulsory treatment using Personality Diagnostic Questionnairef PDQ4 ) and Sell-esteem Scale( SES ). Results :①The total scores and average scoring on components in PDQ-4 were higher in drug addicts under compulsory treatment than healthy controls. ②The scoring differed a lot in the drug addicts with diverse sell-esteem level regarding the dimensions on PDQ-4, which appealed relatively higher in those with lower sell-esteem level. Conclusion: The levels of personality disorder in drug addicts under compulsory treatment were higher as compared with the healthy population. The findings suggest that sell-esteem may sig-nilicantly affect personality,and lower self-esteem may be associated with ding abuse.

  3. Comorbid internet addiction in male clients of inpatient addiction rehabilitation centers: psychiatric symptoms and mental comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Koch, Andreas; Dickenhorst, Ulrike; Müller, Kai W

    2013-11-01

    Addictive Internet use has recently been proposed to be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Still, little is known about its nosological features, including comorbidity with other mental disorders and disorder-specific psychopathological symptoms. To investigate whether Internet addiction (IA) is an issue in patients in addiction treatment, 1826 clients were surveyed in 15 inpatient rehabilitation centers. Male patients meeting criteria for comorbid IA (n = 71) were compared with a matched control group of male patients treated for alcohol addiction without addictive Internet use (n = 58). The SCL-90-R, the Patient Health Questionnaire, and the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder were used to assess associated psychiatric symptoms and further comorbid disorders. Comorbid IA was associated with higher levels of psychosocial symptoms, especially depression, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity. Moreover, the patients with IA more frequently met criteria for additional mental disorders. They display higher rates of psychiatric symptoms, especially depression, and might be in need of additional therapeutic treatment. In rehabilitation centers, a regular screening for IA is recommended to identify patients with this (non-substance-related) addiction and supply them with additional disorder-specific treatment.

  4. 78 FR 62427 - TRICARE; Removal of the Prohibition To Use Addictive Drugs in the Maintenance Treatment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... patient is stabilized on these medications, the patient no long meets DSM-IV criteria for substance... medications. To clarify the comment about DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for substance dependence, six treatment... the DSM-IV, including ``On Agonist Therapy.'' This specifier accurately describes the status of...

  5. The characteristics of borderline personality, anger, hostility and aggression in addicts with and without suicide ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Mohammadifar; Elahe Zareie, M.K; Mahmood Najafi; Mahmood Manteqi

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study was conducted to compare the characteristics of borderline personality, anger, hostility and aggression in addicts with and without suicide ideation. Method: This research was and the causal-comparative research method which is categorized in descriptive one. Sample in this study was included 300 addicts referred to the addiction treatment clinic in Semnan province. By convenience sampling with considering of entry criteria 300 addicts selected and based on the su...

  6. Economic demand predicts addiction-like behavior and therapeutic efficacy of oxytocin in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Bentzley, Brandon S.; Jhou, Thomas C.; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine addiction is a major public health problem with no current pharmacotherapy approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. To accelerate discovery of treatments, we developed an animal model based on economics. Economics allows mathematical alignment of animal and human behavior, permitting more confident predictions of efficacy in addicts. Although economic models are strongly associated with addiction severity in humans, they have not yet been shown to be a marker of addiction in r...

  7. Symposium Overview—Food Addiction: Fact or Fiction?1–3

    OpenAIRE

    Corwin, Rebecca L.; Grigson, Patricia S.

    2009-01-01

    Food addiction is a pervasive, yet controversial, topic that has gained recent attention in both lay media and the scientific literature. The goal of this series of articles is to use a combination of preclinical and clinical data to determine whether foods, like drugs of abuse, can be addictive, the conditions under which the addiction develops, and the underlying neurophysiological substrates. Operational definitions of addiction that have been used in the treatment of human disorders and t...

  8. Ethics and Accreditation in Addictions Counselor Training: Possible Field Placement Issues for CACREP-Accredited Addictions Counseling Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linton, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    Professional counselors have long been practicing in alcohol and drug treatment settings. However, only recently has the counseling field offered formal recognition of addictions counseling as a specialization through the implementation of accreditation standards for addiction counseling training programs. With the passage of the 2009 standards,…

  9. Addiction and Pain Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gourlay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The adequate cotreatment of chronic pain and addiction disorders is a complex and challenging problem for health care professionals. There is great potential for cannabinoids in the treatment of pain; however, the increasing prevalence of recreational cannabis use has led to a considerable increase in the number of people seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders. Evidence that cannabis abuse liability is higher than previously thought suggests that individuals with a history of substance abuse may be at an increased risk after taking cannabinoids, even for medicinal purposes. Smoked cannabis is significantly more reinforcing than other cannabinoid administration methods. In addition, it is clear that the smoked route of cannabis delivery is associated with a number of adverse health consequences. Thus, there is a need for pharmaceutical-grade products of known purity and concentration using delivery systems optimized for safety. Another factor that needs to be considered when assessing the practicality of prescribing medicinal cannabinoids is the difficulty in differentiating illicit from prescribed cannabinoids in urine drug testing. Overall, a thorough assessment of the risk/benefit profile of cannabinoids as they relate to a patient’s substance abuse history is suggested.

  10. Addiction and the Utilization of Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ju Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of different scales of addictive factors on the utilization of medical services in this paper using a two-part model. Data are from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and the claims data in the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The results show that personal addictive behavior is significantly associated with both outpatient and inpatient utilization. Moreover, our result implies that those who smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day might not visit a doctor until the illness was severe. It suggests that the government can accomplish these goals by promotion and education in order to increase public awareness of personal health.

  11. Lormetazepam addiction: data analysis from an Italian medical unit for addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faccini M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Marco Faccini,1 Roberto Leone,2 Benedetta Pajusco,1 Gianluca Quaglio,1 Rebecca Casari,1 Anna Albiero,1 Monia Donati,2 Fabio Lugoboni11Department of Internal Medicine, Addiction Unit, 2Pharmacology Unit, Reference Center for Education and Communication within the World Health Organization Program for International Drug Monitoring, University Hospital of Verona, Verona, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine, in the context of a hospital addiction unit, which benzodiazepines were abused and to look for correlations with the characteristics of detoxified patients.Methods: A retrospective study was carried out using the database of hospital admissions to the addiction unit for detoxification from 2003 to 2010.Results: Of 879 admissions to the addiction unit during the seven-year period, 281 were for benzodiazepines. The percentage of patients addicted only to benzodiazepines was higher among females than males. Benzodiazepine consumption had started as a drug addiction behavior in only 10% of cases. The main sources of prescription identified were general practitioners (52% of cases or compliant pharmacists (25%. Overall, 15 different benzodiazepines were abused, with lormetazepam being the most commonly used (by 123 patients, 43.8% of the total.Conclusion: Our data show that, outside the population of multidrug addicts, there is an underestimated group of chronic benzodiazepine consumers who are often not referred to medical institutions for treatment. Even in the group of patients addicted to one substance only, we observed an abnormal number of requests for detoxification from lormetazepam, which appears to be more "popular" than other benzodiazepines. This drug should be prescribed according to stricter criteria and submitted to closer control.Keywords: lormetazepam, benzodiazepines, addiction, inpatient detoxification

  12. Internet addiction: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica; Popović-Deušić Smiljka; Draganić-Gajić Saveta; Lečić-Toševski Dušica

    2009-01-01

    Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological) gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction). Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting...

  13. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre, India--a profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Rajat; Dhawan, Anju; Chopra, Anita

    2013-10-01

    The National Drug Dependence Treatment Centre (NDDTC) is a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, a premier autonomous medical university in India. This article provides an account of its origin and its contribution to the field of substance use disorder at the national and international levels. Since its establishment, the NDDTC has played a major role in the development of various replicable models of care, the training of post-graduate students of psychiatry, research, policy development and planning. An assessment of the magnitude of drug abuse in India began in the early 1990s and this was followed by a National Survey on Extent, Patterns and Trends of Drug Abuse in 2004. Several models of clinical care have been developed for population subgroups in diverse settings. The centre played an important role in producing data and resource material which helped to scale up opioid substitution treatment in India. A nationwide database on the profile of patients seeking treatment (Drug Abuse Monitoring System) at government drug treatment centres has also been created. The centre has provided valuable inputs for the Government of India's programme planning. Besides clinical studies, research has also focused on pre-clinical studies. Capacity-building is an important priority, with training curricula and resource material being developed for doctors and paramedical staff. Many of these training programmes are conducted in collaboration with other institutions in the country. The NDDTC has received funding from several national and international organizations for research and scientific meetings, and, most recently (2012), it has been designated as a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre on Substance Abuse.

  14. ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS ABOUT 12-STEP GROUPS AMONG ADDICTION TREATMENT CLIENTS AND CLINICIANS: TOWARD IDENTIFYING OBSTACLES TO PARTICIPATION

    OpenAIRE

    Laudet, Alexandre B.

    2003-01-01

    Participation in 12-step groups (12SG) during and after formal treatment has been associated with positive outcome among substance users. However, the effectiveness of 12SG may be limited by high attrition rates and by low participation, areas on which there has been little research. Clinicians play an important role in fostering 12-step participation, and the insights which they develop in their practice can greatly contribute to informing the research process. Yet, little is known about cli...

  15. Bridging Services: Drug Abuse, Human Services and the Therapeutic Community. Proceedings of the World Conference of Therapeutic Communities (9th, San Francisco, California, September 1-6, 1985).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    The World Federation of Therapeutic Communities is an international association of drug treatment centers that use the "Therapeutic Community" (TC) to combat chemical dependency and drug addiction. Their 1985 conference focused on bridging services between the TC and the traditional human service systems. A total of 85 separate papers were…

  16. Investigation on the Oral Health Status of Heroin Addicts in the Drug Addiction Treatment Center in Nanning,Guangxi%广西南宁市某戒毒所海洛因依赖者口腔健康状况调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁登忠; 何克新; 梁纲; 李飞; 文春媚; 高碧云; 雷月娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the oral health status of heroin addicts in the Drug Addiction Treatment Center in Nanning,and to provide reference of the prevention plan. Methods Oral examination was done in 228 heroin addicts and the data were analyzed according to requirement of the Third National Oral Health Epidemiological Survey. Results Of the 228 heroin addicts,the incidences of caries,gums bleeding,dental calculus,periodontal pocket,periodontal attachment loss and oral mucosal disease were 66. 67%( 152/228 ),82.46%( 188/228 ),100%( 228/228 ),82.01%( 187/228 ),41. 23% ( 94/228 ) and 18. 86% ( 43/228 ), respectively. The incidences of gums bleeding and periodontal attachment loss of the subjects aged from 18 to 34 were lower than those of the subjects aged from 35 to 56( P 3 years,the incidences of gums bleeding,the periodontal pocket and periodontal attachment loss of the subjects whose duration of drug addiction ≤3 years were significantly lower( P < 0. 05 ). The incidences of periodontal attachment loss of the subjects with the education level of primary school or lower education were significantly lower than those of the subjects with the education level of junior school or either high school or higher education( P all <0.05 ). Conclusion For the oral health status of heroin addicts is related with age,duration of drug addiction and education level, oral health education should be strengthened to improve their life quality.%目的 调查海洛因依赖者口腔健康情况,为制定防治计划提供依据.方法 按照第三次全国口腔健康流行病学调查的要求,对南宁市某戒毒所228名海洛因依赖者进行口腔检查.结果 228名海洛因依赖者中龋病、牙龈出血、牙结石、牙周袋、牙周附着丧失、口腔黏膜病的检出率分别为66.67%(152/228),82.46%(188/228)、100.00%(228/228)、82.01%(187/228)、41.23%(94/228)、18.86%(43/228);18~34岁年龄段牙龈出血、牙周附着丧失的检出率低于35~56

  17. Inmate attitudes toward treatment: mental health service utilization and treatment effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Lucas B; Morgan, Robert D

    2011-08-01

    This study examined inmate attitudes toward treatment, mental health treatment utilization, and treatment effects that maximize treatment effectiveness. Participants consisted of 278 incarcerated male adult offenders from the Kansas Department of Corrections. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that inmate attitudes toward treatment were predictive of the number of mental health treatment sessions (dosage) inmates received. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated positive help-seeking attitudes were associated with institutional behavior (decreased number and severity of disciplinary infractions) and scores on a measure assessing risk for future criminal behavior; however, the amount of mental health treatment an inmate received (treatment dosage) was associated with problematic institutional behavior (i.e., increased severity and number of disciplinary infractions). These results indicated that treatment dosage and behavioral outcomes were impacted by inmate attitudes toward treatment. As a result, correctional psychologists may be better able to predict which inmates will receive the most benefit from services. Implications of these findings for practitioners and policy makers are discussed. PMID:20499269

  18. The Neurocircuitry of Impaired Insight in Drug Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Craig, A.D.; Bechara, A.; Garavan, H.; Childress, A.R.; Paulus, M.P.; Volkow, N.D.

    2009-08-27

    More than 80% of addicted individuals fail to seek treatment, which might reflect impairments in recognition of severity of disorder. Considered by some as intentional deception, such 'denial' might instead reflect dysfunction of brain networks subserving insight and self-awareness. Here we review the scant literature on insight in addiction and integrate this perspective with the role of: (i) the insula in interoception, self-awareness and drug craving; (ii) the anterior cingulate in behavioral monitoring and response selection (relevant to disadvantageous choices in addiction); (iii) the dorsal striatum in automatic habit formation; and (iv) drug-related stimuli that predict emotional behavior in addicted individuals, even without conscious awareness. We discuss implications for clinical treatment including the design of interventions to improve insight into illness severity in addiction.

  19. Addiction to opioids in chronic pain patients: a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsted, Jette; Sjøgren, Per

    2007-01-01

    Opioids have proven very useful for treatment of acute pain and cancer pain, and in the developed countries opioids are increasingly used for treatment of chronic non-malignant pain patients as well. This literature review aims at giving an overview of definitions, mechanisms, diagnostic criteria...... patients. The review indicates that the prevalence of addiction varied from 0% up to 50% in chronic non-malignant pain patients, and from 0% to 7.7% in cancer patients depending of the subpopulation studied and the criteria used. The risk of addiction has to be considered when initiating long-term opioid...... are concerned with the fact that pain may be under treated because of fear of addiction, and the guidelines in management of non-malignant pain patients include warnings of addiction. According to the literature, it seems appropriate and necessary to be aware of the problems associated with addiction during...

  20. Burden and nutritional deficiencies in opiate addiction- systematic review article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Nabipour

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Addiction to the illicit and prescribed use of opiate is an alarming public health issue. Studies on addictive disorders have demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies in opiate abusers with behavioral, physiological and cognitive symptoms. Opiate addiction is also link with a significant number of diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV and other blood borne diseases generally stem from the use of needles to inject heroin. The use of medication assisted treatment for opioid addicts in combination with behavioural therapies has been considered as a highly effective treatment. Methadone is a long-lasting μ-opioid agonist and a pharmacological tool which attenuates withdrawal symptoms effectively replacement therapies. This review article aims to explain opiate addiction mechanisms, epidemiology and disease burden with emphasis on dietary and nutritional status of opiate dependent patients in methadone maintenance therapy.

  1. Burden and nutritional deficiencies in opiate addiction- systematic review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabipour, Sepideh; Ayu Said, Mas; Hussain Habil, Mohd

    2014-08-01

    Addiction to the illicit and prescribed use of opiate is an alarming public health issue. Studies on addictive disorders have demonstrated severe nutritional deficiencies in opiate abusers with behavioral, physiological and cognitive symptoms. Opiate addiction is also link with a significant number of diseases including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and other blood borne diseases generally stem from the use of needles to inject heroin. The use of medication assisted treatment for opioid addicts in combination with behavioural therapies has been considered as a highly effective treatment. Methadone is a long-lasting μ-opioid agonist and a pharmacological tool which attenuates withdrawal symptoms effectively replacement therapies. This review article aims to explain opiate addiction mechanisms, epidemiology and disease burden with emphasis on dietary and nutritional status of opiate dependent patients in methadone maintenance therapy.

  2. How addicts think about addiction and community problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meysamie

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: addiction and drug abuse have many risk factors in community and individual attitude; also causes much diversity in community perception and attitude toward addiction. Methods: in this study we assessed attitude toward an addict in 42 addict men and asked about problems in their community and recreational behaviors. They were residents of a rural area in Babol city. In the control group we assessed the same parameters in 268 non addicts in the same area. All of the addicts have been using opium more than many times a week at least for recent 6 months. Data collected via a semi structured questionnaire through conversation. Results: There was a significant difference between addicts’ attitude toward toward addiction compare to non-addicts’. Both addicts and non-addicts indicated that the first three community problems in their area were unemployment, lack of recreational facilities and addiction, in respective order. Answering questions about recreational activities, both groups indicated that there were no recreational facilities in the community. Conclusion: In planning a preventive approach, there is a major role for attitude toward addiction in any community. The conflict seen in this study between addicts’ attitudes toward an addicted person and addiction as a community problem has it’s interesting feature. Recreation and physical and cultural facilities need to pay more attention as indicated by our study participants. This seems to have an important impact in prevention of many community problems as well as addiction.

  3. Quantitative EEG and Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) Imaging of Patients Undergoing Methadone Treatment for Opiate Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace Y; Kydd, Robert R; Russell, Bruce R

    2016-07-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been used as a treatment for opiate dependence since the mid-1960s. Evidence suggests that methadone binds to mu opiate receptors as do other opiates and induces changes in neurophysiological function. However, little is known, about how neural activity within the higher frequency gamma band (>30 Hz) while at rest changes in those stabilized on MMT despite its association with the excitation-inhibition balance within pyramidal-interneuron networks. Our study investigated differences in resting gamma power (37-41 Hz) between patients undergoing MMT for opiate dependence, illicit opiate users, and healthy controls subjects. Electroencephalographic data were recorded from 26 sites according to the international 10-20 system. Compared with the healthy controls subjects, people either undergoing MMT (mean difference [MD] = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.09-0.55, P opiates (MD = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.06-0.56, P = .01) exhibited significant increased gamma power. The sLORETA (standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography) between-group comparison revealed dysfunctional neuronal activity in the occipital, parietal, and frontal lobes in the patients undergoing MMT. A more severe profile of dysfunction was observed in those using illicit opiates. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to opioids is associated with disrupted resting state network, which may be reduced after MMT.

  4. Quantitative EEG and Low-Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA) Imaging of Patients Undergoing Methadone Treatment for Opiate Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Grace Y; Kydd, Robert R; Russell, Bruce R

    2016-07-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been used as a treatment for opiate dependence since the mid-1960s. Evidence suggests that methadone binds to mu opiate receptors as do other opiates and induces changes in neurophysiological function. However, little is known, about how neural activity within the higher frequency gamma band (>30 Hz) while at rest changes in those stabilized on MMT despite its association with the excitation-inhibition balance within pyramidal-interneuron networks. Our study investigated differences in resting gamma power (37-41 Hz) between patients undergoing MMT for opiate dependence, illicit opiate users, and healthy controls subjects. Electroencephalographic data were recorded from 26 sites according to the international 10-20 system. Compared with the healthy controls subjects, people either undergoing MMT (mean difference [MD] = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.09-0.55, P < .01) or currently using illicit opiates (MD = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.06-0.56, P = .01) exhibited significant increased gamma power. The sLORETA (standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography) between-group comparison revealed dysfunctional neuronal activity in the occipital, parietal, and frontal lobes in the patients undergoing MMT. A more severe profile of dysfunction was observed in those using illicit opiates. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to opioids is associated with disrupted resting state network, which may be reduced after MMT. PMID:26002855

  5. Social service offices as a point of entry into substance abuse treatment for poor South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Burnhams Nadine; Dada Siphokazi; Myers Bronwyn

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In South Africa, district social service offices are often the first point of entry into the substance abuse treatment system. Despite this, little is known about the profile of people presenting with substance-related problems at these service points. This has a negative impact on treatment service planning. This paper begins to redress this gap through describing patterns of substance use and service needs among people using general social services in the Western Cape an...

  6. 28 CFR 550.52 - Non-residential drug abuse treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services,...

  7. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in addiction severity, HIV risk, and quality of life among adults in opioid detoxification: results from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Burchett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1,2, Walter Ling3, Bruce Burchett1, Dan G Blazer1,2, Jack Shostak2, George E Woody41Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, NPI/Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USAPurpose: Detoxification often serves as an initial contact for treatment and represents an opportunity for engaging patients in aftercare to prevent relapse. However, there is limited information concerning clinical profiles of individuals seeking detoxification, and the opportunity to engage patients in detoxification for aftercare often is missed. This study examined clinical profiles of a geographically diverse sample of opioid-dependent adults in detoxification to discern the treatment needs of a growing number of women and whites with opioid addiction and to inform interventions aimed at improving use of aftercare or rehabilitation.Methods: The sample included 343 opioid-dependent patients enrolled in two national multisite studies of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN001-002. Patients were recruited from 12 addiction treatment programs across the nation. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in addiction severity, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV risk, and quality of life were examined.Results: Women and whites were more likely than men and African Americans to have greater psychiatric and family/social relationship problems and report poorer health-related quality of life and functioning. Whites and Hispanics exhibited higher levels of total HIV risk scores and risky injection drug use scores than African Americans, and Hispanics showed a higher level of unprotected sexual behaviors than whites. African Americans were

  8. [Online addictive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality.

  9. [Online addictive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality. PMID:25257114

  10. Stress and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Greif, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Appetitive behaviors such as substance use and eating are under significant regulatory control by the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Recent research has begun to examine how these systems interact to cause and maintain poor regulation of these appetitive behaviors. A range of potential molecular, neuroendocrine, and hormonal mechanisms are involved in these interactions and may explain individual differences in both risk and resilience to a range of addictions. This manuscript provides a commentary on research presented during the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology's mini-conference on sex differences in eating and addiction with an emphasis on how HPG and HPA axis interactions affect appetitive behaviors in classic addictions and may be used to help inform the ongoing debate about the validity of food addiction. PMID:23849597

  11. [Addiction in the elderly - an underestimated diagnosis in clinical practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetterling, T; Backhaus, J; Junghanns, K

    2002-09-01

    According to several studies in the USA, alcohol abuse is common among elder people, particularly among those admitted to hospital. Corresponding data for Germany are lacking as yet. In this study, the frequency of addiction problems in the elderly admitted to hospital was investigated using the data from 1990 to 1998 of the psychiatric department at the General University Hospital of Lübeck, Germany. Furthermore, the documentations of all consultations in that period were reevaluated. The psychiatric consultation service covers two general hospitals providing inpatient treatment for about 200,000 inhabitants. Diagnoses were made according to the ICD-10 criteria. In 17.7% of the males older than 64 years and in 4.2% of the elderly females admitted to the psychiatric department, alcohol dependency was diagnosed, while 5.8% of the elderly patients showed substance abuse, most often of benzodiazepine. Among the patients visited in the psychiatric consultation service, 10.8% of the elderly males and 3.2% of the elderly females were alcohol addicts and 3.9% substance abusers. The frequency of alcohol-induced neuropsychiatric complications, particularly withdrawal delirium and amnestic syndrome, increased with age. Also, benzodiazepine withdrawal delirium most frequently occurred in older patients. These results underscore that, although the prevalence rate seems to be lower than among the younger population, in the elderly population substance abuse still is a relevant medical problem, since the rate of neuropsychiatric complications increased with age. PMID:12215877

  12. Relapse prevention for addictive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George William H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Relapse Prevention (RP model has been a mainstay of addictions theory and treatment since its introduction three decades ago. This paper provides an overview and update of RP for addictive behaviors with a focus on developments over the last decade (2000-2010. Major treatment outcome studies and meta-analyses are summarized, as are selected empirical findings relevant to the tenets of the RP model. Notable advances in RP in the last decade include the introduction of a reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of relapse, the application of advanced statistical methods to model relapse in large randomized trials, and the development of mindfulness-based relapse prevention. We also review the emergent literature on genetic correlates of relapse following pharmacological and behavioral treatments. The continued influence of RP is evidenced by its integration in most cognitive-behavioral substance use interventions. However, the tendency to subsume RP within other treatment modalities has posed a barrier to systematic evaluation of the RP model. Overall, RP remains an influential cognitive-behavioral framework that can inform both theoretical and clinical approaches to understanding and facilitating behavior change.

  13. Computer games addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Nejepínský, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the problem of computer games addiction. The attention is paid mainly to on-line games for more players. The purpose of this thesis was to describe this problem and to check - through questionnaire investigation - if the addiction to computer games and the impacts connected with the games really deserve excessive experts and laics attention. The thesis has two parts -- theoretical and practical ones. The theoretical part describes the possibilities of diagnosin...

  14. Glutamate Transmission in Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kalivas, Peter W.; LaLumiere, Ryan; Knackstedt, Lori; Shen, Haowei

    2008-01-01

    Cortico-striatal glutamate transmission has been implicated in both the initiation and expression of addiction related behaviors, such as locomotor sensitization and drug seeking. While glutamate transmission onto dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area undergoes transient plasticity important for establishing addiction-related behaviors, glutamatergic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens is critical for the expression of these behaviors. This information points to the value of exploring ...

  15. The "addicted" spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, Saturnino; Mulas, Giovanna; Piras, Francesca; Diana, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Units of dendritic branches called dendritic spines represent more than simply decorative appendages of the neuron and actively participate in integrative functions of "spinous" nerve cells thereby contributing to the general phenomenon of synaptic plasticity. In animal models of drug addiction, spines are profoundly affected by treatments with drugs of abuse and represent important sub cellular markers which interfere deeply into the physiology of the neuron thereby providing an example of the burgeoning and rapidly increasing interest in "structural plasticity". Medium Spiny Neurons (MSNs) of the Nucleus Accumbens (Nacc) show a reduced number of dendritic spines and a decrease in TH-positive terminals upon withdrawal from opiates, cannabinoids and alcohol. The reduction is localized "strictly" to second order dendritic branches where dopamine (DA)-containing terminals, impinging upon spines, make synaptic contacts. In addition, long-thin spines seems preferentially affected raising the possibility that cellular learning of these neurons may be selectively hampered. These findings suggest that dendritic spines are affected by drugs widely abused by humans and provide yet another example of drug-induced aberrant neural plasticity with marked reflections on the physiology of synapses, system structural organization, and neuronal circuitry remodeling. PMID:25324733

  16. Classification and identification of opioid addiction in chronic pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsted, Jette; Nielsen, Per Rotbøll; Guldstrand, Sally Kendall;

    2010-01-01

    Addiction is a feared consequence of long-term opioid treatment of chronic pain patients. The ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic addiction criteria may not be appropriate in these patients. Therefore Portenoy's criteria (PC) were launched. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of addiction, to investi......Addiction is a feared consequence of long-term opioid treatment of chronic pain patients. The ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic addiction criteria may not be appropriate in these patients. Therefore Portenoy's criteria (PC) were launched. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of addiction......, to investigate whether PC were applicable and to compare these criteria with the ICD-10 criteria. The study was cross-sectional and included 253 patients with chronic pain at a tertiary pain centre. Patients were screened for addiction by a physician and a nurse. The addiction prevalence was 14.4% according...... treated pain patients and seems to be more sensitive and specific than ICD-10 criteria....

  17. (1S, 3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115), a potent gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase inactivator for the treatment of cocaine addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yue; Gerasimov, Madina R; Kvist, Trine;

    2012-01-01

    Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (CPP-115) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off-target...

  18. Effectiveness of Quality of Life Therapy Aimed at Improving Sexual Self-Efficacy and Marital Satisfaction in Addict Couples of Treatment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooripour, Roghieh; Bass, Christopher K.; Apsche, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Those who are addicted to substances face increased psychological emotional, social and economic problems which can potentially have negative impacts on marital satisfaction and sexual self-esteem and efficacy. Routine activities are often displaced by the need to satisfy the physiological urges. Within a marital union, this along with other…

  19. States and Substance Abuse Treatment Programs: Funding and Guidelines for Infection-Related Services

    OpenAIRE

    Kritz, Steven; Brown, Lawrence S.; Goldsmith, R. Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J.; Robinson, Jim; Alderson, Donald; Novo, Patricia; Rotrosen, John

    2008-01-01

    Community-based substance abuse treatment programs provide HIV, hepatitis C virus, and sexually transmitted infection services. To explore how state funding and guidelines affect practice, we surveyed state agency administrators and substance abuse treatment program administrators and clinicians regarding 8 infection-related services. Although state funding for infection-related services is widely available, substance abuse treatment programs do not always access it. Substance abuse treatment...

  20. Parenting attitudes of addict mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, D K; Steinberg, M R

    1980-08-01

    Parenting attitudes of female heroin addicts were investigated in a single factor design which compared addict mothers, addict non-mothers, nonaddict mothers, and nonaddict nonmothers. A principal components factor analysis was performed on the PARI and used as the dependent measure. A factor labeled "authoritarian overinvolvement" emerged which significantly differentiated between groups. Further, the effects of mothering and addiction proved to be additive such that addict mothers were extremely high on this scale. This result was discussed in terms of the parental home environment of addict women.

  1. How Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Unit Director Activities May Affect Provision of Community Outreach Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey; Green, Sherri

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services,…

  2. The Comparison of the Sensation Seeking Level, Coping Strategies and Vulnerability to Stress among MMT Treated Addicts and Normal Group

    OpenAIRE

    Nezamaldin Ghasemi; Mahdi Rabiei; S Ali Haqayeq; Hasan Palahang

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the level of sensation seeking and coping strategies as well as vulnerability to stress among addicts who are under MMT treatment and normal group. Method: This research was a causal comparative study. The population of the study was all addicts of Baharestan city of Esfahan province who were referred to addiction treatment clinics. The sample was selected by clustering random sampling. (62 addictes and 52 ...

  3. Addiction to near Death in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Janet

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes Betty Joseph's concept of "addiction to near death," which describes a clinical situation in which sadism and masochism dominate the relationships of a particular group of patients, and applies it specifically to the case material of a girl in adolescent psychotherapy treatment. A link is made between the patient's retreat from…

  4. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study is review the theorical approches of child abuse and its prevalency, ethiology, prevention, assessment and treatment. Also, we try to difine the relationship between child abuse and parents addiction and their side effects in different areas of childs life .

  5. Psychometrics of the Short Form 36 Health Survey Version 2 (SF-36v2) and the Quality of Life Scale for Drug Addicts (QOL-DAv2.0) in Chinese Mainland Patients with Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kaina Zhou; Guihua Zhuang; Hongmei Zhang; Peifeng Liang; Juan Yin; Lingling Kou; Mengmeng Hao; Lijuan You

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test psychometrics of the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 (SF-36v2) and the Quality of Life Scale for Drug Addicts (QOL-DAv2.0) in Chinese mainland patients with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). METHODS: A total of 1,212 patients were recruited from two MMT clinics in Xi'an, China. Reliability was estimated with Cronbach's α and intra-class correlation (ICC). Convergent and discriminant validity was assessed using multitrait-multimethod correlation matrix. Sensitivit...

  6. Review of current researches on internet addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internet addiction (IA) is a mental illness emerged in recent years with increasing use of computer and internet. The serious consequences such as mental and physical illness and social function impairment caused by IA have attracted extensive attention of the whole society. IA affects human beings at a high prevalence all over the world which has highlighted the importance of prevention and treatment of IA. Although there is still debate about definition of IA, increasing evidences including the result from genetic research,neurobiology study and clinical manifestation show that IA may share the same mechanisms with substance addiction, and be probably classified as behavioral addiction which is represented by pathological gambling. However, since the study on IA is yet on the initial stage and neuro biological research on IA is still limited, more reliable investigations especially neuro biological research remains uppermost in this area. (authors)

  7. Sociocultural context for sex differences in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michelle; Reed, Beth Glover

    2016-09-01

    In this review, we discuss the importance of investigating both sex and gender differences in addiction and relapse in studies of humans and in animal models. Addiction is both a cultural and biological phenomenon. Sex and gender differences are not solely determined by our biology, nor are they entirely cultural; they are interactions between biology and the environment that are continuously played out throughout development. Lessons from the historical record illustrate how context and attitudes affect the way that substance use in men and women is regarded. Finally, cultural and environmental influences may differentially affect men and women, and affect how they respond to drugs of abuse and to treatment protocols. We recommend that both animal models and clinical research need to be developed to consider how contextual and social factors may influence the biological processes of addiction and relapse differentially in men and women. PMID:26935336

  8. The Addict in Us All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan eDill

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we contend that the psychology of addiction is similar to the psychology of ordinary, non-addictive temptation in important respects, and explore the ways in which these parallels can illuminate both addiction and ordinary action. The incentive salience account of addiction proposed by Robinson and Berridge (1993; 2001; 2008 entails that addictive desires are not in their nature different from many of the desires had by non-addicts; what is different is rather the way that addictive desires are acquired, which in turn affects their strength. We examine these 'incentive salience' desires, both in addicts and non-addicts, contrasting them with more cognitive desires. On this account the self-control challenge faced by addicted agents is not different in kind from that faced by non-addicted agents—though the two may, of course, differ greatly in degree of difficulty. We explore a general model of self-control for both the addict and the non-addict, stressing that self-control may be employed at three different stages, and examining the ways that it might be strengthened. This helps elucidate a general model of intentional action.

  9. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999

  10. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999

  11. [Benzodiazepin addiction: a silent addiction among older people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Voshaar, R C

    2012-06-01

    Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed for a longer period of time for anxiety disorders and insomnia in spite of the many guidelines to prescribe these drugs only short-term. These guidelines are based on the risk-benefit balance between long-term effectiveness and side effects like addiction, anterograde amnesia, and increased risk on falling (resulting in hip fractures), traffic accidents and even mortality. Also low-dose benzodiazepine use can lead to benzodiazepine dependence. Although initially most attention has been paid to the physical withdrawal syndrome, psychological aspects of benzodiazepine dependence have received more and more attention in the past decades. Recently, a relationship between the brain-reward system, involved in addiction, and benzodiazepine use, was demonstrated. When long-term benzodiazepine use is recognised as problematic by both physician and patient, different treatment modalities are available to support patients in achieving abstinence. One of every four patients is able to stop by themselves with the aid of a minimal intervention providing psychoeducation and encouragement. Two out of three long-term uses are able to stop their usage with the aid of systematic tapering protocols guided by a physician or psychologist. In case of an underlying insomnia or anxiety disorder, cognitive-behavioural therapy should be added to the tapering protocol. In contrast to the general opinion, advanced old age has no negative impact on the treatment response. PMID:22826915

  12. 1997 through 2010 National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS) (formerly titled Uniform Facility Data Set (UFDS)) is designed to collect information from all...

  13. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as family disintegration, loss of employment, failure in school, domestic violence, and child abuse. What Is Drug Addiction? Addiction is a chronic, often relapsing brain disease that causes compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences ...

  14. Evidence-informed decision-making by professionals working in addiction agencies serving women: a descriptive qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Susan M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective approaches to the prevention and treatment of substance abuse among mothers have been developed but not widely implemented. Implementation studies suggest that the adoption of evidence-based practices in the field of addictions remains low. There is a need, therefore, to better understand decision making processes in addiction agencies in order to develop more effective approaches to promote the translation of knowledge gained from addictions research into clinical practice. Methods A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore: 1 the types and sources of evidence used to inform practice-related decisions within Canadian addiction agencies serving women; 2 how decision makers at different levels report using research evidence; and 3 factors that influence evidence-informed decision making. A purposeful sample of 26 decision-makers providing addiction treatment services to women completed in-depth qualitative interviews. Interview data were coded and analyzed using directed and summative content analysis strategies as well as constant comparison techniques. Results Across all groups, individuals reported locating and using multiple types of evidence to inform decisions. Some decision-makers rely on their experiential knowledge of addiction and recovery in decision-making. Research evidence is often used directly in decision-making at program management and senior administrative levels. Information for decision-making is accessed from a range of sources, including web-based resources and experts in the field. Individual and organizational facilitators and barriers to using research evidence in decision making were identified. Conclusions There is support at administrative levels for integrating EIDM in addiction agencies. Knowledge transfer and exchange strategies should be focussed towards program managers and administrators and include capacity building for locating, appraising and using research evidence

  15. Verification of the Addiction Severity Index Japanese Version (ASI-J) as a Treatment-Customization, Prediction, and Comparison Tool for Alcohol-Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Susumu Higuchi; Toru Ishikawa; Masanobu Murayama; Masaru Murakami; Mitsuru Hasegawa; Kenji Yanbe; Aro Ino; Aihide Yoshino; Yoshihiro Suzuki; Satoru Saito; Eiichi Senoo; Yasukazu Ogai; Ayako Haraguchi; Kazutaka Ikeda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To demonstrate the usefulness of the Addiction Severity Index Japanese Version (ASI-J) in Japanese alcohol-dependent individuals. The ASI is a frequently used clinical and research instrument that measures severities in seven functional domains in people with substance abuse disorders. Methods: A total of 370 male inpatients with a history of alcohol dependence participated in the study. Forty-nine participants were excluded in the final analysis due to lack of reliability (i.e., p...

  16. Peer Influence and Addiction Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Markdissi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of peers in the recurrence of addictive behavior. To do so, we use a simple “forward looking” model with procrastination and peers influence. Our results show that while procrastination can explain the decision to postpone rehabilitation, peers influence is essential to explain the cyclical patterns of addiction-rehabilitation-addiction.

  17. Addressing the Question of Disorder-Specific Risk Factors of Internet Addiction: A Comparison of Personality Traits in Patients with Addictive Behaviors and Comorbid Internet Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, K.W.; Koch, A.; U. Dickenhorst; Beutel, M. E.; Duven, E.; Wölfling, K.

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in inter...

  18. [Complications of cocaine addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Lowenstein, William; Coscas, Sarah; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2009-06-20

    Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by repetitive and compulsive drug-seeking behavior and drug abuse despite negative health or social consequences. Cocaine addiction is a significant worldwide public health problem, which has somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and judicial complications. Some of the most frequent complications are cardiovascular effects (acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrhythmias, increased blood pressure); respiratory effects (fibrosis, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension, alveolar haemorrhage, asthma exacerbation; emphysema), neurological effects (strokes, aneurysms, seizures, headaches); risk for contracting HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, sexual transmitted disease and otolaryngologic effects. Other complications are not discussed here. The vast majority of studies indicate that there are cognitive deficits induced by cocaine addiction. Attention, visual and working memories, executive functioning are affected in cocaine users. Psychiatric complications found in clinical practice are major depressive disorders, cocaine-induced paranoia, cocaine-induced compulsive foraging and panic attacks. PMID:19642439

  19. On Home-school Collaboration Treatment of Junior Students' Internet Addiction%论初中生网络成瘾的家校协同治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱梦杰; 张典兵

    2015-01-01

    初中生作为网络成瘾人群中的主体,其所表现出的各种问题行为已经引发了社会各界的普遍关注.初中生网络成瘾的预防与应对,重点在家庭,关键在学校.家长和教师要立足于亲子关系与师生关系的改善,从改变家庭环境与学校环境开始,遵循正面教育与启发诱导的原则,采用多种行之有效的方法和策略,协同治理初中生的网络成瘾问题.%Junior high school students as the main body of Internet addiction crowd, they exhibit behavior problems has sparked widespread concern in the community. Junior high school students Internet addiction prevention and response, with emphasis on the family, the key to the school. Parents and teachers should be based on improving the parent-child relationship with the teacher-student relationship, from changes in the home environment and school environment began to follow the positive education and enlightenment and guidance of the principle, using a variety of proven methods and strategies, collab-orative governance junior high school network addiction.

  20. Breaking barriers in the genomics and pharmacogenetics of drug addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, MK; Goldman, D; Heinz, A; Kaprio, J; Kreek, MJ; Li, MD; Munafò, MR; Tyndale, RF

    2013-01-01

    Drug addictions remain a substantial health issue, with limited treatment options currently available. Despite considerable advances in the understanding of our genetic architecture, the genetic underpinning of complex disorders remains elusive. Numerous candidate genes have been implicated in the etiology and response to treatment for different addictions based on our current understanding of the neurobiology. Genome-wide association studies have also provided novel targets. However, replication of these studies is often lacking which complicates interpretation; this will improve as issues such as phenotypic characterization, the apparent “missing heritability”, the identification of functional variants, and possible gene-environment interactions are addressed. In addition, there is growing evidence that genetic information can be useful for refining the choice of addiction treatment. As genetic testing becomes more common in the practice of medicine, a variety of ethical and practical challenges, some of which are unique to drug addiction, will also need to be considered. PMID:20981002