WorldWideScience

Sample records for addiction treatment services

  1. Improving consistency and quality of service delivery: implications for the addiction treatment field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, Anne Marie; Corredoira, Rafael; Kimberly, John

    2008-09-01

    Addiction treatment providers face serious problems in delivering consistent, high-quality services over time. Among those providers with multiple treatment sites, there is also intersite variability. This is a serious problem in the addiction field, likely to be made worse as new technologies are introduced and/or as there is industry consolidation (Corredoira, R., Kimberly, J. (2006) Industry evolution through consolidation: Implications for addiction treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 31, 255-265.). Although serious, these problems in managing and monitoring to assure consistent service quality have been faced by many other industries. Here, we review evidence from research in other industries regarding three different forms of management (vertical integration, franchising, and licensing) across a chain of individual service providers. We show how each management form affects the level, consistency, and improvement of service delivery over time. In addition, we discuss how such performance advantages affect customer demand as well as regulatory endorsement of the consolidated firm and its approach.

  2. Dual diagnosis capability in mental health and addiction treatment services: an assessment of programs across multiple state systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark P; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; Gotham, Heather J; Claus, Ronald E; Xie, Haiyi

    2014-03-01

    Despite increased awareness of the benefits of integrated services for persons with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders, estimates of the availability of integrated services vary widely. The present study utilized standardized measures of program capacity to address co-occurring disorders, the dual diagnosis capability in addiction treatment and dual diagnosis capability in mental health treatment indexes, and sampled 256 programs across the United States. Approximately 18 % of addiction treatment and 9 % of mental health programs met criteria for dual diagnosis capable services. This is the first report on public access to integrated services using objective measures.

  3. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Approaches for Drug Addiction Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2016 NOTE: This ... treatment options in your state. What is drug addiction? Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by ...

  4. Drug addiction stigma in relation to methadone maintenance treatment by different service delivery models in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Vu, Phuong Bich; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Latkin, Sophia Knowlton; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Latkin, Carl A

    2016-03-08

    The rapid expansion of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) services has significantly improved health status and quality of life of patients. However, little is known about its impacts on addiction-related stigma and associated factors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 in Vietnam's capital, Hanoi, and Nam Dinh province among 1016 methadone maintenance patients; 26.6 % at provincial AIDS centers (PAC) and 73.4 % at district health centers (DHC), respectively. Drug addiction history and related stigma, health status, MMT-related covariates, and sociodemographic characteristics were interviewed. More than one-sixth of the sample reported experiencing felt or enacted stigma, including Blame or Judgement (17.2 %), Shame (19.9 %), or Others' fear of HIV transmission (17.1 %). These proportions were higher in PACs than in DHCs, which are integrated with other HIV or general health care services. Very few patients reported being discriminated at the workplace (2.5 %) or at health care services (1.7 %); however, 15.6 % of patients at PACs and 10.6 % of patients at DHCs reported discrimination in their communities. Drug users taking MMT for longer periods were less likely to report felt stigma. Other factors associated with stigma against MMT patients included the lack of comprehensive services, higher education, presence of pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression, self-reported HIV positive, and number of previous drug rehabilitation episodes. The study shows a high level of stigma against MMT patients and emphasizes the necessity to integrate MMT with comprehensive health and support services. Mass communication campaigns to reduce stigma against people with drug addiction and HIV/AIDS, as well as vocational trainings and jobs referrals for MMT patients, are needed to maximize the benefits of MMT programs in Vietnam.

  5. Dual diagnosis capability in mental health and addiction treatment services: An assessment of programs across multiple state systems

    OpenAIRE

    McGovern, Mark P.; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; Gotham, Heather J.; Claus, Ronald E.; Xie, Haiyi

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased awareness of the benefits of integrated services for persons with co-occurring substance use and psychiatric disorders, estimates of the availability of integrated services vary widely. The present study utilized standardized measures of program capacity to address co-occurring disorders, the Dual Diagnosis Capability in Addiction Treatment (DDCAT) and Dual Diagnosis Capability in Mental Health Treatment (DDCMHT) indexes, and sampled 256 programs across the United States. Ap...

  6. Analysis of Gap in Service Quality in Drug Addiction Treatment Centers of Kerman, Iran, Using SERVQUAL Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqavi, Mohammad Reza; Refaiee, Raheleh; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of drug addicts is one of the main strategies of drug control in Iran. Client satisfaction strongly influences the success of any treatment program. This study aimed to explore the difference between customer expectations and perceptions in drug addiction treatment centers of Kerman, Iran, using SERVQUAL model. Using a cross-sectional design 260 clients referring to drug addiction treatment centers of Kerman, were enrolled in 2012. From among 84 clinics, 20 centers were selected randomly. Based on the number of clients registered in each center, a random sample proportional to the size was selected and 290 subjects were invited for interviews. A well validated 22-item questionnaire, which measured the 5 dimensions of service quality (reliability, assurance, tangibility, empathy, and responsiveness), was completed by participants. Each item measured 2 aspects of service quality; expectations and perceptions. Mean ± SD (Standard deviation) age of the subjects was 37.7 ± 9.4. Most of them were male (87.7%). Less than half of them had an educational level lower than diploma. The total score of clients` expectations was higher than their perceptions (P service quality in addiction treatment clinics.

  7. Treatment of internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xui-qin; Li, Meng-chen; Tao, Ran

    2010-10-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a prevalent, highly comorbid, and significantly impairing disorder. Although many psychotherapeutic approaches and psychotropic medications have been recommended and some of the psychotherapeutic approaches and a few pharmacotherapy strategies have been studied, treatment of IA is generally in its early stages. This article reviews theoretical descriptions of psychotherapy and the effects of psychosocial treatment and pharmacologic treatment. We also outline our own treatment model of IA.

  8. A critical analysis of user satisfaction surveys in addiction services: opioid maintenance treatment as a representative case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujols, Joan; Iraurgi, Ioseba; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Background Satisfaction with services represents a key component of the user’s perspective, and user satisfaction surveys are the most commonly used approach to evaluate the aforementioned perspective. The aim of this discursive paper is to provide a critical overview of user satisfaction surveys in addiction treatment and harm reduction services, with a particular focus on opioid maintenance treatment as a representative case. Methods We carried out a selective critical review and analysis of the literature on user satisfaction surveys in addiction treatment and harm reduction services. Results Most studies that have reported results of satisfaction surveys have found that the great majority of users (virtually all, in many cases) are highly satisfied with the services received. However, when these results are compared to the findings of studies that use different methodologies to explore the patient’s perspective, the results are not as consistent as might be expected. It is not uncommon to find that “highly satisfied” patients report significant problems when mixed-methods studies are conducted. To understand this apparent contradiction, we explored two distinct (though not mutually exclusive) lines of reasoning, one of which concerns conceptual aspects and the other, methodological questions. Conclusion User satisfaction surveys, as currently designed and carried out in addiction treatment and harm reduction services, do not significantly help to improve service quality. Therefore, most of the enthusiasm and naiveté with which satisfaction surveys are currently performed and interpreted – and rarely acted on in the case of nonoptimal results – should be avoided. A truly participatory approach to program evaluation is urgently needed to reshape and transform patient satisfaction surveys. PMID:24482571

  9. A critical analysis of user satisfaction surveys in addiction services: opioid maintenance treatment as a representative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujols, Joan; Iraurgi, Ioseba; Oviedo-Joekes, Eugenia; Guàrdia-Olmos, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Satisfaction with services represents a key component of the user's perspective, and user satisfaction surveys are the most commonly used approach to evaluate the aforementioned perspective. The aim of this discursive paper is to provide a critical overview of user satisfaction surveys in addiction treatment and harm reduction services, with a particular focus on opioid maintenance treatment as a representative case. We carried out a selective critical review and analysis of the literature on user satisfaction surveys in addiction treatment and harm reduction services. Most studies that have reported results of satisfaction surveys have found that the great majority of users (virtually all, in many cases) are highly satisfied with the services received. However, when these results are compared to the findings of studies that use different methodologies to explore the patient's perspective, the results are not as consistent as might be expected. It is not uncommon to find that "highly satisfied" patients report significant problems when mixed-methods studies are conducted. To understand this apparent contradiction, we explored two distinct (though not mutually exclusive) lines of reasoning, one of which concerns conceptual aspects and the other, methodological questions. User satisfaction surveys, as currently designed and carried out in addiction treatment and harm reduction services, do not significantly help to improve service quality. Therefore, most of the enthusiasm and naiveté with which satisfaction surveys are currently performed and interpreted - and rarely acted on in the case of nonoptimal results - should be avoided. A truly participatory approach to program evaluation is urgently needed to reshape and transform patient satisfaction surveys.

  10. Initiation of Addiction Treatment and Access to Services: Young Adults' Accounts of Their Help-Seeking Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Vincent; Bertrand, Karine; Flores-Aranda, Jorge; Acier, Didier; Brunelle, Natacha; Landry, Michel; Brochu, Serge

    2016-12-04

    Substance addiction in young adults is particularly problematic. Yet, much remain at stake in understanding the specifics of this population's access to services. The objective of this study is to explore young adults' initiation of substance misuse treatment. Our study sample was composed of 35 individuals aged 18 to 30 with problematic psychoactive substance use who have been identified in criminal courts, hospital emergency departments, and Health and Social Services Centers in Québec (Canada). A thematic analysis was performed on the 62 semi-structured interviews conducted with participants. Three components emerged. First, personal elements-expectations, individual motivations, perceptions of use, and capacity to control it-influence initiation of substance misuse treatment. Second, family and peers have noticeable influences. Finally, system characteristics and prior care experiences also shape the process. Consideration should be given to tailor interventions that can reach young adults and encourage them to initiate appropriate care.

  11. A case study using a patient satisfaction survey to improve the delivery and effectiveness of drug addiction treatment services: marketing implications and organizational impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Beth; Hershey, Lewis; Ritchey, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Drug abuse and addiction continues to negatively impact many lives in this country. The United States health care system has grappled with how to best serve this vulnerable population. Since the personal and societal costs of addiction are high, all recent iterations of the United States strategic health plans (such as Healthy People 2010) have prioritized this area for improvement. At the local level, health care providers who care for those with addictions are challenged with shrinking insurance coverage for services, a difficult patient population, lack of treatment options, growing ranks of indigent patients, as well as a plethora of additional management challenges. It is known that successful treatment is integrally linked with patient satisfaction with services. The most critical factors in successful addiction treatment (from a patient's perspective) are (1) their belief that the counselor cares about them and, (2) their belief that they can recover. This paper reports a case study in the use of a patient satisfaction survey as a quality management/service refinement tool within a methadone treatment setting. Results indicate that the use of the survey itself provides patients with a tangible cue supporting the presence of the critical success factors. Further, the use of a survey provides a baseline for future measurements and trending. The paper concludes with a discussion of the marketing and organizational implications of incorporating the patient satisfaction survey into the ongoing delivery program for addiction services.

  12. Family therapy within an adolescent addiction treatment service “In search of solutions"

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Denis

    2016-08-01

    Issues and trends in relation to substance misuse normally develop in the transitional phase of adolescence, as young people begin looking towards their peers for direction and are less subject to parental authority. In relation to substance misuse it is observed that risk and protection factors exist in equal measure within different contexts, including within the individual, family, peer group, school and community settings. In response to problems relating to illicit drug use in Ireland the first adult treatment service was established in Dublin in 1969. As an approach to meeting the complex needs of an adolescent drug using population two designated out-patient treatment adolescent services were established in Dublin during the mid-1990s. Working closely with families, carers and significant others improves communication and mobilises resources in ways that enhances protection for young people especially in circumstances where there are a number of family members engaging in substance misuse.

  13. Iatrogenic addiction and its treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, L

    1978-04-01

    Iatrogenic addictions, in contrast to illicit drug addictions, are commonly maintained for years before being brought to the attention of mental health professionals. Typically, by the time treatment is sought, both the physiological addiction and its related psychological problems have encapsulated the patient's life-style. The case histories described here illustrate some of the problems which typify treatment of the iatrogenically drug-dependent patient. Psychotherapeutic strategies utilizing life review, assertion training, and didactic teaching of alternative pain relief methods are often useful. The use of methadone for brief or more extended periods is sometimes helpful as an adjunct to psychotherapy.

  14. Longer Addiction Treatment Is Better, Study Confirms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163911.html Longer Addiction Treatment Is Better, Study Confirms Success rate goes up ... 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- The longer patients receive treatment for addiction, the greater their chances of success, a new ...

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of sexual addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, A

    1993-01-01

    Following a brief introduction to the concept of addiction, the definition of and diagnostic criteria for sexual addiction are presented. A theoretical framework for treatment of sexual addiction is then outlined, based on an understanding of the underlying addictive process: the compulsive dependence on external actions as a means of regulating one's internal states. Effective treatment addresses both addictive behavior and the addictive process. Addictive sexual behavior is addressed through behavioral symptom management, which includes relapse prevention and other cognitive-behavioral techniques. The addictive process is addressed by enhancing self-regulatory functions through individual psychotherapy, therapeutic group experience, and pharmacotherapy (medication treatment, when indicated). An integrated system for treatment of sexual addiction, which brings together these therapeutic methods in one theoretically coherent, clinically unified approach, is outlined.

  16. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  17. Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

    2013-05-01

    Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made.

  18. Barriers to female sex addiction treatment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuffar, Manpreet K; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Background Over the last 20 years, behavioral addictions (e.g., addictions to gambling, playing video games, work, etc.) have become more accepted among both public and scientific communities. Addiction to sex is arguably a more controversial issue, but this does not take away from the fact that some individuals seek professional help for problematic excessive sex, irrespective of how the behavior is conceptualized. Empirical evidence suggests that among treatment seekers, men are more likely than women to seek help for sex addiction (SA). Methods Using the behavioral addiction literature and the authors' own expertise in researching female SA, this paper examines potential barriers to the treatment for female sex addicts. Results Four main types of barriers for female sex addicts not seeking treatment were identified. These comprised (a) individual barriers, (b) social barriers, (c) research barriers, and (d) treatment barriers. Conclusions Further research is needed to either confirm or disconfirm the identified barriers that female sex addicts face when seeking treatment, and if conformation is found, interested stakeholders should provide better awareness and/or see ways in which such barriers can be overcome to aid better uptake of SA services.

  19. Cognitive remediation in addictions treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pedrero-Perez, E J; Rojo-Mota, G; Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, J M; Llanero-Luque, M; Puerta-Garcia, C

    2011-01-01

    More recent theories of addiction suggest that neurocognitive mechanisms, such as attentional processing, cognitive control, and reward processing play a key role in the development or maintenance of addiction...

  20. [Addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Jacques; Grivel, Jeremy; Tomei, Alexander; Falcheri, Jean-Phillipe; Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Khazaal, Yasser

    2014-01-15

    The news in addiction medicine in 2013 are presented according to the new version of the DSM (DSM-5); new data on cannabinoid, highlight hypotheses on self-medication; a current status about treatment of the addiction via the internet is shown; and new therapeutic perspectives emerge from the knowledge on traumatic antecedents in addictive populations.

  1. Internet Addiction and Its Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozden Arisoy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of new technologies, computer and internet use have become an unavoidable necessity in our daily lives. Internet was originally designed to facilitate communication and research. However the dramatic increase in use of internet in recent years has led to its pathologic use. Turkey, as a developing country with an increasing rate of internet access and computer use is at high risk for this disorder. In our country, this disorder is especially seen in young people who are more skilled in internet and computer use. And because their excessive internet use has led to negative consequences in their academic, social and family lives, patients and their families began search of treatment for this disorder. So clinicians must be aware of this newly emerging disorder and they should be able to apply the appropriate therapeutic interventions. This paper aims to summarize the pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatment of internet addiction.

  2. [Vaccines for the treatment of drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzoli, Ermanno; Marino, Maria Giulia; Bagnato, Barbara; Franco, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of drug addiction is a very wide-ranging sector within modern medicine. The use of immunotherapy in this context represents an innovative approach. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, through a literature review, the main avenues of research and the results obtained with immunotherapy in the treatment of drug addiction.

  3. [The Concept and Treatment of Internet Addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsalhy, Muhammad; Muramatsu, Taro; Higuchi, Susumu; Mimura, Masaru

    2016-10-01

    The Internet now plays a very important role in our lives. However, for some people, Internet use can lead to a state that appears to meet the DSM definition for a mental disorder. In this review, we briefly discuss definition, symptoms, risk factors, prevalence, comorbidities, and personality traits of people who are susceptible to becoming addicts. In the second section of the article, various types of Internet addiction are discussed, focusing mainly on Internet Gaming Disorder and social networking survices (SNS) addiction. Regarding Internet Gaming Disorder, we discuss various types of the newly emerged Massive Multiplayer Online Games (MMO), as well as theories about why people become addicted to them. We do the same for the SNS Addiction for sites like Facebook and LINE; again, different types, as well as theories about why some people become addicts to such sites are discussed. Finally, preventive measures are introduced, focusing on a number of commonly used treatment methods, perticulary cognitive behavioral therapy and family therapy.

  4. Evaluation and treatment of sex addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Kenneth Paul; Carnes, Patrick; O'Connor, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    There have been several diagnostic labels for persistent, excessive sexual behaviors, often referred in the popular media as sex addiction. Two related diagnoses, Internet addictive disorder and hypersexual disorder, were considered for, but not included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, most clinicians, even those trained in sexual disorders or addiction medicine, have little to no training in treating sexual compulsivity and cybersex addiction. The authors present the historical context, proposed diagnostic criteria, evaluation protocols, comorbid disorders, speculations about the neuroscience, and treatment recommendations.

  5. The Comparison of Alexithymia and Spiritual Intelligence in Addicts, Addicts under Methadone Treatment, and Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to compare of the rate of alexithymia and spiritual intelligence in addicts, addicts under Methadone Treatment, and non-Addicts. Method: A causal-comparative research design was used. The study sample included 30 individuals under Methadone Treatment, 30 drug-dependent Addicted, and 30 non-addicted individuals selected by convenience sampling procedure. Toronto alexithymia scale and King's spiritual intelligence self-report inventory were administered among selected sample. Results: Findings revealed significant differences among addicted individuals and non-addicted adults also among individuals under methadone treatment and non-addicted adults in total alexithymia scores as well as on all three subscale scores. Furthermore, addicted individuals differed from those under methadone treatment in their scores on the subscale pertaining to difficulty in identifying feelings. Results also indicated differences among addicted individuals and those under methadone treatment in total spiritual intelligence and its four component scale scores, while addicted individuals differed from non-addicted individuals in total spiritual intelligence scores and only three of its component scale scores (personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and conscious state expansion. Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate the advantages of the ability to control, emotional regulation and spiritual intelligence as a defense against addiction. By development of these characteristics addicts can be helped to gain relief from their addiction.

  6. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increases central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of drugs of abuse. The composition includes GVG, gabapentin, valproic acid, progabide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, fengabine, cetylGABA, topiramate or tiagabine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof.

  7. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for regular smokers. "The study results are largely positive, but there should be continued efforts to develop and evaluate effective treatments for marijuana addiction," Dr. Volkow adds. Summer 2006 Issue: Page 26

  8. Food addiction-diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Ivan; Popović, Nada; Sabljak, Vera; Škodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Dimitrijević, Nina

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarized the recent research of the food addiction, diagnosis, treatment and prevention, which is carried out in this area. The concept of food addiction is new and complex, but proven to be very important for understanding and solving the problem of obesity. First part of this paper emphasizes the neurological studies, whose results indicate the similarity of brain processes that are being activated during drug abuse and during eating certain types of food. In this context, different authors speak of "hyper-palatable", industrial food, saturated with salt, fat and sugar, which favor an addiction. In the section on diagnostic and instruments constructed for assessing the degree of dependence, main diagnostic tool is standardized Yale Food Addiction Scale constructed by Ashley Gearhardt, and her associates. Since 2009, when it was first published, this scale is used in almost all researches in this area and has been translated into several languages. Finally, distinguish between prevention and treatment of food addiction was made. Given that there were similarities with other forms of addictive behavior, the researchers recommend the application of traditional addiction treatment.

  9. Neuroimaging and biomarkers in addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Potenza, Marc N

    2014-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies have made a significant contribution to the efforts to identify measurable indices, or biomarkers, of addictions and their treatments. Biomarkers in addiction treatment are needed to provide targets for treatment, detect treatment subgroups, predict treatment response, and broadly improve outcomes. Neuroimaging is important to biomarkers research as it relates neural circuits to both molecular mechanisms and behavior. A focus of recent efforts in neuroimaging in addiction has been to elucidate the neural correlates associated with dimensions of functioning in substance-use and related disorders, such as cue-reactivity, impulsivity, and cognitive control, among others. These dimensions of functioning have been related to addiction treatment outcomes and relapse, and therefore, a better understanding of these dimensions and their neural correlates may help to identify brain-behavior biomarkers of treatment response. This paper reviews recent neuroimaging studies that report potential biomarkers in addiction treatment related to cue-reactivity, impulsivity, and cognitive control, as well as recent advances in neuroimaging that may facilitate efforts to determine reliable biomarkers. This important initial work has begun to identify possible mediators and moderators of treatment response, and multiple promising indices are being tested.

  10. Facts about Buprenorphine for Treatment of Opioid Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment may include medication. Medication-assisted treatment is treatment for addiction that includes the use of medication along with ... Counseling can help. Medication is one part of treatment for opioid addiction. For many people, another important part is counseling : ...

  11. Facts about Naltrexone for Treatment of Opioid Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment may include medication. Medication-assisted treatment is treatment for addiction that includes the use of medication along with ... Counseling can help. Medication is one part of treatment for opioid addiction. For many people, another important part is counseling : ...

  12. Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschutz, Michael P; Johnson, Matthew W

    2016-01-01

    Addictive disorders are very common and have devastating individual and social consequences. Currently available treatment is moderately effective at best. After many years of neglect, there is renewed interest in potential clinical uses for classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions and other behavioral health conditions. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of both historical and recent clinical research on the use of classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addiction, selectively review other relevant research concerning hallucinogens, and suggest directions for future research. Clinical trial data are very limited except for the use of LSD in the treatment of alcoholism, where a meta-analysis of controlled trials has demonstrated a consistent and clinically significant beneficial effect of high-dose LSD. Recent pilot studies of psilocybin-assisted treatment of nicotine and alcohol dependence had strikingly positive outcomes, but controlled trials will be necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these treatments. Although plausible biological mechanisms have been proposed, currently the strongest evidence is for the role of mystical or other meaningful experiences as mediators of therapeutic effects. Classic hallucinogens have an excellent record of safety in the context of clinical research. Given our limited understanding of the clinically relevant effects of classic hallucinogens, there is a wealth of opportunities for research that could contribute important new knowledge and potentially lead to valuable new treatments for addiction.

  13. [Pharmacogenetics and the treatment of addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, A.F.A.

    2013-01-01

    - This article describes the current scientific knowledge regarding pharmacogenetic predictors of treatment outcome for substance-dependent patients.- PubMed was searched for articles on pharmacogenetics and addiction. This search yielded 53 articles, of which 27 were selected.- The most promising p

  14. Opiate addiction - current trends and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achal Bhatt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Opioids are widely used drugs for treatment of pain and related disorders. Opiate addiction is a major public health concern in the United States causing significant increase in healthcare expenditure. They produce euphoria and sense of well-being which makes them addictive to some people. Used in higher doses they can lead to cardiac or respiratory compromise. They also impair cognition leading to impaired decision making. Opioids exert their effects by acting on three different types of receptors mu, delta, and kappa located on neuronal cell membranes causing inhibition of neurotransmitter release. Prolonged use of these drugs can lead to physical dependence causing withdrawal symptoms if a person stops using them. Commonly used medications to treat opiate addiction are methadone, LAAM (longer acting derivative of methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(7.000: 2503-2507

  15. Neuroscience of behavioral and pharmacological treatments for addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N.; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Although substantial advances have been made in behavioral and pharmacological treatments for addictions, moving treatment development to the next stage may require novel ways of approaching addictions, particularly those derived from new findings regarding of the neurobiological underpinnings of addictions, while assimilating and incorporating relevant information from earlier approaches. In this review, we first briefly review theoretical and biological models of addiction and then describe existing behavioral and pharmacologic therapies for the addictions within this framework. We then propose new directions for treatment development and targets that are informed by recent evidence regarding the heterogeneity of addictions and the neurobiological contributions to these disorders. PMID:21338880

  16. Process Improvement Education with Professionals in the Addiction Treatment Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulvermacher, Alice

    2006-01-01

    Continuing education is being provided to professionals in the addiction treatment field to help them develop skills in process improvement and better meet the needs and requests they encounter. Access and retention of individuals seeking addiction treatment have been two of the greatest challenges addiction treatment professionals face.…

  17. [The activity of drug addiction service of the Russian Federation: an assessment of statistical parameters and an analysis of results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkina, E A; Kirzhanova, V V; Babicheva, L P; Mugantseva, L A

    2013-01-01

    The authors studied changes in the structure of drug addiction services, the dynamics of outpatient and inpatient referrals for drug addiction treatment and effectiveness of drug addiction services in 2011 compared to the preceding period. There was a reduction of availability of drug treatment services due to the reduction of the number of drug addiction units and the depletion of human resource potential. The lack of structural development of rehabilitation sector of drug care services and low rates of its development as well as the decrease in the number of patients seeking treatment are highlighted. It has been concluded that the drug addiction services require reorganization of its regulatory and legal framework and need innovative organizational and management decisions and human resources trained in innovative thinking and technologies.

  18. Love and Service in Adolescent Addiction Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Matthew T; Pagano, Maria E; Johnson, Byron R; Post, Stephen G

    This article is one of the first to examine the relationships among a specific combination of "spiritual virtues" (helping others and the experience of divine love) and outcomes related to criminal involvement, sobriety, and character development among adolescents. One-hundred ninety five adolescents with substance dependency court-referred to residential treatment were assessed at intake, discharge, and 6 months post-treatment. Higher service to others predicted reduced recidivism, reduced relapse, and greater character development. Experiencing divine love enhanced the effect of service on recidivism. Greater attention to spiritual virtues might improve treatment for youth involved with alcohol, drugs, and certain forms of crime.

  19. Policy Progress for Physician Treatment of Opiate Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, Joseph O.

    2002-01-01

    Medical treatment of heroin addiction with methadone and other pharmacotherapies has important benefits for individuals and society. However, regulatory policies have separated this treatment from the medical care system, limiting access to care and contributing to the social stigma of even effective addiction pharmacotherapy. Increasing problems caused by heroin addiction have added urgency to the search for policies and programs that improve the access to and quality of opiate addiction tre...

  20. Treatment of addiction to ethanol and addictive-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating alcohol addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from alcohol addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increase central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of alcohol.

  1. Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

  2. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2003-07-15

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to a combination of abused drugs. The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of the combination of abused drugs.

  3. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerlach Ralf

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a

  4. Health status of users of the Bologna local health authority drug addiction treatment services: a study of hospital admissions in the period 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarin, Raimondo Maria; Gambini, Daniele

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the health status of the users of the services for drug addiction (SERT) in the metropolitan area of Bologna by analysing the hospital discharge records (SDO). For the period 2004-2013, among the residents of the metropolitan areas aged 15-64, we compared the trend in hospital admissions of SERT users with that of the general population. We calculated the standardised rates of hospitalisation and the likelihood of admission. Over the period in question the standardised hospitalisation rates decreased, with a larger drop among SERT users (330.17 males per 10,000 inhabitants in 2004, 215.91 in 2013; 547.60 females per 10,000 inhabitants in 2004, 283.20 in 2013) as compared with the general population (109.49 males in 2004, 82.16 in 2013; 161.40 females in 2004, 124.38 in 2013). Admission likelihood was always higher for SERT users, but was lower in 2013 than in 2004, especially for infectious diseases and psychic disorders. The results highlight the effectiveness of Bologna's local system of services in taking care of aspects connected to addiction, as well as health-related disorders.

  5. Scientific and conceptual flaws of coercive treatment models in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo, Susanne; van der Eijk, Yvette

    2016-01-01

    In conceptual debates on addiction, neurobiological research has been used to support the idea that addicted drug users lack control over their addiction-related actions. In some interpretations, this has led to coercive treatment models, in which, the purpose is to 'restore' control. However, neurobiological studies that go beyond what is typically presented in conceptual debates paint a different story. In particular, they indicate that though addiction has neurobiological manifestations that make the addictive behaviour difficult to control, it is possible for individuals to reverse these manifestations through their own efforts. Thus, addicted individuals should not be considered incapable of making choices voluntarily, simply on the basis that addiction has neurobiological manifestations, and coercive treatment models of addiction should be reconsidered in this respect.

  6. Love and Service in Adolescent Addiction Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Matthew T.; Pagano, Maria E.; Johnson, Byron R.; Post, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    This article is one of the first to examine the relationships among a specific combination of ?spiritual virtues? (helping others and the experience of divine love) and outcomes related to criminal involvement, sobriety, and character development among adolescents. One-hundred ninety five adolescents with substance dependency court-referred to residential treatment were assessed at intake, discharge, and 6 months post-treatment. Higher service to others predicted reduced recidivism, reduced r...

  7. Pharmacological maintenance treatments of opiate addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James

    2014-02-01

    For people seeking treatment, the course of heroin addiction tends to be chronic and relapsing, and longer duration of treatment is associated with better outcomes. Heroin addiction is strongly associated with deviant behaviour and crime, and the objectives in treating heroin addiction have been a blend of humane support, rehabilitation, public health intervention and crime control. Reduction in street heroin use is the foundation on which all these outcomes are based. The pharmacological basis of maintenance treatment of dependent individuals is to minimize withdrawal symptoms and attenuate the reinforcing effects of street heroin, leading to reduction or cessation of street heroin use. Opioid maintenance treatment can be moderately effective in suppressing heroin use, although deviations from evidence-based approaches, particularly the use of suboptimal doses, have meant that treatment as delivered in practice may have resulted in poorer outcomes than predicted by research. Methadone treatment has been 'programmatic', with a one-size-fits-all approach that in part reflects the perceived need to impose discipline on deviant individuals. However, differences in pharmacokinetics and in side-effects mean that many patients do not respond optimally to methadone. Injectable diamorphine (heroin) provides a more reinforcing medication for some 'nonresponders' and can be a valuable option in the rehabilitation of demoralized, socially excluded individuals. Buprenorphine, a partial agonist, is a less reinforcing medication with different side-effects and less risk of overdose. Not only is it a different medication, but also it can be used in a different paradigm of treatment, office-based opioid treatment, with less structure and offering greater patient autonomy.

  8. Gambling disorder and other behavioral addictions: recognition and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Addiction professionals and the public are recognizing that certain nonsubstance behaviors--such as gambling, Internet use, video-game playing, sex, eating, and shopping--bear resemblance to alcohol and drug dependence. Growing evidence suggests that these behaviors warrant consideration as nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions and has led to the newly introduced diagnostic category "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders" in DSM-5. At present, only gambling disorder has been placed in this category, with insufficient data for other proposed behavioral addictions to justify their inclusion. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of behavioral addictions, describes treatment considerations, and addresses future directions. Current evidence points to overlaps between behavioral and substance-related addictions in phenomenology, epidemiology, comorbidity, neurobiological mechanisms, genetic contributions, responses to treatments, and prevention efforts. Differences also exist. Recognizing behavioral addictions and developing appropriate diagnostic criteria are important in order to increase awareness of these disorders and to further prevention and treatment strategies.

  9. The readiness of addiction treatment agencies for health care reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molfenter Todd

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA aims to provide affordable health insurance and expanded health care coverage for some 32 million Americans. The PPACA makes provisions for using technology, evidence-based treatments, and integrated, patient-centered care to modernize the delivery of health care services. These changes are designed to ensure effectiveness, efficiency, and cost-savings within the health care system. To gauge the addiction treatment field’s readiness for health reform, the authors developed a Health Reform Readiness Index (HRRI survey for addiction treatment agencies. Addiction treatment administrators and providers from around the United States completed the survey located on the http://www.niatx.net website. Respondents self-assessed their agencies based on 13 conditions pertinent to health reform readiness, and received a confidential score and instant feedback. On a scale of “Needs to Begin,” “Early Stages,” “On the Way,” and “Advanced,” the mean scores for respondents (n = 276 ranked in the Early Stages of health reform preparation for 11 of 13 conditions. Of greater concern was that organizations with budgets of  $5 million to have information technology (patient records, patient health technology, and administrative information technology, evidence-based treatments, quality management systems, a continuum of care, or a board of directors informed about PPACA. The findings of the HRRI indicate that the addiction field, and in particular smaller organizations, have much to do to prepare for a future environment that has greater expectations for information technology use, a credentialed workforce, accountability for patient care, and an integrated continuum of care.

  10. The readiness of addiction treatment agencies for health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Todd; Capoccia, Victor A; Boyle, Michael G; Sherbeck, Carol K

    2012-05-02

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) aims to provide affordable health insurance and expanded health care coverage for some 32 million Americans. The PPACA makes provisions for using technology, evidence-based treatments, and integrated, patient-centered care to modernize the delivery of health care services. These changes are designed to ensure effectiveness, efficiency, and cost-savings within the health care system.To gauge the addiction treatment field's readiness for health reform, the authors developed a Health Reform Readiness Index (HRRI) survey for addiction treatment agencies. Addiction treatment administrators and providers from around the United States completed the survey located on the http://www.niatx.net website. Respondents self-assessed their agencies based on 13 conditions pertinent to health reform readiness, and received a confidential score and instant feedback.On a scale of "Needs to Begin," "Early Stages," "On the Way," and "Advanced," the mean scores for respondents (n = 276) ranked in the Early Stages of health reform preparation for 11 of 13 conditions. Of greater concern was that organizations with budgets of  $5 million to have information technology (patient records, patient health technology, and administrative information technology), evidence-based treatments, quality management systems, a continuum of care, or a board of directors informed about PPACA.The findings of the HRRI indicate that the addiction field, and in particular smaller organizations, have much to do to prepare for a future environment that has greater expectations for information technology use, a credentialed workforce, accountability for patient care, and an integrated continuum of care.

  11. Socially sanctioned coercion mechanisms for addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Edgar P; Birkmayer, Florian; Sullivan, Maria A; Galanter, Marc; Fromson, John A; Frances, Richard J; Levin, Frances R; Lewis, Collins; Suchinsky, Richard T; Tamerin, John S; Westermeyer, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Coercion as a strategy for treatment of addiction is an effective but often negatively perceived approach. The authors review current policies for involuntary commitments and explore coercive dimensions of treating alcohol and drug dependence in the workplace, sports, and through professional licensure. Gender-specific issues in coercion are considered, including evidence for improved treatment retention among pregnant and parenting women coerced via the criminal justice system. Social security disability benefits represent an area where an opportunity for constructive coercion was missed in the treatment of primary or comorbid substance use disorders. The availability of third-party funding for the voluntary treatment of individuals with substance use disorders has decreased. This unmet need, coupled with the evidence for positive clinical outcomes, highlights the call for implementing socially sanctioned mechanisms of coercion.

  12. Romantic love v.s. drug addiction may inspire a new treatment for addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiling Zou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT system for romantic love and drug addiction. These indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial

  13. Romantic Love vs. Drug Addiction May Inspire a New Treatment for Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Zhang, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex neurological dysfunction induced by recurring drug intoxication. Strategies to prevent and treat drug addiction constitute a topic of research interest. Early-stage romantic love is characterized by some characteristics of addiction, which gradually disappear as the love relationship progresses. Therefore, comparison of the concordance and discordance between romantic love and drug addiction may elucidate potential treatments for addiction. This focused review uses the evidences from our recent studies to compare the neural alterations between romantic love and drug addiction, moreover we also compare the behavioral and neurochemical alterations between romantic love and drug addiction. From the behavioral comparisons we find that there are many similarities between the early stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage romantic love is considered as a behavioral addiction, while significant differences exist between the later stage of romantic love and drug addiction, and this stage of romantic love eventually developed into a prosocial behavior. The neuroimaging comparisons suggest that romantic love and drug addiction both display the functional enhancement in reward and emotion regulation network. Except the similar neural changes, romantic love display special function enhancement in social cognition network, while drug addiction display special dysfunction in cognitive control network. The neurochemical comparisons show that there are many similarities in the dopamine (DA) system, while significant differences in oxytocin (OT) system for romantic love and drug addiction. These findings indicate that the functional alterations in reward and emotion regulation network and the DA system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a behavioral addiction, and the functional alterations in social cognition network and the OT system may be the neurophysiological basis of romantic love as a prosocial behavior. It

  14. The pharmacological treatment of opioid addiction--a clinical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobmaier, Philipp; Gossop, Michael; Waal, Helge; Bramness, Jorgen

    2010-06-01

    This article reviews the main pharmacotherapies that are currently being used to treat opioid addiction. Treatments include detoxification using tapered methadone, buprenorphine, adrenergic agonists such as clonidine and lofexidine, and forms of rapid detoxification. In opioid maintenance treatment (OMT), methadone is most widely used. OMT with buprenorphine, buprenorphine-naloxone combination, or other opioid agonists is also discussed. The use of the opioid antagonists naloxone (for the treatment of intoxication and overdose) and oral and sustained-release formulations of naltrexone (for relapse prevention) is also considered. Although recent advances in the neurobiology of addictions may lead to the development of new pharmacotherapies for the treatment of addictive disorders, a major challenge lies in delivering existing treatments more effectively. Pharmacotherapy of opioid addiction alone is usually insufficient, and a complete treatment should also include effective psychosocial support or other interventions. Combining pharmacotherapies with psychosocial support strategies that are tailored to meet the patients' needs represents the best way to treat opioid addiction effectively.

  15. Conducting Systematic Outcome Assessment in Private Addictions Treatment Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard J Connors

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Systematic outcome assessment is central to ascertaining the impact of treatment services and to informing future treatment initiatives. This project was designed to be conducted within the clinical operations of 4 private addictions treatment centers. A structured interview was used to assess patients’ alcohol and other drug use and related variables (on treatment entry and at 1, 3, and 6 months following treatment discharge. The primary outcomes were percentage of days abstinent (PDA from alcohol and drugs, PDA from alcohol, and PDA from other drugs. Collateral reports during follow-up also were gathered. A total of 280 patients (56% men across the 4 programs participated. Percentage of days abstinent for each outcome increased significantly from baseline to the 1-month follow-up assessment, and this change was maintained at the 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments. Collateral reports mirrored the patient follow-up reports. Secondary outcomes of patient ratings of urges/cravings, depression, anxiety, and general life functioning all indicated significant improvement from baseline over the course of the follow-up. The results suggest the feasibility of conducting systematic outcome assessment in freestanding private addictions treatment environments.

  16. Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet can function as a resource for counselors, counselors in training, or anyone else who works with or knows someone who is addicted to drugs. It begins by identifying 13 principles of effective treatment for drug abusers. It then provides answers to 11 frequently asked questions regarding drug addiction treatment. Next it discusses drug…

  17. A Qualitative Analysis of Online Gaming Addicts in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranuy, Marta; Carbonell, Xavier; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2013-01-01

    Online gaming addiction is a relatively under-researched area and there have been few studies examining online gamers in treatment. This paper reports the findings from a qualitative interview study of nine players undergoing treatment for their addictive playing of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPGs). A face-to-face…

  18. Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on

  19. What Are the Treatments for Heroin Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine Other Drugs Related Topics Addiction Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults ...

  20. How is acceptance of the brain disease model of addiction related to Australians’ attitudes towards addicted individuals and treatments for addiction?

    OpenAIRE

    Meurk, Carla; Carter, Adrian; Partridge, Brad; Lucke, Jayne; Hall, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Background We investigated whether beliefs about addiction being a ‘disease’ or ‘brain disease’, and holding certain beliefs about addiction aetiology, are associated with public views about addicted persons and support for different types of treatment, coerced treatment and punishment for addiction. Methods Data were collected as part of the 2012 Queensland Social Survey, a computer assisted telephone interview of 1263 residents of Queensland, Australia. Participants were presented with scen...

  1. Differences between Alcoholics and Cocaine Addicts Seeking Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2015-03-03

    This study explored the characteristics of a representative sample of patients who were addicted to either alcohol or cocaine, comparing the profiles of both types of drug users. A sample of 234 addicted patients (109 alcoholics and 125 cocaine addicts) who sought outpatient treatment in a Spanish clinical centre was assessed. Data on socio-demographic, consumption, psychopathological and maladjustment characteristics were collected using the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II). Demographically, differences were observed with regard to age (alcoholics were older than cocaine addicts; t = 12.2, p = .001), employment (the alcoholic group had more labor problems; χ 2 = 6.2, p = .045) and family consequences (worse in alcoholics; t = 2.3, p = .025). The EuropASI results showed statistically significant differences in addiction severity, with alcoholics showing a greater severity than cocaine addicts. In terms of psychopathology, alcoholics presented more associated symptomatology than cocaine addicts. According to these results, patients with alcohol dependence have a different profile from patients with cocaine dependence, resulting in different repercussions for important areas of their lives. These differences should be taken into account when standard treatments for addiction are implemented.

  2. Gene May Help Guide Black Patients' Opioid Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Gene May Help Guide Black Patients' Opioid Addiction Treatment Finding suggests they may need higher doses of ... News on: African American Health Genes and Gene Therapy Opioid Abuse and Addiction Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics African ...

  3. [The treatment of drug-addicted parents and their children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Ouriel; Dayan, Jacques; Vinay, Aubeline; Andro, Gwenaëlle

    2013-01-01

    The specificities of the parent-child relationship in cases of addiction, as well as the role of opiate substitution treatments in the support of parenthood, can be analysed by studying the place of drugs within the psychological processes. The objective is to enable drug-addicted parents to situate themselves in transfer and affiliation approaches.

  4. Treatment of drug addiction and psychopathology: A field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Souto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Field study to assess the concurrence of the psychopathology of drug addiction, and to evaluate the efficacy of pharmacological treatment versus drug-free treatments for the psychopathology of drug addiction. A total of 261 patients treated for drug addiction, 131 on a drug-free treatment and the remaining 130 patients received a drug regime, of which 113 were, according to the Prochaska and Decrement’s Transtheorical Model, in a initial phase of the treatment (from 15 days to 6 months of treatment and 148 in a maintenance phase in drug treatment (> 6 months, were psychopathologically assessed using the SCL-90-R (Derogatis, 2002. A field study with a 2 X 2 design (treatment: drug-free vs. drug-regime and (treatment phase: initial phase vs. maintenance in drug treatment was carried out. The results support the hypothesis of a dual diagnosis, that is, the comorbidity of psychopathology and drug addiction. On the whole, treatment for drug addiction had a significant impact on reducing associated psychopathology. Finally, the results are discussed in the light of the implications for the treatment of drug addiction.

  5. Cultural Competence in the Treatment of Addictions: Theory, Practice and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M

    2017-07-01

    Culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) populations often have high rates of addictive disorders, but lower rates of treatment seeking and completion than the mainstream population. A significant barrier to treatment is the lack of culturally relevant and appropriate treatment. A literature review was conducted to identify relevant literature related to cultural competence in mental health services delivery and specifically treatment for addictive disorders. Several theoretical models of cultural competence in therapy have been developed, but the lack of rigorous research limits the empirical evidence available. Research indicates that culturally competent treatment practices including providing therapy and materials in the client's language, knowledge, understanding and appreciation for cultural perspectives and nuances, involving the wider family and community and training therapists can enhance client engagement, retention and treatment outcomes for substance use and gambling. Further methodologically rigorous research is needed to isolate the impact of cultural competence for the treatment of addictions and guide research to determine treatment efficacy within specific CALD populations. Training therapists and recruiting therapists and researchers from CALD communities is important to ensure an ongoing focus and improved outcomes for CALD populations due to the importance of engaging these populations with addiction treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: The treatment needs of culturally diverse individuals with addictions are often not met. Theoretical models can guide therapists in incorporating cultural competence. Culturally targeted treatments increase recruitment, retention and treatment outcomes. Cultural competence includes matching clinicians and clients on linguistic and cultural backgrounds as well as being mindful of the impact of culture on client's experience of addiction problems. Few methodologically

  6. Thai men’s experiences of alcohol addiction and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree; Eriksson, Henrik; Kijsompon, Jureerat; Östlund, Gunnel

    2014-01-01

    Background Men are overrepresented with regard to alcohol addiction and in terms of alcohol treatment worldwide. In Thailand, alcohol consumption continues to rise, but few of those afflicted with alcohol addiction attend alcohol treatment programs, even though there is universal care for all. No comprehensive studies have been done on men’s experiences with addiction and alcohol treatment programs in Thailand. Objective The aim of this study was to explore men’s experiences in terms of the ‘pros and cons of alcohol consumption’ in order to identify the barriers that exist for Thai men with regard to alcohol addiction and the decision to stop drinking. Design Purposive sampling was applied in the process of recruiting participants at an alcohol clinic in a hospital in Thailand. Thirteen men with alcohol addiction (aged 32–49 years) were willing to participate and were interviewed in thematic interviews. The analysis of the data was done with descriptive phenomenology. Results Through men’s descriptions, three clusters of experiences were found that were ‘mending the body’, ‘drinking as payoff and doping related to work’, and ‘alcohol becoming a best friend’ as ways of describing the development of addiction. Conclusions The results highlight the importance of addressing concepts of masculinity and related hegemonic ideas in order to decrease the influence of the barriers that exist for Thai men with alcohol addiction with regard to entering treatment and to stop drinking. PMID:24845212

  7. Thai men's experiences of alcohol addiction and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men are overrepresented with regard to alcohol addiction and in terms of alcohol treatment worldwide. In Thailand, alcohol consumption continues to rise, but few of those afflicted with alcohol addiction attend alcohol treatment programs, even though there is universal care for all. No comprehensive studies have been done on men's experiences with addiction and alcohol treatment programs in Thailand. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore men's experiences in terms of the ‘pros and cons of alcohol consumption’ in order to identify the barriers that exist for Thai men with regard to alcohol addiction and the decision to stop drinking. Design: Purposive sampling was applied in the process of recruiting participants at an alcohol clinic in a hospital in Thailand. Thirteen men with alcohol addiction (aged 32–49 years were willing to participate and were interviewed in thematic interviews. The analysis of the data was done with descriptive phenomenology. Results: Through men's descriptions, three clusters of experiences were found that were ‘mending the body’, ‘drinking as payoff and doping related to work’, and ‘alcohol becoming a best friend’ as ways of describing the development of addiction. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of addressing concepts of masculinity and related hegemonic ideas in order to decrease the influence of the barriers that exist for Thai men with alcohol addiction with regard to entering treatment and to stop drinking.

  8. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of substance addiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gorelick, David A; Zangen, Abraham; George, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a noninvasive method of brain stimulation used to treat a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, but is still in the early stages of study as addiction treatment...

  9. Virtual Reality as a Complementary Therapy to Sexual Addiction Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Cismaru Inescu, Adina; Andrianne, Robert; Triffaux, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Virtual reality has gained traction as a research, education and treatment tool. Virtual reality is a system that immerses people in virtual worlds and improves clinicians’ traditional treatments for addictive disorders, eating disorders, phobias, and stroke rehabilitation. Sex addiction is a dysregulation of sexual desire, characterized by excessive sexual behavior (between 5-15 sexual activities/day, for more than 6 months, after the age of 15). Hypersexuality highlights disturbances in hum...

  10. Cognitive behavior therapy with Internet addicts: treatment outcomes and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S

    2007-10-01

    Research over the last decade has identified Internet addiction as a new and often unrecognized clinical disorder that impact a user's ability to control online use to the extent that it can cause relational, occupational, and social problems. While much of the literature explores the psychological and social factors underlying Internet addiction, little if any empirical evidence exists that examines specific treatment outcomes to deal with this new client population. Researchers have suggested using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as the treatment of choice for Internet addiction, and addiction recovery in general has utilized CBT as part of treatment planning. To investigate the efficacy of using CBT with Internet addicts, this study investigated 114 clients who suffered from Internet addiction and received CBT at the Center for Online Addiction. This study employed a survey research design, and outcome variables such as client motivation, online time management, improved social relationships, improved sexual functioning, engagement in offline activities, and ability to abstain from problematic applications were evaluated on the 3rd, 8th, and 12th sessions and over a 6-month follow-up. Results suggested that Caucasian, middle-aged males with at least a 4-year degree were most likely to suffer from some form of Internet addiction. Preliminary analyses indicated that most clients were able to manage their presenting complaints by the eighth session, and symptom management was sustained upon a 6-month follow-up. As the field of Internet addiction continues to grow, such outcome data will be useful in treatment planning with evidenced-based protocols unique to this emergent client population.

  11. Texas Christian University (TCU) Short Forms for Assessing Client Needs and Functioning in Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D. Dwayne; Joe, George W.; Knight, Kevin; Rowan-Szal, Grace A.; Gray, Julie S.

    2012-01-01

    The TCU Short Forms contain a revised and expanded set of assessments for planning and managing addiction treatment services. They are formatted as brief (one-page) forms to measure client needs and functioning, including drug use severity and history (TCUDS II), criminal thinking and cognitive orientation (CTSForm), motivation and readiness for…

  12. Benefits of peer support groups in the treatment of addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy K

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kathlene Tracy,1,2 Samantha P Wallace3 1Community Research and Recovery Program (CRRP, Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine, 2New York Harbor Healthcare System (NYHHS, New York, 3Department of Community Health Sciences, State University of New York Downstate School of Public Health, Brooklyn, NY, USA Objective: Peer support can be defined as the process of giving and receiving nonprofessional, nonclinical assistance from individuals with similar conditions or circumstances to achieve long-term recovery from psychiatric, alcohol, and/or other drug-related problems. Recently, there has been a dramatic rise in the adoption of alternative forms of peer support services to assist recovery from substance use disorders; however, often peer support has not been separated out as a formalized intervention component and rigorously empirically tested, making it difficult to determine its effects. This article reports the results of a literature review that was undertaken to assess the effects of peer support groups, one aspect of peer support services, in the treatment of addiction.Methods: The authors of this article searched electronic databases of relevant peer-reviewed research literature including PubMed and MedLINE.Results: Ten studies met our minimum inclusion criteria, including randomized controlled trials or pre-/post-data studies, adult participants, inclusion of group format, substance use-related, and US-conducted studies published in 1999 or later. Studies demonstrated associated benefits in the following areas: 1 substance use, 2 treatment engagement, 3 human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus risk behaviors, and 4 secondary substance-related behaviors such as craving and self-efficacy. Limitations were noted on the relative lack of rigorously tested empirical studies within the literature and inability to disentangle the effects of the group treatment that is often included as a component of other services

  13. Is immunotherapy an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga

    2015-11-27

    Immunotherapy has a great potential of becoming a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of addiction to psychoactive drugs. It may be used to treat addiction but also to prevent neurotoxic complications of drug overdose. In preclinical studies two immunological methods have been tested; active immunization, which relies on the administration of vaccines and passive immunization, which relies on the administration of monoclonal antibodies. Until now researchers have succeeded in developing vaccines and/or antibodies against addiction to heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine and phencyclidine. Their effectiveness has been confirmed in preclinical studies. At present, clinical studies are being conducted for vaccines against nicotine and cocaine and also anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody. These preclinical and clinical studies suggest that immunotherapy may be useful in the treatment of addiction and drug overdose. However, there are a few problems to be solved. One of them is controlling the level of antibodies due to variability between subjects. But even obtaining a suitable antibody titer does not guarantee the effectiveness of the vaccine. Additionally, there is a risk of intentional or unintentional overdose. As vaccines prevent passing of drugs through the blood/brain barrier and thereby prevent their positive reinforcement, some addicted patients may erroneously seek higher doses of psychoactive substances to get "high". Consequently, vaccination should be targeted at persons who have a strong motivation to free themselves from drug dependency. It seems that immunotherapy may be an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction if directed to adequate candidates for treatment. For other addicts, immunotherapy may be a very important element supporting psycho- and pharmacotherapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Uses of coercion in addiction treatment: clinical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Maria A; Birkmayer, Florian; Boyarsky, Beth K; Frances, Richard J; Fromson, John A; Galanter, Marc; Levin, Frances R; Lewis, Collins; Nace, Edgar P; Suchinsky, Richard T; Tamerin, John S; Tolliver, Bryan; Westermeyer, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Coerced or involuntary treatment comprises an integral, often positive component of treatment for addictive disorders. By the same token, coercion in health care raises numerous ethical, clinical, legal, political, cultural, and philosophical issues. In order to apply coerced care effectively, health care professionals should appreciate the indications, methods, advantages, and liabilities associated with this important clinical modality. An expert panel, consisting of the Addiction Committee of the Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry, listed the issues to be considered by clinicians in considering coerced treatment. In undertaking this task, they searched the literature using Pubmed from 1985 to 2005 using the following search terms: addiction, alcohol, coercion, compulsory, involuntary, substance, and treatment. In addition, they utilized relevant literature from published reports. In the treatment of addictions, coercive techniques can be effective and may be warranted in some circumstances. Various dimensions of coercive treatment are reviewed, including interventions to initiate treatment; contingency contracting and urine testing in the context of psychotherapy; and pharmacological methods of coercion such as disulfiram, naltrexone, and the use of a cocaine vaccine. The philosophical, historical, and societal aspects of coerced treatment are considered.

  15. Improving addictions treatment outcomes by empowering self and others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Thomas E; Englander-Golden, Paula; Golden, David E; Pillai, Vijayan K

    2010-10-01

    The present research tested the effectiveness of adding an interpersonal, interactive, experiential training programme to addictions treatment that enhances motivation, cognitive-behavioural coping skills, social support, and group cohesiveness. The research was conducted in a co-educational, long-term residential treatment facility for addictive disorders (alcohol and other substances, sexual addiction, eating disorders, compulsive shopping, and gambling) and concomitant psychiatric diagnoses. The added training is co-created by participants. They choose challenging situations important in their lives that are played out as 'movies' in which they play and experience all the parts. Motivation for change, skills to implement positive changes, self-efficacy, empathy, positive support, and group cohesiveness are rooted in their own experiences and the feedback they receive from others, as they behave in empowering and disempowering ways. The training resulted in significant increases in empowering communication, self-esteem and quality of group life in the treatment group and in the family. Many of these results have large effect sizes and are consistent with the findings from prior studies. The results obtained in this study suggest that Say It Straight training can be an effective addition to the treatment of addictions in residential treatment. Future research is needed to determine the long-term effects of this training on relapse.

  16. Positive Criminology and Rethinking the Response to Adolescent Addiction: Evidence on the Role of Social Support, Religiosity, and Service to Others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Byron R; Lee, Matthew T; Pagano, Maria E; Post, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent addiction has emerged as a major public health problem. The greatest increase in alcohol and other drug use disorders can be found among youth. Concurrently, technological advances in policing coupled with aggressive prosecuting and sentencing practices have contributed to the growth of America's correctional system. The assertive response of policing, courts, and corrections, however, have not prevented the dramatic rise of adolescent addiction. Unfortunately, there is no national data tracking addicted youth in the criminal justice system to evaluate what works when it comes to youth with addiction. This article reviews justice system responses to adolescent offenders with addiction, and promising approaches engaging juveniles in programmatic components of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). This study highlights the role of spirituality, service to others, and social support in maintaining sobriety, reducing arrests, and lowering recidivism for adolescents court-referred to treatment. Recommendations for improving the response to adolescent offenders with addiction are offered.

  17. Positive Criminology and Rethinking the Response to Adolescent Addiction: Evidence on the Role of Social Support, Religiosity, and Service to Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Byron R.; Lee, Matthew T.; Pagano, Maria E.; Post, Stephen G.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent addiction has emerged as a major public health problem. The greatest increase in alcohol and other drug use disorders can be found among youth. Concurrently, technological advances in policing coupled with aggressive prosecuting and sentencing practices have contributed to the growth of America’s correctional system. The assertive response of policing, courts, and corrections, however, have not prevented the dramatic rise of adolescent addiction. Unfortunately, there is no national data tracking addicted youth in the criminal justice system to evaluate what works when it comes to youth with addiction. This article reviews justice system responses to adolescent offenders with addiction, and promising approaches engaging juveniles in programmatic components of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). This study highlights the role of spirituality, service to others, and social support in maintaining sobriety, reducing arrests, and lowering recidivism for adolescents court-referred to treatment. Recommendations for improving the response to adolescent offenders with addiction are offered. PMID:28090237

  18. Treatment approaches for interoceptive dysfunctions in drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Martin P; Stewart, Jennifer L; Haase, Lori

    2013-10-18

    There is emerging evidence that individuals with drug addiction have dysfunctions in brain systems that are important for interoceptive processing, which include, among others, the insular and the anterior cingulate cortices. These individuals may not be expending sufficient neural resources to process perturbations of the interoceptive state but may exert over-activation of these systems when processing drug-related stimuli. As a consequence, insufficient detection and processing of interoceptive state changes may result in inadequate anticipation and preparation to adapt to environmental challenges, e.g., adapt to abstinence in the presence of withdrawal symptoms. Here, we integrate interoceptive dysfunction in drug-addicted individuals, with the neural basis for meditation and exercise to develop a heuristic to target the interoceptive system as potential treatments for drug addiction. First, it is suggested that mindfulness-based approaches can modulate both interoceptive function and insular activation patterns. Second, there is an emerging literature showing that the regulation of physical exercise in the brain involves the insula and anterior cingulate cortex and that intense physical exercise is associated with a insula changes that may provide a window to attenuate the increased interoceptive response to drug-related stimuli. It is concluded that the conceptual framework of interoceptive dysfunctions in drug addiction and the experimental findings in meditation and exercise provide a useful approach to develop new interventions for drug addiction.

  19. Treatment Approaches for Interoceptive Dysfunctions in Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Paulus

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is emerging evidence that individuals with drug addiction have dysfunctions in brain systems that are important for interoceptive processing, which include, among others, the insular and the anterior cingulate cortices. These individuals may not be expending sufficient neural resources to process perturbations of the interoceptive state but may exert over-activation of these systems when processing drug-related stimuli. As a consequence, insufficient detection and processing of interoceptive state changes may result in inadequate anticipation and preparation to adapt to environmental challenges, e.g. adapt to abstinence in the presence of withdrawal symptoms. Here, we integrate interoceptive dysfunction in drug-addicted individuals, with the neural basis for meditation and exercise to develop a heuristic to target the interoceptive system as potential treatments for drug addiction. First, it is suggested that mindfulness-based approaches can modulate both interoceptive function and insular activation patterns. Second, there is an emerging literature that the regulation of physical exercise in the brain involves the insula and anterior cingulate cortex and that intense physical exercise is associated with a state-dependent activation difference in the insula that may provide a window to attenuate the increased interoceptive response drug related stimuli. It is concluded that the conceptual framework of interoceptive dysfunctions in drug addiction and the experimental findings in meditation and exercise provide a useful approach to develop new interventions for drug addiction.

  20. An Examination of Addiction Treatment Completion by Gender and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Connie R.; Lorah, Peggy

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the discharge status of all clients admitted to an intensive outpatient facility over the course of 1 year, specifically exploring differences based on client gender and ethnicity. The article also argues the need for more culturally sensitive addiction treatment and addresses some alternative approaches. The purpose of the…

  1. A role for pharmacotherapy in the treatment of "internet addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camardese, Giovanni; De Risio, Luisa; Di Nicola, Marco; Pizi, Giusy; Janiri, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the Internet is among the most significant changes in recent decades and has greatly affected the entire range of human experience. However, it has, in turn, led to the emergence of psychopathological features of addiction linked to its use. Literature on the clinical management of the distress related to Internet use systematically measures up to an evolving nosography, with ambiguous definitions of the phenomenon and a diversity of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic criteria. To date, case studies on "Internet addiction" treatment are rather limited, and no standard clinical treatment protocols exist. With regard to pharmacological treatment options, empirical or anecdotal assessments are mostly referred to. The aim of this article was to review current literature on Internet addiction treatment and assess the extent to which specific pharmacological interventions alleviate these patients' symptomatic burden, to propose a rationale that may guide the therapeutic approach. To this end, we also explored pharmacological interventions that target patterns of comorbidity and underlying psychopathological dimensions shared with other behavioral or substance addictions.

  2. Knowledge and stigma regarding methadone maintenance treatment among personnel of methadone maintenance treatment and non-methadone maintenance treatment addiction facilities in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shidlansik, Lia; Adelson, Miriam; Peles, Einat

    2017-01-01

    Stigma attached to methadone maintenance treatment is very common. The objective of the current article is to evaluate the presence of stigma and its relation to the extent of knowledge about methadone maintenance treatment. The authors conducted a survey among methadone maintenance treatment and non-methadone maintenance treatment addiction therapists from different treatment centers in Israel, including methadone maintenance treatment clinics (Ministry of Health) and non-methadone maintenance treatment addiction facilities (Ministry of Social Services), using an anonymous questionnaire about methadone maintenance treatment stigma and knowledge. There were 63 therapists from methadone maintenance treatment clinics (63%) and 46 therapists from the social services department (SSD) non-methadone maintenance treatment addiction facilities (9.2%) who responded. Methadone maintenance treatment versus social services department personnel were older (42.7 ± 12.8 versus 37.5 ± 8.2 years; p = 0.03), with fewer females (48 versus 75%; p = 0.006), and 50% were social workers compared to 100% social workers in the SSD group (p maintenance treatment personnel compared to the social services department personnel (3 ± 2.5 versus 5.0 ± 3.5; p = 0.0001), while the knowledge score about methadone maintenance treatment was higher among the methadone maintenance treatment personnel (10.3 ± 2.9 versus 7.7 ± 2.8; p maintenance treatment (R = -0.5, p maintenance treatment, with ignorance and stigma against methadone maintenance treatment being more pronounced among social services department personnel. An educational intervention, especially among social services department personnel, may benefit people who use opioids and improve the overall quality of treatment for opioid addiction in Israel.

  3. Cognitive Function as an Emerging Treatment Target for Marijuana Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Sugarman, Dawn E.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance in the world and demand for effective treatment is increasing. However, abstinence rates following behavioral therapies have been modest, and there are no effective pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cannabis addiction. We propose a novel research agenda and a potential treatment strategy, based on observations that both acute and chronic exposure to cannabis are associated with dose-related cognitive impairments, most consistently in att...

  4. Gender differences in treatment progress of drug-addicted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Azanza, Paula; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl

    2017-03-01

    The authors of this study explored the differences in treatment progress between men and women who were addicted to drugs. The differential rate of completion of/dropout from treatment in men and women with substance dependence was established. Moreover, comparisons between completers and dropouts, accounting for gender, were carried out for several variables related to treatment progress and clinical profile. A sample of 183 addicted patients (96 male and 87 female) who sought outpatient treatment between 2002 and 2006 was assessed. Information on socio-demographic, consumption, and associated characteristics was collected. A detailed tracking of each patient's progress was maintained for a minimum period of 8 years to assess treatment progression. The treatment dropout rate in the whole sample was 38.8%, with statistically significant differences between women (47.1%) and men (31.3%). Women who dropped out of treatment presented a more severe profile in most of the psychopathologic variables than women who completed it. Moreover, women who dropped out from treatment presented a more severe profile than men who dropped out. According to these results, drug-addicted women showed worse therapeutic progress than men with similar histories. Thus, women must be provided with additional targeted intervention to promote better treatment outcomes.

  5. Traditional Chinese medicine in treatment of opiate addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie SHI; Yan-li LIU; Yu-xia FANG; Guo-zhu XU; Hai-fen ZHAI; Lin LU

    2006-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) includes Chinese medicine and acupuncture. Chinese medicine consists of natural products including plants, animals and minerals. TCM has been practiced in China for more than 2000 years, and for the past 200 years has been used in treatment of drug addiction. Ten Chinese medicines for the treatment of opiate addiction have been approved by the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA), and at least 6 are in clinical trials. The general therapeutic principle of Chinese medicine developed was based on its unique theory of "reinforcing healthy Qi and resolving and removing effects of toxicity". Acupuncture, another essential part of TCM, which was developed based on the principle that "functions of the human body are controlled by the 'Jing-Luo' and 'Qi-Xue' system", has been used not only in China, but also in Europe, the USA and other countries, for controlling opiate addiction. There are some advantages in using TCM for opiate detoxification, including less harmful side effects, high safety and ideal effects in the inhibition of protracted withdrawal symptoms and relapse. Co-administration of TCM with modern medicine shows some synergistic effects in detoxification. Many TCM for detoxification also have efficacy in the rehabilitation of abnormal body functions induced by chronic drug use, including improving immune function, increasing working memory and preventing neurological disorder. Given that TCM is effective in the prevention of relapse and causes fewer side effects, it may be used widely in the treatment of opiate addiction.

  6. Searching objective criteria for patient assignment in addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso; Esarte, Sonia

    2017-05-01

    The main aim of this study was to objectify the treatment assignment criteria used in a clinical centre for addiction treatment in Spain. A sample of 162 patients (87 inpatients and 75 outpatients) who sought treatment between 2010 and 2012 was assessed. Clinical characteristics (addiction severity, psychopathological symptoms, impulsiveness and maladjustment) of the two treatment groups (inpatient and outpatient) into which patients were assigned according to the clinical criteria of therapists were analysed to identify which variables were more relevant for patient placement. Moreover, the therapeutic progression of patients who met and did not meet the assignment criteria received was studied. According to the results, a score above 4 in the family/social support area of the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), or, in cases of a score between 2 and 4 in the family/social area of EuropASI, a score above 2 in the partner subscale of the Maladjustment Scale correctly classified 73.5% of cases (96.6% of inpatients and 46.7% of outpatients). Comparisons of therapeutic results depending on matching or mismatching these assignment criteria showed a larger effect size in mismatching patient assignment criteria for outpatient treatment. The results obtained in this study provide an objective criterion for addicted patient placement. Moreover, from a cost-effective perspective, they question the necessity of inpatient treatment in most cases, demonstrating that outpatient treatment is a sufficient level of care. This study addresses the approach to assigning patients to the treatment modality that best fits them, implementing the least expensive level of care needed to achieve treatment success. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Internet addiction: Coping Styles, Expectancies, and Treatment Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eBrand

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of Internet addiction, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users showed that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test (s-IAT. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations increased the risk for generalized Internet addiction. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of generalized Internet addiction and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

  8. Community-based addiction treatment staff attitudes about the usefulness of evidence-based addiction treatment and CBO organizational linkages to research institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, Lena; Krull, Ivy; Zerden, Lisa de Saxe; McCarty, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This national study of community-based addiction-treatment organizations’ (CBOs) implementation of evidence-based practices explored CBO Program Directors’ (n = 296) and clinical staff (n = 518) attitudes about the usefulness of science-based addiction treatment. Through multivariable regression modeling, the study identified that identical factors were associated with directors, and staff attitudes about the usefulness of science-based addiction treatment. For both directors and staff workin...

  9. School Services for Drug-Addicted Children: What Parents Need to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelker, Katharin A.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses applications of education legislation for drug-addicted children, including the Education for All Handicapped Children Act and Sec. 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which recognizes smoking and drug addiction as handicapping conditions. Suggested guidelines for parents seeking school support services under these laws…

  10. Strategies for Incorporating Women-Specific Sexuality Education into Addiction Treatment Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Raven

    2007-01-01

    This paper advocates for the incorporation of a women-specific sexuality curriculum in the addiction treatment process to aid in sexual healing and provide for aftercare issues. Sexuality in addiction treatment modalities is often approached from a sex-negative stance, or that of sexual victimization. Sexual issues are viewed as addictive in and…

  11. Association between addiction treatment staff professional and educational levels and perceptions of organizational climate and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krull, Ivy; Lundgren, Lena; Beltrame, Clelia

    2014-01-01

    Research studies have identified addiction treatment staff who have higher levels of education as having more positive attitudes about evidence-based treatment practices, science-based training, and the usefulness of evidence-based practices. This study examined associations between addiction treatment staff level of education and their perceptions of 3 measures of organizational change: organizational stress, training resources and staffing resources in their treatment unit. The sample included 588 clinical staff from community-based substance abuse treatment organizations who received Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) funding (2003-2008) to implement evidence-based practices (EBPs). Bivariate analysis and regression modeling methods examined the relationship between staff education level (no high school education, high school education, some college, associate's degree, bachelor's degree, master's degree, doctoral degree, and other type of degree such as medical assistant, registered nurse [RN], or postdoctoral) and attitudes about organizational climate (stress), training resources, and staffing resources while controlling for staff and treatment unit characteristics. Multivariable models identified staff with lower levels of education as having significantly more positive attitudes about their unit's organizational capacity. These results contradict findings that addiction treatment staff with higher levels of education work in units with greater levels of organizational readiness for change. It cannot be inferred that higher levels of education among treatment staff is necessarily associated with high levels of organizational readiness for change.

  12. The Key to Individualized Addiction Treatment is Comprehensive Assessment and Monitoring of Symptoms and Behavioral Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Hilton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern health services now strive for individualized treatment. This approach has been enabled by the increase in knowledge derived from neuroscience and genomics. Substance use disorders are no exception to individualized treatment even though there are no gene-specific medications yet available. What is available is the ability to quickly and precisely assess and monitor biopsychosocial variables known to vary during addiction recovery and which place addicts at increased risk of relapse. Monitoring a broad spectrum of biopsychosocial health enables providers to address diverse genome-specific changes that might trigger withdrawal from treatment or recovery relapse in time to prevent that from occurring. This paper describes modern measurement tools contained in the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS and the NIH Toolbox and suggests how they might be applied to support recovery from alcohol and other substance use disorders in both pharmacological and abstinence-oriented modalities of care.

  13. The Key to Individualized Addiction Treatment is Comprehensive Assessment and Monitoring of Symptoms and Behavioral Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Thomas F; Pilkonis, Paul A

    2015-10-30

    Modern health services now strive for individualized treatment. This approach has been enabled by the increase in knowledge derived from neuroscience and genomics. Substance use disorders are no exception to individualized treatment even though there are no gene-specific medications yet available. What is available is the ability to quickly and precisely assess and monitor biopsychosocial variables known to vary during addiction recovery and which place addicts at increased risk of relapse. Monitoring a broad spectrum of biopsychosocial health enables providers to address diverse genome-specific changes that might trigger withdrawal from treatment or recovery relapse in time to prevent that from occurring. This paper describes modern measurement tools contained in the NIH Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and the NIH Toolbox and suggests how they might be applied to support recovery from alcohol and other substance use disorders in both pharmacological and abstinence-oriented modalities of care.

  14. Expected Impact of Health Care Reform on the Organization and Service Delivery of Publicly Funded Addiction Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Vega, William A; Palinkas, Lawrence

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about how the Affordable Care Act (ACA) will be implemented in publicly funded addiction health services (AHS) organizations. Guided by a conceptual model of implementation of new practices in health care systems, this study relied on qualitative data collected in 2013 from 30 AHS clinical supervisors in Los Angeles County, California. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a constructivist grounded theory approach with ATLAS.ti software. Supervisors expected several potential effects of ACA implementation, including increased use of AHS services, shifts in the duration and intensity of AHS services, and workforce professionalization. However, supervisors were not prepared for actions to align their programs' strategic change plans with policy expectations. Findings point to the need for health care policy interventions to help treatment providers effectively respond to ACA principles of improving standards of care and reducing disparities.

  15. Partnering to enhance interprofessional service-learning innovations and addictions recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalynuk, T V; Soule Odegard, P; Kang, R; Kedzierski, M; Johnson Crowley, N

    2007-11-01

    Service-learning programs are reported to benefit students, faculty, higher education institutions, community agencies and the relationships among these groups. An interprofessional service-learning paradigm may strengthen these benefits. Community settings can expose students to social and cultural determinants of health, in addition to those biomedical determinants more commonly addressed in health sciences curricula. These experiences can also enhance student understanding of the complexities underlying treatment and prevention of modern health problems, particularly chronic diseases. The purpose of this initiative was to create and deliver interprofessional service-learning innovations that would enhance student learning and addictions recovery. To address this initiative, the University of Washington's Health Science Partnerships in Interdisciplinary Clinical Education (HSPICE) and the Salvation Army Adult Rehabilitation Center (ARC) began a community-campus partnership in 1997. Innovations took into account student educational objectives established by HSPICE which included: participation in interdisciplinary teams, in conjunction with community partners to identify and reduce population-based health issues, realization and articulation of biases regarding issues faced by the participating community, acquiring an understanding of the broader determinants of health and developing an understanding of why the complexity of population health requires interdisciplinary strategies for cost effectiveness. Findings are reported from evaluations, needs assessments and ongoing feedback of men recovering from addictions, as applied to health education materials and presentations developed for the ARC. Future directions are highlighted, including the need for further research and evaluation efforts aimed at rigorously assessing cost savings and student knowledge, skills and cultural sensitivity, among others.

  16. Training the Staff of a Drug Addiction Treatment Facility: A Case Study of Hogar De Encuentro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Andrew A.; Leske, M. Cristina

    1977-01-01

    This paper, presented at the American Public Health Association meeting; Chicago, November 1975, discusses a staff training program at a drug addiction treatment facility established for Spanish-speaking (and other) drug addicts. Staff improved counseling skills and knowledge of drug addiction, but changed little in attitudes toward drug use and…

  17. Community-Based Addiction Treatment Staff Attitudes about the Usefulness of Evidence-Based Addiction Treatment and CBO Organizational Linkages to Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lena; Krull, Ivy; Zerden, Lisa de Saxe; McCarty, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This national study of community-based addiction-treatment organizations' (CBOs) implementation of evidence-based practices explored CBO Program Directors' (n = 296) and clinical staff (n = 518) attitudes about the usefulness of science-based addiction treatment. Through multivariable regression modeling, the study identified that identical…

  18. Community-Based Addiction Treatment Staff Attitudes about the Usefulness of Evidence-Based Addiction Treatment and CBO Organizational Linkages to Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lena; Krull, Ivy; Zerden, Lisa de Saxe; McCarty, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    This national study of community-based addiction-treatment organizations' (CBOs) implementation of evidence-based practices explored CBO Program Directors' (n = 296) and clinical staff (n = 518) attitudes about the usefulness of science-based addiction treatment. Through multivariable regression modeling, the study identified that identical…

  19. NMDA Receptor Modulators in the Treatment of Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Seven E; Lacrosse, Amber L; Nemirovsky, Natali E; Olive, M Foster

    2013-02-06

    Glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction, and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subtype serves as a molecular target for several drugs of abuse. In this review, we will provide an overview of NMDA receptor structure and function, followed by a review of the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and side effect profile of NMDA receptor ligands that are currently in use or being explored for the treatment of drug addiction. These ligands include the NMDA receptor modulators memantine and acamprosate, as well as the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine. Data collected to date suggest that direct NMDA receptor modulators have relatively limited efficacy in the treatment of drug addiction, and that partial agonism of NMDA receptors may have some efficacy with regards to extinction learning during cue exposure therapy. However, the lack of consistency in results to date clearly indicates that additional studies are needed, as are studies examining novel ligands with indirect mechanisms for altering NMDA receptor function.

  20. NMDA Receptor Modulators in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Foster Olive

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction, and the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor subtype serves as a molecular target for several drugs of abuse. In this review, we will provide an overview of NMDA receptor structure and function, followed by a review of the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and side effect profile of NMDA receptor ligands that are currently in use or being explored for the treatment of drug addiction. These ligands include the NMDA receptor modulators memantine and acamprosate, as well as the partial NMDA agonist D-cycloserine. Data collected to date suggest that direct NMDA receptor modulators have relatively limited efficacy in the treatment of drug addiction, and that partial agonism of NMDA receptors may have some efficacy with regards to extinction learning during cue exposure therapy. However, the lack of consistency in results to date clearly indicates that additional studies are needed, as are studies examining novel ligands with indirect mechanisms for altering NMDA receptor function.

  1. Novel pharmacotherapeutic treatments for cocaine addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosten Thomas R

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cocaine is a stimulant that leads to the rapid accumulation of catecholamines and serotonin in the brain due to prevention of their re-uptake into the neuron that released the neurotransmitter. Cocaine dependence is a public health concern and cause of significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. At present, there are no approved medications for the treatment of this devastating illness, and behavioral interventions have proven to be of limited use. However, there have been a number of recent trials testing promising agents including dopamine agonists, GABAergic medications and the cocaine vaccine. Here we discuss the most recent human clinical trials of potential medications for treatment of cocaine dependence, as well as pre-clinical studies for another promising agent, levo tetrahydropalmatine. Examination of these recent findings shows promise for GABAergic medications and the cocaine vaccine, as well as unique medications such as disulfiram, whose mechanism remains to be determined. Future work may also confirm specific subgroups of patients for treatment response based on clinical characteristics, biomarkers and pharmacogenetics. This review highlights the need for further, bigger studies in order to determine optimal clinical usage.

  2. Sexual addiction and compulsion: recognition, treatment, and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, P J

    2000-10-01

    The management of patients with compulsive sexual behavior requires an understanding of the profile of the sexually compulsive or addicted patient. This article summarizes patient characteristics and their implications for treatment. Data from a study of the recovery of 957 patients who had problematic, sexually excessive behavior are presented. Spanning 5 years, the study shows six distinct stages patients experienced and the clinical activities that were most useful to them. A trajectory of a typical diagnosis and treatment path is provided, as well as important resources for physicians and patients.

  3. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person's specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient's coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

  4. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery. PMID:25426088

  5. [Treatment approaches for synthetic drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ohji

    2015-09-01

    In Japan, synthetic drugs have emerged since late 2000s, and cases of emergency visits and fatal traffic accidents due to acute intoxication have rapidly increased. The synthetic drugs gained popularity mainly because they were cheap and thought to be "legal". The Japanese government restricted not only production and distribution, but also its possession and use in April 2014. As the synthetic drug dependent patients have better social profiles compared to methamphetamine abusers, this legal sanction may have triggered the decrease in the number of synthetic drug dependent patient visits observed at Kanagawa Psychiatric Center since July 2014. Treatment of the synthetic drug dependent patients should begin with empathic inquiry into the motives and positive psychological effects of the drug use. In the maintenance phase, training patients to trust others and express their hidden negative emotions through verbal communications is essential. The recovery is a process of understanding the relationship between psychological isolation and drug abuse, and gaining trust in others to cope with negative emotions that the patients inevitably would face in their subsequent lives.

  6. Survival Analysis of Drug Abuse Relapse in Addiction Treatment Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Drug abuse is a chronic and enduring phenomenon, which is among the important challenging public health problems. One of the main aspects in drug abuse is the relapse. Objectives The aims of this study were to estimate the time to relapse (survival rate and to evaluate some of its associated variables by survival analysis. Patients and Methods This research was conducted in four addiction treatment centers on 140 self-referred addicts in Ilam city, Iran, in 2012. Cluster sampling method was used for selecting the samples and data were collected by interview and referring to the subjects’ records. The gathered data were analyzed through the life table, Kaplan-Meier analysis, log rank test, and Cox regression. Results The relapse rate was 30.42%, mean and median of the time to relapse (survival time were 27.40 ± 1.63 months (CI 95%: 24.19 - 30.60 and 25 ± 2.25 months (CI 95%: 22.5 - 27.5, respectively. In the first six months, the cumulative survival rate was 83%, while in the 24th month it was 46% and the following time was consistent. Job status (OR = 2.64, marital status (OR = 1.55, family size (OR = 1.20 and age (OR = 0.23 were statistically significant in Cox regression model. Conclusions In the initial treatment, it seems necessary to supervise and monitor the treatment process through staff in addiction treatment centers together with the company of the addicts’ families to reduce relapse rate.

  7. Stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy: public views about drug addiction and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma E; Pescosolido, Bernice A; Goldman, Howard H

    2014-10-01

    Public attitudes about drug addiction and mental illness were compared. A Web-based national survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support in regard to drug addiction and mental illness. Respondents held significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices against persons with drug addiction, more skeptical about the effectiveness of treatments, and more likely to oppose policies aimed at helping them. Drug addiction is often treated as a subcategory of mental illness, and insurance plans group them together under the rubric of "behavioral health." Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches to reducing stigma and advancing public policy.

  8. Improving Consumer Satisfaction with Addiction Treatment: An Analysis of Alumni Preferences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanghani, Ruchi M; Moler, Alexander K

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The primary objective of this investigation is to determine which individual and aggregate factors of residential addiction treatment centers are most significant influencers of alumni satisfaction. Design...

  9. Barriers to successful treatment of alcohol addiction as perceived by healthcare professionals in Thailand – a Delphi study about obstacles and improvement suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many Thai people experiencing alcohol addiction do not seek help, and those who do often have inadequate access to treatment. There are few research studies focusing on alcohol addiction treatment in Thailand. Objective: The purpose of the current study was to identify barriers to the treatment of alcohol addiction and to collect experts’ suggestions for improving treatment in Thailand. The Delphi technique was used to achieve consensual agreement among an expert panel within the field of alcohol addiction and treatment. Design: Three rounds of a Delphi survey were completed by a panel of experts in alcohol addiction, including physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists, healthcare officers, and an Alcoholics Anonymous member. The open-ended answers provided by 34 experts in the first round resulted in 60 statements, which were later grouped into three themes. After three rounds of questionnaires, 51 statements were accepted as consensus. Results: Thirty-two experts participated in all three Delphi rounds. Over 80% of participants were particularly concerned about five obstacles to alcohol addiction treatment. The majority of suggestions from the expert panel were related to patients’ right to treatment and the national policy for reducing the negative effects of alcohol. According to the results of the present study, the experts suggested that the treatment of alcohol addiction should be continuous from primary care to tertiary care, and convenient pathways should be established in healthcare services. The experts would also like to increase the number of healthcare providers and improve their knowledge and skills in working with people experiencing alcohol addiction. Conclusions: Equal rights to health and treatment for people experiencing alcohol addiction in Thailand require policy improvements, as well as acceptance and awareness of alcohol addiction from both the public and policymakers.

  10. Contextual therapy: brief treatment of an addict and spouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, G; Rodríguez, C; Diamond, G

    1990-03-01

    The clinical and theoretical applications of contextual therapy for the treatment of drug abuse are presented. A case study illustrates intervention strategies, the therapy process, and a contextual-intergenerational view of drug addiction. Contextual concepts of intergenerational processes, loyalty, fairness, accountability, and trust are defined and applied. Four stages of brief contextual therapy are presented, and the process is examined using examples from transcribed transactions of the therapy sessions. It is suggested that contextual therapy offers conceptual and methodological tools for working with complex situations often involved in drug abuse cases.

  11. Anti-Addiction Meds Given in ER Can Help Battle Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... received one of three treatments: a referral to addiction treatment services; a short interview including discussion of treatment; ... buprenorphine were more likely to be in formal addiction treatment and to report reduced opioid use than those ...

  12. Pharmacokinetic strategies for treatment of drug overdose and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, David A

    2012-02-01

    The pharmacokinetic treatment strategy targets the drug molecule itself, aiming to reduce drug concentration at the site of action, thereby minimizing any pharmacodynamic effect. This approach might be useful in the treatment of acute drug toxicity/overdose and in the long-term treatment of addiction. Phase IIa controlled clinical trials with anticocaine and antinicotine vaccines have shown good tolerability and some efficacy, but Phase IIb and III trials have been disappointing because of the failure to generate adequate antibody titers in most participants. Monoclonal antibodies against cocaine, methamphetamine and phencyclidine have shown promise in animal studies, as has enhancing cocaine metabolism with genetic variants of human butyrylcholinesterase, with a bacterial esterase, and with catalytic monoclonal antibodies. Pharmacokinetic treatments offer potential advantages in terms of patient adherence, absence of medication interactions and benefit for patients who cannot take standard medications.

  13. A multilevel approach to predicting community addiction treatment attitudes about contingency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartzler, Bryan; Donovan, Dennis M; Tillotson, Carrie J; Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange; Doyle, Suzanne R; McCarty, Dennis

    2012-03-01

    Adoption of contingency management (CM) by the addiction treatment community is limited to date despite much evidence for its efficacy. This study examined systemic and idiographic staff predictors of CM adoption attitudes via archival data collected from treatment organizations affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Multilevel modeling analyses evaluated potential predictors from organizational, treatment unit, and workforce surveys. Among these were individual and shared perceptions of staff concerning aspects of their clinic culture and climate. Modeling analyses identified three systemic predictors (clinic provision of opiate agonist services, national accreditation, and lesser shared perception of workplace stress) and five idiographic predictors (staff with a graduate degree, longer service tenure, managerial position, e-communication facility, and openness to change in clinical procedures). Findings are discussed as they relate to extant literature on CM attitudes and established implementation science constructs, and their practical implications are discussed.

  14. Meditation Awareness Training for the Treatment of Sex Addiction: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gordon, William; Shonin, Edo; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-06-01

    Background Sex addiction is a disorder that can have serious adverse functional consequences. Treatment effectiveness research for sex addiction is currently underdeveloped, and interventions are generally based on the guidelines for treating other behavioral (as well as chemical) addictions. Consequently, there is a need to clinically evaluate tailored treatments that target the specific symptoms of sex addiction. It has been proposed that second-generation mindfulness-based interventions (SG-MBIs) may be an appropriate treatment for sex addiction because in addition to helping individuals increase perceptual distance from craving for desired objects and experiences, some SG-MBIs specifically contain meditations intended to undermine attachment to sex and/or the human body. The current study conducts the first clinical investigation into the utility of mindfulness for treating sex addiction. Case presentation An in-depth clinical case study was conducted involving an adult male suffering from sex addiction that underwent treatment utilizing an SG-MBI known as Meditation Awareness Training (MAT). Following completion of MAT, the participant demonstrated clinically significant improvements in addictive sexual behavior, as well as reductions in depression and psychological distress. The MAT intervention also led to improvements in sleep quality, job satisfaction, and non-attachment to self and experiences. Salutary outcomes were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Discussion and conclusion The current study extends the literature exploring the applications of mindfulness for treating behavioral addiction, and findings indicate that further clinical investigation into the role of mindfulness for treating sex addiction is warranted.

  15. Addiction treatment outcomes, process and change: Texas Institute of Behavioral Research at Texas Christian University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, D Dwayne; Joe, George W; Dansereau, Donald F; Flynn, Patrick M

    2011-10-01

    For more than 40 years the Texas Institute of Behavioral Research (IBR) has given special attention to assessment and evaluation of drug user populations, addiction treatment services and various cognitive and behavioral interventions. Emphasis has been on studies in real-world settings and the use of multivariate methodologies to address evaluation issues within the context of longitudinal natural designs. Historically, its program of addiction treatment research may be divided into three sequential epochs-the first era dealt mainly with client assessment and its role in treatment outcome and evaluation (1969-89), the second focused upon modeling the treatment process and the importance of conceptual frameworks (1989-2009) in explaining the relationships among treatment environment, client attributes, treatment process and outcome, and the third (and current) era has expanded into studying tactical deployment of innovations and implementation. Recent projects focus upon adapting and implementing innovations for improving early engagement in adolescent residential treatment settings and drug-dependent criminal justice populations. Related issues include the spread of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome and other infectious diseases, organizational and systems functioning, treatment costs and process related to implementation of evidence-based practices.

  16. Effectiveness of social work intervention with a systematic approach to improve general health in opioid addicts in addiction treatment centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheb G

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ghoncheh Raheb,1,2 Esmat Khaleghi,1 Amir Moghanibashi-Mansourieh,1 Ali Farhoudian,2 Robab Teymouri3 1Department of Social Work, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Substance Abuse and Dependence Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Pediatric Neurorehabilitation Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran Purpose: This study takes a systematic approach to investigate the effect of social work intervention aimed at increasing general health among opioid addicts in addiction treatment centers. Patients and methods: This is an experimental plan (pretest to posttest with a control group; the study sample included 60 patients with drug dependencies undergoing treatment in addiction treatment centers. These patients were randomly assigned as case (30 and control (30 groups. The case group was subjected to intervention over ten sessions, whereas the control group received no intervention. Both groups then passed through a posttest, while a follow-up was conducted after 4 months. Data were obtained via a General Health Questionnaire. Results: A covariance analysis test and independent and dependent t-test results indicated that a social work intervention adopting systematic approach was effective in increasing the general health of drug-addicted patients under treatment. Conclusion: Thus, the nature of the presence of social workers in addiction treatment centers has been effective and can have a significant influence by reducing anxiety and insomnia and somatic symptoms, improving patients’ self-understanding and self-recognition, and enhancing social functioning. Keywords: social work, intervention, systematic approach, general health, opioid addicts

  17. Heroin Addiction: Psychosocial Characteristics and Considerations for Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faherty, John K.

    This paper presents a review of relevant medical and psychological literature that addresses the psychological characteristics of heroin addiction and addicts: dependence (both physical and psychological); explanations of the phenomenon of addiction (both medical and behavioral); and other psychosocial views of causation including escapism,…

  18. Addressing Tobacco Through Organizational Change (ATTOC) in residential addiction treatment settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guydish, Joseph; Ziedonis, Douglas; Tajima, Barbara; Seward, Greg; Passalacqua, Emma; Chan, Mable; Delucchi, Kevin; Zammarelli, Lucy; Levy, Michael; Kolodziej, Monika; Brigham, Greg

    2012-02-01

    Smoking prevalence among persons in addiction treatment is 3-4 times higher than in the general population. However, treatment programs often report organizational barriers to providing tobacco-related services. This study assessed the effectiveness of a six month organizational change intervention, Addressing Tobacco Through Organizational Change (ATTOC), to improve how programs address tobacco dependence. The ATTOC intervention, implemented in three residential treatment programs, included consultation, staff training, policy development, leadership support and access to nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) medication. Program staff and clients were surveyed at pre- and post-intervention, and at 6 month follow-up. The staff survey measured knowledge of the hazards of smoking, attitudes about and barriers to treating smoking, counselor self-efficacy in providing such services, and practices used to address tobacco. The client survey measured knowledge, attitudes, and tobacco-related services received. NRT use was tracked. From pre- to post-intervention, staff beliefs became more favorable toward treating tobacco dependence (F(1, 163)=7.15, p=0.008), NRT use increased, and tobacco-related practices increased in a non-significant trend (F(1, 123)=3.66, p=0.058). Client attitudes toward treating tobacco dependence became more favorable (F(1, 235)=10.58, p=0.0013) and clients received more tobacco-related services from their program (F(1, 235)=92.86, p<0.0001) and from their counselors (F(1, 235)=61.59, p<0.0001). Most changes remained at follow-up. The ATTOC intervention can help shift the treatment system culture and increase tobacco services in addiction treatment programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Trends in comprehensive service availability in outpatient drug abuse treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Durkin, Elizabeth M.; D’Aunno, Thomas A.

    2003-01-01

    Comprehensive medical and psychosocial services are essential to quality addiction treatment, but their availability declined in the 1980s. To determine whether this downward trend in the availability of comprehensive services continued in the 1990s, we analyzed data from a national panel study of outpatient substance abuse treatment units in 1990, 1995, and 2000. Response rates were greater than 85%. Regarding the availability of comprehensive services, including physical examinations, routi...

  20. Improving Coordination of Addiction Health Services Organizations with Mental Health and Public Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Andrews, Christina; Harris, Lesley; Padwa, Howard; Kong, Yinfei; M S W, Karissa Fenwick

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-method study, we examined coordination of mental health and public health services in addiction health services (AHS) in low-income racial and ethnic minority communities in 2011 and 2013. Data from surveys and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate the extent to which environmental and organizational characteristics influenced the likelihood of high coordination with mental health and public health providers among outpatient AHS programs. Coordination was defined and measured as the frequency of interorganizational contact among AHS programs and mental health and public health providers. The analytic sample consisted of 112 programs at time 1 (T1) and 122 programs at time 2 (T2), with 61 programs included in both periods of data collection. Forty-three percent of AHS programs reported high frequency of coordination with mental health providers at T1 compared to 66% at T2. Thirty-one percent of programs reported high frequency of coordination with public health services at T1 compared with 54% at T2. Programs with culturally responsive resources and community linkages were more likely to report high coordination with both services. Qualitative analysis highlighted the role of leadership in leveraging funding and developing creative solutions to deliver coordinated care. Overall, our findings suggest that AHS program funding, leadership, and cultural competence may be important drivers of program capacity to improve coordination with health service providers to serve minorities in an era of health care reform.

  1. Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

  2. Confounding in longitudinal studies in addiction treatment research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Matthias; Dunn, Graham; Millar, Tim

    2017-05-04

    Background: The effectiveness of treatment for people with substance use disorders is usually examined using longitudinal cohorts. In these studies, treatment is often considered as a time-varying exposure. The aim of this commentary is to examine confounding in this context, when the confounding variable is time-invariant and when it is time-varying. Method: Types of confounding are described with examples and illustrated using path diagrams. Simulations are used to demonstrate the direction of confounding bias and the extent that it is accounted for using standard regression adjustment techniques. Results: When the confounding variable is time invariant or time varying and not influenced by prior treatment, then standard adjustment techniques are adequate to control for confounding bias, provided that in the latter scenario the time-varying form of the variable is used. When the confounder is time varying and affected by prior treatment status (i.e. it is a mediator of treatment), then standard methods of adjustment result in inconsistency. Conclusions: In longitudinal cohorts where treatment exposure is time varying, confounding is an issue which should be considered, even if treatment exposure is initially randomized. In these studies, standard methods of adjustment may result be inadequate, even when all confounders have been identified. This occurs when the confounder is also a mediator of treatment. This is a likely scenario in many studies in addiction.

  3. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.

    2015-01-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature sup...

  4. Is Internet Addiction Prevalent Among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients? Data from Las Vegas and Tel Aviv.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peles, Einat; Linzy, Shirley; Sason, Anat; Tene, Oren; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction is known to be associated with depression. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) for depression were studied among non-selective methadone maintenance treatment patients from the United States (n = 164) and Israel (n = 113). Thirty percent were not exposed to the internet, and 2.9% (n = 8) had an "occasional/frequent problem." The IAT and CES-D scores correlated significantly (p = .03). The non-exposed group was older, less educated, and had more benzodiazepine abusers. Unlike other behavioral addictions that characterized these patients, the internet addiction problem is rare, but should not be ignored.

  5. Factors associated with provision of addiction treatment information by community pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemeier, Nicholas E; Alamian, Arsham; Murawski, Matthew M; Pack, Robert P

    2015-05-01

    Community pharmacists in the United States have significant opportunity to engage in community-level prescription substance abuse prevention and treatment efforts, including dissemination of information specific to available addiction treatment options. Our cross-sectional study of Tennessee community pharmacists noted that 26% had previously provided addiction treatment facility information to one or more patients in the past. The purpose of this study was to employ multivariate modeling techniques to investigate associations between community pharmacist and community pharmacy factors and past provision of addiction treatment information to pharmacy patients. Multivariate logistic regression indicated having addiction treatment facility information in a pharmacy setting (aOR=8.19; 95% CI=4.36-15.37), having high confidence in ability to discuss treatment facility options (aOR=4.16; 95% CI=2.65-6.52), having participated in prescription opioid abuse-specific continuing education (aOR=2.90; 95% CI=1.70-4.97), being male (aOR=2.23; 95% CI=1.38-3.59), and increased hours per week in the practice setting (aOR=1.02; 95% CI=1.004-1.05) were all significantly associated with provision of information about addiction treatment. Dissemination of addiction treatment information, improvements in communicative self-efficacy beliefs, and dissemination of prescription opioid abuse-specific continuing education are modifiable factors significantly associated with increased provision of addiction treatment information by community pharmacists.

  6. The forest and the trees: relational and specific factors in addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R; Moyers, Theresa B

    2015-03-01

    Increased expectations for the use of evidence-based methods in addiction treatment have fueled a debate regarding the relative importance of 'specific' versus 'common' factors in treatment outcome. This review explores the influence of these factors on addiction treatment outcome. The authors review and link findings from four decades of research on specific and general factors in addiction treatment outcome research. Although few would argue that what one does in addiction treatment is immaterial, outcome studies tend to find small to no difference when specific treatment methods are compared with each other or with treatment as usual. In contrast, there are usually substantial differences among therapists in client outcomes, and relational factors such as therapist empathy and therapeutic alliance can be significant determinants of addiction treatment outcome. In addiction treatment, relational factors such as empathy, which are often described as common, non-specific factors, should not be dismissed as 'common' because they vary substantially across providers and it is unclear how common they actually are. Similarly they should not be relegated to 'non-specific' status, because such important relational influences can be specified and incorporated into clinical research and training. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Food addiction in overweight and obese adolescents seeking weight-loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Hermann, Tina; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Some forms of overeating closely resemble addictive behaviour. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) was developed to measure such addiction-like eating in humans and has been employed in numerous studies for examining food addiction in adults. Yet, little is known about food addiction in children and adolescents. Fifty adolescents were recruited at the beginning of treatment in a weight-loss hospital and completed the YFAS among other questionnaires. Nineteen participants (38%) received a YFAS diagnosis, who did not differ in age, body mass and gender distribution from those not receiving a diagnosis. However, those with food addiction reported more binge days, more frequent food cravings, higher eating, weight and shape concerns, more symptoms of depression and higher attentional and motor impulsivity. Eating restraint and nonplanning impulsivity did not differ between groups. Results replicate findings from studies in obese adults such that food addiction is not related to age, gender, body mass or eating restraint, but to higher eating pathology, more symptoms of depression and higher impulsivity. Furthermore, results highlight that particularly attentional impulsivity is related to 'food addiction'. Addiction-like eating appears to be a valid phenotype in a substantial subset of treatment-seeking, obese adolescents. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  8. Assessing clinical trials of Internet addiction treatment: a systematic review and CONSORT evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D; Gradisar, Michael

    2011-11-01

    Although there is ongoing debate concerning the clinical status of Internet addiction, and the quality of the extant literature in this emerging field is not optimal, several clinical trials of both pharmacological and psychological treatments for Internet addiction have been published in recent years. A systematic review investigating the reporting quality of eight treatment studies is presented. Reporting quality was defined according to the 2010 Consolidating Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. An evaluation of the reviewed studies highlighted several key limitations, including (a) inconsistencies in the definition and diagnosis of Internet addiction, (b) a lack of randomization and blinding techniques, (c) a lack of adequate controls or other comparison groups, and (d) insufficient information concerning recruitment dates, sample characteristics, and treatment effect sizes. It is concluded that improvements in future studies' design and reporting would be of significant benefit to both researchers and clinicians, and to the overall positioning of Internet addiction in the behavioral addiction field.

  9. Addiction Treatment in America: After Money or Aftercare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Miller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately 14,500 clinics and programs in America that provide treatment for all types of addictive behaviors we call “Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS”. While most of these have good intentions to provide needed help to the victims of RDS, we propose herein that most of their efforts, especially during periods of aftercare, are not based on the existing scientific evidence. We use “aftercare” to refer to any form of program or therapy following primary treatment including 12-Step programs. Very few programs actually provide any evidenced-based treatment approaches during this most vulnerable period in recovery. In this trieste we are suggesting that a hypodopaminergic trait (genetic and/or state (epigenetic is critical in terms of continued motivation to use/abuse of alcohol or other drugs and can lead to relapse. While there is evidence for the approved FDA drugs to treat drug addiction (e.g. alcohol, opiates, nicotine these drugs favor a short-term benefit by blocking dopamine. We argue instead for the utilization of long-term benefits that induce “dopamine homeostasis”, or in simpler terms “normalcy”. We suggest that this could be accomplished through a number of holistic modalities including, but not limited to, dopamine-boosting diets, hyper-oxygenation, heavy metal detoxification, exercise, meditation, yoga, and most importantly, brain neurotransmitter balancing with nutraceuticals such as KB220 variants. We embrace 12-step programs and fellowships but not as a stand-alone modality, especially during aftercare. We also provide some scientific basis for why resting state functional connectivity (rsfMRI is so important and may be the cornerstone in terms of how to treat RDS. We postulate that since drugs, food, smoking, gambling, and even compulsive sexual behavior could reduce rsfMRI then modalities (following required research, that can restore this impaired cross talk between various brain regions (e

  10. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction to alcohol (alcohol abuse).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments.

  11. Mindfulness-based treatment to prevent addictive behavior relapse: theoretical models and hypothesized mechanisms of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkiewitz, Katie; Bowen, Sarah; Harrop, Erin N; Douglas, Haley; Enkema, Matthew; Sedgwick, Carly

    2014-04-01

    Mindfulness-based treatments are growing in popularity among addiction treatment providers, and several studies suggest the efficacy of incorporating mindfulness practices into the treatment of addiction, including the treatment of substance use disorders and behavioral addictions (i.e., gambling). The current paper provides a review of theoretical models of mindfulness in the treatment of addiction and several hypothesized mechanisms of change. We provide an overview of mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP), including session content, treatment targets, and client feedback from participants who have received MBRP in the context of empirical studies. Future research directions regarding operationalization and measurement, identifying factors that moderate treatment effects, and protocol adaptations for specific populations are discussed.

  12. Abuse liability in opioid therapy for pain treatment in patients with an addiction history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Michael; Schnoll, Sidney

    2002-01-01

    Patients may present to physicians with complaints of acute or chronic pain. Some of these patients will have a history of addiction to drugs or alcohol, and a few will have active addiction. Controlled-substance prescriptions, especially opioid pain medications, can be very beneficial for treatment of pain in patients. There are clear differences between physical dependence on medication, active addiction, addiction in remission, and pseudoaddiction. A search of the medical literature revealed different rates of addiction in patients with chronic pain because different criteria were used to define addiction and the types of chronic pain. It appears that rates of addiction in patient populations with chronic pain are no different than rates of addiction in the general population, according to some recent studies. "Drug-seeking behavior" may be seen with either active addiction or pseudoaddiction. A way to distinguish between these conditions is by giving the patient more pain medication and observing the patient's pattern of behavior. Some patients may be at higher risk to abuse prescription opioids, and some types of drug-seeking behavior may be more predictive of active addiction than pseudoaddiction. General guidelines can improve physicians' comfort level in prescribing opioids for patients with chronic pain, even those with a history of addiction. These include using a medication agreement or contract, setting appropriate goals with the patient, giving appropriate amounts of pain medication, monitoring with drug screens and pill counts, and documenting the case carefully. Even patients with a history of addiction can benefit from opioid pain medications if the patients are monitored appropriately.

  13. Public views on food addiction and obesity: implications for policy and treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to their advocates, neurobiological explanations of overeating, or "food addiction", have the potential to impact public understanding and treatment of obesity. In this study, we examine the public's acceptance of the concept of food addiction as an explanation of overeating and assess its effects upon their attitudes toward obese persons and the treatment of obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an online survey of 479 adults from the US (n = 215 and Australia (n = 264. There was substantial support for the idea of food addiction, particularly among obese participants. Over half favoured treating obesity as a type of addiction. Psychotherapy was believed to be the most effective treatment and educational and support programs were the preferred policies to address food addiction. There was very little support for increasing taxes on obesogenic foods. Despite the strong support for seeing obesity as a form of addiction, respondents still saw obesity as primarily the result of personal choices and emphasized the need for individuals to take responsibility for their eating. CONCLUSIONS: Our sample of the general public strongly supported the idea of obesity as a form of food addiction; but this did not translate into support of clinical and public health policies that experts believe are most likely to reduce the prevalence of obesity. The reasons for the apparent disjunction between support for food addiction and a strong emphasis on personal choice for weight warrant further examination.

  14. Treatment of internet addiction: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Alexander; Dörsing, Beate; Rief, Winfried; Shen, Yuhui; Glombiewski, Julia A

    2013-03-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a widespread and problematic phenomenon. Little is known about the efficacy of treatment approaches for IA. Therefore, our objective was to perform an effect size analysis of psychological and pharmacological interventions for IA. We conducted a literature search using PsycINFO, PSYNDEX, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PQDT OPEN, WorldCat, Cochrane Clinical Trials Library, and manual searches. Our meta-analysis was based on 16 studies, covered a total of 670 participants, and used a random effects model. Special emphasis was given to the inclusion of studies from "non-western" countries. Effect size estimates suggest that psychological and pharmacological interventions were highly effective for improving IA (g=1.61), time spent online (g=0.94), depression (g=0.90) and anxiety (g=1.25) from pre- to post-treatment in the overall sample. Moderator analyses revealed that studies including individual treatments, a higher number of female participants, older patients, or a North-American sample had larger effect sizes for some outcome variables. Most effect sizes were high, robust, unrelated to study quality or design, and maintained over follow-up. Due to a small number of included studies and methodological limitations the results of this meta-analysis should be regarded as preliminary.

  15. Treatment of addictive behaviors in liver transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrieb, Robert M; Lucey, Michael R

    2007-11-01

    Very little addiction treatment research has been done concerning smoking cessation, illicit drugs, or even alcohol abuse in liver transplant patients. Our data suggest that a surprising number of patients who are awaiting a liver transplant for alcohol-related end-stage liver disease will return to drinking before transplantation. We found that motivational enhancement therapy afforded no marked benefit over treatment as usual for drinking, smoking, mood, or general health outcomes in alcoholics awaiting liver transplantation. Stably abstinent methadone-maintained opiate-dependent patients should not be tapered off methadone; are generally good candidates for liver transplant; show low relapse rates into illicit use of opiates; and may be at risk for more medical complications than their counterparts. Pre- and posttransplantation smoking rates are high and cause marked morbidity and mortality. Transplant teams should encourage smoking cessation treatments.Marijuana use in liver transplant recipients is not uncommon, and apart from the risk of developing aspergillosis, additional health risks have not yet been identified.

  16. 20 CFR 416.1326 - Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1326 Section 416.1326 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1326 Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Basis for suspension. If you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  17. Addiction and Women Gender Differences Concerning Drug Abuse and its Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Safari

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the quantitative grounds for the emergence and spread of addiction among women, its medical, social and psychological problems, impediments for the treatment of addiction among women as well as gender differences concerning drug abuse and its treatment. This article is a translation of a statistical research on addiction among women and a number of other researches. Based on conclusions drawn from the said researches, women become inclined to addiction mostly by their husbands due to their cordial relationships. Moreover, the negative attitudes of peer groups can overshadow girls and women more than boys and men. From the viewpoint of psychological disorders, the relationship between disorders resulting from psychological pressure after an incident and addiction is stronger among girls and women compared to boys and men. Addiction among women in addition to certain ailments such as malnutrition, hypertension and cancer, can expose them to dangerous diseases such as Hepatitis and AIDS. There is more possibility for addicted women to be infected with AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases compared to men and they are more exposed to female ailments compared to other women. As far as treatment impediments are concerned, women face a greater social stigma due to their addiction compared to men. Social approach considering addicted women as an indecent person is a major impediment for their treatment. Taking care of the child is also another obstacle for their treatment. There is less possibility for women to receive support from their families for quitting their addiction compared to men. Treatment programs also unwantedly may create obstacles for the treatment of women such as financial constraints, administrative bureaucracy, concentration of treatment programs for men and lack of sensitivity towards women’s addiction. The psychological impediments to treatment include internalizing the notion that addiction is a

  18. Medication-Assisted Treatment For Opioid Addiction in Opioid Treatment Programs. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 43

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Emily; Vallejos Bartlett, Catalina; Brooks, Margaret; Gilbert, Johnatnan Max; Henderson, Randi; Shuman, Deborah, J.

    2005-01-01

    TIP 43 provides best-practice guidelines for medication-assisted treatment of opioid addiction in opioid treatment programs (OTPs). The primary intended audience for this volume is substance abuse treatment providers and administrators who work in OTPs. Recommendations in the TIP are based on both an analysis of current research and determinations…

  19. Biological contributions to addictions in adolescents and adults: prevention, treatment, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Marc N

    2013-02-01

    Despite significant advances in our understanding of the biological bases of addictions, these disorders continue to represent a huge public health burden that is associated with substantial personal suffering. Efforts to target addictions require consideration of how the improved biological understanding of addictions may lead to improved prevention, treatment, and policy initiatives. In this article, we provide a narrative review of current biological models for addictions with a goal of placing existing data and theories within a translational and developmental framework targeting the advancement of prevention, treatment, and policy strategies. Data regarding individual differences, intermediary phenotypes, and main and interactive influences of genetic and environmental contributions in the setting of developmental trajectories that may be influenced by addictive drugs or behavior indicate complex underpinnings of addictions. Consideration and further elucidation of the biological etiologies of addictions hold significant potential for making important gains and reducing the public health impact of addictions. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Surgical treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in "Krokodil" drug addicted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, Yuri M; Hakobyan, Koryun A; Poghosyan, Anna Yu; Avetisyan, Eduard K

    2014-12-01

    Retrospective study of jaw osteonecrosis treatment in patients using the "Krokodil" drug from 2009 to 2013. On the territory of the former USSR countries there is widespread use of a self-produced drug called "Krokodil". Codeine containing analgesics ("Sedalgin", "Pentalgin" etc), red phosphorus (from match boxes) and other easily acquired chemical components are used for synthesis of this drug, which used intravenously. Jaw osteonecrosis develops as a complication in patients who use "Krokodil". The main feature of this disease is jawbone exposure in the oral cavity. Surgery is the main method for the treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in patients using "Krokodil". 40 "Krokodil" drug addict patients with jaw osteonecrosis were treated. Involvement of maxilla was found in 11 patients (27.5%), mandible in 21 (52.5%), both jaws in 8 (20%) patients. 35 Lesions were found in 29 mandibles and 21 lesions in 19 maxillas. Main factors of treatment success are: cessation of "Krokodil" use in the pre- (minimum 1 month) and postoperative period and osteonecrosis area resection of a minimum of 0.5 cm beyond the visible borders of osteonecrosis towards the healthy tissues. Surgery was not delayed until sequestrum formation. In the mandible marginal or segmental resection (with or without TMJ exarticulation) was performed. After surgery recurrence of disease was seen in 8 (23%) cases in the mandible, with no cases of recurrence in the maxilla. According to our experience in this case series, surgery is the main method for the treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in patients using "Krokodil". Cessation of drug use and jaw resection minimize the rate of recurrences in such patients.

  1. Sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol: Role in drug addiction and novel treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn E. Carroll

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, are discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as: 1 using natural consequences such as nondrug rewards (e.g., exercise to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, 2 targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and 3 combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  2. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments.

  3. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekarchizadeh Hajar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810 in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%, more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education, and employed (>70%. The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69% and crystalline heroin (24%. The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%, crystalline heroin (28%, cannabis (16%, amphetamines (15%, and other drugs (33%. Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men.

  4. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult.

  5. Addressing tobacco use through organizational change: a case study of an addiction treatment organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziedonis, Douglas M; Zammarelli, Lucy; Seward, Gregory; Oliver, Karen; Guydish, Joseph; Hobart, Marie; Meltzer, Bruce

    2007-12-01

    Compared to the general population, persons entering addiction treatment are three to four times more likely to be tobacco dependent and even addiction treatment staff members are two to three times more likely to be tobacco dependent. In these settings, tobacco use continues to be the norm; however addiction treatment programs are increasingly aware of the need to assess for and treat tobacco dependence. The problem is a cultural issue that is so ingrained that assumptions about tobacco use and dependence in addiction treatment are rarely questioned. Denial, minimization, and rationalization are common barriers to recovery from other addictions; now is the time to recognize how tobacco use and dependence must be similarly approached. This article describes the Addressing Tobacco through Organizational Change (ATTOC) model which has successfully helped many addiction treatment programs to more effectively address tobacco use. The article will review the six core strategies used to implement the ATTOC intervention, the 12-Step approach guiding the model, and describe a case study where the intervention was implemented in one clinic setting. Other treatment programs may use the experience and lessons learned from using the ATTOC organizational change model to better address tobacco use in the context of drug abuse treatment.

  6. Addressing Tobacco Use Through Organizational Change: A Case Study of an Addiction Treatment Organization†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziedonis, Douglas M.; Zammarelli, Lucy; Seward, Gregory; Oliver, Karen; Guydish, Joseph; Hobart, Marie; Meltzer, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    Compared to the general population, persons entering addiction treatment are three to four times more likely to be tobacco dependent and even addiction treatment staff members are two to three times more likely to be tobacco dependent. In these settings, tobacco use continues to be the norm; however addiction treatment programs are increasingly aware of the need to assess for and treat tobacco dependence. The problem is a cultural issue that is so ingrained that assumptions about tobacco use and dependence in addiction treatment are rarely questioned. Denial, minimization, and rationalization are common barriers to recovery from other addictions; now is the time to recognize how tobacco use and dependence must be similarly approached. This article describes the Addressing Tobacco through Organizational Change (ATTOC) model which has successfully helped many addiction treatment programs to more effectively address tobacco use. The article will review the six core strategies used to implement the ATTOC intervention, the 12-Step approach guiding the model, and describe a case study where the intervention was implemented in one clinic setting. Other treatment programs may use the experience and lessons learned from using the ATTOC organizational change model to better address tobacco use in the context of drug abuse treatment. PMID:18303702

  7. Examine the Relationship between Mindfulness and Drug Craving in Addicts Undergoing Methadone Maintenance Treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ardame

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was examination the relationship between mindfulness and drug craving in addicts undergoing methadone maintenance treatment.The subjects of this research were 80 addicts undergoing methadone maintenance treatment selected through available sampling from four addiction treatment center in Ahvaz from March 2012 to September 2012. Two questionnaires to examine the variables of this study were the five facets mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ and hero-in craving questionnaire (HCQ. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.The Pearson correlational results indicated significant reverse relation between mindfulness factors and craving sub scales (P<0.05. Besides, the regression results indicated that four factors of mindfulness such as observation, describing, acting with awareness and non-reactivity to inner experience can totally predict 48 percent of craving variance (P<0.01 .There is a reverse relation between mindfulness and craving. Therefore we advise the researchers in addiction fields that in line with various studies that indicated effectiveness of mindfulness based interventions in improving various psychological problems, be researcher in effectiveness of this intervention in addiction fields. Moreover, we advise the addiction therapists to use mindfulness based interventions and technics in order to reduction of emotional and cognitive problems co morbidities with addiction such as craving that is one of potential factors affecting survival and relapse to drug abuse.

  8. Public Views on Food Addiction and Obesity: Implications for Policy and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia M Lee; Jayne Lucke; Wayne D Hall; Carla Meurk; Boyle, Frances M; Adrian Carter

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to their advocates, neurobiological explanations of overeating, or "food addiction", have the potential to impact public understanding and treatment of obesity. In this study, we examine the public's acceptance of the concept of food addiction as an explanation of overeating and assess its effects upon their attitudes toward obese persons and the treatment of obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted an online survey of 479 adults from the US (n = 215) and Australia (n...

  9. Improving Consumer Satisfaction with Addiction Treatment: An Analysis of Alumni Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Sanghani, Ruchi M.; Moler, Alexander K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The primary objective of this investigation is to determine which individual and aggregate factors of residential addiction treatment centers are most significant influencers of alumni satisfaction. Design. Survey targeted alumni of residential addiction treatment facilities. Alumni were queried through a survey, which utilized Likert-scale matrices and binary response options: 379 respondents met the completion threshold. Alumni rated amenities and individual and group counseling ...

  10. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  11. Peer-Delivered Recovery Support Services for Addictions in the United States: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuk, Ellen L; Hanson, Justine; Greene, R Neil; Richard, Molly; Laudet, Alexandre

    2016-04-01

    This systematic review identifies, appraises, and summarizes the evidence on the effectiveness of peer-delivered recovery support services for people in recovery from alcohol and drug addiction. Nine studies met criteria for inclusion in the review. They were assessed for quality and outcomes including substance use and recovery-related factors. Despite significant methodological limitations found in the included studies, the body of evidence suggests salutary effects on participants. Current limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  12. Shifting blame: Buprenorphine prescribers, addiction treatment, and prescription monitoring in middle-class America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Sonia; Rivera-Cabrero, Allyssa S; Hansen, Helena

    2016-08-01

    Growing nonmedical prescription opioid analgesic use among suburban and rural Whites has changed the public's perception of the nature of opioid addiction, and of appropriate interventions. Opioid addiction has been recast as a biological disorder in which patients are victims of their neurotransmitters and opioid prescribers are irresponsible purveyors of dangerous substances requiring controls. This framing has led to a different set of policy responses than the "War on Drugs" that has focused on heroin trade in poor urban communities; in response to prescription opioid addiction, prescription drug monitoring programs and tamper-resistant opioid formulations have arisen as primary interventions in place of law enforcement. Through the analysis of preliminary findings from interviews with physicians who are certified to manage opioid addiction with the opioid pharmaceutical buprenorphine, we argue that an increase in prescriber monitoring has shifted the focus from addicted people to prescribers as a threat, paradoxically driving users to illicit markets and constricting their access to pharmaceutical treatment for opioid addiction. Prescriber monitoring is also altering clinical cultures of care, as general physicians respond to heightened surveillance and the psychosocial complexities of treating addiction with either rejection of opioid dependent patients, or with resourceful attempts to create support systems for their treatment where none exists.

  13. Research progress of deep brain stimulation for the treatment of drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei CHEN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is a serious problem all over the world involving both medical and social issues. The treatment strategy lies in two aspects, promoting detoxification and preventing relapse. The latter is the key for successful treatment. Although surgical measures, like stereotactic ablation of nucleusaccumbens (NAc, had already been proven to be effective for relapse prevention clinically, the application was restricted because of the damage to brain tissues. Deep brain stimulation (DBS, which had been successfully applied in movement disorders, was recently performed in addiction studies on both animals and humankind. Among numbers of brain areas related to addiction, NAc is the hottest target studied and may bring better clinical effect. In addition, combining stimulation of multiple brain targets is currently performed for relapse prevention. The mechanism of DBS for treatment of addiction remains unclear right now, however, DBS may be an experimental method to treat refractory addictive patients. Certainly, lots of problems need to be solved in large sample study before the wide application of DBS for addiction treatment, such as the setting of stimulation parameters, recognition of objective treatment feedback and ethical issues. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.10.004

  14. Analyzing the relationship between social networking addiction, interaction anxiousness and levels of loneliness of pre-service teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Özgür

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research, it was aimed to analyze the social networking addiction of pre-service teachers in terms of various variables and evaluate the relationship between social networking addiction and loneliness and interaction anxiousness. The research was designed according to the relational screening model. The study sample included 349 pre-service teachers studying at Trakya University Faculty of Education in 2012-2013 academic year fall term. The data were obtained using Facebook Addiction Scale, Interaction Anxiousness Scale, the UCLA-Loneliness Scale III and personal information form. In analysis of data, descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U-Test, Kruskal-Wallis H and correlation tests were benefited. The research findings revealed that social networking addiction of pre-service teachers was at a low level, the relationship between interaction anxiousness and social networking addiction was high, and the relationship between the level of loneliness and social networking addiction was at a mid-level. Moreover, in the research a statistically significant difference was obtained between the variables of social networking addiction and frequency of using social networking, gender and the level of grade they study.

  15. Equidad de género en la adherencia al tratamiento de adicciones: Representaciones y prácticas de profesionales y pacientes en un servicio de internación de un hospital público Gender equity within adherence to treatment of addictions: Social representations and practices of professionals and patients in an inpatient service of a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Jeifetz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo central de este proyecto1 es explorar la equidad de género relativa a la adherencia al tratamiento en un servicio de internación de un hospital público, que atiende pacientes adictos/as a las drogas, así como identificar los modos en los cuales las diferencias entre los géneros se transforman en inequidad en salud. El propósito del proyecto es contribuir en el avance de la equidad de género en el tratamiento de las adicciones a las drogas, visibilizando las inequidades que se presenten, asi como las necesidades en la atención y los modos de enfermar de cada género. Del mismo modo, promoviendo la inclusión de la perspectiva de género en las prácticas de los profesionales, en aras de mejorar los modelos de atención. Se trata de una investigación de carácter exploratorio-descriptivo, en la que se utiliza metodología cualitativa para la recolección y el análisis de la información.The central objective of this project is to explore gender equity in adherence to treatment of an inpatient service of a public hospital, which serves patients addicted to drugs and to identify ways in which gender differences are transformed into health inequities. The project aim's is to contribute to gender equity in the treatment of addictions to drugs, make visible inequities that arise, promote the inclusion of gender in the practices of professionals and manifest the needs and modes of each gender in pursuit of improved models of care. It is an exploratory and descriptive research, which used qualitative methodology to collect and analyze information.

  16. Craving to quit: psychological models and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness training as treatment for addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Judson A; Elwafi, Hani M; Davis, Jake H

    2013-06-01

    Humans suffer heavily from substance use disorders and other addictions. Despite much effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms of the addictive process, treatment strategies have remained suboptimal over the past several decades. Mindfulness training, which is based on ancient Buddhist models of human suffering, has recently shown preliminary efficacy in treating addictions. These early models show remarkable similarity to current models of the addictive process, especially in their overlap with operant conditioning (positive and negative reinforcement). Further, they may provide explanatory power for the mechanisms of mindfulness training, including its effects on core addictive elements, such as craving, and the underlying neurobiological processes that may be active therein. In this review, using smoking as an example, we will highlight similarities between ancient and modern views of the addictive process, review studies of mindfulness training for addictions and their effects on craving and other components of this process, and discuss recent neuroimaging findings that may inform our understanding of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness training. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  17. Psychological, physical, and sexual abuse in addicted patients who undergo treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the prevalence of a history as victims of abuse among patients who sought outpatient treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 252 addicted patients was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual abuse), sociodemographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. Drug-addicted patients who present a lifelong history of abuse were compared with patients who were not abused. Of the total sample, 46% of the patients (n = 115) who were addicted to drugs had been victims of abuse. There was a statistically significant difference between the victimization rates of men (37.8%) and women (79.6%). Moreover, for some variables, significant differences were observed between patients who had been abused and those who had not. Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted patients with a history of victimization scored significantly higher on several European Addiction Severity Index, Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II, and maladjustment variables but not on the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. The current results indicate that patients who present a lifelong history of abuse exhibit both a more severe addiction than patients who were not abused and several comorbidities. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed.

  18. Craving to Quit: psychological models and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness training as treatment for addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Judson A.; Elwafi, Hani M.; Davis, Jake H.

    2012-01-01

    Humans suffer heavily from substance use disorders and other addictions. Despite much effort that has been put into understanding the mechanisms of the addictive process, treatment strategies have remained sub-optimal over the past several decades. Mindfulness training, which is based on ancient Buddhist models of human suffering, has recently shown preliminary efficacy in treating addictions. Interestingly, these early models show remarkable similarity to current models of the addictive process, especially in their overlap with operant conditioning (positive and negative reinforcement). Further, they may provide explanatory power for the mechanisms of mindfulness training, including its effects on core addictive elements, such as craving, and the underlying neurobiological processes that may be active therein. In this review, using smoking as an example, we will highlight similarities between ancient and modern views of the addictive process, review studies of mindfulness training for addictions and their effects on craving and other components of this process, and discuss recent neuroimaging findings that may inform our understanding of the neural mechanisms of mindfulness training. PMID:22642859

  19. rTMS in the Treatment of Drug Addiction: An Update about Human Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamoli, Elisa; Manganotti, Paolo; Schwartz, Robert P.; Rimondo, Claudia; Gomma, Maurizio; Serpelloni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Because of the limited research in this area, all studies (including case reports) that evaluated the therapeutic use of rTMS in nicotine, alcohol, or illicit drug addiction were included in this review. Papers published prior to December 2012 were found through an NCBI PubMed search. A total of eleven studies were identified that met review criteria. There is nascent evidence that rTMS could be effective in reducing cocaine craving and nicotine and alcohol craving and consumption and might represent a potential therapeutic tool for treating addiction. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters of stimulation for the most effective treatment of drug addiction, to improve our comprehension of the treatment neurophysiological effects, and to conduct rigorous, controlled efficacy studies with adequate power. PMID:24803733

  20. rTMS in the treatment of drug addiction: an update about human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamoli, Elisa; Manganotti, Paolo; Schwartz, Robert P; Rimondo, Claudia; Gomma, Maurizio; Serpelloni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Because of the limited research in this area, all studies (including case reports) that evaluated the therapeutic use of rTMS in nicotine, alcohol, or illicit drug addiction were included in this review. Papers published prior to December 2012 were found through an NCBI PubMed search. A total of eleven studies were identified that met review criteria. There is nascent evidence that rTMS could be effective in reducing cocaine craving and nicotine and alcohol craving and consumption and might represent a potential therapeutic tool for treating addiction. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters of stimulation for the most effective treatment of drug addiction, to improve our comprehension of the treatment neurophysiological effects, and to conduct rigorous, controlled efficacy studies with adequate power.

  1. rTMS in the Treatment of Drug Addiction: An Update about Human Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Bellamoli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Because of the limited research in this area, all studies (including case reports that evaluated the therapeutic use of rTMS in nicotine, alcohol, or illicit drug addiction were included in this review. Papers published prior to December 2012 were found through an NCBI PubMed search. A total of eleven studies were identified that met review criteria. There is nascent evidence that rTMS could be effective in reducing cocaine craving and nicotine and alcohol craving and consumption and might represent a potential therapeutic tool for treating addiction. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters of stimulation for the most effective treatment of drug addiction, to improve our comprehension of the treatment neurophysiological effects, and to conduct rigorous, controlled efficacy studies with adequate power.

  2. Sexual addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Frederico Duarte; Thibaut, Florence

    2010-09-01

    The potential adverse consequences, personal distress, shame and guilt presented by patients who suffer from sexual addiction require a more in-depth understanding of the phenomenology and psychobiology of this disorder. A bibliographic review was conducted using MEDLINE and EBSCO databases with the following keywords: "sexual addiction," "hypersexuality," "compulsive sexual behavior," "behavioural addiction," "treatment," and "addiction." Several conceptualizations of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder have been proposed based on the models of, respectively, obsessive compulsive disorder, impulse control disorder, out of control excessive sexual disorder, and addictive disorder. Despite the lack of robust scientific data, a number of clinical elements, such as the frequent preoccupation with this type of behavior, the time spent in sexual activities, the continuation of this behavior despite its negative consequences, the repeated and unsuccessful efforts made to reduce the behavior, are in favor of an addictive disorder. In addition there is a high comorbidity between excessive sexual behavior and other addictive behaviors. The phenomenology of excessive nonparaphilic sexual disorder favors its conceptualization as an addictive behavior, rather than an obsessive-compulsive, or an impulse control disorder. Moreover, the criteria that are quite close to those of addictive disorders were recently proposed for the future DSM-V in order to improve the characterization of this condition. Finally, controlled studies are warranted in order to establish clear guidelines for treatment of sexual addiction.

  3. Prescription drug monitoring program data tracking of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in integrated dual diagnosis care involving injectable naltrexone

    OpenAIRE

    Sajid, Ayesha; Whiteman, Aaron; Bell, Richard L.; Greene, Marion S.; Engleman, Eric A; Chambers, R. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives Fourfold increases in opioid prescribing and dispensations over 2 decades in the U.S. has paralleled increases in opioid addictions and overdoses, requiring new preventative, diagnostic, and treatment strategies. This study examines Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP) tracking as a novel measure of opioid addiction treatment outcomes in a university‐affiliated integrated mental health‐addiction treatment clinic. Methods Repeated measure parametrics examined P...

  4. The role of opioidergic genes in the treatment outcome of drug addiction pharmacotherapy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Isabelle E; Soares, Jair C; Nielsen, David A

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction is a serious illness with deleterious functional and social consequences for both the affected individuals, their families, and society at large. In spite of the abundant research on substance dependence, there are few effective treatments for this disease. Given the crucial role of the endogenous opioid system in the development and maintenance of substance abuse disorders, this review focuses on the opioidergic system and examines the role of opioidergic genes in the treatment outcome of pharmacotherapies of alcohol, opioid, and cocaine addiction. Scopus (all databases) and Pubmed were systematically searched with no language or year restrictions, up to July 2014, for studies that focused on the relationship between polymorphisms of opioidergic genes and the treatment outcome of pharmacotherapies of alcohol, opioid, and cocaine addictions. Selected search terms were opioid, gene, polymorphism, drug therapy, substance abuse, and response. The genetic variability of μ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors genes OPRM1, OPRD1, and OPRK1 modulates the efficacy of opioid antagonist treatments such as naltrexone and methadone, as well as the cocaine vaccine. Despite the number of promising reports, data from additional cohorts are needed to substantiate these findings. Gene variant profiling could help predict treatment response and assist in developing effective treatments for alcohol, opioid, and cocaine addiction. © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. Exploring the Limits and Utility of Operant Conditioning in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a research program to develop an operant treatment for cocaine addiction in low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. The treatment's central feature is an abstinence reinforcement contingency in which patients earn monetary reinforcement for providing cocaine-free urine samples. Success and failure of this…

  6. Treatment goals in addiction healthcare: the perspectives of patients and clinicians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, E.A.G.; Weert-van Oene, G.H. de; Sensky, T.; Staak, C.P.F. van der; Jong, C.A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the perspectives of either patients or clinicians regarding treatment goals in addiction healthcare. In general, treatment goals involve abstinence or at least reduction of substance use. Aim: To examine and compare the treatment goals indicated by both patients and

  7. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoying S; Chen, Jessica S; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-09-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits.

  8. Assessing self-determined motivation for addiction treatment: validity of the Treatment Entry Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanoski, Karen A; Wild, T Cameron

    2012-07-01

    Although legal, formal, and informal social controls are frequently used to pressure individuals to enter treatment, motivational consequences of using these tactics have been neglected. Self-determination theory (SDT) provides a useful perspective for understanding client experiences of social controls and highlights the importance of self-determined motivation for long-term behavior change. This study assessed the construct validity of the Treatment Entry Questionnaire (TEQ), a brief scale derived from SDT to measure identified, introjected, and external treatment motivation. Two independent samples of clients entering Canadian residential and outpatient treatment completed TEQ items (ns = 529 and 623). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 9-item version of the scale, with 3 factors aligning with SDT motivational subtypes. Subscales showed high internal consistency and correlated as expected with social controls and perceived coercion at treatment entry. The TEQ-9 is a valid option for assessing self-determined motivation in clinical practice and evaluating coerced addiction treatment.

  9. Therapeutic Progression in Abused Women Following a Drug-Addiction Treatment Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl; Azanza, Paula

    2015-06-30

    This study explored the prevalence of victims of abuse and the therapeutic progression among women who sought treatment for drug addiction. A sample of 180 addicted Spanish women was assessed. Information was collected on the patients' lifetime history of abuse (psychological, physical, and/or sexual), socio-demographic factors, consumption variables, and psychological symptoms. Of the total sample, 74.4% (n = 134) of the addicted women had been victims of abuse. Psychological abuse affected 66.1% (n = 119) of the patients, followed by physical abuse (51.7%; n = 93) and sexual abuse (31.7%; n = 57). Compared with patients who had not been abused, the addicted women with histories of victimization scored significantly higher on several European version of the Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) and psychological variables. Specifically, physical abuse and sexual abuse were related to higher levels of severity of addiction. Regarding therapeutic progression, the highest rate of dropout was observed among victims of sexual abuse (63.5%; n = 33), followed by victims of physical abuse (48.9%; n = 23). Multivariate analysis showed that medical and family areas of the EuropASI, as well as violence problems and suicide ideation, were the main variables related to physical and/or sexual abuse. Moreover, women without abuse and with fewer family problems presented the higher probability of treatment completion. The implications of these results for further research and clinical practice are discussed.

  10. A systematic review of Internet-based therapy for the treatment of addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally; Blaszczynski, Alex

    2011-04-01

    Traditional therapies for addictions are underutilized and characterized by high attrition rates suggesting they may not meet the needs of a proportion of individuals with addiction-related problems including problem drinking, smoking, substance use and problem gambling. Internet-based therapy has emerged as a new treatment modality for psychological disorders and health issues and this review is the first attempt to summarize and evaluate the evidence of the effectiveness of Internet therapy for addictions. Extensive literature searches were conducted to identify studies meeting the criteria of delivering structured Internet-based treatment programs for addictions that incorporated a component of trained therapist interaction. Only nine studies met criteria for inclusion with seven representing a randomized controlled trial. These included seven papers reporting on tobacco-cessation programs, one Internet-based therapy for pathological gambling, and one treatment program for substance abuse. A range of therapeutic models, treatment components and outcome measures was included across these studies. Positive treatment effects were reported following completion of therapy and at longer-term follow-up. The review concluded that Internet-based therapies for addictions are effective in achieving positive behavioral changes but that more research is required to determine the comparative effectiveness of various Internet-based therapies and their components.

  11. Treatment of internet addiction in patient with panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veruska; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia Spear

    2015-01-01

    Problematic Internet use is a worldwide social issue and it can be found in any age, social, educational, or economic range. In some countries like China and South Korea internet addiction (IA) is considered a public health condition and this governments support research, education and treatment. Internet addiction has been associated with others psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) are anxiety disorders that involve a lot of damages in patient's life. We report a treatment of a patient with Panic Disorder and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and internet addition involving pharmacotherapy and Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy was conducted 1 time per week during 10 weeks and results suggest that the treatment was an effective treatment for the anxiety and for the internet addiction.

  12. Chronic disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among alcohol and drug dependent adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samet Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic medical diseases require regular and longitudinal care and self-management for effective treatment. When chronic diseases include substance use disorders, care and treatment of both the medical and addiction disorders may affect access to care and the ability to focus on both conditions. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the association between the presence of chronic medical disease and recent addiction treatment utilization among adults with substance dependence. Methods Cross-sectional secondary data analysis of self-reported baseline data from alcohol and/or drug-dependent adults enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a disease management program for substance dependence in primary care. The main independent variable was chronic medical disease status, categorized using the Katz Comorbidity Score as none, single condition of lower severity, or higher severity (multiple conditions or single higher severity condition, based on comorbidity scores determined from self-report. Asthma was also examined in secondary analyses. The primary outcome was any self-reported addiction treatment utilization (excluding detoxification in the 3 months prior to study entry, including receipt of any addiction-focused counseling or addiction medication from any healthcare provider. Logistic regression models were adjusted for sociodemographics, type of substance dependence, recruitment site, current smoking, and recent anxiety severity. Results Of 563 subjects, 184 (33% reported any chronic disease (20% low severity; 13% higher severity and 111 (20% reported asthma; 157 (28% reported any addiction treatment utilization in the past 3 months. In multivariate regression analyses, no significant effect was detected for chronic disease on addiction treatment utilization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.88 lower severity vs. none, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.60, 1.28; AOR 1.29 higher severity vs. none, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.88 nor for

  13. Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opioid Addiction. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Margaret; Brown, Nancy J.; Moon, Mary A.; Schuman, Deborah J.; Thomas, Josephine; Wright, Denise L.

    2004-01-01

    This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) addresses the clinical use of buprenorphine in the treatment of opioid addiction. TIPs are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel of experts…

  14. Moving Clinical Deliberations on Administrative Discharge in Drug Addiction Treatment Beyond Moral Rhetoric to Empirical Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Izaak L

    2016-01-01

    Patients' admission to modern substance use disorder treatment comes with the attendant risk of being discharged from treatment-a widespread practice. This article describes the three mainstream theories of addiction that operate as a reference point for clinicians in reasoning about a decision to discharge a patient from treatment. The extant literature is reviewed to highlight the pathways that patients follow after administrative discharge. Little scientific research has been done to investigate claims and hypotheses about the therapeutic function of AD, which points to the need for empirical ethics to inform clinical addictions practice. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  15. 78 FR 62427 - TRICARE; Removal of the Prohibition To Use Addictive Drugs in the Maintenance Treatment of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... should only be used within the context of a comprehensive addiction treatment program. Response: We agree... to care is important for beneficiaries seeking opioid addiction treatment. In general, TRICARE... Drugs in the Maintenance Treatment of Substance Dependence in TRICARE Beneficiaries AGENCY: Office...

  16. The dream interview method in addiction recovery. A treatment guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, L K; Zweben, J E

    1996-01-01

    The Dream Interview Method is a recently developed tool for dream interpretation that can facilitate work on addiction issues at all stages of recovery. This paper describes the method in detail and discusses examples of its application in a group composed of individuals in varying stages of the recovery process. It permits the therapist to accelerate the development of insight, and once the method is learned, it can be applied in self-help formats.

  17. Technology Addiction among Treatment Seekers for Psychological Problems: Implication for Screening in Mental Health Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P.; Marimuthu, P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. Materials and Methods: A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornography addiction screening tool and screening for mobile phone use, from in-patient and out-patient setting of tertiary mental health setting. Results: It showed the presence of addiction to mobile, internet, video game, and pornography. Age was found to be negatively correlated with this addiction. Average usage time had been associated with management of mood states. The addiction to information technology had been associated with a delay in initiation of sleep. Conclusion: This work has implication for screening technology addiction among subjects seeking treatment for psychological problems and motivate them to develop the healthy use of technology. PMID:28250554

  18. Technology Addiction among Treatment Seekers for Psychological Problems: Implication for Screening in Mental Health Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Aswathy; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Thamilselvan, P; Marimuthu, P

    2017-01-01

    Technology usage has seen an increase among users. The usage varies from social, personal, and psychological reasons. Users are frequently using to overcome mood states as well as to manage the other psychological states. This work is going to explore the information technology use among subjects with a psychiatric disorder. A total of 75 subjects were assessed using background data sheet, internet addiction impairment index, video game use pattern, pornography addiction screening tool and screening for mobile phone use, from in-patient and out-patient setting of tertiary mental health setting. It showed the presence of addiction to mobile, internet, video game, and pornography. Age was found to be negatively correlated with this addiction. Average usage time had been associated with management of mood states. The addiction to information technology had been associated with a delay in initiation of sleep. This work has implication for screening technology addiction among subjects seeking treatment for psychological problems and motivate them to develop the healthy use of technology.

  19. Diagnostic Stability of Internet Addiction in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: Data from a Naturalistic One-year Treatment Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bipeta, Rajshekhar; Yerramilli, Srinivasa Srr; Karredla, Ashok Reddy; Gopinath, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    Whether internet addiction should be categorized as a primary psychiatric disorder or the result of an underlying psychiatric disorder still remains unclear. In addition, the relationship between internet addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder remains to be explored. We hypothesized that internet addiction is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, the treatment of which will improve internet addiction. We enrolled 34 control subjects (with or without internet addiction) and compared them to 38 patients with "pure" obsessive-compulsive disorder (with or without internet addiction). Internet addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder were diagnosed based on Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), respectively. Age and Internet Addiction Test scores were comparable in both the control (years: 26.87±6.57; scores: 43.65±11.56) and obsessive-compulsive disorder groups (years: 27.00±6.13 years, p=0.69; scores: 43.47±15.21, p=0.76). Eleven patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (28.95%) were diagnosed with internet addiction as compared to three control subjects (p=0.039). In the obsessive-compulsive disorder group, no difference in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (24.07±3.73 non-internet addiction, 23.64±4.65 internet addiction; p=0.76) score was seen between the internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder and non-internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder groups. As expected, the Internet Addiction Test scores were higher in the internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder group (64.09±9.63) than in the non-internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder group (35.07±6.37; p=0.00). All enrolled patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were subsequently treated for a period of one year. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder improved Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Internet Addiction Test scores over time. At 12 months, only

  20. Systematic review of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson Asevedo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To conduct the first systematic literature review of clinical trials of N-acetylcysteine (NAC for the treatment of substance abuse disorders and addictive behaviors. Methods: A search of the MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO databases was conducted. The inclusion criteria for the review were clinical trials that used NAC in the treatment of a disorder related to substance use and/or addictive behaviors, limited to texts in English, Spanish, or French. The selected studies were evaluated with respect to type of trial, sample size, diagnostic input, intervention, length of follow-up, outcome variables, and results. Results: Nine studies analyzing a total of 165 patients met the eligibility criteria and were included in qualitative analysis. These studies evaluated the role of NAC in cocaine dependence (three studies, cannabis dependence (two studies, nicotine dependence (two studies, methamphetamine addiction (one study, and pathological gambling (one study. Five of these trials were double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Conclusions: The studies analyzed suggest a potential role for NAC in the treatment of addiction, especially of cocaine and cannabis dependence. These results are concordant with the hypothesis of the involvement of glutamatergic pathways in the pathophysiology of addiction.

  1. The Prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms among Addiction Treatment Patients with Cocaine Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Elizabeth C; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; McGovern, Mark P; Meier, Andrea; Xie, Haiyi

    2015-01-01

    Co-occurring cocaine use and posttraumatic stress disorders are prevalent and associated with negative treatment, health and societal consequences. This study examined the relationships among PTSD symptoms, gender, and cocaine use problems. Within a cross-sectional design, we gathered archival point prevalence data on new admissions (n = 573) to three addiction treatment agencies. Demographic, substance use, and PTSD symptom information were collected across the three agencies. Logistic regression analyses revealed that patients with cocaine use disorders had a two-fold increased odds for a probable PTSD diagnosis, compared to patients without a cocaine use disorder (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.49-3.22, p PTSD symptoms. Males with cocaine use disorders had a two-fold increase in the risk of moderate PTSD symptoms (RRR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.23-3.68, p PTSD symptoms (RRR = 1.93, 95% CI = 0.85-4.39, p = 0.117). Cocaine use appears to impact the risk of PTSD symptoms, especially in females. Future research should explore the generalizability of these findings to more racially and ethnically diverse samples, as well as among persons with this comorbidity who are not engaged in treatment services.

  2. Somatic health among heroin addicts before and during opioid maintenance treatment: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brekke Mette

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The long-term impact of opioid maintenance treatment (OMT on morbidity and health care utilization among heroin addicts has been insufficiently studied. The objective of this study was to investigate whether health care utilization due to somatic disease decreased during OMT, and if so, whether the reduction included all kinds of diseases and whether a reduction was related to abstinence from drug use. Methods Cohort study with retrospective registration of somatic disease incidents (health problems, acute or sub-acute, or acute problems related to chronic disease, resulting in a health care contact. Medical record data were collected from hospitals, Outpatients' Departments, emergency wards and from general practitioners (GPs and prospective data on substance use during OMT were available from 2001 onwards. The observation period was five years before and up to five years during OMT. The cohort consisted of 35 out of 40 patients who received OMT between April 1999 and January 2005 in a Norwegian district town. Statistical significance concerning changes in number of incidents and inpatient and outpatient days during OMT compared with the pre OMT period was calculated according to Wilcoxon signed rank test. Significance concerning pre/during OMT changes in disease incidents by relation to the type of health service contacts, as well as the impact of ongoing substance use during OMT on the volume of contacts, was calculated according to Pearson chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Results 278 disease incidents were registered. There was a reduction in all incidents by 35% (p = 0.004, in substance-related incidents by 62% (p Conclusion Although as few as 35 patients were included, this study demonstrates a significant reduction in health care utilization due to somatic disease incidents during OMT. The reduction was most pronounced for incidents related to substance use and injection. Inpatient and outpatient days were reduced

  3. Drug interactions associated with HAART: focus on treatments for addiction and recreational drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faragon, John J; Piliero, Peter J

    2003-09-01

    The advent of HAART has improved survival in patients infected with HIV; however, treatment is complicated by potential drug interactions. The risk of drug interactions is compounded by the use of additional therapies for comorbid conditions, such as substance abuse, and by the use of recreational drugs. HIV health care providers should be aware of the potential interaction of recreational drugs and addiction treatments with HAART because of the potential for significant adverse effects for their HIV-infected patients. This article provides a review of the literature on drug interactions among addiction therapies, recreational drugs, and HAART.

  4. Scientific Evidence in the Study and Treatment of Addictive Behaviours in Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itziar Iruarrizaga Díez

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, the importance and relevance of substance dependence and other addictive behaviours has generated great interest among the scientific community. Since its creation in 1992, Psychosocial Intervention. Journal on Equality and Quality of Life has transmitted the needs and training demands of psychologists, paying special attention to those aspects related to prevention, health outcomes and psychosocial factors involved in the onset and maintenance of drug addiction, psychosocial intervention and the treatment of addictive behaviours. As an introduction to this report on the Scientific evidence in the study and treatment of addictive behaviours, all topics covered by this journal throughout the years will be addressed.

  5. Diet and Body Composition Outcomes of an Environmental and Educational Intervention among Men in Treatment for Substance Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jennifer A.; Devine, Carol M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of an educational and environmental intervention on diet, body mass index, and waist circumference of men in substance addiction treatment. Methods: One hundred three racially/ethnically diverse men in 6 urban substance addiction residential treatment facilities in Upstate New York participated in weekly…

  6. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Persons Eligible for Supplemental Security Income to Other Agencies Referral for Treatment of Alcoholism... drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  7. Codeine misuse and dependence in South Africa: Perspectives of addiction treatment providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles D H Parry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. General practitioners are referring patients with codeine-related problems to specialist treatment facilities, but little is known about the addiction treatment providers, the kinds of treatment they provide, and whether training or other interventions are needed to strengthen this sector. Objectives. To investigate the perspectives of addiction treatment providers regarding treatment for codeine misuse or dependence. Method. Twenty addiction treatment providers linked to the South African Community Epidemiology Network on Drug Use and the South African Addiction Medicine Society were contacted telephonically and asked 20 questions. Results. While many participants had received training in pharmacological management of individuals with opioid dependence, only two had received specific training on codeine management. Between half and two-thirds of the treatment settings they worked in provided detoxification, pharmacotherapy, psychosocial treatment and aftercare. Very few treatment settings offered long-term treatment for codeine misuse and dependence. Participants indicated that over half of their codeine patients entered treatment for intentional misuse for intoxication, and dependence resulting from excessive or long-term use. The main barriers to patients entering treatment were seen as denial of having a problem, not being ready for change, mental health problems, stigma, and affordability of treatment. Participants identified a need for further training in how to manage withdrawal and detoxification, treatment modalities including motivational interviewing, and relapse prevention. Conclusions. Gaps in training among treatment providers need to centre on how to manage withdrawal from codeine use and detoxification, motivational interviewing and relapse prevention. Interventions are needed to address barriers to entering treatment, including user denial.

  8. Psychoanalytic treatment of psychological addiction toalcohol (alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eJohnson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (DSM5.org. The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson 2003. In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery.Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9 year followup.

  9. Consumer attitudes about opioid addiction treatment: a focus group study in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohler, Nancy L; Weiss, Linda; Egan, James E; López, Carolina M; Favaro, Jamie; Cordero, Robert; Cunningham, Chinazo O

    2013-01-01

    To develop effective programs for people who are opioid dependent and to impact the opioid epidemic in New York City, it is crucial to monitor attitudes about opioid addiction treatments among opioid users who have experienced barriers to engagement and retention in addiction treatment. The authors conducted a qualitative study using focus groups. Six focus groups in three needle exchanges in New York City were audio recorded, transcribed, and systematically coded. The authors report on the main themes related to the study objectives. Participants of each needle exchange who were opioid dependent and had some knowledge of both methadone and buprenorphine were eligible. There were four main findings. Participants felt the following: 1) buprenorphine is an appropriate option for those heroin users who are motivated to stop using, 2) they have less control over their addiction treatment with methadone than they would have with buprenorphine, 3) buprenorphine treatment is not accessible to many New York City residents who would benefit from this treatment, and 4) lack of access to buprenorphine treatment is a cause of treatment-related diversion. Both methadone maintenance and buprenorphine treatment opportunities are necessary to address the diverse treatment needs of opioid-dependent people in New York City. However, the current medical model of buprenorphine treatment may be too restrictive for some opioid-dependent people and may be contributing to the use of illicit buprenorphine. New models to deliver buprenorphine treatment may address these problems.

  10. ABUSE OF INTERNET SERVICES IN THE WORKPLACE AND THE EMERGENCE OF ADDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gorenc

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Employees who abuse Internet privileges have become a major concern among today's employers. Employees misuse Internet at the workplace due to the overcrowded schedule, pressures at work, etc. Internet for private purposes is also used as a release or escape from work, escape from the reality of the workplace or due to poor organizational climate; it can be used as an efficient use of time at work but it can also be excessively used when the employees are not monitored. The survey results show that there is a correlation between Internet addiction and misuse of the Internet in the workplace. Electronic monitoring has a strong impact on the abuse of the Internet. More electronic monitoring will decrease the abuse of the internet services in the workplace and vice versa. Organizational climate, relations in the working organization, the Internet policy and demographic factors do not affect the abuse of Internet services in the workplace.

  11. State discretion over Medicaid coverage for mental health and addiction services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Marguerite E

    2015-03-01

    Approximately one-third of adults who enroll in Medicaid because of a disability have a serious mental illness. Arguably, this population stands to benefit from insurance coverage that complies with the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA). The MHPAEA and the Affordable Care Act (ACA) do not guarantee such coverage for this beneficiary group; however, they provide a variety of mechanisms by which states may provide parity-compliant coverage for mental health and substance use disorder treatment. This column explains key interactions between the MHPAEA, the ACA, and the Medicaid program that permit states to determine whether and how to provide parity-consistent coverage to beneficiaries with disabilities.

  12. Moving empirically supported practices to addiction treatment programs: recruiting supervisors to help in technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amodeo, Maryann; Storti, Susan A; Larson, Mary Jo

    2010-05-01

    Federal and state funding agencies are encouraging or mandating the use of empirically supported treatments in addiction programs, yet many programs have not moved in this direction (Forman, Bovasso, and Woody, 2001 ; Roman and Johnson, 2002 ; Willenbring et al., 2004 ). To improve the skills of counselors in community addiction programs, the authors developed an innovative Web-based course on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), a widely accepted empirically-supported practice (ESP) for addiction. Federal funding supports this Web course and a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness. Since supervisors often play a pivotal role in helping clinicians transfer learned skills from training courses to the workplace, the authors recruited supervisor-counselor teams, engaging 54 supervisors and 120 counselors. Lessons learned focus on supervisor recruitment and involvement, supervisors' perceptions of CBT, their own CBT skills and their roles in the study, and implications for technology transfer for the addiction field as a whole. Recruiting supervisors proved difficult because programs lacked clinical supervisors. Recruiting counselors was also difficult because programs were concerned about loss of third-party reimbursement. Across the addiction field, technology transfer will be severely hampered unless such infrastructure problems can be solved. Areas for further investigation are identified.

  13. When Problem Gambling Is the Primary Reason for Seeking Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, John; Mazmanian, Dwight; Penney, Alexander; Black, Nancy; Nguyen, An

    2011-01-01

    An existing database was used to compare problem gamblers (N = 138) who presented for treatment of their gambling problem to two other groups: alcohol and/or drug addiction clients who also had a gambling problem (N = 280) or who did not have a gambling problem (N = 2178). Clients with gambling as their primary problem were more likely to be…

  14. Surviving Hurricane Katrina: Winds of Change Transform a New Orleans Addiction Treatment Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriello, Paul J.; Pedersen-Wasson, Else; Crisham, Erin M.; Ellis, Robert; Morse, Patricia; Morse, Edward V.

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina's impact on the operations of the largest residential, addiction treatment organization in New Orleans is described. Pre- and post-Katrina experiences are discussed and augmented with organizational performance data. Suggestions for future research are provided. (Contains 4 figures.)

  15. Evidence-Based and Best Practice Addiction Treatment Resources: A Primer for Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Sheila I.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces concepts, such as evidence-based medicine and best practices, explores these concepts in terms of addiction treatment, discusses practice guidelines, offers suggestions to find and select science-based resources, and explores the librarian's or information specialist's role in the dissemination of this information. (LRW)

  16. Factors Associated with Recent Suicide Attempts in Clients Presenting for Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Alexander; Mazmanian, Dwight; Jamieson, John; Black, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Factors associated with recent suicide attempts were examined in clients who sought treatment at an addictions facility between 2001 and 2008. Clients who reported being hospitalized for attempting suicide in the past year (n = 76) were compared to all other clients (n = 5914) on demographic, mental health, substance use, and problem gambling…

  17. Employment and Addiction: Perspectives on Existing Business and Treatment Practices. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, I. Ira

    To assess and analyze existing business practices concerning drug use by employees and related employer relationships with manpower and drug addiction control agencies, a survey was taken of the practices of both employers and drug treatment programs with respect to the employment needs of drug users and exusers. To obtain results, questionnaires…

  18. Introduction to the special issue on the behavior analysis and treatment of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Kenneth; Roll, John M; Higgins, Stephen T

    2008-01-01

    Extensive evidence from the laboratory and the clinic suggests that drug addiction can be viewed as operant behavior and effectively treated through the application of principles of operant conditioning. Contingency management interventions that arrange for the direct reinforcement of drug abstinence or of other therapeutically important target behaviors (e.g., regular use of drug abuse treatment medications) are among the most studied type of operant treatments. Behavior analysts have contributed to the substantial and rapidly growing literature on operant treatments for drug addiction, but the publications of this work usually appear in medical, clinical psychology, or drug abuse journals. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis represents an effort to bring this important work to the attention of the behavior-analytic community. The articles in this special issue illustrate both the enormous potential of contingency management interventions to address the serious and seemingly intractable problem of drug addiction as well as the real challenges involved in attempting to develop and disseminate treatments that will produce substantial and lasting changes in the lives of individuals plagued by the chronic problem of drug addiction.

  19. Methadone: The Drug and Its Therapeutic Uses In the Treatment of Addiction. Series 31, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, James R.; Zerkin, E. Lief

    This fact sheet from the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information discusses methadone, a therapeutic drug for the treatment of narcotic addiction. It reviews the pharmacology of the drug as well as physiological and psychological effects, patterns of use, and adverse effects (toxicity and poisoning). It examines the success rates of…

  20. Addiction treatment and stable housing among a cohort of injection drug users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Palepu

    Full Text Available Unstable housing and homelessness is prevalent among injection drug users (IDU. We sought to examine whether accessing addiction treatment was associated with attaining stable housing in a prospective cohort of IDU in Vancouver, Canada.We used data collected via the Vancouver Injection Drug User Study (VIDUS between December 2005 and April 2010. Attaining stable housing was defined as two consecutive "stable housing" designations (i.e., living in an apartment or house during the follow-up period. We assessed exposure to addiction treatment in the interview prior to the attainment of stable housing among participants who were homeless or living in single room occupancy (SRO hotels at baseline. Bivariate and multivariate associations between the baseline and time-updated characteristics and attaining stable housing were examined using Cox proportional hazard regression models.Of the 992 IDU eligible for this analysis, 495 (49.9% reported being homeless, 497 (50.1% resided in SRO hotels, and 380 (38.3% were enrolled in addiction treatment at the baseline interview. Only 211 (21.3% attained stable housing during the follow-up period and of this group, 69 (32.7% had addiction treatment exposure prior to achieving stable housing. Addiction treatment was inversely associated with attaining stable housing in a multivariate model (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=0.71; 95% CI: 0.52-0.96. Being in a partnered relationship was positively associated with the primary outcome (AHR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.02-1.88. Receipt of income assistance (AHR=0.65; 95% CI: 0.44-0.96, daily crack use (AHR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.51-0.93 and daily heroin use (AHR=0.63; 95% CI: 0.43-0.92 were negatively associated with attaining stable housing.Exposure to addiction treatment in our study was negatively associated with attaining stable housing and may have represented a marker of instability among this sample of IDU. Efforts to stably house this vulnerable group may be occurring in contexts

  1. [Different explanatory models for addictive behavior in Turkish and German youths in Germany: significance for prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A

    2003-07-01

    Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.

  2. Drop-out from addiction treatment: a systematic review of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, Hanne H; Ajo Arnevik, Espen; Rand-Hendriksen, Kim; Duckert, Fanny

    2013-12-01

    Completion of addiction treatment is one of the most consistent factors associated with a favorable treatment outcome. Unfortunately, it is more common for a patient to drop-out of addiction treatment than to complete the treatment. To prevent drop-out, risk factors must be identified. This box-score review focuses on studies investigating the risk factors associated with drop-out from addiction treatment published in peer-reviewed journals from 1992 to 2013. A total of 122 studies involving 199,331 participants met the inclusion criteria. Contrary to recommendations from previous reviews, 91% of the included studies focused primarily on enduring patient factors, mainly demographics. The most consistent risk factors across the different study designs, samples, and measurement methods were cognitive deficits, low treatment alliance, personality disorder, and younger age. With the exception of younger age, none of the demographic factors emerged as consistent risk factors. Further research on the relationship between simple demographic factors and drop-out risk is of limited value. However, little is known about the potential risk factors related to treatment programs and to the treatment processes. Based on the review, clinical recommendations include assessing cognitive functioning and personality disorders at baseline and continuous monitoring of treatment alliance.

  3. Pain volatility and prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in patients with chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Matthew J; Heinzerling, Keith G; Shoptaw, Steven; Ling, Walter

    2015-12-01

    The combination of prescription opioid dependence and chronic pain is increasingly prevalent and hazardous to public health. Variability in pain may explain poor prescription opioid addiction treatment outcomes in persons with chronic pain. This study examined pain trajectories and pain volatility in patients with chronic pain receiving treatment for prescription opioid addiction. We conducted secondary analyses of adults with chronic pain (n = 149) who received buprenorphine/naloxone (BUP/NLX) and counseling for 12 weeks in an outpatient, multisite clinical trial. Good treatment outcome was defined as urine-verified abstinence from opioids at treatment endpoint (Week 12) and during at least 2 of the previous 3 weeks. Pain severity significantly declined over time during treatment (b = -0.36, p treatment outcome (odds ratio = 0.55, p treatment provides observational support for the analgesic effects of BUP/NLX in patients with chronic pain and opioid dependence. Patients with greater volatility in subjective pain during treatment have increased risk of returning to opioid use by the conclusion of an intensive treatment with BUP/NLX and counseling. Future research should examine underlying mechanisms of pain volatility and identify related therapeutic targets to optimize interventions for prescription opioid addiction and co-occurring chronic pain.

  4. Buprenorphine-containing treatments: place in the management of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Susan E

    2006-01-01

    Although the synthetic opioid buprenorphine has been available clinically for almost 30 years, its use has only recently become much more widespread for the treatment of opioid addiction. The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiles of buprenorphine make it unique in the armamentarium of drugs for the treatment of opioid addiction. Buprenorphine has partial mu-opioid receptor agonist activity and is a kappa-opioid receptor antagonist; hence, it can substitute for other micro-opioid receptor agonists, yet is less apt to produce overdose reactions or dysphoria. On the other hand, buprenorphine can block the effects of opioids such as heroin (diamorphine) and morphine, and can even precipitate withdrawal in individuals physically dependent upon these drugs. Buprenorphine has significant sublingual bioavailability and a long half-life, making administration on a less than daily basis possible. Furthermore, its discontinuation is associated with only a mild withdrawal syndrome. Clinical trials have demonstrated that sublingual buprenorphine is effective in both maintenance therapy and detoxification of individuals addicted to opioids. The introduction of a sublingual formulation combining naloxone with buprenorphine further reduces the risk of diversion to illicit intravenous use. Because of its relative safety and lower risk of illegal diversion, buprenorphine has been made available in several countries for treating opioid addiction in the private office setting, greatly enhancing treatment options for this condition.

  5. NIDA-Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) Relapse as a Function of Spirituality/Religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R; Giordano, John; Thompson, Ben; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Madigan, Margaret A; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Waite, Roger L; Gold, Mark S

    The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie), and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds. Impairments in brain reward circuitry, as observed in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), may also result in deviance and as such we wondered if stronger belief in spirituality practice and religious belief could lower relapse from drugs of abuse. The NIDA Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study data set was used to examine post hoc relapse rates among 2,947 clients who were interviewed at 12 months after intake broken down by five spirituality measures. Our main findings strongly indicate, that those with low spirituality have higher relapse rates and those with high spirituality have higher remission rates with crack use being the sole exception. We found significant differences in terms of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and marijuana relapse as a function of strength of religious beliefs (x(2) = 15.18, p = 0.028; logistic regression = 10.65, p = 0.006); frequency of attending religious services (x(2) = 40.78, p Durkheim's social bond theory. Stronger spiritual/religious beliefs and practices are directly associated with remission from abused drugs except crack. Much like the value of having a sponsor, for clients who abuse drugs, regular spiritual practice, particularly weekly attendance at the religious services of their choice is associated with significantly higher remission. These results demonstrate the clinically significant role of spirituality and the social bonds it creates in drug treatment programs.

  6. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability (as described in §...

  7. Perspectives on neurocognitive rehabilitation as an adjunct treatment for addictive disorders: From cognitive improvement to relapse prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour, Tara; DeVito, Elise E; Sofuoglu, Mehmet; Ekhtiari, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Addiction, as a brain disorder, can be defined with two distinct but interacting components: drug dependency and neurocognitive deficits. Most of the therapeutic interventions in addiction medicine, including pharmacological or psychosocial therapies, that are in clinical use have been mainly focused on directly addressing addictive behaviors, especially drug use and urges to use drugs. In the field of addiction treatment, it is often presumed that drug users' neurocognitive deficits will reverse following abstinence. However, in many cases, neurocognitive deficits are not fully ameliorated following sustained abstinence, and neurocognitive function may further deteriorate in early abstinence. It can be argued that many cognitive functions, such as sustained attention and executive control, are essential for full recovery and long-term abstinence from addiction. Recent advances in cognitive neuroscience have provided scientific foundations for neurocognitive rehabilitation as a means of facilitating recovery from drug addiction. Neurocognitive rehabilitation for drug addicted individuals could be implemented as part of addiction treatment, with highly flexible delivery methods including traditional "paper and pencil" testing, or computer-based technology via laptops, web-based, or smartphones in inpatient and outpatient settings. Despite this promise, there has been limited research into the potential efficacy of neurocognitive rehabilitation as a treatment for drug addiction. Further, many questions including the optimum treatment length, session duration, and necessary treatment adherence for treatment efficacy remain to be addressed. In this chapter, we first introduce cognitive rehabilitation as one of the potential areas to bridge the gap between cognitive neuroscience and addiction medicine, followed by an overview of current challenges and future directions.

  8. A business case for quality improvement in addiction treatment: evidence from the NIATx collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbeck, Andrew R; Madden, Lynn; Edmundson, Eldon; Ford, James H; McConnell, K John; McCarty, Dennis; Gustafson, David H

    2012-01-01

    The Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) promotes treatment access and retention through a customer-focused quality improvement model. This paper explores the issue of the "business case" for quality improvement in addiction treatment from the provider's perspective. The business case model developed in this paper is based on case examples of early NIATx participants coupled with a review of the literature. Process inefficiencies indicated by long waiting times, high no-show rates, and low continuation rates cause underutilization of capacity and prevent optimal financial performance. By adopting customer-focused practices aimed at removing barriers to treatment access and retention, providers may be able to improve financial performance, increase staff retention, and gain long-term strategic advantage.

  9. Bioethical differences between drug addiction treatment professionals inside and outside the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendelevich Vladimir D

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article provides an overview of a sociological study of the views of 338 drug addiction treatment professionals. A comparison is drawn between the bioethical approaches of Russian and foreign experts from 18 countries. It is concluded that the bioethical priorities of Russian and foreign experts differ significantly. Differences involve attitudes toward confidentiality, informed consent, compulsory treatment, opioid agonist therapy, mandatory testing of students for psychoactive substances, the prevention of mental patients from having children, harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange, euthanasia, and abortion. It is proposed that the cardinal dissimilarity between models for providing drug treatment in the Russian Federation versus the majority of the countries of the world stems from differing bioethical attitudes among drug addiction treatment experts.

  10. The role of expectation in the therapeutic outcomes of alcohol and drug addiction treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, Primavera A; Colloca, Luana; Heilig, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Throughout history, patient-physician relationships have been acknowledged as an important component of the therapeutic effects of any pharmacological treatment. Here, we discuss the role of physicians' expectations in influencing the therapeutic outcomes of alcohol and drug addiction pharmacological treatments. As largely demonstrated, such expectations and attitudes may contribute to produce placebo and nocebo effects that in turn affect the course of the disease and the response to the therapy. This article is aimed at discussing the current insights into expectations, placebo and nocebo mechanisms and their impact on the therapeutic outcomes of alcohol and drug addiction treatments; with the goal of informing physicians and other health care providers about the potentially widespread implications for clinical practice and for a successful treatment regimen. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Medical Council on Alcohol 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. The "new masculinity": addiction treatment as a reconstruction of gender in Puerto Rican evangelist street ministries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Helena

    2012-06-01

    This article, based on ethnographic fieldwork including twelve months of participant observation and 428 interviews with 84 converts and leaders in Pentecostal ministries founded and run by former addicts in Puerto Rico, describes redefined masculinity as a treatment for addiction. Industrial disinvestment and resulting unemployment and drug trade in urban North and Latin America have led to narcotic addiction among Latino and African American men and attendant homicide, infection, and incarceration. Pentecostal-evangelical street ministries are prevalent in these regions. Their alternative vision of masculine honor and power addresses a cultural crisis of men's social space. They replace the unachievable ideal of the male breadwinner with an image of male spiritual power. In place of the violence of the drug trade, they cultivate male domesticity and responsibility for the home. In place of a deleterious drug economy, they offer the social and cultural capital of ministry networks and biblical knowledge. Yet the trajectories of ministry converts reveal the limits, as well as the promise, of evangelist masculinity as a treatment for addiction. In the course of building leadership among their converts, the ministries create their own, internal hierarchies, fall short of the spiritual democracy they espouse, and lead to relapse among those left at the bottom.

  12. Introduction to The Special Issue on The Behavior Analysis and Treatment of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, Kenneth; Roll, John M.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2008-01-01

    Extensive evidence from the laboratory and the clinic suggests that drug addiction can be viewed as operant behavior and effectively treated through the application of principles of operant conditioning. Contingency management interventions that arrange for the direct reinforcement of drug abstinence or of other therapeutically important target behaviors (e.g., regular use of drug abuse treatment medications) are among the most studied type of operant treatments. Behavior analysts have contri...

  13. Hypothesis-Driven Medication Discovery for the Treatment of Psychostimulant Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Gardner, Eliot L.

    2008-01-01

    Psychostimulant abuse is a serious social and health problem, for which no effective treatments currently exist. A number of review articles have described predominantly ‘clinic’-based pharmacotherapies for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction, but none have yet been shown to be definitively effective for use in humans. In the present article, we review various ‘hypothesis’- or ‘mechanism’-based pharmacological agents that have been studied at the preclinical level and evaluate their po...

  14. Time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cannabis continues to be the most commonly used illicit psychoactive substance globally. The National Survey in India conducted in the year 2004 also reported it to be the most commonly used illicit substance in the country. Furthermore, it was reported to be the second most commonly used psychoactive substance by the treatment seekers at de-addiction centers in the country. Objectives: To assess time trends of cannabis use among treatment-seeking individuals at government de-addiction centers across India over a period of 7 years. Materials and Methods: The study utilized data collected through Drug Abuse Monitoring System across India. The data of treatment seekers from de-addiction centers established under the Drug De-addiction Program, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India and supported by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, Government of India (122 in number across the country were analyzed. Results: A total of 107,469 individuals sought treatment from government de-addiction centers over the 7 years (2007–2013 period. With the exception of an aberration for the year 2012, there has been a steady decline in the proportion of treatment seekers who are not current cannabis users. A significantly greater proportion (Chi-square: 586.30, df: 1, P < 0.001 of individuals with current cannabis use alone or along with tobacco (20.4% tend to have a co-morbid psychiatric disorder as compared to treatment seekers with current use of substances other than cannabis (6.1%. Conclusions: It is important to focus on cannabis in clinical service delivery and research in the country.

  15. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkeila, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction is defined as uncontrolled and harmful use of Internet, which manifests in three forms: gaming, various sexual activities and excessive use of emails, chats or SMS messaging. Several studies have found that abuse of alcohol and other substances, depression and other health problems are associated with Internet addiction. In boys and men depression may be more a consequence of the addiction than a cause for it. ADHD seems to be a significant background factor for developing the condition. Because it is almost impossible to lead a life without Internet and computers nowadays, it is unrealistic to aim towards full abstinence. Treatment has generally followed the guidelines adapted for pathological gambling.

  16. Effects of academic service learning in drug misuse and addiction on students' learning preferences and attitudes toward harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabli, Noufissa; Liu, Ben; Seifert, Tricia; Arnot, Michelle I

    2013-04-12

    OBJECTIVE. To examine academic service-learning pedagogy on student learning and perceptions of drug misuse and addiction. DESIGN. Third- and fourth-year pharmacology students were exposed to an academic service-learning pedagogy that integrated a community service experience with lectures, in-class discussions and debates, group projects, a final paper, and an examination. Reflective writing assignments throughout the course required students to assimilate and apply what they had learned in the classroom to what they learned in their community placement. ASSESSMENT. Changes in students' responses on pre- and post-course survey instruments reflected shifts toward higher-order thinking. Also, subjective student-learning modalities shifted toward learning by writing. Students' perspectives and attitudes allowed improved context of issues associated with drug misuse and harm reduction models. CONCLUSION. Academic service-learning pedagogy contributes to developing adaptable, well-rounded, engaged learners who become more compassionate and pragmatic in addressing scientific and social questions relating to drug addiction.

  17. Addiction-Related Stigma and Discrimination: A Qualitative Study in Treatment Centers in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Ríos, Jazmín; Ortega-Ortega, Miriam; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2017-04-16

    Social rejection of drug use is greater than that directed at other psychiatric conditions, like depression and anxiety, which may lead to social exclusion of substance users and prevent them from seeking and receiving treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the stigma and discrimination related to addiction in treatment centers in Mexico City. Data are from a broad mixed methods study. The present study is a qualitative analysis of 35 in-depth interviews of drug users, family members, and providers, using guidelines for the exploration of experiences of stigma and discrimination related to substance abuse. A thematic analysis was carried out using specialized software (Atlas.ti 6.2.23). The common practices of stigma and discrimination (e.g., judging, mockery, inappropriate comments, overprotection, and hostile looks), were identified in participant testimonies. The narratives provide evidence of varied conditions of social and gender inequality, as well as experience of violence and abuse, that refer to a structural context of discrimination surrounding addiction, and that constitute obstacles to treatment. The findings allow for a description of the stigmatization process surrounding addiction as a shared problem that requires the implementation of coordinated treatment strategies. They also suggest the need for more comprehensive policies of inclusion, based on human rights, which favor prevention and treatment.

  18. Efficacy of treatment in an opioid -dependent population group using the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP) tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Ruth; Boggs, Bob; Taggart, Noel; Kelly, Martin; Drillington, Aileen; Swanton, Ivy; Patterson, Diane

    2009-01-01

    A pilot study was performed to assess the effectiveness of treatment in an opioid dependent population using the Maudsley Addiction Profile (MAP) tool1.The primary outcome of the study was to assess if treatment had an effect on 1. Substance use (quantity and frequency of use), 2. Health risk behaviour (injecting and sharing injecting equipment), 3. Health symptoms (physical and psychological) and 4. Personal /Social functioning (relationships, employment and crime). A secondary outcome was also sought.The study took place in 2007 in an inner city Belfast hospital specialising in the treatment of addiction, over a two month period. Fifteen patients, all opioid dependent and receiving outpatient community treatment, were interviewed at baseline (prior to the commencement of treatment) and at eight weeks follow up.Three patients were lost to follow up. Two patients stopped using altogether. Of the remaining patients, improvements were seen in most areas. There was a decrease in the use of heroin (71.28%), cocaine (99.72%), crack cocaine (100%), cannabis (99.94%) and alcohol (33.17%). There was a reduction in injecting behaviour (60.93%). Improvements were observed in health with a reduction in physical (41.35%) and psychological (35%) symptoms. Overall personal and social functioning improved regarding interactions with family and friends. A reduction in crime was also observed (75%).Opinions and views of staff involved in the study were generally positive.This patient population presents with multiple and complex needs. Effective treatment needs to address these needs and not just drug addiction alone. The Maudsley Addiction Profile tool highlights this.

  19. Evaluation of Toxicological Analysis Results and Treatment Applications in Cases Registered for Drug Addiction at Parole Branch office of Trabzon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Karadeniz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Substance use, increased rapidly all over the world and our country become a very important social problem, to take legal measures were made compulsory parole is the conditional release of a prison inmate after serving part (if not all of his or her sentence, allowing the inmate to live in the community under supervision of the parole period. Parole and Aid Centers, which were put in effect by Ministry of Justice in the context of membership process of EU, set up as a social service on 20 July 2005 with a law which went into effect after being published in Official Gazette. At this study, 201 (47.2% cases, which contained drug addiction were examined out of 425 cases in total, which were registered to Branch Directorate of Trabzon Parole between the dates of 21 December 2005 and 30 June 2008. The cases were grouped in terms of age, gender, education level, occupation, drugs used, treatment, and toxicological analysis results. The rates of drug using for men are 98.5% (n = 198, and for women 1.5% (n=3. The ages of cases were ranked between 17 and 64, the average age was found as 32.47 ± 10.55 years. The frequency of drug use is most in the age group of 27-36 (39.8%, n=80. As a result, parole application, which is rather new in Turkey, has puts on the agenda with a chance of being addictive were recovered to the society by being followed and treated. The reluctance of guilty people returning to the prison again, the effect on individual of being considered important by system, and illuminating information which were given by educator, and treatment performance indicate positive effect on the guilty. Key words: Parole, drug, addiction

  20. Mortality Risk Among Heroin Abusers: Clients and Non-clients of Public Treatment Centers for Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavarin, Raimondo Maria

    2015-01-01

    In Europe, the prevalence of problematic heroin consumption is declining but, in spite of the constant rise in the number of treated patients, many of them do not turn to a public treatment center (PTC) for their drug addiction. The aim of this study is to study the mortality risk separately for heroin abusers PTC clients and non-PTC clients (i.e., those never treated at a PTC). Cohort study on 959 subjects resident in the metropolitan area of Bologna who went to a health service (i.e., hospital, emergency unit) or to a PTC following problems due to heroin abuse for the first time between 01/01/2004 and 31/12/2009. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated, and regression analysis using the Poisson method was used. Elevated and statistically significant SMRs were found in both genders, irrespective of the contact facility, being higher for PTC clients. Among non-PTC clients 28% of deaths overall were from AIDS or infectious diseases (6% PTC clients), 17% from opiate overdose (6% PTC clients) and 14% from violent causes (6% PTC clients). Multivariate analysis showed a higher mortality risk for patients who used both heroin and cocaine and for concomitant abuse of benzodiazepines. The characteristics of patients never before treated for addiction prompts a reflection on the presence of a hidden group of patients who are hard to reach, who have a high mortality risk and who turn to health care treatment facilities only in the event of an emergency.

  1. Vitamin D as an Effective Treatment Approach for Drug abuse and Addiction

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    Jaqueline Kalleian Eserian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Effective pharmacological treatments for drug abuse and addiction have not yet been identified. Evidences show that vitamin D may be involved in neurodevelopment and may have a neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic pathways in the adult brain. The fact that vitamin Dincreases the levels of tyrosine hydroxylase expression implies that vitamin D could modulate dopa- minergic processes. Drugs of abuse act through different mechanisms of action and on differentlocations in the brain reward system; however, all of them share a final action in which they increase dopamine levels in the reward pathway. Vitamin D-treated animals showed significant attenuatedmethamphetamine-induced reductions in dopamine and metabolites when compared to control, indicating that vitamin D provides protection for the dopaminergic system against the depleting effects of methamphetamine. In this article, it is speculated that vitamin D would be an effective treatment approach for drug abuse and addiction, if we consider that vitamin D would provide pro-tection for the dopaminergic system against dopamine-depleting effects of drugs, as it did for meth- amphetamine. This hypothesis can provide a new direction towards a new treatment approach fordrug abuse and addiction, as we have no pharmacological treatments at our disposal at the present moment, although several issues need further investigation

  2. A Meta-Analysis of Treatment Interventions for Internet Addiction Among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, JongSerl; Shim, HaiSun; Kim, Soyoun

    2017-04-01

    This study comprehensively examined the effects of treatment interventions for Internet addiction among adolescents in South Korea through a meta-analysis. We analyzed 70 domestic master's theses and journal articles that reported on controlled studies and involved pre- and post-test analyses in the design. The dates of these publications fall between 2000 and 2015. The total effect size, calculated by random-effect analysis (g), revealed that interventions for the treatment of Internet addiction were effective (ES = 1.838). Meta-ANOVAs revealed differences between groups based on a theoretical model, intervention group size, and intervention duration. Integrative therapy produced larger effect sizes (ES = 2.794) compared to other treatment models such as cognitive behavioral therapy and reality therapy. Effect sizes for interventions, including nine to 12 people (ES = 2.178), were larger than those of interventions including more or fewer participants. Finally, treatment interventions that lasted 8 or more weeks revealed larger effect sizes (ES = 2.294) compared to shorter interventions. The study findings suggest directions for the development and effective operation of future Internet addiction interventions among Korean adolescents. Increasing the effectiveness of these interventions requires an integrative theoretical model, an intervention group size of nine to 12 participants, and a long-term intervention.

  3. Relationships of dissociative disorders and personality traits in opium addicts on methadone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafarinezhad, Alireza; Rajabizadeh, Ghodratollah; Shahriari, Vahid

    2013-01-01

    Drug abuse is a major public health problem. Some believe that when dissociation fails to defend against emotional, physical, or sexual trauma, the person will find relief from unpleasant thoughts and emotions in opium use. On the other hand, personality disorders are considered as important predictors of treatment outcomes in drug abusers. Due to lack of adequate research in this regard, we evaluated dissociative disorders and personality traits of opium addicts on methadone treatment. This cross-sectional analytic study included 111 non-psychotic subjects on methadone treatment (case group) and 69 non-addicts (control group). After recording demographic characteristics, Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and Millon Multiaxial Inventory III were applied to assess dissociative symptoms and clinical personality patterns of all participants. Dissociative symptoms were significantly more common in the case group than in the control group (P = 0.044). While hysterionic personality disorder was more frequent in the control group (P = 0.008), sadistic, antisocial, and schizotypal personality disorders were significantly more common in the case group (P = 0.008, 0.002, and 0.023, respectively). We found relations between history of drug dependence, dissociative symptoms, and personality disorders. Therefore, the mentioned disorders need to be kept in mind while planning addiction treatment modalities and identifying high risk groups.

  4. Application of Research Domain Criteria to childhood and adolescent impulsive and addictive disorders: Implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Sarah W; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-11-09

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative provides a large-scale, dimensional framework for the integration of research findings across traditional diagnoses, with the long-term aim of improving existing psychiatric treatments. A neurodevelopmental perspective is essential to this endeavor. However, few papers synthesizing research findings across childhood and adolescent disorders exist. Here, we discuss how the RDoC framework may be applied to the study of childhood and adolescent impulsive and addictive disorders in order to improve neurodevelopmental understanding and to enhance treatment development. Given the large scope of RDoC, we focus on a single construct highly relevant to addictive and impulsive disorders - initial responsiveness to reward attainment. Findings from genetic, molecular, neuroimaging and other translational research methodologies are highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Possible Mechanism Underlying the Effectiveness of Acupuncture in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

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    Chae Ha Yang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials are currently underway to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of drug addiction. While there are still many unanswered questions about the basic mechanisms of acupuncture, some evidence exists to suggest that acupuncture can play an important role in reducing reinforcing effects of abused drugs. The purpose of this article is to critically review these data. The neurochemical and behavioral evidence showed that acupuncture's role in suppressing the reinforcing effects of abused drugs takes place by modulating mesolimbic dopamine neurons. Also, several brain neurotransmitter systems such as serotonin, opioid and amino acids including GABA have been implicated in the modulation of dopamine release by acupuncture. These results provided clear evidence for the biological effects of acupuncture that ultimately may help us to understand how acupuncture can be used to treat abused drugs. Additional research using animal models is of primary importance to understanding the basic mechanism underlying acupuncture's effectiveness in the treatment of drug addiction.

  6. Cigarette smoking and short-term addiction treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, P T; Montoya, I D; Preston, K L; Juliano, L M; Gorelick, D A

    2011-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among patients in cocaine and opioid dependence treatment, and may influence treatment outcome. We addressed this issue in a secondary analysis of data from an outpatient clinical trial of buprenorphine treatment for concurrent cocaine and opioid dependence (13 weeks, N=200). The association between cigarette smoking (lifetime cigarette smoking status, number of cigarettes smoked per day prior to study entry) and short-term treatment outcome (% of urine samples positive for cocaine or opioids, treatment retention) was evaluated with analysis of covariance, bivariate correlations, and multivariate linear regression. Nicotine-dependent smokers (66% of participants) had a significantly higher percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples than non-smokers (12% of participants) (76% vs. 62%), but did not differ in percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. Number of cigarettes smoked per day at baseline was positively associated with percentage of cocaine-positive urine samples, even after controlling for baseline sociodemographic and drug use characteristics, but was not significantly associated with percentage of opioid-positive urine samples or treatment retention. These results suggest that cigarette smoking is associated with poorer short-term outcome of outpatient treatment for cocaine dependence, but perhaps not of concurrent opioid dependence, and support the importance of offering smoking cessation treatment to cocaine-dependent patients.

  7. NIDA-Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) Relapse as a Function of Spirituality/Religiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J.; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Giordano, John; Thompson, Ben; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Madigan, Margaret A.; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Waite, Roger L.; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie), and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds. Impairments in brain reward circuitry, as observed in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), may also result in deviance and as such we wondered if stronger belief in spirituality practice and religious belief could lower relapse from drugs of abuse. Methods The NIDA Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study data set was used to examine post hoc relapse rates among 2,947 clients who were interviewed at 12 months after intake broken down by five spirituality measures. Results Our main findings strongly indicate, that those with low spirituality have higher relapse rates and those with high spirituality have higher remission rates with crack use being the sole exception. We found significant differences in terms of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and marijuana relapse as a function of strength of religious beliefs (x2 = 15.18, p = 0.028; logistic regression = 10.65, p = 0.006); frequency of attending religious services (x2 = 40.78, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 30.45, p < 0.0005); frequency of reading religious books (x2 = 27.190, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 17.31, p < 0.0005); frequency of watching religious programs (x2 = 19.02, p = 0.002; logistic regression = ns); and frequency of meditation/prayer (x2 = 11.33, p = 0.045; logistic regression = 9.650, p = 0.002). Across the five measures of spirituality, the spiritual participants reported between 7% and 21% less alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and marijuana use than the non-spiritual subjects. However, the crack users who reported that religion was not important reported significantly less crack use than the spiritual participants. The strongest association between remission and spirituality

  8. NIDA-Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS Relapse as a Function of Spirituality/Religiosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J. Schoenthaler

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie, and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds. Impairments in brain reward circuitry, as observed in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS, may also result in deviance and as such we wondered if stronger belief in spirituality practice and religious belief could lower relapse from drugs of abuse. Methods: The NIDA Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study data set was used to examine post hoc relapse rates among 2,947 clients who were interviewed at 12 months after intake broken down by five spirituality measures. Results: Our main findings strongly indicate, that those with low spirituality have higher relapse rates and those with high spirituality have higher remission rates with crack use being the sole exception. We found significant differences in terms of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and marijuana relapse as a function of strength of religious beliefs (x2 = 15.18, p = 0.028; logistic regression = 10.65, p = 0.006; frequency of attending religious services (x2 = 40.78, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 30.45, p < 0.0005; frequency of reading religious books (x2 = 27.190, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 17.31, p < 0.0005; frequency of watching religious programs (x2 = 19.02, p = 0.002; logistic regression = ns; and frequency of meditation/prayer (x2 = 11.33, p = 0.045; logistic regression = 9.650, p = 0.002. Across the five measures of spirituality, the spiritual participants reported between 7% and 21% less alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and marijuana use than the non-spiritual subjects. However, the crack users who reported that religion was not important reported significantly less crack use than the spiritual participants. The strongest association between remission

  9. Partial MHC/neuroantigen peptide constructs: a potential neuroimmune-based treatment for methamphetamine addiction.

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    Jennifer M Loftis

    Full Text Available Relapse rates following current methamphetamine abuse treatments are very high (∼40-60%, and the neuropsychiatric impairments (e.g., cognitive deficits, mood disorders that arise and persist during remission from methamphetamine addiction likely contribute to these high relapse rates. Pharmacotherapeutic development of medications to treat addiction has focused on neurotransmitter systems with only limited success, and there are no Food and Drug Administration approved pharmacotherapies for methamphetamine addiction. A growing literature shows that methamphetamine alters peripheral and central immune functions and that immune factors such as cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules play a role in the development and persistence of methamphetamine induced neuronal injury and neuropsychiatric impairments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a new immunotherapy, partial MHC/neuroantigen peptide construct (RTL551; pI-A(b/mMOG-35-55, in treating learning and memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure. C57BL/6J mice were exposed to two different methamphetamine treatment regimens (using repeated doses of 4 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, s.c.. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Morris water maze and CNS cytokine levels were measured by multiplex assay. Immunotherapy with RTL551 improved the memory impairments induced by repeated methamphetamine exposure in both mouse models of chronic methamphetamine addiction. Treatment with RTL551 also attenuated the methamphetamine induced increases in hypothalamic interleukin-2 (IL-2 levels. Collectively, these initial results indicate that neuroimmune targeted therapies, and specifically RTL551, may have potential as treatments for methamphetamine-induced neuropsychiatric impairments.

  10. Subtyping patients with heroin addiction at treatment entry: factor derived from the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90

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    Maremmani Icro

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addiction is a relapsing chronic condition in which psychiatric phenomena play a crucial role. Psychopathological symptoms in patients with heroin addiction are generally considered to be part of the drug addict's personality, or else to be related to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity, raising doubts about whether patients with long-term abuse of opioids actually possess specific psychopathological dimensions. Methods Using the Self-Report Symptom Inventory (SCL-90, we studied the psychopathological dimensions of 1,055 patients with heroin addiction (884 males and 171 females aged between 16 and 59 years at the beginning of treatment, and their relationship to age, sex and duration of dependence. Results A total of 150 (14.2% patients with heroin addiction showed depressive symptomatology characterised by feelings of worthlessness and being trapped or caught; 257 (24.4% had somatisation symptoms, 205 (19.4% interpersonal sensitivity and psychotic symptoms, 235 (22.3% panic symptomatology, 208 (19.7% violence and self-aggression. These dimensions were not correlated with sex or duration of dependence. Younger patients with heroin addiction were characterised by higher scores for violence-suicide, sensitivity and panic anxiety symptomatology. Older patients with heroin addiction showed higher scores for somatisation and worthlessness-being trapped symptomatology. Conclusions This study supports the hypothesis that mood, anxiety and impulse-control dysregulation are the core of the clinical phenomenology of addiction and should be incorporated into its nosology.

  11. The Integration of Medical Toxicology and Addiction Medicine: a New Era in Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laes, JoAn R

    2016-03-01

    Medical toxicologists are frequently called upon to treat patients who are addicted to alcohol, tobacco, or other substances across many care settings. Medical toxicologists provide service to their patients through the identification, treatment, and prevention of addiction and its co-morbidities, and practice opportunities are quite varied. Training in addiction medicine can be obtained during or after medical toxicology fellowship through resources offered by the American Society of Addiction Medicine. Additionally, the American Board of Addiction Medicine offers certification in the specialty of addiction medicine to candidates across a wide range of medical specialties.

  12. A proposal to evaluate mechanistic efficacy of hallucinogens in addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Brittany Vasae; Adinoff, Bryon

    2013-09-01

    Current treatments for addiction are frequently ineffective. Hallucinogenic therapy has been indicated as helpful for a range of substance use disorders, yet this approach remains understudied and publicly unavailable. It is nonetheless a promising treatment, which has significant, long-term beneficial effects with single doses and a profile characterized by general safety, low toxicity, and non-addictiveness. However, pharmacological interventions, such as hallucinogens, should not be offered if the same effects (e.g. psychological insights/mystical experiences) and outcomes (e.g. decreased drug use) could be achieved absent pharmacological intervention. To date, there have been no clinical comparisons of drug-induced altered states with non-drug-induced states for addiction treatment. We propose and then outline a clinical trial to address this gap in knowledge. The proposed design would evaluate abstinence outcomes in a population of prescription opioid abusers after exposure to one of three conditions: a drug-induced altered state using psilocybin, a non-drug-induced altered state via hyperventilation (Holotropic Breathwork), and an active placebo with niacin. The outcomes of such a study would reveal important differences in therapeutic potential by discriminating hallucinogen-dependent effects from those psychological effects resulting from altered states.

  13. Pharmacogenomics of alcohol addiction: Personalizing pharmacologic treatment of alcohol dependence

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    Ragia Georgia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a serious psychiatric disorder with harmful physical, mental and social consequences, and a high probability of a chronic relapsing course. The field of pharmacologic treatment of alcohol dependence and craving is expanding rapidly; the drugs that have been found to reduce relapse rates or drinking in alcohol-dependent patients and are approved for treatment of alcohol dependence are naltrexone, acamprosate and disulfiram, whereas also topiramate appears as a promising therapy. For many patients, however, these treatments are not effective. Evidence from a number of different studies suggests that genetic variation is a significant contributor to interindividual variation of clinical presentation of alcohol problems and response to a given treatment. The aim of the present review is to summarize and discuss the findings on the association between gene polymorphisms and the response to alcohol dependence treatment medications. It is anticipated that future implementation of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice will help personalize alcohol dependence drug treatment, and development personalized hospital pharmacology.

  14. Treatment of child/adolescent obesity using the addiction model: a smartphone app pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A; Stock, Carol M; Allison, Stephen; Roeger, Leigh

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to test a weight loss program for young people based on an addiction treatment approach. A pilot study (n=43) was conducted of a 20-week child/adolescent obesity intervention based on an addiction treatment model (staged, incremental withdrawal from problem foods, snacking/grazing, and excessive amounts at meals) and implemented by a server-integrated smartphone app with health professional support. The primary outcome was standardized %overBMI measured at four time points. Secondary outcomes were participants' self-ratings of self-esteem, control over food, and the degree they turned to food when stressed. User satisfaction data were collected with an online questionnaire. Latent growth modeling techniques were used to identify independent variables and possible mediating treatment process variables associated with weight change. Mean age of participants was 16 years (range, 10-21), 65% girls, and 84% Caucasian. Twenty-seven (63%) completed the program. There was a significant decrease in %overBMI over time of 7.1. There were significant improvements in participant ratings of self-esteem, control over food, and a reduction in turning to food when stressed. Males, younger participants, and participants with higher levels of program compliance achieved better weight loss. Participants who reported that calling obesity an addiction made their guilt worse experienced poorer weight loss. Females were more likely than males to report "addiction guilt," and this partly mediated the overall gender effect. The staged, incremental food withdrawal approach was feasible to implement and was useful in helping reduce excessive weight, particularly among boys.

  15. Opiate addicts in and outside of treatment; Different populations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Goossensen (Anne)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe core of this study is related to the insight that the population of opiate addicls is quite an invisible group. Some paris of this group can be identified at treatment institutions and in prisons. However, a large pari of the opiate addicls is hard to detect. This is because

  16. Social Anxiety and Peer Helping in Adolescent Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, Maria E.; Wang, Alexandra R.; Rowles, Brieana M.; Lee, Matthew T.; Johnson, Byron R.

    2015-01-01

    The developmental need to fit in may lead to higher alcohol and other drug use among socially anxious youths which exacerbates the drink/trouble cycle. In treatment, youths with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may avoid participating in therapeutic activities with risk of negative peer appraisal. Peer-helping is a low-intensity, social activity in…

  17. Opiate addicts in and outside of treatment; Different populations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Goossensen (Anne)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe core of this study is related to the insight that the population of opiate addicls is quite an invisible group. Some paris of this group can be identified at treatment institutions and in prisons. However, a large pari of the opiate addicls is hard to detect. This is because their il

  18. Buprenorphine: an analgesic with an expanding role in the treatment of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Susan E

    2002-01-01

    Buprenorphine, a long-acting opioid with both agonist and antagonist properties, binds to mu-opioid (OP(3)), kappa-opioid (OP(2)), delta-opioid (OP(1)), and nociceptin (ORL-1) receptors. Its actions at these receptors have not been completely characterized, although buprenorphine is generally regarded as a mu-opioid receptor partial agonist and a kappa-opioid receptor antagonist. Its pharmacology is further complicated by an active metabolite, norbuprenorphine. Although buprenorphine can be used as an analgesic agent, it is of greater importance in the treatment of opioid abuse. Because of its partial agonist activity at mu-opioid receptors and its long half-life, buprenorphine has proven to be an excellent alternative to methadone for either maintenance therapy or detoxification of the opioid addict. Although buprenorphine may ultimately prove to be superior to methadone in the maintenance of the pregnant addict, its effects on the developing fetus must be carefully evaluated.

  19. Quality of life in studies with patients under treatment for substance abuse and addiction

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    Selva Rios Campêlo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find Quality of Life (QoL instruments and their purpose in studies with patients under treatment for substance abuse and addiction. This is an integrative review, whose articles were available on the Virtual Health Library (VHL and published between 2010 and 2015 with the associated descriptors "Substance-Related Disorders" and "Quality of Life". Twenty-nine texts were analyzed and the instruments were grouped into four possible uses of measurement of Quality of Life. The majority used generic instruments such as WHOQOL-Bref for general Quality of Life and the SF-36 of Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL. It is recommended that further studies be carried out on the use of Quality of Life instruments in relation to addiction, especially with specific instruments that are beginning to appear in some studies and which have not been consolidated in the field.

  20. Redox-based Epigenetic status in Drug Addiction: Potential mediator of drug-induced gene priming phenomenon and use of metabolic intervention for symptomatic treatment in drug addiction.

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    Malav Suchin Trivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants and opioids, can induce epigenetic changes: a contributing factor for drug addiction, tolerance and associated withdrawal symptoms. DNA methylation is the major epigenetic mechanism and it is one of more than 200 methylation reactions supported by methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM. The levels of SAM are controlled by cellular redox status via the folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS, for example; under oxidative conditions MS is inhibited, diverting its substrate homocysteine (HCY to the transsulfuration pathway. Alcohol, dopamine and morphine, can alter intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH-based cellular redox status, subsequently affecting S-adenosylmethionine (SAM levels and DNA methylation status. In this discussion, we compile this and other existing evidence in a coherent manner to present a novel hypothesis implicating the involvement of redox-based epigenetic changes in drug addiction. Next, we also discuss how gene priming phenomenon can contribute to maintenance of redox and methylation status homeostasis under various stimuli including drugs of abuse. Lastly, based on our hypothesis and some preliminary evidence, we discuss a mechanistic explanation for use of metabolic interventions / redox-replenishers as symptomatic treatment of alcohol addiction and associated withdrawal symptoms. Hence, the current review article strengthens the hypothesis that neuronal metabolism has a critical bidirectional coupling with epigenetic changes in drug addiction and we support this claim via exemplifying the link between redox-based metabolic changes and resultant epigenetic consequences under the effect of drugs of abuse.

  1. On the Comparison of Cognitive Function in Substance Abusers and Addicts under Methadone Treatment with Normal Individuals

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    reza mohammadzadeghan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to compare cognitive functioning in substance abusers and addicts under methadone treatment with normal individuals. Method: The current study was a causal-comparative one. The statistical population of this research consisted of all male substance abusers who had referred to addiction treatment centers of Khoy city in 2013. The total of 40 addicts under methadone treatment, 40 active drug users, and 40 non-addicts were selected as the participants of this study via convenience sampling method. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Wechsler Memory Scale were administered to the three groups for data collection purposes. Results: The results showed that the substance abusers’ scores in Wisconsin card sorting test and Wechsler memory scale were significantly different from those of addicts under methadone treatment and normal individuals. In the same way, there was a significant difference between addicts under methadone treatment and normal individuals in terms of cognitive function however, there was no significant difference between these two groups in terms of perseveration error. Conclusion: It can be concluded that chronic use of psychoactive substances causes damage to multiple brain regions such as prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and, thereby, it leads to cognitive malfunctioning in these areas.

  2. Failure to treat tobacco use in mental health and addiction treatment settings: a form of harm reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J

    2010-08-01

    In mental health and addiction treatment settings, failure to treat tobacco dependence has been rationalized by some as a clinical approach to harm reduction. That is, tobacco use is viewed as a less harmful alternative to alcohol or illicit drug use and/or other self-harm behaviors. This paper examines the impact of providers' failure to treat tobacco use on patients' alcohol and illicit drug use and associated high-risk behaviors. The weight of the evidence in the literature indicates: (1) tobacco use is a leading cause of death in patients with psychiatric illness or addictive disorders; (2) tobacco use is associated with worsened substance abuse treatment outcomes, whereas treatment of tobacco dependence supports long-term sobriety; (3) tobacco use is associated with increased (not decreased) depressive symptoms and suicidal risk behavior; (4) tobacco use adversely impacts psychiatric treatment; (5) tobacco use is a lethal and ineffective long-term coping strategy for managing stress, and (6) treatment of tobacco use does not harm mental health recovery. Failure to treat tobacco dependence in mental health and addiction treatment settings is not consistent with a harm reduction model. In contrast, emerging evidence indicates treatment of tobacco dependence may even improve addiction treatment and mental health outcomes. Providers in mental health and addiction treatment settings have an ethical duty to intervene on patients' tobacco use and provide available evidence-based treatments.

  3. [Physical exercise and yoga in prevention and treatment of addictive diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespor, K

    2005-01-01

    Prevention of addictive diseases should be complex and systematic and it should include training of social skills, decision-making skills, family intervention, etc. Similarly, effective treatment is usually long-term, systematic and complex. Physical exercise and yoga can be useful components of comprehensive prevention and treatment programmes. On the other hand, competitive professional sport rather increases the number of risk factors for substance-related problems. Practical experience with the use of yoga in substance dependent patients and pathological gambles are mentioned. One of the advantages of yoga is the integration of physical exercise and relaxation.

  4. Counselors' Perspectives of Positive Psychology for the Treatment of Addiction: A Mixed Methods Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentzman, Amy R; Barker, Stacey L

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the use of positive psychology interventions (PPI) in addictions treatment. Questionnaires and interviews with alcohol and substance use disorder counselors explored theories of how PPIs might work, the degree to which they are used, and downsides. Results suggested that positive and pathology-based themes were attended in equal proportion, that substance abuse treatment should help clients develop a good life in recovery; that counselors already use PPI; and that PPI might counter negative cognitions and affect. Reservations for using PPI included relying on PPI exclusively and employing PPI indiscriminately without regard to client characteristics.

  5. SeCD electronic folder: CADMIO's application for the medical folder of a service for the care of drug addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Valle, R M; Baldoni, A; De Rossi, M; Ferri, F

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we will describe the SeCD (Service for the Care of Drug addicts) electronic folder, a specific application of CADMIO [1] (Computer Aided Design for Medical Information Objects) system. CADMIO is a system for the definition, construction and management of multimedia clinical folders. The Ser.T. (Servizio per la Tossicodipendenza/Service for Drug Addicts) has earned a very special place within the Italian clinical structures as well as any service for drug addicts has done in the rest of the world. Such a structure has special needs and the characteristics of its medical folders are very different from any other folder. Actually, a Ser.T. has to keep updated the patient situation either from the clinical point of view as well as the psychiatric one. Moreover, it must keep track of the clinician subjective considerations about the patient psychic state and his situation in regard of the law. So, we had to redesign some of the features of the existing CADMIO application, to accommodate such highly not structured data into objects easily manipulated by an informative system. The objectives we hope to achieve were mainly two: To show that a well designed adaptive system can be easily exploited to support even very complex and poorly structured data types and actions To design data structures able to accommodate medical, psychiatric and administrative data in an homogeneous manner.

  6. Injectable and implantable sustained release naltrexone in the treatment of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunøe, Nikolaj; Lobmaier, Philipp; Ngo, Hanh; Hulse, Gary

    2014-02-01

    Sustained release technologies for administering the opioid antagonist naltrexone (SRX) have the potential to assist opioid-addicted patients in their efforts to maintain abstinence from heroin and other opioid agonists. Recently, reliable SRX formulations in intramuscular or implantable polymers that release naltrexone for 1-7 months have become available for clinical use and research. This qualitative review of the literature provides an overview of the technologies currently available for SRX and their effectiveness in reducing opioid use and other relevant outcomes. The majority of studies indicate that SRX is effective in reducing heroin use, and the most frequently studied SRX formulations have acceptable adverse events profiles. Registry data indicate a protective effect of SRX on mortality and morbidity. In some studies, SRX also seems to affect other outcomes, such as concomitant substance use, vocational training attendance, needle use, and risk behaviour for blood-borne diseases such as hepatitis or human immunodeficiency virus. There is a general need for more controlled studies, in particular to compare SRX with agonist maintenance treatment, to study combinations of SRX with behavioural interventions, and to study at-risk groups such as prison inmates or opioid-addicted pregnant patients. The literature suggests that sustained release naltrexone is a feasible, safe and effective option for assisting abstinence efforts in opioid addiction. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Current considerations regarding food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erica M; Joyner, Michelle A; Potenza, Marc N; Grilo, Carlos M; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2015-04-01

    "Food addiction" is an emerging area, and behavioral and biological overlaps have been observed between eating and addictive disorders. Potential misconceptions about applying an addiction framework to problematic eating behavior may inhibit scientific progress. Critiques of "food addiction" that focus on descriptive differences between overeating and illicit drugs are similar to early criticisms of the addictiveness of tobacco. Although food is necessary for survival, the highly processed foods associated with addictive-like eating may provide little health benefit. Individual differences are important in determining who develops an addiction. If certain foods are addictive, the identification of possible risk factors for "food addiction" is an important next step. Not all treatments for addiction require abstinence. Addiction interventions that focus on moderation or controlled use may lead to novel approaches to treating eating-related problems. Finally, addiction-related policies that focus on environmental (instead of educational) targets may have a larger public health impact in reducing overeating.

  8. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  9. Addiction treatment provider attitudes on staff capacity and evidence-based clinical training: results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lena; Amodeo, Maryann; Krull, Ivy; Chassler, Deborah; Weidenfeld, Rachel; de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; Gowler, Rebekah; Lederer, Jaime; Cohen, Alexander; Beltrame, Clelia

    2011-01-01

    This national study of addiction-treatment organizations' implementation of evidence-based practices examines: (1) organizational/leadership factors associated with director (n = 212) attitudes regarding staff resistance to organizational change, and (2) organizational/staff factors associated with staff (n = 312) attitudes regarding evidence-based clinical training. Linear regression analyses, controlling for type of treatment unit, leadership/staff characteristics and organizational readiness to change, identified that directors who perceived their organization needed more guidance and had less staff cohesion and autonomy rated staff resistance to organizational change significantly higher. Staff with higher levels of education and greater agreement that their organization supported change had greater preference for evidence-based trainings. Federal addiction treatment policy should both promote education and training of treatment staff and organizational development of treatment CBOs.  © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  10. The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latypov Alisher B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1]. Additional file 1 Abstract. The Soviet

  11. Update on treatment of craving in patients with addiction using Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Maria da Silva Roggi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The craving is a strong desire to consume a psychotropic substance and is one of the symptoms of withdrawal syndrome in drug addiction. As a theoretical construct, craving is complex and described by different authors, which results in various theoretical models, but there is a consensus on the importance of its treatment. This paper conducted a literature review to identify and describe the most widely used techniques of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for the management of craving and to verify the impact of applying these techniques on outcome variables, specifically the craving. Method: Searches were conducted in the databases of PubMed and PsycInfo using the following descriptors in association: “craving”, “cognitive therapy” “behavior therapy” and “cognitive behavior therapy”. Results: 198 papers were found, out of which thirty four were selected for analysis. The cognitive behavior therapy treatment includes various techniques such as Relapse Prevention, Psychoeducational, Humor and Stress Management, Motivational Interviewing, Exposure to the Relapse Prevention and Relaxation techniques. The manual for Project MATCH is one of the most cited and used for the treatment of drug addicts. Cue Exposure Therapy (CET, Attentional Bias Modification (ABM and newer “mindfulness” therapeutic methods are studied, and have shown promising results, but still need to be further investigated. Conclusion: Various treatments have been proposed and have allowed the achievement of significant improvements in the reduction of craving.

  12. Genetic influence on methadone treatment outcomes in patients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment for opioid addiction: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaan Z

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Zainab Samaan,1–4 Monica Bawor,3,4 Brittany B Dennis,2,3 Carolyn Plater,5 Michael Varenbut,5 Jeffrey Daiter,5 Andrew Worster,5,6 David C Marsh,5,7 Charlie Tan,8 Dipika Desai,3 Lehana Thabane,2,9,10 Guillaume Pare11 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 3Population Genomics Program, Chanchlani Research Centre, 4MiNDS Neuroscience Program, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 5Ontario Addiction Treatment Centres, Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada; 6Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; 7Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada; 8Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, McMaster University, 9Biostatistics Unit, Centre for Evaluation of Medicine, 10System Linked Research Unit, 11Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada Introduction: Treatment of opioid addiction with methadone is effective; however, it is known to produce interindividual variability. This may be influenced in part by genetic variants, which can increase the initial risk of developing opioid addiction as well as explain differences in response to treatment. This pilot study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting a full-scale genetic analysis to identify genes that predict methadone treatment outcomes in this population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study of patients admitted to a methadone maintenance treatment program for opioid addiction. We obtained demographic and clinical characteristics in addition to blood and urine samples, for the assessment of treatment outcomes. Results: The recruitment process yielded 252 patients, representing a 20% recruitment rate. We conducted genetic testing based on a 99.6% rate of provision of DNA samples. The average retention in treatment was 3.4 years, and >50% of the participants reported psychiatric and

  13. Comorbid psychiatric diagnoses among individuals presenting to an addiction treatment program for alcohol dependence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lyne, John Paul

    2011-01-01

    A retrospective patient record review was conducted to examine comorbid psychiatric diagnoses, and comorbid substance use, among 465 patients below 45 years of age, presenting to a national alcohol addiction treatment unit in Dublin, between 1995 and 2006. Rates were high for depressive disorder (25.3%) particularly among females (35.4%). Lifetime reported use of substances other than alcohol was 39.2%, and further analysis showed significantly higher rates of deliberate self-harm among this group. Lifetime reported use of ecstasy was also significantly associated with depression in this alcohol-dependent population using logistic regression analysis. Implications and limitations of the findings are discussed.

  14. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY INVESTIGATING THE EFFECTS OF A TREATMENT MANUAL FOR VIDEO GAME ADDICTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallesen, Ståle; Lorvik, Ingjerd Meen; Bu, Eli Hellandsjø; Molde, Helge

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of a manualized therapy for video game addiction in 12 males, ages 14-18 yr. The manual was based on cognitive-behavioral therapy, short-term strategic family therapy, solution-focused therapy, and motivational interviewing. Treatment response was reported by the patients, their mothers, and the therapists. The patients reported moderate (but statistically non-significant) improvement from pre- to post-treatment. The mothers, however, reported large effects and statistically significant improvement from pre- to post-treatment. The therapists reported marked or moderate treatment response in six of the 12 patients. The ratings of change by mothers converged well with the views of change of both the patients and therapists, whereas the convergence of views on change between the two latter sources was far lower.

  15. Relationship of food addiction to weight loss and attrition during obesity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lent, Michelle R; Eichen, Dawn M; Goldbacher, Edie; Wadden, Thomas A; Foster, Gary D

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between food addiction (FA) and weight and attrition outcomes in overweight and obese adults participating in weight loss interventions were prospectively examined in this study. Participants were 178 adults (51.2 ± 11.7 y, 36.1 ± 4.8 kg/m(2) ) in one of two outpatient weight loss treatment programs for approximately 6 months. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) assessed FA diagnosis and symptom count. The relationship between FA and weight loss and attrition was assessed. After controlling for treatment arm, gender, and baseline weight, there was no effect of FA status on weight loss (P = 0.17) or attrition (P = 0.37). Similarly, baseline FA symptom count was not associated with weight loss (P = 0.14) or attrition (P = 0.10). Neither FA status nor symptom count affects weight loss or attrition during weight loss treatment. © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  16. Improving Consumer Satisfaction with Addiction Treatment: An Analysis of Alumni Preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghani, Ruchi M; Moler, Alexander K

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The primary objective of this investigation is to determine which individual and aggregate factors of residential addiction treatment centers are most significant influencers of alumni satisfaction. Design. Survey targeted alumni of residential addiction treatment facilities. Alumni were queried through a survey, which utilized Likert-scale matrices and binary response options: 379 respondents met the completion threshold. Alumni rated amenities and individual and group counseling factors; additionally, respondents provided feedback on two satisfaction proxies: cost worthiness and future recommendations. Descriptive and relational analyses were conducted, with the latter utilizing logistic regression models. Results. Individual factors' scores of group counseling, and overall aggregate group counseling score, are most enthusiastically positive. Group counseling is also the most significant influencer of satisfaction. Other significant influencers of satisfaction are met expectations for individual counseling and psychiatric care offerings. Conclusions. While individual counseling and facility amenities should not be ignored, group counseling may be the most significant influencer of alumni satisfaction. Long-term outcomes are not single-faceted; however, treatment providers should be encouraged to invest in high-quality group counseling offerings in order to best satisfy, and thereby empower, clients.

  17. Improving Consumer Satisfaction with Addiction Treatment: An Analysis of Alumni Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi M. Sanghani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The primary objective of this investigation is to determine which individual and aggregate factors of residential addiction treatment centers are most significant influencers of alumni satisfaction. Design. Survey targeted alumni of residential addiction treatment facilities. Alumni were queried through a survey, which utilized Likert-scale matrices and binary response options: 379 respondents met the completion threshold. Alumni rated amenities and individual and group counseling factors; additionally, respondents provided feedback on two satisfaction proxies: cost worthiness and future recommendations. Descriptive and relational analyses were conducted, with the latter utilizing logistic regression models. Results. Individual factors’ scores of group counseling, and overall aggregate group counseling score, are most enthusiastically positive. Group counseling is also the most significant influencer of satisfaction. Other significant influencers of satisfaction are met expectations for individual counseling and psychiatric care offerings. Conclusions. While individual counseling and facility amenities should not be ignored, group counseling may be the most significant influencer of alumni satisfaction. Long-term outcomes are not single-faceted; however, treatment providers should be encouraged to invest in high-quality group counseling offerings in order to best satisfy, and thereby empower, clients.

  18. Behavior and major barriers faced by non-injectable drug users with HBV/HCV seeking treatment for hepatitis and drug addiction in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Monica; Cavalcanti, Sabine; Gliksman, Louis; Adlaf, Edward; Hacker, Mariana de Andrea Vilas-Boas; Bertoni, Neilane; Massard, Elize; Bastos, Francisco Inácio

    2011-12-01

    Drug users (DU) are a marginalized group and at risk for viral hepatitis, who seldom access health services. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 111 DU with chronic HBV/HCV and 15 in-depth interviews with health professionals/policymakers in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Most interviewees were male, non-white, with a low educational background, unemployed and/or living on less than $245 a month (minimun wage). In the last 6 months, 61.8% of interviewees snorted cocaine, 64.7% at least once a week. Half of the interviewees had a stable partner and 38.3% of those with occasional partners never/almost never using condoms. Addiction treatment seeking was found to be associated with: being white (OR:5.5), high-school degree (OR:8.7), and employment (OR:5.7). Hepatitis treatment seeking was high (80.9%), and access to low-threshold, user-friendly health services was key for treatment seeking behaviors (OR:3.6). Missed opportunities for hepatitis treatment seem to be associated with structural (uneven political/financial support to hepatitis programs) and patient-related barriers (severe addiction and non-adherence). Those most in need were less likely to access treatment, calling for renewed strategies, in order to curb hepatitis among impoverished drug users and their sexual partners.

  19. Introduction to behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A

    2010-09-01

    Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.

  20. The mental status of 1090 heroin addicts at entry into treatment: should depression be considered a 'dual diagnosis'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perugi Giulio

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental symptoms are common in heroin addiction and may arise from issues of addiction and withdrawal, raising doubts about the patients truly having co-morbid psychiatric diagnoses. Methods We studied the mental status of 1090 heroin addicts (831 males and 259 females aged between 16 and 51 years at the beginning of treatment, and its relationship to relevant demographic and clinical data through the use of standardised instruments. Results A total of 506 (46.42% heroin addicts showed depressive-anxious symptomatology, 421 (38.62% had psychomotor excitement and 163 (14.95% demonstrated a psychotic state. Patients with depressive-anxious symptomatology on the whole had a less severe addictive illness compared to those demonstrating excited and psychotic symptoms. The presence of depressive-anxious features was felt to not necessarily be indicative of the presence of a dual diagnosis. Conclusion The presence of depressive-anxious symptomatology in the clinical presentation in heroin addicts appears to be unrelated to 'dual diagnosis'.

  1. The application of mindfulness-based cognitive interventions in the treatment of co-occurring addictive and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppes, Kimberly

    2006-11-01

    This article reviews the theory, clinical application, and empirical findings on mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for mental health and addictive disorders. Expanding upon the research demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for addiction, this article develops and explores the rationale for combining mindfulness-based interventions with evidence-based CBTs in treating addictive disorders, with an emphasis on substance use disorders with co-occurring mood disorders. This article proposes that deficits in affect--regulation related to the behavioral and emotional effects of neurobiological changes that occur with long-term substance abuse--pose a unique set of challenges in early recovery. Prolonged use of addictive substances impairs the brain pathways that mediate certain affect regulation functions. These functions involve attention and inhibitory control, the saliency of and response to addictive versus natural reward stimuli, and the ability to detach or maintain perspective in response to strong emotional states. In treating this affective dysregulation, which can contribute to the vulnerability to relapse in the early stages of recovery, the affect-regulation-specific focus of MBCT adds a valuable element to augment CBT for addiction. Summarizing magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography findings on the effects of MBCT and the neurobiology of drug addiction, this article outlines directions for further research on potential benefits of MBCT for the recovering individual. Finally, this article describes a structured protocol, developed at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York City, which combines CBT with mindfulness-based intervention, for the treatment of affect-regulation issues specific to co-occurring addictive and mood disorders.

  2. A review of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of addictions: historical perspectives and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liester, Mitchell B

    2014-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a semisynthetic compound with strong psychoactive properties. Chemically related to serotonin, LSD was initially hypothesized to produce a psychosislike state. Later, LSD was reported to have benefits in the treatment of addictions. However, widespread indiscriminate use and reports of adverse affects resulted in the classification of LSD as an illicit drug with no accepted medical use. This article reviews LSD's storied history from its discovery, to its use as a research tool, followed by its widespread association with the counterculture movement of the 1960s, and finally to its rebirth as a medicine with potential benefits in the treatment of addictions. LSD's pharmacology, phenomenology, effects at neurotransmitter receptors, and effects on patterns of gene expression are reviewed. Based upon a review of the literature, it is concluded that further research into LSD's potential as a treatment for addictions is warranted.

  3. Psilocybin-occasioned Mystical Experiences in the Treatment of Tobacco Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Griffiths, Roland R.; Johnson, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences have been linked to persisting effects in healthy volunteers including positive changes in behavior, attitudes, and values, and increases in the personality domain of openness. In an open-label pilot-study of psilocybin-facilitated smoking addiction treatment, 15 smokers received 2 or 3 doses of psilocybin in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation. Twelve of 15 participants (80%) demonstrated biologically verified smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up. Participants who were abstinent at 6 months (n=12) were compared to participants still smoking at 6 months (n=3) on measures of subjective effects of psilocybin. Abstainers scored significantly higher on a measure of psilocybin-occasioned mystical experience. No significant differences in general intensity of drug effects were found between groups, suggesting that mystical-type subjective effects, rather than overall intensity of drug effects, were responsible for smoking cessation. Nine of 15 participants (60%) met criteria for “complete” mystical experience. Smoking cessation outcomes were significantly correlated with measures of mystical experience on session days, as well as retrospective ratings of personal meaning and spiritual significance of psilocybin sessions. These results suggest a mediating role of mystical experience in psychedelic-facilitated addiction treatment. PMID:25563443

  4. What Influences Participation in QI? A Randomized Trial of Addiction Treatment Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Quanbeck, Andrew R; Oruongo, John; Robinson, James; Ford, James H; McCarty, Dennis; Pulvermacher, Alice; Johnson, Roberta A; Gustafson, David H

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare providers have increased the use of quality improvement (QI) techniques, but organizational variables that affect QI uptake and implementation warrant further exploration. This study investigates organizational characteristics associated with clinics that enroll and participate over time in QI. The Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) conducted a large cluster-randomized trial of outpatient addiction treatment clinics, called NIATx 200, which randomized clinics to one of four QI implementation strategies: (1) interest circle calls, (2) coaching, (3) learning sessions, and (4) the combination of all three components. Data on organizational culture and structure were collected before, after randomization, and during the 18-month intervention. Using univariate descriptive analyses and regression techniques, the study identified two significant differences between clinics that enrolled in the QI study (n = 201) versus those that did not (n = 447). Larger programs were more likely to enroll and clinics serving more African Americans were less likely to enroll. Once enrolled, higher rates of QI participation were associated with clinics' not having a hospital affiliation, being privately owned, and having staff who perceived management support for QI. The study discusses lessons for the field and future research needs.

  5. Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences in the treatment of tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Griffiths, Roland R; Johnson, Matthew W

    2014-01-01

    Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences have been linked to persisting effects in healthy volunteers including positive changes in behavior, attitudes, and values, and increases in the personality domain of openness. In an open-label pilot-study of psilocybin-facilitated smoking addiction treatment, 15 smokers received 2 or 3 doses of psilocybin in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for smoking cessation. Twelve of 15 participants (80%) demonstrated biologically verified smoking abstinence at 6-month follow-up. Participants who were abstinent at 6 months (n=12) were compared to participants still smoking at 6 months (n=3) on measures of subjective effects of psilocybin. Abstainers scored significantly higher on a measure of psilocybin-occasioned mystical experience. No significant differences in general intensity of drug effects were found between groups, suggesting that mystical-type subjective effects, rather than overall intensity of drug effects, were responsible for smoking cessation. Nine of 15 participants (60%) met criteria for "complete" mystical experience. Smoking cessation outcomes were significantly correlated with measures of mystical experience on session days, as well as retrospective ratings of personal meaning and spiritual significance of psilocybin sessions. These results suggest a mediating role of mystical experience in psychedelic-facilitated addiction treatment.

  6. Effects of Academic Service Learning in Drug Misuse and Addiction on Students’ Learning Preferences and Attitudes Toward Harm Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabli, Noufissa; Liu, Ben; Seifert, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine academic service-learning pedagogy on student learning and perceptions of drug misuse and addiction. Design. Third- and fourth-year pharmacology students were exposed to an academic service-learning pedagogy that integrated a community service experience with lectures, in-class discussions and debates, group projects, a final paper, and an examination. Reflective writing assignments throughout the course required students to assimilate and apply what they had learned in the classroom to what they learned in their community placement. Assessment. Changes in students’ responses on pre- and post-course survey instruments reflected shifts toward higher-order thinking. Also, subjective student-learning modalities shifted toward learning by writing. Students’ perspectives and attitudes allowed improved context of issues associated with drug misuse and harm reduction models. Conclusion. Academic service-learning pedagogy contributes to developing adaptable, well-rounded, engaged learners who become more compassionate and pragmatic in addressing scientific and social questions relating to drug addiction. PMID:23610481

  7. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens for the treatment of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ulf J; Voges, Jürgen; Steiner, Johann; Galazky, Imke; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Möller, Michaela; Pisapia, Jared; Halpern, Casey; Caplan, Arthur; Bogerts, Bernhard; Kuhn, Jens

    2013-04-01

    Despite novel medications and other therapeutic strategies, addiction to psychotropic substances remains one of the most serious public health problems worldwide. In this review, beginning with an introduction of deep brain stimulation (DBS), we highlight the importance of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the context of the reward circuitry and addictive behavior. We will provide a short historic overview of other neurosurgical approaches to treat addiction and describe the experimental and preclinical data on DBS in addiction. Finally, we call attention to key ethical issues related to using DBS to treat addiction that are important for future research and the design of clinical trials.

  8. American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) National Practice Guideline for the Use of Medications in the Treatment of Addiction Involving Opioid Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, Kyle; Jarvis, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control have recently described opioid use and resultant deaths as an epidemic. At this point in time, treating this disease well with medication requires skill and time that are not generally available to primary care doctors in most practice models. Suboptimal treatment has likely contributed to expansion of the epidemic and concerns for unethical practices. At the same time, access to competent treatment is profoundly restricted because few physicians are willing and able to provide it. This "Practice Guideline" was developed to assist in the evaluation and treatment of opioid use disorder, and in the hope that, using this tool, more physicians will be able to provide effective treatment. Although there are existing guidelines for the treatment of opioid use disorder, none have included all of the medications used at present for its treatment. Moreover, few of the existing guidelines address the needs of special populations such as pregnant women, individuals with co-occurring psychiatric disorders, individuals with pain, adolescents, or individuals involved in the criminal justice system. This Practice Guideline was developed using the RAND Corporation (RAND)/University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Method (RAM) - a process that combines scientific evidence and clinical knowledge to determine the appropriateness of a set of clinical procedures. The RAM is a deliberate approach encompassing review of existing guidelines, literature reviews, appropriateness ratings, necessity reviews, and document development. For this project, American Society of Addiction Medicine selected an independent committee to oversee guideline development and to assist in writing. American Society of Addiction Medicine's Quality Improvement Council oversaw the selection process for the independent development committee. Recommendations included in the guideline encompass a broad range of topics, starting with the initial evaluation of the

  9. Brain mechanisms of Change in Addictions Treatment: Models, Methods, and Emerging Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tammy; Noronha, Antonio; Carroll, Kathleen M; Potenza, Marc N; Hutchison, Kent; Calhoun, Vince D; Gabrieli, John D E; Morgenstern, Jon; Nixon, Sara Jo; Wexler, Bruce E; Brewer, Judson; Ray, Lara; Filbey, Francesca; Strauman, Timothy J; Kober, Hedy; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W

    2016-09-01

    Increased understanding of "how" and "for whom" treatment works at the level of the brain has potential to transform addictions treatment through the development of innovative neuroscience-informed interventions. The 2015 Science of Change meeting bridged the fields of neuroscience and psychotherapy research to identify brain mechanisms of behavior change that are "common" across therapies, and "specific" to distinct behavioral interventions. Conceptual models of brain mechanisms underlying effects of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, mindfulness interventions, and Motivational Interviewing were discussed. Presentations covered methods for integrating neuroimaging into psychotherapy research, and novel analytic approaches. Effects of heavy substance use on the brain, and recovery of brain functioning with sustained abstinence, which may be facilitated by cognitive training, were reviewed. Neuroimaging provides powerful tools for determining brain mechanisms underlying psychotherapy and medication effects, predicting and monitoring outcomes, developing novel interventions that target specific brain circuits, and identifying for whom an intervention will be effective.

  10. Effect of subcutaneous thymopentin treatment in drug addicts with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellini, Wilma; Meroni, P. L.; Frasca, Daniela; Sguotti, Chiara; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Uberti-Foppa, Caterina; Buzzetti, P.; Lazzarin, A.; Doria, G.; Moroni, M.; Zanussi, C.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of thymopentin treatment on the immune defects in drug addicts with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy and HTLV-III infection was investigated. Thymopentin was administered subcutaneously at two different dose schedules: 50 mg three times a week for 3 weeks (first cycle) and 50 mg/week for 3 months (second cycle). After the first cycle an increased number of OKT4+ lymphocytes and an improvement of PWM-induced blastogenesis and IgG synthesis in vitro was observed. The second cycle was unable to modify the same immune parameters in vitro. The treatment had no effect on the PHA responsiveness and on PHA-induced interleukin 2 production. The significance and the prognostic value of these findings are discussed in terms of the clinical evolution of the syndrome. PMID:3301099

  11. Organizational structure, leadership and readiness for change and the implementation of organizational cultural competence in addiction health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G; Kim, Ahraemi

    2013-10-01

    Increasing representation of racial and ethnic minorities in the health care system and on-going concerns about existing health disparities have pressured addiction health services programs to enhance their cultural competence. This study examines the extent to which organizational factors, such as structure, leadership and readiness for change contribute to the implementation of community, policy and staffing domains representing organizational cultural competence. Analysis of a randomly selected sample of 122 organizations located in primarily Latino and African American communities showed that programs with public funding and Medicaid reimbursement were positively associated with implementing policies and procedures, while leadership was associated with staff having greater knowledge of minority communities and developing a diverse workforce. Moreover, program climate was positively associated with staff knowledge of communities and having supportive policies and procedures, while programs with graduate staff and parent organizations were negatively associated with knowledge of and involvement in these communities. By investing in funding, leadership skills and a strategic climate, addiction health services programs may develop greater understanding and responsiveness of the service needs of minority communities. Implications for future research and program planning in an era of health care reform in the United States are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The clustering of psychopathology among adults seeking treatment for alcohol and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanoski, Karen; Kenaszchuk, Chris; Veldhuizen, Scott; Rush, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Beyond the high prevalence of co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, little is known about more complex patterns of psychopathology and multimorbidity, particularly in treatment populations. We sought to identify a parsimonious set of latent classes to describe the structure of mental disorder comorbidity among adults entering outpatient addiction treatment, and explore differences in the structure and prevalence of classes across sociodemographic characteristics. Participants (N=544) completed the Psychiatric Diagnostic Screening Questionnaire at treatment admission. We used latent class analysis to identify classes of clients with specific patterns of co-occurring mental disorders. The best-fitting solution identified 3 classes, characterized by no comorbidity (i.e., substance use disorders only), co-occurring major depression, and multimorbidity or a high degree of psychopathology. Older age was associated with lower probability of being in the class with co-occurring major depression, women were more likely than men to be in the multimorbid class, and being married or partnered was associated with a lower probability of being in either of the comorbid classes. These results are consistent with general population research on the patterning of psychiatric disorders, implying that while clients in addiction treatment may have extraordinarily high levels of psychopathology, the patterns of symptoms and the groups most affected are not markedly different than in other settings. By capturing the complexity of interrelationships among the many factors that are known to influence prognosis and outcomes, latent class analysis offers a useful way to examine and represent case-mix in clinical populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorders and drug addiction: common features and potential treatments.

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    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Oostermeijer, Sanne; Harrison, Ben J; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2011-05-07

    The basic concepts underlying compulsive, impulsive and addictive behaviours overlap, which may help explain why laymen use these expressions interchangeably. Although there has been a large research effort to better characterize and disentangle these behaviours, clinicians and scientists are still unable to clearly differentiate them. Accordingly, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICD) and substance-related disorders (SUD) overlap on different levels, including phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurocircuitry, neurocognition, neurochemistry and family history. In this review we summarize these issues with particular emphasis on the role of the opioid system in the pathophysiology and treatment of OCD, ICD and SUD. We postulate that with progression and chronicity of OCD, the proportion of the OCD-related behaviours (e.g. checking, washing, ordering and hoarding, among others) that are driven by impulsive 'rash' processes increase as involvement of more ventral striatal circuits becomes prominent. In contrast, as SUD and ICD progress, the proportion of the SUD- and ICD-related behaviours that are driven by compulsive 'habitual' processes increase as involvement of more dorsal striatal circuits become prominent. We are not arguing that, with time, ICD becomes OCD or vice versa. Instead, we are proposing that these disorders may acquire qualities of the other with time. In other words, while patients with ICD/SUD may develop 'compulsive impulsions', patients with OCD may exhibit 'impulsive compulsions'. There are many potential implications of our model. Theoretically, OCD patients exhibiting impulsive or addictive features could be managed with drugs that address the quality of the underlying drives and the involvement of neural systems. For example, agents for the reduction or prevention of relapse of addiction (e.g. heavy drinking), which modulate the cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system through the opioid (e.g. buprenorphine and naltrexone

  14. Implementing the ASAM Criteria in community treatment centers in Illinois: opportunities and challenges. American Society of Addiction Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heatherton, B

    2000-01-01

    The incorporation of the ASAM Criteria into addiction treatment centers procedure has afforded us an enormous opportunity to add credibility to our treatment. Herein lies perhaps the strongest argument for these criteria. The ASAM Criteria encourage addiction treatment centers to establish themselves as healthcare providers in their own right. The task is now for Illinois addiction treatment providers; particularly community based providers, to prove our credibility through the legitimate use of the criteria. Since most, if not all, of our patients are without means and without knowledge on quality treatment, they become easy targets for substandard or at least unimaginative and uninspired treatment. It is not that community based treatment centers are, by nature, unprincipled treatment warehouses. But it certainly can be said that our centers are frequently the last to change our treatment practices. Certainly we have become "the last resort" for the courts, overburdened mental health centers and overpopulated homeless shelters with little emphasis on clinical quality of care. Overcoming such programmed ways of viewing treatment was difficult specifically for Triangle Center and generally for community treatment providers throughout Illinois. In fact, I dare say that this transition has not occurred in total as many still passively resist this opportunity. Yet others have viewed this change as the breath of fresh air that our profession has long sought. Such variance in opinion ultimately proves that implementation of the ASAM Criteria, in a community based system, is dependent on the clinician and administrators willingness to understand, recognize and apply the Criteria.

  15. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  16. Review of Interventions to Reduce Ultraviolet Tanning: Need for Treatments Targeting Excessive Tanning, an Emerging Addictive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Hillhouse, Joel; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Manne, Sharon L

    2017-06-22

    Millions of Americans engage in tanning each year, defined as intentional ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure in the form of sunbathing or the use of indoor tanning beds. An emerging body of research suggests that UVR has addictive properties and some tanners engage in excessive tanning. This article provides an overview of the evidence of tanning addiction and a systematic review of existing tanning interventions with the goal of evaluating their potential to impact addicted tanners. Our search identified 24 intervention studies that were summarized and discussed according to 3 primary themes. First, there is a dearth of tanning interventions that target excessive tanning or are designed as treatments for tanning addiction. Second, tanning interventions are primarily educational interventions designed to increase knowledge of the risks of tanning. Third, there are notable aspects of existing tanning interventions that are relevant to addiction science, including the use of brief motivational and cognitive-behavioral-based interventions. Future directions are considered including recommendations for utilizing the existing evidence base to formulate interventions targeting excessive tanners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A Systematic Review on the Use of Psychosocial Interventions in Conjunction With Medications for the Treatment of Opioid Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugosh, Karen; Abraham, Amanda; Seymour, Brittany; McLoyd, Keli; Chalk, Mady; Festinger, David

    2016-01-01

    Opioid use and overdose rates have risen to epidemic levels in the United States during the past decade. Fortunately, there are effective medications (ie, methadone, buprenorphine, and oral and injectable naltrexone) available for the treatment of opioid addiction. Each of these medications is approved for use in conjunction with psychosocial treatment; however, there is a dearth of empirical research on the optimal psychosocial interventions to use with these medications. In this systematic review, we outline and discuss the findings of 3 prominent prior reviews and 27 recent publications of empirical studies on this topic. The most widely studied psychosocial interventions examined in conjunction with medications for opioid addiction were contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy, with the majority focusing on methadone treatment. The results generally support the efficacy of providing psychosocial interventions in combination with medications to treat opioid addictions, although the incremental utility varied across studies, outcomes, medications, and interventions. The review highlights significant gaps in the literature and provides areas for future research. Given the enormity of the current opioid problem in the United States, it is critical to gain a better understanding of the most effective ways to deliver psychosocial treatments in conjunction with these medications to improve the health and well-being of individuals suffering from opioid addiction.

  18. The Effectiveness of Life Skills Training on Enhancement of Self-Esteem and Marital Satisfaction among Addicts in Treatment Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nooripour

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study has been done to determine the impact of life skills training on enhancement of self-esteem and marital satisfaction among addicts in treatment period. Method: The research design was semi experimental pretest-posttest with witness group. For each group 12men addicts in treatment period in Qazvin city were selected by available sampling. Rosenberg self-esteem and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaires were administered among selected samples. Training workshop was conducted on role playing, questioning and answering which was taught by psychology professors in experimental group. Results: Results showed life skills training improved self-esteem and marital satisfaction of addicts in treatment period. Conclusion: Life skills training have a positive impact on self-esteem and marital satisfaction of individuals especially on addicts in treatment period, also life skills training in the field of smoking prevention enhances individuals’ skills (such as self-esteem, marital satisfaction, etc…. Life skills training empower person to actualize his knowledge, attitudes and values, and enable him to have motivation for healthy behavior which this will have significant impact on his relationship with his wife.

  19. Clinical psychology of Internet addiction: a review of its conceptualization, prevalence, neuronal processes, and implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontes HM

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Halley M Pontes, Daria J Kuss, Mark D Griffiths International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK Abstract: Research into Internet addiction (IA has grown rapidly over the last decade. The topic has generated a great deal of debate, particularly in relation to how IA can be defined conceptually as well as the many methodological limitations. The present review aims to further elaborate and clarify issues that are relevant to IA research in a number of areas including: definition and characterization, incidence and prevalence rates, associated neuronal processes, and implications for treatment, prevention, and patient-specific considerations. It is concluded that there is no consensual definition for IA. Prevalence rates among nationally representative samples across several countries vary greatly (from 1% to 18.7%, most likely reflecting the lack of methodological consistency and conceptual rigor of the studies. The overlaps between IA and other more traditional substance-based addictions and the possible neural substrates implicated in IA are also highlighted. In terms of treatment and prevention, both psychological and pharmacological treatments are examined in light of existing evidence alongside particular aspects inherent to the patient perspective. Based on the evidence analyzed, it is concluded that IA may pose a serious health hazard to a minority of people. Keywords: Internet addiction, review, behavioral addictions, prevalence, neuronal processes, treatment

  20. Comparison of the Effectiveness of Dramatherapy for Clients with Addiction under Treatment

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    Valenta M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the means of dramatherapy intervention at two sites - at the Centre for secondary prevention and treatment of addictions Military Hospital in Olomouc and Toxicological rehabilitation department 17B (community Mandala Psychiatric Hospital in Kroměříž. The first workplace has a detoxifying and short-term intervention program (month, while the Mandala is implemented medium-term dramatherapy program (up to a half-year. The second part gives the results of the investigation, which was focused on finding differences (relations between the client and the perception of the benefits of the concept dramatherapy intervention at the aforementioned sites - nvestigation did not show differences between evaluation intervention customers of both institutions.

  1. The Elaborated Intrusion Theory of desire: a 10-year retrospective and implications for addiction treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jon; Kavanagh, David J; Andrade, Jackie

    2015-05-01

    Ten years after the publication of Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory, there is now substantial research into its key predictions. The distinction between intrusive thoughts, which are driven by automatic processes, and their elaboration, involving controlled processing, is well established. Desires for both addictive substances and other desired targets are typically marked by imagery, especially when they are intense. Attention training strategies such as body scanning reduce intrusive thoughts, while concurrent tasks that introduce competing sensory information interfere with elaboration, especially if they compete for the same limited-capacity working memory resources. EI Theory has spawned new assessment instruments that are performing strongly and offer the ability to more clearly delineate craving from correlated processes. It has also inspired new approaches to treatment. In particular, training people to use vivid sensory imagery for functional goals holds promise as an intervention for substance misuse, since it is likely to both sustain motivation and moderate craving. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pilot study of the 5-HT2AR agonist psilocybin in the treatment of tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew W; Garcia-Romeu, Albert; Cosimano, Mary P; Griffiths, Roland R

    2014-11-01

    Despite suggestive early findings on the therapeutic use of hallucinogens in the treatment of substance use disorders, rigorous follow-up has not been conducted. To determine the safety and feasibility of psilocybin as an adjunct to tobacco smoking cessation treatment we conducted an open-label pilot study administering moderate (20 mg/70 kg) and high (30 mg/70 kg) doses of psilocybin within a structured 15-week smoking cessation treatment protocol. Participants were 15 psychiatrically healthy nicotine-dependent smokers (10 males; mean age of 51 years), with a mean of six previous lifetime quit attempts, and smoking a mean of 19 cigarettes per day for a mean of 31 years at intake. Biomarkers assessing smoking status, and self-report measures of smoking behavior demonstrated that 12 of 15 participants (80%) showed seven-day point prevalence abstinence at 6-month follow-up. The observed smoking cessation rate substantially exceeds rates commonly reported for other behavioral and/or pharmacological therapies (typically psilocybin, these findings suggest psilocybin may be a potentially efficacious adjunct to current smoking cessation treatment models. The present study illustrates a framework for future research on the efficacy and mechanisms of hallucinogen-facilitated treatment of addiction.

  3. Delay discounting and the use of mindful attention versus distraction in the treatment of drug addiction: a conceptual review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashe, Melinda L; Newman, Michelle G; Wilson, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, researchers have integrated measurements of delay discounting, how the subjective valuation of a reward changes as a function of time, into their study of addiction. Research has begun to explore the idea that delay discounting may serve as both a marker for the effectiveness of existing treatments for addiction and a potential target for novel intervention strategies. As this work is in its infancy, many potentially significant connections between the construct of delay discounting and the treatment of addiction have yet to be explored. Here, we present a conceptual review highlighting novel points of intersection between delay discounting and two approaches to treating addiction that have become increasingly popular in recent years: those that focus on the development of mindfulness skills and those that emphasize the use of distraction techniques. Viewing these two techniques through the lens of delay discounting is particularly intriguing because of the very different way that they address the experience of drug cravings in the present moment (nonjudgmentally attending to vs. shifting attention away from subjective cravings, respectively). We propose that these opposing strategies for dealing with cravings may interact with delay discounting in ways that have important implications for treatment effectiveness. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Exercise addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  5. 77 FR 72752 - Opioid Drugs in Maintenance and Detoxification Treatment of Opiate Addiction; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES 42 CFR Part 8 RIN 0930-AA14 Opioid Drugs in Maintenance and Detoxification Treatment of... Combination as Used in Approved Opioid Treatment Medications AGENCY: Substance Abuse and Mental Health.... SUMMARY: This final rule amends the federal opioid treatment program regulations by modifying the...

  6. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  7. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  8. Oral health behavior of in-treatment female drug addicts in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Ghane

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the oral health behaviors in women with addiction history. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in women drug treatment centers under the supervision of Welfare Organization of Tehran province in Iran. Data collection process was conducted in three centers including a questionnaire with an interview format, clinical examination, and Chi-Square test and MANOVA for statistical analysis. Results: The mean age of 95 women participating in this study was less than forty, whereas the age of starting drugs was twenty two. A majority of the patients were unemployed (71% and more than that of two-third did not have a diploma education. Almost half of dentate participants had never or rarely brushed their teeth. Most of them had never used dental floss, while more than half had three or more times snacks or sweet drinks and more than three-fourth were daily smokers. The MANOVA analysis showed that the type of clinic to be visited, age, used stimulant, drug dependency length, the last time a dentist being visited and the brushing period had a statistically significant relationship with Decayed Teeth (DT, Missing Teeth (MT and Filled Teeth (FT (P<0.05. Conclusion: Women with the prior drug addiction history had an unpromising oral health status which was obvious in their self-perceived oral health. Taking the appropriate preventive and therapeutic actions aiming for promoting oral health status of them seems to be necessary.

  9. Addiction and Will

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    Brian eJohnson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ADDICTION AND WILLA hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING.The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted.Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness.

  10. Impact of drug awareness and treatment camps on attendance at a community outreach de-addiction clinic

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    Om Prakash Giri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substance misuse is an increasing problem in urban and rural India. The utility of community-based interventions and preventive strategies are increasingly emphasized in this context. The drug de-addiction and treatment center, Department of Psychiatry, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, has been running a drug de-addiction and treatment clinic at Kharar Civil Hospital, Kharar, District Mohali, Punjab, since 1998. As part of an effort to enhance this community outreach program, community-based drug awareness and treatment camps have been organized since March 2004 in villages in and around Tehsil Kharar of Mohali. Aim: To study the impact of the drug awareness and treatment camps on the attendance of patients at the community outreach drug de-addiction and treatment clinic at Kharar Civil Hospital. Methods: Sociodemographic and clinical variables, including treatment outcome-related variables, of patients attending the clinic at Kharar Civil Hospital, before and after the camps were compared. Discussion and Conclusion: The study showed a positive impact on drug awareness and treatment camps held in the community on outpatient attendance at a community outreach clinic, with attendance increasing more than 1.8 times.

  11. The therapeutic community for addicts : intimacy, perent involvment and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kooyman (Martien)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractTherapeutic communities for addicts developed since the Sixties without a clear theory on what made them therapeutic. There have also been some doubts on their long term outcome results. Part I of this book describes how therapeutic communities for addicts have roots in the self-help mov

  12. Using Relational-Cultural Theory to Conceptualize Couple Interventions in the Treatment of Sex Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Joanne E.

    2007-01-01

    Sex addictions have become an increasing concern since the growth of the sex industry, sex in advertising, and the ease of Internet access to sex. This article uses the foundational principles of Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) to conceptualize sexual addiction and its relational impact. Particular attention is paid to the principles of…

  13. Application of Neurolinguistic Programming for Treatment and Relapse Prevention of Addictive Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Daya Singh

    The dilemma of relapse exists for a number of addictive behaviors, and mental health authorities agree that keeping addictive behaviors off permanently is much more difficult than treating the behaviors initially. Several relapse prevention models have been posited and environmental, physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and affective factors have…

  14. The therapeutic community for addicts : intimacy, perent involvment and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kooyman (Martien)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractTherapeutic communities for addicts developed since the Sixties without a clear theory on what made them therapeutic. There have also been some doubts on their long term outcome results. Part I of this book describes how therapeutic communities for addicts have roots in the self-help

  15. The therapeutic community for addicts : intimacy, perent involvment and treatment outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Kooyman (Martien)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractTherapeutic communities for addicts developed since the Sixties without a clear theory on what made them therapeutic. There have also been some doubts on their long term outcome results. Part I of this book describes how therapeutic communities for addicts have roots in the self-help mov

  16. [Six-month follow-up study of drug treatment for cannabis addiction: comparison study of four drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoenfeld, Netta; Bodnik, Dana; Rosenberg, Oded; Kotler, Moshe; Dannon, Pinhas

    2011-12-01

    Marijuana addiction is one of the most common forms of addiction worldwide. A variety of reasons for use exist, however, there are only a few tested treatments with frequent relapses. In this study, we examined the efficacy of four pharmacotherapy agents for the treatment of marijuana addiction: naltrexone, bupropion, escitalopram and bromazepam. A total of 59 patients were randomly assigned into four groups. Each group received one of the pharmacological agents for 120 days. Four types of questionnaires were employed: The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression--21 items, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, the Global Assessment of Functioning and a Visual Analogue Scale for perceived need of the drug. In addition, random urine tests were performed to detect tetrahydrocannabinol [THC). Naltrexone proved to be the most efficacious of the four agents, with only four dropouts. Other agents proved less efficacious with six, seven and eights dropouts for bupropion, bromazepam and escitalopram, respectively. In addition, naltrexone was most efficacious in reducing anxiety and depression rates, and increasing functioning and perceived need for drug use. Out of four pharmacological agents, naltrexone proved to be most efficacious in treating marijuana addiction and related disorders. Further studies are needed to confirm our results.

  17. The “New Masculinity”: Addiction Treatment as a Reconstruction of Gender In Puerto Rican Evangelist Street Ministries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Helena

    2011-01-01

    This article, based on ethnographic fieldwork including twelve months of participant observation and 428 interviews with 84 converts and leaders in Pentecostal ministries founded and run by former addicts in Puerto Rico, describes redefined masculinity as a treatment for addiction. Industrial disinvestment and resulting unemployment and drug trade in urban North and Latin America have led to narcotic addiction among Latino and African American men and attendant homicide, infection, and incarceration. Pentecostal-evangelical street ministries are prevalent in these regions. Their alternative vision of masculine honor and power addresses a cultural crisis of men’s social space. They replace the unachievable ideal of the male breadwinner with an image of male spiritual power. In place of the violence of the drug trade, they cultivate male domesticity and responsibility for the home. In place of a deleterious drug economy, they offer the social and cultural capital of ministry networks and biblical knowledge. Yet the trajectories of ministry converts reveal the limits, as well as the promise, of evangelist masculinity as a treatment for addiction. In the course of building leadership among their converts, the ministries create their own, internal hierarchies, fall short of the spiritual democracy they espouse, and lead to relapse among those left at the bottom. PMID:21911274

  18. American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) National Practice Guideline for the Use of Medications in the Treatment of Addiction Involving Opioid Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampman, Kyle; Jarvis, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control have recently described opioid use and resultant deaths as an epidemic. At this point in time, treating this disease well with medication requires skill and time that are not generally available to primary care doctors in most practice models. Suboptimal treatment has likely contributed to expansion of the epidemic and concerns for unethical practices. At the same time, access to competent treatment is profoundly restricted because few physicians are willing and able to provide it. This “Practice Guideline” was developed to assist in the evaluation and treatment of opioid use disorder, and in the hope that, using this tool, more physicians will be able to provide effective treatment. Although there are existing guidelines for the treatment of opioid use disorder, none have included all of the medications used at present for its treatment. Moreover, few of the existing guidelines address the needs of special populations such as pregnant women, individuals with co-occurring psychiatric disorders, individuals with pain, adolescents, or individuals involved in the criminal justice system. This Practice Guideline was developed using the RAND Corporation (RAND)/University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Method (RAM) – a process that combines scientific evidence and clinical knowledge to determine the appropriateness of a set of clinical procedures. The RAM is a deliberate approach encompassing review of existing guidelines, literature reviews, appropriateness ratings, necessity reviews, and document development. For this project, American Society of Addiction Medicine selected an independent committee to oversee guideline development and to assist in writing. American Society of Addiction Medicine's Quality Improvement Council oversaw the selection process for the independent development committee. Recommendations included in the guideline encompass a broad range of topics, starting with the initial evaluation of

  19. Factors Associated With Use of ASAM Criteria and Service Provision in a National Sample of Outpatient Substance Abuse Treatment Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Alexander, Jeffrey A; Friedmann, Peter D; Lee, I-Heng

    2009-09-01

    Standardized patient placement criteria such as those developed by the American Society of Addiction Medicine are increasingly common in substance abuse treatment, but it is unclear what factors are associated with their use or with treatment units' provision of related services. This study examined these issues in the context of a national survey of outpatient substance abuse treatment units. Regressions using 2005 data revealed that both public and private managed care were associated with a greater likelihood of using American Society of Addiction Medicine criteria to develop client treatment plans. However, only public managed care was associated with a greater likelihood of offering more resource-intensive services. Associations between client population severity and resource-intensive service provision were sparse but positive.

  20. Clinical potential of methylphenidate in the treatment of cocaine addiction: a review of the current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dürsteler KM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth M Dürsteler,1,2 Eva-Maria Berger,1 Johannes Strasser,1 Carlo Caflisch,2 Jochen Mutschler,2 Marcus Herdener,2 Marc Vogel1 1Center for Addictive Disorders, Psychiatric University Clinics Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 2Center for Addictive Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Psychiatric Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland Background: Cocaine use continues to be a public health problem, yet there is no proven effective pharmacotherapy for cocaine dependence. A promising approach to treating cocaine dependence may be agonist-replacement therapy, which is already used effectively in the treatment of opioid and tobacco dependence. The replacement approach for cocaine dependence posits that administration of a long-acting stimulant medication should normalize the neurochemical and behavioral perturbations resulting from chronic cocaine use. One potential medication to be substituted for cocaine is methylphenidate (MPH, as this stimulant possesses pharmacobehavioral properties similar to those of cocaine. Aim: To provide a qualitative review addressing the rationale for the use of MPH as a cocaine substitute and its clinical potential in the treatment of cocaine dependence. Methods: We searched MEDLINE for clinical studies using MPH in patients with cocaine abuse/dependence and screened the bibliographies of the articles found for pertinent literature. Results: MPH, like cocaine, increases synaptic dopamine by inhibiting dopamine reuptake. The discriminative properties, reinforcing potential, and subjective effects of MPH and cocaine are almost identical and, importantly, MPH has been found to substitute for cocaine in animals and human volunteers under laboratory conditions. When taken orally in therapeutic doses, its abuse liability, however, appears low, which is especially true for extended-release MPH preparations. Though there are promising data in the literature, mainly from case reports and

  1. A contribution to the clinical characterization of Internet addiction in a sample of treatment seekers: validity of assessment, severity of psychopathology and type of co-morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Beutel, M E; Wölfling, K

    2014-05-01

    Internet addiction becomes a growing health problem worldwide with prevalence rates up to 3%. Still, uncertainties exist regarding its diagnostics and clinical characterization. Especially the lacking clinical evidence regarding self-report measures assessing Internet addiction has been criticized. This study aimed to characterize 290 German treatment seekers and to determine the diagnostic accuracy of a self-report scale for Internet addiction. Patients filled in self-report measures (SCL-90R, PHQ, AICA-S - Scale for the Assessment of Internet and Computer game Addiction) and underwent diagnostic interviews to assess symptoms of Internet addiction and level of functioning. Of the predominantly male treatment seekers 71% met the clinical diagnosis of Internet addiction. These displayed higher levels of psychopathology, especially depressive and dissociative symptoms. Half of the patients met criteria for one further psychiatric disorder according to clinical interviews, especially depressive disorders. Their level of functioning was decreased in all domains. AICA-S showed good psychometric properties and satisfying diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity: 80.5%; specificity: 82.4%). In this sample, Internet addiction was associated with high levels of psychosocial distress that is mainly related to depressive symptoms. Co-morbid disorders were common among those patients. First analyses on diagnostic accuracy of AICA-S (using the therapist's rating on Internet addiction as an independent external criterion) showed promising results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability and validity of addiction severity index in drug users with methadone maintenance treatment in Guizhou province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Tao; Liu, En-Wu; Zhong, Hua; Wang, Bing; Shen, Li-Mei; Wu, Zheng-Lai

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of addiction severity index (ASI)-5th version (ASI-C-5), in illegal drug users receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in China. One hundred and eighty-six heroin addicts (144 men and 42 women) receiving MMT at three clinics in Guizhou province, southwest China, were recruited. They were all interviewed with a questionnaire of ASI-C-5 and 35 were re-interviewed at an interval of seven days to assess its test-retest reliability. Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency of CSs varied from 0.60 to 0.81 in all domains. Test-retest reliability of composite scores (CSs) of ASI-C-5 were satisfactory (r=0.38-0.97). Based on item analysis and expert's suggestions, five items were deleted and one item was modified in ASI-C-5. Criterion validity of ASI-C-5 was found acceptable, as compared to addicts' self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) (r=0.59 and 0.45) except for social support rating scale (SSRS). ASI-C-5 can be used for heroin addicts receiving MMT with acceptable reliability and validity.

  3. Reliability and Validity of Addiction Severity Index in Drug Users with Methadone Maintenance Treatment in Guizhou Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO LIANG; EN-WU LIU; HUA ZHONG; BING WANG; LI-MEI SHEN; ZHENG-LAI WU

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of addiction severity index (ASl)-5th version (ASI-C-5), in illegal drug users receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in China. Methods One hundred and eighty-six heroin addicts (144 men and 42 women) receiving MMT at three clinics in Guizhou province, southwest China, were recruited. They were all interviewed with a questionnaire of ASI-C-5 and 35 were re-interviewed at an interval of seven days to assess its test-retest reliability. Results Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency of CSs varied from 0.60 to 0.81 in all domains. Test-retest reliability of composite scores (CSs) of ASI-C-5 were satisfactory (r=0.38-0.97). Based on item analysis and expert's suggestions, five items were deleted and one item was modified in ASI-C-5. Criterion validity of ASI-C-5 was found acceptable, as compared to addicts' self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and self-rating depression scale (SDS) (r=0.59 and 0.45) except for social support rating scale (SSRS). Conclusions ASI-C-5 can be used for heroin addicts receiving MMT with acceptable reliability and validity.

  4. Addiction and will

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  5. Addiction and will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud's concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness.

  6. Hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of ayahuasca in the treatment of addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liester, Mitchell B; Prickett, James I

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a medicinal plant mixture utilized by indigenous peoples throughout the Amazon River basin for healing purposes. The "vine of the soul" or "vine of death," as it is known in South America, contains a combination of monoamine oxidase inhibitors and N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT). When ingested together, these medicines produce profound alterations in consciousness. Increasingly, ayahuasca is being utilized to treat addictions. However, the mechanism of action by which ayahuasca treats addictions remains unclear. We offer four hypotheses to explain possible biochemical, physiological, psychological, and transcendent mechanisms by which ayahuasca may exert its anti-addiction effects.

  7. Cognitive-behavioral approaches to outpatient treatment of internet addiction in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Griffiths, Mark D; Gradisar, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Excessive and potentially addictive use of the Internet among children and adolescents has emerged as a major concern in recent times. Internet addiction is often conceptualized as an impulse control disorder, with features similar to pathological gambling. However, there remains considerable debate about the core components, etiological processes, course, and maintaining factors of the disorder. This article presents a case study of a 16-year-old male with generalized pathological Internet use. Critical issues relevant to case conceptualization, assessment, and choice of therapy are examined. Although the evidence base is limited in this emerging area of clinical psychology, we provide a summary of empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques for Internet addiction.

  8. Evaluation of an Internet addiction treatment program for Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Tang, Vera M Y; Lo, C Y

    2009-01-01

    This paper described an indigenous multi-level counseling program designed for young people with Internet addiction problems based on the responses of 59 clients. Regarding objective outcome evaluation, pretest and posttest data generally showed that the Internet addiction problems of the participants decreased after joining the program and there were some slight positive changes in the parenting attributes. For the subjective outcome evaluation findings, participants generally perceived that the program was helpful. Findings based on these two evaluation strategies suggest this multi-level indigenous counseling program has promise for helping young people with Internet addiction problems.

  9. EMDR interventions in addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, W.; Hornsveld, H.K.

    2017-01-01

    The use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs is widespread and has significant negative consequences for the individual, their families, and the communities to which they belong. A substantial number of users develop an addiction disorder. Cure-oriented addiction treatment is challenging regarding

  10. "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    "Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.

  11. Implementation and effectiveness of integrated trauma and addiction treatment for incarcerated men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Nancy; Huening, Jessica; Shi, Jing; Frueh, B Christopher; Hoover, Donald R; McHugo, Gregory

    2015-03-01

    A controlled trial of Seeking Safety (SS) and Male-Trauma Recovery Empowerment Model (M-TREM) examined implementation and effectiveness of integrated group therapy for comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD) on PTSD and mental health symptoms plus self-esteem and efficacy for incarcerated men. The study sample (n=230) was male inmates 18 years or older who were primarily non-white, high school graduates or equivalents, had childhood trauma histories, committed violent crimes, had serious mental illnesses, and resided in a maximum security prison. Incarcerated men, who screened positive for PTSD and SUD, were assigned randomly (n=142) or by preference (n=88) to receive SS or M-TREM, with a waitlist group of (n=93). Manualized interventions were group-administered for 14 weeks. Primary outcomes were PTSD and other mental health symptoms. Secondary outcomes were self-esteem, coping, and self-efficacy. SUD outcomes cannot be measured in a correctional setting. Implementation feasibility was exhibited by the ability to recruit, screen, assign, and retain participants. Effectiveness findings depended on sample, design, and method for analysis. Using a waitlist control group and no follow-up period, we found no aggregate effect of treatment on PTSD symptoms, although, when disaggregated, M-TREM was found to improve PTSD severity and SS improved general mental health symptoms and psychological functioning. Using intent-to-treat and completer analyses, no significant differences were found in the relative performance between SS and M-TREM on primary or secondary outcomes. When longitudinal data were maximized and modeled in ways that reflect the hierarchical nature of the data, we found that SS and M-TREM performed better than no treatment on PTSD severity and secondary outcomes, and that treatment benefits endured. Findings cautiously support implementing either Seeking Safety or M-TREM to treat incarcerated men with co-morbid PTSD

  12. Psychopharmacology of Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugce Toker Ugurlu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Addiction is a primary, chronic, neurobiological disease, with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development. Developments in the psychopharmacology of addiction is much slower than the other disciplines of psychiatry. For a long time, social and behavioral therapeutic approaches are the only choices for the treatment of addictive disorders. Disulfiram was the only pharmacological agent approved for addiction treatment until the end of 20th century. Pharmacological treatment options available for treatment have grown along with our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the development and persistence of addiction. Several new medications like naltrexone, acamprosate, methadone and buprenoprhine have been approved for the treatment of alcohol and opioid use disorders ever since. Based on ever-increasing information about neurotransmitter and receptors, many studies have been performed concerning craving and relapse prevention in recent years. Besides many other pharmacological agents have been focus of new researches for treatment of different types of addiction. The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on psychopharmacology of addictive disorders and recent developments in this area.

  13. Individualized Treatment for Tobacco Dependence in Addictions Treatment Settings: The Role of Current Depressive Symptoms on Outcomes at 3 and 6 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawertailo, Laurie A; Baliunas, Dolly; Ivanova, Anna; Selby, Peter L

    2015-08-01

    Individuals with concurrent tobacco dependence and other addictions often report symptoms of low mood and depression and as such may have more difficulty quitting smoking. We hypothesized that current symptoms of depression would be a significant predictor of quit success among a group of smokers receiving individualized treatment for tobacco dependence within addiction treatment settings. Individuals in treatment for other addictions were enrolled in a smoking cessation program involving brief behavioral counseling and individualized dosing of nicotine replacement therapy. The baseline assessment included the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9) for depression. Smoking cessation outcomes were measured at 3 and 6 months post-enrollment. Bivariate associations between cessation outcomes and PHQ9 score were analyzed. Of the 1,196 subjects enrolled to date, 1,171 (98%) completed the PHQ9. Moderate to severe depression (score >9) was reported by 28% of the sample, and another 29% reported mild depression (score between 5 and 9). Contrary to the extant literature and other findings by our own group, there was no association between current depression and cessation outcome at either 3 months (n = 1,171) (17.0% in those with PHQ9 > 9 vs. 19.8% in those with PHQ9 addictions treatment setting. These data indicate that patients in an addictions treatment setting can successfully quit smoking regardless of current depressive symptoms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. 'Tapping a tie': successful partnerships in managing addictions with methadone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathy; MacIntosh, Judith; Getty, Grace

    2007-09-01

    The Fredericton Community Health Clinic (FCHC) was established to provide comprehensive, accessible, and acceptable services to an underserved population who were downtown, poor, homeless, and living with addictions. A research team conducted a descriptive study to investigate how nurses' roles evolved in this setting and to understand these roles through stakeholders' eyes. We describe the perceptions of client stakeholders who first accessed the FCHC for help with opioid addictions. Findings include what drew clients in, their decision to access addiction treatment, their perceptions of nurses' roles, and the influence on their lives.

  15. A critical review of accounting and economic methods for estimating the costs of addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, William S

    2008-04-01

    Researchers have been at the forefront of applying new costing methods to drug abuse treatment programs and innovations. The motivation for such work has been to improve costing accuracy. Recent work has seen applications initiated in establishing charts of account and cost accounting for service delivery. As a result, researchers now have available five methods to apply to the costing of drug abuse treatment programs. In all areas of costing, there is room for more research on costing concepts and measurement applications. Additional work would be useful in establishing studies with activity-based costing for both research and managerial purposes. Studies of economies of scope are particularly relevant because of the integration of social services and criminal justice in drug abuse treatment. In the long run, managerial initiatives to improve the administration and quality of drug abuse treatment will benefit directly from research with new information on costing techniques.

  16. Barriers to Accessing Detox Facilities, Substance Use Treatment, and Residential Services among Women Impacted by Commercial Sexual Exploitation & Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerassi, Lara B

    2017-10-06

    More than 50% of women entering substance use treatment in the U.S. reported having traded sex for money or drugs. Women's participation in addiction treatment and related services is essential to their recovery and increased safety, stabilization, and quality of life. This paper's aim is to explore the barriers related to accessing detox facilities and essential services including substance use treatment and residential services for women impacted by commercial sexual exploitation (CSE). Data are drawn from a larger, community-based, grounded theory study. In-depth interview data were collected from 30 adult women who traded sex as adults (through maximum variation and snowball sampling), as well as 20 service providers who come into contact with adult women who trade sex (through nominations and purposive sampling). Finding suggest that women often encountered sobriety requirements, which created barriers to accessing addiction treatment or residential services. Some organizations' policies required evicting women if they were caught using, which created additional challenges for women who relapsed. Women wanted to avoid becoming "dopesick" on the streets or at home, which partially contributed to them needing to maintain their addiction. Consequently, some returned to sex trading, thus increasing their risk of trafficking. Some women engaged in creative strategies, such as claiming they were suicidal, in order to access the detox facilities in hospitals. Some women indicated they were only able to detox when they were forced to do so in jail or prison, often without medical assistance. Implications to improve health care delivery for this population are discussed.

  17. Lighting the darkness of addiction: can phototherapy enhance contingency-management-based treatment of substance-related and addictive disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siporin, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    Maladaptive patterns of substance use are serious social problems. Both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments are available, but nondrug options may be preferable because they avoid the expense and adverse side effects of psychotropic medication. Contingency management (CM) and nondrug social and recreational activities (NDSRAs) are based on operant conditioning principles and seek to decrease substance use by means of nondrug rewards. However, their efficacy may be hindered where brain reward circuitry is dysfunctional. Research shows that substance abuse biases neural reward systems in favor of drug-induced highs, while disrupting circadian-based rhythms. Circadian systems also have been found to influence human reward pathways. Possibly, a bidirectional relationship exists between circadian disturbance and substance abuse effects. If so, repair of abnormal circadian rhythms might help normalize reward response in substance abusers, with positive effects on CM or NDSRA treatment outcomes. Phototherapy has been effective in repairing circadian rhythms in persons with seasonal affective disorder and other chronobiological conditions. This article proposes that it similarly may repair circadian response in substance abusers, thereby normalizing brain reward systems. By doing so, it would enhance the efficacy of CM and NDSRA therapies and may also help prevent relapse. Given its low cost and ease of administration, phototherapy seems a promising avenue to pursue.

  18. Maximizing Health or Sufficient Capability in Economic Evaluation? A Methodological Experiment of Treatment for Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranitis, Ilias; Coast, Joanna; Day, Ed; Copello, Alex; Freemantle, Nick; Frew, Emma

    2016-11-17

    Conventional practice within the United Kingdom and beyond is to conduct economic evaluations with "health" as evaluative space and "health maximization" as the decision-making rule. However, there is increasing recognition that this evaluative framework may not always be appropriate, and this is particularly the case within public health and social care contexts. This article presents a methodological case study designed to explore the impact of changing the evaluative space within an economic evaluation from health to capability well-being and the decision-making rule from health maximization to the maximization of sufficient capability. Capability well-being is an evaluative space grounded on Amartya Sen's capability approach and assesses well-being based on individuals' ability to do and be the things they value in life. Sufficient capability is an egalitarian approach to decision making that aims to ensure everyone in society achieves a normatively sufficient level of capability well-being. The case study is treatment for drug addiction, and the cost-effectiveness of 2 psychological interventions relative to usual care is assessed using data from a pilot trial. Analyses are undertaken from a health care and a government perspective. For the purpose of the study, quality-adjusted life years (measured using the EQ-5D-5L) and years of full capability equivalent and years of sufficient capability equivalent (both measured using the ICECAP-A [ICEpop CAPability measure for Adults]) are estimated. The study concludes that different evaluative spaces and decision-making rules have the potential to offer opposing treatment recommendations. The implications for policy makers are discussed.

  19. The effects of gabapentin on methadone based addiction treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Mohsen Saber; Alavinia, Mohammad

    2013-09-01

    Gabapentin is a potentially useful drug in alleviating the hyperexcitatory painful states in the control of opiate dependence in acute detoxification and the stabilization phase. This study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of gabapentin adds-on methadone therapy on lowering the methadone. This randomized double blind controlled clinical trial conducted at an outpatient rehabilitation clinic. Sixty patients using opium, opium extract and heroin were randomly assigned to two groups (34 in treatment group and 26 in control group); one group was prescribed combination of methadone (40-120 mg) and gabapentin (300 mg) as group A, and the other group was given methadone (40-120) and placebo as group B. The subjects were followed up for three weeks after intervention. There were 60 outpatients including 51 males with the mean age of 40.9±9.2. Daily dose and cumulative dose of methadone during the treatment was found to be significantly higher in group B (73.8±19.5 mg daily vs. 58.9±11 mg daily and cumulatively 1550.7±409.7 mg vs. 238.3±238.2 mg, p= 0.001). When the patients were stratified based on the kind of abused drug, the methadone dose was seen to be significantly reduced in the opium addicted patients in the group A. Group A showed more withdrawal symptoms whereas the most common complain of group B was sedation particularly during the first three days. The results showed that gabapentin is an effective adds-on therapy when is added to methadone. This drug leads to relief of withdrawal symptoms and lower methadone consumption.

  20. BDNF variability in opioid addicts and response to methadone treatment: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cid, R; Fonseca, F; Gratacòs, M; Gutierrez, F; Martín-Santos, R; Estivill, X; Torrens, M

    2008-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathways have been shown to be essential for opioid-induced plasticity. We conducted an exploratory study to evaluate BDNF variability in opioid addict responders and nonresponders to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). We analyzed 21 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the BDNF genomic region. Responders and nonresponders were classified by means of illicit opioid consumption detected in random urinalysis. Patients were assessed by a structured interview (Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM)-DSM-IV) and personality was evaluated by the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. No clinical, environmental and treatment characteristics were different between the groups, except for the Cooperativeness dimension (P < 0.001). Haplotype block analysis showed a low-frequency (2.7%) haplotype (13 SNPs) in block 1, which was more frequent in the nonresponder group than in the responder group (4/42 vs. 1/135; P(corrected) = 0.023). Fine mapping in block 1 allows us to identify a haplotype subset formed by only six SNPs (rs7127507, rs1967554, rs11030118, rs988748, rs2030324 and rs11030119) associated with differential response to MMT (global P sim = 0.011). Carriers of the CCGCCG haplotype had an increased risk of poorer response, even after adjusting for Cooperativeness score (OR = 20.25 95% CI 1.46-280.50, P = 0.025). These preliminary results might suggest the involvement of BDNF as a factor to be taken into account in the response to MMT independently of personality traits, environmental cues, methadone dosage and psychiatric comorbidity.

  1. An Evaluation of the Italian Version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale in Obese Adult Inpatients Engaged in a 1-Month-Weight-Loss Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarini, Martina; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca; Molinari, Enrico

    2015-11-01

    Addiction is a compulsive need for and use of a specific substance leading to a habit, tolerance, and psychophysiological symptoms. Excessive food consumption is similar to that of substance addiction. Some individuals who have trouble losing weight display addictive eating symptoms. To investigate food addiction in a sample of obese adults referred to hospital for a 1-month-weight-loss treatment. The Italian version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS-16) was used as a screening tool in 88 obese inpatients. The construct validity of the YFAS-16 was assessed by testing its correlations with measures of binge eating (Binge Eating Scale), impulsiveness (Barratt Impulsiveness Scale), and emotional dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale). 34.1% of our sample was diagnosed with YFAS food addiction. Such diagnosis was also supported by strong associations between FA and psychological and behavioral features, typically descriptive of classic addiction. Patients who endorsed the YFAS-16 criteria for food addiction (FA) had significantly higher binge eating levels, greater emotional dysregulation, and nonacceptance of negative feelings; they lacked goal-oriented behavior, had little impulse control, had difficulty in emotion recognition, and attentional impulsivity; and they were unable to concentrate and lacked inhibitory control behavior, unlike participants who did not meet the FA criteria. Further research is needed to support the reliability of the YFAS-16. This measure has the potential to be applied in epidemiological research, estimating the prevalence of FA within the Italian population and to assess new treatments' efficacy for obese patients with food addiction symptoms seeking weight-loss treatments.

  2. Addiction treatment intervention: an uncontrolled prospective pilot study of Spiritual Self-Schema therapy with Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Hortensia; Magno-Gatmaytan, Cielo; Meléndez, Michael; Cortés, Dharma E; Arevalo, Sandra; Margolin, Arthur

    2010-04-01

    Spiritual Self-Schema (3-S) is a weekly 8-session, mindfulness-based, manual-guided, individual intervention targeting addiction and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors that integrates cognitive behavioral strategies with Buddhist principles and clients' religious/spiritual beliefs. 3-S is efficacious for reducing drug use and HIV risk behaviors among mixed-gender, methadone-maintained outpatients. The study goal was to conduct a preliminary evaluation of 3-S therapy among urban, low-income Latinas (n = 13) in residential addiction treatment. Data gathered via in-person interviews (baseline, 8 and 20 weeks postentry) showed high rates of 3-S acceptability and positive changes in a number of outcomes relevant to recovery from addiction and to HIV prevention, including impulsivity, spirituality, motivation for change, and HIV prevention knowledge. The study findings are promising; however, a controlled study with longer follow-up is needed to rigorously assess the efficacy of 3-S therapy with Latinas in substance abuse treatment.

  3. Attitudes towards 12-step groups and referral practices in a 12-step naive treatment culture; a survey of addiction professionals in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laudet Alexandre

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addressing substance use disorders effectively requires a long-term approach. Substance abuse treatment is typically of short duration; referring patients to Twelve Step based self-help groups (TSGs – e.g. Narcotics Anonymous, represents a promising complementary recovery resource. Clinicians' attitudes and referral practices towards the TSGs have mainly been studied in countries with high integration of the 12-step philosophy in their substance abuse services and where the TSGs are widely available, such as the US. In Norway, there are currently 294 weekly TSG meetings (6 per 100,000 inhabitants. This study describes clinicians' attitudes and referral practices to TSGs in Norway where health authorities seek to promote self-help participation, but where the treatment culture is unfamiliar with 12-step fellowships. Methods Data collected by a self-administered questionnaire, adapted from established US and UK instruments. Information covered the attitudes, knowledge and referral practices towards TSGs among addiction treatment professionals in Norway in mid 2008. Results The return rate was 79.7% (n = 291. Participants had moderately positive attitude scores towards TSGs, but referral to these groups among Norwegian addiction professionals was low, as was the level of knowledge about TSGs. More than six out of ten did not refer any patients to TSGs in the previous week. Local variation with more referrals to TSGs in the county with the one established 12-step treatment facility was observed. Respondents' integration of the 12-steps in their own treatment work, higher self-efficacy for making a successful referral, and greater TSG knowledge were associated with referring patients. Conclusion Low referral rates to TSGs point to the need for education and training to raise the awareness and knowledge about it among addiction professionals unfamiliar with these 12-step fellowships. Training should focus on the usefulness of

  4. [Comparative analysis: Effectiveness of nicotine addiction treatment in people with psychiatric comorbidity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, R; Callejas, F J; Cruz, J; Tornero, A I; Tárraga, P J; Rodríguez-Montes, J A

    2017-06-20

    To determine whether or not nicotine addiction treatment was less effective in psychiatric than in the healthy population. A retrospective, descriptive and comparative cohort study was conducted in Albacete University Hospital during years 2008-2012 on all patients that attended the Tobacco Cessation Unit. The statistical tests used were Chi-squared, likelihood ratio, and the Student t test. Statistical significance P≤.05. The study included a total of 1,484 patients, of which 48.6% were female. The mean age was 46.8 years, and the mean age of starting smoking was 17.6 years. The mean number of previous attempts to quit was 1.48, and mean number of cigarettes smoked was 25.39. They had a mean Fagerström score of 6.04, a Richmond score of 8.13, and a mean carbon monoxide level of 16.65ppm. Most patients were referred from Primary Care (38.7%) and Chest Diseases department (33%), and the type of tobacco smoked was "light" in 75.8%. There was 15% with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 8% with asthma, and 9.4% with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Furthermore, there was respiratory disease in 28.7%, cardiovascular disease in 4.6%, and both in 3.5%. Hiatus hernia was present in 7.2%, thyroid disease in 3.8%, hypertension in 19%, diabetes in 10.7%, and dyslipidaemia in 29.4%, Drugs were used by 7.1%, and 12.6% consumed alcohol. There was 39.3% psychiatric comorbidity (PC), and were comparable except in gender, age of onset, Fagerström, Richmond, source of referral, asthma, hiatus hernia, thyroid disease, hypertension, as well as drugs and treatment. Drug treatment was completed by 22.3% in the PC group, with no significant difference. There were differences in success (P=.008), but not in failure and relapse rates. Anti-smoking treatment in psychiatric patients is effective. An increase in the probability of treatment success is observed in patients without psychiatric comorbidity. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria

  5. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544.

  6. Demand for Substance Abuse Treatment Related to Use of Crystal Methamphetamine in Ontario: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Bruna; Corea, Larry; Strike, Carol; Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Behrooz, Renee C.; Rush, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about methamphetamine/crystal methamphetamine (MA) have featured prominently in the Canadian media and on addiction treatment agency agendas. We examined MA admissions at addiction treatment agencies to determine if a service gap existed. In 2006, all addiction treatment agencies (n = 124) in Ontario, Canada were invited to complete an…

  7. 试述体育活动对网络成瘾的防治作用%Discuss on Prevention and Treatment of Sports Activities for Internet Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵娜; 张艺宏; 杜会娟

    2014-01-01

    通过网络成瘾定义、症状与危害、诊断、干预与治疗等方面的综述,全面认识与了解网络成瘾,并试图阐述体育活动对预防、控制、治疗网络成瘾的作用以及体育活动防治网络成瘾的途径。%The paper aims to let people get comprehensive knowledge and understanding of Internet addiction by overall review of definition and symptoms of Internet addiction, along with harm, diagnosis, intervention, and treatment. It also attempts to illustrate the advantages of sports activities for the prevention, control, and treatment of Internet addiction and solutions to deal with Internet addiction.

  8. How to Find HIV Treatment Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and insomnia than people without HIV. Read the AIDS info HIV and Mental Health fact sheet for more information. Below are some places to find mental health treatment services: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration ( ...

  9. Effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy on Improving Quality of Life in Opiate Addicts under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Momeni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of cognitive- behavioral group therapy on improvement of quality of life in opiate patients under methadone maintenance treatment. Method: This was a semi experimental study using control group also pre-test, post-test and follow-up. Thirty six patients on MMT were selected between the entire opiate addicts referred to Iranian national center for addiction studies within judgmental sampling and were randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. They were all administered the WHOQOL-BREF. In experimental group, cognitive behavior group therapy was performed in 8 sessions and the control group was registered in the waiting list for the CBGT. Findings: Data analysis revealed that the mean WHOQOL-BREF score in the experimental group had significant higher increase when compared with that of the control group. But it wasn’t significant in follow up. Conclusion: Results demonstrated the effectiveness of cognitive–behavior group therapy On improvement of quality of life of opiate addicts on MMT in short term but didn’t seem to be effective in long term.

  10. Health-related quality of life among veterans in addictions treatment: identifying behavioral targets for future intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppezzo, Marily A.; Michalek, Anne K.; Delucchi, Kevin; Baiocchi, Michael T. M.; Barnett, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background US veterans report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) relative to the general population. Identifying behavioral factors related to HRQoL that are malleable to change may inform interventions to improve well-being in this vulnerable group. Purpose The current study sought to characterize HRQoL in a largely male sample of veterans in addictions treatment, both in relation to US norms and in association with five recommended health behavior practices: regularly exercising, managing stress, having good sleep hygiene, consuming fruits and vegetables, and being tobacco free. Methods We assessed HRQoL with 250 veterans in addictions treatment (96 % male, mean age 53, range 24–77) using scales from four validated measures. Data reduction methods identified two principal components reflecting physical and mental HRQoL. Model testing of HRQoL associations with health behaviors adjusted for relevant demographic and treatment-related covariates. Results Compared to US norms, the sample had lower HRQoL scores. Better psychological HRQoL was associated with higher subjective social standing, absence of pain or trauma, lower alcohol severity, and monotonically with the sum of health behaviors (all p management, and sleep hygiene. Regular exercise also related to better physical HRQoL. The models explained >40 % of the variance in HRQoL. Conclusions Exercise, sleep hygiene, and stress management are strongly associated with HRQoL among veterans in addictions treatment. Future research is needed to test the effect of interventions for improving well-being in this high-risk group. PMID:26886926

  11. Issues In-Depth: Advancing Understanding of Drug Addiction and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2009-01-01

    While most school districts utilize a drug abuse resistance curriculum, as science teachers, it is our responsibility to understand the science behind drug addiction in order to most effectively educate our students against drug abuse. In the last two decades, increases in scientific technology have permitted significant discoveries surrounding…

  12. (1S, 3S)-3-amino-4-difluoromethylenyl-1-cyclopentanoic acid (CPP-115), a potent gamma-aminobutyric acid aminotransferase inactivator for the treatment of cocaine addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pan, Yue; Gerasimov, Madina R; Kvist, Trine

    2012-01-01

    Vigabatrin, a GABA aminotransferase (GABA-AT) inactivator, is used to treat infantile spasms and refractory complex partial seizures and is in clinical trials to treat addiction. We evaluated a novel GABA-AT inactivator (CPP-115) and observed that it does not exhibit other GABAergic or off...... at 1/300-1/600th the dose of vigabatrin. It also blocks expression of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference at a dose 1/300th that of vigabatrin. Electroretinographic (ERG) responses in rats treated with CPP-115, at doses 20-40 times higher than those needed to treat addiction in rats, exhibited...... reductions in ERG responses, which were less than the reductions observed in rats treated with vigabatrin at the same dose needed to treat addiction in rats. In conclusion, CPP-115 can be administered at significantly lower doses than vigabatrin, which suggests a potential new treatment for addiction...

  13. Coexisting addiction and pain in people receiving methadone for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Marie, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the narratives of people who experience chronic pain (lasting 6 months or more) and were receiving methadone for the treatment of their opiate addiction through a major methadone clinic. This paper featured the pathway of how the participants developed chronic pain and addiction, and their beliefs of how prescription opioids would impact their addiction in the future. Thirty-four participants who experienced chronic pain and received methadone for treatment of opiate addiction were willing to tell the story of their experiences. The findings in three areas are presented: (a) whether participants experienced addiction first or pain first and how their exposures to addictive substances influenced their experiences, (b) the significance of recreational drug use and patterns of abuse behaviors leading to chronic pain, and (c) participants' experiences and beliefs about the potential for abuse of prescription opioid used for treatment of pain.

  14. The Science of Addiction: Drugs, Brains, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues The Science of Addiction: Drugs, Brains, and Behavior Past Issues / Spring 2007 ... transforming our understanding and treatment of addictive disorders." "Addiction is a disease — a treatable disease — and it ...

  15. Hepatitis C treatment in patients with drug addiction: clinical management of interferon-alpha-associated psychiatric side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Martin; Mauss, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    60-90% of patients with intravenous drug abuse are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Antiviral treatment with pegylated interferon-alfa (IFN-alpha) plus ribavirin is often complicated by psychiatric adverse events, significantly affecting patients adherence. Depression, anxiety, fatigue and irritability as typical IFN-alpha associated side effects occur in 30-80% during antiviral treatment of hepatitis C. Patients with drug addiction were shown to have an increased risk to discontinue HCV-treatment early in the first three treatment months, where most neuropsychiatric side effects appear. Especially vegetative side effects in the first few weeks ("flu-like syndrome") can be misunderstood as withdrawal symptoms, followed by a relapse in drug or alcohol abuse. As a consequence methadone substitution treatment was found to be the best therapeutic setting. In addition side effect management should be intensified during first three months of HCV-treatment. Most data for the management of specific IFN-alpha associated side effects are available for depressive syndromes. Antidepressants (especially serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors) such as citalopram were shown to significantly reduce IFN-alpha associated depressive symptoms. A pre-emptive treatment with antidepressants should be considered at least for patients with additional psychiatric risk factors before interferon-based therapy is started. Because data from prospective controlled trials are lacking, management of other side effects such as sleep disturbances, irritability, psychotic syndromes, mania, suicidal thoughts and delirious syndromes should follow general psychiatric treatment recommendations. Overall, the psychiatric adverse event profile of interferon-based therapy for HCV-infected patients with drug addiction is considerable and requires active management and knowledge about psychiatric medical therapy.

  16. Early Phase in the Development of Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Addiction: Opioid Relapse Takes Initial Center Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Yasmin L; Yoon, Michelle; Manini, Alex F; Hernandez, Stephanie; Olmedo, Ruben; Ostman, Maria; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2015-10-01

    Multiple cannabinoids derived from the marijuana plant have potential therapeutic benefits but most have not been well investigated, despite the widespread legalization of medical marijuana in the USA and other countries. Therapeutic indications will depend on determinations as to which of the multiple cannabinoids, and other biologically active chemicals that are present in the marijuana plant, can be developed to treat specific symptoms and/or diseases. Such insights are particularly critical for addiction disorders, where different phytocannabinoids appear to induce opposing actions that can confound the development of treatment interventions. Whereas Δ(9)-tetracannabinol has been well documented to be rewarding and to enhance sensitivity to other drugs, cannabidiol (CBD), in contrast, appears to have low reinforcing properties with limited abuse potential and to inhibit drug-seeking behavior. Other considerations such as CBD's anxiolytic properties and minimal adverse side effects also support its potential viability as a treatment option for a variety of symptoms associated with drug addiction. However, significant research is still needed as CBD investigations published to date primarily relate to its effects on opioid drugs, and CBD's efficacy at different phases of the abuse cycle for different classes of addictive substances remain largely understudied. Our paper provides an overview of preclinical animal and human clinical investigations, and presents preliminary clinical data that collectively sets a strong foundation in support of the further exploration of CBD as a therapeutic intervention against opioid relapse. As the legal landscape for medical marijuana unfolds, it is important to distinguish it from "medical CBD" and other specific cannabinoids, that can more appropriately be used to maximize the medicinal potential of the marijuana plant.

  17. [Internet addiction and web-mediated psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonioni, Federico; Corvino, Stefano

    2011-11-01

    The development of the Internet and its gradual mass distribution in the last 20 years have marked the beginning of a global revolution in the way of communicating and thinking. In this context, emerged disorders related to a pathological use of the network, up to forms of real addiction (Internet Addiction Disorder), similar to the use of psychotropic substances. The abuse of the Internet can seriously aggravate pre-existing psychopathological traits, which are the basis of addiction, resulting in a continuous process of disconnection from reality. The loss of interpersonal relationships, the change of mood, cognition completely oriented to the use of the network and disruption of temporal experience are common features in patients addicted to the Internet. There are also clear signs of intoxication and abstinence. Teenagers are particularly at risk, maybe because born in the "new virtual world" and therefore less aware of the risks that may ensue. At the Gemelli Hospital in Rome it's active an out-patient service for Internet Addiction Disorder with a treatment protocol that includes individual interviews, group rehabilitation and self-help groups for family members.

  18. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short...... of excitement-seeking and achievement striving whereas scores on straightforwardness and compliance were lower than in the exercise control group. The addiction group reported more bodily pain and injuries. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise addiction is separate to an eating disorder, but shares...

  19. PATTERN OF SHIFTING OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG DRUG ADDICTS UNDERGOING TREATMENT AT DDCS (DRUG DEADDICTION CENTERS IN PUNJAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: In India , drug addiction has reached very alarming levels in the state of Punjab . The data from a cross - sectional study in two of the DDCs in district Gurdaspur and three of the DDCs in district Hoshiarpur revealed that about 26 patients had history of shifting pattern of substance abuse . The reasons cited by the patients were of affordability , the ease of availability , the job plac e , the locality and the peer groups , in which they were hanging out . Studies also confirm the fact , that tighter control over one drug in India forced some drug users to switch to use other drugs . So , uprooting of this evil from any society needs multipron ged strategy comprising of , total supply breakdown of all types of drugs , breaking down the nexus of suppliers and the drug peddlers , support of the family and the community towards addicts , encouraging them to come out in the open for deaddiction , improvi sation of the services at DDCs , vocational rehabilitation wherever needed and integration in mainstream of the society with open arms and hearts .

  20. Exploring Needs and Expectations of Spouses of Addicted Men in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joolaee, Soodabeh; Fereidooni, Zhila; Fatemi, Naeemeh Seyed; Meshkibaf, Mohammad Hassan; Mirlashri, Jila

    2014-01-01

    Addiction is one of the majore problems that affect everyone in the society especially the spouses of addicted men who have to face a large number of problems which are the consequences of their husband’s addiction. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the needs and expectations of women who are living with their addicted husband in Iran. Twenty-four spouses of addicted men participated in this study. The participants were interviewed and each interview was analyzed via the content analysis method. The results of this study showed that the women’s difficulties were related to their approach to the treatment, or their husbands’ response to the treatment, financial constraints and emotional and informational needs. Moreover, these Iranian women expected more stringent control by the government on the phenomenon of addiction and drug trafficking with a view of having a drug-free country. The needs and expectations of the wives of addicted men are context-based and should be assessed separately between individuals, families, and communities. In addition to the addicted person, it is vitally important that the health of the family members of drug addicts be taken into account and for whom supportive services be provided. PMID:25169001

  1. A Qualitative Study of the Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs): An Assessment of the Use of TIPs by Individuals Affiliated with the Addiction Technology Transfer Centers (ATTCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Susan W.; Suzuki, Marcia; Hubbard, Susan M.; Huang, Judy Y.; Cobb, Anita M.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the Addiction Technology Transfer Centers (ATTCs) of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) as a means of diffusion of innovations, focusing on use of the Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs). Qualitative studies at 6 ATTCs that included 57 interviews show that the CSAT is at the forefront of providing resources to the…

  2. A case-control study on the causes of new HIV infection among heroin addicts attendees at the methadone maintenance treatment clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王常合

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the routes and factors associated with HIV new infection of heroin addicts who had been attending the methadone maintenance treatment(MMT)program.Methods A 1∶1 nested case-control study was implemented with the cases(new HIV infections)and controls(HIV negative)selected from the treatment cohort of China MMT clients.Questionnaire

  3. Comparing Personality Characteristics of Addicts with Non Addicts in Hamadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A Sizeable sector of the population in Iran continues to use substance abuse despite government efforts to prevent addiction. Present study was designed to compare personality characteristics of addicts with non addicts. One hundred and six addicts who sought treatment at addiction rehabilitation department of Hamadan , were recruited in this study. A selective control group matched for demographic variables with the first group were also requested to take part in the study. The structured clinical interview for DSM-IV and MMPI were administered. The results showed that patients in studied group represented a significantly different personality characteristics in contrast to the control group. Overal 77.8% of addicts were diagnosed as mental disorder. This figure for control group was 26.2% . Also 41.3% of addicts were diagnosed as personality disorders, while the figure for non addicts was 5.8%. High rates of mental disorders and personality problems are reported for addicts. It Seems that psychiatric symptoms and psychological vulnerabilities have important role in addictive behavior.

  4. Methylphenidate Treatment in Adolescent Rats with an Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Phenotype: Cocaine Addiction Vulnerability and Dopamine Transporter Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Roxann C; Sen, Sucharita; Deaciuc, Agripina; Dwoskin, Linda P; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate animal models of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and drug reinforcement allow investigation of possible underlying biological bases of ADHD and its comorbidity with cocaine addiction. Toward this end, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) exhibiting an ADHD phenotype were compared with Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Wistar (WIS) rats. Initially, 1.5 mg/kg oral methylphenidate or vehicle was administered between postnatal days 28 and 55, and acquisition of visual discrimination learning was examined. After discontinuing adolescent treatments, adult rats were evaluated for cocaine self-administration and dopamine transporter (DAT) function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and striatum. During adolescence, SHRs showed deficits in visual discrimination relative to WKY and WIS rats when non-medicated. Methylphenidate improved visual discrimination only in SHRs. Compared with WKY and WIS rats, SHRs with previous methylphenidate treatment acquired cocaine self-administration faster, identified cocaine as a highly efficacious reinforcer by displaying an upward shift in the cocaine dose–response function, and showed the greatest motivation to self-administer cocaine by exhibiting the highest progressive ratio breakpoints. In the PFC, the maximal dopamine uptake (Vmax) at DAT was decreased in SHRs and increased in WKY and WIS rats by previous methylphenidate treatment. The affinity (Km) for dopamine at DAT in the PFC was not different between strains, nor was Vmax or Km altered in the striatum by previous methylphenidate treatment in any strain. Methylphenidate-induced decreases in dopamine clearance by DAT in the PFC may underlie increased cocaine self-administration in SHRs. These preclinical findings suggest that caution should be exercised when methylphenidate is prescribed for first-time treatment of ADHD in adolescent patients, as cocaine addiction vulnerability may be augmented. PMID:21150910

  5. The Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA: an efficient, patient-centered instrument for evaluating progress in recovery from addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling W

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Walter Ling,1 David Farabee,1 Dagmar Liepa,2 Li-Tzy Wu31Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2Valley Care Medical Center, Panorama City, CA, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The fields of addiction medicine and addiction research have long sought an efficient yet comprehensive instrument to assess patient progress in treatment and recovery. Traditional tools are expensive, time consuming, complex, and based on topics that clinicians or researchers think are important. Thus, they typically do not provide patient-centered information that is meaningful and relevant to the lives of patients with substance use disorders. To improve our ability to understand patients’ progress in treatment from their perspectives, the authors and colleagues developed a patient-oriented assessment instrument that has considerable advantages over existing instruments: brevity, simplicity, ease of administration, orientation to the patient, and cost (none. The resulting Treatment Effectiveness Assessment (TEA elicits patient responses that help the patient and the clinician quickly gauge patient progress in treatment and in recovery, according to the patients’ sense of what is important within four domains established by prior research. Patients provide both numerical responses and representative details on their substance use, health, lifestyle, and community. No software is required for data entry or scoring, and no formal training is required to administer the TEA. This article describes the development of the TEA and the initial phases of its application in clinical practice and in research.Keywords: substance use disorders, global treatment progress, brief instrument, patient-centered

  6. Malaria treatment services in Nigeria: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin SC Uzochukwu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria remains a major Public Health problem in Nigeria and causes death and illness in children and adults, especially pregnant women. Malaria case management remains a vital component of the malaria control strategies. This entails early diagnosis and prompt treatment with effective antimalarial medicines. The objectives of this review is to enable health professionals to understand the magnitude of malaria treatment services in Nigeria, to improve knowledge for rational malaria management within different health system contexts with a view to improving access to malaria treatment. The review therefore looks at the following areas: clinical disease and epidemiology; the burden of malaria in Nigeria; objectives of treatment; antimalarial treatment policy; malaria diagnosis, treatment strategies/ National responses; treatment sources. The review concludes that for improved malaria treatment services in Nigeria, there is an urgent need to develop adequate strategies that will ensure better access to medicines by getting evidence-based and effective medicines to the people who need them, whether by reducing their costs, promoting equity in access, improving their distribution, increasing their efficacy and acceptability, or slowing down the development of antimicrobial resistance.

  7. Mothering from the Inside Out: A mentalization-based therapy for mothers in treatment for drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchman, Nancy E

    2016-07-01

    Not all mothers with histories of substance use struggle as parents, but many of them do. Research has shown that, although quality of caregiving varies widely, as a group, mothers with histories of chronic substance use are at greater risk than mothers with no substance use history for losing custody of their young children (Grant et al., 2011; Choi & Ryan, 2006; Department of Health and Human Services, 1999). In observational studies, mothers with substance use disorders have demonstrated lower levels of sensitivity and responsiveness to their young children's emotional cues and marked oscillation between intrusive, over-controlling behavior and passive withdrawal (Hans et al., 1999; Burns et al., 1997). Recent developments in the neuroscience of addiction and parenting may help to explain the marked absence of sensitivity and the dramatic juxtaposition of parenting behaviors.

  8. Dopamine D3 receptor ligands for drug addiction treatment: update on recent findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Foll, Bernard; Collo, Ginetta; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Boileau, Isabelle; Merlo Pich, Emilio; Sokoloff, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor is located in the limbic area and apparently mediates selective effects on motivation to take drugs and drug-seeking behaviors, so that there has been considerable interest on the possible use of D3 receptor ligands to treat drug addiction. However, only recently selective tools allowing studying this receptor have been developed. This chapter presents an overview of findings that were presented at a symposium on the conference Dopamine 2013 in Sardinia in May 2013. Novel neurobiological findings indicate that drugs of abuse can lead to significant structural plasticity in rodent brain and that this is dependent on the availability of functional dopamine D3 autoreceptor, whose activation increased phosphorylation in the ERK pathway and in the Akt/mTORC1 pathway indicating the parallel engagement of a series of intracellular signaling pathways all involved in cell growth and survival. Preclinical findings using animal models of drug-seeking behaviors confirm that D3 antagonists have a promising profile to treat drug addiction across drugs of abuse type. Imaging the D3 is now feasible in human subjects. Notably, the development of (+)-4-propyl-9-hydroxynaphthoxazine ligand used in positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans allows to measure D3 and D2 receptors based on the area of the brain under study. This PET ligand has been used to confirm up-regulation of D3 sites in psychostimulant users and to reveal that tobacco smoking produces elevation of dopamine at the level of D3 sites. There are now novel antagonists being developed, but also old drugs such as buspirone, that are available to test the D3 hypothesis in humans. The first results of clinical investigations are now being provided. Overall, those recent findings support further exploration of D3 ligands to treat drug addiction.

  9. Differential criteria for binge eating disorder and food addiction in the context of causes and treatment of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąk-Sosnowska, Monika

    2017-04-30

    To establish the differential criteria for Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Food Addiction (FA). We performed a detailed analysis of comparative diagnostic criteria for BED and Substance use disorder contained in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-V. We applied the diagnostic criteria for both disorders to scientific publications on the issue of excessive eating in obese people, during the years 2005-2016, available on PubMed. We isolated specific similarities and differences between Binge Eating Disorder and Food Addiction. We formulated differential criteria for BED and FA. In BED as well as FA the following characteristics are apparent: preoccupation with food, excessive eating, loss of control over the amount of food and manner of eating, inability to change behavior, continuing behavior despite negative consequences, increased impulsiveness and emotional imbalance. Differences between BED and FA relate to the function of food, reaction to omitted food, psychological mechanisms of coping with excessive eating and body image, the issue of tolerance, withdrawal syndrome and the correlation between excessive eating and other areas of life. The criteria of differentiation between BED and FA concern the following: function of food, eating circumstances, reaction to the unavailability of food, awareness of the problem. Appropriate diagnosis of these disorders and their differentiation increases the chances of adequate treatment of obese patients.

  10. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan.

  11. The Gap between Tobacco Treatment Guidelines, Health Service Organization, and Clinical Practice in Comprehensive Cancer Centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mazza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation is necessary to reach a higher quality of life, and, for a cancer patient, it represents an important step in improving the outcome of both prognosis and therapy. Being a cancer patient addicted to nicotine may be a critical situation. We conducted a survey to monitor how many comprehensive cancer centres in Italy have an outpatient smoker clinic and which kinds of resources are available. We also inquired about inpatient services offering psychological and pharmacological support for smoking cessation, reduction, or care of acute nicotine withdrawal symptoms. What we have witnessed is a significant gap between guidelines and services. Oncologists and cancer nurses are overscheduled, with insufficient time to engage in discussion on a problem that they do not consider directly related to cancer treatment. Furthermore, smoking habits and limited training in tobacco dependence and treatment act as an important barrier and lead to the undervaluation of smokers' needs.

  12. Using enhanced and integrated services to improve response to standard methadone treatment: changing the clinical infrastructure of treatment networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Karin; Kidorf, Michael; King, Van; Stoller, Ken; Clark, Michael; Peirce, Jessica; Brooner, Robert K

    2010-03-01

    Outcomes are presented from opioid-dependent outpatients (N = 81) participating in a new community-based initiative designed to improve access to enhanced substance abuse and psychiatric services in a publicly supported methadone maintenance treatment network in Baltimore, MD. The initiative, entitled Community Access to Specialized Treatment (CAST), is located at the Addiction Treatment Services, a program within this network. Network programs referred patients engaged in unremitting drug use who are at risk for discharge to CAST, where they received methadone substitution, individual and group counseling within an adaptive platform, behavioral contingencies to reinforce adherence, and on-site psychiatric evaluation and care. Patients returned to their referring program after producing at least two consecutive weeks of drug-negative urine samples and full counseling adherence. CAST was well utilized by the community. Patients had high rates of adherence to scheduled individual and group counseling services (93% and 73%, respectively); 43% of referrals successfully completed the program in an average of 101 days. This community-wide service delivery approach is a novel alternative to integrating intensive substance abuse and psychiatric care at each program within a treatment network.

  13. The Effectiveness of Marlaat’s Cognitive Behavior Intervention and Group Treatment Based on Change Stages for Recovery and Relapse Prevention Rates in Male Heroin Crack Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khodadust

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was the Study of effectiveness of Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention and group treatment based on change stages for recovery and relapse rates in male heroin crack addictions. Method: In a experimental research design, 45 men addictions, who were diagnosed as the dependence of the heroin crack on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, were chosen after successfully detoxified. They were divided two experimental groups (30 participants and a control group (15 participants that have been selected by random sampling. The first experimental group was undergone group treatment based on change stages underwent 16 sessions of 1.5 hours, totally 24 hours and the second experimental groups who were undergone Marlaat’s cognitive behavior intervention has been held 15 sessions of 2 hours, totally 24 hours. The control group were just received MMT without any psychotherapy. All participants were assessed by structured interview, urine test, before treatment, after treatment and after 3 months follow up. Results: Results showed that both psychotherapy treatments were affected on recovery and relapse rates. Conclusion: It seems that psychological problems and conflicts before addiction and after addiction could be caused for individuals’ tendency to narcotics consumption. Therefore, applying of psychotherapy could be useful in relapse prevention.

  14. The Addiction Recovery Clinic: A Novel, Primary-Care-Based Approach to Teaching Addiction Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Stephen R; Segar, Nora; Cavallo, Dana A; Tetrault, Jeanette M

    2017-05-01

    Substance use is highly prevalent in the United States, but little time in the curriculum is devoted to training internal medicine residents in addiction medicine. In 2014, the authors developed and launched the Addiction Recovery Clinic (ARC) to address this educational gap while also providing outpatient clinical services to patients with substance use disorders. The ARC is embedded within the residency primary care practice and is staffed by three to four internal medicine residents, two board-certified addiction medicine specialists, one chief resident, and one psychologist. Residents spend one half-day per week for four consecutive weeks at the ARC seeing new and returning patients. Services provided include pharmacological and behavioral treatments for opioid, alcohol, and other substance use disorders, with direct referral to local addiction treatment facilities as needed. Visit numbers, a patient satisfaction survey, and an end-of-rotation resident evaluation were used to assess the ARC. From 2014 to 2015, 611 patient encounters occurred, representing 97 new patients. Sixty-one (63%) patients were seen for opioid use disorder. According to patient satisfaction surveys, 29 (of 31; 94%) patients reported that the ARC probably or definitely helped them to cope with their substance use. Twenty-eight residents completed the end-of-rotation evaluation; all rated the rotation highly. The ARC offers a unique primary-care-based approach to exposing internal medicine residents to the knowledge and skills necessary to diagnose, treat, and prevent unhealthy substance use. Future research will examine other clinical and educational outcomes.

  15. [Gambling addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T

    2013-05-01

    Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64  % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly.

  16. 强制戒毒人群HIV和梅毒感染及影响因素%HIV and syphilis infections and influence factors among drug addicts under compulsory addiction treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金英; 卢次勇; 黄晋飞; 黄桂锋; 邓琳; 孙小康; 曾茜茜

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解广东省清远市强制戒毒人群HIV和梅毒的感染状况及影响因素.方法 于2007-2008年对清远市3个强制戒毒所的强制戒毒者进行问卷调查,内容包括社会人口学、吸毒和性行为特征并采集血样检测HIV和梅毒抗体.结果 共调查强制戒毒者740人,HIV和梅毒感染率分别为4.59%、12.57%;二重感染率为1.22%;多因素Logistic回归分析表明,注射吸毒和感染梅毒是HIV感染的危险因素;来自农村和乡镇、累计人戒毒所次数多以及商业性行为是梅毒感染的危险因素.结论 清远市强制戒毒人群HIV、梅毒及重叠感染率高于一般人群,注射吸毒和商业性行为是主要危险因素.%Objective To investigate HIV and syphilis infections and influence factors among drug addicts under compulsory rehabilitation in Qingyuan city. Methods From 2007 to 2008, a cross-sectional study was conducted among drug addicts selected with cluster sampling from three compulsory addiction treatment centers in Qingyuan city. Questionnaire survey was conducted to collect information on demographics and characteristics of drug use and sexual behavior, and blood samples were collected for tests of HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results Among 740 drug addicts investigated, the infection rates of HIV and syphilis were 4. 59% and 12.57% ,and the co-infection infection rate was 1.22%. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that drug injection and syphilis infection were risk factors for HIV infection. Drug users from rural and town,with more accumulated times of drug detoxification and commercial sex behavior had a higher risk of syphilis infection. Conclusion The infection rates of HIV and syphilis in drug addicts under compulsory addiction are higher than those of in general people as well as the co-infection. Drug injection and commercial sex behaviors are main risk factors for infections of HIV and syphilis.

  17. Treatment Outcomes in Patients with Internet Addiction: A Clinical Pilot Study on the Effects of a Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wölfling

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction is regarded as a growing health concern in many parts of the world with prevalence rates of 1-2% in Europe and up to 7% in some Asian countries. Clinical research has demonstrated that Internet addiction is accompanied with loss of interests, decreased psychosocial functioning, social retreat, and heightened psychosocial distress. Specialized treatment programs are needed to face this problem that has recently been added to the appendix of the DSM-5. While there are numerous studies assessing clinical characteristics of patients with Internet addiction, the knowledge about the effectiveness of treatment programs is limited. Although a recent meta-analysis indicates that those programs show effects, more clinical studies are needed here. To add knowledge, we conducted a pilot study on the effects of a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy program for IA. 42 male adults meeting criteria for Internet addiction were enrolled. Their IA-status, psychopathological symptoms, and perceived self-efficacy expectancy were assessed before and after the treatment. The results show that 70.3% of the patients finished the therapy regularly. After treatment symptoms of IA had decreased significantly. Psychopathological symptoms were reduced as well as associated psychosocial problems. The results of this pilot study emphasize findings from the only meta-analysis conducted so far.

  18. Treatment outcomes in patients with internet addiction: a clinical pilot study on the effects of a cognitive-behavioral therapy program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, K; Beutel, M E; Dreier, M; Müller, K W

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction is regarded as a growing health concern in many parts of the world with prevalence rates of 1-2% in Europe and up to 7% in some Asian countries. Clinical research has demonstrated that Internet addiction is accompanied with loss of interests, decreased psychosocial functioning, social retreat, and heightened psychosocial distress. Specialized treatment programs are needed to face this problem that has recently been added to the appendix of the DSM-5. While there are numerous studies assessing clinical characteristics of patients with Internet addiction, the knowledge about the effectiveness of treatment programs is limited. Although a recent meta-analysis indicates that those programs show effects, more clinical studies are needed here. To add knowledge, we conducted a pilot study on the effects of a standardized cognitive-behavioral therapy program for IA. 42 male adults meeting criteria for Internet addiction were enrolled. Their IA-status, psychopathological symptoms, and perceived self-efficacy expectancy were assessed before and after the treatment. The results show that 70.3% of the patients finished the therapy regularly. After treatment symptoms of IA had decreased significantly. Psychopathological symptoms were reduced as well as associated psychosocial problems. The results of this pilot study emphasize findings from the only meta-analysis conducted so far.

  19. RELATIONSHIP OF ASSESS SELF-ESTEEM AND LOCUS OF CONTROL WITH QUALITY OF LIFE DURING TREATMENT STAGES IN PATIENTS REFERRING TO DRUG ADDICTION REHABILITATION CENTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mohammad; Ghodusi, Mansureh

    2016-07-24

    Thus, the present research was carried out aimed at determining the relationship between self-esteem and locus of control and quality of life during treatment stages in the patients referring to drug addiction rehabilitation centers of Borujen city, Iran. The current study was a sectional research of descriptive correlation type. The research sample was 150 individuals of patients referring to addiction rehabilitation centers of Borujen city. For data gathering, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, Rotter's Locus of Control Scale, and SF36 Quality of Life Questionnaire were used. Following collection of questionnaires, the data were analyzed using SPSS/16 software. According to the results, in the 12(th) day of treatment, 96 patients exhibited moderate self-esteem, 102 patients had internal locus of control, and the score of their overall quality of life was 40.43±12.71. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient indicated that a significant and positive relationship was observed between locus of control and quality of life during different treatment stages. It seems that quality of life improves during addiction treatment stages due to improvement of personality traits including locus of control and self-esteem. Therefore, consultation methods as a very crucial priority in addiction rehabilitation centers shall be taken into account by the health sector authorities and managers and can play an essential role in enhancing quality of life.

  20. Experiences with an outpatient relapse program (CRA) combined with naltrexone in the treatment of opioid dependence: effect on addictive behaviours and the predictive value of psychiatric comorbidity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozen, H.G.; Kerkhof, A.J.F.M.; Brink, van den W.

    2003-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, in the treatment of opiate addicts. The effects of naltrexone are often compromised by a lack of compliance and drop-out. The effects of this compound are probably more favorable when combined with a psychosocial intervent

  1. Addiction therapy. Refining deep brain stimulation to emulate optogenetic treatment of synaptic pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Meaghan; Pascoli, Vincent Jean; Lüscher, Christian

    2015-02-06

    Circuit remodeling driven by pathological forms of synaptic plasticity underlies several psychiatric diseases, including addiction. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied to treat a number of neurological and psychiatric conditions, although its effects are transient and mediated by largely unknown mechanisms. Recently, optogenetic protocols that restore normal transmission at identified synapses in mice have provided proof of the idea that cocaine-adaptive behavior can be reversed in vivo. The most efficient protocol relies on the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors, mGluRs, which depotentiates excitatory synaptic inputs onto dopamine D1 receptor medium-sized spiny neurons and normalizes drug-adaptive behavior. We discovered that acute low-frequency DBS, refined by selective blockade of dopamine D1 receptors, mimics optogenetic mGluR-dependent normalization of synaptic transmission. Consequently, there was a long-lasting abolishment of behavioral sensitization. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. What's in the 'treatment gap'? Ethnographic perspectives on addiction and global mental health from China, Russia, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Nicholas; Garriott, William; Raikhel, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a 'global mental health' agenda, focused on providing evidence-based interventions for mental illnesses in low- and middle-income countries. Anthropologists and cultural psychiatrists have engaged in vigorous debates about the appropriateness of this agenda. In this article, we reflect on these debates, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork on the management of substance use disorders in China, Russia, and the United States. We argue that the logic of 'treatment gaps,' which guides much research and intervention under the rubric of global mental health, partially obscures the complex assemblages of institutions, therapeutics, knowledges, and actors framing and managing addiction (as well as other mental health issues) in any particular setting.

  3. Research to practice in addiction treatment: key terms and a field-driven model of technology transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    The transfer of new technologies (e.g., evidence-based practices) into substance abuse treatment organizations often occurs long after they have been developed and shown to be effective. Transfer is slowed, in part, due to a lack of clear understanding about all that is needed to achieve full implementation of these technologies. Such misunderstanding is exacerbated by inconsistent terminology and overlapping models of an innovation, including its development and validation, dissemination to the public, and implementation or use in the field. For this reason, a workgroup of the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) Network developed a field-driven conceptual model of the innovation process that more precisely defines relevant terms and concepts and integrates them into a comprehensive taxonomy. The proposed definitions and conceptual framework will allow for improved understanding and consensus regarding the distinct meaning and conceptual relationships between dimensions of the technology transfer process and accelerate the use of evidence-based practices.

  4. Stent-Graft Placement with Early Debridement and Antibiotic Treatment for Femoral Pseudoaneurysms in Intravenous Drug Addicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Qining, E-mail: cqmufqn@163.com; Meng, Xiyun, E-mail: 383274177@qq.com; Li, Fenghe, E-mail: lfh-cqmu@gmail.com; Wang, Xuehu, E-mail: 184037696@qq.co; Cheng, Jun, E-mail: cqdcj@163.com; Huang, Wen, E-mail: dhuangwen@hotmail.com; Ren, Wei, E-mail: renwei9771@yahoo.com.cn; Zhao, Yu, E-mail: zhaoyu-cqmu@126.com [The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Department of Vascular Surgery (China)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeExplore the application of endovascular covered stent-graft (SG) placement in femoral pseudoaneurysms in intravenous drug addicts.Materials and MethodsWe evaluated a consecutive series of pseudoaneurysm in intravenous drug addicts treated with SGs from August 2010 to December 2013.Results15 patients with 16 arterial pseudoaneurysms were enrolled in this study. All were males with a mean age of 36.9 years. Hemorrhage was the most common reason (93.8 %) for seeking medical care, and 3 of these patients were in hemorrhagic shock at admission. All patients received broad-spectrum antibiotics, and debridement and drainage were implemented after SG placement. 7 of the 13 cases which had microbiologic results showed mixed infections, while gram-negative bacteria were the major pathogens. Except for 2 patients, who were lost to follow-up, two new pseudoaneurysms formed due to delayed debridement, and one stent thrombosis occurred, none of the remaining cases had SG infection or developed claudication.ConclusionsSG placement controls massive hemorrhage rapidly, gives enough time for subsequent treatment for pseudoaneurysms due to intravenous drug abuse, and reduces the incidence of postoperative claudication. With appropriate broad-spectrum antibiotics and early debridement, the incidence of SG infection is relatively low. It is an effective alternative especially as temporary bridge measure for critical patients. However, the high cost, uncertain long-term prospects, high demand for medical adherence, and the risk of using the conduits for re-puncture call for a cautious selection of patients. More evidence is required for the application of this treatment.

  5. The rights of drug treatment patients: Experience of addiction treatment in Poland from a human rights perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingemann, Justyna

    2017-05-01

    Drug dependence is a recognized medical condition and therefore, right to health applies in the same way to drug dependence as it does to any other health condition. The human rights in patient care framework - which refers to the application of basic human rights principles in the delivery of health care services - was used to explore the experiences of equality in the dignity and rights protected by Polish law within four different specialist drug treatment settings in Poland. The views of patients and staff were examined and compared. Focus group interviews were conducted in 12 drug treatment facilities: three inpatient therapeutic communities, three outpatient programs, three opioid substitution programs and three harm reduction programs (drop-in/needle exchange/support). Interviews were conducted with a total of 43 staff and 73 patients. All interviews were audio-recorded with participants' prior consent and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed according to the problem-centred interview methodology, using CAQDA. Patients described instances of abuse of their rights regarding dignity, privacy, confidentiality, personalized treatment, and respect of patient's time, right to information and to complain. Those accounts were complemented by the perspective of professionals working in drug treatment. Patients of Polish opioid substitution programs reported experiencing more humiliation and disenfranchisement than patients in other drug treatment settings. Drug testing and control, fuelled by prejudices of health professionals, are leading to discriminatory practices in substitution treatment and damaging the chances of therapeutic success. The concept of epistemic injustice illuminates the reasons behind discrimination against patients on opioid substitution programs, who are seen as continuously sick and their illness perceived as a mark of moral, social and epistemic failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, T W; Clark, L

    2015-02-01

    Behavioral addictions are slowly becoming recognized as a valid category of psychiatric disorder as shown by the recent allocation of pathological gambling to this category in DSM-5. However, several other types of psychiatric disorder proposed to be examples of behavioral addictions have yet to be accorded this formal acknowledgment and are dispersed across other sections of the DSM-5. This brief review marks this important point in the evolution of this concept and looks to future investigation of behavioral addictions with the theoretical frameworks currently being used successfully to investigate substance addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder, in a potentially new spectrum of impulsive-compulsive disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gambling Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... committing suicide. CausesWhat causes pathologic gambling?Many experts think that pathologic gambling is an addiction because of the “rush” you feel when you win and lose money. A person’s experiences and personality ...

  8. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS USED FOR ACCOUNTING SERVICES PROVIDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain through a thorough and detailed approach as different sides (conceptual and practical looking projections of accounting issues related to regulatory developments and practices in the field. This paper addresses various concepts, accounting treatments, and books and accounting documents used both freelancers in providing accounting services and legal persons authorized accounting profession. In terms of methodology and research perspective, the whole scientific approach combined with quantitative and qualitative research theoretical perspective (descriptive-conceptual with practice perspective (empirical analyzing the main contributions of various authors (Romanian and foreign to knowledge in the field. Following the survey believe that the amendments to the national legislation will support entities providing accounting services, by cutting red tape on Administrative Burdens, and consequently will increase profitability and increase service quality.

  9. Safety and efficacy of oral slow release morphine for maintenance treatment in heroin addicts: a 6-month open noncomparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Georgi N; Alexieva, Daniela Z; Pavlova, Rositsa Z

    2006-01-01

    This open-label, noncomparative, single-center trial evaluated the safety and efficacy of once-daily treatment with slow release oral morphine (SROM) capsules for the maintenance treatment of 20 outpatients with heroin dependency over 6 months at the National Institute for Addictions in Sofia, Bulgaria. Doses were individually titrated up to a mean daily maintenance dose of 760 mg (range 440-1,200 mg). SROM was effective in significantly reducing the signs and symptoms of opioid withdrawal and craving for heroin, with stabilization generally evident within two weeks. Nineteen patients completed 6 months of treatment and illicit opioid use was virtually eliminated. One patient withdrew voluntarily at 22 weeks. Validated questionnaires and tests indicated improvements in patients' well-being from baseline assessments. These included significant improvements with regard to suicidal depression (85%), anxiety and dysphoria (66%), general illness (58%), social dysfunction (54%), sense of hopelessness (34%), attention (25%), and self-reported typical depressive (27%) and disease-related (11%) symptoms. No deaths, serious adverse events, or withdrawals due to adverse events occurred. Five episodes of constipation and one episode of sweating (all nonserious and of mild or moderate severity) were reported. Vital signs were unaffected by SROM and no weight change was evident over the study period. The observations made in this study indicate a promising role for once-daily treatment with SROM in the clinical management of heroin dependency.

  10. Internet addiction in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren

    2014-07-01

    In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families.

  11. The Globalization of Addiction Research: Capacity Building Mechanisms and Selected Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Richard A.; Woody, George; Kresina, Thomas F.; Gust, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the amount and variety of addiction research around the world has increased substantially. Researchers in the United States, Western Europe, United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia have significantly contributed to knowledge about addiction and its treatment. However, the nature and context of substance use disorders (SUDs) and the populations using drugs are far more diverse than is reflected in studies done in Western cultures. To stimulate new research from a diverse set of cultural perspectives, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has promoted the development of addiction research capacity and skills around the world for over 25 years. This review will describe the programs NIDA has developed to sponsor international research and research fellows and will provide some examples of the work NIDA has supported. NIDA fellowships have allowed 496 individuals from 96 countries to be trained in addiction research. The United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia have recently developed funding to support addiction research to study SUD problems that impact their societies with NIDA guidance.. Examples from Malaysia, Tanzania, Brazil, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Republic of Georgia, Iceland, China, and Vietnam are used to illustrate research being conducted with NIDA support. Health services research, collaboratively funded by NIH and the Department of State, addresses a range of addiction service development questions in low- and middle-income countries. Findings have expanded the understanding of addiction and its treatment and are enhancing the ability of practitioners and policy makers to address SUDs using data to guide their decision-making. PMID:25747927

  12. The globalization of addiction research: capacity-building mechanisms and selected examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Richard A; Woody, George; Kresina, Thomas F; Gust, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, the amount and variety of addiction research around the world has increased substantially. Researchers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, United States, and western Europe have significantly contributed to knowledge about addiction and its treatment. However, the nature and context of substance use disorders and the populations using drugs are far more diverse than is reflected in studies done in Western cultures. To stimulate new research from a diverse set of cultural perspectives, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has promoted the development of addiction research capacity and skills around the world for over 25 years. This review will describe the programs NIDA has developed to sponsor international research and research fellows and will provide some examples of the work NIDA has supported. NIDA fellowships have allowed 496 individuals from 96 countries to be trained in addiction research. The United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia have recently developed funding to support addiction research to study, with advice from NIDA, the substance use disorder problems that affect their societies. Examples from Malaysia, Tanzania, Brazil, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Republic of Georgia, Iceland, China, and Vietnam are used to illustrate research being conducted with NIDA support. Health services research, collaboratively funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and Department of State, addresses a range of addiction service development questions in low- and middle-income countries. Findings have expanded the understanding of addiction and its treatment, and are enhancing the ability of practitioners and policy makers to address substance use disorders.

  13. Effect of cyber bulling on the distrust levels of pre-service teachers: internet addiction as mediating variable

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Dr. Ibrahim ÇANKAYA; Cemal AKÜZÜM; Çetin TAN; Izzet DÖS

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effect of cyber bullying on the distrust levels among the final year university students by considering the intermediary effect of Internet addiction. The study group comprises preservice teachers who were senior year students at the Firat University Education Faculty in Elazig city, Turkey during the spring term of the 2009,2010 academic year. Cyber bullying of preservice teachers directly impacts their distrust levels at the (24) level. However, whe...

  14. [Pathological gambling and computergame-addiction. Current state of research regarding two subtypes of behavioural addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wölfling, K; Müller, K W

    2010-04-01

    Behavioral addictions, like pathological gambling and computer game addiction (or internet addiction), have become a growing concern in research and public interest. Currently similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are controversially discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately a mismatch exists between the large number of people seeking treatment and the small number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and computer game addiction. Prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is estimated to be 0.2-0.5%. These estimations are comparable to prevalence rates reported for drug dependency. Latest research states that about 3% of German adolescents and young adults are believed to suffer from computer game addiction. Therefore, it is important to enhance investigations regarding the clinical and neuroscientific basis of computer game addiction. This review offers a summary of current results of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction. The phenomenological description of these two disorders is meant to allow a deeper understanding of behavioral addictions.

  15. People Control Their Addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton Peele

    2016-12-01

    Ironically, the brain disease model's ascendance in the U.S. corresponds with epidemic rises in opiate addiction, both painkillers (Brady et al., 2016 and heroin (CDC, n.d., as well as heroin, painkiller, and tranquilizer poisoning deaths (Rudd et al., 2016. More to the point, the conceptual and treatment goal of eliminating choice in addiction and recovery is not only futile, but iatrogenic. Indeed, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's epidemiological surveys, while finding natural recovery for both drug and alcohol disorders to be typical, has found a decline in natural recovery rates (Dawson et al., 2005 and a sharp increase in AUDs (Grant et al., 2015.

  16. Circuit breakers for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, A

    2007-05-01

    The phenomenon of addiction is complex, although its expression clinically is relatively straightforward. There is a series of neurophysiological changes that mediate changes in the mesolimbic and mesocortical systems which in turn lead to disturbances in reward mechanisms. These then act to perpetuate the cycle of intoxication and reinforcement, withdrawal, craving and compulsive use. As our understanding of the pathophysiology of this process has improved, new pharmacological agents have been developed with the potential to moderate or even reverse it. This article briefly reviews the treatment of addiction with particular reference to emerging pharmaceutical agents.

  17. Addictions in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the prevalence, health consequences, and determinants of adolescents' substance use is provided in this article on adolescence and addictions. Additionally, prevention and treatment efforts and the effectiveness are discussed. The emphasis is on alcohol, smoking, and cannabis use.

  18. Cocaine – Characteristics and addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4:537–544

  19. Service engagement: psychopathology, recovery style and treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, Simone; Poloni, Nicola; Aletti, Francesca; Bonalumi, Cristiano; Callegari, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores) was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services.

  20. Service Engagement: Psychopathology, Recovery Style and Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Vender

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to evaluate how recovery style, a set of strategies used by patients to interact with services and therapists, and the severity of psychotic symptoms affect the quality/continuity of taking charge of each patient. 156 psychotic patients at different stages of illness were enrolled. Sociodemographic and clinical data were collected and integration/sealing-Over Scale, Recovery Style Questionnaire and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were administered. Patients were distinguished into four groups according to the type of treatment received: clinical package, hospital package, day-care package, and residential package. A positive correlation between the cost of psychiatric performance and psychopathological severity (measured with PANSS scores was identified. No association emerged between ISOS/RSQ total scores and costs. The sanitary expenditure appears to be linked to positive psychotic symptoms while lower performances are given for the treatment of patients with predominant negative symptoms. Recovery style itself has not a direct influence on the quantity/quality of psychiatric services.

  1. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-12-31

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction.

  2. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  3. What virtual reality research in addictions can tell us about the future of obesity assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordnick, Patrick S; Carter, Brian L; Traylor, Amy C

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality (VR), a system of human-computer interaction that allows researchers and clinicians to immerse people in virtual worlds, is gaining considerable traction as a research, education, and treatment tool. Virtual reality has been used successfully to treat anxiety disorders such as fear of flying and post-traumatic stress disorder, as an aid in stroke rehabilitation, and as a behavior modification aid in the treatment of attention deficit disorder. Virtual reality has also been employed in research on addictive disorders. Given the strong evidence that drug-dependent people are highly prone to use and relapse in the presence of environmental stimuli associated with drug use, VR is an ideal platform from which to study this relationship. Research using VR has shown that drug-dependent people react with strong craving to specific cues (e.g., cigarette packs, liquor bottles) as well as environments or settings (e.g., bar, party) associated with drug use. Virtual reality has also been used to enhance learning and generalization of relapse prevention skills in smokers by reinforcing these skills in lifelike environments. Obesity researchers and treatment professionals, building on the lessons learned from VR research in substance abuse, have the opportunity to adapt these methods for investigating their own research and treatment questions. Virtual reality is ideally suited to investigate the link between food cues and environmental settings with eating behaviors and self-report of hunger. In addition, VR can be used as a treatment tool for enhancing behavior modification goals to support healthy eating habits by reinforcing these goals in life-like situations.

  4. What Virtual Reality Research in Addictions Can Tell Us about the Future of Obesity Assessment and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordnick, Patrick S; Carter, Brian L; Traylor, Amy C

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR), a system of human–computer interaction that allows researchers and clinicians to immerse people in virtual worlds, is gaining considerable traction as a research, education, and treatment tool. Virtual reality has been used successfully to treat anxiety disorders such as fear of flying and post-traumatic stress disorder, as an aid in stroke rehabilitation, and as a behavior modification aid in the treatment of attention deficit disorder. Virtual reality has also been employed in research on addictive disorders. Given the strong evidence that drug-dependent people are highly prone to use and relapse in the presence of environmental stimuli associated with drug use, VR is an ideal platform from which to study this relationship. Research using VR has shown that drug-dependent people react with strong craving to specific cues (e.g., cigarette packs, liquor bottles) as well as environments or settings (e.g., bar, party) associated with drug use. Virtual reality has also been used to enhance learning and generalization of relapse prevention skills in smokers by reinforcing these skills in lifelike environments. Obesity researchers and treatment professionals, building on the lessons learned from VR research in substance abuse, have the opportunity to adapt these methods for investigating their own research and treatment questions. Virtual reality is ideally suited to investigate the link between food cues and environmental settings with eating behaviors and self-report of hunger. In addition, VR can be used as a treatment tool for enhancing behavior modification goals to support healthy eating habits by reinforcing these goals in life–like situations. PMID:21527092

  5. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment.

  6. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  7. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  8. Behavioral addictions: a novel challenge for psychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazziti, Donatella; Presta, Silvio; Baroni, Stefano; Silvestri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-12-01

    Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology. It is, however, controversial whether all or at least some of them should be considered real disorders or just normal, albeit extreme, behaviors. The aim of this article is to review current data on pharmacological treatment of behavioral addictions. As no specific and validated treatment algorithms are currently available, only an improved knowledge on their psychopathological, clinical, and neurobiological features may have relevant implications for more focused preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  9. Addiction to opioids in chronic pain patients: a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsted, Jette; Sjøgren, Per

    2007-01-01

    , incidence and prevalence of addiction in opioid treated pain patients, screening tools for assessing opioid addiction in chronic pain patients and recommendations regarding addiction problems in national and international guidelines for opioid treatment in cancer patients and chronic non-malignant pain...... treatment as addiction may result in poor pain control. Several screening tools were identified, but only a few were thoroughly validated with respect to validity and reliability. Most of the identified guidelines mention addiction as a potential problem. The guidelines in cancer pain management...... long-term opioid treatment, and specialised treatment facilities for pain management or addiction medicine should be consulted in these cases....

  10. Addiction treatment trials: how gender, race/ethnicity, and age relate to ongoing participation and retention in clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korte JE

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey E Korte1, Carmen L Rosa2, Paul G Wakim2, Harold I Perl21Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, 2Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Bethesda, MD, USAIntroduction: Historically, racial and ethnic minority populations have been underrepresented in clinical research, and the recruitment and retention of women and ethnic minorities in clinical trials has been a significant challenge for investigators. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN conducts clinical trials in real-life settings and regularly monitors a number of variables critical to clinical trial implementation, including the retention and demographics of participants.Purpose: The examination of gender, race/ethnicity, and age group differences with respect to retention characteristics in CTN trials.Methods: Reports for 24 completed trials that recruited over 11,000 participants were reviewed, and associations of gender, race/ethnicity, and age group characteristics were examined along with the rate of treatment exposure, the proportion of follow-up assessments obtained, and the availability of primary outcome measure(s.Results: Analysis of the CTN data did not indicate statistical differences in retention across gender or race/ethnicity groups; however, retention rates increased for older participants.Conclusion: These results are based on a large sample of patients with substance use disorders recruited from a treatment-seeking population. The findings demonstrate that younger participants are less likely than older adults to be retained in clinical trials.Keywords: addiction treatment, age, ethnic minorities, gender difference, substance use disorders, race, recruitment, retention, clinical trials

  11. Obesity and its relationship to addictions: is overeating a form of addictive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Danielle; Clarke, Megan; Petry, Nancy M

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem and notoriously difficult to treat. There are many parallels between obesity/overeating and addictions to alcohol and drugs. This paper discusses similarities between obesity and addictive disorders, including common personality characteristics, disruptive behavior syndromes, and brain mechanisms. Although there are important differences between overeating and other addictive behaviors, an addiction model of overeating may effectively inform prevention and treatment of obesity.

  12. Effectiveness of Cognitive-behavioral Therapy in the Treatment of Iranian Male Drug Addicts at a State Rehabilitation Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parvizifard, Aliakbar; Haji Ahmad, Haji Jamaludin Bin; Sulaiman, Tajularipin; Binti Baba, Maznah; Sadeghi, Kheirollah; Parsa Moghadam, Arash

    2016-01-01

    .... An experimental research design was adopted in the current study in which the participants consisted of 75 male drug addicts who were consecutively admitted as outpatients at a state rehabilitation center...

  13. Design paper: The CapOpus trial: a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Fohlmann, Allan; Larsen, Anne-Mette

    2008-01-01

    trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1) specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2...... of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302....

  14. [Exercise addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed.

  15. Changes In QTc Interval Duration Among Heroin Addicts On Methadone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic Mirjana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to collect and unite facts known about the effect of methadone treatment on QTc interval prolongation that could determine precipitating factors in the development of heart arrhythmias and their consequences (Torsade de Pointes and sudden cardiac death, and to raise the methadone treatment safety level.

  16. Outcome of long-term heroin-assisted treatment offered to chronic, treatment-resistant heroin addicts in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Blanken; V.M. Hendriks; J.M. van Ree; W. van den Brink

    2010-01-01

    Aims To describe 4-year treatment retention and treatment response among chronic, treatment-resistant heroin-dependent patients offered long-term heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) in the Netherlands. Design Observational cohort study. Setting and intervention Out-patient treatment in specialized heroi

  17. New Progresses in the Treatment of Adolescent Internet Addiction%青少年网络成瘾治疗研究的新进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏斌原; 李江雪; 叶婷婷; 张卫

    2014-01-01

    青少年网络成瘾问题逐渐成为一个世界性的心理行为问题,在我国该问题尤其受关注。近年来国内外围绕网络成瘾展开大量的研究,但很少涉及不同治疗方法疗效的比较分析。本研究回顾了有实证实验支持的网络成瘾治疗方法及其成效,并对认知行为疗法、现实疗法、接受与承诺疗法、药物疗法和综合疗法进行了分析和总结,反映了网络成瘾治疗方法研究的新进展:研究者们从最初关注网络成瘾的行为本身到更多地关注成瘾问题背后存在的情绪、家庭、人际等深层次心理问题,治疗方法从靠单纯的禁止与隔离、认知的改变及行为的训练,到最近的接纳、选择与改变,治疗的动力也从外界转向自身。研究发现:心理与药物疗法对网络成瘾治疗均有显著作用,不同疗法在改善网瘾、抑郁、焦虑等症状,减少上网时间等结果变量上均呈现出混杂的效应,但不同疗法间的功效还有待进一步验证。%Internet addiction ( IA) is becoming a widespread and problematic phenomenon.In recent years, much research has been done about internet addiction, but relatively little on the therapeutic aspects and compara-tive analysis of the efficacy of different treatment methods.This study reviews the network addiction treatment meth-ods and their effectiveness supported by empirical experiments, and analyzes Cognitive Behavioral Therapy( CBT) , Reality Therapy(RT), Acceptance and Commitment Therapy(ACT), medication, and Multi -level Counseling Programs.Research methods of new progresses of internet addiction treatment are presented.Researches shift from the initial concern of internet addiction itself to deep-seated psychological problems of emotion, family,and relation-ships behind the addiction, and treatments shift from relying on simple prohibition and isolation, changes of cogni-tive and behavioral training, to the acceptation, choice

  18. [Heroin addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosztafi, Sándor

    2011-01-01

    Heroin is an illicit, highly addictive drug. It is either the most abused or the most rapidly acting member of opioids. Abusers describe a feeling of a surge of pleasurable sensation, named as "rush" or "high". Repeated administration of high doses of heroin results in the induction of physical dependence. Physical dependence refers to an altered physiological state produced by chronic administration of heroin which necessitates the continued administration of the drug to prevent the appearance of a characteristic syndrome, the opioid withdrawal or abstinence syndrome. Withdrawal symptoms may occur within a few hours after the last administration of heroin. Symptoms of the withdrawal include restlessness, insomnia, drug craving, diarrhea, muscle and bone pain, cold flashes with goose bumps, and leg movements. Major withdrawal symptoms peak between 48 and 72 hours after the last dose of heroin and subside after about a week. At this time, weakness and depression are pronounced and nausea and vomiting are common. Nevertheless, some chronic addicts have shown persistent withdrawal signs for many months or even years. Heroin addiction is considered as a behavioural state of compulsive drug use and a high tendency to relapse after periods of abstinence. It is generally accepted that compulsive use and relapse are typically associated with the status of heroin craving or heroin hunger that are difficult to define but appear to be powerful motivational significance in the addiction process. The route of administering heroin varies largely and may indicate the degree of seriousness of the individual's addiction. Intravenous administration seems to be the predominant method of heroin use, but recently a shift in heroin use pattern has been found, i.e. from injection to sniffing and smoking. Frequent injections coupled with widespread sharing of syringes increase the risk of contracting HIV, hepatitis B, C and other blood-borne infectious diseases. Long-term use of heroin

  19. Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Addiction: Facts for Families and Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... overcome those problems. Counseling can provide encouragement and motivation to stick to treatment. It can teach coping ... must be locked in a safe place. If children take them by mistake, they can overdose or ...

  20. Comparing life experiences in active addiction and recovery between veterans and non-veterans: A national study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudet, Alexandre; Timko, Christine; Hill, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The costs of addiction are well documented but the potential benefits of recovery are less well known. Similarly, substance use issues among both active duty military personnel and veterans are well known but their recovery experiences remain under-investigated. Further, little is known about whether and how addiction and recovery experiences differ between veterans and non veterans. This knowledge can help refine treatment and recovery support services. Capitalizing on a national study of persons in recovery (N = 3,208) we compare addiction and recovery experiences among veterans (N = 481) and non veterans. Vets’ addiction phase was 4 years longer than non vets and they experienced significantly more financial and legal problems. Dramatic improvements in functioning were observed across the board in recovery with subgroup differences leveling off. We discuss possible strategies to address the specific areas where vets are most impaired in addiction and note study limitations including the cross-sectional design. PMID:24783976

  1. Drug addiction and social discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos Canabarro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the various discursive positions found in the phenomenon of addiction. The relations these discursive positions establish with the discourses of the master, the hysteric, the university and the capitalist are discussed. By analyzing material from clinical listening at a public outpatient drug and alcohol rehab center, it was seen that addiction can be described in different discourses. This article shows that the shift of focus from the symptom to the discursive position of the subject is an indicator for the clinical treatment of addiction.

  2. Heroin addiction, ethics and philosophy of medicine.

    OpenAIRE

    ten Have, H; Sporken, P

    1985-01-01

    This article discusses various ethical and philosophical aspects of heroin addiction. It arose as a result of the plan by the Amsterdam city council to supply free heroin to drug addicts. The objective of treatment of heroin addicts is ambivalent because what is in fact a socio-cultural problem is transformed into a medical problem. The characteristics of this treatment are made explicit through a philosophical analysis which sees the medical intervention as part of a strategy aimed at achiev...

  3. METODO, a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in heroin-addicted patients undergoing a methadone maintenance treatment: preliminary results at baseline evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Egidio, Pietro Fausto; Bignamini, Emanuele; De Vivo, Enrico; Leonardi, Claudio; Pieri, Maria Chiara; González-Saiz, Francisco; Lucchini, Alfio

    2013-12-01

    METODO (methadone efficacy therapy optimization dosage on-going) is a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in 500 heroin-addicted patients taking a methadone maintenance treatment, enrolled through 2010 to 2011 in five Italian sites, observed over 2 years. The Opiate Dosage Adequacy Scale has been used for the evaluation of the "adequacy" of the methadone dosage and to stratify patients in adequate and not adequate groups. The treatment efficacy has been evaluated in correlation to the dosage adequacy during the visits. Moreover, patients have been evaluated according to the retention rate and duration of retention in treatment and a series of questionnaires.

  4. Innovation attributes and adoption decisions: perspectives from leaders of a national sample of addiction treatment organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M

    2015-02-01

    Drawing on diffusion theory to further knowledge about evidence-based practices (EBPs) in the treatment of substance use disorders (SUDs), this study describes the perceived importance of innovation attributes in adoption decisions within a national sample of SUD treatment organizations. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with leaders of 307 organizations. A typology differentiated organizations reporting: (1) adoption of a treatment innovation in the past year ("recent adoption"), (2) plans to adopt an innovation in the upcoming year ("planned adoption"), or (3) no actual or planned adoption ("non-adoption"). About 30.7% of organizations reported recent adoption, 20.5% indicated planned adoption, and 48.8% were non-adopters. Leaders of organizations reporting recent adoption (n=93) or planned adoption (n=62) rated the importance of innovation attributes, including relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, and observability, on these adoption decisions using a Likert scale that ranged from 0 to 5. Innovation attributes most strongly endorsed were consistency with the program's treatment philosophy (mean=4.47, SD=1.03), improvement in the program's reputation with referral sources (mean=4.00, SD=1.33), reputational improvement with clients and their families (mean=3.98, SD=1.31), and reductions in treatment dropout (mean=3.75, SD=1.54). Innovation characteristics reflecting organizational growth and implementation costs were less strongly endorsed. Adopters and planners were generally similar in their importance ratings. There were modest differences in importance ratings when pharmacological innovations were compared to psychosocial interventions. These findings are consistent with diffusion theory and suggest that efforts to link EBPs with client satisfaction and potential reputational benefits may enhance the diffusion of EBPs. Attention to these attributes when developing and evaluating SUD treatment interventions may enhance efforts to increase

  5. Opiate versus psychostimulant addiction: the differences do matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Aldo; Belin, David; Epstein, David; Calu, Donna; Shaham, Yavin

    2011-10-05

    The publication of the psychomotor stimulant theory of addiction in 1987 and the finding that addictive drugs increase dopamine concentrations in the rat mesolimbic system in 1988 have led to a predominance of psychobiological theories that consider addiction to opiates and addiction to psychostimulants as essentially identical phenomena. Indeed, current theories of addiction - hedonic allostasis, incentive sensitization, aberrant learning and frontostriatal dysfunction - all argue for a unitary account of drug addiction. This view is challenged by behavioural, cognitive and neurobiological findings in laboratory animals and humans. Here, we argue that opiate addiction and psychostimulant addiction are behaviourally and neurobiologically distinct and that the differences have important implications for addiction treatment, addiction theories and future research.

  6. US Forest Service Hazardous Fuel Treatment Reduction

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service on the www depicting select activities that help reduce hazardous fuels on the landscape. This includes features representing Rx Fire, Wildfire,...

  7. Answers to Student's Most Popular Questions about Drug Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... students’ most popular questions about drug use and addiction and the answers from NIDA scientists. For more ... with-scientists . Drug Use Consequences of Drug Use Addiction Getting Treatment for Addiction Tobacco Marijuana Cocaine Ecstasy ( ...

  8. Application of drug testing using exhaled breath for compliance monitoring of drug addicts in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Sten; Olsson, Robert; Lindkvist, Irene; Beck, Olof

    2015-04-01

    Exhaled breath has recently been identified as a possible matrix for drug testing. This study explored the potential of this new method for compliance monitoring of patients being treated for dependence disorders. Outpatients in treatment programs were recruited for this study. Urine was collected as part of clinical routine and a breath sample was collected in parallel together with a questionnaire about their views of the testing procedure. Urine was analyzed for amphetamines, benzodiazepines, cannabis, cocaine, buprenorphine, methadone and opiates using CEDIA immunochemical screening and mass spectrometry confirmation. The exhaled breath was collected using the SensAbues device and analyzed by mass spectrometry for amphetamine, methamphetamine, diazepam, oxazepam, tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, buprenorphine, methadone, morphine, codeine and 6-acetylmorphine. A total of 122 cases with parallel urine and breath samples were collected; 34 of these were negative both in urine and breath. Out of 88 cases with positive urine samples 51 (58%) were also positive in breath. Among the patients on methadone treatment, all were positive for methadone in urine and 83% were positive in breath. Among patients in treatment with buprenorphine, 92% were positive in urine and among those 80% were also positive in breath. The questionnaire response documented that in general, patients accepted drug testing well and that the breath sampling procedure was preferred. Compliance testing for the intake of prescribed and unprescribed drugs among patients in treatment for dependence disorders using the exhaled breath sampling technique is a viable method and deserves future attention.

  9. Day Hospital and Residential Addiction Treatment: Randomized and Nonrandomized Managed Care Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbrodt, Jane; Bond, Jason; Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Weisner, Constance; Jaeger, Gary; Pating, David; Moore, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Male and female managed care clients randomized to day hospital (n=154) or community residential treatment (n=139) were compared on substance use outcomes at 6 and 12 months. To address possible bias in naturalistic studies, outcomes were also examined for clients who self-selected day hospital (n=321) and for clients excluded from randomization…

  10. Abstinence versus Harm Reduction: Considering Follow-Up and Aftercare in First Nations Addictions Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woerd, Kimberly A.; Cox, David N.; Reading, Jeff; Kmetic, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Research on alcohol and substance use in First Nations populations frequently describes the nature of the problem, and the severity of the risk factors, but seldom addresses possible interventions and the effectiveness of the treatments that clients do engage in. This paper reviews a participatory evaluation of the 6-week residential "Namgis…

  11. Treating Chronic Pain in Veterans Presenting to an Addictions Treatment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, Mark A.; Haas, Elizabeth; Czyz, Ewa; Webster, Linda; Sorrell, John T.; Chermack, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pain and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. The pharmacological treatment of pain is complicated in individuals with substance use disorders because of the potential for abuse and diversion of many prescription pain medications. One potential approach is to use a combination of cognitive-behavioral and acceptance-based strategies…

  12. Bupropion sustained release treatment decreases craving for video games and cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Hwang, Jun Won; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-08-01

    Bupropion has been used in the treatment of patients with substance dependence based on its weak inhibition of dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake. We hypothesized that 6 weeks of bupropion sustained release (SR) treatment would decrease craving for Internet game play as well as video game cue-induced brain activity in patients with Internet video game addiction (IAG). Eleven subjects who met criteria for IAG, playing StarCraft (>30 hr/week), and eight healthy comparison subjects (HC) who had experience playing StarCraft (craving for playing the game, and the severity of Internet addiction were evaluated by Beck Depression Inventory, self-report of craving on a 7-point visual analogue scale, and Young's Internet Addiction Scale, respectively. In response to game cues, IAG showed higher brain activation in left occipital lobe cuneus, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and left parahippocampal gyrus than HC. After a 6 week period of bupropion SR, craving for Internet video game play, total game play time, and cue-induced brain activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were decreased in the IAG. We suggest that bupropion SR may change craving and brain activity in ways that are similar to those observed in individuals with substance abuse or dependence. PsycINFO Database Record 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Clinical Anesthesia Treatments in Common Drug Addiction%常见吸毒患者的临床麻醉处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳培雨; 田毅

    2011-01-01

    Drug abuse patients bring complexity and specificity to medical management and clinical work. Perioperative anaesthetic treatments of drug addicts should give consideration to both surgical diseases and physical and psychological effects of narcotics bring to drug addicts, withdrawal symptoms and toxic reactions should be controlled efficiently. Both comprehensive assessment and dialectic thinking are necessary.%毒品滥用患者给医疗管理和临床工作带来诸多复杂性和特殊性.对吸毒患者国术期麻醉诊疗要兼顾所患外科疾患与毒品对吸食者的身心影响,有效地控制戒断症状和毒性反应,综合评估,辨证施为.

  14. Delivering Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Comparison of Public and Private Treatment Centres by Service Users and Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, quality of care has now been placed at the centre of the National Health Service (NHS) modernisation programme. To date, there has been little research on the service quality delivery of alcohol treatment services from the perspective of both the service user and service provider. Therefore, this qualitative study explored the…

  15. Delivering Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Comparison of Public and Private Treatment Centres by Service Users and Service Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    In the UK, quality of care has now been placed at the centre of the National Health Service (NHS) modernisation programme. To date, there has been little research on the service quality delivery of alcohol treatment services from the perspective of both the service user and service provider. Therefore, this qualitative study explored the…

  16. A short history of the 5-HT2C receptor: from the choroid plexus to depression, obesity and addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jose M; Pazos, Angel; Hoyer, Daniel

    2017-03-07

    This paper is a personal account on the discovery and characterization of the 5-HT2C receptor (first known as the 5-HT1C receptor) over 30 years ago and how it translated into a number of unsuspected features for a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) and a diversity of clinical applications. The 5-HT2C receptor is one of the most intriguing members of the GPCR superfamily. Initially referred to as 5-HT1CR, the 5-HT2CR was discovered while studying the pharmacological features and the distribution of [(3)H]mesulergine-labelled sites, primarily in the brain using radioligand binding and slice autoradiography. Mesulergine (SDZ CU-085), was, at the time, best defined as a ligand with serotonergic and dopaminergic properties. Autoradiographic studies showed remarkably strong [(3)H]mesulergine-labelling to the rat choroid plexus. [(3)H]mesulergine-labelled sites had pharmacological properties different from, at the time, known or purported 5-HT receptors. In spite of similarities with 5-HT2 binding, the new binding site was called 5-HT1C because of its very high affinity for 5-HT itself. Within the following 10 years, the 5-HT1CR (later named 5-HT2C) was extensively characterised pharmacologically, anatomically and functionally: it was one of the first 5-HT receptors to be sequenced and cloned. The 5-HT2CR is a GPCR, with a very complex gene structure. It constitutes a rarity in the GPCR family: many 5-HT2CR variants exist, especially in humans, due to RNA editing, in addition to a few 5-HT2CR splice variants. Intense research led to therapeutically active 5-HT2C receptor ligands, both antagonists (or inverse agonists) and agonists: keeping in mind that a number of antidepressants and antipsychotics are 5-HT2CR antagonists/inverse agonists. Agomelatine, a 5-HT2CR antagonist is registered for the treatment of major depression. The agonist Lorcaserin is registered for the treatment of aspects of obesity and has further potential in addiction, especially nicotine/ smoking

  17. [Game addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of β band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The α band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent.

  18. Design paper: The CapOpus trial: A randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial of specialized addiction treatment versus treatment as usual for young patients with cannabis abuse and psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluud Christian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of studies indicate a link between cannabis-use and psychosis as well as more severe psychosis in those with existing psychotic disorders. There is currently insufficient evidence to decide the optimal way to treat cannabis abuse among patients with psychosis. Objectives The major objective for the CapOpus trial is to evaluate the additional effect on cannabis abuse of a specialized addiction treatment program adding group treatment and motivational interviewing to treatment as usual. Design The trial is designed as a randomized, parallel-group, observer-blinded clinical trial. Patients are primarily recruited through early-psychosis detection teams, community mental health centers, and assertive community treatment teams. Patients are randomized to one of two treatment arms, both lasting six months: 1 specialized addiction treatment plus treatment as usual or 2 treatment as usual. The specialized addiction treatment is manualized and consists of both individual and group-based motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy, and incorporates both the family and the case manager of the patient. The primary outcome measure will be changes in amount of cannabis consumption over time. Other outcome measures will be psychosis symptoms, cognitive functioning, quality of life, social functioning, and cost-benefit analyses. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00484302.

  19. Effects of a manualized short-term treatment of internet and computer game addiction (STICA: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jäger Susanne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the last few years, excessive internet use and computer gaming have increased dramatically. Salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflict, and relapse have been defined as diagnostic criteria for internet addiction (IA and computer addiction (CA in the scientific community. Despite a growing number of individuals seeking help, there are no specific treatments of established efficacy. Methods/design This clinical trial aims to determine the effect of the disorder-specific manualized short-term treatment of IA/CA (STICA. The cognitive behavioural treatment combines individual and group interventions with a total duration of 4 months. Patients will be randomly assigned to STICA treatment or to a wait list control group. Reliable and valid measures of IA/CA and co-morbid mental symptoms (for example social anxiety, depression will be assessed prior to the beginning, in the middle, at the end, and 6 months after completion of treatment. Discussion A treatment of IA/CA will establish efficacy and is desperately needed. As this is the first trial to determine efficacy of a disorder specific treatment, a wait list control group will be implemented. Pros and cons of the design were discussed. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials (NCT01434589

  20. The Effect of Matrix Method on Anxiety and Attitude Toward Methamphetamine and Crack Abuse in Males Referring to Addiction Treatment Centers in Tonkabon, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmati Sabet

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Drug abuse is a major problem in the communities and has many harmful effects on human body. Objectives The current study aimed to compare the efficacy of matrix method on anxiety and attitude of male crack abusers referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon, Iran, in 2014. Patients and Methods The current semi -experimental study included 1,000 males referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon with crack abuse history in 2014. Based on Morgan sample volume formula, 278 males with anxiety and higher attitude to drug abuse were randomly selected from 1,000 males referred to addiction treatment centers in Tonkabon. Then, 30 subjects were reselected out of them and equally assigned into two groups of experimental and control, 15 subjects in each group. The experimental group received 24 sessions of 30 - 60 minutes matrix treatment method in group, but the control group received no training. At the end of training period the post-test was carried out. The research findings confirmed the efficacy of matrix method on anxiety and attitude to crack abuse among those referring to the addition treatment center. Results The single covariance analysis of ANCOVA indicated that the value of Eta about 72% of variance of anxiety variable and about 76% of variance of drug abuse variable are taken in to account for variable of group. The intervention was effective in reducing anxiety and attitude to crack in males. Evaluating the adjusted mean showed the effectiveness of matrix method on anxiety and attitude to crack abuse in males. Conclusions The research result showed that matrix method affected the reduction of methamphetamine and attitude to crack abuse in males referred to the addition treatment center.

  1. Comparison of Four Search Engines and their efficacy With Emphasis on Literature Research in Addiction (Prevention and Treatment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadzadeh, Gholam Reza; Rigi, Tahereh; Ganjali, Ali Reza

    2013-01-01

    Background Surveying valuable and most recent information from internet, has become vital for researchers and scholars, because every day, thousands and perhaps millions of scientific works are brought out as digital resources which represented by internet and researchers can’t ignore this great resource to find related documents for their literature search, which may not be found in any library. With regard to variety of documents presented on the internet, search engines are one of the most effective search tools for finding information. Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the three criteria, recall, preciseness and importance of the four search engines which are PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and federated search of Iranian National Medical Digital Library in addiction (prevention and treatment) to select the most effective search engine for offering the best literature research. Materials and Methods This research was a cross-sectional study by which four popular search engines in medical sciences were evaluated. To select keywords, medical subject heading (Mesh) was used. We entered given keywords in the search engines and after searching, 10 first entries were evaluated. Direct observation was used as a mean for data collection and they were analyzed by descriptive statistics (number, percent number and mean) and inferential statistics, One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey in Spss. 15 statistical software. P Value Science Direct and Google Scholar were the best in recall, preciseness and importance respectively. Conclusions As literature research is one of the most important stages of research, it's better for researchers, especially Substance-Related Disorders scholars to use different search engines with the best recall, preciseness and importance in that subject field to reach desirable results while searching and they don’t depend on just one search engine. PMID:24971257

  2. On the Comparison of Public Health and Social Support in Addicts and Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    touraj hashemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at comparing the degree of public health and social support in addicted and non-addicted people. Method: This study was causative-comparative and all addicts who had referred to addiction treatment centers in city of Khoy in 2012 constituted its population. From among this population, 60 addicts through convenience sampling method were selected and then peered with 60 normal subjects by age, gender, and education. The measurement tools were Goldberg Public Health (Ghq-28 and Social Support (Fleming questionnaires. Results: The results showed That Addicts enjoy a lower degree of Mental Health and Social Support. Conclusion: Providing social support for the addicts under treatment programs is one of the important factors in withdrawal from drug use.

  3. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF NICOTINE ADDICTION TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH ANGINA REQUIRING CARDIAC SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a major risk factor in patients with angina pectoris. Interventions that facilitate the rejection of it are an important part of the treatment. Aim. To analyze the cost effectiveness of the partial agonist of nicotinic receptors, varenicline, in patients with angina who require cardiac interventions. Material and methods. The estimation was conducted using a Markov model based on the results of clinical trials and epidemiological studies. The cost of treatment of complications were calculated on the basis of compulsory medical insurance rates for St. Petersburg in 2011. Results. The varenicline therapy in 70-year-old patients before cardiac surgery reduces hospital mortality at an extremely high cost-effectiveness (the cost of preventing one death - 148.8 thousand rubles. The cost/effectiveness ratio in the analysis for the period of survival of patients in this situation was 31.3 thousand rubles for 1 additional year of life. Life expectancy will be increased by an average of 0.147 years. Analysis for the period of survival of 50-year-old patients has shown that in patients after cardiac surgery cost-effectiveness of varenicline is extremely high (in the analysis from the perspective of the health care system the cost/effectiveness ratio was 36.0 thousand rubles for 1 additional year of life, in the analysis, taking into account the social perspective – 17.9 thousand rubles for 1 additional year of life. Increase in the life expectancy of 50 year-old patients will be 0.291 year in average. Conclusion. Varenicline therapy of patients with angina pectoris is the economy before cardiac surgery , and after their execution, and this applies not only young, but older patients. The desirability of varenicline including to federal and regional programs to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is shown.

  4. Cytisine for the treatment of nicotine addiction: from a molecule to therapeutic efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutka, Piotr; Zatoński, Witold

    2006-01-01

    Cytisine, a natural plant alkaloid, has been marketed in Central and Eastern Europe for over 40 years for the clinical management of smoking cessation. Despite the fact that cytisine has been used by millions of smokers, its characteristics have not been reviewed in scientific literature in English, and presently existing clinical studies on its effectiveness and safety are insufficient to warrant licensing by modern standards. Understanding of the mechanism of cytisine action as a smoking cessation aid provides a necessary basis for conducting clinical trials to confirm its efficacy as an optimal antismoking therapy. Hereafter, we present a review of current knowledge about the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, toxicity, therapeutic efficacy and safety of cytisine, and about its derivatives that are under development. Recent pharmacological research has elucidated that the drug is a low efficacy partial agonist of alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which are believed to be central to the effect of nicotine (NIC) on the reward pathway. The drug reduces the effects of NIC on dopamine release in the mesolimbic system when given alone, while simultaneously attenuating NIC withdrawal symptoms that accompany cessation attempts. Clinical studies on cytisine as a smoking cessation aid have demonstrated that the drug is effective and safe. Our recent uncontrolled trial has shown that a 12-month carbon monoxide-verified continuous abstinence rate following a standard course of treatment with cytisine with minimal behavioral support is similar (13.8%; N = 436) to that observed following treatment with NIC replacement therapy. Since cytisine exhibits a desirable pharmacological profile which makes it an attractive smoking cessation drug, it should be advanced to randomized clinical trials. However, more detailed preclinical studies on its pharmacokinetics and safety profile are required.

  5. PHARMACOECONOMIC ASPECTS OF NICOTINE ADDICTION TREATMENT IN PATIENTS WITH ANGINA REQUIRING CARDIAC SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rudakova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is a major risk factor in patients with angina pectoris. Interventions that facilitate the rejection of it are an important part of the treatment. Aim. To analyze the cost effectiveness of the partial agonist of nicotinic receptors, varenicline, in patients with angina who require cardiac interventions. Material and methods. The estimation was conducted using a Markov model based on the results of clinical trials and epidemiological studies. The cost of treatment of complications were calculated on the basis of compulsory medical insurance rates for St. Petersburg in 2011. Results. The varenicline therapy in 70-year-old patients before cardiac surgery reduces hospital mortality at an extremely high cost-effectiveness (the cost of preventing one death - 148.8 thousand rubles. The cost/effectiveness ratio in the analysis for the period of survival of patients in this situation was 31.3 thousand rubles for 1 additional year of life. Life expectancy will be increased by an average of 0.147 years. Analysis for the period of survival of 50-year-old patients has shown that in patients after cardiac surgery cost-effectiveness of varenicline is extremely high (in the analysis from the perspective of the health care system the cost/effectiveness ratio was 36.0 thousand rubles for 1 additional year of life, in the analysis, taking into account the social perspective – 17.9 thousand rubles for 1 additional year of life. Increase in the life expectancy of 50 year-old patients will be 0.291 year in average. Conclusion. Varenicline therapy of patients with angina pectoris is the economy before cardiac surgery , and after their execution, and this applies not only young, but older patients. The desirability of varenicline including to federal and regional programs to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is shown.

  6. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Use and Addiction Understanding Drug Use and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised August 2016 Many people ... addiction and lead productive lives. What Is drug addiction? Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug ...

  7. [Addictive behavior among the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research.

  8. [What brings neurobiology to addictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie; Noble, Florence

    2016-12-01

    Addictions are multifactorial, and there are no experimental models replicating all aspects of this pathology. The development of animal models reproducing the clinical symptoms of addictions allows significant advances in the knowledge of the neurobiological processes involved in addiction. Preclinical data highlight different neuroadaptations according to the routes of administration, speeds of injection and frequencies of exposure to drugs of abuse. The neuroadaptations induced by an exposure to drugs of abuse follow dynamic processes in time. Despite significant progresses in the knowledge of neurobiology of addictions allowing to propose new therapeutic targets, the passage of new drugs in clinical is often disappointing. The lack of treatment efficacy reported in clinical trials is probably due to a very important heterogeneity of patients with distinct biological and genetic factors, but also with different patterns of consumption that can lead to different neuroadaptations, as clearly observed in preclinical studies.

  9. Predictors of Staff Turnover and Turnover Intentions within Addiction Treatment Settings: Change Over Time Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Bryan R; Hunter, Brooke D

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which changes over time in clinicians’ responses to measures of work attitude (eg, job satisfaction) and psychological climate (eg, supervisor support) could predict actual turnover and turnover intentions above and beyond absolute levels of these respective measures. Longitudinal data for this study were collected from a sample of clinicians (N = 96) being trained to implement an evidence-based treatment for adolescent substance use disorders. Supporting findings from a recent staff turnover study, we found job satisfaction change was able to predict actual turnover above and beyond average levels of job satisfaction. Representing new contributions to the staff turnover literature, we also found that change over time in several other key measures (eg, job satisfaction, role manageability, role clarity) explained a significant amount of variance in turnover intentions above and beyond the absolute level of each respective measure. A key implication of the current study is that organizations seeking to improve their ability to assess risk for staff turnover may want to consider assessing staff at multiple points in time in order to identify systematic changes in key employee attitudes like turnover intentions and job satisfaction. PMID:25336960

  10. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone; Møller, Arne

    2014-01-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical...... symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment....

  11. [Internet addiction - between enter and escape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppe, Hubert

    2014-12-01

    Internet addiction, a non-substantial addiction, is to be regarded as a highly complex mental disorder which requires complex and diverse treatment options. Initially smiled at, it shows, if it were severe, a typical addictive behaviour pattern, similar to pathological gambling, oniomanie and workaholism. In the International Classification of mental disorders (ICD-10) only pathological gambling in the category of impulse control disorders (F63.0) is specified.

  12. Addiction and depression comorbidity approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnić Katarina A.B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Topic: Comorbidities, simultaneous occurrence of two or more disorders are common in psychiatry; therefore the concept of dual diagnosis was established due to new ethiopatogenetic dilemmas and principles of diagnosis and treatment of these conditions. The most common are comorbid affective disorders and comorbidity of drug addictions and affective disorders. Topic position in medical public: Epidemiological studies show a high percentage of comorbidity of drug addictions and depression. Various studies show that about one-third of individuals with depression have addiction, and often some other psychiatric disorders are present, such as personality disorder, anxiety, and bipolar affective disorder. Comorbid disorders exacerbate one another; have tendencies to chronicity and treatment resistance. The problem of adequate diagnosis is common; other diagnosis is neglected, leading to inadequate treatment and poor outcomes. Researches of possible causes of addiction and depression comorbidity follow different theoretical assumptions. One favor genetically determined vulnerability, the others are addressing to the impact of trauma in the formative stages of personality development. Widespread is the theoretical assumption on the deficit functioning of the same regions of the CNS and the same neurotransmitters system. In previous studies the preclinical ones dominate, which are theoretically placed in the context of the CNS of a man. Most of the research are related to dysfunction of the serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, whose influence on addiction and depression are clear, and recent studies show the importance of neuromodulators and their receptors, for example, the role of natural opioid dynorphin and 'kappa' receptors in the mesolimbic reward system. Further action: The better diagnosis would require proper screening of patients entering addiction treatments for affective disorders and vice versa. Treatment have to be combined; in addition

  13. Network-Assisted Prediction of Potential Drugs for Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Jingchun Sun; Liang-Chin Huang; Hua Xu; Zhongming Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic and complex brain disease, adding much burden on the community. Though numerous efforts have been made to identify the effective treatment, it is necessary to find more novel therapeutics for this complex disease. As network pharmacology has become a promising approach for drug repurposing, we proposed to apply the approach to drug addiction, which might provide new clues for the development of effective addiction treatment drugs. We first extracted 44 addictive dr...

  14. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss DJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive

  15. "Kitchen cupboard drinking": a review of South African women's secretive alcohol addiction, treatment history, and barriers to accessing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Liezille; Naidoo, Av; Reddy, S P

    2009-01-01

    How Black women are represented, conceptualized, and researched in the field of psychology has dramatic and far-reaching effects on arriving at an understanding of personality and psychopathology. This point becomes especially salient as researchers try to develop alternative strategies for researching gendered experiences and for generating meaningful information about African women's experiences of alcohol misuse. On the African continent, there is a paucity of research on Black women's access to alcohol treatment. Therefore, this review has implications for research and practice with the potential to stimulate future health disparities research affecting Black African women. The article focuses on a South African population and explores the importance of theorizing alcohol misuse and sex by discussing the history of alcohol misuse in South Africa, women and alcohol misuse in South Africa, and women's treatment history; interpreting women's experiences of treatment; and addressing recommendations for future research.

  16. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  17. Increasing prevalence of HIV infection among first time clients in Italian drug treatment services - is it sexual transmission?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciani, Mario; Wiessing, Lucas; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Genetti, Bruno; Andreotti, Alessandra; Iulia, Carpignano; Zermiani, Monica; Suligoi, Barbara

    2015-04-30

    Over the last two decades, the proportion of people who inject drugs among newly reported HIV cases in Italy has been continuously declining. This trend is reflected in the prevalence of HIV infection among problem drug users followed in drug treatment services. We report nationwide trends in the prevalence of HIV and HCV among tested clients in charge to drug addiction services from 2005 to 2011. Data on the prevalence of HIV and HCV among drug users from public drug treatment services across Italy were collected and analyzed for the period from 2005 to 2011. Prevalence of HIV and HCV were compared between clients returning to treatment and those entering treatment for the first time, and by gender. Due to the high percentage of missing data, the "inverse probability weight" method was used. Trends in testing uptake were also analysed. A significant decrease of HIV and HCV prevalence is observed among all PDUs entering treatment (from 14.7% to 11.1% and from 61.6% to 50%, respectively, in 2005-2011). By contrast, among those entering the services for the first time, after an initial decline the prevalence of HIV infection steadily increased in both sexes, from 2.2% in 2009 to 5.3% in 2011. Self-reported injecting rates in this group decreased over time, and in 2011 the proportion reporting drug injecting was lower among new clients than in people returning to services (14.5 vs. 34.4%). We also observed a progressive and significant reduction in HIV and HCV testing in drug treatment services. Changes in injection practice and type of drugs used, coupled with a concurrent reduction in HCV prevalence, do not support drug injection as the main explanation for an increased HIV transmission in people entering drug treatment services for the first time. While reductions in testing rates raise concerns over data quality, the possibility of increased sexual transmission needs to be considered.

  18. Entry Point for Entrepreneurship Training in the Treatment of Drug Addicts: A Case Study of Rehabilitation Centres in Kiambu County, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemarie Wairimu M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was concerned with assessing the entry point at which entrepreneurship can be incorporated in drug addiction treatment centres. Drug addiction is a major problem in the country Kenya and there is a need to empower those who seek treatment in the rehabilitation centres with entrepreneurial knowledge, skills and attitudes. Kiambu County was selected due to the fact that it is well known for high rates of drug and substance abuse. The objective of the study was to identify the current treatment methodologies practiced in the treatment centres. The target population of the study composed of clients who are in treatment centres in Kiambu county and administrators in the centres. The sample size consisted of 42 respondents and the sampling technique used to achieve this number was random sampling. The instruments of data collection were questionnaires. Descriptive analysis was used to describe and highlight the variables, the results show that a majority of the clients in the treatment centres were in the age group 20-30 years and that none of the members of staff have been trained in entrepreneurship. The research also found that a majority of the clients lived with their parents thus depending on them. In conclusion the study found that dependency on family members lessens the chances of an individual to become a more productive member of the community. Treatment centres should seek to treat the person holistically, where they are able to also treat their clients to become economically independent. Treatment centres should require clients to be responsible, conscientious and provide entrepreneurial oriented activities. Treatment centres should therefore include entrepreneurial training as part of their curriculum to assist the clients’ live normal and productive lives once they are out of the treatment centres.

  19. Clarifying Exercise Addiction: Differential Diagnosis, Co-occurring Disorders, and Phases of Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Freimuth

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out to clarify the unique features of exercise addiction. It begins by examining how this addiction can be distinguished from compulsions and impulse control disorders both of which, like an addiction, involve excessive behavior that creates adverse effects. Assessment of exercise addiction also requires that clinicians be attuned to other forms of excessive behavior, especially eating disorders that can co-occur with exercise. Finally in an effort to clarify exercise addiction, this paper uses the four phases of addiction to examine the attributes of exercise that define it as a healthy habit distinct from an addiction. The paper ends with a discussion of the implications of these topics for effective assessment and treatment.

  20. Clarifying exercise addiction: differential diagnosis, co-occurring disorders, and phases of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimuth, Marilyn; Moniz, Sandy; Kim, Shari R

    2011-10-01

    This paper sets out to clarify the unique features of exercise addiction. It begins by examining how this addiction can be distinguished from compulsions and impulse control disorders both of which, like an addiction, involve excessive behavior that creates adverse effects. Assessment of exercise addiction also requires that clinicians be attuned to other forms of excessive behavior, especially eating disorders that can co-occur with exercise. Finally in an effort to clarify exercise addiction, this paper uses the four phases of addiction to examine the attributes of exercise that define it as a healthy habit distinct from an addiction. The paper ends with a discussion of the implications of these topics for effective assessment and treatment.

  1. From Surviving to Advising: A Novel Course Pairing Mental Health and Addictions Service Users as Advisors to Senior Psychiatry Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Sacha; Capponi, Pat; López, Jenna; Kidd, Sean; Ringsted, Charlotte; Wiljer, David; Soklaridis, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    The authors describe a novel course that pairs service users as advisors to senior psychiatry residents with the goals of improving the residents' understanding of recovery, reducing negative stereotypes about people in recovery, and empowering the service users who participated. Service users who had experience working as peer support workers and/or system advocates were selected for a broad and deep understanding of recovery and an ability to engage learners in constructive dialogue. They met monthly with resident advisees over a period of 6 months. They were supported with monthly group supervision meetings and were paid an honorarium. Quantitative evaluations and qualitative feedback from the first two cohorts of the course, comprising 34 pairs, are reported here. The first cohort of residents responded with a wide range of global ratings and reactions. In response to their suggestions, changes were made to the structure of the course to create opportunities for small group learning and reflective writing and to protect time for residents to participate. The second cohort of residents and both cohorts of service users gave acceptably high global ratings. Residents in the second cohort described gaining a number of benefits from the course, including an enhanced understanding of the lived experience of recovery and a greater sense of shared humanity with service users. Advisors described an appreciation for being part of something that has the potential for changing the practice of psychiatry and enhancing the lives of their peers. Positioning service users as advisors to psychiatry residents holds promise as a powerful way of reducing distance between future psychiatrists and service users and facilitating system reform toward person-centered recovery-oriented care.

  2. National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NAHDAP acquires, preserves and disseminates data relevant to drug addiction and HIV research. By preserving and making available an easily accessible library of...

  3. A qualitative study of overweight and obese Australians' views of food addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, A J; Barnett, A; Komesaroff, P A; Brown, W; O'Brien, K S; Hall, W; Carter, A

    2017-02-10

    The concept of food addiction is increasingly used in the academic literature and popular media to explain some forms of overweight and obesity. However, there is limited evidence on how this term is understood by and impacts overweight and obese individuals. This qualitative study investigated the views of overweight and obese individuals on food addiction, and its likely impact upon stigma, treatment-seeking, and support for public policies to reduce overeating. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 overweight and obese individuals (Mage = 38, MBMI = 33, 74% female) and analysed thematically. The concept of food addiction was consistent with many participants' personal experiences, and was accompanied by high perceptions of control and personal responsibility. Some participants believed "sugar" or "fat" addiction to be more accurate. Others were reluctant to be described as an "addict" owing to perceived negative connotations and the belief that it would increase self-stigma. Food addiction was seen as a motivator for seeking psychological services, but not pharmaceutical or surgical treatments. In light of food addiction being perceived as plausible and relevant, participants supported targeted public health policies (e.g., taxes, regulations for junk food container sizes) but did not believe these would affect their own purchasing or consumption behaviours. Education for interpreting food labels and reducing the costs of healthy foods were endorsed, leading to positive changes in food-related behaviours. This research suggests discretionary use of the food addiction label in a supportive and educational manner to minimise stigma while encouraging treatment-seeking.

  4. [Development of transmural myocardial infarction in young persons with intact coronary arteries during methadone use for the treatment of heroine addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioseliani, D G; Semitko, S P; Gromov, D G; Kostianiov, I Iu; Klochko, M A; Koledinskiĭ, A G; Topchian, I S

    2004-01-01

    Linkage between acute coronary syndrome and narcotic drug (cocaine) intake was first described by D. Colleman in 1982. However risk of development of acute myocardial infarction during replacement therapy after opioid withdrawal has not been elucidated. The paper contains description of two cases of development of myocardial infarction in young persons with intact coronary arteries who received synthetic opioid methadone for facilitation of heroine discontinuation. These clinical cases should draw attention of physicians to side effects of the use of methadone for the treatment of heroine addiction.

  5. [Relationships between sleep and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2012-01-01

    While it is well known that there is an interaction between sleep disorders and substance abuse, it is certainly more complex than was previously thought. There is a positive relationship both between having a substance use disorder and suffering from a sleep disorder, and vice versa. The effects on sleep depend on the substance used, but it has been shown that both during use and in withdrawal periods consumers have various sleep problems, and basically more fragmented sleep. We know that sleep problems must be taken into account to prevent addiction relapses. Recent research shows that the hypocretinergic system defined by neuropeptide hypocretin / orexin (Hcrt / ox), located in the lateral hypothalamus and involved in, among other things, the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, may play an important role in addictive behaviors. Different studies have demonstrated interactions between the hypocretinergic system, acute response to stress circuits and reward systems. We also know that selective optogenetic activation of the hypocretinergic system increases the probability of transition from sleep to wakefulness, and is sufficient for initiating an addictive compulsive behavior relapse. Hypocretinergic system activation could explain the hyperarousal associated with stress and addiction. Improved knowledge of this interaction would help us to understand better the mechanisms of addiction and find new strategies for the treatment of addictions.

  6. On the Comparison of Narcissistic, Antisocial, and Borderline Personality Traits among Addicted Prisoners, Non-Addicted Prisoners, and Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mohammadzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare narcissistic, antisocial, and borderline personality traits among addicted prisoners, non-addict prisoners, and normal subjects. Method: This study employed a causal-comparative research method, with a sample size of 180 participants including addicted prisoners, non-addicted prisoners, and normal individuals (60 participants in each group of Miandoab city who were matched in terms of demographic characteristics. For data collection purposes, narcissistic personality inventory NPI-16, Millon antisocial inventory-III, and borderline personality inventory were employed. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between addicted prisoners and normal subjects and also between addicted prisoners and non-addicted prisoners in terms of narcissistic traits while no significant difference was obtained between the non-addicted prisoners and normal subjects. Conclusion: The comparison of the aforementioned groups contains important information for the prevention and treatment of addiction and crime prevention.

  7. Comparison of Four Search Engines and their efficacy With Emphasis on Literature Research in Addiction (Prevention and Treatment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadzadeh, Gholam Reza; Rigi, Tahereh; Ganjali, Ali Reza

    2013-01-01

    Surveying valuable and most recent information from internet, has become vital for researchers and scholars, because every day, thousands and perhaps millions of scientific works are brought out as digital resources which represented by internet and researchers can't ignore this great resource to find related documents for their literature search, which may not be found in any library. With regard to variety of documents presented on the internet, search engines are one of the most effective search tools for finding information. The aim of this study is to evaluate the three criteria, recall, preciseness and importance of the four search engines which are PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar and federated search of Iranian National Medical Digital Library in addiction (prevention and treatment) to select the most effective search engine for offering the best literature research. This research was a cross-sectional study by which four popular search engines in medical sciences were evaluated. To select keywords, medical subject heading (Mesh) was used. We entered given keywords in the search engines and after searching, 10 first entries were evaluated. Direct observation was used as a mean for data collection and they were analyzed by descriptive statistics (number, percent number and mean) and inferential statistics, One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey in Spss. 15 statistical software. P Value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results have shown that the search engines had different operations with regard to the evaluated criteria. Since P Value was 0.004 < 0.05 for preciseness and was 0.002 < 0.05 for importance, it shows significant difference among search engines. PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar were the best in recall, preciseness and importance respectively. As literature research is one of the most important stages of research, it's better for researchers, especially Substance-Related Disorders scholars to use

  8. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  9. The Shame of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is a person-level phenomenon that involves twin normative failures. A failure of normal rational effective agency or self-control with respect to the substance; and shame at both this failure, and the failure to live up to the standards for a good life that the addict himself acknowledges and aspires to. Feeling shame for addiction is not a mistake. It is part of the shape of addiction, part of the normal phenomenology of addiction, and often a source of motivation for the addict to heal. Like other recent attempts in the addiction literature to return normative concepts such as “choice” and “responsibility” to their rightful place in understanding and treating addiction, the twin normative failure model is fully compatible with investigation of genetic and neuroscientific causes of addiction. Furthermore, the model does not re-moralize addiction. There can be shame without blame. PMID:24115936

  10. Clinical psychology of Internet addiction: a review of its conceptualization, prevalence, neuronal processes, and implications for treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pontes, HM; Kuss, DJ; Griffiths, MD

    2015-01-01

    Halley M Pontes, Daria J Kuss, Mark D Griffiths International Gaming Research Unit, Psychology Division, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK Abstract: Research into Internet addiction (IA) has grown rapidly over the last decade. The topic has generated a great deal of debate, particularly in relation to how IA can be defined conceptually as well as the many methodological limitations. The present review aims to further elaborate and clarify issues that are relevant to IA research in ...

  11. Mixing Oil and Water: Integrating Mental Health and Addiction Services to Treat People with a Co-Occurring Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Andrew L.

    2008-01-01

    Treatments for people with the co-occurring disorders of mental illness and substance use (abuse or dependence) have been evolving and improving since the mid 1980s. During this period substance abuse treatment programs reported between 50 and 75% of the people they served also had a mental health problem. At the same time, mental health programs…

  12. Methadone Maintenance: The Addict's Family Recreated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, John; Bokos, Peter

    1979-01-01

    A study of four methadone clinics, the addicts treated at these clinics, and their families, reveals basic dissonances in treatment ideology and professional-paraprofessional relationships which, combined with the addict's particular mode of functioning, make significant change in his behavior improbable. (Author)

  13. Annotated Bibliography of Literature on Narcotic Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, R. Renee

    Nearly 150 abstracts have been included in this annotated bibliography; its purpose has been to scan the voluminous number of documents on the problem of drug addiction in order to summarize the present state of knowledge on narcotic addiction and on methods for its treatment and control. The literature reviewed has been divided into the following…

  14. Behavioral addictions in addiction medicine: from mechanisms to practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banz, Barbara C; Yip, Sarah W; Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress has been made in our understanding of nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions, although these conditions and their most appropriate classification remain debated and the knowledge basis for understanding the pathophysiology of and treatments for these conditions includes important gaps. Recent developments include the classification of gambling disorder as a "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorder" in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and proposed diagnostic criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder in Section 3 of DSM-5. This chapter reviews current neuroscientific understandings of behavioral addictions and the potential of neurobiological data to assist in the development of improved policy, prevention, and treatment efforts. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ACCOUNTING TREATMENTS USED FOR ACCOUNTING SERVICES PROVIDERS

    OpenAIRE

    ŢOGOE GRETI DANIELA; AVRAM MARIOARA; AVRAM COSTIN DANIEL

    2014-01-01

    The theme of our research is the ways of keeping accounting entities that are the object of the provision of services in the accounting profession. This paper aims to achieve a parallel between the ways of organizing financial records - accounting provided by freelancers and companies with activity in the financial - accounting. The first step in our scientific research is to establish objectives chosen area of scientific knowledge. Our scientific approach seeks to explain thr...

  16. The Consequences of Internet Addiction: Implications for Counseling Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle; Minatrea, Neresa B.

    2001-01-01

    With an increase in Internet use has come the potential problem of excessive Internet usage or "Internet addiction." It is important that counselors recognize the signs and symptoms of Internet addiction. The purpose of this article is to present the characteristics, the consequences, and the emerging treatment approaches of Internet addiction.…

  17. The Consequences of Internet Addiction: Implications for Counseling Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle; Minatrea, Neresa B.

    2001-01-01

    With an increase in Internet use has come the potential problem of excessive Internet usage or "Internet addiction." It is important that counselors recognize the signs and symptoms of Internet addiction. The purpose of this article is to present the characteristics, the consequences, and the emerging treatment approaches of Internet addiction.…

  18. Substitute Addiction: A Concern for Researchers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.

    2008-01-01

    An understanding of the role of substitute addictions remains unclear. This article examines the range and possible reward functions of substitute addictions. We suggest that prevention education and treatment need to take into account substitute addictions as an influential aspect of recovery. Research is needed to better understand the…

  19. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  20. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples.

  1. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on wastewater treatment plants, based on EPA's Facility Registry Service (FRS), EPA's Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)...

  2. Southeast Asian Mental Health: Treatment, Prevention, Services, Training and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owan, Tom Choken, Ed.

    This sourcebook contains 19 papers which discuss the mental health service needs of Southeast Asian refugees in the United States. The volume is divided into five sections: Treatment; Prevention; Services; Training; and Research. The papers (and their authors) are: (1) "Psychiatric Care for Southeast Asians: How Different Is Different?"…

  3. Employee assistance program services for alcohol and other drug problems: implications for increased identification and engagement in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Jodi M; Sacco, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Fourteen million U.S. workers meet the diagnostic criteria for substance dependence, costing millions in lost productivity. Prior research suggests that employees who follow through with their Employee Assistance Program's (EAP) recommendations are more likely to participate and remain engaged in alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment programs. This study identified rates of lifetime EAP service use for AOD problems and compared adults who reported using EAP services for AOD problems with those who used services other than EAP. Researchers analyzed a subset of participants from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions who reported having received help for an AOD problem (NESARC, 2001-2002). Statistical analyses tested for differences in sociodemographic variables, lifetime mental health and substance abuse disorders, and health disability between EAP services users and users of other types of services. Among adults who sought services for AOD problems (n= 2,272), 7.58% (n= 166) reported using EAP services for these problems at some point during their lives. Major depressive disorder (lifetime), a drug use disorder (lifetime), and Black race/ethnicity were associated with a greater likelihood that someone would seek EAP services for help with their AOD problem. Results provide a foundation for researchers to understand who uses EAP services for AOD problems. Health and mental health professionals should increase their knowledge of EAP services to improve continuity of care for employees with AOD problems. EAPs are in a unique position to reach out to vulnerable employees in the workplace and engage them in treatment. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  4. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: the Kurihama medical and addiction centre-a profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, Tomomi; Yokoyama, Akira; Matsushita, Sachio; Higuchi, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    The Kurihama Medical and Addiction Center began to conduct research and to provide medical care for alcohol-related problems in 1963, when special alcoholism treatment wards were established in Japan for the first time. At first, the provision of medical care to patients was prioritized. However, training courses for specialists were initiated in 1975, and the Department of Clinical Research was established in 1984, which led to the formation of the present management structure in which the centre's staff are shared by three departments: Medical Care, Clinical Research and Education and Information. The Department of Medical Care provides specialized treatment for alcohol use disorders and medical services for other conditions, including behavioural addictions such as internet addiction and gambling disorder, as well as dementia and other psychiatric disorders. The Departments of Clinical Research and Education and Information are engaged mainly in specialized activities related to alcohol. The Department of Clinical Research conducts research on the epidemiology of alcohol use, the effects of alcohol on health and the treatment of alcohol use disorders in Japan, in cooperation with universities and other research institutions. The Department of Education and Information fosters the human capacity to achieve the primary, secondary and tertiary prevention of alcohol-related problems and the dissemination of information on alcohol. The centre also performs alcohol-related problem prevention activities, government consultations and international collaborative research and personal exchanges, thereby functioning as a central institution for alcohol policy-based medical services and research in Japan.

  5. [Recommendations on classification of German pain treatment services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatowski, R; Maier, C; Willweber-Strumpf, A; Thomm, M; Nilges, P; Kayser, H; Casser, R

    2011-08-01

    On behalf of the German chapter of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) recommendations for German pain treatment services have been developed for the first time. The criteria were based on the IASP recommendations but adapted to the specific German situation. According to the structure and process criteria four different levels of pain treatment services can be distinguished. The aim of the recommendations is to serve as a guide for future development and implementation of pain therapy and quality assurance.

  6. Violent Behaviors in Drug Addiction: Differential Profiles of Drug-Addicted Patients with and without Violence Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of violent behaviors in patients who are addicted to drugs. A sample of 252 addicted patients (203 male and 49 female) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed. Information on violent behaviors, sociodemographic factors, consumption factors (assessed by the European version of the Addiction Severity Index…

  7. Violent Behaviors in Drug Addiction: Differential Profiles of Drug-Addicted Patients with and without Violence Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of violent behaviors in patients who are addicted to drugs. A sample of 252 addicted patients (203 male and 49 female) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed. Information on violent behaviors, sociodemographic factors, consumption factors (assessed by the European version of the Addiction Severity Index…

  8. Internet-Based Interventions for Addictive Behaviours: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebli, Jaymee-Lee; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Gainsbury, Sally M

    2016-12-01

    Internet-based interventions have emerged as a new treatment and intervention modality for psychological disorders. Given their features of treatment flexibility, anonymity and confidentiality, this modality may be well suited in the management of addictive behaviours. A systematic literature review of the effectiveness and treatment outcomes of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation, problematic alcohol use, substance abuse and gambling was performed. Studies were included if they met the following criteria: clients received a structured therapeutic Internet-based intervention for a problematic and addictive behaviour; included more than five clients; effectiveness was based on at least one outcome; outcome variables were measured before and immediately following the interventions; had a follow-up period; and involved at least minimal therapist contact over the course of the program. Sixteen relevant studies were found; nine addressed the effects of Internet-based interventions on smoking cessation, four on gambling, two on alcohol and one on opioid dependence. All studies demonstrated positive treatment outcomes for their respective addictive behaviours. The current review concluded that Internet-based interventions are effective in achieving positive behavioural change through reducing problematic behaviours. This mode of therapy has been found to have the capacity to provide effective and practical services for those who might have remained untreated, subsequently reducing the barriers for help-seekers. This in turn provides imperative information to treatment providers, policy makers, and academic researchers.

  9. Multi-family group therapy for adolescent Internet addiction: exploring the underlying mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qin-Xue; Fang, Xiao-Yi; Yan, Ni; Zhou, Zong-Kui; Yuan, Xiao-Jiao; Lan, Jing; Liu, Chao-Ying

    2015-03-01

    Internet addiction is one of the most common problems among adolescents and effective treatment is needed. This research aims to test the effectiveness and underlying mechanism of multi-family group therapy (MFGT) to reduce Internet addiction among adolescents. A total of 92 participants consisting of 46 adolescents with Internet addiction, aged 12-18years, and 46 their parents, aged 35-46years, were assigned to the experimental group (six-session MFGT intervention) or a waiting-list control. Structured questionnaires were administered at pre-intervention (T1), post-intervention (T2) and a three-month follow-up (T3). There was a significant difference in the decline both in the average score and proportion of adolescents with Internet addiction in MFGT group at post-intervention (MT1=3.40, MT2=2.46, pInternet use was partially explained by the satisfaction of their psychological needs and improved parent-adolescent communication and closeness. The six-session multi-family group therapy was effective in reducing Internet addiction behaviors among adolescents and could be implemented as part of routine primary care clinic services in similar populations. As family support system is critical in maintaining the intervention effect, fostering positive parent-adolescent interaction and addressing adolescents' psychological needs should be included in preventive programs for Internet addiction in the future. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Epigenetic mechanisms of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues, including brain. This has prompted recent research aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the lasting effects of drugs of abuse on the brain in animal models of drug addiction. This review provides a progress report of this still early work in the field. As will be seen, there is robust evidence that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces changes within the brain's reward regions in three major modes of epigenetic regulation-histone modifications such as acetylation and methylation, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs. In several instances, it has been possible to demonstrate directly the contribution of such epigenetic changes to addiction-related behavioral abnormalities. Studies of epigenetic mechanisms of addiction are also providing an unprecedented view of the range of genes and non-genic regions that are affected by repeated drug exposure and the precise molecular basis of that regulation. Work is now needed to validate key aspects of this work in human addiction and evaluate the possibility of mining this information to develop new diagnostic tests and more effective treatments for addiction syndromes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  11. [The place of cyber addiction in teenagers' addictive behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleur, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The easy access which modern teenagers have to new technologies favours their excessive use of video games, as they seek to escape potential existential difficulties. This harmful aspect should not mask the creative potential of games for the majority of teenagers. Treatment for young people with a gaming addiction is based on psychotherapy and takes into account the family dimension of the problem. This article presents an interview with Marc Valleur, a psychiatrist and head physician at Marmottan hospital specialising in the care and support of people with addictions.

  12. Development of Child-Teen Obesity Treatment Service Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kahyun; Lee, Byung Mun; Lee, Youngho

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to develop an effective and efficient obesity treatment and management service platform for obese children/teenagers. The integrated smart platform was planned and established through cooperation with service providers such as hospitals and public health centers, obese children/teenagers who constitute the service's user base, and IT development and policy institutions and companies focusing on child-teen obesity management and treatment. Based on guidelines on intervention strategies to manage child-teen obesity, we developed two patient/parent mobile applications, one web-monitoring service for medical staff, one mobile application for food-craving endurance, and one mobile application for medical examinations. The establishment of the integrated service platform was successfully completed; however, this study was restrictively to the hospital where the pilot program took place. The effectiveness of the proposed platform will be verified in the future in tests involving other organizations.

  13. [The therapeutic alliance as a main factor of building cooperation during the treatment of patients with opiate addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agibalova, T V; Tuchin, P V; Shustov, D I; Buzik, O Zh

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To assess an alliance-centred method of short-term psychotherapy (AP) in the formation of compliance in patients with opiate addiction. Material and methods. Authors studied 100 male inpatients with ICD-10 diagnosis Opioid Dependence (F11.2). Patients were stratified into main (with use of AP) and control groups. The tasks of short-term psychotherapy were to determine mutual goals for the patient and the physician and the interaction between them. Results and Conclusion. Based on some special quantitative psychological tests and correlation analysis, it was identified that AP stimulated compliance behaviour in patients with opioid dependence more effectively than traditional recommendations.

  14. Etiology of Food Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Gulec Oyekcin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some studies still emphasizes the differences between two. The aim of this article was to review clinical and biological aspects of etiological perspectives of food addiction via available clinical, preclinical and genetic studies.

  15. Dealing with Addiction (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Someone Who's Being Bullied? Volunteering Dealing With Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Dealing With Addiction Print A ... is even harder. What Are Substance Abuse and Addiction? The difference between substance abuse and addiction is ...

  16. [Psychophysiology of sports addiction (exercises addiction)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivoshchekov, S G; Lushnikov, O N

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is a prevalent and growing concern in all aspects of our modern society. There are considerable concerns for the growing frequency of addictions to drugs, alcohol, gambling, eating, and even sex. Though exercise is generally accepted as a positive behaviour that has many benefits associated with enhanced physical and psychological wellbeing, there is an increasing awareness that exercise addiction is becoming a common phenomenon. Theories regarding how exercise can become addictive, and studies of withdrawal from exercise are reviewed. Several physiological mechanisms, including endogenous opioids, catecholamines, functional asymmetry of brain activity and thermoregulation have been implicated in exercise dependence.

  17. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  18. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  19. Inhibition of FAAH and activation of PPAR: New approaches to the treatment of cognitive dysfunction and drug addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panlilio, Leigh V.; Justinova, Zuzana; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing the effects of endogenously-released cannabinoid ligands in the brain might provide therapeutic effects more safely and effectively than administering drugs that act directly at the cannabinoid receptor. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) prevent the breakdown of endogenous ligands for cannabinoid receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), prolonging and enhancing the effects of these ligands when they are naturally released. This review considers recent research on the effects of FAAH inhibitors and PPAR activators in animal models of addiction and cognition (specifically learning and memory). These studies show that FAAH inhibitors can produce potentially therapeutic effects, some through cannabinoid receptors and some through PPAR. These effects include enhancing certain forms of learning, counteracting the rewarding effects of nicotine and alcohol, relieving symptoms of withdrawal from cannabis and other drugs, and protecting against relapse-like reinstatement of drug self-administration. Since FAAH inhibition might have a wide range of therapeutic actions but might also share some of the adverse effects of cannabis, it is noteworthy that at least one FAAH-inhibiting drug (URB597) has been found to have potentially beneficial effects but no indication of liability for abuse or dependence. Although these areas of research are new, the preliminary evidence indicates that they might lead to improved therapeutic interventions and a better understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying addiction and memory. PMID:23333350

  20. Femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Rørdam, Peter; Jensen, L P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts. METHODS: The records of eight patients undergoing vascular surgery for femoral pseudoaneurysms from substance abuse identified from a vascular database were reviewed. RESULTS: Were good in four out of five...

  1. Video game addiction: Impact on teenagers' lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Mahindru, Poornima

    2015-01-01

    Use of video games as a leisure-time activity has increased among teenagers. Excessive use of video games is associated with psychosocial dysfunctions in the user's life. Two teenagers came for consultation to our Service for Healthy Use of Technology (SHUT) clinic for management of addiction due to video games. They were assessed using a clinical interview as well as the General Health Questionnaire and Griffith criteria for video games. The cases emphasize the addictive potential of video games and their association with lifestyle changes. Addiction to video games has implications for screening and intervention among teenagers.

  2. What Is Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oxy, Vike) Facts Spice (K2) Facts Tobacco and Nicotine Facts Other Drugs of Abuse What is Addiction? ... time. They can cause problems like mood swings, memory loss, even trouble thinking and making decisions. Addiction ...

  3. Demographic and clinical profile of substance abusing women seeking treatment at a de-addiction center in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh Nebhinani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the recent decades increasing number of women have been seeking deaddiction services. Despite that the report data is very limited from India. Objectives: The present research aimed to study the demographic and clinical profile of women seeking deaddiction treatment at a tertiary care center in North India. Materials and Methods: Retrospective structured chart review of 100 women substance abusers seeking treatment at a deaddiction center between September 1978 and December 2011. Results: A typical case was of 36.3 years age, married (65%, urban (61%, nuclear family (59% based housewife (56%, with good to fair social support (69%. The commonest substance of abuse was tobacco (60%, followed by opioids (27%, alcohol (15%, and benzodiazepines (13%. The common reasons for initiation of substance use were to alleviate frustration or stress (49% and curiosity (37%. Family history of drug dependence (43%, comorbidity (25%, and impairments in health (74%, family (57%, and social domains (56% were common. Only a third of the sample paid one or more follow visit, and of those 58% were abstinent at the last follow-up. Significant predictors identified were being non-Hindu and higher educational years for abstinent status at follow-up. Conclusion: The common substances of abuse were tobacco, opioids, and alcohol and benzodiazepines; and family history of drug abuse and comorbidity were common. The follow-up and outcome were generally poor. This profile gives us some clues to address a hidden health problem of the community.

  4. Innovative Programs Help Addicts Get Off Opioids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trying to kick addiction to heroin or prescription painkillers often wait weeks or months before they can ... a treatment program. Buprenorphine acts on the same brain receptors targeted by heroin and morphine, reducing drug ...

  5. Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment: A Neuroscience-Based Framework for Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwako, Laura E; Momenan, Reza; Litten, Raye Z; Koob, George F; Goldman, David

    2016-08-01

    This article proposes a heuristic framework for the Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment that incorporates key functional domains derived from the neurocircuitry of addiction. We review how addictive disorders (ADs) are presently diagnosed and the need for new neuroclinical measures to differentiate patients who meet clinical criteria for addiction to the same agent while differing in etiology, prognosis, and treatment response. The need for a better understanding of the mechanisms provoking and maintaining addiction, as evidenced by the limitations of current treatments and within-diagnosis clinical heterogeneity, is articulated. In addition, recent changes in the nosology of ADs, challenges to current classification systems, and prior attempts to subtype individuals with ADs are described. Complementary initiatives, including the Research Domain Criteria project, that have established frameworks for the neuroscience of psychiatric disorders are discussed. Three domains-executive function, incentive salience, and negative emotionality-tied to different phases in the cycle of addiction form the core functional elements of ADs. Measurement of these domains in epidemiologic, genetic, clinical, and treatment studies will provide the underpinnings for an understanding of cross-population and temporal variation in addictions, shared mechanisms in addictive disorders, impact of changing environmental influences, and gene identification. Finally, we show that it is practical to implement such a deep neuroclinical assessment using a combination of neuroimaging and performance measures. Neuroclinical assessment is key to reconceptualizing the nosology of ADs on the basis of process and etiology, an advance that can lead to improved prevention and treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders.

  7. Sense of Life Meaningfulness in Drug Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczyńska Marta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of studies concerning the assessment of changes taking place in the existential sphere (the sense of life meaningfulness in persons addicted to drugs and subjected to therapy. The studies were conducted in MONAR – Addictions Prophylaxis and Treatment Center in Lublin. 25 patients of the Center, aged 17 to 58 years, were examined. In the first part, concerning the sense of life meaningfulness the control group consisted of persons without addictions. In the second part of the studies, in examining differences between levels of addiction and the sense of life meaningfulness in addicts from various therapeutic- rehabilitation centers, the control group consisted of patients from MONAR Center in Głoskowo. We used the method of diagnostic sounding with the application of Screening Test Questionnaire concerning drug addiction, based on ICD-10 criteria and Life Meaningfulness Scale (PIL. On the basis of study results the level of the sense of life meaningfulness in persons addicted to drugs was determined. The performed analysis of empirical study results revealed that the persons strongly addicted to drugs demonstrate a lower level of the sense of life meaningfulness.

  8. Food Addiction: An Evolving Nonlinear Science

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to familiarize readers with the role that addiction plays in the formation and treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes and disorders of eating. We will outline several useful models that integrate metabolism, addiction, and human relationship adaptations to eating. A special effort will be made to demonstrate how the use of simple and straightforward nonlinear models can and are being used to improve our knowledge and treatment of patients suffering from nutrition...

  9. A comparative study of emotional intelligence in addiction to opium and non-addicted men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Preface:The aim of this study was to comparison between Emotional intelligence and its chip scales in addicted and non-addicted men. Method:Method of study was Sausal-Comparative. Sample include the One hundred and twenty (60 addiction to opium and 60 non-addicted. The addicted group sample was selected from among clients of Eskandari addiction treatment clinic and the non-addicted group was selected from among scholars and staff of state university settling in Tehran . sample groups were selected by Available Sampling Method. In order to assess the emotional intelligence and its chip scales for each subject, the Bar-On Emotional intelligence Test(version 90 question was administered. For input analysis statistical soft-ware(SPSS was aplyed and “t” independent-statistical test was applied to compare two groups. Finding:The results illustrat that addicted men have a meaningful difference in Emotional intelligence and chip scales of Problem Solving, self-Actualization, Emotional self-Awarness, self-Regard, Responsibility, Stress Tolerance, Reality Testing, Impulse Control, Flexability, Assertivencess, Happiness and Optimism, comparing with non-addicted men, but there is no meaningful difference between two groups, average in chip scale of Interpersonal Relationship .

  10. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-12-01

    Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. College students (N = 448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young's Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. The risk factors for smartphone addiction were female gender, Internet use, alcohol use, and anxiety, while the protective factors were depression and temperance. In contrast, the risk factors for Internet addiction were male gender, smartphone use, anxiety, and wisdom/knowledge, while the protective factor was courage. Discussion These differences may result from unique features of smartphones, such as high availability and primary use as a tool for interpersonal relationships. Our findings will aid clinicians in distinguishing between predictive factors for smartphone and Internet addiction and can consequently be utilized in the prevention and treatment of smartphone addiction.

  11. The Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted And Non-Addicted Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Saber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction: The goal of this study was to compare the personality characteristics and problem solving styles of addicted and non-addicted men. Method: This study is a causal comparative design survey. In this study 180 addicted men was selected through convenience sampling method from addicted men that refered to addiction treatment centers of Rasht city and matched in gender, age, education and job with 180 non addicted men and then two groups compared with each other. All participants completed the NEO-FFI-R and problem solving styles questionnaires. The gathered data were analyzed through SPSS software. Findings: The results showed that an addicted man in comparison with non-addicted men was upper in neuroticism and lower in agreeableness, extraversion and consciousness dimensions. Also there was no difference in openness dimension between two groups. Conclusion: The finding of present study suggests that educating efficient problem solving styles to people to cope with life stressful events could restrain and prevent addiction and other psychosocial disorders.

  12. An organisational change intervention for increasing the delivery of smoking cessation support in addiction treatment centres: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonevski, Billie; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Shakeshaft, Anthony; Farrell, Michael; Tzelepis, Flora; Walsberger, Scott; D'Este, Catherine; Paul, Chris; Dunlop, Adrian; Searles, Andrew; Kelly, Peter; Fry, Rae; Stirling, Robert; Fowlie, Carrie; Skelton, Eliza

    2016-06-14

    The provision of smoking cessation support in Australian drug and alcohol treatment services is sub-optimal. This study examines the cost-effectiveness of an organisational change intervention to reduce smoking amongst clients attending drug and alcohol treatment services. A cluster-randomised controlled trial will be conducted with drug and alcohol treatment centres as the unit of randomisation. Biochemically verified (carbon monoxide by breath analysis) client 7-day-point prevalence of smoking cessation at 6 weeks will be the primary outcome measure. The study will be conducted in 33 drug and alcohol treatment services in four mainland states and territories of Australia: New South Wales, Australian Capital Territory, Queensland, and South Australia. Eligible services are those with ongoing client contact and that include pharmacotherapy services, withdrawal management services, residential rehabilitation, counselling services, and case management services. Eligible clients are those aged over 16 years who are attending their first of a number of expected visits, are self-reported current smokers, proficient in the English language, and do not have severe untreated mental illness as identified by the service staff. Control services will continue to provide usual care to the clients. Intervention group services will receive an organisational change intervention, including assistance in developing smoke-free policies, nomination of champions, staff training and educational client and service resources, and free nicotine replacement therapy in order to integrate smoking cessation support as part of usual client care. If effective, the organisational change intervention has clear potential for implementation as part of the standard care in drug and alcohol treatment centres. Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12615000204549 . Registered on 3 March 2015.

  13. Opioid Addiction: Social Problems Associated and Implications of Both Current and Possible Future Treatments, including Polymeric Therapeutics for Giving Up the Habit of Opioid Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina Benéitez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Detoxification programmes seek to implement the most secure and compassionate ways of withdrawing from opiates so that the inevitable withdrawal symptoms and other complications are minimized. Once detoxification has been achieved, the next stage is to enable the patient to overcome his or her drug addiction by ensuring consumption is permanently and completely abandoned, only after which can the subject be regarded as fully recovered. Methods. A systematic search on the common databases of relevant papers published until 2016 inclusive. Results and Conclusion. Our study of the available oral treatments for opioid dependence has revealed that no current treatment can actually claim to be fully effective. These treatments require daily oral administration and, consequently, regular visits to dispensaries, which in most cases results in a lack of patient compliance, which causes fluctuations in drug plasma levels. We then reviewed alternative treatments in the available scientific literature on polymeric sustained release formulations. Research has been done not only on release systems for detoxification but also on release systems for giving up the habit of taking opioids. These efforts have obtained the recent authorization of polymeric systems for use in patients that could help them to reduce their craving for drugs.

  14. Problem Gambling Treatment within the British National Health Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigbye, Jane; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    According to the latest British Gambling Prevalence Survey, there are approximately 300,000 adult problem gamblers in Great Britain. In January 2007, the "British Medical Association" published a report recommending that those experiencing gambling problems should receive treatment via the National Health Service (NHS). This study…

  15. CRIMINAL POLICY AND PREVENTION OF DRUG ADDICTION AMONG YOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Ivandić Zimić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Contribution of the criminal policy in the development of the integrated prevention-social policy related to drug addiction is highlyimportant because of the fact that it aims are reducing of the drug related crimes, protecting the victims and community. The paperconsiders interventions of the criminal policy into fi elds of treatment and prevention of drug addiction among youth. This relationrepresent challenge for policymakers because interconnections between different service, who do not always have the same point ofview how to approach to the problem, is strongly needed and expected. Thru the comparing of the implementation of prevention andcriminal policy in Great Britain, Netherlands, Sweden and Croatia, aim of the paper is to detected concepts and models of infl uenceof the criminal policy on the reducing use of drugs among youth and effectiveness of prevention programs. Lack of the support andsocial care for the drug addiction offenders within the criminal policy, have effects of the success of the social reintegration and appearanceof recidivism. There is a strong connection between prevention and criminal policy in the fi led of combating drug problem;on one side good prevention policy could infl uence on the reduction of number of youth who will committee drug crimes and enteredin the criminal justice system, but at the same time the criminal policy have the important role in the preventing of the drug abuse thruthe involving minor drug offenders in the treatment while there are in the criminal proceedings.

  16. The Influence of an Educational Course on Language Expression and Treatment of Gaming Addiction for Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyoung Won; Kim, Seo Young; Shim, Miseon; Im, Chang-Hwan; Shon, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) among juveniles has become a serious problem in Korea and has led to legislation prohibiting juveniles from playing games after midnight. One key factor in gaming addiction is the so-called narrative, or story, gamers create for themselves while playing. This study investigated how…

  17. The Influence of an Educational Course on Language Expression and Treatment of Gaming Addiction for Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (MMORPG) Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyoung Won; Kim, Seo Young; Shim, Miseon; Im, Chang-Hwan; Shon, Young-Min

    2013-01-01

    Addiction to Massive Multiple Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGs) among juveniles has become a serious problem in Korea and has led to legislation prohibiting juveniles from playing games after midnight. One key factor in gaming addiction is the so-called narrative, or story, gamers create for themselves while playing. This study investigated how…

  18. Regulate Internet Addiction Treatment Programs%应该对网瘾戒除活动进行规范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨守建

    2007-01-01

    尽管青少年网络成瘾已经是一个引起广泛关注的问题,但关于网络成瘾的概念,心理学界尚有争议。对这种成瘾有多种称谓,如互联网成瘾综合症(Intemet Addiction Disorder;简称IAD)、网络行为依赖(Internet Behavior Dependence;简称IBD)、病理性互联网使用(Pathological Intemet Use,简称PIU)等。但不管如何称呼,这些说法都至少包含两个方面的含义:一是对互联网的过度使用,也就是上瘾了;二是这种过度使用已经造成了使用者“明显的社会、心理功能损害”,也就是说,产生了显而易见的负面影响。

  19. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Addiction? » Does Addiction Run in Families? Does Addiction Run in Families? Listen PDF: EasyToRead_WhatIsAddiction_Final_ ... English Español "Heart disease runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." ©istock.com/ Antonio_Diaz Matt's ...

  20. Anxiety, bulimia, drug and alcohol addiction, depression, and schizophrenia: what do you think about their aetiology, dangerousness, social distance, and treatment? A latent class analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannarini, Stefania; Boffo, Marilisa

    2015-01-01

    Mental illness stigma is a serious societal problem and a critical impediment to treatment seeking for mentally ill people. To improve the understanding of mental illness stigma, this study focuses on the simultaneous analysis of people's aetiological beliefs, attitudes (i.e. perceived dangerousness and social distance), and recommended treatments related to several mental disorders by devising an over-arching latent structure that could explain the relations among these variables. Three hundred and sixty university students randomly received an unlabelled vignette depicting one of six mental disorders to be evaluated on the four variables on a Likert-type scale. A one-factor Latent Class Analysis (LCA) model was hypothesized, which comprised the four manifest variables as indicators and the mental disorder as external variable. The main findings were the following: (a) a one-factor LCA model was retrieved; (b) alcohol and drug addictions are the most strongly stigmatized; (c) a realistic opinion about the causes and treatment of schizophrenia, anxiety, bulimia, and depression was associated to lower prejudicial attitudes and social rejection. Beyond the general appraisal of mental illness an individual might have, the results generally point to the acknowledgement of the specific features of different diagnostic categories. The implications of the present results are discussed in the framework of a better understanding of mental illness stigma.