WorldWideScience

Sample records for addiction replicated results

  1. Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naim-Feil, Jodie; Zangen, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Drug and alcohol addiction is a debilitating disorder characterized by persistent drug-seeking behaviors despite negative physiological, medical, or social consequences. Neurobiological models of addiction propose that the reinforcing effects of addictive drugs are associated with altered neurotransmission within the reward 'mesocorticolimbic' circuitry in the brain. Immense efforts are therefore designed to target the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in attenuating drug dependence and addiction-related behaviors. Yet, to date, most addiction treatments have demonstrated only limited success in reducing addiction-related behaviors. Accumulating and compelling evidence suggests that novel nonsurgical brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, could serve as promising tools for indexing altered neurotransmission associated with repetitive drug use, and moreover, may hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of drug dependence and addiction-related behaviors. This chapter reviews and discusses the current and potential applications of such techniques in the study and treatment of addiction; we focus on a number of common drugs of abuse, including nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, and ecstasy. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hak (Tony); J. Dul (Jan)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractReplication is conducting a study in another case (or population) in order to assess whether a research finding from previous studies can be confirmed. The aim of replication is to assess the generalizability of a theoretical claim and the “research finding” that is (or is not) confirmed

  3. A Signature of Genomic Instability Resulting from Deficient Replication Licensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven C Pruitt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient licensing of DNA replication origins has been shown to result in genome instability, stem cell deficiency, and cancers. However, it is unclear whether the DNA damage resulting from deficient replication licensing occurs generally or if specific sites are preferentially affected. To map locations of ongoing DNA damage in vivo, the DNAs present in red blood cell micronuclei were sequenced. Many micronuclei are the product of DNA breaks that leave acentromeric remnants that failed to segregate during mitosis and should reflect the locations of breaks. To validate the approach we show that micronuclear sequences identify known common fragile sites under conditions that induce breaks at these locations (hydroxyurea. In MCM2 deficient mice a different set of preferred breakage sites is identified that includes the tumor suppressor gene Tcf3, which is known to contribute to T-lymphocytic leukemias that arise in these mice, and the 45S rRNA gene repeats.

  4. Video game addiction and college performance among males: results from a 1 year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Zachary L; Livingston, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the pattern of video game usage and video game addiction among male college students and examined how video game addiction was related to expectations of college engagement, college grade point average (GPA), and on-campus drug and alcohol violations. Participants were 477 male, first year students at a liberal arts college. In the week before the start of classes, participants were given two surveys: one of expected college engagement, and the second of video game usage, including a measure of video game addiction. Results suggested that video game addiction is (a) negatively correlated with expected college engagement, (b) negatively correlated with college GPA, even when controlling for high school GPA, and (c) negatively correlated with drug and alcohol violations that occurred during the first year in college. Results are discussed in terms of implications for male students' engagement and success in college, and in terms of the construct validity of video game addiction.

  5. Genetic and psychosocial factors for benzodiazepine addiction. An analysis based on the results of the authors’ own research conducted in a group of benzodiazepine addicted and non-addicted individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Konopka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In spite of the fact that the addictive potential of benzodiazepine (BDZ drugs has been known for a long time, benzodiazepine addiction remains a common problem for psychiatry to deal with. The etiology of benzodiazepine addiction is very complex. Among the risk factors, the course of the treatment, demographic status and psychological features of a patient seem to play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate both psychological and genetic factors differentiating benzodiazepine addicts from non-addicted users.Methods: We analysed a cohort of 120 individuals treated with benzodiazepines divided into two groups: benzodiazepine addicts and non-addicted benzodiazepine users (the control group. In both groups we measured genetic polymorphisms of GABA A2 and MAOA. In both groups some psychometric measurements were performed – we investigated the level of depression, anxiety as a state and as a trait, personality features and the dominant coping style using the Beck Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Five-Factor Personality Inventory NEO-FFI and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations [4,10,17,36,41,44].Results: There are some psychological and situational risk factors for benzodiazepine addiction such as high neuroticism, introversion and lack of the ability to release tension through interpersonal contacts, dominance of emotional coping style and high accumulation of critical life events during both childhood and adulthood. The genetic background still remains a field for further exploration.

  6. Results of Drug addiction Test and its Correlation With the Demographic Specifications Among People Referred to Yazd Addiction Diagnostic Laboratory Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Addiction changes people from positive, active and healthy beings to consuming and negative patients. This study was carried out with the aim of determining the prevalence of the abuse of epioid substances among people referring to Yazd Addiction Diagnosis Laboratory using Rapid Test and Chromatography. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, all people who attended Yazd Addiction Diagnosis Laboratory for any reason, that is, marriage, employment or obtaining job license between 1386 and 1388, were examined. Totally, 2790 individuals were selected randomly. First, their demographic information was entered in the questionnaire. Then, urine samples were collected at the presence of a laboratory technician and tested using Ennissan Strip Rapid Test if the result was positive, the rest of the sample was tested with Chromatography. Results: Totally, 2790 individuals were surveyed in this study. The mean age of the participants was 25.9±7.2 years. About 62.9% were male and the rest were female. In addition, the reason for taking the test was marriage in 73.2%, employment in 15.5%, obtaining job license in 3.3% and other reasons for others. The prevalence of the abuse of opioid substances was 5.3% (95% CI 4.5% - 6.1%. Conclusions: Many test takers are aware of the fact that the result of the drug test becomes negative after three days of withdrawal, which might be the reason for the low prevalence of addiction in this study. However, prenuptial testing for addiction is quite prudent and necessary. Moreover, calculation of OR showed a male to female ratio of 15 to 1 for opioid abuse which was significant. Higher age, lower education level, labor work and working freelance, smoking and history of addiction in family were other risk factors for opioid substance abuse. Keywords: Addiction test, Addiction prevalence rate, Rapid test, Yazd

  7. Addiction disorders, psychopathy and crime in the light of empirical studies results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Danka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the available empirical researches and examines the scientific basis of widely accepted thesis about the connection of substance addiction, psychopathy and crime. The analysis of research results indicated that correlation between the observed phenomena exists not only at a symptomatic level, but also at the level of etiology. It was established that the same risk factors underly alcoholism, drug addiction, psychopathy and criminal behavior. It was also found that the presence of conduct disorders at an early age (before the age of 15 indicates that psychopathic disorder is primary and that in this case, psychopathy is a reliable predictor of addiction and penal treatment failure, and also that it contributes substantially to addictive and criminal recidivism. Highly aggressive and poorly controlled psychopaths under the desinhibited influence of substances become even more violent and dangerous and most of them have a polysubstance disorder. Therefore, for the prevention of all three maladaptive forms, particularly important is the category of minors with early disruptive behavior, characterized by lower verbal ability, increased impulsivity and high aggressiveness as a main feature of psychopathy. Judging by research findings, the absence of conduct disorders in juvenile period could be considered as an indicator that psychopathic and criminal behavior occur as a secondary effect of substance abuse, with better chances for rehabilitation.

  8. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruta, Mayumi; Shimada, Midori; Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu; Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle; Nakanishi, Makoto

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Loss of maintenance DNA methylation results in abnormal DNA origin firing during DNA replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruta, Mayumi [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Shimada, Midori, E-mail: midorism@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Nishiyama, Atsuya; Johmura, Yoshikazu [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan); Le Tallec, Benoît; Debatisse, Michelle [Institut Curie, Centre de Recherche, 26 rue d’Ulm, CNRS UMR 3244, 75248 ParisCedex 05 (France); Nakanishi, Makoto, E-mail: mkt-naka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya City University, 1 Kawasumi, Mizuho-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8601 (Japan)

    2016-01-22

    The mammalian maintenance methyltransferase DNMT1 [DNA (cytosine-5-)-methyltransferase 1] mediates the inheritance of the DNA methylation pattern during replication. Previous studies have shown that depletion of DNMT1 causes a severe growth defect and apoptosis in differentiated cells. However, the detailed mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that conditional ablation of Dnmt1 in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) resulted in an aberrant DNA replication program showing an accumulation of late-S phase replication and causing severely defective growth. Furthermore, we found that the catalytic activity and replication focus targeting sequence of DNMT1 are required for a proper DNA replication program. Taken together, our findings suggest that the maintenance of DNA methylation by DNMT1 plays a critical role in proper regulation of DNA replication in mammalian cells. - Highlights: • DNMT1 depletion results in an abnormal DNA replication program. • Aberrant DNA replication is independent of the DNA damage checkpoint in DNMT1cKO. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for proper DNA replication. • DNMT1 catalytic activity and RFT domain are required for cell proliferation.

  10. Defective replication initiation results in locus specific chromosome breakage and a ribosomal RNA deficiency in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Joseph C; Kwan, Elizabeth X; Pohl, Thomas J; Amemiya, Haley M; Raghuraman, M K; Brewer, Bonita J

    2017-10-01

    A form of dwarfism known as Meier-Gorlin syndrome (MGS) is caused by recessive mutations in one of six different genes (ORC1, ORC4, ORC6, CDC6, CDT1, and MCM5). These genes encode components of the pre-replication complex, which assembles at origins of replication prior to S phase. Also, variants in two additional replication initiation genes have joined the list of causative mutations for MGS (Geminin and CDC45). The identity of the causative MGS genetic variants strongly suggests that some aspect of replication is amiss in MGS patients; however, little evidence has been obtained regarding what aspect of chromosome replication is faulty. Since the site of one of the missense mutations in the human ORC4 alleles is conserved between humans and yeast, we sought to determine in what way this single amino acid change affects the process of chromosome replication, by introducing the comparable mutation into yeast (orc4Y232C). We find that yeast cells with the orc4Y232C allele have a prolonged S-phase, due to compromised replication initiation at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus located on chromosome XII. The inability to initiate replication at the rDNA locus results in chromosome breakage and a severely reduced rDNA copy number in the survivors, presumably helping to ensure complete replication of chromosome XII. Although reducing rDNA copy number may help ensure complete chromosome replication, orc4Y232C cells struggle to meet the high demand for ribosomal RNA synthesis. This finding provides additional evidence linking two essential cellular pathways-DNA replication and ribosome biogenesis.

  11. Increased correlation between methylation sites in epigenome-wide replication studies: impact on analysis and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Maja; Fasanelli, Francesca; Fiano, Valentina; Biggeri, Annibale; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2017-11-06

    To show that an increased correlation between CpGs after selection through an epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) might translate into biased replication results. Pairwise correlation coefficients between CpGs selected in two published EWAS, the top hits replication, Bonferroni p-values, Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) false discovery rate (FDR) and directional FDR r-values were calculated in the NINFEA cohort data. Exposures' random permutations were performed to show the empirical p-value distributions. The average pairwise correlation coefficients between CpGs were enhanced after selection for the replication (e.g., from 0.12 at genome-wide level to 0.26 among the selected CpGs), affecting the empirical p-value distributions and the usual multiple testing control. Bonferroni and Benjamini-Hochberg FDR are inappropriate for the EWAS replication phase, and methods that account for the underlying correlation need to be used.

  12. Large Scale Association Analysis for Drug Addiction: Results from SNP to Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaobo Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many genetic association studies used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs data to identify genetic variants for complex diseases. Although SNP-based associations are most common in genome-wide association studies (GWAS, gene-based association analysis has received increasing attention in understanding genetic etiologies for complex diseases. While both methods have been used to analyze the same data, few genome-wide association studies compare the results or observe the connection between them. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the data from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE and compared the results from the SNP-based and gene-based analyses. Our results suggest that the gene-based method complements the individual SNP-based analysis, and conceptually they are closely related. In terms of gene findings, our results validate many genes that were either reported from the analysis of the same dataset or based on animal studies for substance dependence.

  13. [Study on job support programs for drug addicts in japan: results of a nationwide survey on drug addiction rehabilitation centers (DARC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Keiko; Morita, Nobuaki; Ogai, Yasukazu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Koda, Minoru; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Yabe, Yohko; Abe, Yukie; Kondo, Tsuneo

    2014-04-01

    In Japan, many drug addiction rehabilitation centers (DARC) provide various types of recovery programs for drug addiction. The purpose of this study was to clarify the attitudes of DARC staff and users regarding job support programs. A nationwide questionnaire survey was conducted in 2009. The staff of 46 facilities and 606 users returned questionnaires. The results indicated that many (92.1%) users had work experience before entering the recovery programs provided by DARC and about half (49.3%) of the users reported being motivated to work. Although many DARC have established various job support programs, the users faced various levels of anxieties to get employed and 60.4% of the users expected to learn more detailed and concrete methods for finding a job. Through the DARC programs, the users gradually realize the significance of basic daily living skills such as maintaining their rhythm of life or neat and presentable appearance. And the more they get recovered the more they understand the significance of "self-care" and "interpersonal relationship skills". These findings indicate that job support programs for drug addicts should also focus on these recovery processes. More extensive job supports dealing with more practical issues and covering a wide variety of anxieties would be imperative.

  14. Adolescent (Mis)Perceptions about Nicotine Addiction: Results from a Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roditis, Maria; Lee, Joann; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite evidence that adolescents become addicted to nicotine even after limited use, adolescents believe they can experiment with or smoke cigarettes for a few years and easily quit. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' understanding of the definition and process of nicotine addiction using a mixed-methods approach. Method:…

  15. Cultures of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J

    2011-01-01

    Different cultures and the specific culture manifested within them are intrinsically linked to addiction in a complex fashion which has a long history. For important thinkers, such as Nietzsche, addiction actually embodies human culture, rendering addiction and culture inseparable. This is clearly seen within the Western world’s addiction to the consumption of material goods and the damage that results. Utopia has often become dystopia. Not only is an understanding of addiction key to un...

  16. Ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: results from a preliminary observational study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald; Lucas, Philippe; Capler, N Rielle; Tupper, Kenneth W; Martin, Gina

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports results from a preliminary observational study of ayahuasca-assisted treatment for problematic substance use and stress delivered in a rural First Nations community in British Columbia, Canada. The "Working with Addiction and Stress" retreats combined four days of group counselling with two expert-led ayahuasca ceremonies. This study collected pre-treatment and six months follow-up data from 12 participants on several psychological and behavioral factors related to problematic substance use, and qualitative data assessing the personal experiences of the participants six months after the retreat. Statistically significant (p ayahuasca-assisted therapy appears to be associated with statistically significant improvements in several factors related to problematic substance use among a rural aboriginal population. These findings suggest participants may have experienced positive psychological and behavioral changes in response to this therapeutic approach, and that more rigorous research of ayahuasca-assisted therapy for problematic substance use is warranted.

  17. A Bayesian bird's eye view of ?Replications of important results in social psychology?

    OpenAIRE

    Marsman, Maarten; Sch?nbrodt, Felix D.; Morey, Richard D.; Yao, Yuling; Gelman, Andrew; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2017-01-01

    We applied three Bayesian methods to reanalyse the preregistered contributions to the Social Psychology special issue ?Replications of Important Results in Social Psychology? (Nosek & Lakens. 2014 Registered reports: a method to increase the credibility of published results. Soc. Psychol. 45, 137?141. (doi:10.1027/1864-9335/a000192)). First, individual-experiment Bayesian parameter estimation revealed that for directed effect size measures, only three out of 44 central 95% credible intervals ...

  18. Correlates of HIV testing and receipt of test results in addiction health services in Los Angeles County

    OpenAIRE

    Frimpong, Jemima A.; Guerrero, Erick G; Kong, Yinfei; Tsai, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV testing and receipt of HIV test results among individuals with substance use disorders is less than optimal. We examined rates and correlates of HIV testing and receipt of test results in one of the largest public addiction health services systems in the United States. Methods The study included 139,516 adult clients in treatment between 2006 and 2011. We used logistic regression models to examine associations between predisposing, enabling, and need factors and two dependent v...

  19. Modern nondrug addictions

    OpenAIRE

    KLIMEŠOVÁ, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    My diploma thesis is both theoretical and empirical. It deals with modern nondrug addictions which are not yet classified as addictions according to the International Classification of Diseases, but their symptoms and common characteristics with recognised addictions allow us to label them as such. The theoretical part of my thesis concerns mainly a definition of these addictions, their typical symptoms, prevention and therapy. The practical part contains tables derived from the results of re...

  20. A Bayesian bird's eye view of ‘Replications of important results in social psychology’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönbrodt, Felix D.; Yao, Yuling; Gelman, Andrew; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2017-01-01

    We applied three Bayesian methods to reanalyse the preregistered contributions to the Social Psychology special issue ‘Replications of Important Results in Social Psychology’ (Nosek & Lakens. 2014 Registered reports: a method to increase the credibility of published results. Soc. Psychol. 45, 137–141. (doi:10.1027/1864-9335/a000192)). First, individual-experiment Bayesian parameter estimation revealed that for directed effect size measures, only three out of 44 central 95% credible intervals did not overlap with zero and fell in the expected direction. For undirected effect size measures, only four out of 59 credible intervals contained values greater than 0.10 (10% of variance explained) and only 19 intervals contained values larger than 0.05. Second, a Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis for all 38 t-tests showed that only one out of the 38 hierarchically estimated credible intervals did not overlap with zero and fell in the expected direction. Third, a Bayes factor hypothesis test was used to quantify the evidence for the null hypothesis against a default one-sided alternative. Only seven out of 60 Bayes factors indicated non-anecdotal support in favour of the alternative hypothesis (BF10>3), whereas 51 Bayes factors indicated at least some support for the null hypothesis. We hope that future analyses of replication success will embrace a more inclusive statistical approach by adopting a wider range of complementary techniques. PMID:28280547

  1. Genetic and psychosocial factors for benzodiazepine addiction. An analysis based on the results of the authors’ own research conducted in a group of benzodiazepine addicted and non-addicted individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Konopka; Monika Mak; Anna Grzywacz; Sławomir Murawiec; Jerzy Samochowiec

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In spite of the fact that the addictive potential of benzodiazepine (BDZ) drugs has been known for a long time, benzodiazepine addiction remains a common problem for psychiatry to deal with. The etiology of benzodiazepine addiction is very complex. Among the risk factors, the course of the treatment, demographic status and psychological features of a patient seem to play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate both psychological and genetic factors differentiating...

  2. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  3. [Deep brain stimulation for addiction, anorexia and compulsion. Rationale, clinical results and ethical implications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, C; Kuhn, J

    2014-02-01

    As an established treatment for movement disorders, the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for psychiatric indications has been investigated for almost 15 years. A CE label (also FDA approval) has recently been obtained for treatment of refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This article aims at illustrating the current state of DBS in the treatment of refractory OCD. In addition, initial experimental approaches to investigate the potential use of DBS in substance addiction and anorexia nervosa (AN) will also be outlined as both disorders share some common features with OCD. The present review is based on a keyword literature search (PubMed) while taking into account relevant references and own investigations Although the number of clinical trials for treatment of refractory OCD is limited and sample sizes are small, there is some evidence for a substantial improvement, a so-called full response of OCD symptoms under DBS. However, not all patients benefit from the intervention. Regarding substance addiction and AN, data are scarce and are only indicative of a potential benefit at most. Present data regarding the clinical benefits of DBS in OCD are encouraging and open up new avenues for the treatment of therapy refractory patients. However, several aspects, such as mechanisms of action, predictors and long-term side effect profiles, are incomplete or even unknown. In the case of addiction and AN, DBS remains purely experimental, at least for the moment. Hence, clinical trials should remain the gold standard for all three indications.

  4. Genetic and psychosocial factors for benzodiazepine addiction. An analysis based on the results of the authors' own research conducted in a group of benzodiazepine addicted and non-addicted individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Anna; Mak, Monika; Grzywacz, Anna; Murawiec, Sławomir; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2017-03-13

    In spite of the fact that the addictive potential of benzodiazepine (BDZ) drugs has been known for a long time, benzodiazepine addiction remains a common problem for psychiatry to deal with. The etiology of benzodiazepine addiction is very complex. Among the risk factors, the course of the treatment, demographic status and psychological features of a patient seem to play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate both psychological and genetic factors differentiating benzodiazepine addicts from non-addicted users. We analysed a cohort of 120 individuals treated with benzodiazepines divided into two groups: benzodiazepine addicts and non-addicted benzodiazepine users (the control group). In both groups we measured genetic polymorphisms of GABA A2 and MAOA. In both groups some psychometric measurements were performed - we investigated the level of depression, anxiety as a state and as a trait, personality features and the dominant coping style using the Beck Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Five-Factor Personality Inventory NEO-FFI and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations [4,10,17,36,41,44]. There are some psychological and situational risk factors for benzodiazepine addiction such as high neuroticism, introversion and lack of the ability to release tension through interpersonal contacts, dominance of emotional coping style and high accumulation of critical life events during both childhood and adulthood. The genetic background still remains a field for further exploration.

  5. The Comparison of Resiliency, Identity Styles, Spirituality and Perceived Social Support in Addicts, Non-Addicts, and Recovered Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Ali HosseiniAlmadani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was comparing of resiliency, identity styles, spirituality, and perceived social support in addicts, non-addicts, and recovered addicts. Method: In this causal-comparative study, by available sampling, 30 addicts, 30 non-addicts, and 30 recovered addicts were selected of adolescents. All participants completed the resiliency, identity styles, spirituality, and perceived social support questionnaires. Results: The results of comparing of identity styles indicated that on informational and normative styles, non-addicts had significantly higher scores than addicts and recovered addicts. On avoidant/disoriented style, non addicts had significantly lower levels than two other addict groups. The results of comparing of resiliency showed that non-addicts had significantly higher scores than two other groups. Also recovered addicts were significantly more resilient than addicts. In comparing of spirituality component, non addicts and recovered addicts had significantly higher scores than addicts. By Comparing of perceived social support, non-addicts and recovered addicts had significantly higher levels than addicts. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, participating in NA groups and perception of social support increased the resiliency of recovered addicts. Also, identity is relatively consistent component that by participating in treatment process, does not change significantly.

  6. Evaluation of Toxicological Analysis Results and Treatment Applications in Cases Registered for Drug Addiction at Parole Branch office of Trabzon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Karadeniz

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Substance use, increased rapidly all over the world and our country become a very important social problem, to take legal measures were made compulsory parole is the conditional release of a prison inmate after serving part (if not all of his or her sentence, allowing the inmate to live in the community under supervision of the parole period. Parole and Aid Centers, which were put in effect by Ministry of Justice in the context of membership process of EU, set up as a social service on 20 July 2005 with a law which went into effect after being published in Official Gazette. At this study, 201 (47.2% cases, which contained drug addiction were examined out of 425 cases in total, which were registered to Branch Directorate of Trabzon Parole between the dates of 21 December 2005 and 30 June 2008. The cases were grouped in terms of age, gender, education level, occupation, drugs used, treatment, and toxicological analysis results. The rates of drug using for men are 98.5% (n = 198, and for women 1.5% (n=3. The ages of cases were ranked between 17 and 64, the average age was found as 32.47 ± 10.55 years. The frequency of drug use is most in the age group of 27-36 (39.8%, n=80. As a result, parole application, which is rather new in Turkey, has puts on the agenda with a chance of being addictive were recovered to the society by being followed and treated. The reluctance of guilty people returning to the prison again, the effect on individual of being considered important by system, and illuminating information which were given by educator, and treatment performance indicate positive effect on the guilty. Key words: Parole, drug, addiction

  7. KDM6A addiction of cervical carcinoma cell lines is triggered by E7 and mediated by p21CIP1 suppression of replication stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Soto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Expression of E7 proteins encoded by carcinogenic, high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs triggers increased expression of the histone H3 lysine 27 demethylase KDM6A. KDM6A expression is necessary for survival of high-risk HPV E7 expressing cells, including several cervical cancer lines. Here we show that increased KDM6A in response to high-risk HPV E7 expression causes epigenetic de-repression of the cell cycle and DNA replication inhibitor p21CIP1, and p21CIP1 expression is necessary for survival of high-risk HPV E7 expressing cells. The requirement for KDM6A and p21CIP1 expression for survival of high-risk HPV E7 expressing cells is based on p21CIP1's ability to inhibit DNA replication through PCNA binding. We show that ectopic expression of cellular replication factors can rescue the loss of cell viability in response to p21CIP1 and KDM6A depletion. Moreover, we discovered that nucleoside supplementation will override the loss of cell viability in response to p21CIP1 depletion, suggesting that p21CIP1 depletion causes lethal replication stress. This model is further supported by increased double strand DNA breaks upon KDM6A or p21CIP1 depletion and DNA combing experiments that show aberrant re-replication upon KDM6A or p21CIP1 depletion in high-risk HPV E7 expressing cells. Therefore, KDM6A and p21CIP1 expression are essential to curb E7 induced replication stress to levels that do not markedly interfere with cell viability.

  8. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias; Persson, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g., the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008), however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010). Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck's study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck's study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008), where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  9. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias eOsvath

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g. the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008, however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010. Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck’s study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck’s study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008, where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  10. [Game addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of β band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The α band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent.

  11. Addiction and Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian eJohnson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ADDICTION AND WILLA hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING.The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted.Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness.

  12. How addicts think about addiction and community problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Meysamie

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: addiction and drug abuse have many risk factors in community and individual attitude; also causes much diversity in community perception and attitude toward addiction. Methods: in this study we assessed attitude toward an addict in 42 addict men and asked about problems in their community and recreational behaviors. They were residents of a rural area in Babol city. In the control group we assessed the same parameters in 268 non addicts in the same area. All of the addicts have been using opium more than many times a week at least for recent 6 months. Data collected via a semi structured questionnaire through conversation. Results: There was a significant difference between addicts’ attitude toward toward addiction compare to non-addicts’. Both addicts and non-addicts indicated that the first three community problems in their area were unemployment, lack of recreational facilities and addiction, in respective order. Answering questions about recreational activities, both groups indicated that there were no recreational facilities in the community. Conclusion: In planning a preventive approach, there is a major role for attitude toward addiction in any community. The conflict seen in this study between addicts’ attitudes toward an addicted person and addiction as a community problem has it’s interesting feature. Recreation and physical and cultural facilities need to pay more attention as indicated by our study participants. This seems to have an important impact in prevention of many community problems as well as addiction.

  13. Hidden addiction: Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  14. [Drugs use among adolescents: results from the National Survey on Addictions, 1998].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Mora, Ma Elena; Cravioto, Patricia; Villatoro, Jorge; Fleiz, Clara; Galván-Castillo, Fernando; Tapia-Conyer, Roberto

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe drug and associated factors use among adolescents (12 to 17 years of age). Data come from the recent Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones, 1998 (National Survey on Addictions) undertaken in urban areas of Mexico. A probabilistic, multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling design was used to select the study population. The sampling unit was the individual in each household. Statistical analysis consisted of the estimation of prevalences of drug use, with 95% confidence intervals. Associations were analyzed using logistic regressions models. Excluding tobacco and alcohol, 3.57% of males and 0.6% of females have used one or more drugs; 2.14% and 0.45% used them in the 12 months previous to the survey, and 1.4% and 0.3% in the previous 30 days, respectively. Marihuana was the drug more often used by males (2.4%) and females (0.45%), followed by inhaled solvents (1.08% and 0.20%), and cocaine (0.99% and 0.22%), respectively. The risk of using illicit drugs was associated to being male, having dropped out from school, perceiving availability, drug use by family and friends, social tolerance among friends, and symptoms of depression. Adolescents between 12 to 17 years of age are exposed to increasing drug use. The rates of drug use have risen, especially in the northern region of Mexico and in the big urban areas (Tijuana, Mexico City and Guadalajara). These findings emphasize the need to develop campaigns to detect emotional problems. Preventive measures should provide appropriate care to prevent drug use as a mechanism to cope with such emotional conflicts. Also, more intense preventive interventions should be targeted to adolescents with a high probability of developing drug abuse.

  15. Addiction and will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud's concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness.

  16. Introduction to Behavioral Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E.; Potenza, Marc N.; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or “behavioral” addictions. Objectives Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. Methods: We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:20560821

  17. Addiction and will

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  18. Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use may cause: Hallucinations Greatly reduced perception of reality, for example, interpreting input from one of your ... effective in coping with addiction. Compassion, understanding and shared experiences can help you break your addiction and ...

  19. [The activity of drug addiction service of the Russian Federation: an assessment of statistical parameters and an analysis of results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkina, E A; Kirzhanova, V V; Babicheva, L P; Mugantseva, L A

    2013-01-01

    The authors studied changes in the structure of drug addiction services, the dynamics of outpatient and inpatient referrals for drug addiction treatment and effectiveness of drug addiction services in 2011 compared to the preceding period. There was a reduction of availability of drug treatment services due to the reduction of the number of drug addiction units and the depletion of human resource potential. The lack of structural development of rehabilitation sector of drug care services and low rates of its development as well as the decrease in the number of patients seeking treatment are highlighted. It has been concluded that the drug addiction services require reorganization of its regulatory and legal framework and need innovative organizational and management decisions and human resources trained in innovative thinking and technologies.

  20. [Food Addiction as a new behavioral addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eördögh, Erika; Hoyer, Mária; Szeleczky, Gábor

    Aim of review: To overview the new studies on food addiction and highlighting the analogies and differences between food and drug addiction. Recent studies on food addiction have demonstrated that the neurobiological circuits involved in the development of drug addiction also play a role in food consumption, and that the uptake of nutrients by the organism is under the control of numerous complicated peripheral and central signal-transducing networks. In addition, it has also been shown that addiction and/or craving may develop toward certain foods and nutrients, too. The most recent investigations about the neurobiological systems motivating the obtaining behavior have suggested that the acquired drive toward energy rich, rewarding food contributes to the appearance of obesity as an endemic. This report presents the definition of substance use disorders and describes the results of the neurobiological approaches in the study of addiction supporting the concept that food addiction is a real phenomenon. The subsequent description of the central and peripheral signaling pathways of food consumption demonstrates that while both food (nutrients) and drugs with abuse potential exert their effect on the same central neurobiological networks, the action of the peripheral signaling systems make it more difficult to understand the regulation of food intake and thus the treatment of pathological eating behavior. The presentation of the evidences of food addiction obtained in animal experiments and with imaging methods and the subsequent overview of the results achieved in the surveys of pathologic eating patterns and in the new clinical and behavioral assessment of human food addiction point to the conclusion that the pharmacological and behavioral therapy methods applied to the treatment of substance abuse disorders may also prove useful in the management of obesity.

  1. How many replicate tests do I need?$-$ Variability of cookstove performance and emissions has implications for obtaining useful results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yungang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Gadgil, Ashok J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wang, Yilun [ISO Innovative Analytics San Francisco, CA (United States); Lask, Kathleen M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). College of Engineering Applied Science and Technology Program; Kirchstetter, Thomas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-02-01

    Almost half of the world’s population still cooks on biomass cookstoves of poor efficiency and primitive design, such as three stone fires (TSF). Emissions from biomass cookstoves contribute to adverse health effects and climate change. A number of “improved cookstoves” with higher energy efficiency and lower emissions have been designed and promoted across the world. During the design development, and for selection of a stove for dissemination, the stove performance and emissions are commonly evaluated, communicated and compared using the arithmetic average of replicate tests made using a standardized laboratory-based test, commonly the water boiling test (WBT). However, published literature shows different WBT results reported from different laboratories for the same stove technology. Also, there is no agreement in the literature on how many replicate tests should be performed to ensure “significance” in the reported average performance. This matter has not received attention in the rapidly growing literature on stoves, and yet is crucial for estimating and communicating the performance of a stove, and for comparing the performance between stoves. We present results of statistical analyses using data from a number of replicate tests of performance and emission of the Berkeley-Darfur Stove (BDS) and the TSF under well-controlled laboratory conditions. We observed moderate variability in the test results for the TSF and BDS when measuring several characteristics. Here we focus on two as illustrative: time-to-boil and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers in diameter) emissions. We demonstrate that interpretation of the results comparing these stoves could be misleading if only a small number of replicates had been conducted. We then describe a practical approach, useful to both stove testers and designers, to assess the number of replicates needed to obtain useful data. Caution should be exercised in attaching high credibility to

  2. Opiate addiction and cocaine addiction: underlying molecular neurobiology and genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Levran, Orna; Reed, Brian; Schlussman, Stefan D.; Zhou, Yan; Butelman, Eduardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadaptations, which can be specific to drug type, and their resultant behaviors are modified by various internal and external environmental factors, including stress responsivity, addict mindset, and social setting. Specific gene variants, including variants encoding pharmacological target proteins or genes mediating neuroadaptations, also modify vulnerability at particular stages of addiction. Greater understanding of these interacting factors through laboratory-based and translational studies have the potential to optimize early interventions for the therapy of chronic addictive diseases and to reduce the burden of relapse. Here, we review the molecular neurobiology and genetics of opiate addiction, including heroin and prescription opioids, and cocaine addiction. PMID:23023708

  3. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  4. Food addiction in overweight and obese adolescents seeking weight-loss treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Hermann, Tina; Kübler, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Some forms of overeating closely resemble addictive behaviour. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) was developed to measure such addiction-like eating in humans and has been employed in numerous studies for examining food addiction in adults. Yet, little is known about food addiction in children and adolescents. Fifty adolescents were recruited at the beginning of treatment in a weight-loss hospital and completed the YFAS among other questionnaires. Nineteen participants (38%) received a YFAS diagnosis, who did not differ in age, body mass and gender distribution from those not receiving a diagnosis. However, those with food addiction reported more binge days, more frequent food cravings, higher eating, weight and shape concerns, more symptoms of depression and higher attentional and motor impulsivity. Eating restraint and nonplanning impulsivity did not differ between groups. Results replicate findings from studies in obese adults such that food addiction is not related to age, gender, body mass or eating restraint, but to higher eating pathology, more symptoms of depression and higher impulsivity. Furthermore, results highlight that particularly attentional impulsivity is related to 'food addiction'. Addiction-like eating appears to be a valid phenotype in a substantial subset of treatment-seeking, obese adolescents. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Complex expression of the UL136 gene of human cytomegalovirus results in multiple protein isoforms with unique roles in replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caviness, Katie; Cicchini, Louis; Rak, Michael; Umashankar, Mahadevaiah; Goodrum, Felicia

    2014-12-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a complex DNA virus with a 230-kb genome encoding 170 and up to 750 proteins. The upper limit of this coding capacity suggests the evolution of complex mechanisms to substantially increase the coding potential from the 230-kb genome. Our work examines the complexity of one gene, UL136, encoded within the ULb' region of the genome that is lost during serial passage of HCMV in cultured fibroblasts. UL136 is expressed as five protein isoforms. We mapped these isoforms and demonstrate that they originate from both a complex transcriptional profile and, possibly, the usage of multiple translation initiation sites. Intriguingly, the pUL136 isoforms exhibited distinct subcellular distributions with varying association with the Golgi apparatus. The subcellular localization of membrane-bound isoforms of UL136 differed between when they were expressed exogenously and when they were expressed in the context of viral infection, suggesting that the trafficking of these isoforms is mediated by infection-specific factors. While UL136, like most ULb' genes, was dispensable for replication in fibroblasts, the soluble 23- and 19-kDa isoforms suppressed virus replication. In CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) infected in vitro, disruption of the 23- and 19-kDa isoforms resulted in increased replication and a loss of the latency phenotype, similar to the effects of the UL138 latency determinant encoded within the same genetic locus. Our work suggests a complex interplay between the UL136 isoforms which balances viral replication in multiple cell types and likely contributes to the cell type-dependent phenotypes of the UL133/8 locus and the outcome of HCMV infection. HCMV is a significant cause of morbidity in immunocompromised individuals, including transplant patients. The lifelong persistence of the virus results in a high seroprevalence worldwide and may contribute to age-related pathologies, such as atherosclerosis. The mechanisms of

  6. Guns, anger, and mental disorders: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Analyses from the National Comorbidity Study Replication provide the first nationally-representative estimates of the co-occurrence of pathological anger traits and possessing or carrying a gun among adults with and without certain mental disorders and demographic characteristics. The study found that a large number of individuals in the United States have anger traits and also possess firearms at home (10.4%) or carry guns outside the home (1.6%). These data document associations of numerous common mental disorders and combinations of anger traits with gun access. Because only a small proportion of persons with this risky combination have ever been hospitalized for a mental health problem, most will not be subject to existing mental-health-related legal restrictions on firearms due to involuntary commitment. Excluding a large proportion of the general population from gun possession is also not likely to be feasible. Behavioral risk-based approaches to firearms restriction, such as expanding the definition of gun-prohibited persons to include those with violent misdemeanor convictions and multiple DUI convictions, could be a more effective public health policy to prevent gun violence in the population. PMID:25850688

  7. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  8. Addiction and Rehabilitation of Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of narcotic drugs has a long record in human societies. Drug addiction is considered as a social problem nowadays which has affected the economic-cultural and economic-social dimensions of the country. In examining the dimensions of drug addiction, one must pay attention to the issues of dependency on drugs, drug addicts and rehabilitation of drug addicts. In examining the phenomenon of addiction and its analysis as a social scourge, the issue can be analyzed at different levels including the social structures, the relationship between the individual and the society and individual matters. Another theory considered in this article is the designation of the causality hierarchy. Two research methods have been used in this article for delineating and analyzing drug addiction. The first method is the content analysis method where one looks into the effective elements that lead to addiction and also its consequences. It also takes into consideration different theories related to the rehabilitation methods. Another method of analysis that is being used is related to detailed interviews and case studies conducted on drug addicts. Another method is the statistical method which elaborates on the phenomenon of addiction in a statistical way and depicts one-dimensional or two-dimensional charts focusing on variables. The relationship between these variables are evaluated through statistical tests and eventually proposes the strategy aimed at the elimination of drug addiction.

  9. Self-Disclosure and Internet Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nihan; Kiper, Aydin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of study is to investigate the relationship between self-disclosure and internet addiction. Self-Disclosure Scale and Internet Addiction Scale were applied to students. Results indicated a negative correlation between self-disclosure and internet addiction. Self-disclosure was negative predicted by internet addiction in the structural…

  10. Opioid Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug.Opioid drugs include:opiumcodeinefentanylheroinhydrocodonehydromorphonemethadonemorphineoxycodoneoxymorphoneparegoricsufentaniltramadol. Symptoms of opioid addiction The first step toward recovery is recognizing that you have a problem with ...

  11. [Selected biochemical parameters of oxidative stress as a result of exposure to tobacco smoke in animals addicted to ethyl alcohol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Anna; Kulza, Maksymilian; Seńczuk-Przybyłowska, Monika; Cimino, Francesco; Saija, Antonella; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Chuchracki, Marek; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Kramer, Lucyna; Florek, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Smoking cigarettes and alcohol addiction are serious problems in health hazard and life of society. Tobacco smoke leads to many kinds of cancer formation and scientific research indicates, that heart-vascular disease and lung cancer are the most common diseases caused by tobacco smoke. While talking about ethanol, it is responsible for liver, pancreas, mucous membrane damage and leads to central and circular nervous disorder. Scientific research indicates, that many smokers drink alcohol and vice versa. Unfortunately in that case the risk of many diseases increases. Both of these stimulants leads to enlarged production of reactive oxygen species, which is connected with unbalance between pro and antioxidant processes in human organism. Free radicals in normal conditions plays positive role but with tobacco smoke and alcohol connection may lead to serious changes in human organism. They damage organs, it comes to protein structure, nucleic acid and fat violation, which in consequence leads to immunity decrease and many pathological changes. Reactive oxygen species also plays role in pathogenesis of many diseases: diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis and Down syndrome. ROS may also increase the risk of pancreas, lung, larynx and urinary bladder cancer formation. Human organism defends oneself from harmful influence of reactive oxygen species owing to enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems presence-Non-enzymatic antioxidants: glutathione, carotene, bilirubin, tocopherol, uric acid and ions metals temporary complex belong to non-enzymatic systems. To enzymatic ones belong: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. The aim of the study was tobacco smoke and ethyl alcohol influence evaluation in rats addicted to these substances on activity of chosen enzymes responsible for organism defense against toxic compounds action. To this study 63 white, Wistar tribe rats at the age of 3,5 months were used - males addicted to ethyl alcohol. They

  12. The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Gjertsen, Siri Renate; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Kvam, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-06-01

    Aims Although relationships between addiction and personality have previously been explored, no study has ever simultaneously investigated the interrelationships between several behavioral addictions, and related these to the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Methods In this study, 218 university students completed questionnaires assessing seven different behavioral addictions (i.e., Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction) as well as an instrument assessing the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Results Of the 21 bivariate intercorrelations between the seven behavioral addictions, all were positive (and nine significantly). The results also showed that (i) Neuroticism was positively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction, (ii) Extroversion was positively associated with Facebook addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, (iii) Openness to experience was negatively associated with Facebook addiction and mobile phone addiction, (iv) Agreeableness was negatively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, and (v) Conscientiousness was negatively associated with Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, and compulsive buying and positively associated with exercise addiction and study addiction. Conclusions The positive associations between the seven behavioral addictions suggest one or several underlying pathological factors. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that personality traits explained between 6% and 17% of the variance in the seven behavioral addictions, suggesting that personality to a varying degree explains scores on measures of addictive behaviors.

  13. Selective replication of oncolytic virus M1 results in a bystander killing effect that is potentiated by Smac mimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jing; Lin, Yuan; Zhang, Haipeng; Liang, Jiankai; Tan, Yaqian; Cavenee, Webster K; Yan, Guangmei

    2017-06-27

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a treatment modality that uses native or genetically modified viruses that selectively replicate in and kill tumor cells. Viruses represent a type of pathogen-associated molecular pattern and thereby induce the up-regulation of dozens of cytokines via activating the host innate immune system. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac) mimetic compounds (SMCs), which antagonize the function of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and induce apoptosis, sensitize tumor cells to multiple cytokines. Therefore, we sought to determine whether SMCs sensitize tumor cells to cytokines induced by the oncolytic M1 virus, thus enhancing a bystander killing effect. Here, we report that SMCs potentiate the oncolytic effect of M1 in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. This strengthened oncolytic efficacy resulted from the enhanced bystander killing effect caused by the M1 virus via cytokine induction. Through a microarray analysis and subsequent validation using recombinant cytokines, we identified IL-8, IL-1A, and TRAIL as the key cytokines in the bystander killing effect. Furthermore, SMCs increased the replication of M1, and the accumulation of virus protein induced irreversible endoplasmic reticulum stress- and c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mediated apoptosis. Nevertheless, the combined treatment with M1 and SMCs had little effect on normal and human primary cells. Because SMCs selectively and significantly enhance the bystander killing effect and the replication of oncolytic virus M1 specifically in cancer cells, this combined treatment may represent a promising therapeutic strategy.

  14. Personality, addiction, dopamine: insights from Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Alain; Robbins, Trevor W

    2009-02-26

    In rare instances, patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may become addicted to their own medication or develop behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling. This is surprising because PD patients typically have a very low incidence of drug abuse and display a personality type that is the polar opposite of the addictive personality. These rare addictive syndromes, which appear to result from excessive dopaminergic medication use, illustrate the link between dopamine, personality, and addiction. We describe the clinical phenomena and attempt to relate them to current models of learning and addiction. We conclude that persistently elevated dopaminergic stimulation promotes the development and maintenance of addictive behaviors.

  15. Addiction treatment provider attitudes on staff capacity and evidence-based clinical training: results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lena; Amodeo, Maryann; Krull, Ivy; Chassler, Deborah; Weidenfeld, Rachel; de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; Gowler, Rebekah; Lederer, Jaime; Cohen, Alexander; Beltrame, Clelia

    2011-01-01

    This national study of addiction-treatment organizations' implementation of evidence-based practices examines: (1) organizational/leadership factors associated with director (n = 212) attitudes regarding staff resistance to organizational change, and (2) organizational/staff factors associated with staff (n = 312) attitudes regarding evidence-based clinical training. Linear regression analyses, controlling for type of treatment unit, leadership/staff characteristics and organizational readiness to change, identified that directors who perceived their organization needed more guidance and had less staff cohesion and autonomy rated staff resistance to organizational change significantly higher. Staff with higher levels of education and greater agreement that their organization supported change had greater preference for evidence-based trainings. Federal addiction treatment policy should both promote education and training of treatment staff and organizational development of treatment CBOs.  © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  16. Molecular neurobiology of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, E J

    2001-01-01

    Addiction can be viewed as a form of drug-induced neural plasticity. One of the best established molecular mechanisms of addiction is the upregulation of the cAMP second messenger pathway, which occurs in many neuronal cell types in response to chronic administration of opiates or other drugs of abuse. This upregulation and the resulting activation of the transcription factor CREB appear to mediate aspects of tolerance and dependence. In contrast, induction of another transcription factor, termed delta FosB, exerts the opposite effect and may contribute to sensitized responses to drug exposure. Knowledge of these mechanisms could lead to more effective treatments for addictive disorders.

  17. Food addiction and substance addiction in women: Common clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Raven; Fani, Negar; Jovanovic, Tanja; Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2017-09-27

    Food addiction is characterized by poorly controlled intake of highly-palatable, calorically-dense, foods. While previous studies indicate that risk factors for food addiction are similar to substance use disorders (SUD), these studies have looked at food addiction and SUD in independent samples, limiting the ability to directly compare food addiction to SUD. The present study was conducted to assess rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, childhood and adult trauma exposure, as well as presence and severity of emotion dysregulation, in a sample of women (N = 229) who either meet criteria for no addiction, food addiction only or SUD only. The prevalence of food addiction was 18.3% and the prevalence of SUD was 30.6% in this sample. Women with food addiction and women with SUD endorsed more depression and PTSD symptoms when compared with individuals with no addiction. Individuals with food addiction and SUD had higher total emotion dysregulation scores, specifically with difficulties in goal directed behaviors, non-acceptance of emotional responses, impulse control, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and lack of emotional clarity, when compared to individuals with no addiction (all p's  0.05). However, women with SUD endorsed higher levels of total childhood (p < 0.01) and adulthood trauma (p < 0.01) as compared with women with no addiction or food addiction. These results suggest that women with food addiction and those with SUD share similar psychological characteristics and risk factors, with the exception of trauma histories. These findings have implications for the detection of risk for and treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M S

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at "ion-cyclotron resonance" conditions for stimulation of Ca(2+) (B(H) = 78.3 mu T, B(HAC) = 40 mu T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B(V) = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  19. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.S. [Univ. of Sunderland (United Kingdom). Ecology Centre

    1996-05-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at ion-cyclotron resonance conditions for stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} (B{sub H} = 78.3 {micro}T, B{sub HAC} = 40 {micro}T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B{sub v} = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  20. The Comparison of Alexithymia and Spiritual Intelligence in Addicts, Addicts under Methadone Treatment, and Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to compare of the rate of alexithymia and spiritual intelligence in addicts, addicts under Methadone Treatment, and non-Addicts. Method: A causal-comparative research design was used. The study sample included 30 individuals under Methadone Treatment, 30 drug-dependent Addicted, and 30 non-addicted individuals selected by convenience sampling procedure. Toronto alexithymia scale and King's spiritual intelligence self-report inventory were administered among selected sample. Results: Findings revealed significant differences among addicted individuals and non-addicted adults also among individuals under methadone treatment and non-addicted adults in total alexithymia scores as well as on all three subscale scores. Furthermore, addicted individuals differed from those under methadone treatment in their scores on the subscale pertaining to difficulty in identifying feelings. Results also indicated differences among addicted individuals and those under methadone treatment in total spiritual intelligence and its four component scale scores, while addicted individuals differed from non-addicted individuals in total spiritual intelligence scores and only three of its component scale scores (personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and conscious state expansion. Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate the advantages of the ability to control, emotional regulation and spiritual intelligence as a defense against addiction. By development of these characteristics addicts can be helped to gain relief from their addiction.

  1. Experimental depletion of CD8+ cells in acutely SIVagm-Infected African Green Monkeys results in increased viral replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apetrei Cristian

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vivo CD8+ cell depletions in pathogenic SIV infections identified a key role for cellular immunity in controlling viral load (VL and disease progression. However, similar studies gave discordant results in chronically-infected SMs, leading some authors to propose that in natural hosts, SIV replication is independent of cellular immunity. To assess the role of cellular immune responses in the control of SIV replication in natural hosts, we investigated the impact of CD8+ cell depletion during acute SIV infection in AGMs. Results Nine AGMs were infected with SIVagm.sab and were followed up to day 225 p.i. Four were intravenously infused with the cM-T807 antibody on days 0 (50 mg/kg, 6, and 13 (10 mg/kg, respectively post infection (p.i.. CD8+ cells were depleted for up to 28 days p.i. in peripheral blood and LNs in all treated AGMs. Partial CD8+ T cell depletion occurred in the intestine. SIVagm VLs peaked at similar levels in both groups (107-108 RNA copies/ml. However, while VLs were controlled in undepleted AGMs, reaching set-point levels (104-105 RNA copies/ml by day 28 p.i., high VLs (>106 RNA copies/ml were maintained by day 21 p.i. in CD8-depleted AGMs. By day 42 p.i., VLs were comparable between the two groups. The levels of immune activation and proliferation remained elevated up to day 72 p.i. in CD8-depleted AGMs and returned to preinfection levels in controls by day 28 p.i. None of the CD8-depleted animals progressed to AIDS. Conclusion CD8+ cells are responsible for a partial control of postacute viral replication in SIVagm.sab-infected AGMs. In contrast to macaques, the SIVagm-infected AGMs are able to control viral replication after recovery of the CD8+ T cells and avoid disease progression.

  2. [Gambling addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T

    2013-05-01

    Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64  % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly.

  3. [What brings neurobiology to addictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie; Noble, Florence

    2016-12-01

    Addictions are multifactorial, and there are no experimental models replicating all aspects of this pathology. The development of animal models reproducing the clinical symptoms of addictions allows significant advances in the knowledge of the neurobiological processes involved in addiction. Preclinical data highlight different neuroadaptations according to the routes of administration, speeds of injection and frequencies of exposure to drugs of abuse. The neuroadaptations induced by an exposure to drugs of abuse follow dynamic processes in time. Despite significant progresses in the knowledge of neurobiology of addictions allowing to propose new therapeutic targets, the passage of new drugs in clinical is often disappointing. The lack of treatment efficacy reported in clinical trials is probably due to a very important heterogeneity of patients with distinct biological and genetic factors, but also with different patterns of consumption that can lead to different neuroadaptations, as clearly observed in preclinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkeila, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction is defined as uncontrolled and harmful use of Internet, which manifests in three forms: gaming, various sexual activities and excessive use of emails, chats or SMS messaging. Several studies have found that abuse of alcohol and other substances, depression and other health problems are associated with Internet addiction. In boys and men depression may be more a consequence of the addiction than a cause for it. ADHD seems to be a significant background factor for developing the condition. Because it is almost impossible to lead a life without Internet and computers nowadays, it is unrealistic to aim towards full abstinence. Treatment has generally followed the guidelines adapted for pathological gambling.

  5. [Behavioral addictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou-Landréat, Morgane; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Vénisse, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-01

    Each addictive disorder has specific characteristics. It is essential to consider them in order to improve the treatment. However, the combination of behavioral addictions and substance use disorders is valid, as showed by the next version of the DSM. During the treatment, it is important to evaluate cross, but also longitudinal, considering the current problematic behavior, but also the problematic behaviors that occurred in the past and that may occur in the future. There is indeed a significant risk of switching addiction. The relapse prevention must consider this risk and be inclusive. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  6. Attachment and emotion regulation in substance addictions and behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Jáuregui, Paula; Sánchez-Marcos, Inmaculada; López-González, Hibai; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Background Risky behaviors have been related to emotional regulation and attachment, which may constitute risk factors for developing an addictive behavior. However, there may also be differences between substance and non-substance-related addictions. Aims This study aimed to examine the relationship of emotional regulation and attachment, with substance (alcohol and drug abuse), and non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use) in adolescents and emerging adults. The study also aimed to examine gender differences for such predictors. Methods The sample comprised 472 students aged 13-21 years recruited from high schools and vocational education centers. Results Findings demonstrated that emotion regulation was predictive of all addictive behaviors assessed in this study (alcohol and drug abuse, gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use), whereas attachment predicted non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use). In addition, gender differences were found, with females scoring significantly higher in maternal and peer attachment, whereas males scored significantly higher in gambling disorder and video game addiction. Conclusion The findings may be useful for preventive and clinical interventions conducted with youth regarding addictive behaviors.

  7. Evaluation of clinical and inflammatory profile in opioid addiction patients with comorbid pain: results from a multicenter investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis BB

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brittany B Dennis,1 M Constantine Samaan,2 Monica Bawor,3 James Paul,4 Carolyn Plater,5 Guillaume Pare,1 Andrew Worster,6 Michael Varenbut,5 Jeff Daiter,5 David C Marsh,5,7 Dipika Desai,8 Lehana Thabane,1,9,10 Zainab Samaan1,8,11 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology, 3McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study Program, 4Department of Anesthesia, McMaster University, Hamilton, 5Ontario Addiction Treatment Centres, Richmond Hill, 6Department of Medicine, Hamilton General Hospital, Hamilton, 7Northern Ontario School of Medicine, Sudbury, 8Population Genomics Program, Chanchlani Research Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, 9Centre for Evaluation of Medicine, 10System Linked Research Unit, Hamilton, 11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioural Neurosciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada Background: Chronic pain is the most commonly reported comorbidity among patients with opioid addiction receiving methadone maintenance treatment (MMT, with an estimated prevalence ranging between 30% and 55%. Evidence suggests that patients with comorbid pain are at high risk for poor treatment response, including continued illicit substance use. Due to the important relationship between the presence of pain and illicit substance abuse within the MMT setting, it is imperative that we target our efforts toward understanding the characteristics of this patient population.Methods: The primary objective of this study was to explore the clinical and inflammatory profile of MMT patients reporting comorbid pain. This multicenter study enrolled patients (n=235 on MMT for the treatment of opioid dependence. Clinical history and blood and urine data were collected. Blood samples were obtained for estimating the serum levels of inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist [IL-1ra], IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon [IFN]-γ and

  8. Pathology in Permissive Syrian Hamsters after Infection with Species C Human Adenovirus (HAdV-C) Is the Result of Virus Replication: HAdV-C6 Replicates More and Causes More Pathology than HAdV-C5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, Ann E; Ying, Baoling; Spencer, Jacqueline F; Sagartz, John E; Wold, William S M; Toth, Karoly

    2017-05-15

    Syrian hamsters are permissive for the replication of species C human adenoviruses (HAdV-C). The virus replicates to high titers in the liver of these animals after intravenous infection, while respiratory infection results in virus replication in the lung. Here we show that two types belonging to species C, HAdV-C5 and HAdV-C6, replicate to significantly different extents and cause pathology with significantly different severities, with HAdV-C6 replicating better and inducing more severe and more widespread lesions. The virus burdens in the livers of HAdV-C6-infected hamsters are higher than the virus burdens in HAdV-C5-infected ones because more of the permissive hepatocytes get infected. Furthermore, when hamsters are infected intravenously with HAdV-C6, live, infectious virus can be isolated from the lung and the kidney, which is not seen with HAdV-C5. Similarly to mouse models, in hamsters, HAdV-C6 is sequestered by macrophages to a lesser degree than HAdV-C5. Depletion of Kupffer cells from the liver greatly increases the replication of HAdV-C5 in the liver, while it has only a modest effect on the replication of HAdV-C6. Elimination of Kupffer cells also dramatically increases the pathology induced by HAdV-C5. These findings indicate that in hamsters, pathology resulting from intravenous infection with adenoviruses is caused mostly by replication in hepatocytes and not by the abortive infection of Kupffer cells and the following cytokine storm. IMPORTANCE Immunocompromised human patients can develop severe, often lethal adenovirus infections. Respiratory adenovirus infection among military recruits is a serious problem, in some cases requiring hospitalization of the patient. Furthermore, adenovirus-based vectors are frequently used as experimental viral therapeutic agents. Thus, it is imperative that we investigate the pathogenesis of adenoviruses in a permissive animal model. Syrian hamsters are susceptible to infection with certain human adenoviruses, and

  9. PERSONALITY AND COMPUTER ADDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Jurczyńska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work is to prove the relation between the personality traits and computer addicting. The research was carried out from 2006 to 2008 among the students of High School of Information Technology in Katowice. Material and methods: Research methods: Scale of Emotional Intelligens at Work, Social Competences Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Kimberly S. Young Test, Questionnaire to Assess the Level of Crises of Values, Directivity Scale and a questionnaire of 23 questions prepared for the research purposes. Results: 12.70% of the examined population met the criteria for computer addiction. In the own view, 76.34% considered themselves addicted to this medium. Conclusions: Personality traits such as emotional intelligence at work, inclination to authoritative behaviors as well as the value system may have influence on the addicting to a computer. No such relation was proven with reference to self – efficacy and anxious personality.

  10. Dyschromatopsia in heroin addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P L

    1990-02-01

    The Farnsworth-Munsell 100-hue test was employed to determine whether there was any defect of colour vision in 29 confirmed male heroin addicts who had been successfully detoxified. Forty age-matched males served as controls. A typical normal error score on the FM test is about 40 and an error score of over 100 indicates poor colour discrimination; 86.2% of the eyes of the control group had an error score below 100 while only 17.2% of the eyes of heroin addicts had an error score below 100. The colour confusion among the heroin addicts was in the blue-purple (475-495 mu) range. These results indicate that colour vision defects are more common in heroin addicts.

  11. Treatment of Internet Addiction with Anxiety Disorders: Treatment Protocol and Preliminary Before-After Results Involving Pharmacotherapy and Modified Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veruska Andrea; Freire, Rafael; Zugliani, Morená; Cirillo, Patricia; Santos, Hugo Henrique; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia

    2016-03-22

    The growth of the Internet has led to significant change and has become an integral part of modern life. It has made life easier and provided innumerous benefits; however, excessive use has brought about the potential for addiction, leading to severe impairments in social, academic, financial, psychological, and work domains. Individuals addicted to the Internet usually have comorbid psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are prevalent mental disorders, involving a great deal of damage in the patient's life. This open trial study describes a treatment protocol among 39 patients with anxiety disorders and Internet addiction (IA) involving pharmacotherapy and modified cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Of the 39 patients, 25 were diagnosed with PD and 14 with GAD, in addition to Internet addiction. At screening, patients responded to the MINI 5.0, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and the Young Internet Addiction Scale. At that time, IA was observed taking into consideration the IAT scale (cutoff score above 50), while anxiety disorders were diagnosed by a psychiatrist. Patients were forwarded for pharmacotherapy and a modified CBT protocol. Psychotherapy was conducted individually, once a week, over a period of 10 weeks, and results suggest that the treatment was effective for anxiety and Internet addiction. Before treatment, anxiety levels suggested severe anxiety, with an average score of 34.26 (SD 6.13); however, after treatment the mean score was 15.03 (SD 3.88) (Paddiction scores was observed, from 67.67 (SD 7.69) before treatment, showing problematic internet use, to 37.56 (SD 9.32) after treatment (P<.001), indicating medium Internet use. With respect to the relationship between IA and anxiety, the correlation between scores was .724. This study is the first research into IA treatment of a Brazilian population. The improvement was remarkable due to

  12. Replicating an established open skills curriculum: are the same results obtained in a different setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsvold, Melissa E; Schmitz, Connie C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain whether the University of Texas, Southwestern (UTSW) open skills curriculum (Goova et al.(13)) could be successfully implemented in the University of Minnesota (UMN) multisite training program. We posed 4 questions: (1) Is the curriculum feasible? (2) Did residents' skills improve? (3) Did UMN residents achieve the same level as UTSW residents? (4) What factors were associated with posttest success? Postgraduate year-1 residents (n = 22) were enrolled in the curriculum, which included orientation, access to video instruction, 3 months of independent practice using portable kits and practice logbooks, presurveys and postsurveys, and pretesting and posttesting. Evaluation was based on UTSW proficiency measures (time, errors, and total proficiency score). Descriptive statistics, paired sample t tests, analysis of variance, and bivariate correlations were calculated. Results were compared with Goova. Startup costs at UMN were $9804 vs $776 at UTSW. Our curriculum required 51 direct faculty hours vs 376 at UTSW. UMN trainees' skills improved significantly (mean score = 973 [standard deviation = 267] at baseline vs 1325 [standard deviation = 215] at posttest), but they achieved proficiency in only 38.6% of tasks at posttest, compared with 88.7% by UTSW trainees. Best predictors of UMN posttest proficiency score were (1) categorical vs preliminary resident status (p skills laboratories during clerkship or fourth year medical school, estimated number of cases (surgeon or first assistant), and number of practice repetitions recorded in booklets were not predictive of the posttest score. The UTSW open skills curriculum is feasible and effective in a new setting. Differences from UTSW-published success rates may be related to their superior onsite monitoring of practice and a policy requiring residents to achieve proficiency for each task before posttesting. Copyright © 2014 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by

  13. Transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus carrying multiple cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape mutations with diminished replicative ability can result in AIDS progression in rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Sayuri; Kawada, Miki; Takeda, Akiko; Igarashi, Hiroko; Sata, Tetsutaro; Matano, Tetsuro

    2008-05-01

    Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses frequently select for immunodeficiency virus mutations that result in escape from CTL recognition with viral fitness costs. The replication in vivo of such viruses carrying not single but multiple escape mutations in the absence of the CTL pressure has remained undetermined. Here, we have examined the replication of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) with five gag mutations selected in a macaque possessing the major histocompatibility complex haplotype 90-120-Ia after its transmission into 90-120-Ia-negative macaques. Our results showed that even such a "crippled" SIV infection can result in persistent viral replication, multiple reversions, and AIDS progression.

  14. Internet Addiction in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rębisz Sławomir

    2016-08-01

    . Generally, the results obtained in our research indicate that the level of Internet addiction among the adolescents investigated is not very high, although two thirds of our respondents showed an above average level of addiction, and every ninth respondent (approximately 11% was highly addicted to the Internet, men being more often addicted (15.6% than women (8.3%.

  15. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, HyunChul

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. Methods College students (N?=?448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young?s Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck De...

  16. Mothering From the Inside Out: Results of a second randomized clinical trial testing a mentalization-based intervention for mothers in addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchman, Nancy E; DeCoste, Cindy L; McMahon, Thomas J; Dalton, Rachel; Mayes, Linda C; Borelli, Jessica

    2017-05-01

    Mothers with histories of alcohol and drug addiction have shown greater difficulty parenting young children than mothers with no history of substance misuse. This study was the second randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of Mothering From the Inside Out (MIO), a 12-week mentalization-based individual therapy designed to address psychological deficits commonly associated with chronic substance use that also interfere with the capacity to parent young children. Eighty-seven mothers caring for a child between 11 and 60 months of age were randomly assigned to receive 12 sessions of MIO versus 12 sessions of parent education (PE), a psychoeducation active control comparison. Maternal reflective functioning, representations of caregiving, mother-child interaction quality, and child attachment were evaluated at baseline and posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Mother-child interaction quality was assessed again at 12-month follow-up. In comparison with PE mothers, MIO mothers demonstrated a higher capacity for reflective functioning and representational coherence at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, compared to PE cohorts, MIO mothers demonstrated greater sensitivity, their children showed greater involvement, and MIO dyads showed greater reciprocity. As addiction severity increased, MIO also appeared to serve as a protective factor for maternal reflective functioning, quality of mother-child interactions, and child attachment status. Results demonstrate the promise of mentalization-based interventions provided concomitant with addiction treatment for mothers and their young children.

  17. Paternal DNA damage resulting from various sperm treatments persists after fertilization and is similar before and after DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Riel, Jonathan M; Ward, Monika A

    2012-01-01

    In spite of its highly condensed state, sperm DNA is vulnerable to damage that can originate from oxidative stress, the activity of sperm-specific nucleases, or both. After fertilization, in the oocyte, paternal chromatin undergoes dramatic changes, and during this extensive remodeling, it can be both repaired and degraded, and these processes can be linked to DNA synthesis. Here, we analyzed sperm response to damage-inducing treatments both before and after fertilization and before or after zygotic DNA replication. Epididymal mouse spermatozoa were either frozen without cryoprotection (FT) or treated with detergent Triton X-100 coupled with dithiothreitol (TX+DTT) to induce DNA damage. Fresh, untreated sperm served as control. Immediately after preparation, spermatozoa from 3 groups were taken for comet assay, or for intracytoplasmic sperm injection into prometaphase I oocytes to visualize prematurely condensed single-chromatid chromosomes, or into mature metaphase II oocytes to visualize chromosomes after DNA replication. Comet assay revealed increased DNA fragmentation in treated sperm when compared with control, with FT sperm more severely affected. Chromosome analysis demonstrated paternal DNA damage in oocytes injected with treated, but not with fresh, sperm, with FT and TX+DTT groups now yielding similar damage. There were no differences in the incidence of abnormal paternal karyoplates before and after DNA synthesis in all examined groups. This study provides evidence that subjecting sperm to DNA damage-inducing treatments results in degradation of highly condensed sperm chromatin when it is still packed within the sperm head, and that this DNA damage persists after fertilization. The difference in DNA damage in sperm subjected to 2 treatments was ameliorated in the fertilized oocytes, suggesting that some chromatin repair might have occurred. This process, however, was independent of DNA synthesis and took place during oocyte maturation.

  18. Paternal DNA damage resulting from various sperm treatments persists after fertilization and is similar prior and after DNA replication1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Riel, Jonathan M.; Ward, Monika A.

    2012-01-01

    In spite of its highly condensed state sperm DNA is vulnerable to damage that can originate from oxidative stress and/or the activity of sperm-specific nucleases. After fertilization, in the oocyte, paternal chromatin undergoes dramatic changes and during this extensive remodeling it can be both repaired and degraded, and these processes can be linked to DNA synthesis. Here, we analyzed sperm response to damage-inducing treatments both before and after fertilization, and prior or after zygotic DNA replication. Epididymal mouse spermatozoa were either frozen without cryoprotection (FT) or treated with detergent Triton X-100 coupled with dithiothreitol (TX+DTT) to induce DNA damage. Fresh, untreated sperm served as control. Immediately after preparation spermatozoa from three groups were taken for comet assay, or for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) into prometaphase I (proMI) oocytes to visualize prematurely condensed single chromatid chromosomes, or into mature metaphase II (MII) oocytes to visualize chromosomes after DNA replication. Comet assay revealed increased DNA fragmentation in treated sperm when compared to control, with FT sperm more severely affected. Chromosome analysis demonstrated paternal DNA damage in oocytes injected with treated but not with fresh sperm, with FT and TX+DTT groups now yielding similar damage. There were no differences in the incidence of abnormal paternal karyoplates prior and after DNA synthesis in all examined groups. This study provides evidence that subjecting sperm to DNA damage inducing treatments results in degradation of highly condensed sperm chromatin when it is still packed within the sperm head, and that this DNA damage persists after fertilization. The difference in DNA damage in sperm subjected to two treatments was ameliorated in the fertilized oocytes suggesting that some chromatin repair might have occurred. This process, however, was independent of DNA synthesis, and took place during oocyte maturation

  19. INTERNET ADDICTION IN PATIENTS WITH SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariella Pass

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between internet addiction and substance use disorder by exploring the prevalence of internet addiction among patients in a substance use disorder treatment clinic and to investigate the frequency with which internet addiction co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders in this population. Method: A survey, containing questions based on the nine criteria for internet gaming disorder proposed in the research appendix to DSM-5, was administered at 24 outpatient clinics for substance use disorders within the Stockholm Centre for Dependency Disorders. Data concerning additional psychiatric diagnoses was collected from patient medical records. A total of 569 patients participated, after excluding those with missing data as well as participants who primarily gambled online, the final sample size was N=462. Results: In total, 4.1% of the surveyed patients with substance use disorder met at least five out of nine internet addiction criteria at a level of “Fairly true” or higher, and reported at least “Some suffering” as a consequence of their internet use. An independent-samples t-test comparing the mean of the total internet addiction score between groups of patients with additional psychiatric diagnoses and the rest of the sample showed that participants with any one additional non-substance related psychiatric diagnose as well as those with an anxiety diagnose had significantly higher internet addiction scores than the rest of the sample. There were no significant differences in mean internet addiction scores between participants with ADHD or depression and the remaining sample. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that internet addiction does not constitute a major clinical issue for patients in treatment for substance use disorder, lending little support to the suggestion that internet-related problem behaviours share pathophysiology with

  20. Modelling the Happiness Classification of Addicted, Addiction Risk, Threshold and Non-Addicted Groups on Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapmaz, Fatma; Totan, Tarik

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to model the happiness classification of university students--grouped as addicted, addiction risk, threshold and non-addicted to internet usage--with compatibility analysis on a map as happiness, average and unhappiness. The participants in this study were 400 university students from Turkey. According to the results of…

  1. Risk personality traits of Internet addiction: a longitudinal study of Internet-addicted Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Jiangyang; Yang, Xuelong; Zhou, Hui

    2013-12-01

    As the world's fastest growing "addiction", Internet addiction is still controversial. The present study aimed to examine the potential personality predictors of Internet addicts. Eight hundred and sixty-eight students were tested using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire after they had just entered university. Two years later, 49 were found to be addicted to the Internet as defined by high Internet addiction test scores. Comparisons of means and logistic regression analysis were used to explore their relationship. Students addicted to the Internet showed higher Neuroticism/Stability scores, higher Psychoticism/Socialization scores, and lower Lie scores than their normal peers before their addiction. Regression results showed that Internet addiction was accounted by three independent variables: Neuroticism/Stability, Psychoticism/Socialization, and Lie. These results suggest that the risk personality traits of Internet addiction include neuroticism, psychoticism, and immaturity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Guns, Impulsive Angry Behavior, and Mental Disorders: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Sampson, Nancy A; Petukhova, Maria V; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Appelbaum, Paul S; Swartz, Marvin S; Kessler, Ronald C

    2015-06-01

    Analyses from the National Comorbidity Study Replication provide the first nationally representative estimates of the co-occurrence of impulsive angry behavior and possessing or carrying a gun among adults with and without certain mental disorders and demographic characteristics. The study found that a large number of individuals in the United States self-report patterns of impulsive angry behavior and also possess firearms at home (8.9%) or carry guns outside the home (1.5%). These data document associations of numerous common mental disorders and combinations of angry behavior with gun access. Because only a small proportion of persons with this risky combination have ever been involuntarily hospitalized for a mental health problem, most will not be subject to existing mental health-related legal restrictions on firearms resulting from a history of involuntary commitment. Excluding a large proportion of the general population from gun possession is also not likely to be feasible. Behavioral risk-based approaches to firearms restriction, such as expanding the definition of gun-prohibited persons to include those with violent misdemeanor convictions and multiple DUI convictions, could be a more effective public health policy to prevent gun violence in the population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. What Does Addiction Mean to Me

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Addiction is compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance. Addiction is accepted as a mental illness in the diagnostic nomenclature and results in substantial health, social and economic problems. In the diagnostic nomenclature, addiction was originally included in the personality dis...

  4. Sexual addiction in drug addicts: The impact of drug of choice and poly-addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Antonio

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. Method: All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed. Results: A total of 133 participants were included in our analysis, all reporting cocaine/crack and/or alcohol as drug of choice. Polysubstance addicts had a significant higher risk of a positive screening for sexual addiction compared to monosubstance addicts, age-sex adjusted odds ratios of sexual addiction being respectively 2.72 (95CI 1.1-6.71 and 0.37 (95CI 0.15-0.91. The odds of a SAST score greater than 6 was not statistically different between the cocaine/crack and alcohol groups, respectively 0.38 (95CI 0.14-1.02 and 2.67 (95CI 0.98-7.25. We found a significant relation between stronger drug addiction and greater levels of sexual addiction in the cocaine/crack group (p=0.0012, but not in the alcohol group. Conclusion: Our study reinforces the importance of assessing sexual behavior of drug addicts in clinical practice, especially considering users of multiple substances or with severe dependence.

  5. Replication Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Luis; Neelsen, Kai John; Lukas, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Proliferating cells rely on the so-called DNA replication checkpoint to ensure orderly completion of genome duplication, and its malfunction may lead to catastrophic genome disruption, including unscheduled firing of replication origins, stalling and collapse of replication forks, massive DNA...... breakage, and, ultimately, cell death. Despite many years of intensive research into the molecular underpinnings of the eukaryotic replication checkpoint, the mechanisms underlying the dismal consequences of its failure remain enigmatic. A recent development offers a unifying model in which the replication...... checkpoint guards against global exhaustion of rate-limiting replication regulators. Here we discuss how such a mechanism can prevent catastrophic genome disruption and suggest how to harness this knowledge to advance therapeutic strategies to eliminate cancer cells that inherently proliferate under...

  6. Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehroof, Mehwash; Griffiths, Mark D

    2010-06-01

    Research into online gaming has steadily increased over the last decade, although relatively little research has examined the relationship between online gaming addiction and personality factors. This study examined the relationship between a number of personality traits (sensation seeking, self-control, aggression, neuroticism, state anxiety, and trait anxiety) and online gaming addiction. Data were collected over a 1-month period using an opportunity sample of 123 university students at an East Midlands university in the United Kingdom. Gamers completed all the online questionnaires. Results of a multiple linear regression indicated that five traits (neuroticism, sensation seeking, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and aggression) displayed significant associations with online gaming addiction. The study suggests that certain personality traits may be important in the acquisition, development, and maintenance of online gaming addiction, although further research is needed to replicate the findings of the present study.

  7. Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted and Non-Addicted Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study sought to compare emotional intelligence and quality of life in addicted and non-addicted men. Method: The samples included 80 addicted and 80 non-addicted men who addicted men were selected by available sampling and non-addicted men were chosen by cloning methods according to age and marital status. For data collection, emotional intelligence scale and quality of life questionnaire were used. Variance test and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis. Findings: The results showed that there is a significant difference between emotional intelligence and quality of life of addicted and non-addicted men. In fact, the emotional intelligence and quality of life among addicted men were lower than non-addicted men. Also the results showed that there is a significant correlation between emotional intelligence and quality of life among addicts and non addicts. Conclusion: People with low emotional intelligence are more likely to do substance abuse and drug abuse lowers the quality of life of the people. It is likely to develop emotional intelligence of people in order to prevent them from getting addicted.

  8. Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

    2013-05-01

    Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made.

  9. Posttraumatic growth and recovery from addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haroosh, Eyal; Freedman, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is well documented that individuals coping with adverse events report both negative outcomes, such as posttraumatic stress symptoms, as well as positive changes, described as posttraumatic growth. Positive changes are also reported in people who have recovered from substance abuse. It seems plausible from the literature that both of these types of positive changes have elements in common. To date, no published studies have examined positive outcomes among people who have recovered from addiction. Objectives: In this study, posttraumatic growth in individuals who were formerly addicted to alcohol or substances, termed 'addiction-related growth,' was examined. Addiction-related growth refers to the growth that an individual undergoes as a result of the addiction itself, and the recovery from the addiction. A successful recovery from addiction is associated with positive changes, particularly regarding spirituality and meaning-making, and the construct of addiction-related growth may explain why. Method: This cross-sectional study examined growth among 104 individuals who had recovered from addiction who were recruited from addiction treatment programmes, between February and July 2012. Questionnaires assessed demographics and substance abuse use and treatment, posttraumatic growth (PTGI); social support (Perceived Social Support Questionnaire); and help-seeking (Willingness to Seek Help Scale). Data was analysed using an analysis of variance (ANOVA), Pearson correlations, and multiple regression. Results: Results indicated that addiction-related growth is a phenomenon that accurately captures the positive changes experienced as a result of an individual's struggle with addiction and recovery. This growth was found to be associated with participation in 12-steps programmes, and to be predicted by levels of perceived social support. Conclusions: The results show that recovery from addiction is associated with addiction-related growth. These positive

  10. The Comparison of Family Functioning Dimensions and Quality of Life and their Relationships among Addicted and Non-Addicted Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghamari

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was the comparison of family functioning and quality of life and their relationships among addicted and non-addicted persons. Method: The research method of study was ex-post factor. The sample of study was 107 addicts and 107 non-addicts. Sampling of addicts was clustering random sampling. Non-addicts were matched in terms of demographical characteristics and were selected of normal population. Measuring instruments were family assessment device and quality of life scale (SF-36. Statistical methods were Pearson correlation coefficient, stepwise regression analysis and independent samples t test. Results: The results showed that the dysfunction in family function among addicts was more than non-addicts counterparts. Addicts have had lower quality of life than non-addicts. Also, there was significant relationship between dimensions of family functioning and quality of life among addicts and non-addicts. The results of regression analysis showed that almost 17 percent of quality of life variance among addicts could be explained by dimensions of family functioning namely: roles and communication. Among non-addicts about 17 percent of quality of life variance could be explained by behavior control dimension of family functioning. Conclusion: The study may have useful practical implications for executors of addiction prevention also addiction therapists.

  11. Opioid addiction in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shainker, Scott A; Saia, Kelley; Lee-Parritz, Aviva

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss the incidence, risks, pregnancy complications, and maintenance options for treatment of opioid addiction in pregnancy. Opioid dependence in pregnancy carries clear identifiable maternal and fetal risk. Providing care for patients with dependence is best done in a multidisciplinary care model addressing the particular needs of this population. There are limited data on maternal detoxification, with data still emerging surrounding the safety profile of this practice. Historically, methadone has been the recommended maintenance treatment; however, recent data on buprenorphine identify this as a safe and effective option. The majority of births from women with opioid dependence result in neonatal abstinence syndrome requiring prolonged neonatal hospitalization. Intrapartum pain management should not differ from the general obstetric population. Postpartum pain is magnified in this population, and particular attention should be focused on this issue. Breast-feeding is recommended regardless of maintenance dose, unless other conditions restricting breast-feeding are present. Comprehensive postpartum care and transition of care to addiction specialists are highly recommended. Obstetricians and gynecologists, family physicians, addiction specialists. After completing this CME activity, physicians should be better able to assess the treatment options available to patients with opioid addiction during pregnancy, compare the risk/safety profiles of methadone and buprenorphine, and evaluate the recommendations and current data surrounding breast-feeding while on opioid maintenance treatment.

  12. EFFEKCTIVENESS OF TREATMENT OF DRUG ADDICTS AND THEIR SOCIAL INTEGRATION.

    OpenAIRE

    DONNEROVÁ, Dominika

    2009-01-01

    The Effectiveness of Therpay for Drug Addicts and Their Integration within Society The purpose of my thesis "The Effectiveness of Therapy for Drug Addicts and Their Integration in Society" is to elucidate the lifestyles of addicts during different stages of therapy and to help people to understand the problems of drug addicts. The function of the brain can be altered by a number of psycho-active drugs that can influence a person's behavior, conscience, morals and mood. Drug addiction results ...

  13. Pre-incarceration police harassment, drug addiction and HIV risk behaviours among prisoners in Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, Maxim; Azbel, Lyuba; Wegman, Martin P; Izenberg, Jacob M; Bachireddy, Chethan; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    The expanding HIV epidemic in Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who comprise a third of prisoners there. Detention of PWID is common but its impact on health has not been previously studied in the region. We aimed to understand the relationship between official and unofficial (police harassment) detention of PWID and HIV risk behaviours. In a nationally representative cross-sectional study, soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan (N=368) and Azerbaijan (N=510) completed standardized health assessment surveys. After identifying correlated variables through bivariate testing, we built multi-group path models with pre-incarceration official and unofficial detention as exogenous variables and pre-incarceration composite HIV risk as an endogenous variable, controlling for potential confounders and estimating indirect effects. Overall, 463 (51%) prisoners reported at least one detention in the year before incarceration with an average of 1.3 detentions in that period. Unofficial detentions (13%) were less common than official detentions (41%). Optimal model fit was achieved (X (2)=5.83, p=0.44; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) GFI=0.99; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) CFI=1.00; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) RMSEA=0.00; PCLOSE=0.98) when unofficial detention had an indirect effect on HIV risk, mediated by drug addiction severity, with more detentions associated with higher addiction severity, which in turn correlated with increased HIV risk. The final model explained 35% of the variance in the outcome. The effect was maintained for both countries, but stronger for Kyrgyzstan. The model also holds for Kyrgyzstan using unique data on within-prison drug injection as the outcome, which was frequent in prisoners there. Detention by police is a strong correlate of addiction severity, which mediates its effect on HIV risk behaviour. This pattern suggests that police may target drug users and that such harassment may

  14. [Correlation between childhood traumatic stress and present drug abuse: results of a nationwide survey of drug addiction rehabilitation facilities in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeno, Mitsuru; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Koda, Minoru; Abe, Yukie; Endo, Keiko; Yabe, Yohko; Hirai, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Koji; Aikawa, Yuzo; Senoo, Eiichi; Nakatani, Yoji

    2009-12-01

    Child abuse is known to correlate with drug abuse and interferes with recovery from substance-related disorders. To determine the prevalence and severity of child abuse among drug addicts, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey of residents and outpatients at drug addiction rehabilitation centers (DARC) in Japan. A total of 445 participants gave informed consent and completed a self-reporting questionnaire. Sixty-eight percent of participants had experienced some kind of child abuse by the time they reached junior high school. The kinds of abuse experienced were physical (53.7%), psychological (60.4%), sexual (5.4%) abuse and neglect (24.5%). Comparison of female and male participants revealed that more female than male participants had experienced psychological (76.9% vs. 58.2%) and sexual (17.5% vs. 4.0%) abuse. Comparison of participants who had experienced some kind of child abuse ("Abused" group 68.3%) and those who had not experienced abuse ("Non-abused" group 24.3%) revealed that the "Abused" group was younger than the "Non-abused" group (35.7 SD9.0 vs. 39.7 SD10.8). Participants in the "Abused" group were found to have more severe psychological difficulties than those in the "Non-abused" group for the following: anxiety (73.0% vs. 61.1%), delusional atmosphere (48.0% vs. 28.7%), lack of energy (53.9% vs. 40.7%), ideas of persecution (48.7% vs. 29.6%), depression (62.2% vs. 43.5%) and suicidal ideation in the previous year (50.7% vs. 24.3%). The present results suggest that additional program that prepared to care the drug addicts who experienced child abuse and are experiencing suicidal ideation is needed. Furthermore, intervention for families with risk factors for child abuse should be developed in order to prevent the victim from suffering not only from post traumatic stress disorder but also from substance related disorders.

  15. Database Replication

    CERN Document Server

    Kemme, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Database replication is widely used for fault-tolerance, scalability and performance. The failure of one database replica does not stop the system from working as available replicas can take over the tasks of the failed replica. Scalability can be achieved by distributing the load across all replicas, and adding new replicas should the load increase. Finally, database replication can provide fast local access, even if clients are geographically distributed clients, if data copies are located close to clients. Despite its advantages, replication is not a straightforward technique to apply, and

  16. The Shame of Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen eFlanagan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Addiction is a person level phenomenon that involves twin normative failures. A failure of normal rational effective agency or self-control with respect to the substance; and shame at both this failure, and the failure to live up to the standards for a good life that the addict himself acknowledges and aspires to. Feeling shame for addiction is not a mistake. It is part of the shape of addiction, part of the normal phenomenology of addiction, and often a source of motivation for the addict to heal. Like other recent attempts in the addiction literature to return normative concepts such as choice and responsibility to their rightful place in understanding and treating addiction, the twin normative failure model is fully compatible with investigation of genetic and neuroscientific causes of addiction. Furthermore, the model does not re-moralize addiction. There can be shame without blame.  

  17. Using Permanent Wetlands as Polishing Ponds to Remove Monomethylmercury: Results of a Large Scale Replicated Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, W. A.; Negrey, J.; Stephenson, M.; Coale, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    Seasonally inundated wetlands in the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area (YBWA; Davis, CA) are producers of monomethylmercury (MeHg) during fall flood up. The export of MeHg from the YBWA is of serious concern to downstream habitats as it is a neurotoxin and poses a serious health concern to humans and wildlife. In this experiment, we routed water from a 40 hectare seasonal wetland through nine replicated 100 x 25 m constructed ponds to determine their efficiency at lowering MeHg. All of the sampling was conducted over a three year period (2011-2013) during fall months. We measured total and filtered (design of the pond will vary depending on the volume of the seasonal wetland being drained and needs of the wetland manager.

  18. Buddhist Approaches to Addiction Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramabandhu Groves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Buddha recognized addiction problems and advised his followers accordingly, although this was not the primary focus of his teachings. Thailand and Japan, which have long-standing Buddhist traditions, have developed Buddhist influenced responses to addiction. With its emphasis on craving and attachment, an understanding of the workings of the mind, as well as practices to work with the mind, Buddhism lends itself as a rich resource to assist addiction recovery. The twelve step movement has been an impetus to making use of ideas and practices from Buddhism. In particular, mindfulness, has started to be used to support addiction recovery, with promising results. Exploration of other areas of Buddhism is beginning, and may provide additional benefit in the future.

  19. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju

    2015-01-01

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction. PMID:26393658

  20. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju

    2015-09-18

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.

  1. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Love

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.

  2. A Study on the Effects of Socio- Economics Factors on Addiction: Peerbanan Camp ‘s Addicts as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Socio-economis status of addicts has a significant relation with the intensity of their addiction. More over، the results demonstrates that those addicts whose addiction intensity is more than other addicts، profit from more subculture traits as well. These addicts don’t have a good relation with their families and their schoolmates and teachers and their communication with social institutes is weak.

  3. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  4. Addiction: beyond dopamine reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S; Tomasi, Dardo; Telang, Frank

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  5. Treatment of Internet Addiction with Anxiety Disorders: Treatment Protocol and Preliminary Before-After Results Involving Pharmacotherapy and Modified Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Veruska Andrea; Freire, Rafael; Zugliani, Moren?; Cirillo, Patricia; Santos, Hugo Henrique; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The growth of the Internet has led to significant change and has become an integral part of modern life. It has made life easier and provided innumerous benefits; however, excessive use has brought about the potential for addiction, leading to severe impairments in social, academic, financial, psychological, and work domains. Individuals addicted to the Internet usually have comorbid psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are prevalent men...

  6. On the Comparison of Public Health and Social Support in Addicts and Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    touraj hashemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at comparing the degree of public health and social support in addicted and non-addicted people. Method: This study was causative-comparative and all addicts who had referred to addiction treatment centers in city of Khoy in 2012 constituted its population. From among this population, 60 addicts through convenience sampling method were selected and then peered with 60 normal subjects by age, gender, and education. The measurement tools were Goldberg Public Health (Ghq-28 and Social Support (Fleming questionnaires. Results: The results showed That Addicts enjoy a lower degree of Mental Health and Social Support. Conclusion: Providing social support for the addicts under treatment programs is one of the important factors in withdrawal from drug use.

  7. Internal conceptual replications do not increase independent replication success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Richard

    2016-10-01

    Recently, many psychological effects have been surprisingly difficult to reproduce. This article asks why, and investigates whether conceptually replicating an effect in the original publication is related to the success of independent, direct replications. Two prominent accounts of low reproducibility make different predictions in this respect. One account suggests that psychological phenomena are dependent on unknown contexts that are not reproduced in independent replication attempts. By this account, internal replications indicate that a finding is more robust and, thus, that it is easier to independently replicate it. An alternative account suggests that researchers employ questionable research practices (QRPs), which increase false positive rates. By this account, the success of internal replications may just be the result of QRPs and, thus, internal replications are not predictive of independent replication success. The data of a large reproducibility project support the QRP account: replicating an effect in the original publication is not related to independent replication success. Additional analyses reveal that internally replicated and internally unreplicated effects are not very different in terms of variables associated with replication success. Moreover, social psychological effects in particular appear to lack any benefit from internal replications. Overall, these results indicate that, in this dataset at least, the influence of QRPs is at the heart of failures to replicate psychological findings, especially in social psychology. Variable, unknown contexts appear to play only a relatively minor role. I recommend practical solutions for how QRPs can be avoided.

  8. Associations between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Eating Disorders by Gender: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewerton, Timothy D; Duncan, Alexis E

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have assessed the association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (ED) separately in men and women, especially in representative samples. Using data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, lifetime and past 12-month prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, ADHD was compared in men and women with and without diagnoses of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV ED and any binge eating (BE) using logistic regression models adjusted for gender and age. In both sexes, those with lifetime and past 12-month BE and binge eating disorder had significantly higher prevalence of ADHD than those without BE and binge eating disorder, respectively. Women with lifetime and past 12-month bulimia nervosa and lifetime anorexia nervosa also had significantly higher prevalence of ADHD compared with women without these diagnoses. Given that ADHD invariably began earlier than the ED, ADHD may be an important risk factor for subsequent BE and related ED, and there may be opportunities for intervention among youth with ADHD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  9. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  10. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan.

  11. Addiction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entry into the crypt William Burroughs shared with his mother opened and shut around a failed re-enactment of William Tell’s shot through the prop placed upon a loved one’s head. The accidental killing of his wife Joan completed the installation of the addictation machine that spun melancholia as manic dissemination. An early encryptment to which was added the audio portion of abuse deposited an undeliverable message in WB. Wil- liam could never tell, although his corpus bears the in- scription of this impossibility as another form of pos- sibility. James Godley is currently a doctoral candidate in Eng- lish at SUNY Buffalo, where he studies psychoanalysis, Continental philosophy, and nineteenth-century litera- ture and poetry (British and American. His work on the concept of mourning and “the dead” in Freudian and Lacanian approaches to psychoanalytic thought and in Gothic literature has also spawned an essay on zombie porn. Since entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in 2007, Valentin Hennig has studied in the classes of Sil- via Bächli, Claudio Moser, and Corinne Wasmuht. In 2010 he spent a semester at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. His work has been shown in group exhibi- tions in Freiburg and Karlsruhe.

  12. Familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimić, Jadranka Ivandić; Jukić, Vlado

    2012-01-01

    This study, primarily aimed at identification of familial risk factors favoring drug addiction onset, was carried out throughout 2008 and 2009. The study comprised a total of 146 addicts and 134 control subjects. Based on the study outcome, it can be concluded that in the families the addicts were born into, familial risk factors capable of influencing their psychosocial development and favoring drug addiction onset had been statistically more frequently encountered during childhood and adolescence as compared to the controls. The results also indicated the need for further research into familial interrelations and the structure of the families addicts were born into, as well as the need for the implementation of family-based approaches to both drug addiction prevention and therapy.

  13. Addiction and the Brain: Development, Not Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Marc

    2017-01-01

    I review the brain disease model of addiction promoted by medical, scientific, and clinical authorities in the US and elsewhere. I then show that the disease model is flawed because brain changes in addiction are similar to those generally observed when recurrent, highly motivated goal seeking results in the development of deep habits, Pavlovian learning, and prefrontal disengagement. This analysis relies on concepts of self-organization, neuroplasticity, personality development, and delay discounting. It also highlights neural and behavioral parallels between substance addictions, behavioral addictions, normative compulsive behaviors, and falling in love. I note that the short duration of addictive rewards leads to negative emotions that accelerate the learning cycle, but cortical reconfiguration in recovery should also inform our understanding of addiction. I end by showing that the ethos of the disease model makes it difficult to reconcile with a developmental-learning orientation.

  14. The relationship between study addiction and work addiction: A cross-cultural longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atroszko, Paweł A; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-12-01

    Aims Recent empirical studies investigating "study addiction" have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction, defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction. Methods The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 379 Norwegians and 401 Polish who began to work professionally completed the survey. Results The intraclass correlation between BStAS and BWAS revealed that the scores were somewhat related; however, the relationship was slightly weaker than the temporal stability of both constructs. In the Norwegian sample, scoring higher on neuroticism and lower on learning time outside educational classes in Wave 1 was positively related to work addiction in Wave 2, whereas gender was unrelated to work addiction in Wave 2 when controlling for other studied variables in either samples. Conclusion Study addiction and work addiction appear to be closely related suggesting that the former may be a precursor for (or an early form of) the latter.

  15. [Construction of the addiction prevention core competency model for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young

    2013-12-01

    This study was done to provide fundamental data for the development of competency reinforcement programs to prevent addictive behavior in adolescents through the construction and examination of an addiction prevention core competency model. In this study core competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling were identified, and the addiction prevention core competency model was developed. It was validated methodologically. Competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents as defined by the addiction prevention core competency model are as follows: positive self-worth, self-control skill, time management skill, reality perception skill, risk coping skill, and positive communication with parents and with peers or social group. After construction, concurrent cross validation of the addiction prevention core competency model showed that this model was appropriate. The study results indicate that the addiction prevention core competency model for the prevention of addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling can be used as a foundation for an integral approach to enhance adolescent is used as an adjective and prevent addictive behavior. This approach can be a school-centered, cost-efficient strategy which not only reduces addictive behavior in adolescents, but also improves the quality of their resources.

  16. The biology of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNicol, Brent

    2017-02-01

    In this narrative review, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying substance abuse and addiction are discussed with a particular emphasis on the mechanisms that promote ongoing use and relapse. Addiction is estimated to affect 10-15% or more of the adult population, including physicians. Genetic predisposition, psychological and environmental risk factors, the timing of exposure to the substance, the type of substance used, and the frequency of use influence the individual's susceptibility to addiction. Abused substances act on the brain's reward system, a neural circuit that produces pleasurable feelings in response to stimuli that promote survival, thereby modifying future behavior to seek out similar stimuli. Endogenous activators include food, sex, and social interaction. Drugs of abuse hijack the reward circuit, producing intense activation. Repetitive exposure to substances leads to persistent, altered genetic expression and accumulation of ΔFos-B and corticotropin-releasing factor. High levels of these substances suppress the reward circuit and activate the endogenous stress response, resulting in a generalized state of discord. These changes are enduring and can trigger substance use relapse even after long periods of abstinence.

  17. Dealing with Addiction (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is Wise Are Detox Diets Safe? Dealing With Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Dealing With Addiction Print A ... is even harder. What Are Substance Abuse and Addiction? The difference between substance abuse and addiction is ...

  18. Co-occurring substance-related and behavioral addiction problems: A person-centered, lay epidemiology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Hodgins, David C; Wild, T Cameron

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence of single versus multiple addiction problems in a large representative sample and (b) to identify distinct subgroups of people experiencing substance-related and behavioral addiction problems. Methods A random sample of 6,000 respondents from Alberta, Canada, completed survey items assessing self-attributed problems experienced in the past year with four substances (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine) and six behaviors (gambling, eating, shopping, sex, video gaming, and work). Hierarchical cluster analyses were used to classify patterns of co-occurring addiction problems on an analytic subsample of 2,728 respondents (1,696 women and 1032 men; Mage = 45.1 years, SDage = 13.5 years) who reported problems with one or more of the addictive behaviors in the previous year. Results In the total sample, 49.2% of the respondents reported zero, 29.8% reported one, 13.1% reported two, and 7.9% reported three or more addiction problems in the previous year. Cluster-analytic results suggested a 7-group solution. Members of most clusters were characterized by multiple addiction problems; the average number of past year addictive behaviors in cluster members ranged between 1 (Cluster II: excessive eating only) and 2.5 (Cluster VII: excessive video game playing with the frequent co-occurrence of smoking, excessive eating and work). Discussion and conclusions Our findings replicate previous results indicating that about half of the adult population struggles with at least one excessive behavior in a given year; however, our analyses revealed a higher number of co-occurring addiction clusters than typically found in previous studies.

  19. Co-occurring substance-related and behavioral addiction problems: A person-centered, lay epidemiology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Hodgins, David C.; Wild, T. Cameron

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence of single versus multiple addiction problems in a large representative sample and (b) to identify distinct subgroups of people experiencing substance-related and behavioral addiction problems. Methods A random sample of 6,000 respondents from Alberta, Canada, completed survey items assessing self-attributed problems experienced in the past year with four substances (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine) and six behaviors (gambling, eating, shopping, sex, video gaming, and work). Hierarchical cluster analyses were used to classify patterns of co-occurring addiction problems on an analytic subsample of 2,728 respondents (1,696 women and 1032 men; Mage = 45.1 years, SDage = 13.5 years) who reported problems with one or more of the addictive behaviors in the previous year. Results In the total sample, 49.2% of the respondents reported zero, 29.8% reported one, 13.1% reported two, and 7.9% reported three or more addiction problems in the previous year. Cluster-analytic results suggested a 7-group solution. Members of most clusters were characterized by multiple addiction problems; the average number of past year addictive behaviors in cluster members ranged between 1 (Cluster II: excessive eating only) and 2.5 (Cluster VII: excessive video game playing with the frequent co-occurrence of smoking, excessive eating and work). Discussion and conclusions Our findings replicate previous results indicating that about half of the adult population struggles with at least one excessive behavior in a given year; however, our analyses revealed a higher number of co-occurring addiction clusters than typically found in previous studies. PMID:27829288

  20. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  1. Young drug addicts and the drug scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, R

    1985-01-01

    The drug scene generally comprises the following four distinct categories of young people: neophytes, addicts who enjoy a high status vis-à-vis other addicts, multiple drug addicts, and non-addicted drug dealers. It has its own evolution, hierarchy, structure and criteria of success and failure. The members are required to conform to the established criteria. The integration of the young addict into the drug scene is not voluntary in the real sense of the word, for he is caught between the culture that he rejects and the pseudo-culture of the drug scene. To be accepted into the drug scene, the neophyte must furnish proof of his reliability, which often includes certain forms of criminal activities. The addict who has achieved a position of importance in the drug world serves as a role model for behaviour to the neophyte. In a more advanced phase of addiction, the personality of the addict and the social functions of the drug scene are overwhelmed by the psychoactive effects of the drug, and this process results in the social withdrawal of the addict. The life-style of addicts and the subculture they develop are largely influenced by the type of drug consumed. For example, it is possible to speak of a heroin subculture and a cocaine subculture. In time, every drug scene deteriorates so that it becomes fragmented into small groups, which is often caused by legal interventions or a massive influx of new addicts. The fragmentation of the drug scene is followed by an increase in multiple drug abuse, which often aggravates the medical and social problems of drug addicts.

  2. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further.

  3. Can one simple questionnaire assess substance-related and behavioural addiction problems? Results of a proposed new screener for community epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Magdalen G; Hodgins, David C; Wolfe, Jody; Cameron Wild, T

    2018-01-22

    There is currently no well-validated measure that assesses a broad spectrum of substance-related and behavioural addictions in general populations. This study aimed to develop a brief self-attribution Screener for Substance and Behavioural Addictions (SSBA) to screen for 4 substances and 6 behaviours, and to compare its performance with established individual-behaviour screening instruments. A small, psychometrically optimal set of items to assess self-attributed indicators of addiction across alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, gambling, shopping, videogaming, overeating, sexual activity, and over-working were identified from a broader pool that was developed using a lay epidemiology qualitative approach. The suitability of the 4-item single factor solution was tested for each behaviour and scores were compared with those obtained from the sample using individual-behaviour screening instruments. Participants (N = 6,000), broadly representative of the Canadian English-speaking adult population, were recruited through the Ipsos Reid Canadian Online Panel. Participants completed an item pool of 15 indicators of addiction for each target behaviour and a validation instrument for one randomly assigned behaviour. A set of four items identified using principal component and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated good fit and excellent internal consistency (α = .87-.95) across behaviours, and good convergent validity (rs = .44 - .8) with extant instruments measuring similar constructs with only one exception (r = .26). The proposed Screener for Substance and Behavioural Addiction is a reliable and valid measure assessing the lay public's self-attributed indicators of addiction across 10 substances and behaviours. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperament and Character Dimensions in Narcotics Addicts and Normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abolghasemi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the temperament and character dimensions in narcotics addicted and normal persons. Method: The method of research was causative-comparative. The study sample consisted of 120 addicts and non addicts who had referred to 3 narcotics addicts treatment centers in Ardabil city. The subjects were selected through simple random sampling. To collect data, temperament/character inventory were used. Findings: The results showed that novelty seeking and harm avoidance in addicts is significantly greater than normal persons. Also, results showed that reward dependence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness in narcotics addicts is significantly lower than normal persons. Conclusion: The results show that temperament and character dimensions determine the addiction intensity in addicted people.

  5. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Galuska, Chad M.; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although…

  6. Addiction and depression comorbidity approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnić Katarina A.B.

    2016-01-01

    to medications for addiction essential are antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, and/or mood stabilizers, for better therapeutic results.

  7. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  8. Introduction to behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A

    2010-09-01

    Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.

  9. [Recovery from Sexual Addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    Addiction is a disease that can cause an individual to lose his or her life. However, addiction can be considered a form of self medication or survival skill. If affected individuals attend a mutual aid group, individuals with such addiction can share their common experiences and they are willing to will grow along spiritual lines.

  10. Cue-induced craving for Internet among Internet addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Geng-Feng; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Subrahmanyam, Kaveri; Kong, Fan-Chang; Tian, Yuan; Zhou, Zong-Kui

    2016-11-01

    Intense craving is a core feature of addictive disorder, and cue-induced craving is believed to be a key factor in the maintenance and relapse of addictive behaviors. With the rapid development of the Internet, Internet addiction has become a widespread behavioral problem accompanied by many negative effects. This study used the cue-reactivity paradigm to examine cue-induced craving for the Internet among Internet addicts and non-addicts. Participants were exposed to Internet-related words, and asked to report their craving for the Internet. Results indicated that Internet-related words aroused cue-induced craving for the Internet among both Internet addicts and non-addicts; however, the craving was more intense among Internet addicts. These results suggest that craving may not be a unipolar, all or none state found only in addicts, but may also be present among non-addicts. They indicate that Internet-related words may be able to induce craving for the Internet, and that Internet addiction and other addictions may share similar underlying mechanisms. This finding has important implications for designing interventions for Internet addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Comparative Study of the Rate of Social Capital among Addicted and non-Addicted Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heydarnejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to compare the rate of social capital among addicted and non-addicted youth in Mashhad. Method: The samples included of 160 addicted and 160 non-addicted men selected by cluster random sampling. Both groups matched on age, and marital status. The social capital questionnaire designed by researcher administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that social capital of young addicts was significantly lower than their counterparts. Also, results showed that the indicators of social capital, the idea of social participation, social trust, and social networks were significantly lower than their counterparts. Conclusion: With consideration of positive effects of social participation, social trust, social connection networks in addicted people, they should have appropriate conditions and headstock for tendency to involve to social events like developing of organizations, and voluntaries’ and non government societies should be more attended.

  12. A New Replicator: A theoretical framework for analysing replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szathmáry Eörs

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Replicators are the crucial entities in evolution. The notion of a replicator, however, is far less exact than the weight of its importance. Without identifying and classifying multiplying entities exactly, their dynamics cannot be determined appropriately. Therefore, it is importance to decide the nature and characteristics of any multiplying entity, in a detailed and formal way. Results Replication is basically an autocatalytic process which enables us to rest on the notions of formal chemistry. This statement has major implications. Simple autocatalytic cycle intermediates are considered as non-informational replicators. A consequence of which is that any autocatalytically multiplying entity is a replicator, be it simple or overly complex (even nests. A stricter definition refers to entities which can inherit acquired changes (informational replicators. Simple autocatalytic molecules (and nests are excluded from this group. However, in turn, any entity possessing copiable information is to be named a replicator, even multicellular organisms. In order to deal with the situation, an abstract, formal framework is presented, which allows the proper identification of various types of replicators. This sheds light on the old problem of the units and levels of selection and evolution. A hierarchical classification for the partition of the replicator-continuum is provided where specific replicators are nested within more general ones. The classification should be able to be successfully applied to known replicators and also to future candidates. Conclusion This paper redefines the concept of the replicator from a bottom-up theoretical approach. The formal definition and the abstract models presented can distinguish between among all possible replicator types, based on their quantity of variable and heritable information. This allows for the exact identification of various replicator types and their underlying dynamics. The most

  13. [Vaccines for the treatment of drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzoli, Ermanno; Marino, Maria Giulia; Bagnato, Barbara; Franco, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of drug addiction is a very wide-ranging sector within modern medicine. The use of immunotherapy in this context represents an innovative approach. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, through a literature review, the main avenues of research and the results obtained with immunotherapy in the treatment of drug addiction.

  14. The Shame of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Flanagan, Owen

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Addiction is a person level phenomenon that involves twin normative failures. A failure of normal rational effective agency or self-control with respect to the substance; and shame at both this failure, and the failure to live up to the standards for a good life that the addict himself acknowledges and aspires to. Feeling shame for addiction is not a mistake. It is part of the shape of addiction, part of the normal phenomenology of addiction, and often a source of motivation for the...

  15. Epigenetics and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadet, J L; McCoy, M T; Jayanthi, S

    2016-05-01

    Addictions are public health menaces. However, despite advances in addiction research, the cellular or molecular mechanisms that cause transition from recreational use to addiction remain to be elucidated. We have recently suggested that addiction may be secondary to long-term epigenetic modifications that determine the clinical course of substance use disorders. A better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in animal models that mimic human conditions should help to usher in a new area of drug development against addiction. Published 2016. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. CELL PHONE ADDICTION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE DE SOLA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyse the concept of cell phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

  17. Nicotine addiction and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J E

    1996-01-01

    The persistence of cigarette smoking despite widespread awareness of adverse health effects results from an underlying addiction to nicotine. Unaided attempts to quit smoking are generally unsuccessful. This article discusses nicotine addition and therapeutic techniques that have been or are being developed to relieve smoking withdrawal symptoms and promote abstinence from smoking. These techniques include nicotine chewing gum, skin patches, nasal sprays, and inhalers, as well as pharmacotherapies such as mecamylamine and clonidine, serotonergic treatments such as buspirone, and antidepressants such as buproprion. A nondrug approach using cigarette substitutes that mimic the airway sensations produced by cigarette smoke is also discussed.

  18. Examination of neural systems sub-serving facebook "addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Because addictive behaviors typically result from violated homeostasis of the impulsive (amygdala-striatal) and inhibitory (prefrontal cortex) brain systems, this study examined whether these systems sub-serve a specific case of technology-related addiction, namely Facebook "addiction." Using a go/no-go paradigm in functional MRI settings, the study examined how these brain systems in 20 Facebook users (M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.3, range = 18-23) who completed a Facebook addiction questionnaire, responded to Facebook and less potent (traffic sign) stimuli. The findings indicated that at least at the examined levels of addiction-like symptoms, technology-related "addictions" share some neural features with substance and gambling addictions, but more importantly they also differ from such addictions in their brain etiology and possibly pathogenesis, as related to abnormal functioning of the inhibitory-control brain system.

  19. Pegylated Interferon alfa-2a monotherapy results in suppression of HIV type 1 replication and decreased cell-associated HIV DNA integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzoni, Livio; Foulkes, Andrea S; Papasavvas, Emmanouil; Mexas, Angela M; Lynn, Kenneth M; Mounzer, Karam; Tebas, Pablo; Jacobson, Jeffrey M; Frank, Ian; Busch, Michael P; Deeks, Steven G; Carrington, Mary; O'Doherty, Una; Kostman, Jay; Montaner, Luis J

    2013-01-15

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-mediated immune reconstitution fails to restore the capacity of the immune system to spontaneously control human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. A total of 23 HIV type 1 (HIV-1)-infected, virologically suppressed subjects receiving ART (CD4(+) T-cell count, >450 cells/μL) were randomly assigned to have 180 μg/week (for arm A) or 90 μg/week (for arm B) of pegylated (Peg) interferon alfa-2a added to their current ART regimen. After 5 weeks, ART was interrupted, and Peg-interferon alfa-2a was continued for up to 12 weeks (the primary end point), with an option to continue to 24 weeks. End points included virologic failure (viral load, ≥ 400 copies/mL) and adverse events. Residual viral load and HIV-1 DNA integration were also assessed. At week 12 of Peg-interferon alfa-2a monotherapy, viral suppression was observed in 9 of 20 subjects (45%), a significantly greater proportion than expected (arm A, P = .0088; arm B, P = .0010; combined arms, P interferon alfa-2a immunotherapy resulted in control of HIV replication and decreased HIV-1 integration, supporting a role for immunomediated approaches in HIV suppression and/or eradication. NCT00594880.

  20. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. Methods College students (N = 448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young’s Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. Results The risk factors for smartphone addiction were female gender, Internet use, alcohol use, and anxiety, while the protective factors were depression and temperance. In contrast, the risk factors for Internet addiction were male gender, smartphone use, anxiety, and wisdom/knowledge, while the protective factor was courage. Discussion These differences may result from unique features of smartphones, such as high availability and primary use as a tool for interpersonal relationships. Conclusions Our findings will aid clinicians in distinguishing between predictive factors for smartphone and Internet addiction and can consequently be utilized in the prevention and treatment of smartphone addiction. PMID:26690626

  1. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chang, Li-Ren; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria. We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist's structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists' clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy. Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1) six symptom criteria, (2) four functional impairment criteria and (3) exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%), while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use. The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms "impaired control" paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.

  2. INTERNET ADDICTION – EMPIRICAL VERIFICATION FOR SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gorenc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become an essential part of the day and the working lives of many people. Daily use of the Internet has the potential to become the worrying problem of the moment as some of Internet users begin to neglect their families, abandon hobbies, are late for work and, thus, lose contact with reality only to spend as much time as possible on the Internet. The aim of the research was to explore Internet addiction in Slovenia. We have designed a structural model to study Internet addiction. The research was conducted to collect data on Internet addiction. The sample surveys included employed people in Slovenia. Our results indicate a serious problem with Internet addiction. The predicted model in this study can be used for further research on Internet addiction.

  3. [Internet addiction: a different kind of addiction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejoie, J F

    2001-07-01

    The concept of Internet addiction, also called Internet addictive disorder or pathological Internet use, entered the medical dictionary in 1995. More and more authors have been preoccupied with it lately, and the majority conclude that this condition, on which some people cast doubt a few years ago, well and truly exists. Several forms of Internet addiction appear to exist, categorised according to the type of misuse it is subjected to: "cybersex", "chat rooms", "net gaming", the pathological search for information or video games being the most frequent. Psychiatric disorders most usually associated with Internet addiction seem to be bipolar disorders. As a consequence, efficient drugs would be those that act as thymo-stabilisers, undoubtedly because they are also effective against those bipolar disorders. Psychotherapeutic treatments as discussion groups on the Internet or group therapies have not yet been evaluated.

  4. Absence of Non-histone Protein Complexes at Natural Chromosomal Pause Sites Results in Reduced Replication Pausing in Aging Yeast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Marleny; Cheng, Xin; Singh, Sukhwinder; Ivessa, Andreas S

    2016-11-08

    There is substantial evidence that genomic instability increases during aging. Replication pausing (and stalling) at difficult-to-replicate chromosomal sites may induce genomic instability. Interestingly, in aging yeast cells, we observed reduced replication pausing at various natural replication pause sites (RPSs) in ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and non-rDNA locations (e.g., silent replication origins and tRNA genes). The reduced pausing occurs independent of the DNA helicase Rrm3p, which facilitates replication past these non-histone protein-complex-bound RPSs, and is independent of the deacetylase Sir2p. Conditions of caloric restriction (CR), which extend life span, also cause reduced replication pausing at the 5S rDNA and at tRNA genes. In aged and CR cells, the RPSs are less occupied by their specific non-histone protein complexes (e.g., the preinitiation complex TFIIIC), likely because members of these complexes have primarily cytosolic localization. These conditions may lead to reduced replication pausing and may lower replication stress at these sites during aging. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Absence of Non-histone Protein Complexes at Natural Chromosomal Pause Sites Results in Reduced Replication Pausing in Aging Yeast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleny Cabral

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence that genomic instability increases during aging. Replication pausing (and stalling at difficult-to-replicate chromosomal sites may induce genomic instability. Interestingly, in aging yeast cells, we observed reduced replication pausing at various natural replication pause sites (RPSs in ribosomal DNA (rDNA and non-rDNA locations (e.g., silent replication origins and tRNA genes. The reduced pausing occurs independent of the DNA helicase Rrm3p, which facilitates replication past these non-histone protein-complex-bound RPSs, and is independent of the deacetylase Sir2p. Conditions of caloric restriction (CR, which extend life span, also cause reduced replication pausing at the 5S rDNA and at tRNA genes. In aged and CR cells, the RPSs are less occupied by their specific non-histone protein complexes (e.g., the preinitiation complex TFIIIC, likely because members of these complexes have primarily cytosolic localization. These conditions may lead to reduced replication pausing and may lower replication stress at these sites during aging.

  6. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-12-01

    Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. College students (N = 448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young's Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. The risk factors for smartphone addiction were female gender, Internet use, alcohol use, and anxiety, while the protective factors were depression and temperance. In contrast, the risk factors for Internet addiction were male gender, smartphone use, anxiety, and wisdom/knowledge, while the protective factor was courage. Discussion These differences may result from unique features of smartphones, such as high availability and primary use as a tool for interpersonal relationships. Our findings will aid clinicians in distinguishing between predictive factors for smartphone and Internet addiction and can consequently be utilized in the prevention and treatment of smartphone addiction.

  7. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Addiction? » Does Addiction Run in Families? Does Addiction Run in Families? Listen PDF: EasyToRead_WhatIsAddiction_Final_ ... English Español "Heart disease runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." ©istock.com/ Antonio_Diaz Matt's ...

  8. Getting a grip on illusions: replicating Stöttinger et al [Exp Brain Res (2010) 202:79-88] results with 3-D objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöttinger, Elisabeth; Pfusterschmied, Jürgen; Wagner, Herbert; Danckert, James; Anderson, Britt; Perner, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Studies using visual illusions to demonstrate a dissociation within the visual system can provide relevant and decisive data only if certain methodological points are taken into account. Although, our previous work (Stöttinger et al. in Exp Brain Res 202:88-97, 2010) followed these points, the task made use of only 2-D stimuli which may raise doubts concerning the nature of grasping in that experiment. We therefore replicated the study using a 3-D version of the empty space illusion. Consistent with the earlier study, that used 2-D stimuli, we found that grip aperture followed actual target size independent of illusory effects, while perceived length, as indicated by finger-thumb span, clearly was subject to the illusion. Therefore, the prior results cannot be due to the use of 2-D stimuli. Together, these two studies provide clear evidence for the perception versus action hypothesis.

  9. Femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Rørdam, Peter; Jensen, L P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts. METHODS: The records of eight patients undergoing vascular surgery for femoral pseudoaneurysms from substance abuse identified from a vascular database were reviewed. RESULTS: Were good in four out of five...

  10. Drugging the Cancers Addicted to DNA Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickoloff, Jac A; Jones, Dennie; Lee, Suk-Hee; Williamson, Elizabeth A; Hromas, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Defects in DNA repair can result in oncogenic genomic instability. Cancers occurring from DNA repair defects were once thought to be limited to rare inherited mutations (such as BRCA1 or 2). It now appears that a clinically significant fraction of cancers have acquired DNA repair defects. DNA repair pathways operate in related networks, and cancers arising from loss of one DNA repair component typically become addicted to other repair pathways to survive and proliferate. Drug inhibition of the rescue repair pathway prevents the repair-deficient cancer cell from replicating, causing apoptosis (termed synthetic lethality). However, the selective pressure of inhibiting the rescue repair pathway can generate further mutations that confer resistance to the synthetic lethal drugs. Many such drugs currently in clinical use inhibit PARP1, a repair component to which cancers arising from inherited BRCA1 or 2 mutations become addicted. It is now clear that drugs inducing synthetic lethality may also be therapeutic in cancers with acquired DNA repair defects, which would markedly broaden their applicability beyond treatment of cancers with inherited DNA repair defects. Here we review how each DNA repair pathway can be attacked therapeutically and evaluate DNA repair components as potential drug targets to induce synthetic lethality. Clinical use of drugs targeting DNA repair will markedly increase when functional and genetic loss of repair components are consistently identified. In addition, future therapies will exploit artificial synthetic lethality, where complementary DNA repair pathways are targeted simultaneously in cancers without DNA repair defects. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. A comparative study of emotional intelligence in addiction to opium and non-addicted men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Preface:The aim of this study was to comparison between Emotional intelligence and its chip scales in addicted and non-addicted men. Method:Method of study was Sausal-Comparative. Sample include the One hundred and twenty (60 addiction to opium and 60 non-addicted. The addicted group sample was selected from among clients of Eskandari addiction treatment clinic and the non-addicted group was selected from among scholars and staff of state university settling in Tehran . sample groups were selected by Available Sampling Method. In order to assess the emotional intelligence and its chip scales for each subject, the Bar-On Emotional intelligence Test(version 90 question was administered. For input analysis statistical soft-ware(SPSS was aplyed and “t” independent-statistical test was applied to compare two groups. Finding:The results illustrat that addicted men have a meaningful difference in Emotional intelligence and chip scales of Problem Solving, self-Actualization, Emotional self-Awarness, self-Regard, Responsibility, Stress Tolerance, Reality Testing, Impulse Control, Flexability, Assertivencess, Happiness and Optimism, comparing with non-addicted men, but there is no meaningful difference between two groups, average in chip scale of Interpersonal Relationship .

  12. Methamphetamine reduces human influenza A virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Hsiang Chen

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (meth is a highly addictive psychostimulant that is among the most widely abused illicit drugs, with an estimated over 35 million users in the world. Several lines of evidence suggest that chronic meth abuse is a major factor for increased risk of infections with human immunodeficiency virus and possibly other pathogens, due to its immunosuppressive property. Influenza A virus infections frequently cause epidemics and pandemics of respiratory diseases among human populations. However, little is known about whether meth has the ability to enhance influenza A virus replication, thus increasing severity of influenza illness in meth abusers. Herein, we investigated the effects of meth on influenza A virus replication in human lung epithelial A549 cells. The cells were exposed to meth and infected with human influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1 virus. The viral progenies were titrated by plaque assays, and the expression of viral proteins and cellular proteins involved in interferon responses was examined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. We report the first evidence that meth significantly reduces, rather than increases, virus propagation and the susceptibility to influenza infection in the human lung epithelial cell line, consistent with a decrease in viral protein synthesis. These effects were apparently not caused by meth's effects on enhancing virus-induced interferon responses in the host cells, reducing viral biological activities, or reducing cell viability. Our results suggest that meth might not be a great risk factor for influenza A virus infection among meth abusers. Although the underlying mechanism responsible for the action of meth on attenuating virus replication requires further investigation, these findings prompt the study to examine whether other structurally similar compounds could be used as anti-influenza agents.

  13. Intertemporal Bargaining in Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eAinslie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The debate between disease models of addiction and moral or voluntarist models has been endless, and often echoes the equally endless debate between determinism and free will. I suggest here that part of the problem comes from how we picture the function of motivation in self-control. Quantitative experiments in both humans and nonhumans have shown that delayed reward loses its effectiveness in proportion to its delay. The resulting instability of preference is best controlled by a recursive self-prediction process, intertemporal bargaining, which is the likely mechanism of both the strength and the experienced freedom of will. In this model determinism is consistent with more elements of free will than compatibilist philosophers have heretofore proposed, and personal responsibility is an inseparable, functional component of will. Judgments of social responsibility can be described as projections of personal responsibility, but normative responsibility in addiction is elusive. The cited publications that are under the author’s control can be downloaded from www.picoeconomics.org.

  14. Intertemporal bargaining in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainslie, George

    2013-01-01

    The debate between disease models of addiction and moral or voluntarist models has been endless, and often echoes the equally endless debate between determinism and free will. I suggest here that part of the problem comes from how we picture the function of motivation in self-control. Quantitative experiments in both humans and non-humans have shown that delayed reward loses its effectiveness in proportion to its delay. The resulting instability of preference is best controlled by a recursive self-prediction process, intertemporal bargaining, which is the likely mechanism of both the strength and the experienced freedom of will. In this model determinism is consistent with more elements of free will than compatibilist philosophers have heretofore proposed, and personal responsibility is an inseparable, functional component of will. Judgments of social responsibility can be described as projections of personal responsibility, but normative responsibility in addiction is elusive. The cited publications that are under the author's control can be downloaded from www.picoeconomics.org.

  15. Non-addictive psychoactive drug use: Implications for behavioral addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D

    2011-12-01

    The newly proposed framework for non-addictive psychoactive substances postulated by Müller & Schumann (M&S) provides an interesting and plausible explanation for non-addictive drug use. However, with specific reference to the relevant behavioral addiction literature, this commentary argues that the model may unexpectedly hold utility not only for non-addictive use of drugs, but also for non-addictive use of other potentially addictive behaviors.

  16. Addiction and network influence

    OpenAIRE

    Popiel, Michał Ksawery

    2014-01-01

    Social networks are an important component in understanding the decision to consume addictive substances. They capture the role of limited access, peer influence, and social acceptance and tolerance. However, despite the empirical evidence of their role, they have been absent from theoretical models. This paper proposes a mechanism through which agents can influence each other in their decision to consume an addictive good. An agent's decision is sensitive to her state of addiction as well as...

  17. The Representation Methods of Addiction in Iran’s Movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltani Gerd Faramarzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of research was answer to this question that movie after revolution how was represented matters of addicts and addiction? Method: For answering to question 33 movies made between 1360 till 1390 which main characters were addicts, studied by content analysis. Results: The results showed that in studied movies, addicts were men, bachelor, or divorced and majority of them were educated. Also, Heroin consumption was more that other narcotics in movies. Addicts’ personal home and his/her friends’ home were important places for consumption and friends were important narcotics preparators and they most important factor in initiate of consumption. On the other hand, divorce and child selling had the most frequency in movie. Family and friend groups were the most important factors in addiction and its etiology. Conclusion: The results showed that movies represented one kind of popular addiction study that overlapped with academic addiction study.

  18. Modeling inhomogeneous DNA replication kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel G Gauthier

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication is initiated at a series of chromosomal locations called origins, where replication forks are assembled proceeding bidirectionally to replicate the genome. The distribution and firing rate of these origins, in conjunction with the velocity at which forks progress, dictate the program of the replication process. Previous attempts at modeling DNA replication in eukaryotes have focused on cases where the firing rate and the velocity of replication forks are homogeneous, or uniform, across the genome. However, it is now known that there are large variations in origin activity along the genome and variations in fork velocities can also take place. Here, we generalize previous approaches to modeling replication, to allow for arbitrary spatial variation of initiation rates and fork velocities. We derive rate equations for left- and right-moving forks and for replication probability over time that can be solved numerically to obtain the mean-field replication program. This method accurately reproduces the results of DNA replication simulation. We also successfully adapted our approach to the inverse problem of fitting measurements of DNA replication performed on single DNA molecules. Since such measurements are performed on specified portion of the genome, the examined DNA molecules may be replicated by forks that originate either within the studied molecule or outside of it. This problem was solved by using an effective flux of incoming replication forks at the model boundaries to represent the origin activity outside the studied region. Using this approach, we show that reliable inferences can be made about the replication of specific portions of the genome even if the amount of data that can be obtained from single-molecule experiments is generally limited.

  19. Psychopathologic features among drug addicts and homosexuals with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzullo, C L; Gala, C; Martini, S; Pergami, A; Rossini, M; Russo, R

    1990-01-01

    Personal and familial psychopathological histories and information about early losses were collected and the results of the locus of control test and tests for psychological responses were determined for a series of ninety-two HIV-infected subjects (58 drug addicts; 26 homosexuals; 8 heterosexuals, partners of drug addicts). A higher percentage of drug addicts reported past histories of attempted suicide than the homosexuals. Early loss events were more frequent for homosexuals than for drug addicts. There was a higher psychopathological risk for asymptomatic HIV seropositivity in homosexuals, drug addicts who had attempted suicide, subjects that acknowledged that they have serious illness and subjects with external coping mechanisms rather than internal.

  20. Pleasure and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Marie Kennett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savalescu (2010 have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behaviour. They describe addiction as ‘strong appetites toward pleasure’ and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: opioid addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This Page American Society of Addiction Medicine: Opioid Addiction 2016 Facts and Figures (PDF) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Prescription Opioid Overdose Data Crist RC, Berrettini WH. ...

  2. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hyunna Kim

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation...

  3. Overlapping Neural Endophenotypes in Addiction and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Andréanne; Vainik, Uku; Garcia-Garcia, Isabel; Dagher, Alain

    2017-01-01

    Impulsivity refers to a tendency to act rapidly without full consideration of consequences. The trait is thought to result from the interaction between high arousal responses to potential rewards and poor self-control. Studies have suggested that impulsivity confers vulnerability to both addiction and obesity. However, results in this area are unclear, perhaps due to the high phenotypic complexity of addictions and obesity. Focusing on impulsivity, the aim of this review is to tackle the putative overlaps between addiction and obesity in four domains: (1) personality research, (2) neurocognitive tasks, (3) brain imaging, and (4) clinical evidence. We suggest that three impulsivity-related domains are particularly relevant for our understanding of similarities between addiction and obesity: lower self-control (high Disinhibition/low Conscientiousness), reward sensitivity (high Extraversion/Positive Emotionality), and negative affect (high Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality). Neurocognitive studies have shown that obesity and addiction are both associated with increased impulsive decision-making and attention bias in response to drug or food cues, respectively. Mirroring this, obesity and different forms of addiction seem to exhibit similar alterations in functional MRI brain activity in response to reward processing and during self-control tasks. Overall, our review provides an integrative approach to understand those facets of obesity that present similarities to addictive behaviors. In addition, we suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting inhibitory control may represent a promising approach for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity. PMID:28659866

  4. Overlapping Neural Endophenotypes in Addiction and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréanne Michaud

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity refers to a tendency to act rapidly without full consideration of consequences. The trait is thought to result from the interaction between high arousal responses to potential rewards and poor self-control. Studies have suggested that impulsivity confers vulnerability to both addiction and obesity. However, results in this area are unclear, perhaps due to the high phenotypic complexity of addictions and obesity. Focusing on impulsivity, the aim of this review is to tackle the putative overlaps between addiction and obesity in four domains: (1 personality research, (2 neurocognitive tasks, (3 brain imaging, and (4 clinical evidence. We suggest that three impulsivity-related domains are particularly relevant for our understanding of similarities between addiction and obesity: lower self-control (high Disinhibition/low Conscientiousness, reward sensitivity (high Extraversion/Positive Emotionality, and negative affect (high Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality. Neurocognitive studies have shown that obesity and addiction are both associated with increased impulsive decision-making and attention bias in response to drug or food cues, respectively. Mirroring this, obesity and different forms of addiction seem to exhibit similar alterations in functional MRI brain activity in response to reward processing and during self-control tasks. Overall, our review provides an integrative approach to understand those facets of obesity that present similarities to addictive behaviors. In addition, we suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting inhibitory control may represent a promising approach for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity.

  5. Hydroxyurea-Induced Replication Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenza Lahkim Bennani-Belhaj

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bloom's syndrome (BS displays one of the strongest known correlations between chromosomal instability and a high risk of cancer at an early age. BS cells combine a reduced average fork velocity with constitutive endogenous replication stress. However, the response of BS cells to replication stress induced by hydroxyurea (HU, which strongly slows the progression of replication forks, remains unclear due to publication of conflicting results. Using two different cellular models of BS, we showed that BLM deficiency is not associated with sensitivity to HU, in terms of clonogenic survival, DSB generation, and SCE induction. We suggest that surviving BLM-deficient cells are selected on the basis of their ability to deal with an endogenous replication stress induced by replication fork slowing, resulting in insensitivity to HU-induced replication stress.

  6. Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) have gained increasing popularity in the last decade, with individuals engaging in SNSs to connect with others who share similar interests. The perceived need to be online may result in compulsive use of SNSs, which in extreme cases may result in symptoms and consequences traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. In order to present new insights into online social networking and addiction, in this paper, 10 lessons learned concerning online social networking sites and addiction based on the insights derived from recent empirical research will be presented. These are: (i) social networking and social media use are not the same; (ii) social networking is eclectic; (iii) social networking is a way of being; (iv) individuals can become addicted to using social networking sites; (v) Facebook addiction is only one example of SNS addiction; (vi) fear of missing out (FOMO) may be part of SNS addiction; (vii) smartphone addiction may be part of SNS addiction; (viii) nomophobia may be part of SNS addiction; (ix) there are sociodemographic differences in SNS addiction; and (x) there are methodological problems with research to date. These are discussed in turn. Recommendations for research and clinical applications are provided. PMID:28304359

  7. Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-03-17

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) have gained increasing popularity in the last decade, with individuals engaging in SNSs to connect with others who share similar interests. The perceived need to be online may result in compulsive use of SNSs, which in extreme cases may result in symptoms and consequences traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. In order to present new insights into online social networking and addiction, in this paper, 10 lessons learned concerning online social networking sites and addiction based on the insights derived from recent empirical research will be presented. These are: (i) social networking and social media use are not the same; (ii) social networking is eclectic; (iii) social networking is a way of being; (iv) individuals can become addicted to using social networking sites; (v) Facebook addiction is only one example of SNS addiction; (vi) fear of missing out (FOMO) may be part of SNS addiction; (vii) smartphone addiction may be part of SNS addiction; (viii) nomophobia may be part of SNS addiction; (ix) there are sociodemographic differences in SNS addiction; and (x) there are methodological problems with research to date. These are discussed in turn. Recommendations for research and clinical applications are provided.

  8. Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networking sites (SNSs have gained increasing popularity in the last decade, with individuals engaging in SNSs to connect with others who share similar interests. The perceived need to be online may result in compulsive use of SNSs, which in extreme cases may result in symptoms and consequences traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. In order to present new insights into online social networking and addiction, in this paper, 10 lessons learned concerning online social networking sites and addiction based on the insights derived from recent empirical research will be presented. These are: (i social networking and social media use are not the same; (ii social networking is eclectic; (iii social networking is a way of being; (iv individuals can become addicted to using social networking sites; (v Facebook addiction is only one example of SNS addiction; (vi fear of missing out (FOMO may be part of SNS addiction; (vii smartphone addiction may be part of SNS addiction; (viii nomophobia may be part of SNS addiction; (ix there are sociodemographic differences in SNS addiction; and (x there are methodological problems with research to date. These are discussed in turn. Recommendations for research and clinical applications are provided.

  9. An Analysis on the Correlation and Gender Difference between College Students' Internet Addiction and Mobile Phone Addiction in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-I; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Su-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at constructing a correlative model between Internet addiction and mobile phone addiction; the aim is to analyse the correlation (if any) between the two traits and to discuss the influence confirming that the gender has difference on this fascinating topic; taking gender into account opens a new world of scientific study to us. The study collected 448 college students on an island as study subjects, with 61.2% males and 38.8% females. Moreover, this study issued Mobile Phone Addiction Scale and Internet Addiction Scale to conduct surveys on the participants and adopts the structural equation model (SEM) to process the collected data. According to the study result, (1) mobile phone addiction and Internet addiction are positively related; (2) female college students score higher than male ones in the aspect of mobile addiction. Lastly, this study proposes relevant suggestions to serve as a reference for schools, college students, and future studies based on the study results.

  10. METODO, a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in heroin-addicted patients undergoing a methadone maintenance treatment: preliminary results at baseline evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Egidio, Pietro Fausto; Bignamini, Emanuele; De Vivo, Enrico; Leonardi, Claudio; Pieri, Maria Chiara; González-Saiz, Francisco; Lucchini, Alfio

    2013-12-01

    METODO (methadone efficacy therapy optimization dosage on-going) is a prospective observational study to assess the efficacy and tolerability of methadone in 500 heroin-addicted patients taking a methadone maintenance treatment, enrolled through 2010 to 2011 in five Italian sites, observed over 2 years. The Opiate Dosage Adequacy Scale has been used for the evaluation of the "adequacy" of the methadone dosage and to stratify patients in adequate and not adequate groups. The treatment efficacy has been evaluated in correlation to the dosage adequacy during the visits. Moreover, patients have been evaluated according to the retention rate and duration of retention in treatment and a series of questionnaires.

  11. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  12. Internet Addiction in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebisz, Slawomir; Sikora, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    The possibilities offered by the use of the Internet increasingly intensify the problem of Internet addiction, which has become more prevalent in the last decade, marked by the growing availability of mobile devices and new media and their exacerbation of the problem. Research on Internet addiction, initiated by Kimberly Young at the end of the…

  13. Addiction: choice or compulsion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henden, Edmund; Melberg, Hans Olav; Røgeberg, Ole Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behavior under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behavior. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  14. Addiction: Choice or compulsion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eHenden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  15. EMDR interventions in addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, W.; Hornsveld, H.K.

    2017-01-01

    The use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs is widespread and has significant negative consequences for the individual, their families, and the communities to which they belong. A substantial number of users develop an addiction disorder. Cure-oriented addiction treatment is challenging regarding

  16. Brain and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Team. Brain and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse for Teens website. https://teens.drugabuse.gov/drug-facts/brain-and-addiction. . Accessed press ctrl+c to copy Listen Drug Facts Alcohol Anabolic Steroids Bath Salts Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM ...

  17. [Training in addiction medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.J. de; Luycks, L.; Delicat, J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of addiction is a skill. It not only requires the necessary specialist medical knowledge but a wide range of communication skills as well. Both facets are explicitly covered in the two-year postgraduate program on addiction medicine at Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands. In

  18. What Is Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Next Español English Español PDF (331.63 KB) (331.63 KB) Treatment & Recovery Information Treatment and Recovery Does Drug Treatment Work? ...

  19. Addiction: Choice or Compulsion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henden, Edmund; Melberg, Hans Olav; Røgeberg, Ole Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behavior under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behavior. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior. PMID:23966955

  20. [Factors on internet game addiction among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sook; Kwon, Yun Hee; Park, Kyung-Min

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore factors related to internet game addiction for adolescents. This study was a cross-sectional survey, and data was collected through self-report questionnaires. Data was analyzed using the SPSS program. In logistic regression analysis, the risk of being addicted to internet games was 2.22 times higher in males than females. Adolescents with low and middle academic performance also had a higher risk(2.08 times and 2.54 times) to become addicted to internet games. For the location of the computer, the risk of becoming addicted to internet games were .01 times lower in the living room or brother or sisters' room than in their own room. The risk of becoming addicted to internet games was 1.18 times higher in the higher usage time of internet games. The risk of becoming addicted to internet games was .49 times lower in the more accepting and autonomic parents' rearing attitude and .02 times lower in the high self-efficacy group than the low group. The result of this study suggests that there are noticeable relationships between internet game addiction and gender, academic performance, location of computer, usage time of internet games, parents' rearing attitude, and self efficacy.

  1. Interpersonal dependency and online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škařupová, Kateřina; Blinka, Lukas

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The present study explores the relationship between social motivations and addiction to online gaming and if that possible connection can be explained by the personality traits responsible for social functioning. Methods We employ Bernstein's concept of interpersonal dependency to distinguish healthy dependency, dysfunctional detachment, and destructive overdependence, and Charlton and Danforth's conceptualisation of online gaming addiction and high engagement. An online questionnaire was administered to a self-nominated sample of 4,074 online gamers. Two regression models were constructed to separately explain gaming addiction and high engagement using social motivations to play, while controlling for age, gender, and time spent online. Results High scores on subscales measuring dysfunctional detachment and destructive overdependence were positively associated with online gaming addiction, while healthy dependency was negatively correlated with addiction scores. In contrast, the overall role of social motivation was negligible. Discussion People with healthy relationship profiles are less likely to develop problematic patterns of online gaming. High in-game engagement, although sharing some factors with addiction, was only poorly explained by the study variables, suggesting the mutual exclusiveness of addiction and engagement.

  2. Food addiction-diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Ivan; Popović, Nada; Sabljak, Vera; Škodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Dimitrijević, Nina

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarized the recent research of the food addiction, diagnosis, treatment and prevention, which is carried out in this area. The concept of food addiction is new and complex, but proven to be very important for understanding and solving the problem of obesity. First part of this paper emphasizes the neurological studies, whose results indicate the similarity of brain processes that are being activated during drug abuse and during eating certain types of food. In this context, different authors speak of "hyper-palatable", industrial food, saturated with salt, fat and sugar, which favor an addiction. In the section on diagnostic and instruments constructed for assessing the degree of dependence, main diagnostic tool is standardized Yale Food Addiction Scale constructed by Ashley Gearhardt, and her associates. Since 2009, when it was first published, this scale is used in almost all researches in this area and has been translated into several languages. Finally, distinguish between prevention and treatment of food addiction was made. Given that there were similarities with other forms of addictive behavior, the researchers recommend the application of traditional addiction treatment.

  3. Risk Factors for Smartphone Addiction in Korean Adolescents: Smartphone Use Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyuk; Kim, Jun Won; Choi, Tae Young

    2017-01-01

    With widespread use of the smartphone, clinical evidence for smartphone addiction remains unclear. Against this background, we analyzed the effect of smartphone use patterns on smartphone addiction in Korean adolescents. A total of 370 middle school students participated. The severity of smartphone addiction was measured through clinical interviews and the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. As a result, 50 (13.5%) were in the smartphone addiction group and 320 (86.5%) were in the he...

  4. Is exercise addiction in fitness centers a socially accepted behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Emborg, Bolette; Hemmingsen, Simone Daugaard; Hansen, Nina Beck

    2017-12-01

    Fitness exercise is popular and associated with improved health and social status. Taken to extremes, however, exercise can become an addiction. One suggested symptom of exercise addiction is "conflicts" with family and friends. However, it may be difficult to recognize excessive exercise patterns if they are accepted and encouraged by relatives. The aim of this study was to explore if fitness exercisers with a high risk of addiction experienced the same level of exercise support as exercisers with a low risk of addiction. Furthermore, we wanted to examine if social support affected the subjective reporting of "conflicts". A total of 577 fitness exercisers completed the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) and two questions asking about "exercise support from family and friends" and "present eating disorder". Exercisers at high risk of exercise addiction reported the same level of support from relatives as those at low risk. Exercisers with high levels of exercise support reported significantly fewer conflicts, even if they were at high risk of addiction. If an eating disorder was present, the level of exercise support was significantly reduced. Exercise addiction might be difficult to identify with the general behavioral addiction symptom "conflict", since exercise is socially accepted even in subjects with high risk of exercise addiction. If an eating disorder is present, the exercise routines seem to be interpreted as socially undesirable. Screening for exercise addiction with the EAI should take into account that fitness exercisers rarely report conflicts, which could result in false negative cases.

  5. [The genetics of addictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez Cuadrado, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The addictions are common chronic psychiatric diseases which represent a serious worldwide public-health problem. They have a high prevalence and negative effects at individual, family and societal level, with a high sanitary cost. Epidemiological genetic research has revealed that addictions are moderately to highly heritable. Also the investigation has evidenced that environmental and genetic factors contribute to individual differences in vulnerability to addictions. Advances in the neurobiology of addiction joined to the development of new molecular genetic technologies, have led to the identification of a variety of underlying genes and pathways in addiction process, leading to the description of common molecular mechanisms in substance and behaviour dependencies. Identifying gene-environment interactions is a crucial issue in future research. Other major goal in genetic research is the identification of new therapeutic targets for treatment and prevention.

  6. Internet Addiction and Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  8. Addictive buying: causes, processes, and symbolic meanings. Thematic analysis of a buying addict's diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ureta, Irene

    2007-11-01

    The aims of this study were twofold. On the one hand, to reach an understanding of, and to illustrate the experience of addictive buying and, on the other, to throw some light on the controversial subject of addicts' personal responsibility for their behavior. With these aims, a thematic analysis of an extensive diary written by a compulsive buyer is presented. Four themes emerge from the analysis: the defining characteristics of addiction to buying that determine the boundary separating it from other forms of impulsive or careless buying; several causal factors; the role that money and material objects play in family relationships and friendships through the symbolic meanings they adopt; and the relationship of personal values with impulsiveness and self-control. In view of the results, the moral model of addiction to buying is discussed, and an explanatory model of the ambivalence that is characteristic of addiction to buying is proposed, based on a personal hierarchy of values.

  9. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. Methods A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well as indicators of smartphone use and addiction. Smartphone addiction was assessed using a short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate demographic and health-related predictors of smartphone addiction. Results Smartphone addiction occurred in 256 (16.9%) of the 1,519 students. Longer duration of smartphone use on a typical day, a shorter time period until first smartphone use in the morning, and reporting that social networking was the most personally relevant smartphone function were associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was more prevalent in younger adolescents (15–16 years) compared with young adults (19 years and older), students with both parents born outside Switzerland, persons reporting lower physical activity, and those reporting higher stress. Alcohol and tobacco consumption were unrelated to smartphone addiction. Discussion Different indicators of smartphone use are associated with smartphone addiction and subgroups of young people have a higher prevalence of smartphone addiction. Conclusions The study provides the first insights into smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and predictors of smartphone addiction in young people from a European country, which should be extended in further studies. PMID:26690625

  10. The process addictions and the new ASAM definition of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E

    2012-01-01

    Addiction is a primary, chronic disease involving brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry; it can lead to relapse, progressive development, and the potential for fatality if not treated. While pathological use of alcohol and, more recently, psychoactive substances have been accepted as addictive diseases, developing brain science has set the stage for inclusion of the process addictions, including food, sex, shopping and gambling problems, in a broader definition of addiction as set forth by the American Society of Addiction Medicine in 2011.

  11. Brain Stimulation in Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salling, Michael C; Martinez, Diana

    2016-11-01

    Localized stimulation of the human brain to treat neuropsychiatric disorders has been in place for over 20 years. Although these methods have been used to a greater extent for mood and movement disorders, recent work has explored brain stimulation methods as potential treatments for addiction. The rationale behind stimulation therapy in addiction involves reestablishing normal brain function in target regions in an effort to dampen addictive behaviors. In this review, we present the rationale and studies investigating brain stimulation in addiction, including transcranial magnetic stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation, and deep brain stimulation. Overall, these studies indicate that brain stimulation has an acute effect on craving for drugs and alcohol, but few studies have investigated the effect of brain stimulation on actual drug and alcohol use or relapse. Stimulation therapies may achieve their effect through direct or indirect modulation of brain regions involved in addiction, either acutely or through plastic changes in neuronal transmission. Although these mechanisms are not well understood, further identification of the underlying neurobiology of addiction and rigorous evaluation of brain stimulation methods has the potential for unlocking an effective, long-term treatment of addiction.

  12. Historical and current perspective on tobacco use and nicotine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, John A; Balfour, David J K

    2011-07-01

    Although the addictive influence of tobacco was recognized very early, the modern concepts of nicotine addiction have relied on knowledge of cholinergic neurotransmission and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The discovery of the 'receptive substance' by Langley, that would turn out to be nAChRs, and 'Vagusstoff' (acetylcholine) by Loewi, coincided with an exciting time when the concept of chemical synaptic transmission was being formulated. More recently, the application of more powerful techniques and the study of animal models that replicate key features of nicotine dependence have led to important advancements in our understanding of molecular, cellular and systems mechanisms of nicotine addiction. In this review, we present a historical perspective and overview of the research that has led to our present understanding of nicotine addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Breaking barriers in the genomics and pharmacogenetics of drug addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, MK; Goldman, D; Heinz, A; Kaprio, J; Kreek, MJ; Li, MD; Munafò, MR; Tyndale, RF

    2013-01-01

    Drug addictions remain a substantial health issue, with limited treatment options currently available. Despite considerable advances in the understanding of our genetic architecture, the genetic underpinning of complex disorders remains elusive. Numerous candidate genes have been implicated in the etiology and response to treatment for different addictions based on our current understanding of the neurobiology. Genome-wide association studies have also provided novel targets. However, replication of these studies is often lacking which complicates interpretation; this will improve as issues such as phenotypic characterization, the apparent “missing heritability”, the identification of functional variants, and possible gene-environment interactions are addressed. In addition, there is growing evidence that genetic information can be useful for refining the choice of addiction treatment. As genetic testing becomes more common in the practice of medicine, a variety of ethical and practical challenges, some of which are unique to drug addiction, will also need to be considered. PMID:20981002

  14. Periostitis and osteomyelitis in chronic drug addicts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.R.; Lawson, J.P.

    1986-03-01

    Periostitis and osteomyelitis can occur in drug addicts not only by hematogeneous dissemination of the infecting organisms, but as a result of introduction of bacteria by direct injection into periosteum or injection through infected skin and subcutaneous tissues. A spectrum of examples of osteomyelitis of the bones of the forearm in drug addicts is presented to illustrate this phenomenon. Neglect of these infections and the trauma of continued injections can lead to extensive tissue and bone loss.

  15. Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, paddiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  17. Pleasure and Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanette Marie Kennett; Steve eMatthews; Anke eSnoek

    2013-01-01

    What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savalescu (2010) have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behaviour. They describe addiction as ‘strong appetites toward pleasure’ and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease mo...

  18. Patients with alcohol use disorder: initial results from a prospective multicenter registry in the Spanish Network on Addiction Disorders. CohRTA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Zuluaga, Paola; Rivas, Inmaculada; Rubio, Gabriel; Gual, Antoni; Torrens, Marta; Short, Antoni; Álvarez, Francisco Javier; Tor, Jordi; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Muga, Roberto

    2017-07-14

    The Alcohol Program of the Spanish Network on Addictive Disorders-RTA requires a longitudinal study to address different research questions related to alcoholism. The cohort study (CohRTA) focuses on patients seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, as a multicentre, collaborative research project aimed to improve secondary prevention and early diagnosis of pathological processes associated with the disorder. multicentre cohort study in adults (>18 years) seeking their first treatment of the disorder. Patients sign an informed consent and data is collected in an online platform specifically designed for the study; patients are also requested to provide biological samples that are stored in a biobank. Baseline and prospective, socio-demographic, epidemiological, clinical and treatment data are collected. Currently there are 10 participating centres that expect to recruit more than 1,000 patients. As of December 2015, 344 patients (77% men) were included. Median age at admission was 50 years (IQR: 43-55 years). Median age at the start of alcohol consumption was 15 years (IQR: 14-18 years) and 61% of cases reported antecedents of alcohol use disorder in the family. During the 30 days prior to admission, alcohol consumption amounted to 12.5 SDU/day (IQR: 7.1-20 SDU/day), 72% of the patients were tobacco smokers and 30% currently used cocaine. Organising an open cohort of patients with alcohol use disorder may be crucial to better understand the clinical consequences of alcoholism in Spain. This cohort may potentiate quantitative and qualitative research within the Spanish Network on Addictive Disorders-RTA/RETICS. Having a well-established, representative cohort of patients will increase translational research on consequences of alcoholism in our country.

  19. Women and drug addiction: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandall, Stephen R

    2010-04-01

    The history of women and addiction in America extends back more than 150 years. Although the true epidemiology of women and addiction has always been difficult to determine, the spectrum of female addicts extends well beyond those women who make sensationalistic headlines by "abandoning" or "battering" their children. Historically, female addiction has been largely the result of inappropriate overmedication practices by physicians and pharmacists, media manipulation, or individuals own attempts to cope with social or occupational barriers preventing equality and self-fulfillment. From the mid-nineteenth century, uneasy tolerance, social ostracism, vilification, persecution, and legal prosecution have grudgingly, but not completely, given way to more humane treatment opportunities in the setting of more enlightened comprehensive care.

  20. Molecular and functional imaging of internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunqi; Zhang, Hong; Tian, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive use of the Internet results in Internet addiction (IA), which is associated with various negative consequences. Molecular and functional imaging techniques have been increasingly used for analysis of neurobiological changes and neurochemical correlates of IA. This review summarizes molecular and functional imaging findings on neurobiological mechanisms of IA, focusing on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). MRI studies demonstrate that structural changes in frontal cortex are associated with functional abnormalities in Internet addicted subjects. Nuclear imaging findings indicate that IA is associated with dysfunction of the brain dopaminergic systems. Abnormal dopamine regulation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) could underlie the enhanced motivational value and uncontrolled behavior over Internet overuse in addicted subjects. Further investigations are needed to determine specific changes in the Internet addictive brain, as well as their implications for behavior and cognition.

  1. Internet Gaming Addiction: A Technological Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Verma, Rohit

    2015-12-01

    The Internet is considered a beneficial tool in research, communication, and information. Still, its excessive and prolonged use has the potential of causing addiction. The presentation of this technological hazard may range from a mild socio-personal distress to a gross disorganization in behavior and self-care. No reported study on Internet gaming addiction is available from India. We reported a case of two brothers, diagnosed with Internet gaming addiction, who showed grossly disorganized behavior and severely compromised self-care. The condition was managed by pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies, with sustained improvement after 6 months follow up. Internet gaming addiction may cause severe personal, social, and occupational problems. Despite the range of severity and various presentations of this disorder, DSM-5 lacks the severity classifier. Early identification and management may result in complete recovery.

  2. Archaeal DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Lori M; Kelman, Zvi

    2014-01-01

    DNA replication is essential for all life forms. Although the process is fundamentally conserved in the three domains of life, bioinformatic, biochemical, structural, and genetic studies have demonstrated that the process and the proteins involved in archaeal DNA replication are more similar to those in eukaryal DNA replication than in bacterial DNA replication, but have some archaeal-specific features. The archaeal replication system, however, is not monolithic, and there are some differences in the replication process between different species. In this review, the current knowledge of the mechanisms governing DNA replication in Archaea is summarized. The general features of the replication process as well as some of the differences are discussed.

  3. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in addiction severity, HIV risk, and quality of life among adults in opioid detoxification: results from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Burchett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1,2, Walter Ling3, Bruce Burchett1, Dan G Blazer1,2, Jack Shostak2, George E Woody41Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, NPI/Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USAPurpose: Detoxification often serves as an initial contact for treatment and represents an opportunity for engaging patients in aftercare to prevent relapse. However, there is limited information concerning clinical profiles of individuals seeking detoxification, and the opportunity to engage patients in detoxification for aftercare often is missed. This study examined clinical profiles of a geographically diverse sample of opioid-dependent adults in detoxification to discern the treatment needs of a growing number of women and whites with opioid addiction and to inform interventions aimed at improving use of aftercare or rehabilitation.Methods: The sample included 343 opioid-dependent patients enrolled in two national multisite studies of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN001-002. Patients were recruited from 12 addiction treatment programs across the nation. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in addiction severity, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV risk, and quality of life were examined.Results: Women and whites were more likely than men and African Americans to have greater psychiatric and family/social relationship problems and report poorer health-related quality of life and functioning. Whites and Hispanics exhibited higher levels of total HIV risk scores and risky injection drug use scores than African Americans, and Hispanics showed a higher level of unprotected sexual behaviors than whites. African Americans were

  4. Towards greater understanding of addiction stigma: Intersectionality with race/ethnicity and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Matsuda, Mauri; Ramirez, Jason J; Werntz, Alexandra J; Teachman, Bethany A; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2016-12-01

    In spite of the significant burden associated with substance use disorders, especially among persons who inject drugs (PWIDs), most affected individuals do not engage with any type of formal or informal treatment. Addiction stigma, which is represented by negative social attitudes toward individuals who use alcohol and/or other drugs, is one of the barriers to care that is poorly understood. The current study: a) assessed implicit (indirect and difficult to consciously control) and explicit (consciously controlled) beliefs about PWIDs among visitors to a public web site; and b) experimentally investigated the effects of ethnicity/race and gender on those implicit and explicit beliefs. N=899 predominantly White (70%) and women (62%) were randomly assigned to one of six target PWIDs conditions: gender (man/woman) x race/ethnicity (White, Black, Latino/a). Participants completed an Implicit Association Test and explicit assessment of addiction stigma. Participants implicitly associated PWIDs (especially Latino/a vs. White PWIDs) with deserving punishment as opposed to help (p=0.003, d=0.31), indicating presence of addiction stigma-related implicit beliefs. However, this bias was not evident on the explicit measure (p=0.89). Gender did not predict differential implicit or explicit addiction stigma (p=0.18). Contrary to explicit egalitarian views towards PWIDs, participants' implicit beliefs were more in line with addiction stigma. If replicated and clearer ties to behavior are established, results suggest the potential importance of identifying conditions under which implicit bias might influence behavior (even despite explicit egalitarian views) and increase the likelihood of discrimination towards PWIDs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stress and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Greif, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Appetitive behaviors such as substance use and eating are under significant regulatory control by the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Recent research has begun to examine how these systems interact to cause and maintain poor regulation of these appetitive behaviors. A range of potential molecular, neuroendocrine, and hormonal mechanisms are involved in these interactions and may explain individual differences in both risk and resilience to a range of addictions. This manuscript provides a commentary on research presented during the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology's mini-conference on sex differences in eating and addiction with an emphasis on how HPG and HPA axis interactions affect appetitive behaviors in classic addictions and may be used to help inform the ongoing debate about the validity of food addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Online addictive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality.

  7. Epigenetics and psychostimulant addiction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schmidt, Heath D; McGinty, Jacqueline F; West, Anne E; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh

    2013-01-01

    .... Here we review how alterations in histone modifications, DNA methylation, and microRNAs regulate gene expression and contribute to psychostimulant addiction with a focus on the epigenetic mechanisms...

  8. The Comparision of Social Anxiety Disorder and Shyness in Addicted and Non-Addicted Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare social anxiety disorder and shyness in addicted and non-addicted men. Method: The method of this study was causal-comparative research and the sampling done by purposive sampling. However, 30 men who were addicted to opium and were referred for the first time to Arak Behzisti self report center were selected. Then, 30 paired samples of non-addicted men who had not any addiction history in their life selected as a comparison group and Henderson/Zimbardo Shyness Questionnaire (2001 and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (1981 were administered in both groups. In SPSS software data was analyzed by running of independent samples t test. Results: the results showed that addicted men had reported higher scores in shyness and social phobia disorder in comparison to non-addicted men. Conclusion: With consideration of results it can be concluded that people with shyness and social anxiety disorder, use opium to reduce social anxiety and avoidance. Clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of substance abuse should be considered.

  9. Cocaine addiction as a homeostatic reinforcement learning disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keramati, Mehdi; Durand, Audrey; Girardeau, Paul; Gutkin, Boris; Ahmed, Serge H

    2017-03-01

    Drug addiction implicates both reward learning and homeostatic regulation mechanisms of the brain. This has stimulated 2 partially successful theoretical perspectives on addiction. Many important aspects of addiction, however, remain to be explained within a single, unified framework that integrates the 2 mechanisms. Building upon a recently developed homeostatic reinforcement learning theory, the authors focus on a key transition stage of addiction that is well modeled in animals, escalation of drug use, and propose a computational theory of cocaine addiction where cocaine reinforces behavior due to its rapid homeostatic corrective effect, whereas its chronic use induces slow and long-lasting changes in homeostatic setpoint. Simulations show that our new theory accounts for key behavioral and neurobiological features of addiction, most notably, escalation of cocaine use, drug-primed craving and relapse, individual differences underlying dose-response curves, and dopamine D2-receptor downregulation in addicts. The theory also generates unique predictions about cocaine self-administration behavior in rats that are confirmed by new experimental results. Viewing addiction as a homeostatic reinforcement learning disorder coherently explains many behavioral and neurobiological aspects of the transition to cocaine addiction, and suggests a new perspective toward understanding addiction. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Is there a general tendency to become addicted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, P; Stoess, C

    1993-01-01

    The tendency to become addicted across a number of different substances or activities was determined for a sample of 573 subjects, including college students and their parents. Four components of addiction were defined: craving, tolerance, withdrawal and lack of control. Subjects rated the extent to which each of these components characterized their relationships to each of ten substance/activities: coffee, tea, cola beverages, favorite alcoholic beverage, chocolate, nonchocolate sweets, hot chili pepper on food, cigarettes, gambling and video games. An "addiction score" was computed for each subject and each substance/activity, by summing the scores on the four components. Correlations in addiction scores for almost all activities were positive, but low (between 0 and .30), with the exception of chocolate and nonchocolate sweets, where the correlation was higher. The results suggest, at best, a weak tendency to become addicted, across a wide range of substances or activities. Other explanations for the low positive correlations are available, besides the notion of a general tendency to become addicted. There were a few significant mother-father correlations in various addiction scores, but none between mid-parent and child values. Three of the four components of addiction (craving, lack of control and withdrawal), were highly correlated. We conclude that there is little basis for the assumption of a general tendency to become addicted, a conclusion which casts doubt on the derivative notion of an addictive personality.

  11. Efficacy and safety of olodaterol once daily delivered via Respimat® in patients with GOLD 2–4 COPD: results from two replicate 48-week studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gary T; Feldman, Gregory J; Hofbauer, Peter; Hamilton, Alan; Allen, Lisa; Korducki, Lawrence; Sachs, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Olodaterol is a long-acting β2-agonist with a 24-hour bronchodilator profile. Two replicate, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, Phase III trials were performed as part of a comprehensive clinical program to investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of olodaterol in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) receiving usual-care background therapy. Methods Patients received olodaterol 5 μg or 10 μg or placebo once daily for 48 weeks. Coprimary end points were forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) area under the curve from 0 to 3 hours (AUC0–3) response (change from baseline), and trough FEV1 response at 12 weeks. Secondary end points included additional lung function assessments, use of rescue medications, FEV1 AUC response from 0 to 12 hours, and Patient Global Rating over 48 weeks. Results Overall, 624 and 642 patients were evaluated in studies 1222.11 and 1222.12, respectively. In both studies, olodaterol 5 μg and 10 μg significantly improved the FEV1 AUC0–3 response (P<0.0001) and trough FEV1 (study 1222.11, P<0.0001; study 1222.12, P<0.05, post hoc) at week 12, with an incidence of adverse events comparable with that of placebo. Secondary end points supported the efficacy of olodaterol. Conclusion These studies demonstrate the long-term efficacy and safety of once-daily olodaterol 5 μg and 10 μg in patients with moderate to very severe COPD continuing with usual-care maintenance therapy. PMID:24966672

  12. Biological substrates of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Max E; Grueter, Carrie A; Grueter, Brad A

    2014-03-01

    This review is an introduction to addiction, the reward circuitry, and laboratory addiction models. Addiction is a chronic disease hallmarked by a state of compulsive drug seeking that persists despite negative consequences. Most of the advances in addiction research have centered on the canonical and contemporary drugs of abuse; however, addictions to other activities and stimuli also exist. Substances of abuse have the potential to induce long-lasting changes in the brain at the behavioral, circuit, and synaptic levels. Addiction-related behavioral changes involve initiation, escalation, and obsession to drug seeking and much of the current research is focused on mapping these manifestations to specific neural pathways. Drug abuse is well known to recruit components of the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. In addition, altered function of a wide variety of brain regions is tightly associated with specific manifestations of drug abuse. These regions peripheral to the mesolimbic pathway likely play a role in specific observed comorbidities and endophenotypes that can facilitate, or be caused by, substance abuse. Alterations in synaptic structure, function, and connectivity, as well as epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are thought to underlie the pathologies of addiction. In preclinical models, these persistent changes are studied at the levels of molecular pharmacology and biochemistry, ex vivo and in vivo electrophysiology, radiography, and behavior. Coordinating research efforts across these disciplines and examining cell type- and circuit-specific phenomena are crucial components for translating preclinical findings to viable medical interventions that effectively treat addiction and related disorders. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:151-171. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1273 Conflict of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the

  13. Computer games addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Nejepínský, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the problem of computer games addiction. The attention is paid mainly to on-line games for more players. The purpose of this thesis was to describe this problem and to check - through questionnaire investigation - if the addiction to computer games and the impacts connected with the games really deserve excessive experts and laics attention. The thesis has two parts -- theoretical and practical ones. The theoretical part describes the possibilities of diagnosin...

  14. The Problem of False Discovery: Many Scientific Results Can't Be Replicated, Leading to Serious Questions about What's True and False in the World of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Skufca, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Is there a Cheshire Cat in science? One might believe so, given the many published scientific discoveries that cannot be independently reproduced. The ?replication crisis? in science has become a widely discussed issue among scientists and the lay media and even has its own entry in Wikipedia.

  15. A commentary on the "eating addiction" versus "food addiction" perspectives on addictive-like food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erica M; Potenza, Marc N; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2017-08-01

    The food addiction construct posits that vulnerable individuals may experience an addictive-like response to certain foods, such as those high in fat and refined carbohydrates. Recently, an alternative model to food addiction was proposed, suggesting that the act of eating may be a behavioral addiction that can trigger an addictive-like response in susceptible individuals. One major rationale for the eating addiction framework is that the assessment of food addiction is based on behavioral indicators, such as consuming greater quantities of food than intended and eating certain foods despite negative consequences. It is also suggested that the lack of investigation into which foods and food attributes (e.g., sugar) may have an addictive potential is evidence that food addiction does not parallel a substance-based addiction and more closely resembles a behavioral addiction. The present paper provides a commentary suggesting that the substance-based, food-addiction framework is more appropriate than the behavioral-addiction, eating-addiction perspective to conceptualize addictive-like food consumption. In order to illustrate this point, this manuscript will discuss behavioral components characteristic of all substance-use disorders, preliminary evidence to suggest that all foods are not equally associated with addictive-like eating, and key differences between the hypothesized eating addiction phenotype and the only existing behavioral addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder. Further, this paper will consider implications of applying an addiction label to food versus eating and suggest future research directions to evaluate whether food addiction is a valid and clinically useful construct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Consumo de drogas entre adolescentes: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones, 1998 Drug used among adolescents: results from the National Survey on Addictions, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Elena Medina-Mora

    2003-01-01

    probabilidad de desarrollar dependencia, quienes requieren de intervenciones preventivas más intensas.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe drug and associated factors use among adolescents (12 to 17 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data come from the recent Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones, 1998 (National Survey on Addictions undertaken in urban areas of Mexico. A probabilistic, multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling design was used to select the study population. The sampling unit was the individual in each household. Statistical analysis consisted of the estimation of prevalences of drug use, with 95% confidence intervals. Associations were analyzed using logistic regressions models. RESULTS: Excluding tobacco and alcohol, 3.57% of males and 0.6% of females have used one or more drugs; 2.14% and 0.45% used them in the 12 months previous to the survey, and 1.4% and 0.3% in the previous 30 days, respectively. Marihuana was the drug more often used by males (2.4% and females (0.45%, followed by inhaled solvents (1.08% and 0.20%, and cocaine (0.99% and 0.22%, respectively. The risk of using illicit drugs was associated to being male, having dropped out from school, perceiving availability, drug use by family and friends, social tolerance among friends, and symptoms of depression. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents between 12 to 17 years of age are exposed to increasing drug use. The rates of drug use have risen, especially in the northern region of Mexico and in the big urban areas (Tijuana, Mexico City and Guadalajara. These findings emphasize the need to develop campaigns to detect emotional problems. Preventive measures should provide appropriate care to prevent drug use as a mechanism to cope with such emotional conflicts. Also, more intense preventive interventions should be targeted to adolescents with a high probability of developing drug abuse.

  17. Addictive behaviors and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjas, T; Eusebio, A; Fluchère, F; Azulay, J-P

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of the dopaminergic system and the longstanding exposure to dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) may cause, in a group of vulnerable patients, dysregulation of the brain reward system. These patients develop DRT-related compulsions, which include addiction to levodopa or dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), punding, and impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs or behavioral addiction reported in Parkinson's disease include pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying and binge eating. Although the underlying pathophysiology is still poorly understood, these behaviors are linked by their reward-based and repetitive nature. Such behaviors may result in devastating psychosocial impairment for the patients and are often hidden. The recognition of these behaviors is important and allows a better clinical management. Although the limited data do not permit particular therapeutic strategies, some approaches are worth considering: DRT reduction, trials of non-dopaminergic medications and subthalamic chronic stimulation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Is fast food addictive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.

  19. Genetics of Smoking Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamuran Karakulah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking is associated with many diseases causing 5 million deaths per year worldwide and is regarded as one of the leading causes of death. Addiction is of the most notorious tobacco-related syndrome and is mainly attributed to nicotine. The causes of tobacco smoking addiction were intensively investigated with several components. Epidemiologic, pharmacologic, neurobiological and genetic studies were main study topics. Genetic studies of smoking and nicotine dependence has been studied for 50 years. Twin, family and adoption studies show evidence for genetic effects on smoking and nicotine dependence. Molecular genetic analyses have identified genes associated with the amount smoked and nicotine dependence. The high heritability of addiction has stimulated much work aimed at identifying susceptibility genes using positional genetics. Candidate gene approaches are also being used for the genetic dissection of smoking addiction. These two approaches had a major impact on our understanding of disease pathophysiology in last 2 decades. Recent work indicates that epigenetic mechanisms or the chemical markings of the DNA and the surrounding histone proteins remain labile through the lifespan and can be altered by environmental factors. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms are an attractive molecular hypothesis for environmental contributions to tobacco smoking addiction. Genome wide association and copy number variation studies are new genetic techniques and they would probably provide us important information in the near future. In this report we aimed to review progress of genetic studies in smoking addiction from classical genetic studies to new epigenetic approaches.

  20. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria.We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist's structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists' clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy.Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1 six symptom criteria, (2 four functional impairment criteria and (3 exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%, while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use.The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms "impaired control" paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.

  1. The genetic basis of addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David

    2012-06-01

    Addictions are common, chronic, and relapsing diseases that develop through a multistep process. The impact of addictions on morbidity and mortality is high worldwide. Twin studies have shown that the heritability of addictions ranges from 0.39 (hallucinogens) to 0.72 (cocaine). Twin studies indicate that genes influence each stage from initiation to addiction, although the genetic determinants may differ. Addictions are by definition the result of gene × environment interaction. These disorders, which are in part volitional, in part inborn, and in part determined by environmental experience, pose the full range of medical, genetic, policy, and moral challenges. Gene discovery is being facilitated by a variety of powerful approaches, but is in its infancy. It is not surprising that the genes discovered so far act in a variety of ways: via altered metabolism of drug (the alcohol and nicotine metabolic gene variants), via altered function of a drug receptor (the nicotinic receptor, which may alter affinity for nicotine but as discussed may also alter circuitry of reward), and via general mechanisms of addiction (genes such as monoamine oxidase A and the serotonin transporter that modulate stress response, emotion, and behavioral control). Addiction medicine today benefits from genetic studies that buttress the case for a neurobiologic origin of addictive behavior, and some general information on familially transmitted propensity that can be used to guide prevention. A few well-validated, specific predictors such as OPRM1, ADH1B, ALDH2, CHRNA5, and CYP26 have been identified and can provide some specific guidance, for example, to understand alcohol-related flushing and upper GI cancer risk (ADH1B and AKLDH2), variation in nicotine metabolism (CYP26), and, potentially, naltrexone treatment response (OPRM1). However, the genetic predictors available are few in number and account for only a small portion of the genetic variance in liability, and have not been integrated

  2. New Dimensions, New Addictions: The Internet Sex Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sánchez Zaldívar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The network is endless: going anywhere, finding anything, being anyone. Typing the word sex on Google gives a figure of 96 million results. The network is changing our way of communication and relation; we can construct space-time coordinates before incompatible. Internet addiction is not recognized as a disorder in DSM-IV-TR or ICD-10. Both types of Internet addiction with sexual content are cybersex and pornography. Cybersex consists in experiencing sexual stimulation while maintaining sexual contact with other person. There is no user profile, it is a widespread behaviour and might have a positive aspect (in some communities, persons with fewer social skills, to spice sex life and a negative aspect (addiction, loss of control, marital and family problems. Sex is safe, anonymous and without complications. Internet pornography voyeurism allows the visualization of all types of practices, the use of real models not professional and to spy our behaviour through the IP code. These sexual activities on the network seems to be powered by the “Triple A” engine: accessibility, anonymity, affordability. We must assess the individual, the couples and the Internet activities. There is no proven pharmacological or psychological treatment but cognitive behavioural programs and techniques used in other addictions are helpful. There is large comorbidity. The goal of treatment refers to the adaptive use of Internet. Health professionals should be in advance and learn about this kind of behaviours, as well as to disseminate the information appropriately not launching simplistic messages, providing markers and developing studies, research and prevention programs.

  3. A computer adaptive testing version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV): The Addiction Severity CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; Black, Ryan A; McCaffrey, Stacey A; Ainscough, Jessica; Doucette, Ann M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a computer adaptive testing (CAT) version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV), the Addiction Severity CAT. This goal was accomplished in 4 steps. First, new candidate items for Addiction Severity CAT domains were evaluated after brainstorming sessions with experts in substance abuse treatment. Next, this new item bank was psychometrically evaluated on a large nonclinical (n = 4,419) and substance abuse treatment (n = 845) sample. Based on these results, final items were selected and calibrated for the creation of the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Once the algorithms were developed for the entire assessment, a fully functioning prototype of an Addiction Severity CAT was created. CAT simulations were conducted, and optimal termination criteria were selected for the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Finally, construct validity of the CAT algorithms was evaluated by examining convergent and discriminant validity and sensitivity to change. The Addiction Severity CAT was determined to be valid, sensitive to change, and reliable. Further, the Addiction Severity CAT's time of completion was found to be significantly less than the average time of completion for the ASI-MV composite scores. This study represents the initial validation of an Addiction Severity CAT based on item response theory, and further exploration of the Addiction Severity CAT is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Preventing toxicomania and addictive behaviour in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceaux, Pauline; Maricq, Aurélie; Zdanowicz, Nicolas; Reynaert, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Drug addicts are more and more stigmatized in our society. Recent data show a connection between substance abuse and other behaviors considered normal, such as passionate love. Adolescence is characterized by a biopsychosocial, cognitive and neurodevelopmental immaturity. This article aims to understand if these subjects are more likely to develop addictions to certain products or addictive behaviors such as passionate love. It also offers a better understanding of the current models for prevention of substance abuse during adolescence. After defining the roles played, in the brain, by dopamine and by the reward circuit, as well as the different stages of development of the human brain, we compared neurobiological data and imaging studies both in cases of passionate love and substance addiction during adolescence. The brain imaging studies highlight the role of the prefrontal cortex in the cognitive and behavioral aspects of the addictive phenomenon. Now, the maturation of the prefrontal cortex occurs during adolescence, as do significant peaks in the expression of dopamine. These studies also suggest an increase in cortical activation (nucleus accumbens and amygdala) when processing emotional information, which is also increased during adolescence. Taken together, the results show a parallel between addiction and love relations, both at the level of neuroscience and imaging. A greater emotional lability and sensitivity may play a role in the higher incidence of substance abuse and dependence in love observed at this age. Preventing the use of illegal substances among young people therefore requires a very specific approach.

  5. Two-way selection for threshold body weight at first egg in broiler strain females. 5. Replication of results in a two-generation selection experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitan, Y; Soller, M

    1995-10-01

    Selection for high and low threshold weight for onset of lay (ThrWtLay), carried out in a broiler line over six generations, was previously found to increase reproductive performance in the low line (LL). Because of the potential importance of this effect, a two-generation replication of the original experiment was carried out using a modern broiler line. Selection was on the basis of ThrWtLay, measured as body weight at first egg, following gradual release from feed restriction. The total response to selection over two generations was 382 g, giving a realized heritability of .42. The difference in 6-wk body weight of the two lines was +19 g in favor (P > .05) of the high line (HL). Reproductive performance was measured in the S2 generation and in the first (R1) generation of relaxed selection. On the average, age at first egg of LL was 17.6 d earlier, and prepeak, postpeak, and total egg production of LL to a fixed age was 9.9, 1.1, and 11.1 eggs greater, respectively, than that of HL. The differences in age at first egg, prepeak, and total egg production were significant; those in postpeak production were not. There was a difference of 1.1 g in favor (P > .05) of HL for egg weight. Thus, the results of this short-term selection experiment are broadly consistent with those of the original, long-term selection. Namely, ThrWtLay responded strongly to selection, with a powerful accompanied response in age at onset of lay and in prepeak egg production, and only a small effect on 6-wk body weight. However, in contrast to the results obtained previously, LL in the present experiment showed only a small increase (P > .05) in postpeak production relative to HL. Nevertheless, although an effect on postpeak production was not obtained in the present experiment, the results do provide general support for the previously expressed view that selection for early onset of lay, on release from feed restriction, may provide a means of increasing photoperiodic drive and consequent

  6. Addiction: Pulling at the Neural Threads of Social Behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.; Volkow, N.D.; Baler, R.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-27

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.

  7. The NS1 Glycoprotein Can Generate Dramatic Antibody-Enhanced Dengue Viral Replication in Normal Out-Bred Mice Resulting in Lethal Multi-Organ Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconar, Andrew K. I.; Martinez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Antibody-enhanced replication (AER) of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2) strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED) was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1) glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C) or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E) glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) resulting from i) dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii) some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii) copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv) some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v) DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human “severe dengue” cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines, particularly against DENV strains that contain multiple mutations or genetic recombination within or between their

  8. Differences between Alcoholics and Cocaine Addicts Seeking Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2015-03-03

    This study explored the characteristics of a representative sample of patients who were addicted to either alcohol or cocaine, comparing the profiles of both types of drug users. A sample of 234 addicted patients (109 alcoholics and 125 cocaine addicts) who sought outpatient treatment in a Spanish clinical centre was assessed. Data on socio-demographic, consumption, psychopathological and maladjustment characteristics were collected using the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II). Demographically, differences were observed with regard to age (alcoholics were older than cocaine addicts; t = 12.2, p = .001), employment (the alcoholic group had more labor problems; χ 2 = 6.2, p = .045) and family consequences (worse in alcoholics; t = 2.3, p = .025). The EuropASI results showed statistically significant differences in addiction severity, with alcoholics showing a greater severity than cocaine addicts. In terms of psychopathology, alcoholics presented more associated symptomatology than cocaine addicts. According to these results, patients with alcohol dependence have a different profile from patients with cocaine dependence, resulting in different repercussions for important areas of their lives. These differences should be taken into account when standard treatments for addiction are implemented.

  9. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Replication Upregulates Serine Protease Inhibitor Kazal, Resulting in Cellular Resistance to Serine Protease-Dependent Apoptosis▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Lamontagne, Jason; Pinkerton, Mark; Timothy M Block; Lu, Xuanyong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively) are different and distinct viruses, but there are striking similarities in their disease potential. Infection by either virus can cause chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and ultimately, liver cancer, despite the fact that no pathogenetic mechanisms are known which are shared by the two viruses. Our recent studies have suggested that replication of either of these viruses upregulates a cellular protein called serine protease inhibitor Kaz...

  10. Sexual addiction or hypersexual disorder: different terms for the same problem? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Wéry, Aline; Weinstein, Aviv; Cottencin, Olivier; Petit, Aymeric; Reynaud, Michel; Billieux, Jöel

    2014-01-01

    Sexual addiction, which is also known as hypersexual disorder, has largely been ignored by psychiatrists, even though the condition causes serious psychosocial problems for many people. A lack of empirical evidence on sexual addiction is the result of the disease's complete absence from versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, people who were categorized as having a compulsive, impulsive, addictive sexual disorder or a hypersexual disorder reported having obsessive thoughts and behaviors as well as sexual fantasies. Existing prevalence rates of sexual addiction-related disorders range from 3% to 6%. Sexual addiction/ hypersexual disorder is used as an umbrella construct to encompass various types of problematic behaviors, including excessive masturbation, cybersex, pornography use, sexual behavior with consenting adults, telephone sex, strip club visitation, and other behaviors. The adverse consequences of sexual addiction are similar to the consequences of other addictive disorders. Addictive, somatic and psychiatric disorders coexist with sexual addiction. In recent years, research on sexual addiction has proliferated, and screening instruments have increasingly been developed to diagnose or quantify sexual addiction disorders. In our systematic review of the existing measures, 22 questionnaires were identified. As with other behavioral addictions, the appropriate treatment of sexual addiction should combine pharmacological and psychological approaches. Psychiatric and somatic comorbidities that frequently occur with sexual addiction should be integrated into the therapeutic process. Group-based treatments should also be attempted.

  11. "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    "Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy and safety of olodaterol once daily delivered via Respimat® in patients with GOLD 2–4 COPD: results from two replicate 48-week studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson GT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gary T Ferguson,1 Gregory J Feldman,2 Peter Hofbauer,3 Alan Hamilton,4 Lisa Allen,5 Lawrence Korducki,5 Paul Sachs6 1Pulmonary Research Institute of Southeast Michigan, Livonia, MI, 2S Carolina Pharmaceutical Research, Spartanburg, SC, USA; 3Pneumologie, Weinheim, Germany; 4Boehringer Ingelheim, Burlington, ON, Canada; 5Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ridgefield, CT, 6Pulmonary Associates of Stamford, Stamford, CT, USA Background: Olodaterol is a long-acting β2-agonist with a 24-hour bronchodilator profile. Two replicate, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, Phase III trials were performed as part of a comprehensive clinical program to investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of olodaterol in patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD receiving usual-care background therapy. Methods: Patients received olodaterol 5 µg or 10 µg or placebo once daily for 48 weeks. Coprimary end points were forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 area under the curve from 0 to 3 hours (AUC0–3 response (change from baseline, and trough FEV1 response at 12 weeks. Secondary end points included additional lung function assessments, use of rescue medications, FEV1 AUC response from 0 to 12 hours, and Patient Global Rating over 48 weeks. Results: Overall, 624 and 642 patients were evaluated in studies 1222.11 and 1222.12, respectively. In both studies, olodaterol 5 µg and 10 µg significantly improved the FEV1 AUC0–3 response (P<0.0001 and trough FEV1 (study 1222.11, P<0.0001; study 1222.12, P<0.05, post hoc at week 12, with an incidence of adverse events comparable with that of placebo. Secondary end points supported the efficacy of olodaterol. Conclusion: These studies demonstrate the long-term efficacy and safety of once-daily olodaterol 5 µg and 10 µg in patients with moderate to very severe COPD continuing with usual-care maintenance therapy. Keywords: chronic obstructive

  13. GATA-4 and FOG-2 expression in pediatric ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors replicates embryonal gonadal phenotype: results from the TREP project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Virgone

    Full Text Available AIM: GATA proteins are a family of zinc finger transcription factors regulating gene expression, differentiation and proliferation in various tissues. The expression of GATA-4 and FOG-2, one of its modulators, was studied in pediatric Sex Cord-Stromal tumors of the ovary, in order to evaluate their potential role as diagnostic markers and prognostic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical and histological data of 15 patients, enrolled into the TREP Project since 2000 were evaluated. When available, immunostaines for FOG-2, GATA-4, α-Inhibin, Vimentin and Pancytokeratin were also analyzed. RESULTS: In our series there were 6 Juvenile Granulosa Cell Tumors (JGCT, 6 Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumors (SLCT, 1 Cellular Fibroma, 1 Theca Cell Tumor and 1 Stromal Sclerosing Tumor (SST. Thirteen patients obtained a complete remission (CR, 1 reached a second CR after the removal of a metachronous tumor and 1 died of disease. Inhibin was detectable in 11/15, Vimentin in 13/15, Pancytokeratin in 6/15, GATA-4 in 5/13 and FOG-2 in 11/15. FOG-2 was highly expressed in 5/6 JGCT, while GATA-4 was weakly detectable only in 1 of the cases. SLCT expressed diffusely FOG-2 (4/6 and GATA-4 (3/5. GATA-4 and FOG-2 were detected in fibroma and thecoma but not in the SST. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric granulosa tumors appear to express a FOG-2/GATA-4 phenotype in keeping with primordial ovarian follicles. High expression of GATA-4 does not correlate with aggressive behaviour as seen in adults, but it is probably involved in cell proliferation its absence can be associated with the better outcome of JGCT. SLCTs replicate the phenotype of Sertoli cells during embryogenesis in normal testis. In this group, the lack of expression of FOG-2 in tumors in advanced stages might reveal a hypothetical role in inhibiting GATA-4 cell proliferation pathway. In fibroma/thecoma group GATA-4 and FOG-2 point out the abnormal activation of GATA pathway and might be involved in the onset of these tumors.

  14. Self-replication: Nanostructure evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmel, Friedrich C.

    2017-10-01

    DNA origami nanostructures were utilized to replicate a seed pattern that resulted in the growth of populations of nanostructures. Exponential growth could be controlled by environmental conditions depending on the preferential requirements of each population.

  15. Network-based analysis reveals functional connectivity related to internet addiction tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya eWen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPreoccupation and compulsive use of the internet can have negative psychological effects, such that it is increasingly being recognized as a mental disorder. The present study employed network-based statistics to explore how whole-brain functional connections at rest is related to the extent of individual’s level of internet addiction, indexed by a self-rated questionnaire. We identified two topologically significant networks, one with connections that are positively correlated with internet addiction tendency, and one with connections negatively correlated with internet addiction tendency. The two networks are interconnected mostly at frontal regions, which might reflect alterations in the frontal region for different aspects of cognitive control (i.e., for control of internet usage and gaming skills. Next, we categorized the brain into several large regional subgroupings, and found that the majority of proportions of connections in the two networks correspond to the cerebellar model of addiction which encompasses the four-circuit model. Lastly, we observed that the brain regions with the most inter-regional connections associated with internet addiction tendency replicate those often seen in addiction literature, and is corroborated by our meta-analysis of internet addiction studies. This research provides a better understanding of large-scale networks involved in internet addiction tendency and shows that pre-clinical levels of internet addiction are associated with similar regions and connections as clinical cases of addiction.

  16. The case for compulsive shopping as an addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartston, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Addictive drugs like cocaine, opiates and nicotine, through direct or indirect means, hyperstimulate the dopamine (DA) reward system. Some behaviors, for some people, can have similar effects on the same DA reward circuitry resulting in very similar addictive behavior patterns and consequences. Although the term "addictive" has been used loosely with many behaviors, it may be an appropriate term to describe compulsive shopping. Increased accessibility, hyperstimulating marketing techniques, a loss of the protective delay between impulse and purchase, and overvaluing of the shopping process and objects purchased may all contribute to the potentially addictive nature of shopping.

  17. The psychology of health and addictions: therapeutic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisardo Becoña Iglesias

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The addiction subject is nowadays a valid one, as well as in the past century. Not only because of the increase of people that are addict, but also because of the important effects that cause on people and their environments. There are many theoretical perspectives to approach the addiction problem, but the most convenient because of its therapeutic results is the one that issupported by the psychology of health. lt is based on the integral approach to the person. This paper describes a general therapeutic scheme to work with addicts from the cognitive behaviora lperspective.

  18. Toward a grounded theory of lesbians' recovery from addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Connie R; Lorah, Peggy; Fenton, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative study on lesbians' recovery from addiction. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 lesbians in recovery from addiction and was analyzed using grounded theory method. The central theme that emerged was self-acceptance, both as a lesbian and as a recovering alcoholic/addict, with considerable interaction between the two. Categories that contributed to this theme were learning to recover, relationships with other people, and relationship with something bigger than self. The discussion addresses how this information can be used to assist lesbians trying to recover from addiction.

  19. The Addict in Us all

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Brendan; Holton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we contend that the psychology of addiction is similar to the psychology of ordinary, non-addictive temptation in important respects, and explore the ways in which these parallels can illuminate both addiction and ordinary action. The incentive salience account of addiction proposed by Robinson and Berridge (1–3) entails that addictive desires are not in their nature different from many of the desires had by non-addicts; what is different is rather the way that addictive desires are acquired, which in turn affects their strength. We examine these “incentive salience” desires, both in addicts and non-addicts, contrasting them with more cognitive desires. On this account, the self-control challenge faced by addicted agents is not different in kind from that faced by non-addicted agents – though the two may, of course, differ greatly in degree of difficulty. We explore a general model of self-control for both the addict and the non-addict, stressing that self-control may be employed at three different stages, and examining the ways in which it might be strengthened. This helps elucidate a general model of intentional action. PMID:25346699

  20. Prevention of Internet addiction: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published. PMID:27998173

  1. Prevention of Internet addiction: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published.

  2. Social activities, self-efficacy, game attitudes, and game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eui Jun; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2011-04-01

    This study examines whether social activities with parents, online and offline social self-efficacy, and attitudes toward gaming are associated with the degree of game addiction among adolescents. Using data from a survey of 600 middle- and high-school students in South Korea, we tested the relationships of personal characteristics (grade point average and time spent on gaming each day), social self-efficacy (both on- and offline), general social activities (with parents, friends, and teachers), gaming activities with parents, and attitudes toward gaming (those of self, parents, friends, and teachers) with the degree of game addiction. In addition, we conducted ANOVA tests to determine the differences among three groups: non-addicts (NA), possible (mild or moderate) addicts (PA), and Internet addicts (IA). The results show that social self-efficacy in the real world (offline) was negatively related with the degree of game addiction, whereas social self-efficacy in the virtual world (online) indicated a positive association. Social activities with parents are negatively associated with game addiction, although no relationship is found between gaming activities with parents and game addiction. Parental attitude toward gaming has a negative relationship with the addiction. Results and implications are discussed.

  3. Addiction is one of the social problems which has a significant role in the spiritual and physical health of the person, family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshte Jaliliyan

    2009-05-01

    The results of this study shows that how much higher is the individuals’ the network negative (unhealthy relation before and next addiction, the degree (intensity of their involvement in addiction will be more. In addition, among the studied subjects, the addicted in three groups (addicted with low involvement, addicted with middle involvement and addicted with high involvement are different regarding to the power and weakness of the dimensions of the net of healthy as well as the net of unhealthy relations.

  4. Comparison of temperament and character personality traits in opiate and stimulant addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadeghi Pouya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenomenon of addiction as one of the social problems has a high prevalence, especially among youth. The aim of the present study was to compare personality traits based on the temperament and character inventory in opiate and stimulant addicts in Tehran.  Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study, 60 male addicts (30 opiate and 30 stimulant addicts who referred to addiction treatment centers in the suburbs of Tehran were selected through convenience sampling method and were studied using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. The participants were sorted according to their age and education.    Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to harm avoidance, reward dependence, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence traits. Thus, opiate addicts had higher levels of harm avoidance, reward dependence, and cooperativeness, and stimulant addicts had higher levels of self-transcendence. The significance level was set at P<0.01.  Conclusion: The obtained results showed that there was a significant difference between opiate and stimulant addicts. Opiate addicts gained higher scores, compared with stimulant addicts, in Temperament and Character Inventory variables. The obtained results also showed that stimulant addicts were suffering from more severe disorders than opiate addicts. Based on the means of the values of the TCI, personality traits reflecting personality disorders are detectable and predictable in substance abusers. This new understanding is important in the prevention and treatment of addiction.

  5. [Complications of cocaine addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Lowenstein, William; Coscas, Sarah; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2009-06-20

    Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by repetitive and compulsive drug-seeking behavior and drug abuse despite negative health or social consequences. Cocaine addiction is a significant worldwide public health problem, which has somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and judicial complications. Some of the most frequent complications are cardiovascular effects (acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrhythmias, increased blood pressure); respiratory effects (fibrosis, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension, alveolar haemorrhage, asthma exacerbation; emphysema), neurological effects (strokes, aneurysms, seizures, headaches); risk for contracting HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, sexual transmitted disease and otolaryngologic effects. Other complications are not discussed here. The vast majority of studies indicate that there are cognitive deficits induced by cocaine addiction. Attention, visual and working memories, executive functioning are affected in cocaine users. Psychiatric complications found in clinical practice are major depressive disorders, cocaine-induced paranoia, cocaine-induced compulsive foraging and panic attacks.

  6. Food addiction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelchat, Marcia Levin

    2009-03-01

    Most of the evidence for or against food addiction in humans focuses on similarities between food craving and drug craving. There are numerous parallels in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry, and learning. Indeed, brain mechanisms for craving probably evolved to promote seeking of natural rewards and are taken over by drugs of abuse. Healthy, normal weight individuals, by definition, do not suffer from food addiction; however, overweight and obese individuals could meet clinical criteria. Palatable foods are not responsible for the obesity problem, because even nonpalatable foods can come to be desired and potentially overconsumed. It may be the way in which foods are consumed (e.g. alternating access and restriction) rather than their sensory properties that leads to an addictive eating pattern.

  7. Reducing the health consequences of opioid addiction in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Sarah; Eiserman, Julie; Beletsky, Leo; Stancliff, Sharon; Bruce, R Douglas

    2013-07-01

    Addiction to prescription opioids is prevalent in primary care settings. Increasing prescription opioid use is largely responsible for a parallel increase in overdose nationally. Many patients most at risk for addiction and overdose come into regular contact with primary care providers. Lack of routine addiction screening results in missed treatment opportunities in this setting. We reviewed the literature on screening and brief interventions for addictive disorders in primary care settings, focusing on opioid addiction. Screening and brief interventions can improve health outcomes for chronic illnesses including diabetes, hypertension, and asthma. Similarly, through the use of screening and brief interventions, patients with addiction can achieve improved health outcome. A spectrum of low-threshold care options can reduce the negative health consequences among individuals with opioid addiction. Screening in primary care coupled with short interventions, including motivational interviewing, syringe distribution, naloxone prescription for overdose prevention, and buprenorphine treatment are effective ways to manage addiction and its associated risks and improve health outcomes for individuals with opioid addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Naltrexone for the treatment of comorbid tobacco and pornography addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, Noah A

    2017-03-01

    Co-occurring addictive disorders are common, however treatment strategies for this population have not been extensively studied. This is especially the case for behavioral addictions. We present a patient (N = 1) with tobacco use disorder and problematic pornography use treated with naltrexone. Naltrexone treatment resulted in a decrease in pornography viewing and cigarette smoking, however had the adverse effect of anhedonia. A lower dose modestly impacted pornography viewing but not smoking. Relevant literature regarding co-occurring addictions as well as use of naltrexone is reviewed. This report represents the first case of tobacco and pornography co-addiction in the literature and supports the assertion that treatment of one addictive disorder can benefit another in the dually addicted patient. The efficacy of naltrexone for smoking is notable as previous studies of naltrexone in smoking have been disappointing. This case suggests future treatment strategies for comorbid addictions. (Am J Addict 2017;26:115-117). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. Adolescent Internet Addiction in Hong Kong: Prevalence, Change, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2016-02-01

    Prevalence, change, and correlates of adolescent Internet addiction were examined in this study on the basis of six waves of longitudinal data collected over 6 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Over 6 years, students responded to a questionnaire containing measures of sociodemographic characteristics, positive youth development, family processes, and Internet addiction behavior. The prevalence rates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents ranged from 17% to 26.8% during the high school years. Male students consistently showed a higher prevalence rate of Internet addiction and more Internet addictive behaviors than did female students. Longitudinal data suggested that although family economic disadvantage served as a risk factor for youth Internet addiction, the effects of family intactness and family functioning were not significant. Students' overall positive youth development and general positive youth development qualities were negatively related to Internet addictive behaviors and prosocial attributes had a positive relationship with youth Internet addiction. The results suggest that promotion of positive youth development is a promising direction for preventing Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. Gender and family economic disadvantage must be considered in design of the related prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treat...

  11. Reproducibility of tDCS Results in a Randomized Trial: Failure to Replicate Findings of tDCS-Induced Enhancement of Verbal Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannorsdall, Tracy D; van Steenburgh, J Jason; Schretlen, David J; Jayatillake, Rasika; Skolasky, Richard L; Gordon, Barry

    2016-03-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been shown to enhance verbal productivity, but the finding and extent of enhancement vary across studies. Few attempts to replicate positive tDCS findings have been reported, suggesting the possibility of publication bias. We aimed to replicate the tDCS methodology and findings of Cattaneo, Pisoni, and Papagno (2011, Neuroscience 183:64-70) in a new population sample. We hypothesized that our study of anodal tDCS would improve verbal fluency production similarly to the original study. In our single-blind, sham-controlled crossover experiment, 14 healthy young adults were randomly assigned to receive 2 mA of anodal and sham stimulation to the Broca area in counterbalanced order before completing verbal fluency tasks. Participants tolerated the stimulation well. Despite closely mirroring the original study methods, we saw no main effect of stimulation condition: F1,13=0.002, P=0.97, letter fluency sham mean (standard deviation)=16.8 (2.3), letter fluency anodal=17.5 (3.8), category fluency sham=25.3 (5.4), or category fluency anodal=24.7 (5.2), η≤0.01. While tDCS may enhance cerebral functions in general, the lack of consistency between studies suggests either that this tDCS protocol does not affect verbal fluency or, at minimum, that tDCS may be more sensitive to experimental conditions than has been thought. Our findings also highlight the need for replication studies in brain stimulation research. ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier NCT01602263).

  12. Co-occurring Disordered Gambling Among Treatment-Seekers at a Community Outpatient Addiction Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Igor; Borodovsky, Jacob; Howard, Margaret; Scoglio, Arielle; Steinkamp, Jackson; Sobieszczyk, Amy; Mysels, David; Albanese, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Parallel to the ongoing expansion of legalized gambling activities is a growing concern about rising occurrence of uncontrollable gambling. People with preexisting gambling and/or chemical addictions may be particularly vulnerable, but the extent of such co-occurring conditions and their demographic and clinical characteristics have not been sufficiently elucidated. To that end, the present study attempted to both, quantify the presence and to characterize co-occurring pathological or problem gambling (ie, respectively, at least 1- or at least 5 pathological gambling criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) among treatment-seeking patients at a community outpatient addiction program. The patients were assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen and their charts were reviewed for the extraction of demographic and clinical information according to a predetermined template. Data from 183 subjects withstood quality control procedures and were included. The prevalence rates of co-occurring problem- (18.6%) and pathological (10.9%) gambling were strikingly higher than those found in the general population (2% and 0.5%, respectively). No increase in the clinical severity indices was observed across the gambling groups. Our data replicate those of prior studies reporting heightened prevalence of problematic gambling in patients with substance use disorders and extend the prior findings by including a subject population of treatment-seekers. In the era of the gambling industry growth, these results call for creation and/or adjustment of clinical addiction services to meet emerging preventive and therapeutic needs.

  13. Organization of Replication of Ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linskens, Maarten H.K.; Huberman, Joel A.

    1988-01-01

    Using recently developed replicon mapping techniques, we have analyzed the replication of the ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results show that (i) the functional origin of replication colocalizes with an autonomously replicating sequence element previously mapped to the

  14. Patterns of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 recombination ex vivo provide evidence for coadaptation of distant sites, resulting in purifying selection for intersubtype recombinants during replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galli, Andrea; Kearney, Mary; Nikolaitchik, Olga A

    2010-01-01

    in human populations. We hypothesize that sequence diversity affects the emergence of viable recombinants by decreasing recombination events and reducing the ability of the recombinants to replicate. To test our hypothesis, we compared recombination between two viruses containing subtype B pol genes (B....../F than in B/B viruses, and the overall distribution of crossover junctions in pol was similar for the two classes of recombinants. We then examined the emergence of recombinants in a multiple cycle assay, so that functional pol gene products were selected. We found that the emerging B/B recombinants had...

  15. People Control Their Addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton Peele

    2016-12-01

    Ironically, the brain disease model's ascendance in the U.S. corresponds with epidemic rises in opiate addiction, both painkillers (Brady et al., 2016 and heroin (CDC, n.d., as well as heroin, painkiller, and tranquilizer poisoning deaths (Rudd et al., 2016. More to the point, the conceptual and treatment goal of eliminating choice in addiction and recovery is not only futile, but iatrogenic. Indeed, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's epidemiological surveys, while finding natural recovery for both drug and alcohol disorders to be typical, has found a decline in natural recovery rates (Dawson et al., 2005 and a sharp increase in AUDs (Grant et al., 2015.

  16. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  17. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... to promote genome integrity during DNA replication. This includes suppressing new replication origin firing, stabilization of replicating forks, and the safe restart of forks to prevent any loss of genetic information. Here, we describe mechanisms by which oncogenes can interfere with DNA replication thereby...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  18. The Effect of Adolescents' Internet Addiction on Smartphone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayar, Dijle; Bektas, Murat; Bektas, Ilknur; Akdeniz Kudubes, Asli; Selekoglu Ok, Yasemin; Sal Altan, Sema; Celik, Isa

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adolescents' Internet addiction levels on smartphone addiction. This study included 609 students from three high schools that are located in western Turkey. Numbers, percentages, and averages were used to evaluate the sociodemographic data. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests were used to determine whether the data had a normal distribution. The average age of the participants was 12.3 ± 0.9 years. Of them, 52.3% were male, and 42.8% were 10th graders. All participants had smartphones, and 89.4% of them connected to the Internet continuously with their smartphones. The study found that there was a statistically significant correlation between Internet addiction and smartphone addiction. It was determined that male adolescents with high levels of Internet addiction also had high smartphone addiction levels. On the other hand, sociodemographic variables had no statistically significant effect on smartphone addiction. A number of studies in the relevant literature examined the effects of Internet addiction on adolescents' smartphone addiction. However, findings of this study are unique because they are specific to the Turkish culture, and there is a limited database in Turkey regarding this issue. The researchers believe that the findings of this study will be beneficial to show the importance of the issue in the international arena and to guide further studies to prevent this addiction because there is no reliable database about smartphone addiction in Turkey.

  19. Aftercare to chemically addicted adolescents: An exploration of their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-29

    Apr 29, 2013 ... Epidemiology Network on Drug Use (2010) that found an increase in demand for treatment of .... addiction. The above research problem resulted in the following research question: 'What are the specific aftercare needs of chemically addicted adolescents .... Other chemical substances (marijuana, mandrax,.

  20. Relation between Depression, Loneliness, Self-Esteem and Internet Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayas, Tuncay; Horzum, Mehmet Baris

    2013-01-01

    Problem: Internet addiction has been emerged as a result of excessive internet misuse. In this study, analyzing the effects of depression, loneliness and self-esteem has been aimed in the prediction of the internet addiction levels of secondary education students. Method: The research is conducted according to the cross-sectional model as one of…

  1. REGULASI KORTISOL PADA KONDISI STRES DAN ADDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisdiana -

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stres adalah suatu kondisi dimanan tuntutan yang harus dipenuhi melebihi kemampuan yang dimilikinya, penyebab stres dinamakan stresor. Stres dapat terjadi akibat ketidakmampuan seseorang dalam merespon suatu stresor, sehingga dapat mengakibatkan gangguan badan atau jiwa. Addiction adalah suatu dorongan yang kuat, seperti dipaksakan untuk mengulangi suatu perbuatan tertentu meskipun tahu akan berakibat merugikan. Stress dan adicction akibat penyalahgunaan narkotika akan direspon oleh Hipotlamus-Pituitary-Adrenalin (HPA-axis, sehingga menye-babkan kadar hormon kortisol akan meningkat. Desain penelitian adalah Quasi-Eksperimental dengan Randomized Control Pretest-Postest Design Dengan subyek penelitian 22 Addict recovery yang memenuhi kriteria inklusi dan eksklusi di Balai Kasih Sayang Pamardisiwi BNN Jakata.Variabel yang diukur adalah hormone yang disekresikan oleh HPA-axis, yakni hormon kortisol. Pemeriksaan kadar kortisol dengan menggunakan Radioimmunoassay (RIA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kadar kortisol pada Addict recovery yang menjalani rehabilitasi sebesar 9,2 – 13,97 µg/dl dan 16,5-16,9 µg/dl pada Addict recovery yang tidak menjalani rehabilitasi. Hal ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa terjadi perubahan hormone yang disekresikan HPA-axis pada kondisi stress dan addiction. Stress is a condition where the demands to be met is beyond the capabilities of a person, and something that causes a stress is called stressor. Stress can occur as a result of the inability of a person in responding a stressor, and the stress can cause physical or mental disorders. Addiction is a strong drive, forced to repeat a particular action even it is known that it will harm the body. Stress and adicction to drug abuse will be responded by the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenalin (HPA-axis, causing the levels of the hormone cortisol to rise. The study design was a randomized Quasi-Experimental Control Pretest-posttest design with 22 addict recovery study

  2. Is exercise addiction in fitness centers a socially accepted behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Beck Lichtenstein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fitness exercise is popular and associated with improved health and social status. Taken to extremes, however, exercise can become an addiction. One suggested symptom of exercise addiction is “conflicts” with family and friends. However, it may be difficult to recognize excessive exercise patterns if they are accepted and encouraged by relatives. The aim of this study was to explore if fitness exercisers with a high risk of addiction experienced the same level of exercise support as exercisers with a low risk of addiction. Furthermore, we wanted to examine if social support affected the subjective reporting of “conflicts”. Method: A total of 577 fitness exercisers completed the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI and two questions asking about “exercise support from family and friends” and “present eating disorder”. Results: Exercisers at high risk of exercise addiction reported the same level of support from relatives as those at low risk. Exercisers with high levels of exercise support reported significantly fewer conflicts, even if they were at high risk of addiction. If an eating disorder was present, the level of exercise support was significantly reduced. Conclusion: Exercise addiction might be difficult to identify with the general behavioral addiction symptom “conflict”, since exercise is socially accepted even in subjects with high risk of exercise addiction. If an eating disorder is present, the exercise routines seem to be interpreted as socially undesirable. Screening for exercise addiction with the EAI should take into account that fitness exercisers rarely report conflicts, which could result in false negative cases.

  3. Functional characterization of replication and stability factors of an incompatibility group P-1 plasmid from Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Woo; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Stenger, Drake C

    2010-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa strain riv11 harbors a 25-kbp plasmid (pXF-RIV11) belonging to the IncP-1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXF-RIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to replicate in X. fastidiosa and Escherichia coli. Replication in X. fastidiosa required a 1.4-kbp region from pXF-RIV11 containing a replication initiation gene (trfA) and the adjacent origin of DNA replication (oriV). Constructs containing trfA and oriV from pVEIS01, a related IncP-1 plasmid of the earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae, also were competent for replication in X. fastidiosa. Constructs derived from pXF-RIV11 but not pVEIS01 replicated in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Xanthomonas campestris, and Pseudomonas syringae. Although plasmids bearing replication elements from pXF-RIV11 or pVEIS01 could be maintained in X. fastidiosa under antibiotic selection, removal of selection resulted in plasmid extinction after 3 weekly passages. Addition of a toxin-antitoxin addiction system (pemI/pemK) from pXF-RIV11 improved plasmid stability such that >80 to 90% of X. fastidiosa cells retained plasmid after 5 weekly passages in the absence of antibiotic selection. Expression of PemK in E. coli was toxic for cell growth, but toxicity was nullified by coexpression of PemI antitoxin. Deletion of N-terminal sequences of PemK containing the conserved motif RGD abolished toxicity. In vitro assays revealed a direct interaction of PemI with PemK, suggesting that antitoxin activity of PemI is mediated by toxin sequestration. IncP-1 plasmid replication and stability factors were added to an E. coli cloning vector to constitute a stable 6.0-kbp shuttle vector (pXF20-PEMIK) suitable for use in X. fastidiosa.

  4. Interoception and Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Martin P.; Stewart, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The role of interoception and its neural basis with relevance to drug addiction is reviewed. Interoception consists of the receiving, processing, and integrating body-relevant signals with external stimuli to affect ongoing motivated behavior. The insular cortex is the central nervous system hub to process and integrate these signals. Interoception is an important component of several addiction relevant constructs including arousal, attention, stress, reward, and conditioning. Imaging studies with drug-addicted individuals show that the insular cortex is hypo-active during cognitive control processes but hyperactive during cue reactivity and drug-specific, reward-related processes. It is proposed that interoception contributes to drug addiction by incorporating an “embodied” experience of drug uses together with the individual’s predicted versus actual internal state to modulate approach or avoidance behavior, i.e. whether to take or not to take drugs. This opens the possibility of two types of interventions. First, one may be able to modulate the embodied experience by enhancing insula reactivity where necessary, e.g. when engaging in drug seeking behavior, or attenuating insula when exposed to drug-relevant cues. Second, one may be able to reduce the urge to act by increasing the frontal control network, i.e. inhibiting the urge to use by employing cognitive training. PMID:23855999

  5. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment.

  6. Addiction, risk, and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamani, Allaman

    2007-01-01

    Addiction is a contemporary social issue bound to the myth of self-control and control of the other, which is typical of the contemporary "market ideology" society. In its broad definition it includes not only the use and misuse of "substances" and addictive behaviors, but also the concept of risk. There is a continuum between "addicted behaviors" and behaviors that are not "addicted" but may induce and/or be related to both physical and psycho-social problems on a micro- to macrolevel. Different studies have documented substantial changes in the consumption of tobacco, drugs, alcoholic beverages, as well as "junk foods" during the last decades in various countries. All too often politicians, health administrators, and local providers believe that consumption prevention programs are able, per se, to effect such changes. In fact, the impact of factors such as international trade, globalization and societal values, among many others, are considered relevant. On the other hand, sufficient place must be given to national and community-based preventive initiatives.

  7. Addictions in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the prevalence, health consequences, and determinants of adolescents’ substance use is provided in this article on adolescence and addictions. Additionally, prevention and treatment efforts and the effectiveness are discussed. The emphasis is on alcohol, smoking, and cannabis use.

  8. Addiction and the Utilization of Medical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ju Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of different scales of addictive factors on the utilization of medical services in this paper using a two-part model. Data are from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey and the claims data in the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. The results show that personal addictive behavior is significantly associated with both outpatient and inpatient utilization. Moreover, our result implies that those who smoked at least 20 cigarettes per day might not visit a doctor until the illness was severe. It suggests that the government can accomplish these goals by promotion and education in order to increase public awareness of personal health.

  9. Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola Gutiérrez, José; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Rubio, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell-phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell-phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell-phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

  10. Nicotine addiction and smoking cessation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kourakos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of tobacco was first reported in the 6th century BC, but the 20th century has been marked by the widespread use of tobacco and the establishment and expansion of large tobacco companies. The public health community did not address initially smoking as harmful and addictive, despite the fact that many other observers of human behavior (authors, psychologists, religious leaders had stressed out its addictive characteristics. In the late 1980s, the acceptance of the addictive nature of tobacco resulted in development of healthcare services aiming at supporting people quit smoking and legislation regarding sale, distribution and advertising of tobacco products. Nicotine dependence is a chronic condition for which effective therapeutic interventions are required. Smokers, unlike other substances addicts, do not recognize their addiction and the nicotine withdrawal syndrome that they experience. For establishing the degree of dependence various tools can be used, such as the method of the 4 Cs (compulsion, control, cutting down, consequences or validated questionnaires (CAGE, Fagerström Test for Nicotine. The main smoking cessation strategies use replacement therapy with various products (patch, gum, etc, medications (bupropion, varenicline and/or counseling. These interventions are clinically efficient but also cost-effective, compared to prevention and treatment of diseases associated with smoking. Smoking cessation interventions should be offered to every smoker and provided by their health insurance.

  11. [Internet addiction and web-mediated psychopathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonioni, Federico; Corvino, Stefano

    2011-11-01

    The development of the Internet and its gradual mass distribution in the last 20 years have marked the beginning of a global revolution in the way of communicating and thinking. In this context, emerged disorders related to a pathological use of the network, up to forms of real addiction (Internet Addiction Disorder), similar to the use of psychotropic substances. The abuse of the Internet can seriously aggravate pre-existing psychopathological traits, which are the basis of addiction, resulting in a continuous process of disconnection from reality. The loss of interpersonal relationships, the change of mood, cognition completely oriented to the use of the network and disruption of temporal experience are common features in patients addicted to the Internet. There are also clear signs of intoxication and abstinence. Teenagers are particularly at risk, maybe because born in the "new virtual world" and therefore less aware of the risks that may ensue. At the Gemelli Hospital in Rome it's active an out-patient service for Internet Addiction Disorder with a treatment protocol that includes individual interviews, group rehabilitation and self-help groups for family members.

  12. The uses and abuses of Facebook: A review of Facebook addiction

    OpenAIRE

    RYAN, TRACII; CHESTER, ANDREA; Reece, John; XENOS, SOPHIA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims: Recent research suggests that use of social networking sites can be addictive for some individuals. Due to the link between motivations for media use and the development of addiction, this systematic review examines Facebook-related uses and gratifications research and Facebook addiction research. Method: Searches of three large academic databases revealed 24 studies examining the uses and gratifications of Facebook, and nine studies of Facebook addiction. Result...

  13. The Comparison of Cervical Repositioning Errors According to Smartphone Addiction Grades

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, JeonHyeong; Seo, KyoChul

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades of adults in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of smartphone addiction was conducted of 200 adults. Based on the survey results, 30 subjects were chosen to participate in this study, and they were divided into three groups of 10; a Normal Group, a Moderate Addiction Group, and a Severe Addiction Group. After attaching a C-ROM, we measured the cervical repositionin...

  14. Failed spinal anesthesia in addicts: Is it an incidence or coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M.I. Youssef

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of failure of the intrathecal anesthesia seemed to be higher in the addict than in non-addict patients. Redo intrathecal injection with a top up 1/2 of the initial dose resulted in success of the block in all failed cases. There was a slower onset and decreased duration of both sensory and motor blocks, with higher incidence of hypotension and nausea more in the addict patients than in non-addicts.

  15. Internet addiction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction. Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behavior. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction.

  16. Boredom Proneness, Social Connectedness, and Sexual Addiction among Men Who Have Sex with Male Internet Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Michael P.; Blalock, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors collected surveys from 517 men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited from Internet chat rooms to examine the relationships among boredom, social connectedness, and sexual addiction. The results provide addictions professionals psychosocial factors to assess when working with sexually addicted MSM. (Contains 3 tables.)

  17. Technology Addiction: How Social Network Sites Impact our Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Gerhart

    2017-09-01

    understanding of what is meant. These findings help guide assumptions about the dark side of Information Technology. Impact on Society: While technology use is increasing, younger generations may find the use to be acceptable and less of a problem then older generations. Future Research: Future research should replicate these findings on other technology artifacts and other technology addiction definitions. In the future, there is also opportunity to delve deeper into the outcome variable of satisfaction with life.

  18. Sex Differences in Psychiatric Comorbidity and Plasma Biomarkers for Cocaine Addiction in Abstinent Cocaine-Addicted Subjects in Outpatient Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraz, María; Araos, Pedro; García-Marchena, Nuria; Serrano, Antonia; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Suárez, Juan; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermín; Ruiz, Juan Jesús; Pastor, Antoni; Barrios, Vicente; Chowen, Julie A.; Argente, Jesús; Torrens, Marta; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodríguez De Fonseca, Fernando; Pavón, Francisco Javier

    2015-01-01

    There are sex differences in the progression of drug addiction, relapse, and response to therapies. Because biological factors participate in these differences, they should be considered when using biomarkers for addiction. In the current study, we evaluated the sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity and the concentrations of plasma mediators that have been reported to be affected by cocaine. Fifty-five abstinent cocaine-addicted subjects diagnosed with lifetime cocaine use disorders (40 men and 15 women) and 73 healthy controls (48 men and 25 women) were clinically assessed with the diagnostic interview “Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders.” Plasma concentrations of chemokines, cytokines, N-acyl-ethanolamines, and 2-acyl-glycerols were analyzed according to history of cocaine addiction and sex, controlling for covariates age and body mass index (BMI). Relationships between these concentrations and variables related to cocaine addiction were also analyzed in addicted subjects. The results showed that the concentrations of chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2/monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (CCL2/MCP-1) and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12/stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12/SDF-1) were only affected by history of cocaine addiction. The plasma concentrations of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) were affected by history of cocaine addiction and sex. In fact, whereas cytokine concentrations were higher in control women relative to men, these concentrations were reduced in cocaine-addicted women without changes in addicted men. Regarding fatty acid derivatives, history of cocaine addiction had a main effect on the concentration of each acyl derivative, whereas N-acyl-ethanolamines were increased overall in the cocaine group, 2-acyl-glycerols were decreased. Interestingly, N-palmitoleoyl-ethanolamine (POEA) was only increased in cocaine-addicted women. The covariate BMI had a significant

  19. Challenges for Game Addiction as a Mental Health Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian; Aarseth, Espen; Poulsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    . The validity of the prevalent instruments used to assess the prevalence of computer game addiction is examined in a cross-disciplinary context. The argument of the project is that research on computer game addiction is limited by mono-disciplinary approaches that fail to capture significant nuances at the cost...... of validity of results and instruments. The lack of communication between researchers has resulted in qualitative research that deny the existence of computer game addiction and quantitative research that assert the existence and prevalence of the phenomenon. Qualitative research cannot claim to capture......In this paper, we outline the proposed PhD project: "Challenges for Game Addiction as a Mental Health Diagnosis". The project aims to bridge gaps between the perspectives, theories and data of current research trajectories that engage with the concept of game addiction; from psychology, psychiatry...

  20. Online video game addiction: identification of addicted adolescent gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooij, Antonius J; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Vermulst, Ad A; Van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Van de Mheen, Dike

    2011-01-01

    To provide empirical data-driven identification of a group of addicted online gamers. Repeated cross-sectional survey study, comprising a longitudinal cohort, conducted in 2008 and 2009. Secondary schools in the Netherlands.   Two large samples of Dutch schoolchildren (aged 13-16 years). Compulsive internet use scale, weekly hours of online gaming and psychosocial variables. This study confirms the existence of a small group of addicted online gamers (3%), representing about 1.5% of all children aged 13-16 years in the Netherlands. Although these gamers report addiction-like problems, relationships with decreased psychosocial health were less evident. The identification of a small group of addicted online gamers supports efforts to develop and validate questionnaire scales aimed at measuring the phenomenon of online video game addiction. The findings contribute to the discussion on the inclusion of non-substance addictions in the proposed unified concept of 'Addiction and Related Disorders' for the DSM-V by providing indirect identification and validation of a group of suspected online video game addicts. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Role of Self-help Group in Substance Addiction Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prangya Paramita Priyadarshini

    2012-11-01

    Background: The Narcotics Anonymous (NA)/Alcoholic Anonymous(AA) is based on the philosophy of self-help, where the former addicts and recovering addicts share experiences, provide emotional support and do active monitoring through mentoring. In mentoring, a former addict with longer duration of drug-free life acts as a guide to the newly recovering addict. Objective: The objective was to study the effect of involvement in self help group upon addictís level of depression, functional social support, and anxiety. Method: The size of the sample was 60. 30 addicts were taken from rehabilitation centre and 30 were taken from self-help groups. ANOVA was used to analyze the result. Result: In all the criteria it was found that there exists a significant impact of Self-help group. Conclusion: Self-help group provide clients with a social network of individuals with similar problems and experiences, since most of these individuals may be isolated from society due to the social stigma attached to their addictions. The transition from being help recipients to being helpers enables recovering addicts to build their self-confidence and feelings of being wanted and desired in society, which facilitates their self-confidence and positive self-esteem.

  2. Addictive internet use among Korean adolescents: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongho Heo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A psychological disorder called 'Internet addiction' has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13-18 year olds from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level nested within schools (2nd level to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use.

  3. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongil Kim

    Full Text Available This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1 disturbance of adaptive functions, (2 virtual life orientation, (3 withdrawal, and (4 tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49. For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034. Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.

  4. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.

  5. Addictive internet use among Korean adolescents: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S V; Kim, Yoon; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    A psychological disorder called 'Internet addiction' has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13-18 year olds) from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level) nested within schools (2nd level) to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use.

  6. Instagram addiction and the Big Five of personality: The mediating role of self-liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircaburun, Kagan; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-02-20

    Background and aims Recent research has suggested that social networking site use can be addictive. Although extensive research has been carried out on potential addiction to social networking sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Tinder, only one very small study has previously examined potential addiction to Instagram. Consequently, the objectives of this study were to examine the relationships between personality, self-liking, daily Internet use, and Instagram addiction, as well as exploring the mediating role of self-liking between personality and Instagram addiction using path analysis. Methods A total of 752 university students completed a self-report survey, including the Instagram Addiction Scale (IAS), the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and the Self-Liking Scale. Results Results indicated that agreeableness, conscientiousness, and self-liking were negatively associated with Instagram addiction, whereas daily Internet use was positively associated with Instagram addiction. The results also showed that self-liking partially mediated the relationship of Instagram addiction with agreeableness and fully mediated the relationship between Instagram addiction with conscientiousness. Discussion and conclusions This study contributes to the small body of literature that has examined the relationship between personality and social networking site addiction and is one of only two studies to examine the addictive use of Instagram and the underlying factors related to it.

  7. Fast Food, Addiction, and Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M.; Hamilton, Stephen F

    2007-01-01

    Many attribute the rise in obesity since the early 1980's to the overconsumption of fast food. A dynamic model of a different-product industry equilibrium shows that a firm with market power will price below marginal cost in a steady-state equilibrium. A spatial hedonic pricing model is used to test whether fast food firms set prices in order to exploit their inherent addictiveness. The results show that firms price products dense in addictive nutrients below marginal cost, but price products...

  8. The evolution of replicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szathmáry, E

    2000-01-01

    Replicators of interest in chemistry, biology and culture are briefly surveyed from a conceptual point of view. Systems with limited heredity have only a limited evolutionary potential because the number of available types is too low. Chemical cycles, such as the formose reaction, are holistic replicators since replication is not based on the successive addition of modules. Replicator networks consisting of catalytic molecules (such as reflexively autocatalytic sets of proteins, or reproducing lipid vesicles) are hypothetical ensemble replicators, and their functioning rests on attractors of their dynamics. Ensemble replicators suffer from the paradox of specificity: while their abstract feasibility seems to require a high number of molecular types, the harmful effect of side reactions calls for a small system size. No satisfactory solution to this problem is known. Phenotypic replicators do not pass on their genotypes, only some aspects of the phenotype are transmitted. Phenotypic replicators with limited heredity include genetic membranes, prions and simple memetic systems. Memes in human culture are unlimited hereditary, phenotypic replicators, based on language. The typical path of evolution goes from limited to unlimited heredity, and from attractor-based to modular (digital) replicators. PMID:11127914

  9. Barriers to female sex addiction treatment in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuffar, Manpreet K.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the last 20 years, behavioral addictions (e.g., addictions to gambling, playing video games, work, etc.) have become more accepted among both public and scientific communities. Addiction to sex is arguably a more controversial issue, but this does not take away from the fact that some individuals seek professional help for problematic excessive sex, irrespective of how the behavior is conceptualized. Empirical evidence suggests that among treatment seekers, men are more likely than women to seek help for sex addiction (SA). Methods Using the behavioral addiction literature and the authors’ own expertise in researching female SA, this paper examines potential barriers to the treatment for female sex addicts. Results Four main types of barriers for female sex addicts not seeking treatment were identified. These comprised (a) individual barriers, (b) social barriers, (c) research barriers, and (d) treatment barriers. Conclusions Further research is needed to either confirm or disconfirm the identified barriers that female sex addicts face when seeking treatment, and if conformation is found, interested stakeholders should provide better awareness and/or see ways in which such barriers can be overcome to aid better uptake of SA services. PMID:27784181

  10. Addiction is not a brain disease (and it matters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil eLevy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The claim that addiction is a brain disease is almost universally accepted among scientists who work on addiction. The claim’s attraction rests on two grounds: the fact that addiction seems to be characterized by dysfunction in specific neural pathways and the fact that the claim seems to the compassionate response to people who are suffering. I argue that neural dysfunction is not sufficient for disease: something is a brain disease only when neural dysfunction is sufficient for impairment. I claim that the neural dysfunction that is characteristic of addiction is not sufficient for impairment, because people who suffer from that dysfunction are impaired, sufficiently to count as diseased, only given certain features of their context. Hence addiction is not a brain disease (though it is often a disease, and it may always involve brain dysfunction. I argue that accepting that addiction is not a brain disease does not entail a moralizing attitude toward people who suffer as a result of addiction; if anything, it allows for a more compassionate, and more effective, response to addiction.

  11. The development of indonesian online game addiction questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jap, Tjibeng; Tiatri, Sri; Jaya, Edo Sebastian; Suteja, Mekar Sari

    2013-01-01

    Online game is an increasingly popular source of entertainment for all ages, with relatively prevalent negative consequences. Addiction is a problem that has received much attention. This research aims to develop a measure of online game addiction for Indonesian children and adolescents. The Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire draws from earlier theories and research on the internet and game addiction. Its construction is further enriched by including findings from qualitative interviews and field observation to ensure appropriate expression of the items. The measure consists of 7 items with a 5-point Likert Scale. It is validated by testing 1,477 Indonesian junior and senior high school students from several schools in Manado, Medan, Pontianak, and Yogyakarta. The validation evidence is shown by item-total correlation and criterion validity. The Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire has good item-total correlation (ranging from 0.29 to 0.55) and acceptable reliability (α = 0.73). It is also moderately correlated with the participant's longest time record to play online games (r = 0.39; ponline games (ρ = 0.43; ponline games (ρ = 0.41; ponline games (ρ = 0.30; ponline game addiction, and the score of 22 and above may indicate online game addiction. Overall, the result shows that Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire has sufficient psychometric property for research use, as well as limited clinical application.

  12. The Dynamics of Addiction: Craving versus Self-Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Grasman

    Full Text Available This study deals with addictive acts that exhibit a stable pattern not intervening with the normal routine of daily life. Nevertheless, in the long term such behaviour may result in health damage. Alcohol consumption is an example of such addictive habit. The aim is to describe the process of addiction as a dynamical system in the way this is done in the natural and technological sciences. The dynamics of the addictive behaviour is described by a mathematical model consisting of two coupled difference equations. They determine the change in time of two state variables, craving and self-control. The model equations contain terms that represent external forces such as societal rules, peer influences and cues. The latter are formulated as events that are Poisson distributed in time. With the model it is shown how a person can get addicted when changing lifestyle. Although craving is the dominant variable in the process of addiction, the moment of getting dependent is clearly marked by a switch in a variable that fits the definition of addiction vulnerability in the literature. Furthermore, the way chance affects a therapeutic addiction intervention is analysed by carrying out a Monte Carlo simulation. Essential in the dynamical model is a nonlinear component which determines the configuration of the two stable states of the system: being dependent or not dependent. Under identical external conditions both may be stable (hysteresis. With the dynamical systems approach possible switches between the two states are explored (repeated relapses.

  13. Internet Addiction Phenomenon in Early Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age = 12.59 ± 0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age = 13.50 ± 0.75 years) at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%), 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young's 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out. PMID:22778694

  14. Barriers to female sex addiction treatment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuffar, Manpreet K; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Background Over the last 20 years, behavioral addictions (e.g., addictions to gambling, playing video games, work, etc.) have become more accepted among both public and scientific communities. Addiction to sex is arguably a more controversial issue, but this does not take away from the fact that some individuals seek professional help for problematic excessive sex, irrespective of how the behavior is conceptualized. Empirical evidence suggests that among treatment seekers, men are more likely than women to seek help for sex addiction (SA). Methods Using the behavioral addiction literature and the authors' own expertise in researching female SA, this paper examines potential barriers to the treatment for female sex addicts. Results Four main types of barriers for female sex addicts not seeking treatment were identified. These comprised (a) individual barriers, (b) social barriers, (c) research barriers, and (d) treatment barriers. Conclusions Further research is needed to either confirm or disconfirm the identified barriers that female sex addicts face when seeking treatment, and if conformation is found, interested stakeholders should provide better awareness and/or see ways in which such barriers can be overcome to aid better uptake of SA services.

  15. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  16. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999

  17. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB.

  18. Internet addiction is associated with social anxiety in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Dorani, Dikla; Elhadif, Rotem; Bukovza, Yehely; Yarmulnik, Anastasya; Dannon, Pinhas

    2015-02-01

    Problematic Internet use or excessive Internet use is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding computer use, and Internet access that leads to impairment or distress. Cross-sectional studies on samples of patients reported high comorbidity of Internet addiction with psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders (including depression), anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We have investigated the association between Internet addiction and social anxiety in 2 samples of 120 university students (60 males and 60 females in each sample). We found a correlation between Internet addiction and social anxiety in the 2 samples (r=0.411, PInternet addiction. Thirdly, we did not find a preference for social networks among participants with high levels of social anxiety. The results of the study support previous evidence for co-occurrence of Internet addiction and social anxiety, but further studies need to clarify this association.

  19. Excessive computer game playing: evidence for addiction and aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüsser, S M; Thalemann, R; Griffiths, M D

    2007-04-01

    Computer games have become an ever-increasing part of many adolescents' day-to-day lives. Coupled with this phenomenon, reports of excessive gaming (computer game playing) denominated as "computer/video game addiction" have been discussed in the popular press as well as in recent scientific research. The aim of the present study was the investigation of the addictive potential of gaming as well as the relationship between excessive gaming and aggressive attitudes and behavior. A sample comprising of 7069 gamers answered two questionnaires online. Data revealed that 11.9% of participants (840 gamers) fulfilled diagnostic criteria of addiction concerning their gaming behavior, while there is only weak evidence for the assumption that aggressive behavior is interrelated with excessive gaming in general. Results of this study contribute to the assumption that also playing games without monetary reward meets criteria of addiction. Hence, an addictive potential of gaming should be taken into consideration regarding prevention and intervention.

  20. Comparing spiritual intelligence and attribution styles among addicted and no addicted women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Karami Nejad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spiritual intelligence is concerned with understanding the origin and meaning of life. In other words, it involves our ultimate goal to live. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the spiritual intelligence and the attribution styles among addicted and non-addicted women in Yazd. Methods: In this correlational study, the study population consisted of all women in Yazd in 2013, among which a sample of 300 subjects were selected via multistage random cluster sampling from three areas of Yazd. As a matter of fact, 108 addicted subjects were selected referring to Addiction Treatment Centers via multistage cluster sampling. The 29-item spiritual intelligence questionnaire (Abdollah Zadeh et al. and Attribution Style Questionnaire (ASQ (Peterson Co Seligman were applied and the study data were analyzed using t-test and Pearson correlation. Results: The study results indicated a significant difference between addicted women and non-addicted ones in regard with spiritual intelligence (one-tailed, P<0.05, df= 405, t= 3.22. Furthermore, addicted women significantly used negative attribution style against the failures (one-tailed, P<0.001, df= 406, t= 5.90, and a positive correlation was observed between spiritual intelligence and attribution styles (rs= 0.586, N= 406, P<0.001, two-tailed. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that, without understanding the meaning of life, human life would not be worth much. Life suffering without spirituality would not be meaningful and in dealing with life challenges, it will lead the humans to step down and get helpless. Finding the meaning of life as well as having a positive attribution style can be mentioned as effective elements in regard with the women's tendency to the drug.

  1. Gender differences in addiction severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla, Paz; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Sáiz, Pilar A; Bobes Bascarán, Teresa; Casares, María José; Fonseca, Eduardo; Al-Halabí, Susana; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    Gender has been associated with substance use disorders (SUD). However, there are few studies that have evaluated gender differences in a global and a standardized way, and with a large sample of patients with SUD. Our goal is to analyze the role of gender in addiction severity throughout multiple life domains, using the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6). A naturalistic, multicenter and prospective study was conducted. A total of 221 patients with SUD (80.1% men) were interviewed with the ASI-6. Our results indicate that the Recent Summary Scores (RSSs) of men and women are similar, with the exception of Psychiatric and Partner- Problems, where women showed higher severity (p = .017 and p = .013, respectively). Statistically significant gender differences were found in certain aspects of the ASI-6 domains: men have more problems of physical health, legal issues, and alcohol and other substance use; and woman score higher in problems of mental health, social network, subjective evaluations of SUD consequences, and treatment needs. These results should be taken into account to improve the identification, prevention, and treatment of SUD.

  2. The Family and Addictions: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses issues related to families and addictions in the context of family-related helping professions and addictions counseling. Describes family systems approach to addictions and some family-based addiction interventions. Notes research articles that have made significant contributions to families and addictions field. (Author/CM)

  3. Cyber addictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2015-04-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina 2012; Nadeau et al., 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant 2011). The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013; Coulombe 2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al., 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5 (Block, 2008), others question the operational and practical bases for the diagnostic criteria. Some see cyberaddiction as a problem linked more to time management, to brain deficits, to an impulse-control disorder or to psychosocial conditions while others consider it to be a pre-existing comorbidity. Considering that most addiction problems are generally understood more as individual and pathological problems rather than the result of psychosocial conditions (poverty, unemployment, weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, etc), the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for this emerging trend in cyberaddictions. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. A demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Neuroscientific basic in addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann-Ridinger, Monika

    2014-10-01

    The growing evidence of Neuroscience leads to a better understanding of cerebral processes in cases of acute or chronic intake of psychotropic substances (ps). Predominantly, structures of the "reward system" contributed to the development of addiction. Chronic consumption of ps provides changing in brain equilibrium and leads to adaptations in the brain architecture. In this article, the complex responses of neurons and neuronal networks are presented in cases of chronic intake of ps. The alterations affect the cognitive, emotional and behavioral processings and influence learning and stress regulation. In summary, all cerebral adaptations are integrated in a complex model of biological, psychological and social factors and therefore, addiction arises as a consequence of combination of individual protecting and risk factors.

  5. Epigenetics and psychostimulant addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Heath D; McGinty, Jacqueline F; West, Anne E; Sadri-Vakili, Ghazaleh

    2013-03-01

    Chronic drug exposure alters gene expression in the brain and produces long-term changes in neural networks that underlie compulsive drug taking and seeking. Exactly how drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and subsequent gene expression are translated into persistent neuroadaptations remains unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that complex drug-induced neuroadaptations in the brain are mediated by highly synchronized and dynamic patterns of gene regulation. Recently, it has become clear that epigenetic mechanisms contribute to drug-induced structural, synaptic, and behavioral plasticity by regulating expression of gene networks. Here we review how alterations in histone modifications, DNA methylation, and microRNAs regulate gene expression and contribute to psychostimulant addiction with a focus on the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression following chronic cocaine exposure. Identifying epigenetic signatures that define psychostimulant addiction may lead to novel, efficacious treatments for drug craving and relapse.

  6. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Masters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU in Muscat, Oman. Methods: In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA, YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA. Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items. Work-related SNS usage was also measured. Results: A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%. Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%, followed by Facebook (91.4% and Twitter (70.4%. Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%. However, addiction rates decreased when workrelated activity was taken into account. Conclusion: Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that workrelated activities should be taken into account during measurement.

  7. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  8. A Comparative Study Of Smartphone Addiction Drivers' Effect On Work Performance In The U.S. And Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Won-Jun Lee; Seungjae Shin

    2016-01-01

    .... This study explores smartphone addiction drivers and their results. Four factors such as ease of use, emotional lift, preference of social interaction, and flow, are used for drivers and neglect of work is used as a proxy of addiction result...

  9. The uses and abuses of Facebook: A review of Facebook addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    RYAN, TRACII; CHESTER, ANDREA; REECE, JOHN; XENOS, SOPHIA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims: Recent research suggests that use of social networking sites can be addictive for some individuals. Due to the link between motivations for media use and the development of addiction, this systematic review examines Facebook-related uses and gratifications research and Facebook addiction research. Method: Searches of three large academic databases revealed 24 studies examining the uses and gratifications of Facebook, and nine studies of Facebook addiction. Results: Comparison of uses and gratifications research reveals that the most popular mo- tives for Facebook use are relationship maintenance, passing time, entertainment, and companionship. These motivations may be related to Facebook addiction through use that is habitual, excessive, or motivated by a desire for mood alteration. Examination of Facebook addiction research indicates that Facebook use can become habitual or excessive, and some addicts use the site to escape from negative moods. However, examination of Facebook addic- tion measures highlights inconsistency in the field. Discussion: There is some evidence to support the argument that uses and gratifications of Facebook are linked with Facebook addiction. Furthermore, it appears as if the social skill model of addiction may explain Facebook addiction, but inconsistency in the measurement of this condition limits the ability to provide conclusive arguments. Conclusions: This paper recommends that further research be performed to establish the links between uses and gratifications and Facebook addiction. Furthermore, in order to enhance the construct validity of Facebook addiction, researchers should take a more systematic approach to assessment. PMID:25317337

  10. Filovirus replication and transcription

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlberger, Elke

    2007-01-01

    The highly pathogenic filoviruses, Marburg and Ebola virus, belong to the nonsegmented negative-sense RNA viruses of the order Mononegavirales. The mode of replication and transcription is similar for these viruses. On one hand, the negative-sense RNA genome serves as a template for replication, to generate progeny genomes, and, on the other hand, for transcription, to produce mRNAs. Despite the similarities in the replication/transcription strategy, filoviruses have evolved structural and fu...

  11. Mitoepigenetics and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-11-01

    Being the center of energy production in eukaryotic cells, mitochondria are also crucial for various cellular processes including intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria contain their own circular DNA which encodes not only proteins, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNAs but also non-coding RNAs. The most recent line of evidence indicates the presence of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); thus, the level of gene expression - in a way similar to nuclear DNA - can be regulated by direct epigenetic modifications. Up to now, very little data shows the possibility of epigenetic regulation of mtDNA. Mitochondria and mtDNA are particularly important in the nervous system and may participate in the initiation of drug addiction. In fact, some addictive drugs enhance ROS production and generate oxidative stress that in turn alters mitochondrial and nuclear gene expression. This review summarizes recent findings on mitochondrial function, mtDNA copy number and epigenetics in drug addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacological treatments for heroin and cocaine addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To provide an overview of the pharmacological options for the treatment of heroin- and cocaine-dependent patients based on known biochemical pathways to addiction and the chronic disease model as a starting point for treatment planning. Results: Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies

  13. Disordered gambling: a behavioral addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Luke; Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H

    2013-08-01

    Developments in psychiatry have ratified the existence of behavioral addictions, that certain activities such as gambling or video-game play may be considered addictive in the absence of exogenous (i.e. drug-induced) stimulation of brain reinforcement circuitry. This article describes recent advances in understanding the neurobiological basis of behavioral addiction, with a focus on pathological gambling as the prototypical disorder. We describe positron emission tomography (PET) studies characterizing dopaminergic transmission, and functional imaging studies of reward processing and gambling-related cognitive distortions. The current evidence not only indicates changes in pathological gamblers in core circuitry implicated in drug addiction, but also highlights some subtle differences. Behavioral addictions can also provide experimental traction on distinguishing vulnerability markers for addictions from the active detrimental effects of chronic drug use. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The prevalence and correlates of lifetime psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures in urban and rural settings: results from the national comorbidity survey replication (NCS-R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S McCall-Hosenfeld

    Full Text Available Distinctions between rural and urban environments produce different frequencies of traumatic exposures and psychiatric disorders. We examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and frequency of trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum.The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R was used to evaluate psychiatric disorders among a nationally-representative sample of the U.S. population. Rurality was designated using the Department of Agriculture's 2003 rural-urban continuum codes (RUCC, which differentiate counties into levels of rurality by population density and adjacency to metropolitan areas. Lifetime psychiatric disorders included post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, mood disorders, impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse. Trauma exposures were classified as war-related, accident-related, disaster-related, interpersonal or other. Weighted logistic regression models examined the odds of psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum, adjusted for relevant covariates.75% of participants were metropolitan, 12.2% were suburban, and 12.8% were from rural counties. The most common disorder reported was any anxiety disorder (38.5%. Drug abuse was more common among metropolitan (8.7%, p = 0.018, compared to nonmetropolitan (5.1% suburban, 6.1% rural participants. A one-category increase in rurality was associated with decreased odds for war-related trauma (aOR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.78-0.95. Rurality was not associated with risk for any other lifetime psychiatric disorders or trauma exposure.Contrary to the expectation of some rural primary care providers, the frequencies of most psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures are similar across the rural-urban continuum, reinforcing calls to improve mental healthcare access in resource-poor rural communities.

  15. Food Addiction and Bulimia Nervosa: New Data Based on the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sarah-Kristin; Meule, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Previous research on 'food addiction' as measured with the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) showed a large overlap between addiction-like eating and bulimia nervosa. Most recently, a revised version of the YFAS has been developed according to the changes made in the diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition. The current study examined prevalence and correlates of the YFAS2.0 in individuals with bulimia (n = 115) and controls (n = 341). Ninety-six per cent of participants with bulimia and 14% of controls received a YFAS2.0 diagnosis. A higher number of YFAS2.0 symptoms was associated with lower interoceptive awareness, higher depressiveness, and higher impulsivity in both groups. However, a higher number of YFAS2.0 symptoms was associated with higher body mass and weight suppression in controls only and not in participants with bulimia. The current study is the first to show a large overlap between bulimia and 'food addiction' as measured with the YFAS2.0, replicating and extending findings from studies, which used the previous version of the YFAS. Compensatory weight control behaviours in individuals with bulimia likely alleviate the association between addiction-like eating and higher body mass. Thus, the large overlap between bulimia and 'food addiction' should be taken into consideration when examining the role of addiction-like eating in weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Developing Biomarkers for Methamphetamine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Mendelson, John; Baggott, Matthew J.; Flower, Keith; Galloway, Gantt

    2011-01-01

    There are an estimated 11.7 million methamphetamine (MA) abusers in the United States and epidemics of MA addiction are occurring worldwide. In our human laboratory and outpatient clinical trials we use innovative methods to quantify the severity of MA addiction and test biomarkers that may predict response to therapy or risk of relapse. One potential biomarker of addiction is the quantity of abused drug intake. Qualitative urinalysis is used in clinical trials and during treatment but provid...

  17. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; Gupta, N.D.; K C Prabhat

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused...

  18. Transgression as addiction: religiosity and moral disapproval as predictors of perceived addiction to pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Joshua B; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I; Hook, Joshua N; Carlisle, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Perceived addiction to Internet pornography is increasingly a focus of empirical attention. The present study examined the role that religious belief and moral disapproval of pornography use play in the experience of perceived addiction to Internet pornography. Results from two studies in undergraduate samples (Study 1, N = 331; Study 2, N = 97) indicated that there was a robust positive relationship between religiosity and perceived addiction to pornography and that this relationship was mediated by moral disapproval of pornography use. These results persisted even when actual use of pornography was controlled. Furthermore, although religiosity was negatively predictive of acknowledging any pornography use, among pornography users, religiosity was unrelated to actual levels of use. A structural equation model from a web-based sample of adults (Study 3, N = 208) revealed similar results. Specifically, religiosity was robustly predictive of perceived addiction, even when relevant covariates (e.g., trait self-control, socially desirable responding, neuroticism, use of pornography) were held constant. In sum, the present study indicated that religiosity and moral disapproval of pornography use were robust predictors of perceived addiction to Internet pornography while being unrelated to actual levels of use among pornography consumers.

  19. Conceptualizing Internet use disorders: Addiction or coping process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    This paper problematizes the tendency to study Internet use disorders from a perspective of addiction. It is argued that an addiction perspective, grounded in our understanding of substance use disorders, has not contributed much to an improved understanding of the antecedents and etiology of Internet use disorders. Despite this, researchers continue to frame Internet use disorders as an addiction, recently exemplified by the inclusion of Internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5 research appendix as a behavioral addiction. This paper claims that the decision to use an addiction framework to study Internet use disorders has consequences for the way in which results are interpreted, which impacts the potential for theoretical and etiological contributions negatively. The paper argues that a perspective of addiction may not be the most useful approach because it causes a mismatch between theory and findings in empirical work: it is not uncommon to find that a study is positioned as a study of addiction, but presents findings more illustrative of coping behaviors. The paper draws on two examples from the literature to illustrate this mismatch and discusses how this hinders theoretical and etiological development. The question that is asked going forward is what alternative explanations we might identify by not exclusively adhering to an addiction framework for purposes of research. Recommendations are given for how to usefully approach the study of Internet use disorders outside a framework of addiction. It also discusses how scholars who still prefer a framework of addiction might strengthen their conceptual position to ensure improved contributions to etiology and theoretical development. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  20. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ken

    2015-08-01

    Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Muscat, Oman. In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA), YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA) and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA). Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items). Work-related SNS usage was also measured. A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%). Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%), followed by Facebook (91.4%) and Twitter (70.4%). Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%). However, addiction rates decreased when work-related activity was taken into account. Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that work-related activities should be taken into account during measurement.

  1. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Results: Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. Conclusions: CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “;tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others. PMID:25595966

  2. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity
department of addictive behaviour and addiction medicine, central institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, University of Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Karl

    2010-12-01

    Addictive behaviour is as prevalent in Germany as in other western countries, but in contrast to some European countries and the United States, very little money was given to this research field. Change came in the early 1990s, when the German government started to launch specific grants for addiction research. The first chair in addiction research was created in 1999 (Karl Mann) at the Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim (CIMH; University of Heidelberg). The recruitment of a pre-clinical alcohol researcher as head of the department of psychopharmacology followed (Rainer Spanagel). This 'addiction research cluster' collaborates with several research groups at the CIMH (such as genetics). We inaugurated a clinical trial network which now comprises up to 20 treatment centres throughout Germany. Like most authors, we found effect sizes of different treatment modalities more in the low to moderate range, perhaps because of the heterogeneity of large patient samples. Therefore, we concentrated upon the biological basis of addiction in order to define more homogeneous 'subtypes' of patients for a better match with existing treatments. Results concerning genetics and neuroimaging (both animal and human) are promising, and could move our field towards a more personalized treatment approach. Our funding has been extended over the years, including involvement in several large European grants. We are studying substance-related problems as well as so-called 'behavioural addictions'. As a natural consequence of this development, we are deeply involved both in informing the general public on addiction issues as well as in counselling policy makers in Germany. © 2010 The Author, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Internet Addiction: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bozkurt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction, which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to control ones use of the Internet which leads to negative consequences in daily life. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other Internet applications developing an addictive behavior. This paper aims to give a current review of the gradually evolving body of literature on Internet addiction. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 235-247

  4. The neurobiology of addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephen; Peselow, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Addiction is increasingly understood as a neurobiological illness where repetitive substance abuse corrupts the normal circuitry of rewarding and adaptive behaviors causing drug-induced neuroplastic changes. The addictive process can be examined by looking at the biological basis of substance initiation to the progression of substance abuse to dependence to the enduring risk of relapse. Critical neurotransmitters and neurocircuits underlie the pathological changes at each of these stages. Enhanced dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens is part of the common pathway for the positively rewarding aspects of drugs of abuse and for initiation of the addictive process. F-Aminobutyric acid,opioid peptides, serotonin, acetylcholine, the endocannabinoids, and glutamate systems also play a role in the initial addictive process. Dopamine also plays a key role in conditioned responses to drugs of abuse, and addiction is now recognized as a disease of pathological learning and memory. In the path from substance abuse to addiction, the neurochemistry shifts from a dopamine-based behavioral system to a predominantly glutamate-based one marked by dysregulated glutamate transmission from the prefrontal cortex to the nucleus accumbens in relation to drug versus biologically oriented stimuli. This is a core part of the executive dysfunction now understood as one of the hallmark features of addiction that also includes impaired decision making and impulse dysregulation.Understanding the neurobiology of the addictive process allows for a theoretical psychopharmacological approach to treating addictive disorders,one that takes into account biological interventions aimed at particular stages of the illness.

  5. School Programming for the Prevention of Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Marilyn A.

    1992-01-01

    Defines "addiction" and discusses models of addiction. Discusses implications for school prevention programs. Discusses role of school counselor in implementation of a comprehensive addiction prevention program, including assessment, curricular components, intervention programs, and staff development. Presents questions and criteria to…

  6. Neuroticism and quality of life: Multiple mediating effects of smartphone addiction and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Zhao; Mei, Songli

    2017-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the mediating effect of smartphone addiction and depression on neuroticism and quality of life. Self-reported measures of neuroticism, smart-phone addiction, depression, and quality of life were administered to 722 Chinese university students. Results showed smartphone addiction and depression were both significantly affected neuroticism and quality of life. The direct effect of neuroticism on quality of life was significant, and the chain-mediating effect of smartphone addiction and depression was also significant. In conclusion, neuroticism, smartphone addiction, and depression are important variables that worsen quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise addiction in adolescents and emerging adults - Validation of a youth version of the Exercise Addiction Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Griffiths, Mark D; Hemmingsen, Simone Daugaard; Støving, René Klinkby

    2018-02-07

    Background Behavioral addictions often onset in adolescence and increase the risk of psychological and social problems later in life. The core symptoms of addiction are tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, lack of control, and compulsive occupation with the behavior. Psychometrically validated tools are required for detection and early intervention. Adolescent screening instruments exist for several behavioral addictions including gambling and video gaming addiction but not for exercise addiction. Given recent empirical and clinical evidence that a minority of teenagers appear to be experiencing exercise addiction, a psychometrically robust screening instrument is required. Aims The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a youth version of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) - a robust screening instrument that has been used across different countries and cultures - and to assess the prevalence of exercise addiction and associated disturbed eating. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to three high-risk samples (n = 471) aged 11-20 years (mean age: 16.3 years): sport school students, fitness center attendees, and patients with eating disorder diagnoses. A youth version of the EAI (EAI-Y) was developed and distributed. Participants were also screened for disordered eating with the SCOFF Questionnaire. Results Overall, the EAI-Y demonstrated good reliability and construct validity. The prevalence rate of exercise addiction was 4.0% in school athletes, 8.7% in fitness attendees, and 21% in patients with eating disorders. Exercise addiction was associated with feelings of guilt when not exercising, ignoring pain and injury, and higher levels of body dissatisfaction.

  8. The Study of the Role of Contributor Factors in Addiction Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Kianipour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present paper investigated the factors contributing to addiction withdrawal so as to it would be possible to set preventive and rehabilitative programs for addicts. Method: The study was ex-post facto and causal-comparative one. Population included all addicts referred to addiction withdrawal centers of Kahnouj city and the sample was selected of addicts of Yaran addiction withdrawal Center by voluntary sampling. Bar-on emotional intelligence inventory, family boundary questionnaire and demographic information were administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed that normal family boundaries, higher emotional intelligence and opium use in comparison of crack and crystal glass are effective on addiction withdrawal. But disengaged family boundaries, crack and crystal glass use can be led to addiction recursion. Age, addiction duration, marital status, and education level are not effective on addiction withdrawal. Conclusion: Altogether, the results represented the role and importance of variables namely: family, emotional intelligence, and the kind of used material in addiction withdrawal.

  9. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  10. Does media coverage influence the spread of drug addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingju; Liu, Sanyang; Li, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a three dimensional drug model is constructed to investigate the impact of media coverage on the spread and control of drug addiction. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number R0. The drug-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0 addiction equilibrium is locally stable if R0 > 1. The results demonstrate that the media effect in human population cannot change the stabilities of equilibria but can affect the number of drug addicts. Sensitivity analyses are performed to seek for effective control measures for drug treatment. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results.

  11. Addiction issue and development of child's personality

    OpenAIRE

    Dušková, Eva

    2009-01-01

    This bachelor work deals with addiction and the possibilities of its prevention (the possibilities of preventing its origination). In the introductory chapter, the terms habit and addiction are defined, addiction characteristics are listed, and the types of addiction are specified according to its possible appearance with children and teenagers. The next chapter presents the biological, sociological and psychological addiction-start hypotheses. Then the reasons of abuse of addictive substance...

  12. DNA Virus Replication Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

  13. [Food addiction - substance use disorder or behavioral addiction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Özgür; Kliewer, Josephine; Föcker, Manuel; Antel, Jochen; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    This article looks at food addiction as a subject situated between psychiatry, neurobiology, nutritional science, internal medicine, food industry, and public health. Essentially, the question is whether or not individual nutritional components can induce physical dependence, similar to the well-known effects of drugs such as alcohol and cocaine, or whether food addiction is rather a behavioral addiction. The literature describes many overlaps as well as differences of substance-based and non-substance-based addiction in both clinical and neurobiological terms. Until recently it was argued that food addiction appears only in the realms of obesity and eating disorders (e.g., binge-eating disorder, BED). Some studies, however, described the prevalence of food addiction symptoms and diagnoses independent of overweight or that they were in subjects who do not fulfill the criteria for BED. This article sums up the controversial discussion about the phenomenological and neurobiological classification of food addiction. Implications of food addiction for children and adolescents as well as public-health-related issues are also discussed.

  14. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Pedram

    Full Text Available 'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown.to assess 1 the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2 if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3 if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4 if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'.A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire.The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (p<0.001. Obesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls.Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  15. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  16. Biomarkers of replicative senescence revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers of replicative senescence can be defined as those ultrastructural and physiological variations as well as molecules whose changes in expression, activity or function correlate with aging, as a result of the gradual exhaustion of replicative potential and a state of permanent cell cycle...... arrest. The biomarkers that characterize the path to an irreversible state of cell cycle arrest due to proliferative exhaustion may also be shared by other forms of senescence-inducing mechanisms. Validation of senescence markers is crucial in circumstances where quiescence or temporary growth arrest may...... be triggered or is thought to be induced. Pre-senescence biomarkers are also important to consider as their presence indicate that induction of aging processes is taking place. The bona fide pathway leading to replicative senescence that has been extensively characterized is a consequence of gradual reduction...

  17. The Impact of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder on the Burden of Migraine: Results From the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Aruna S; Scher, Ann I; Vieira, Rebeca V A; Merikangas, Kathleen R; Metti, Andrea L; Peterlin, B Lee

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been linked with migraine in prior studies. To evaluate the individual and joint burdens of migraine and PTSD in a population-based cohort. The National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R) is a general population study conducted in the United States from February 2001-April 2003. PTSD and migraine were assessed, and four groups defined based on their migraine and PTSD status. The four groups included those with no migraine and no PTSD (controls, n=4535), those with migraine and without PTSD (migraine alone, n=236), those with PTSD and without migraine (PTSD alone, n=244), and those with both migraine and PTSD (mig+PTSD, n=68). Logistic and Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between dichotomous/multilevel outcome variables indicating financial, health, and interpersonal burdens and each migraine/PTSD group. Compared to controls, those with Mig+PTSD were more likely to be in the low poverty index (48% vs 41%, AOR 2.16; CI: 1.10, 4.24) and were less likely to be working for pay or profit in the past week (50% vs 68%, AOR 0.42; CI: 0.24, 0.74) but not those with migraine or PTSD alone. Additionally, the number of days where work quality was cut due to physical or mental health or substance abuse in the past month was greater in all groups compared to controls: (1) migraine alone: mean 2.57 (SEM 0.32) vs mean 1.09 (SEM 0.08) days, ARR=2.39; CI: 2.19, 2.62; (2) PTSD alone: mean 2.43 (SEM 0.33) vs mean 1.09 (SEM 0.08) days, ARR=2.09; CI: 1.91, 2.29; (3) mig+PTSD: mean 8.2 (SEM 0.79) vs 1.09 (SEM 0.08) days, ARR 6.79; CI 6.16, 7.49; and was over 2.5-fold greater in those mig+PTSD than migraine alone (mean 8.0 [SEM 0.79] vs 2.6 days [SEM 0.72], ARR 2.77; CI: 2.45, 3.14). The likelihood of having difficulty getting along or maintaining a social life was also increased in all groups relative to controls: (1) migraine alone: 21% vs 5.4%, AOR 4.20; CI: 2.62, 6.74; (2) PTSD alone: 18% vs 5.4%, AOR 3.40; CI

  18. Addictive Internet Use among Korean Adolescents: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kim, Yoon; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background A psychological disorder called ‘Internet addiction’ has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. Methods and Findings We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13–18 year olds) from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level) nested within schools (2nd level) to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. Conclusions Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use. PMID:24505318

  19. Internet addiction and its determinants among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Chaudhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exponential use of internet has resulted in internet addiction in recent times. Students are particularly at risk because of their unique personal, social, and academic needs. Objectives: The study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of internet addiction and its determinants among medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 282 medical students with the help of semi-structured questionnaire consisting of questions related to demographic information, information related to internet use, and Young's internet addiction test. Results: We found prevalence of internet addiction among medical students to be 58.87% (mild – 51.42%, moderate –7.45% and significantly associated factors with internet addiction being male gender, staying in private accommodation, lesser age of first internet use, using mobile for internet access, higher expenditure on internet, staying online for longer time, and using internet for social networking, online videos, and watching website with sexual content. Conclusion: Medical students are vulnerable for internet addiction and efforts should be taken to increase awareness and prevent the problem of internet addiction in them.

  20. The prevalence of computer and Internet addiction among pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboralski, Krzysztof; Orzechowska, Agata; Talarowska, Monika; Darmosz, Anna; Janiak, Aneta; Janiak, Marcin; Florkowski, Antoni; Gałecki, Piotr

    2009-02-02

    Media have an influence on the human psyche similar to the addictive actions of psychoactive substances or gambling. Computer overuse is claimed to be a cause of psychiatric disturbances such as computer and Internet addiction. It has not yet been recognized as a disease, but it evokes increasing controversy and results in mental disorders commonly defined as computer and Internet addiction. This study was based on a diagnostic survey in which 120 subjects participated. The participants were pupils of three kinds of schools: primary, middle, and secondary school (high school). Information for this study was obtained from a questionnaire prepared by the authors as well as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Psychological Inventory of Aggression Syndrome (IPSA-II). he results confirmed that every fourth pupil was addicted to the Internet. Internet addiction was very common among the youngest users of computers and the Internet, especially those who had no brothers and sisters or came from families with some kind of problems. Moreover, more frequent use of the computer and the Internet was connected with higher levels of aggression and anxiety. Because computer and Internet addiction already constitute a real danger, it is worth considering preventive activities to treat this phenomenon. It is also necessary to make the youth and their parents aware of the dangers of uncontrolled Internet use and pay attention to behavior connected with Internet addiction.

  1. Food addiction and bariatric surgery: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezaj, V; Wiedemann, A A; Grilo, C M

    2017-12-01

    Emerging research suggests that rates of food addiction are high among individuals seeking bariatric surgery, but little is known about associated features and the prognostic significance of pre-operative food addiction. Thus, this article provides a systematic review and synthesis of the literature on food addiction and bariatric surgery. Articles were identified through PubMed and SCOPUS databases, resulting in a total of 19 studies which assessed food addiction among pre-bariatric and/or post-bariatric surgery patients using the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Most studies were cross-sectional, and only two studies prospectively measured food addiction both pre-operatively and post-operatively. The presence of pre-surgical food addiction was not associated with pre-surgical weight or post-surgical weight outcomes, yet pre-surgical food addiction was related to broad levels of psychopathology. The relationship between food addiction and substance misuse among individuals undergoing bariatric surgery is mixed. In addition, very few studies have attempted to validate the construct of food addiction among bariatric surgery patients. Results should be interpreted with caution due to the methodological limitations and small sample sizes reported in most studies. Future rigorous research with larger and more diverse samples should prospectively examine the clinical utility and validity of the food addiction construct following bariatric surgery. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Instant messaging addiction among teenagers in China: shyness, alienation, and academic performance decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hanyun; Leung, Louis

    2009-12-01

    This exploratory research proposes the concept of instant messaging (IM) addiction and examines (a) whether IM addiction exists among Chinese teenagers and, if so, who the addicts are, what their symptoms are, and to what extent they are addicted; (b) whether psychological variables such as shyness and alienation can predict IM use or addiction among teenagers; and (c) whether IM use or IM addiction can impair the academic performance of teenagers. Using Young's classic definition of Internet addiction, results of a stratified random sample of 330 teenagers in China in 2007 found 95.8% of participants use IM, and 9.8% of them can be classified as IM addicts. Factor analysis identified four major IM addiction symptoms among teenagers: preoccupation with IM, loss of relationships due to overuse, loss of control, and escape. Results also showed that shyness and alienation from family, peers, and school are significantly and positively associated with levels of IM addiction. As expected, both the level of IM use and level of IM addiction are significantly linked to teenagers' academic performance decrement.

  3. Women and Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Blevins, Derek; Khanna, Surbhi; Sharma, Sana; Holstege, Christopher P

    2017-06-01

    Gender-related alcohol and drug abuse problems are related not only to biological differences, but also to social and environmental factors, which can influence the clinical presentation, consequences of use, and treatment approaches. Women are becoming the fastest-growing population of substance abusers in the United States. Given that women experience a more rapid progression of their addiction than men, it is important that we understand and address the differences to help develop prevention and treatment programs that are tailored for women, incorporating trauma assessment and management, identification and intervention for medical and psychiatric comorbidities, financial independence, pregnancy, and child care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Relationship between Internet Addiction and Personality Traits of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R. Tamannaifar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet addiction is a kind of dependence that some personality characteristics leave an important effect on using internet. On this basis, research is designed to assess the relationship between personality characteristics and internet addiction.Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in 12,480 of second and third high school students in Kashan was conducted. 400 students were selected by random cluster sampling. To measure internet addiction we used twenty questions to test internet addiction and to measure personality characteristics of students we used sixty questions questionnaire of Neo To analyze data we used Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis.Results: There is significant relationship between internet addiction with neuroticism and extroversion, but there was not any significant relationship between being conscientious with internet addiction. Conclusion: Internet addiction relates to some personality traits of students, including neuroticism and extroversion

  5. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed. PMID:25032242

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals thalamus and posterior cingulate cortex abnormalities in internet gaming addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; DeVito, Elise; Huang, Jie; Du, Xiaoxia

    2012-09-01

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is increasingly recognized as a widespread disorder with serious psychological and health consequences. Diminished white matter integrity has been demonstrated in a wide range of other addictive disorders which share clinical characteristics with IGA. Abnormal white matter integrity in addictive populations has been associated with addiction severity, treatment response and cognitive impairments. This study assessed white matter integrity in individuals with internet gaming addiction (IGA) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). IGA subjects (N = 16) showed higher fractional anisotropy (FA), indicating greater white matter integrity, in the thalamus and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) relative to healthy controls (N = 15). Higher FA in the thalamus was associated with greater severity of internet addiction. Increased regional FA in individuals with internet gaming addiction may be a pre-existing vulnerability factor for IGA, or may arise secondary to IGA, perhaps as a direct result of excessive internet game playing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Wen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94% reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6% identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  9. Relationship of Internet addiction with self-esteem and depression in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrainian, S A; Alizadeh, K Haji; Raeisoon, M R; Gorji, O Hashemi; Khazaee, A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of self-esteem and depression with Internet addiction in university students. The present descriptive-analytic correlation study involved 408 students (150 female and 258 male) who had been selected by means of a cluster sampling method from among all the students studying in Birjand Islamic Azad University. Students were evaluated through the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Cooper Smith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) and Internet Addiction Test (IAT). The results indicated that 40.7% of the students had Internet addiction. A significant correlation emerged between depression, self-esteem and Internet addiction. Regression analysis indicated that depression and self-esteem were able to predict the variance of Internet addiction to some extent. It may be important to evaluate self-esteem and depression in people with Internet addiction. These variables should be targeted for effective cognitive behavioral therapy in people with Internet addiction.

  10. Invertebrate models in addiction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søvik, Eirik; Barron, Andrew B

    2013-01-01

    While drug addiction is a uniquely human problem, most research examining the biological mechanisms of the transition from substance use to addiction is conducted with vertebrate animal models. Many other fields of neuroscience have greatly benefitted from contributions from simple and manipulable invertebrate model systems. However, the potential of invertebrate research has yet to be fully capitalised on in the field of addiction neuroscience. This may be because of the complexity of addiction and the clinical imperative of addiction research. We argue that the homocentric diagnostic criteria of addiction are no more a hindrance to the use of invertebrate models than they are to vertebrate models. We highlight the strengths of the diversity of different invertebrate model systems in terms of neuroanatomy and molecular machinery, and stress that working with a range of different models will aid in understanding addiction and not be a disadvantage. Finally, we discuss the specific advantages of utilising invertebrate animals for addiction research and highlight key areas in which invertebrates are suited for making unique and meaningful contributions to this field. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Developing biomarkers for methamphetamine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, John; Baggott, Matthew J; Flower, Keith; Galloway, Gantt

    2011-03-01

    There are an estimated 11.7 million methamphetamine (MA) abusers in the United States and epidemics of MA addiction are occurring worldwide. In our human laboratory and outpatient clinical trials we use innovative methods to quantify the severity of MA addiction and test biomarkers that may predict response to therapy or risk of relapse. One potential biomarker of addiction is the quantity of abused drug intake. Qualitative urinalysis is used in clinical trials and during treatment but provides only a binary outcome measure of abuse. Using non-pharmacologic doses of deuterium labeled l-MA we have developed a continuous quantitative measure to estimate the bioavailable amount of MA addicts ingest. Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor is a neurotrophin that encourages growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses. Low BDNF levels are seen in many addictive disorders and BDNF is elevated in recovering MA addicts, suggesting BDNF may be a marker of MA addiction. We are investigating the effects of controlled doses of MA on BDNF levels and gene regulation and measuring BDNF in our clinical trials. We believe both patients and clinical researches will benefit from the addition of new, objective and quantifiable outcome measures that reflect disease severity and recovery from addiction.

  12. [Infectious endocarditis in drug addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasanov, A B

    2006-01-01

    Clinicomorphological features of infectious endocarditis (IE) were studied on autopsy material from chronic drug addicts. Of special interest were morphological changes in the lymphoid organs. The experience of the author and literature data suggest that IE in drug addicts is a manifestation of secondary immunodeficiency syndrome on the background of chronic narcotic intoxication.

  13. [Cognitive remediation in addictions treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Perez, E J; Rojo-Mota, G; Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, J M; Llanero-Luque, M; Puerta-Garcia, C

    2011-02-01

    More recent theories of addiction suggest that neurocognitive mechanisms, such as attentional processing, cognitive control, and reward processing play a key role in the development or maintenance of addiction. Ultimately, the addiction (with or without substances) is based on the alteration of brain decision-making processes. The neurosciences, particularly those responsible for behavior modification, must take into account the neurobiological processes underlying the observable behavior. Treatments of addiction usually do not take into account these findings, which may be at the base of the low retention rates and high dropout rates of addicted patients. Considered as an alteration of brain functioning, addiction could be addressed successfully through cognitive rehabilitation treatments used in other clinical pathologies such as brain damage or schizophrenia. Although there are few studies, it is suggest that intervention to improve patients' cognitive functioning can improve the efficiency of well-established cognitive-behavioral therapies, such as relapse prevention. This paper reviews the available evidence on cognitive rehabilitation in treating addiction as well as in other pathologies, in order to formulate interventions that may be included in comprehensive rehabilitation programs for people with addictive disorders.

  14. Harry Potter: Agency or Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This article considers limitations on agency for characters in the Harry Potter novels, in particular, how far they are driven by an addictive yearning for their beloved dead. As well as Harry's yearning for his dead parents, Dumbledore's guilt, Snape's longing and Slughorn's craving can be read as evidence of addiction rather than love, while the…

  15. Epigenetic regulation of cocaine addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Martínez, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences. The addictive phenotype can persist for the lenght of an individual's life, suggesting that drugs of abuse may induced long-lasting changes in the brain.

  16. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  17. Beneficial and Harmful Addictions: Two sides of the same coin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rafael López

    2016-01-01

    ...) as two sides of the same coin. Besides the theoretical insight it provides, this dualism is also particularly useful because it readily allows for the translation of the results obtained in the domain of harmful addictions...

  18. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors.

  19. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors. PMID:27363463

  20. Intravesicle Isothermal DNA Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Lindsey A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial and viral DNA replication was previously reconstituted in vitro from component parts 1234. Significant advances in building minimal cell-like structures also have been made recently 567. Combining the two approaches would further attempts to build a minimal cell-like structure capable of undergoing evolution by combining membrane encapsulation and genome replication. Towards this end, we attempted to use purified genomic replication protein components from thermophilic bacterial sources to copy strands of DNA isothermally within lipid vesicles. Findings Bacterial replication components (such as helicases and DNA polymerases are compatible with methods for the generation of lipid vesicles. Encapsulation inside phospholipid vesicles does not inhibit the activity of bacterial DNA genome replication machinery. Further the described system is efficient at isothermally amplifying short segments of DNA within phospholipid vesicles. Conclusions Herein we show that bacterial isothermal DNA replication machinery is functional inside of phospholipid vesicles, suggesting that replicating cellular mimics can be built from purified bacterial components.

  1. An Analysis on the Correlation and Gender Difference between College Students' Internet Addiction and Mobile Phone Addiction in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Su-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at constructing a correlative model between Internet addiction and mobile phone addiction; the aim is to analyse the correlation (if any) between the two traits and to discuss the influence confirming that the gender has difference on this fascinating topic; taking gender into account opens a new world of scientific study to us. The study collected 448 college students on an island as study subjects, with 61.2% males and 38.8% females. Moreover, this study issued Mobile Phone Addiction Scale and Internet Addiction Scale to conduct surveys on the participants and adopts the structural equation model (SEM) to process the collected data. According to the study result, (1) mobile phone addiction and Internet addiction are positively related; (2) female college students score higher than male ones in the aspect of mobile addiction. Lastly, this study proposes relevant suggestions to serve as a reference for schools, college students, and future studies based on the study results. PMID:25938115

  2. Investigating the role of cognitive and emotional deficiencies in anticipation of membership in addicted and non-addicted groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farhadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study was done with the aim of investigating the role of cognitive and emotional deficiencies in anticipation of membership in addicted and non-addicted groups. Materials and Methods: This fundamental and reviewing type research is a cross-sectional comparative study that was performed retrospectively. Population of the study was all the male substance abusers referred to addiction treatment centers in one of the cities of Lorestan province in 2014. The selected population included 100 of substance abusers and 100 normal people (from the patients, accompanies selected by purposive sampling method. All participants completed cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ and alexithymia questionnaire (TSA-20. The point analysis was applied to analyze the data. Analysis was performed using SPSS-20. Results: In point analysis at simultaneous method, seven predicting variables (difficulty in describing and identifying feelings, thoughts turned to the outside, memory problems, distractibility, oversight and not reminding the names and in the stepwise method, three predicting variables (cognitive failures, difficulty in describing feelings and memory problems for the only function of the point is explained by the difference between two groups of addicted and non-addicted. Conclusion: The results showed that addicts and non-addicts can be distinguished from cognitive and emotional impairment.

  3. Data from Investigating Variation in Replicability: A “Many Labs” Replication Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Klein

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This dataset is from the Many Labs Replication Project in which 13 effects were replicated across 36 samples and over 6,000 participants. Data from the replications are included, along with demographic variables about the participants and contextual information about the environment in which the replication was conducted. Data were collected in-lab and online through a standardized procedure administered via an online link. The dataset is stored on the Open Science Framework website. These data could be used to further investigate the results of the included 13 effects or to study replication and generalizability more broadly.

  4. Empirical Analysis of Religiosity as Predictor of Social Media Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal J Almenayes

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine the dimensions of social media addiction and its relationship to religiosity.  To investigate the matter, the present research utilized a well-known Internet addiction scale and modified it to fit social media (Young, 1996).  Factor analysis of items generated by a sample of 1326 participants, three addiction factors were apparent.  These factors were later regressed on a scale of religiosity.  This scale contained a single factor based on factor analysis.  Result...

  5. Sexual addiction in drug addicts: The impact of drug of choice and poly-addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Nelson; Diehl, Alessandra; Niel, Marcelo; Pillon, Sandra; Ratto, Lilian; Pinheiro, Maria Carolina; Silveira, Dartiu; Otani, Thais Zelia; Otani, Victor; Cordeiro, Quirino; Ushida, Ricardo

    2017-05-01

    To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST) score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed. A total of 133 participants were included in our analysis, all reporting cocaine/crack and/or alcohol as drug of choice. Polysubstance addicts had a significant higher risk of a positive screening for sexual addiction compared to monosubstance addicts, age-sex adjusted odds ratios of sexual addiction being respectively 2.72 (95CI 1.1-6.71) and 0.37 (95CI 0.15-0.91). The odds of a SAST score greater than 6 was not statistically different between the cocaine/crack and alcohol groups, respectively 0.38 (95CI 0.14-1.02) and 2.67 (95CI 0.98-7.25). We found a significant relation between stronger drug addiction and greater levels of sexual addiction in the cocaine/crack group (p=0.0012), but not in the alcohol group. Our study reinforces the importance of assessing sexual behavior of drug addicts in clinical practice, especially considering users of multiple substances or with severe dependence.

  6. Prevalence of internet addiction among schoolchildren in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ač-Nikolić Eržebet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Internet use has increased rapidly all over the world. Excessive Internet use tends to lead to the creation of a non-chemical addiction, most commonly known as “Internet addiction.” Objective. The aim of this study was an assessment of the prevalence of Internet use and Internet addiction among school children aged 14-18 years in the Municipality of Novi Sad, Serbia, and influence of sociodemographic variables on Internet use. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Novi Sad among final-year students from elementary and first- and second-year students from high schools. The prevalence of Internet addiction was assessed by using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire. Results. Out of 553 participants, 62.7% were females, and the average age was 15.6 years. The sample consisted of 153 elementary school students and 400 high school students. Majority of respondents had a computer in their household. Our study showed widespread Internet use among adolescents. Facebook and YouTube were among most visited web-sites. The main purpose of Internet use was entertainment. Estimated prevalence of Internet addiction was high (18.7%, mostly among younger adolescents (p=0.013. Conclusion. Internet addiction was found in every fifth adolescent. Accessibility and availability of Internet use is constantly growing and therefore it is necessary to define more sensitive diagnostic tools for the assessment of Internet addiction and its underlying causes, in order to implement effective preventive programs.

  7. Internet addiction and its determinants among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Bhushan; Menon, Preethi; Saldanha, Daniel; Tewari, Abhinav; Bhattacharya, Labhanya

    2015-01-01

    Exponential use of internet has resulted in internet addiction in recent times. Students are particularly at risk because of their unique personal, social, and academic needs. The study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of internet addiction and its determinants among medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 282 medical students with the help of semi-structured questionnaire consisting of questions related to demographic information, information related to internet use, and Young's internet addiction test. We found prevalence of internet addiction among medical students to be 58.87% (mild - 51.42%, moderate -7.45%) and significantly associated factors with internet addiction being male gender, staying in private accommodation, lesser age of first internet use, using mobile for internet access, higher expenditure on internet, staying online for longer time, and using internet for social networking, online videos, and watching website with sexual content. Medical students are vulnerable for internet addiction and efforts should be taken to increase awareness and prevent the problem of internet addiction in them.

  8. The addictive model of self-harming (non-suicidal and suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilario eBlasco-Fontecilla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral addictions such as gambling, sun-tanning, shopping, internet use, work, exercise, or even love and sex are frequent, and share many characteristics and common neurobiological and genetic underpinnings with substance addictions (i.e., tolerance, withdrawal, and relapse. Recent literature suggests that both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behavior (SB can also be conceptualized as addictions. The major aim of this mini review is to review the literature and explore the neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying the addiction to self-harming behaviors.Method: This is a narrative review. The authors performed literature searches on PubMed and Google for suicidal behavior, self-harming, addiction, and major repeaters. Given the scarce literature on the topic, a subset of the most closely related studies was selected. The authors also focused on three empirical studies testing the hypothesis that major repeaters (individuals with ≥5 lifetime suicide attempts represent a distinctive suicidal phenotype, and are the individuals at risk of developing an addiction to SB. Results: The authors reviewed the concept of behavioral addictions and major repeaters, current empirical evidence testing concerning whether or not NSSI and SB can be understood as addictions, and the putative mechanisms underlying them.Conclusion: Our review suggests that both NSSI and SB can be conceptualized as addictions. This is relevant because if some individual’s self-harming behaviors are better conceptualized as an addiction, treatment approaches could be tailored to this addiction.

  9. Internet addiction in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren

    2014-07-01

    In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families.

  10. The psychological science of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith

    2007-03-01

    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  11. [Can we treat sexual addiction ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inescu Cismaru, A; Andrianne, R; Triffaux, F; Triffaux, J-M

    2013-01-01

    Sexual addiction or sexual dependence is characterized by hypersexuality, impaired regulation of sexual desire and sexual compulsivity, including having sex with uncontrolled excessive frequency (5 to 15 sexual acts per day for more than 6 months, from 15 years old). Between 3% and 6% of the adult population (> or =18 years) would have the characteristics of sexual addiction, disorder prevalent in the male population. The addictive processes affect three behavioral domains : motivation-reward, affect regulation and behavioral inhibition. Sex addiction is usually accompanied by other addictions, such as abuse of drugs or alcohol or sex toys that enhance sexual performance. Psychiatric comorbidities can be found : anxiety disorders, mood disorders. Several forms of treatment have been tried, using medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychotherapy sessions alternated with exposure therapy in virtual reality. In this article, we will discuss the multiple definitions of hypersexuality and the possibilities of therapeutic approaches.

  12. Dynamics of DNA Replication in Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retkute, Renata; Nieduszynski, Conrad A.; de Moura, Alessandro

    2011-08-01

    We present a mathematical model for the spatial dynamics of DNA replication. Using this model we determine the probability distribution for the time at which each chromosomal position is replicated. From this we show, contrary to previous reports, that mean replication time curves cannot be used to directly determine origin parameters. We demonstrate that the stochastic nature of replication dynamics leaves a clear signature in experimentally measured population average data, and we show that the width of the activation time probability distribution can be inferred from this data. Our results compare favorably with experimental measurements in Saccharomyces cerevisae.

  13. Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Daria J. Kuss; Mark D. Griffiths

    2017-01-01

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) have gained increasing popularity in the last decade, with individuals engaging in SNSs to connect with others who share similar interests. The perceived need to be online may result in compulsive use of SNSs, which in extreme cases may result in symptoms and consequences traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. In order to present new insights into online social networking and addiction, in this paper, 10 lessons learned concerning onl...

  14. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  15. Cocaine – Characteristics and addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4:537–544

  16. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  17. Management of gambling addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivangi Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling is defined as staking something on a contingency. Many traders are gambling without even knowing it. Health professionals need to consider the harmful effects of gambling considering that gambling can destroy families and has medical consequences. A 40-year-old bank manager diagnosed initially with mood disorder with two attempts of self-harm in the past 3 years was eventually diagnosed as a case of gambling addiction using both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and Problem Gambling Severity Index. The participant's gambling urges were not caused by any “trigger” incident, were independent of mood disorder, and were so severe to lead him to deliberate self-harm. Even after adequate trial of two mood stabilizers from different classes including lithium, the patient neither showed improvement in mood symptoms nor his gambling behavior; however, patient's gambling behavior and mood symptoms both showed marked improvement following start of naltrexone up to a dose of 100 mg/day and were maintained at 6-month follow-up with gradual decline in craving for gambling as monitored on Problem Gambling Severity Index. Gambling addiction appears to be a very serious problem and can cause significant problems in the lives of people it affects and their family members.

  18. [Addictions and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzeau, Didier

    2012-12-01

    The qualifiers of alcoholic, drug addict have been abandoned because marked by the image of a person who uses toxic and violates the social prohibition to gradually give way to the representation of a sick person in a state of psychological distress, medical and social. Control systems of drug regulation should consider the damage to the individual, their potential to induce drug dependence and the effects on the family environment or society. Some emerging substances are excluded, others are demonized, thus limiting the scope of prevention messages. The theoretical model of addictions is much more complex for 20 years, while psychopathological references remained identical. There has been a proliferation of work neurobiological, cognitive-behavioral and sociological observations. Medical and psychosocial approaches are complementary to the understanding of a complex multifactorial phenomenon but also of its treatment whose goal is to enable the person to rebuild his life and not simply to be supported for curbing its substance use. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Neurobiological Basis of Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a serious social problem due to its impact on individual and collective health. In order to provide an update on the latest findings that explain the development and symptoms of alcohol addiction, the short and long term changes that this disorder causes in the central nervous system are shown in this paper. A total of 52 information sources were consulted, including 43 journal articles, 4 books and statistical reports. The main network managers were used. The interaction of ethanol with various structures of the neuronal membrane affects the cytoarchitecture and brain function associated with the reward system, motor processing, learning and memory, resulting in the development of alcohol dependence. In addition, ethanol-induced changes in excitation/inhibition explain the phenomena of alcohol tolerance and withdrawal.

  20. Cognitive interventions for addiction medicine: Understanding the underlying neurobiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilverstand, Anna; Parvaz, Muhammad A; Moeller, Scott J; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging provides a tool for investigating the neurobiological mechanisms of cognitive interventions in addiction. The aim of this review was to describe the brain circuits that are recruited during cognitive interventions, examining differences between various treatment modalities while highlighting core mechanisms, in drug addicted individuals. Based on a systematic Medline search we reviewed neuroimaging studies on cognitive behavioral therapy, cognitive inhibition of craving, motivational interventions, emotion regulation, mindfulness, and neurofeedback training in addiction. Across intervention modalities, common results included the normalization of aberrant activity in the brain's reward circuitry, and the recruitment and strengthening of the brain's inhibitory control network. Results suggest that different cognitive interventions act, at least partly, through recruitment of a common inhibitory control network as a core mechanism. This implies potential transfer effects between training modalities. Overall, results confirm that chronically hypoactive prefrontal regions implicated in cognitive control in addiction can be normalized through cognitive means. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Dental and mouth mucosal findings in drug addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, D; Wolters, H D

    1977-05-01

    100 drug addicts and 116 alcoholics, who were compared with 100 non-addicts of corresponding age, exhibited an extraordinarily intensive manifestation of dental caries, expecially at the cervical region. This observation appears to be partly a result of drug-induced changes in metabolism as well as the concomitant asialia and xerostomia and predominantly a result of poor oral hygiene and dental care. These latter ones fell proportionally with the disintegration of social status. Drug addicts show rather frequently fractures and fissures of partially distroyed teeth as a result of bruxism. 78% of the investigate drug addicts suffered from profound inflammatory parodontopathy, 42% showed pigmentation of the gingival and/or buccal mucosa. The dental surgion should pay attention to the possible danger of an hepatitis infection.

  2. Is psychology suffering from a replication crisis? What does "failure to replicate" really mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Scott E; Lau, Michael Y; Howard, George S

    2015-09-01

    Psychology has recently been viewed as facing a replication crisis because efforts to replicate past study findings frequently do not show the same result. Often, the first study showed a statistically significant result but the replication does not. Questions then arise about whether the first study results were false positives, and whether the replication study correctly indicates that there is truly no effect after all. This article suggests these so-called failures to replicate may not be failures at all, but rather are the result of low statistical power in single replication studies, and the result of failure to appreciate the need for multiple replications in order to have enough power to identify true effects. We provide examples of these power problems and suggest some solutions using Bayesian statistics and meta-analysis. Although the need for multiple replication studies may frustrate those who would prefer quick answers to psychology's alleged crisis, the large sample sizes typically needed to provide firm evidence will almost always require concerted efforts from multiple investigators. As a result, it remains to be seen how many of the recently claimed failures to replicate will be supported or instead may turn out to be artifacts of inadequate sample sizes and single study replications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Quality of Life in Medical Students With Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Fatehi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of internet has caused new psychological, social, and educational problems for the students. The aim of this study was to examine the quality of life in medical students who suffer from internet addiction. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, and a total of 174 fourth-to seventh-year undergraduate medical students were enrolled. The quality of life was assessed by WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire which covers four domains of physical health, psychological, social relationships, and the environment. For assessing internet addiction, we used Internet Addiction Test (IAT of Young. The students with IAT score higher than 50 were considered as addicted. For evaluating academic performance, the students were requested to report their grade point average (GPA. The mean IA score (±SD was 34.13±12.76. Twenty-eight students (16.90% had IAT score above 50. The mean quality of life score in internet addicted group was 54.97±11.38 versus 61.65±11.21 in normal group (P=0.005. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between IA score and physical domain (r=-0.18, P=0.02; psychological domain (r=-0.35, P=0.000; and social relation domain (r=-0.26, P=0.001. Mean GPA was significantly lower in the addicted group. It seems that quality of life is lower in the internet addicted medical students; moreover, such students academically perform poorer in comparison with non-addicts. Since internet addiction is increasing at a rapid pace which may provoke considerable academic, psychological and social implications; as a result, it may require screening programs to the immediate finding of such problem to give consultations to prevent unwanted complications.

  4. Quality of Life in Medical Students With Internet Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Farzad; Monajemi, Alireza; Sadeghi, Anahita; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mirzazadeh, Azim

    2016-10-01

    The widespread use of internet has caused new psychological, social, and educational problems for the students. The aim of this study was to examine the quality of life in medical students who suffer from internet addiction. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, and a total of 174 fourth-to seventh-year undergraduate medical students were enrolled. The quality of life was assessed by WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire which covers four domains of physical health, psychological, social relationships, and the environment. For assessing internet addiction, we used Internet Addiction Test (IAT) of Young. The students with IAT score higher than 50 were considered as addicted. For evaluating academic performance, the students were requested to report their grade point average (GPA). The mean IA score (±SD) was 34.13±12.76. Twenty-eight students (16.90%) had IAT score above 50. The mean quality of life score in internet addicted group was 54.97±11.38 versus 61.65±11.21 in normal group (P=0.005). Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between IA score and physical domain (r=-0.18, P=0.02); psychological domain (r=-0.35, P=0.000); and social relation domain (r=-0.26, P=0.001). Mean GPA was significantly lower in the addicted group. It seems that quality of life is lower in the internet addicted medical students; moreover, such students academically perform poorer in comparison with non-addicts. Since internet addiction is increasing at a rapid pace which may provoke considerable academic, psychological and social implications; as a result, it may require screening programs to the immediate finding of such problem to give consultations to prevent unwanted complications.

  5. The Comparison of Drawing Family and the House-Tree-Person Test in Children with Addicted and Non-Addicted Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Marjan Shafiei; Hosein Salimi; Ezat ollah Kordmirza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study is aimed at comparing results of the draw-a-family test and the house-tree-person test in the children with addicted and non-addicted parents. Method: This is a scientific-comparative study in which 50 children with addicted parents attending Tehran rehab centers and 50 children with non-addicted parents who were selected using the random cluster sampling method were measured by means of the draw-a-family test and the house-tree-person test. Findings: Results suggest tha...

  6. Eukaryotic DNA Replication Fork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Peter M J; Kunkel, Thomas A

    2017-06-20

    This review focuses on the biogenesis and composition of the eukaryotic DNA replication fork, with an emphasis on the enzymes that synthesize DNA and repair discontinuities on the lagging strand of the replication fork. Physical and genetic methodologies aimed at understanding these processes are discussed. The preponderance of evidence supports a model in which DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) carries out the bulk of leading strand DNA synthesis at an undisturbed replication fork. DNA polymerases α and δ carry out the initiation of Okazaki fragment synthesis and its elongation and maturation, respectively. This review also discusses alternative proposals, including cellular processes during which alternative forks may be utilized, and new biochemical studies with purified proteins that are aimed at reconstituting leading and lagging strand DNA synthesis separately and as an integrated replication fork.

  7. Modeling DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Joan

    1998-01-01

    Recommends the use of a model of DNA made out of Velcro to help students visualize the steps of DNA replication. Includes a materials list, construction directions, and details of the demonstration using the model parts. (DDR)

  8. Structural Equation Model of Smartphone Addiction Based on Adult Attachment Theory: Mediating Effects of Loneliness and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, EunYoung; Cho, Inhyo; Kim, Eun Joo

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the mediating effects of loneliness and depression on the relationship between adult attachment and smartphone addiction in university students. A total of 200 university students participated in this study. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling. There were significant positive relationships between attachment anxiety, loneliness, depression, and smartphone addiction. However, attachment anxiety was not significantly correlated with smartphone addiction. The results also showed that loneliness did not directly mediate between attachment anxiety and smartphone addiction. In addition, loneliness and depression serially mediated between attachment anxiety and smartphone addiction. The results suggest there are mediating effects of loneliness and depression in the relationship between attachment anxiety and smartphone addiction. The hypothesized model was found to be a suitable model for predicting smartphone addiction among university students. Future study is required to find a causal path to prevent smartphone addiction among university students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Subgroups Among Opiate Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzins, Juris I.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The principal objective of the present investigation was to delineate homogeneous MMPI profile subgroups (types) through multivariate clustering procedures and to compare the derived (replicable) types on measures of the components of "sociopathy" as well as on other psychometric devices. (Author)

  10. Comparison of three replication strategies in complex multicellular organisms: Asexual replication, sexual replication with identical gametes, and sexual replication with distinct sperm and egg gametes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies the mutation-selection balance in three simplified replication models. The first model considers a population of organisms replicating via the production of asexual spores. The second model considers a sexually replicating population that produces identical gametes. The third model considers a sexually replicating population that produces distinct sperm and egg gametes. All models assume diploid organisms whose genomes consist of two chromosomes, each of which is taken to be functional if equal to some master sequence, and defective otherwise. In the asexual population, the asexual diploid spores develop directly into adult organisms. In the sexual populations, the haploid gametes enter a haploid pool, where they may fuse with other haploids. The resulting immature diploid organisms then proceed to develop into mature organisms. Based on an analysis of all three models, we find that, as organism size increases, a sexually replicating population can only outcompete an asexually replicating population if the adult organisms produce distinct sperm and egg gametes. A sexual replication strategy that is based on the production of large numbers of sperm cells to fertilize a small number of eggs is found to be necessary in order to maintain a sufficiently low cost for sex for the strategy to be selected for over a purely asexual strategy. We discuss the usefulness of this model in understanding the evolution and maintenance of sexual replication as the preferred replication strategy in complex, multicellular organisms.

  11. Detection of replication-defective hepatitis A virus based on the correlation between real-time polymerase chain reaction and ELISA in situ results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyne Moraes Costa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ELISA in situ can be used to titrate hepatitis A virus (HAV particles and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR has been shown to be a fast method to quantify the HAV genome. Precise quantification of viral concentration is necessary to distinguish between infectious and non-infectious particles. The purpose of this study was to compare cell culture and RT-PCR quantification results and determine whether HAV genome quantification can be correlated with infectivity. For this purpose, three stocks of undiluted, five-fold diluted and 10-fold diluted HAV were prepared to inoculate cells in a 96-well plate. Monolayers were then incubated for seven, 10 and 14 days and the correlation between the ELISA in situ and RT-PCR results was evaluated. At 10 days post-incubation, the highest viral load was observed in all stocks of HAV via RT-PCR (10(5 copies/mL (p = 0.0002, while ELISA revealed the highest quantity of particles after 14 days (optical density = 0.24, p < 0.001. At seven days post-infection, there was a significant statistical correlation between the results of the two methods, indicating equivalents titres of particles and HAV genome during this period of infection. The results reported here indicate that the duration of growth of HAV in cell culture must be taken into account to correlate genome quantification with infectivity.

  12. What Should Researchers Expect When They Replicate Studies? A Statistical View of Replicability in Psychological Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prasad; Peng, Roger D; Leek, Jeffrey T

    2016-07-01

    A recent study of the replicability of key psychological findings is a major contribution toward understanding the human side of the scientific process. Despite the careful and nuanced analysis reported, the simple narrative disseminated by the mass, social, and scientific media was that in only 36% of the studies were the original results replicated. In the current study, however, we showed that 77% of the replication effect sizes reported were within a 95% prediction interval calculated using the original effect size. Our analysis suggests two critical issues in understanding replication of psychological studies. First, researchers' intuitive expectations for what a replication should show do not always match with statistical estimates of replication. Second, when the results of original studies are very imprecise, they create wide prediction intervals-and a broad range of replication effects that are consistent with the original estimates. This may lead to effects that replicate successfully, in that replication results are consistent with statistical expectations, but do not provide much information about the size (or existence) of the true effect. In this light, the results of the Reproducibility Project: Psychology can be viewed as statistically consistent with what one might expect when performing a large-scale replication experiment. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Signs of Drug Use and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use and Addiction Signs of Drug Use and Addiction Listen PDF: EasyToRead_WhatIsAddiction_Final_012017.pdf People ... English Español "I feel so helpless against his addiction." ©istock.com/ Antonio_Diaz Matt's brother Stephen is ...

  14. Childhood Food Addiction and the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Kristy L.; Buser, Juleen K.; Carlisle, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction among children is a concerning issue. Few empirical studies have examined the relevance of food addiction among pediatric samples, but emerging evidence suggests that some children experience their eating patterns as addictive. The present review will discuss the issue of food addiction among children, and will also attend to the…

  15. The relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control and narcissistic personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Joo; Namkoong, Kee; Ku, Taeyun; Kim, Se Joo

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits, which are known as the psychological characteristics linked to "at-risk" populations for online game addiction. A total of 1471 online game users (males 82.7%, females 17.3%, mean age 21.30+/-4.96) participated in this study and were asked to complete several self-report measures using an online response method. Questionnaires included demographic information and game use-related characteristics of the samples, the online game addiction scale (modified from Young's Internet addiction scale), the Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire, a self-control scale, and the narcissistic personality disorder scale. Our results indicated that aggression and narcissistic personality traits are positively correlated with online game addiction, whereas self-control is negatively correlated with online game addiction (pgame addiction could be predicted based on the person's narcissistic personality traits, aggression, self-control, interpersonal relationship, and occupation. However, only 20% of the variance in behavioral consequences was explained with the model. An interesting profile has emerged from the results of this study, suggesting that certain psychological characteristics such as aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits may predispose some individuals to become addicted to online games. This result will deepen our understanding of the "at-risk" population for online game addiction and provide basic information that can contribute to developing a prevention program for people who are addicted to online games.

  16. Lack of association between parental alcohol or drug addiction and behavioral inhibition in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, J; Hirshfeld-Becker, D R; Rosenbaum, J F; Perenick, S G; Wood, J; Faraone, S V

    2001-10-01

    "Behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar" has been proposed as a precursor to anxiety. A recent study proposed that it may also be a precursor to alcoholism. The authors sought to replicate the latter finding through a secondary analysis of data from a large study of young children (age 2-6 years)-offspring of parents with panic and depressive disorders-who had been assessed for behavioral inhibition through laboratory-based observations. The offspring were stratified on the basis of presence or absence of parental lifetime history of DSM-III-R alcohol dependence (N=115 versus N=166, respectively) or drug dependence (N=78 versus N=203). The rates of behavioral inhibition were then compared between groups. Despite adequate power to detect associations, neither parental alcohol dependence nor drug dependence was associated with a higher risk for behavioral inhibition in the offspring. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis linking behavioral inhibition to addictions.

  17. Structural Equation Model of Smartphone Addiction Based on Adult Attachment Theory: Mediating Effects of Loneliness and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EunYoung Kim, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest there are mediating effects of loneliness and depression in the relationship between attachment anxiety and smartphone addiction. The hypothesized model was found to be a suitable model for predicting smartphone addiction among university students. Future study is required to find a causal path to prevent smartphone addiction among university students.

  18. Publication trends in addiction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, Sandra; Spanagel, Rainer

    2011-10-01

    As opportunities to use and abuse drugs have tremendously increased during the past 50 years, so has addiction research. Here, we provide a systematic review on publication trends in the addiction research field. We examined publication trends in different subject categories of journals including general and multi-disciplinary science, neuroscience, pharmacology, psychiatry and, as a final and most important category, substance abuse. In this first report, we provide a brief comprehensive overview on what has been published in terms of addiction in the general and multi-disciplinary science category versus Addiction Biology within the past decade. We reviewed the literature within three time windows 1999/2000, 2004/2005 and 2009/2010 and selected the number of publications (1) according to the country/region where the original study was conducted; (2) according to the drug classes; (3) according to animal versus human studies; (4) and in terms of methodological trends such as genetic association studies and neuro-imaging. We found a 350% increase in addiction-related publications in the general and multi-disciplinary science category within the past decade. This increase, however, was mainly due to increased publication output from the United States. Concerning drug classes, alcohol-, nicotine- and psychostimulant-related publications clearly increased between 1999 and 2010, whereas published papers related to opioids decreased over time. There were also strongly increasing trends for genetic and imaging studies in the addiction field over time. These publication trends are also reflected to a certain degree by published studies in Addiction Biology. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. HARM REDUCTION IN THE PREVENTION OF DRUG ADDICTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KALOUSOVÁ, Dita

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation on Harm Reduction approach in the prevention of drug addictions deals with tertiary drug prevention. It aims to show the importance of how much information about this topic students at comprehensive schools get and have. The theoretical part provides some information about the consequences of drug addiction in general, about drug prevention, substitution treatment, Harm Reduction approach and the services involved. The practical part presents the results of a survey which ai...

  20. The Development and Validation of the Online Shopping Addiction Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Haiyan Zhao; Wei Tian; Tao Xin

    2017-01-01

    We report the development and validation of a scale to measure online shopping addiction. Inspired by previous theories and research on behavioral addiction, the Griffiths's widely accepted six-factor component model was referred to and an 18-item scale was constructed, with each component measured by three items. The results of exploratory factor analysis, based on Sample 1 (999 college students) and confirmatory factor analysis, based on Sample 2 (854 college students) showed the Griffiths'...

  1. Maintenance Medication for Opiate Addiction: The Foundation of Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Bart, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    Illicit use of opiates is the fastest growing substance use problem in the United States and the main reason for seeking addiction treatment services for illicit drug use throughout the world. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality related to HIV, hepatitis C, and overdose. Treatment for opiate addiction requires long-term management. Behavioral interventions alone have extremely poor outcomes, with more than 80% of patients returning to drug use. Similarly poor results are...

  2. Polymorphisms in AHI1 are not associated with type 2 diabetes or related phenotypes in Danes: non-replication of a genome-wide association result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmkvist, J; Anthonsen, S; Wegner, L

    2008-01-01

    diabetes (n=2107) and glucose-tolerant participants (n=483) using Taqman allelic discrimination. The case-control study involved 4,104 type 2 diabetic patients and 5,050 glucose-tolerant control participants. Type 2 diabetes-related traits were investigated in 17,521 individuals. RESULTS: rs1535435 and rs......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: A genome-wide association study recently identified an association between common variants, rs1535435 and rs9494266, in the AHI1 gene and type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the putative association between these polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes...... or type 2 diabetes-related metabolic traits in Danish individuals. METHODS: The previously associated polymorphisms were genotyped in the population-based Inter99 cohort (n=6162), the Danish ADDITION study (n=8428), a population-based sample of young healthy participants (n=377) and in additional type 2...

  3. Mechanisms of Nicotine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGehee, Daniel (University of Chicago)

    2002-06-26

    Nicotine reinforces the use of tobacco products primarily through its interaction with specific receptor proteins within the brain's reward centers. A critical step in the process of addiction for many drugs, including nicotine, is the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. A single nicotine exposure will enhance dopamine levels for hours, however, nicotinic receptors undergo both activation and then desensitization in minutes, which presents an important problem. How does the time course of receptor activity lead to the prolonged release of dopamine? We have found that persistent modulation of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections by nicotine underlies the sustained increase in dopamine release. Because these inputs express different types of nicotinic receptors there is a coordinated shift in the balance of synaptic inputs toward excitation of the dopamine neurons. Excitatory inputs are turned on while inhibitory inputs are depressed, thereby boosting the brain's reward system.

  4. Drug addiction and social discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos Canabarro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the various discursive positions found in the phenomenon of addiction. The relations these discursive positions establish with the discourses of the master, the hysteric, the university and the capitalist are discussed. By analyzing material from clinical listening at a public outpatient drug and alcohol rehab center, it was seen that addiction can be described in different discourses. This article shows that the shift of focus from the symptom to the discursive position of the subject is an indicator for the clinical treatment of addiction.

  5. Considering the Definition of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Sussman, Alan N.

    2011-01-01

    The definition of addiction is explored. Elements of addiction derived from a literature search that uncovered 52 studies include: (a) engagement in the behavior to achieve appetitive effects, (b) preoccupation with the behavior, (c) temporary satiation, (d) loss of control, and (e) suffering negative consequences. Differences from compulsions are suggested. While there is some debate on what is intended by the elements of addictive behavior, we conclude that these five constituents provide a reasonable understanding of what is intended by the concept. Conceptual challenges for future research are mentioned. PMID:22073026

  6. The association between Internet addiction and psychiatric disorder: a review of the literature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ko, C H; Yen, J Y; Yen, C F; Chen, C S; Chen, C C

    2012-01-01

    .... We describe the updated results for such disorders of Internet addiction, which include substance use disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, hostility, and social anxiety disorder...

  7. Women and addiction (alcohol and opiates: Comparative analysis of psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raketić Diana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays women constitute one third of all addicts. In the last decade, there has been a remarkable growth in scientific interest in biochemical and psychosocial aspects of women’s addiction. Many researches point out the specific character of women’s addiction. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess and compare psychosocial aspects, including the socio-demographic characteristics as well as the specific aspects of functioning of family and interpersonal relationships of the subjects addicted to opiates and alcohol. Methods. There were two substance addict groups (32 and 30 subjects addicted to drugs and alcohol, respectively and the control group, consisting of 30 subjects (no substance addiction. A socio-demo- graphic data questionnaire and semi-structured Addiction Severity Index (ASI interview were used. Results. The results of the research indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the compared groups in respect to the age of the subjects, family history of addiction disorders, education, parenthood, employment work status, and marital status. The subjects addicted to opiates differed significantly in respect to manifestation of aggressive, delinquent behaviour, infectious diseases, presence of addicts-partnerships, but there were no significant differences in relation to physical abuse, sexual abuse and self-assessment of depression. Conclusion. The results of this research suggest that subjects addicted to opiates differed largely from the subjects addicted to alcohol in terms of the age of the subjects, education level, family relationships, partnerships and social relationships, which all have to be taken into consideration when designing a therapy protocol and planning activities for prevention.

  8. Comparison of the Personality Profiles of Inmate Anonymous and Non-Anonymous Male Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrolah Erfani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the personality profiles of inmate anonymous and non-anonymous male addicts. Method: The participants of study were anonymous and non-anonymous male addicts of the prisons of the Hamadan province in 1391. The population was 3130 addicts, including 627 anonymous and 2503 non-anonymous addicts. The 310 addicts were selected by stratified random sampling the sample size was determined by Cochran formula.The short-form NEO Five Factor personality questionnaire administered among selected sample. Data analyzed by descriptive statistic as frequency and percentage, also, inferential statistic as multivariate analysis of variance was run. Results: The results showed that personality profiles of anonymous and non-anonymous addicts were significantly different. That is, mean score of neuroticism in anonymous addicts was less than non anonymous. Also, mean score of extraversion was higher in anonymous addicts. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the anonymous male addicts are differ with non-anonymous male addicts in personality traits.

  9. Implicit associations in cybersex addiction: Adaption of an Implicit Association Test with pornographic pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

  11. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2003-07-15

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to a combination of abused drugs. The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of the combination of abused drugs.

  12. Survey of Four Decades of Addiction Prevalence Researches in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Sarrami

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this research is the survey of addiction and drug abuse and psychotropic drugs prevalence researches which have been done in our country in last decades Method: To do this research all addiction and drug abuse prevalence researches that have been taken place were collected and analyzed. Results: the results of the researches show that the statistics of addiction has been in an oscillation as in 1390, the survey in 15 to 64 years old people (according to 1385 census that is 50 million people, is equal to one million and three hundred thousand and twenty five persons. Conclusion: the results of the four decades of addiction prevalence in Iran show that in according to the size of the threat of drugs and psychotropic drugs and addiction prevalence and also the change of gender, matrimony, age, job and the level of addicts education, less attention has been given to the drug abuse prevalence researches in public, youngsters, students and governmental and governmental non- officials.

  13. Deep brain stimulation in addiction due to psychoactive substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jens; Bührle, Christian P; Lenartz, Doris; Sturm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is one of the most challenging health problems. It is associated with enormous individual distress and tremendous socioeconomic consequences. Unfortunately, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and pharmacological, psychological, or social interventions often fail to achieve long-lasting remission. Next to genetic, social, and contextual factors, a substance-induced dysfunction of the brain's reward system is considered a decisive factor for the establishment and maintenance of addiction. Due to its successful application and approval for several neurological disorders, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known as a powerful tool for modulating dysregulated networks and has also been considered for substance addiction. Initial promising case reports of DBS in alcohol and heroin addiction in humans have recently been published. Likewise, results from animal studies mimicking different kinds of substance addiction point in a similar direction. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on DBS in addiction, and to discuss whether these preliminary results justify further research, given the novelty of this treatment approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Empirical Analysis of Religiosity as Predictor of Social Media Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal J Almenayes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine the dimensions of social media addiction and its relationship to religiosity.  To investigate the matter, the present research utilized a well-known Internet addiction scale and modified it to fit social media (Young, 1996.  Factor analysis of items generated by a sample of 1326 participants, three addiction factors were apparent.  These factors were later regressed on a scale of religiosity.  This scale contained a single factor based on factor analysis.  Results indicated that social media addiction had three factors; "Social Consequences", "Time Displacement" and "Compulsive feelings.  Religiosity, on the other hand, contained a single factor.  Both of these results were arrived at using factor analysis of their respective scales. The relationship between religiosity and social media addiction was then examined using linear regression.  The results indicated that only two of the addiction factors were significantly related to religiosity.  Future research should address the operationalization of the concept of religiosity to account for multiple dimensions.

  15. Crinivirus replication and host interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsofia A Kiss

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Criniviruses comprise one of the genera within the family Closteroviridae. Members in this family are restricted to the phloem and rely on whitefly vectors of the genera Bemisia and/or Trialeurodes for plant-to-plant transmission. All criniviruses have bipartite, positive-sense ssRNA genomes, although there is an unconfirmed report of one having a tripartite genome. Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV is the type species of the genus, the best studied so far of the criniviruses and the first for which a reverse genetics system was available. LIYV RNA 1 encodes for proteins predicted to be involved in replication, and alone is competent for replication in protoplasts. Replication results in accumulation of cytoplasmic vesiculated membranous structures which are characteristic of most studied members of the Closteroviridae. These membranous structures, often referred to as BYV-type vesicles, are likely sites of RNA replication. LIYV RNA 2 is replicated in trans when co-infecting cells with RNA 1, but is temporally delayed relative to RNA1. Efficient RNA 2 replication also is dependent on the RNA 1-encoded RNA binding protein, P34. No LIYV RNA 2-encoded proteins have been shown to affect RNA replication, but at least four, CP, CPm, Hsp70h, and p59 are virion structural components and CPm is a determinant of whitefly transmissibility. Roles of other LIYV RNA 2-encoded proteins are largely as yet unknown, but P26 is a non-virion protein that accumulates in cells as characteristic plasmalemma deposits which in plants are localized within phloem parenchyma and companion cells over plasmodesmata connections to sieve elements. The two remaining crinivirus-conserved RNA 2-encoded proteins are P5 and P9. P5 is 39 amino acid protein and is encoded at the 5’ end of RNA 2 as ORF1 and is part of the hallmark closterovirus gene array. The orthologous gene in BYV has been shown to play a role in cell-to-cell movement and indicated to be localized to the

  16. [Adolescents and new technologies: Behaviours pointing a possible addiction problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador Encinas, Francisco Javier; Villadangos González, Silvia María

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate adolescents' subjective risk perception derived from the use of the New Technologies (NT), and to identify behaviours or warning symptoms of possible addiction problems. A sample of 1,710 underage students of Madrid responded to the DENA questionnaire. Firstly, we found a positive correlation between the time of NT use and the perception of addiction problems. Also, age was positively correlated to these perception problems. Secondly, the results indicated that television is the technology that generates a major perception problem in underage students. Lastly, the NTs have produced behaviours that are similar to those produced by other established addictions. Among them are notable the relaxation caused by their use or discomfort if they cannot be used. In addition, the frequent presence of other behaviours exclusive to these instruments has been identified, such as constantly checking one's mobile phone screen. It is necessary to continue studying possible addictive behaviours specific to the NT.

  17. Pharmacogenetic approaches to the treatment of alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilig, Markus; Goldman, David; Berrettini, Wade; O'Brien, Charles P

    2011-10-20

    Addictive disorders are partly heritable, chronic, relapsing conditions that account for a tremendous disease burden. Currently available addiction pharmacotherapies are only moderately successful, continue to be viewed with considerable scepticism outside the scientific community and have not become widely adopted as treatments. More effective medical treatments are needed to transform addiction treatment and address currently unmet medical needs. Emerging evidence from alcoholism research suggests that no single advance can be expected to fundamentally change treatment outcomes. Rather, studies of opioid, corticotropin-releasing factor, GABA and serotonin systems suggest that incremental advances in treatment outcomes will result from an improved understanding of the genetic heterogeneity among patients with alcohol addiction, and the development of personalized treatments.

  18. Psychological aspects of internet addiction of teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Tserkovnikova, N. G.; Shchipanova, D. Y.; Uskova, B. A.; Puzyrev, V. V.; Fedotovskih, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under study is due to the lack of elaborated theoretical approaches to addiction and addictive behavior factors among children and adolescents, as well as due to the need and demand for psychological and pedagogical work with Internet addicted children and young people or with those who are potentially prone to Internet addiction, as well as with their parents. The purpose of the article is to study empirically the inclination to Internet addiction in the context ...

  19. Use of bibliotherapy with drug addicted people

    OpenAIRE

    Tmejová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    This work named 'The use of bibliotherapy in people with drug addiction' deals with bibliotherapy in specific kind of people who are drug addicts. In the work is shown theoretical knowledge of the problems with drug addiction, the issues of bibliotherapy and the experience in usually used techniques of bibliotherapy with the drug-addicted people. The work also contains lists of appropriate literature with the topic of addiction from a different perspective. The main aim of this work is to sug...

  20. Gaming: from Addiction Mechanisms to Clinical Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Thorens, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    Video game addiction is the main theme of this thesis. After a brief definition of addiction, the focus is on the specific addictive properties of Internet and games. Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) are described, as they tend to be the most addictive type of game, with a specific focus on World of Warcraft (WoW). Issues of diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder (IGD) are be presented.

  1. Internet addiction among Greek university students: Demographic associations with the phenomenon, using the Greek version of young's Internet addiction rest

    OpenAIRE

    Christos C. Frangos; Constantinos C. Frangos; Apostolos P. Kiohos

    2010-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a new disorder described in 1996 by the psychologist Kimberly Young. The aim of this paper is to estimate the percentage of IA among Greek university students. Results of a sample survey among 1876 Greek university students, 18-27 years old, are presented. The questionnaire consisted of eight questions from Young’s Diagnostic Test for Internet Addiction (YDTIA) as well as an inventory including demographic factors and questions about academic performance, computer a...

  2. Hepatitis C Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tetsuro

    2017-01-01

    Viruses use synthetic mechanism and organelles of the host cells to facilitate their replication and make new viruses. Host's ATP provides necessary energy. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver disease. Like other positive-strand RNA viruses, the HCV genome is thought to be synthesized by the replication complex, which consists of viral- and host cell-derived factors, in tight association with structurally rearranged vesicle-like cytoplasmic membranes. The virus-induced remodeling of subcellular membranes, which protect the viral RNA from nucleases in the cytoplasm, promotes efficient replication of HCV genome. The assembly of HCV particle involves interactions between viral structural and nonstructural proteins and pathways related to lipid metabolisms in a concerted fashion. Association of viral core protein, which forms the capsid, with lipid droplets appears to be a prerequisite for early steps of the assembly, which are closely linked with the viral genome replication. This review presents the recent progress in understanding the mechanisms for replication and assembly of HCV through its interactions with organelles or distinct organelle-like structures.

  3. Replicative Intermediates of Human Papillomavirus Type 11 in Laryngeal Papillomas: Site of Replication Initiation and Direction of Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auborn, K. J.; Little, R. D.; Platt, T. H. K.; Vaccariello, M. A.; Schildkraut, C. L.

    1994-07-01

    We have examined the structures of replication intermediates from the human papillomavirus type 11 genome in DNA extracted from papilloma lesions (laryngeal papillomas). The sites of replication initiation and termination utilized in vivo were mapped by using neutral/neutral and neutral/alkaline two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis methods. Initiation of replication was detected in or very close to the upstream regulatory region (URR; the noncoding, regulatory sequences upstream of the open reading frames in the papillomavirus genome). We also show that replication forks proceed bidirectionally from the origin and converge 180circ opposite the URR. These results demonstrate the feasibility of analysis of replication of viral genomes directly from infected tissue.

  4. Mobile phone addiction among students’s at a South African university

    OpenAIRE

    Hilda Bongazana Mahlangu; Ufuoma Akpojivi

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research carried out to examine mobile phone addiction among students at a South African University. The results suggest that students exhibited addiction tendencies. Of the top sources of addiction were; a feeling of loss when students did not have their mobile phones with them, reduction in sleep patterns, use of mobile phones longer than intended, feeling of restlessness and irritability when not using mobile phone and use of mobile phones to escape from p...

  5. Correlation between Resistin, Tuberculosis and Khat Addiction: A Study from South Western Province of Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Alvi

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis(TB is a disease of global significance, which accounts for a death in every 15 seconds. Recent studies shows TB is rising in certain parts of the world, and Saudi Arabia is one of them. Several factor contribute in predisposing the subjects for infection including but not limited to addiction to various compounds which have immune modulation properties, such as amphetamines and Heroin etc. Khat a plant whose leaves are chewed for its euphoric effect in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula including Saudi Arabia, is considered as mildly addictive, and its principle compound, Cathinone shares structural and functional similarity with amphetamine a known immunomodulator. Tuberculosis being a disease of immune modulation has a varied spectrum of complex interplay of proinflammatory molecules, resistin is one of them. In the present study, we try to explore the trinity of khat addiction, serum resistin level and tuberculosis by correlating the serum resistin level in non khat addicted healthy subjects, khat addicted healthy subjects, and in patients, both khat addicted and non khat addicted, with active tuberculosis. We observed significantly higher resistin level among the apparently healthy khat addicted subjects as compared to non addicted healthy controls. Thereafter, when we compare the resistin levels between khat addicted and non khat addicted TB patients we did not found significant difference between the two groups. However bacillary load was observe to be significantly higher among the khat addicted TB patient as compare to non addicted one. Validation of above results in animal model revealed dose dependant increase in bacillary growth in the Wistar rats treated with khat. Taken together these results suggest the role of khat in immune modulation albeit in the limited frame of resistin level.

  6. APOBEC3G induces a hypermutation gradient: purifying selection at multiple steps during HIV-1 replication results in levels of G-to-A mutations that are high in DNA, intermediate in cellular viral RNA, and low in virion RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathak Vinay K

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturally occurring Vif variants that are unable to inhibit the host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G have been isolated from infected individuals. A3G can potentially induce G-to-A hypermutation in these viruses, and hypermutation could contribute to genetic variation in HIV-1 populations through recombination between hypermutant and wild-type genomes. Thus, hypermutation could contribute to the generation of immune escape and drug resistant variants, but the genetic contribution of hypermutation to the viral evolutionary potential is poorly understood. In addition, the mechanisms by which these viruses persist in the host despite the presence of A3G remain unknown. Results To address these questions, we generated a replication-competent HIV-1 Vif mutant in which the A3G-binding residues of Vif, Y40RHHY44, were substituted with five alanines. As expected, the mutant was severely defective in an A3G-expressing T cell line and exhibited a significant delay in replication kinetics. Analysis of viral DNA showed the expected high level of G-to-A hypermutation; however, we found substantially reduced levels of G-to-A hypermutation in intracellular viral RNA (cRNA, and the levels of G-to-A mutations in virion RNA (vRNA were even further reduced. The frequencies of hypermutation in DNA, cRNA, and vRNA were 0.73%, 0.12%, and 0.05% of the nucleotides sequenced, indicating a gradient of hypermutation. Additionally, genomes containing start codon mutations and early termination codons within gag were isolated from the vRNA. Conclusion These results suggest that sublethal levels of hypermutation coupled with purifying selection at multiple steps during the early phase of viral replication lead to the packaging of largely unmutated genomes, providing a mechanism by which mutant Vif variants can persist in infected individuals. The persistence of genomes containing mutated gag genes despite this selection pressure indicates that dual

  7. Internet addiction and hopelessness in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray simsek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: 12-18 years of age reported that risky for internet addiction. To determine the relationship between internet addiction and hopelessness was aimed in this study. METHOD: This study was carried out in a high school which the maximum number of students in a city center and has a profile of student who from every region of this city. It was sampling taken 350 students from 1596 in this high school by using simple random numbers table. It was used adolescent information form, Internet Addiction Inventory and Beck Hopelessness Scale to data collection. In the analysis process, Chi-square, correlation, logistic regression analysis were used. RESULTS: It was found internet addiction between hopelessness in adolescents, bi-directional, moderate and positive relationship. Hopelessness scores of adolescents showing symptoms of internet addiction and who use the internet to surf on the web are high. Adolescents 3.6% of internet addiction profile showed 21.8% per cent were found to be the border of internet addiction. Some of the characteristics of the adolescents at home to the computer, internet usage time and a friend on the relationship between Internet addiction was found to be a significant effect. CONCLUSION: As a result, at home with a computer, internet usage control themselves and dependency profile of adolescents with poor peer relations and adolescents showed that level of hopelessness was found to increase the levels of dependence on the internet. Adolescents in schools, such as feelings of hopelessness, stimulate research and advisory programs offered configuration. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 7-14

  8. [Addictive behavior among the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trends Nationwide Trends Prevention and Treatment Lessons from Prevention Research Substance Abuse in the Military Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Get this Publication Español PDF (773KB) Cite this ...

  10. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trends Nationwide Trends Prevention and Treatment Lessons from Prevention Research Substance Abuse in the Military Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction Get this Publication Español PDF (587KB) Cite this ...

  11. The epigenetic landscape of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maze, Ian; Nestler, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    Drug-induced alterations in gene expression throughout the reward circuitry of the brain are likely components of the persistence of the drug-addicted state. Recent studies examining the molecular mechanisms controlling drug-induced transcriptional, behavioral, and synaptic plasticity have indicated a direct role for chromatin remodeling in the regulation and stability of drug-mediated neuronal gene programs, and the subsequent promulgation of addictive behaviors. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of chromatin phenomena--or epigenetics, by one definition--that contribute to drug addiction, with the hope that such mechanistic insights may aid in the development of novel therapeutics for future treatments of addiction. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Reactivation of viral replication in anti-HBe positive chronic HBsAg carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, K; Aldershvile, J; Kryger, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Reactivation of hepatitis B virus replication was investigated in an unselected group of 44 HBV DNA negative, anti-HBe positive chronic HBsAg carriers. Twenty-five patients (54%) were intravenous drug addicts and 7 (16%) were male homosexuals. Sixteen patients had evidence of delta infection...

  13. Psychology, replication & beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Keith R

    2016-06-01

    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.

  14. Can Food be Addictive? Public Health and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Grilo, Carlos M.; DiLeone, Ralph J.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Data suggest that hyperpalatable foods may be capable of triggering an addictive process. Although the addictive potential of foods continues to be debated, important lessons learned in reducing the health and economic consequences of drug addiction may be especially useful in combating food-related problems. Methods In the current paper, we review the potential application of policy and public health approaches that have been effective in reducing the impact of addictive substances to food-related problems. Results Corporate responsibility, public health approaches, environmental change, and global efforts all warrant strong consideration in reducing obesity and diet-related disease. Conclusions Although there exist important differences between foods and addictive drugs, ignoring analogous neural and behavioral effects of foods and drugs of abuse may result in increased food-related disease and associated social and economic burdens. Public health interventions that have been effective in reducing the impact of addictive drugs may have a role in targeting obesity and related diseases. PMID:21635588

  15. Brain activities associated with gaming urge of online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Gin-Chung; Hsiao, Sigmund; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yang, Ming-Jen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the neural substrates of online gaming addiction through evaluation of the brain areas associated with the cue-induced gaming urge. Ten participants with online gaming addiction and 10 control subjects without online gaming addiction were tested. They were presented with gaming pictures and the paired mosaic pictures while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. The contrast in blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signals when viewing gaming pictures and when viewing mosaic pictures was calculated with the SPM2 software to evaluate the brain activations. Right orbitofrontal cortex, right nucleus accumbens, bilateral anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus were activated in the addicted group in contrast to the control group. The activation of the region-of-interest (ROI) defined by the above brain areas was positively correlated with self-reported gaming urge and recalling of gaming experience provoked by the WOW pictures. The results demonstrate that the neural substrate of cue-induced gaming urge/craving in online gaming addiction is similar to that of the cue-induced craving in substance dependence. The above-mentioned brain regions have been reported to contribute to the craving in substance dependence, and here we show that the same areas were involved in online gaming urge/craving. Thus, the results suggest that the gaming urge/craving in online gaming addiction and craving in substance dependence might share the same neurobiological mechanism.

  16. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, O. J.; Ko, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents.

  17. Interrelationships among impulsive personality traits, food addiction, and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cara M; Stojek, Monika K; MacKillop, James

    2014-02-01

    Impulsive personality traits have been robustly associated with alcohol and drug misuse, but have received little attention in the context of food addiction. The goal of the current study was to examine the interrelationships between impulsive personality traits, food addiction, and Body Mass Index (BMI), including indirect pathways of influence. Participants (N = 233) completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) to assess patterns of addictive consumption of food, the upps-p impulsivity scale to assess impulsive personality traits, and provided weight and height to generate BMI. Significant positive associations were found between facets of impulsivity, food addiction symptoms, and BMI. Impulsivity was found to be indirectly associated with BMI by way of associations with addictive consumption of food. In particular, an inclination toward behaving irrationally while experiencing negative mood states (Negative Urgency) and low levels of task persistence (lack of Perseverance) were significantly associated with food addiction directly and that relationship was responsible for their relationship to BMI. Dispositional impulsivity, routinely associated with high-risk behaviors including addictive consumption of alcohol and drugs, may be an important risk factor when considering tendency to engage in addictive consumption of food. Monitoring food addiction symptoms early may help reduce the likelihood that compulsive food consumption patterns result in weight gain and obesity. Methodological considerations are discussed.

  18. Popular Views on Addictions and on Prospects for Recovery in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingemann, Justyna I; Klingemann, Harald; Moskalewicz, Jacek

    2017-11-10

    Popular views of addictive substances and behaviors constitute an important research topic because these views have an impact upon the functioning of treatment systems and societal responses to substance use disorders. The analysis is based on a random sample of N = 1000 telephone interviews collected in Poland in 2013. Questionnaire measures targeted such issues as the perceived risks of addictions and beliefs about potential recovery from various types of addictions. First, a coherent view of the addiction potential of various addictive substances and/or behaviors emerges, distinguishing licit drugs and types of behavior from illicit drugs. Second, treatment optimism proves to be quite high independent of the type of addictive behavior, while chances of recovery without treatment are considered less likely. Third, chances for assisted change (change with treatment) and self-change are considered largely independent of perceived addiction-related risks and are not perceived as contradictory. The results point to the persistence of the disease model of addiction in Poland, placing responsibility for addiction on the individual and pairing it with the expectation of undergoing specialized treatment. This individualistic approach was applied as a framework for addiction problems in the 1950s to deflect from the shortcomings of the ''new socialist society.'' Neo-liberal market reform and socioeconomic changes have provided reinforcement for this individualistic framework.

  19. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss DJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive

  20. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, pinternet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Nestler, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues,...

  2. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Jian; Nestler, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation can mediate long-lasting changes in gene expression, which makes it an attractive mechanism for the stable behavioral abnormalities that characterize drug addiction. Recent research has unveiled numerous types of epigenetic modifications within the brain’s reward circuitry in animal models of drug addiction. In this review, we summarize the latest advances in the field, focusing on histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs. We also highlight several are...

  3. Gaming addiction in adolescence (revisited)

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, MD

    2014-01-01

    Gaming addiction has become a topic of increasing research interest. Over the last 25 years, I have written many articles on adolescent video gaming for Education and Health as it is one of the research fields that is constantly evolving. In fact, over the last decade, there has been a significant increase in the number of scientific studies examining various aspects of online addiction particularly among adolescents and young adults (Kuss & Griffiths, 2012; Kuss, Griffiths, Karila & Billieux...

  4. Nucleus accumbens surgery for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xue-lian; Chang, Chong-wang; Ge, Shun-nan; Gao, Li; Wu, He-ming; Zhao, Hai-kang; Geng, Ning; Gao, Guo-dong

    2013-01-01

    Opiate addiction remains intractable in a large percentage of patients, and relapse is the biggest hurdle to recovery because of psychological dependence. Multiple studies identify a central role of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in addiction; several studies note decreased addictive behavior after interventions in this area. Based on animal experiments, our institute started the clinical trial for the treatment of drug addicts' psychological dependence by making lesions in the bilateral NAc with stereotactic surgery from July 2000. The short-term outcomes were encouraging and triggered rapid application of this treatment in China from 2003 to 2004. However, lack of long-term outcomes and controversy eventually led to halting the surgery for addiction by the Ministry of Health of China in November 2004 and a nationwide survey about it later. Our institute had performed this surgery in 272 patients with severe heroin addiction. The follow-up study showed that the 5-year nonrelapse rate was 58% and the quality of life was significantly improved. Patients had several kinds of side effects, but the incidence rate was relatively low. The patients gradually recovered more than 5 years after the surgery. The side effects did not severely influence an individual's life or work. Nationwide surgery showed that the nonrelapse rate was 50% in the sample of 150 cases, from 1167 patients overall who underwent stereotactic surgery in China. Although sometimes accompanied by neuropsychological adverse events, stereotactic ablation of NAc may effectively treat opiate addiction. Lesion location has a significant impact on treatment efficacy and requires further study. Because ablation is irreversible, the NAc surgery for addiction should be performed with cautiousness, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an ideal alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Growing Through Innovation Replicability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Lévesque, Moren

    2012-01-01

    of growth policies. We use a utility function that considers proxies for both growth and failure potential to uncover the role played in selecting these policies by the economic environment of the targeted market for expansion. Our analysis further reveals the importance of the innovation......We propose a formal model of firm growth through replication that considers the extent of the investment to adapt routines as replication unfolds and the portion of this investment that goes toward innovation in the routines. The use of these two investment constructs brings about four types...

  6. Initiation of Replication in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimodt-Møller, Jakob

    of initiation, which leads to hyperinitiation, results in double-strand breaks when replication forks encounters single-stranded DNA lesions generated while removing oxidized bases, primarily 8-oxoG, from the DNA. Thus, the number of replication forks can only increase when ROS formation is reduced or when......The circular chromosome of Escherichia coli is replicated by two replisomes assembled at the unique origin and moving in the opposite direction until they meet in the less well defined terminus. The key protein in initiation of replication, DnaA, facilitates the unwinding of double-stranded DNA...... to single-stranded DNA in oriC. Although DnaA is able to bind both ADP and ATP, DnaA is only active in initiation when bound to ATP. Although initiation of replication, and the regulation of this, is thoroughly investigated it is still not fully understood. The overall aim of the thesis was to investigate...

  7. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Christoffersen, Dorte J; Banner, Jytte

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. METHODS: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... in 2012 were included in the study. RESULTS: A total of 188 fatal intoxications were recorded. The median age increased from 37.5 in 2007 to 41.5 in 2012. The majority were men (77%). Methadone (59%) was the main intoxicant. The decrease in the frequency of heroin/morphine deaths since 1997 (71...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. CONCLUSIONS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...

  8. Fatal poisoning among patients with drug addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. W.; Christoffersen, D. J.; Banner, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fatal poisonings among drug addicts in Denmark in 2012 were examined. Cause of death, abuse pattern and geographic differences are discussed and data are compared with previous studies. Methods: All fatal poisonings examined at the three institutes of forensic medicine in Denmark...... in 2012 were included in the study. Results: A total of 188 fatal intoxications were recorded. The median age increased from 37.5 in 2007 to 41.5 in 2012. The majority were men (77%). Methadone (59%) was the main intoxicant. The decrease in the frequency of heroin/morphine deaths since 1997 (71...... on Funen and in South Jutland. Cocaine was most frequently detected in East Denmark, while amphetamine was more frequent in West Denmark. ConclusionS: The number of fatal poisonings among drug addicts has stabilised around 200. The increase in methadone deaths continued and, as in 2007, methadone...

  9. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-12-31

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction.

  10. Completion of DNA replication in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Brian M; Courcelle, Charmain T; Courcelle, Justin

    2014-11-18

    The mechanism by which cells recognize and complete replicated regions at their precise doubling point must be remarkably efficient, occurring thousands of times per cell division along the chromosomes of humans. However, this process remains poorly understood. Here we show that, in Escherichia coli, the completion of replication involves an enzymatic system that effectively counts pairs and limits cellular replication to its doubling point by allowing converging replication forks to transiently continue through the doubling point before the excess, over-replicated regions are incised, resected, and joined. Completion requires RecBCD and involves several proteins associated with repairing double-strand breaks including, ExoI, SbcDC, and RecG. However, unlike double-strand break repair, completion occurs independently of homologous recombination and RecA. In some bacterial viruses, the completion mechanism is specifically targeted for inactivation to allow over-replication to occur during lytic replication. The results suggest that a primary cause of genomic instabilities in many double-strand-break-repair mutants arises from an impaired ability to complete replication, independent from DNA damage.

  11. Risk Factors for Smartphone Addiction in Korean Adolescents: Smartphone Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Kim, Jun Won; Choi, Tae Young

    2017-10-01

    With widespread use of the smartphone, clinical evidence for smartphone addiction remains unclear. Against this background, we analyzed the effect of smartphone use patterns on smartphone addiction in Korean adolescents. A total of 370 middle school students participated. The severity of smartphone addiction was measured through clinical interviews and the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. As a result, 50 (13.5%) were in the smartphone addiction group and 320 (86.5%) were in the healthy group. To investigate the effect of smartphone use patterns on smartphone addiction, we performed self-report questionnaires that assessed the following items: smartphone functions mostly used, purpose of use, problematic use, and parental attitude regarding smartphone use. For smartphone functions mostly used, the addiction group showed significantly higher scores in "Online chat." For the purpose of use, the addiction group showed significantly higher "habitual use," "pleasure," "communication," "games," "stress relief," "ubiquitous trait," and "not to be left out." For problematic use, the addiction group showed significantly higher scores on "preoccupation," "tolerance," "lack of control," "withdrawal," "mood modification," "conflict," "lies," "excessive use," and "loss of interest." For parental attitude regarding children's smartphone use, the addiction group showed significantly higher scores in "parental punishment." Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that "female," "use for learning," "use for ubiquitous trait," "preoccupation," and "conflict" were significantly correlated with smartphone addiction. This study demonstrated that the risk factors for smartphone addiction were being female, preoccupation, conflict, and use for ubiquitous trait; the protective factor was use for learning. Future studies will be required to reveal the additional clinical evidence of the disease entity for smartphone addiction. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  12. Reinforcements from the first drug experience can predict later drug habits and/or addiction: results with coffee, cigarettes, alcohol, barbiturates, minor and major tranquilizers, stimulants, marijuana, hallucinogens, heroin, opiates and cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertzen, C A; Kocher, T R; Miyasato, K

    1983-04-01

    The relationship between the reinforcing quality of the first drug experiences and eventual habits for a variety of drugs was studied in 42 male drug abusers who were predominantly opiate addicts. These subjects volunteered for drug studies carried out by the Addiction Research Center. The degree of reinforcement they derived from their first drug experience was related to their subsequent habit. This was true for alcohol, barbiturates, minor tranquilizers, cocaine, stimulants, marijuana, glue or solvents, hallucinogens, opiates other than heroin and heroin. Positive but non-significant correlations were found for coffee and major tranquilizers. The correlation for cigarettes was contrary to expectations. Of the components to the index of reinforcement, degree of liking of a drug on the first occasion was most related to the subsequent habit. The greatest initial reinforcement scores were found for heroin, cocaine and opiates other than heroin. drugs which were not well liked on the first occasion included major tranquilizers, cigarettes, coffee, and glue.

  13. The Role of the Transcriptional Response to DNA Replication Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlihy, Anna E.; de Bruin, Robertus A.M.

    2017-01-01

    During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage. PMID:28257104

  14. The development of indonesian online game addiction questionnaire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjibeng Jap

    Full Text Available Online game is an increasingly popular source of entertainment for all ages, with relatively prevalent negative consequences. Addiction is a problem that has received much attention. This research aims to develop a measure of online game addiction for Indonesian children and adolescents. The Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire draws from earlier theories and research on the internet and game addiction. Its construction is further enriched by including findings from qualitative interviews and field observation to ensure appropriate expression of the items. The measure consists of 7 items with a 5-point Likert Scale. It is validated by testing 1,477 Indonesian junior and senior high school students from several schools in Manado, Medan, Pontianak, and Yogyakarta. The validation evidence is shown by item-total correlation and criterion validity. The Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire has good item-total correlation (ranging from 0.29 to 0.55 and acceptable reliability (α = 0.73. It is also moderately correlated with the participant's longest time record to play online games (r = 0.39; p<0.01, average days per week in playing online games (ρ = 0.43; p<0.01, average hours per days in playing online games (ρ = 0.41; p<0.01, and monthly expenditure for online games (ρ = 0.30; p<0.01. Furthermore, we created a clinical cut-off estimate by combining criteria and population norm. The clinical cut-off estimate showed that the score of 14 to 21 may indicate mild online game addiction, and the score of 22 and above may indicate online game addiction. Overall, the result shows that Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire has sufficient psychometric property for research use, as well as limited clinical application.

  15. Mechanism of chromosomal DNA replication initiation and replication fork stabilization in eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, LiHong; Liu, Yang; Kong, DaoChun

    2014-05-01

    Chromosomal DNA replication is one of the central biological events occurring inside cells. Due to its large size, the replication of genomic DNA in eukaryotes initiates at hundreds to tens of thousands of sites called DNA origins so that the replication could be completed in a limited time. Further, eukaryotic DNA replication is sophisticatedly regulated, and this regulation guarantees that each origin fires once per S phase and each segment of DNA gets duplication also once per cell cycle. The first step of replication initiation is the assembly of pre-replication complex (pre-RC). Since 1973, four proteins, Cdc6/Cdc18, MCM, ORC and Cdt1, have been extensively studied and proved to be pre-RC components. Recently, a novel pre-RC component called Sap1/Girdin was identified. Sap1/Girdin is required for loading Cdc18/Cdc6 to origins for pre-RC assembly in the fission yeast and human cells, respectively. At the transition of G1 to S phase, pre-RC is activated by the two kinases, cyclindependent kinase (CDK) and Dbf4-dependent kinase (DDK), and subsequently, RPA, primase-polα, PCNA, topoisomerase, Cdc45, polδ, and polɛ are recruited to DNA origins for creating two bi-directional replication forks and initiating DNA replication. As replication forks move along chromatin DNA, they frequently stall due to the presence of a great number of replication barriers on chromatin DNA, such as secondary DNA structures, protein/DNA complexes, DNA lesions, gene transcription. Stalled forks must require checkpoint regulation for their stabilization. Otherwise, stalled forks will collapse, which results in incomplete DNA replication and genomic instability. This short review gives a concise introduction regarding the current understanding of replication initiation and replication fork stabilization.

  16. Social aesthetics and the management of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Michael

    2010-11-01

    One of the main causes of nonadherence is that the goals and forms of addiction treatment are not sufficiently attractive. To study the attractiveness of treatment in clinical practice inevitably means to enter the field of social aesthetics. The call for the implementation of social aesthetics in practice results in a shift of paradigms in the treatment of patients suffering from dependence syndromes. The main themes in the literature covered by the article focus on the role of social aesthetics in medicine in general, as well as on the attractiveness of addiction treatment, in particular. When treatment objectives and programmes become more attractive the result will be reduced drop-out rates, and in turn an increase of treatment effectiveness. Transferring theory of social aesthetics to clinical practice, the Anton Proksch Institute's Orpheus Programme is concerned with opening up spaces and creating atmospheres in which it becomes possible for the individual addicts to realise their possibilities. The challenge in the therapeutic process is not only to recognise the significance of the disorders' pathology but also to find ways out of the imagined impossibilities by opening up new possibilities and uncovering resources of the suffering human.

  17. Preliminary Validation of the Yale Food Addiction Scale for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley; Roberto, Christina A.; Seamans, Marissa J.; Corbin, William R.; Brownell, Kelly D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Evidence is growing that an addictive process may play a role in problematic eating behavior. The majority of research on this topic has examined the concept of “food addiction” solely in adult samples. If certain foods have addictive potential, children may be impacted as much as (or more) than adults due to psychological and neurobiological vulnerabilities at younger developmental stages. In the current study, we developed a measure of food addiction in children that reflects the diagnostic indicators of addiction. Materials and Methods The content and reading level of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) was altered to be appropriate for children (YFAS-C). The YFAS-C and other eating-related measures were administered to study participants to examine the validity and reliability of the YFAS-C. Participants 75 children recruited from the community ranging from lean to obese. Results The validation of the YFAC-C provides preliminary support for its convergent validity with like constructs and incremental validity in predicting body mass index. Internal consistency was adequate given the small number of items on the scale. Discussion The YFAS-C appears to be a helpful tool for identifying addictive-like eating in children. PMID:24183146

  18. Predictor variables of addiction to training in Spanish master athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zarauz Sancho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifteen years has been in Spain a very significant increase in people over 35 years practicing Athletics at federative level. The aim of this study is to know their addiction to training and relationships with different variables of this training and athletic history. Also, get a sufficiently robust predictive models by sex, taking their addiction to these variables. Valuable descriptive data and training habits and athletic history were obtained, and that the addiction in Spanish master athletes have average levels, with the pleasure and relaxation subscale (positive and desirable that obtains higher values, and abstinence and craving subscale (negative and undesirable which gets lower. Both correlations as in the regression analysis, only one variant has been analyzed to be related or be predictive of addiction or any of its subscales. Due to these results it is necessary to further investigate this population in future research about your addiction to training including psychological variables as predictors of it (motivation, perception and beliefs about the causes of success, intrinsic satisfaction, etc. to explainmore fully his addiction to training, especially in the case of men.

  19. Negative addiction to exercise: are there differences between genders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bonilha Modoio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Regular physical exercise has numerous benefits. However, there is a subset of the exercising population who may develop a compulsion to exercise excessively and who may, as a consequence, display physiological and psychological changes that have a direct influence on their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if there are differences between male and female athletes' scores on measures of negative addiction symptoms, quality of life, mood and sleep. METHODS: 144 female and 156 male athletes participated in this study by answering the following questionnaires: Negative Addiction Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, SF-36 Quality of Life, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. RESULTS: Higher dedication to training sessions in the male group, and members of the female group with symptoms of negative addiction to exercise showed a lower score on vigor observed by the Profile of Mood States compared to the males in both situations. We also observed depression symptoms in both members of groups who had negative addiction symptoms when compared with their peers without symptoms, and these figures were even higher in females compared with the male group in the same situation. CONCLUSION: No differences were seen in the development of negative addiction exercise symptoms in males and females and there were no changes in the quality of life and mood of these athletes. Further studies of eating disorders associated with changes in body image perception could contribute to a better understanding of negative addiction to exercise.

  20. The Relationship between General Health and Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastiezaie Nasser

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet is a neutral tool on its own. However, excessive use of internet poses the risk of being addicted to it. This study was performed to investigate the association between general health and internet addiction.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study a total number of 375 students (189 female and 186 male were randomly selected from Sistan and Baluchestan University between 2007 to 2008. Using the internet addiction test (IAT, the students were divided into two groups: ordinary users and addicted users of internet. The general health questionnaire (GHQ was used to compare these two groups. The SPSS software and t test were used to analyze the data and P<0.01 was significant.Results: The general health of internet-addicted users in comparison with ordinary users was at a higher risk (P<0.01. But the difference between two groups in general health and disorders of social function were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety were common in internet addicted users and it was correlated to the amount of time that they were allocating to it.

  1. Core and peripheral criteria of video game addiction in the game addiction scale for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16-74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted the data better (CFI=0.963; RMSEA=0.058) compared to the original one-factor solution where all items are determined to load only on one factor (CFI=0.905, RMSEA=0.089). This was also found when we analyzed men aged ≤33 years, men aged >33 years, women aged ≤33 years, and women aged >33 years separately. This indicates that the GAS measures both engagement and problems related to video games. Multi-group measurement invariance testing showed that the factor structure was valid in all four groups (configural invariance) for the two-factor structure but not for the one-factor structure. A novel approach to categorization of problem gamers and addicted gamers where only the core criteria items are used (the CORE 4 approach) was compared to the approach where all items are included (the GAS 7 approach). The current results suggest that the CORE 4 approach might be more appropriate for classification of problem gamers and addicted gamers compared to the GAS 7 approach.

  2. Replicated spectrographs in astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary J.

    2014-06-01

    As telescope apertures increase, the challenge of scaling spectrographic astronomical instruments becomes acute. The next generation of extremely large telescopes (ELTs) strain the availability of glass blanks for optics and engineering to provide sufficient mechanical stability. While breaking the relationship between telescope diameter and instrument pupil size by adaptive optics is a clear path for small fields of view, survey instruments exploiting multiplex advantages will be pressed to find cost-effective solutions. In this review we argue that exploiting the full potential of ELTs will require the barrier of the cost and engineering difficulty of monolithic instruments to be broken by the use of large-scale replication of spectrographs. The first steps in this direction have already been taken with the soon to be commissioned MUSE and VIRUS instruments for the Very Large Telescope and the Hobby-Eberly Telescope, respectively. MUSE employs 24 spectrograph channels, while VIRUS has 150 channels. We compare the information gathering power of these replicated instruments with the present state of the art in more traditional spectrographs, and with instruments under development for ELTs. Design principles for replication are explored along with lessons learned, and we look forward to future technologies that could make massively-replicated instruments even more compelling.

  3. Replication studies in longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varcasia, O; Garasto, S; Rizza, T

    2001-01-01

    In Danes we replicated the 3'APOB-VNTR gene/longevity association study previously carried out in Italians, by which the Small alleles (less than 35 repeats) had been identified as frailty alleles for longevity. In Danes, neither genotype nor allele frequencies differed between centenarians and 20...

  4. Replication-Fork Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duderstadt, Karl E.; Reyes-Lamothe, Rodrigo; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Sherratt, David J.

    The proliferation of all organisms depends on the coordination of enzymatic events within large multiprotein replisomes that duplicate chromosomes. Whereas the structure and function of many core replisome components have been clarified, the timing and order of molecular events during replication

  5. Monoclonal Antibodies as Pharmacokinetic Antagonists for the Treatment of (+)-Methamphetamine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Owens, S. Michael; Atchley, William T.; Hambuchen, Michael D; Peterson, Eric C.; Gentry, W. Brooks

    2011-01-01

    Developing specific medications to treat (+)-methamphetamine (METH) addiction is a difficult challenge because METH has multiple sites of action that are intertwined with normal neurological function. As a result, no small molecule medication for the treatment of METH addiction has made it through the FDA clinical trials process. With the invention of a new generation of protein-based therapies, it is now possible to consider treating drug addiction by an entirely different approach. This new...

  6. Replicator dynamics in value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Savin, Ivan; Vannuccini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The pure model of replicator dynamics though providing important insights in the evolution of markets has not found much of empirical support. This paper extends the model to the case of firms vertically integrated in value chains. We show that i) by taking value chains into account, the replicator...... dynamics may revert its effect. In these regressive developments of market selection, firms with low fitness expand because of being integrated with highly fit partners, and the other way around; ii) allowing partner's switching within a value chain illustrates that periods of instability in the early...... stage of industry life-cycle may be the result of an 'optimization' of partners within a value chain providing a novel and simple explanation to the evidence discussed by Mazzucato (1998); iii) there are distinct differences in the contribution to market selection between the layers of a value chain...

  7. Human Parvovirus B19 Utilizes Cellular DNA Replication Machinery for Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Wang, Zekun; Xiong, Min; Chen, Aaron Yun; Xu, Peng; Ganaie, Safder S; Badawi, Yomna; Kleiboeker, Steve; Nishimune, Hiroshi; Ye, Shui Qing; Qiu, Jianming

    2017-12-13

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection of human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) induces a DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest at late S phase, which facilitates viral DNA replication. However, it is not clear exactly which cellular factors are employed by this single-stranded DNA virus. Here, we used microarrays to systematically analyze the dynamic transcriptome of EPCs infected with B19V. We found that DNA metabolism, DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA damage response, cell cycle, and cell cycle arrest pathways were significantly regulated after B19V infection. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that most cellular DNA replication proteins were recruited to the centers of viral DNA replication, but not the DNA repair DNA polymerases. Our results suggest that DNA replication polymerase δ and polymerase α are responsible for B19V DNA replication by knocking down its expression in EPCs. We further showed that although RPA32 is essential for B19V DNA replication and the phosphorylated forms of RPA32 colocalized with the replicating viral genomes, RPA32 phosphorylation was not necessary for B19V DNA replication. Thus, this study provides evidence that B19V uses the cellular DNA replication machinery for viral DNA replication.IMPORTANCE Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection can cause transient aplastic crisis, persistent viremia, and pure red-cell aplasia. In fetuses, B19V infection can result in non-immune hydrops fetalis and fetal death. These clinical manifestations of B19V infection are a direct outcome of the death of human erythroid progenitors that host B19V replication. B19V infection induces a DNA damage response that is important for cell cycle arrest at late S phase. Here, we analyzed dynamic changes in cellular gene expression, and found that DNA metabolic processes are tightly regulated during B19V infection. Although genes involved in cellular DNA replication were downregulated overall, the cellular DNA replication machinery was tightly

  8. Addiction and Pain Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gourlay

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The adequate cotreatment of chronic pain and addiction disorders is a complex and challenging problem for health care professionals. There is great potential for cannabinoids in the treatment of pain; however, the increasing prevalence of recreational cannabis use has led to a considerable increase in the number of people seeking treatment for cannabis use disorders. Evidence that cannabis abuse liability is higher than previously thought suggests that individuals with a history of substance abuse may be at an increased risk after taking cannabinoids, even for medicinal purposes. Smoked cannabis is significantly more reinforcing than other cannabinoid administration methods. In addition, it is clear that the smoked route of cannabis delivery is associated with a number of adverse health consequences. Thus, there is a need for pharmaceutical-grade products of known purity and concentration using delivery systems optimized for safety. Another factor that needs to be considered when assessing the practicality of prescribing medicinal cannabinoids is the difficulty in differentiating illicit from prescribed cannabinoids in urine drug testing. Overall, a thorough assessment of the risk/benefit profile of cannabinoids as they relate to a patient’s substance abuse history is suggested.

  9. Social networking addiction, attachment style, and validation of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacis, Lucia; de Palo, Valeria; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinatra, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Aim Research into social networking addiction has greatly increased over the last decade. However, the number of validated instruments assessing addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) remains few, and none have been validated in the Italian language. Consequently, this study tested the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), as well as providing empirical data concerning the relationship between attachment styles and SNS addiction. Methods A total of 769 participants were recruited to this study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multigroup analyses were applied to assess construct validity of the Italian version of the BSMAS. Reliability analyses comprised the average variance extracted, the standard error of measurement, and the factor determinacy coefficient. Results Indices obtained from the CFA showed the Italian version of the BSMAS to have an excellent fit of the model to the data, thus confirming the single-factor structure of the instrument. Measurement invariance was established at configural, metric, and strict invariances across age groups, and at configural and metric levels across gender groups. Internal consistency was supported by several indicators. In addition, the theoretical associations between SNS addiction and attachment styles were generally supported. Conclusion This study provides evidence that the Italian version of the BSMAS is a psychometrically robust tool that can be used in future Italian research into social networking addiction.

  10. Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Shiffman, Saul; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Rait, Michelle A; Sen, Saunak; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the nicotine metabolic rate and smoking behavior, including addiction, in adolescent smokers. Baseline data from a prospective study of adolescent smoking behaviors and nicotine metabolism. The setting was an out-patient university hospital in San Francisco. Adolescent smokers (n = 164) aged 13-17 years old. Participants completed self-report measures of smoking behavior and nicotine dependence (modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire: mFTQ). The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a phenotypic marker of the rate of nicotine metabolism, was calculated using the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3'-hydroxycotinine to cotinine-d(4) . Participants reported smoking a mean of 2.86 cigarettes per day (CPD) [median = 1.78, standard deviation (SD) = 3.35] for 1.37 years (median = 1.0, SD = 1.36). Results from multivariate analyses accounting for age, race/ethnicity, gender and duration of smoking indicated that slower metabolizers smoked more CPD than faster metabolizers (the NMR was inversely related to CPD; P = 0.02). Slower metabolizers also showed greater dependence on the mFTQ (NMR was negatively associated with the mFTQ; P = 0.02). In adolescence, slower clearance of nicotine may be associated with greater levels of addiction, perhaps mediated by a greater number of cigarettes smoked. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  11. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cocaine addiction as a neurological disorder: implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, M D

    1996-01-01

    biological psychiatry. While a majority of drug addicts are polydrug users, there seems to be a preference for a particular type of drug among different populations of addicts. Addicts who experience distress, anxious dysphoria, and turbulent anger prefer the calming actions of opiates, whereas addicts with preceding attention deficit disorder, depression, or bipolar disorder often prefer stimulants (Khantzian 1985). Figure 1 presents conceptual relationships between brain damage and cocaine/stimulant abuse. More clinical studies are needed to establish unequivocally the epidemiological relationships between preexisting neurological deficits-resulting either from genetic, developmental, traumatic, or neurotoxic factors- and vulnerability to drug addictions. Nonetheless, deducing from the results of preclinical studies, it is conceivable that individuals with neurological deficits associated with attention deficit disorder, developmental neuroanatomical abnormalities, lead poisoning, alcoholism, posttraumatic brain lesions, and PTSD may be more vulnerable to stimulant addiction. This notion has significant empirical support as preclinical studies have shown that animals with lesioned prefrontal cortex became supersensitive to cocaine (Schenk et al. 1991) and animals with lesions at the amygdala, VTA, or raphe nuclei manifest more rapid acquisition of amphetamine self-administration than control rats (Deminiere et al. 1989). The above arguments, postulating neuropathology as an intrinsic component of stimulant addiction, should be taken into consideration with the caveat that the clinical manifestations of the disease are heterogenous and addicts may express varying stages and degrees of the disease as determined by environmental and genetic factors. Therefore, it is likely that stimulant addicts who have less advanced neuropathology may recover spontaneously after detoxification with proper nutritional and psychotherapeutic support if they can sustain abstinence. (ABSTR

  13. Internet addiction among Greek adolescent students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siomos, Konstantinos E; Dafouli, Evaggelia D; Braimiotis, Dimitrios A; Mouzas, Odysseas D; Angelopoulos, Nikiforos V

    2008-12-01

    This research aimed to assess the prevalence of Internet addiction among Greek adolescent students, ages 12 to 18. The sample of 2,200 students was recruited from 120 classes among 85 schools in Thessaly, Greece. The sample included 10% of all classes in schools of Thessaly. The method of randomized stratified selection in every school was used for its constitution. Participants were asked to complete the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction (YDQ), based on eight criteria, as well as an inventory that included sociodemographic factors and questions about the use of Internet, their social life, and their habits. In Greece, 70.8% of adolescents had access to the Internet. The consistency of the YDQ was tested with Cronbach's alpha (0.719), with standardized item alpha (0.728). Proportions are also calculated only on the frequent Internet users, which results in 11% fulfilling five YDQ criteria. The most frequent type of Internet use is online games, representing 50.9% of Internet users, and information services, representing 46.8%. The prevalence of Internet addiction among Internet users of Central Greece is 8.2%, and it concerns mainly the male students who play online games and visit Internet cafés.

  14. User profiles of internet addicts in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinić Darko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was a part of a broader empirical study of Internet users with excessive and dysfunctional Internet use symptoms. The aim of this particular article was to describe user profiles of Internet addicts in Serbia. The study recruited 100 subjects in total, 50 in both the clinical and control group. The clinical group included the Internet users who asked for professional help due to the symptoms of the excessive Internet use and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for Internet behavior disorder proposed by the American Psychology Association. The results have shown that population with Internet addiction symptoms equally included both males and females, mostly adolescent and younger population, teenagers and university students, persons with higher income and users from economically more developed areas of Serbia. The user profile of this group is characterized by frequent logging on with intervals of several hours online at one time, mainly in the evening or at night, and also intensive negative reactions to any form of Internet access deprivation. By means of factor analysis, three dimensions of pathological use have been established: mixed type with particular need for up-to-date information, social interaction addiction and need for fun-seeking, namely pursuing hobbies online (cyberpornography, online games, music, art and so on.

  15. A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam; Bluthenthal, Ricky N.; Freimuth, Marilyn; Forster, Myriam; Ames, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE) variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena. PMID:21909314

  16. The Relationship between Loneliness and Depression: Mediation Role of Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Demir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the mediation role of internet addiction in the relationship between loneliness and depression. 452 university students (241 women, 211 men ranging in age from 17 to 31 and who are receiving education in different faculties at Firat University in Turkey participated in the study. UCLA Loneliness Scale, Young Internet Addiction Test Short Form, and Indication Scanning List was applied to the participants. The data were analyzed with correlation, regression, hierarchical regression analysis, and Sobel Z test. According to correlation analysis, there are relations in a positive way among loneliness, depression, and internet addiction. In reference to regression analysis, loneliness predicts internet addiction and depression. However, internet addiction also predicts depression as well. As a result of hierarchical regression analysis to determine the mediation role of internet addiction, it was monitored that internet addiction has partial mediation in the relation between loneliness and depression. In addition to that, it was confirmed that this mediation predicts at a significant level with Sobel Z Test. The findings of the study demonstrate a partial mediation role of internet addiction in the relation between loneliness and depression. According to this result, it can be stated that loneliness and internet addiction are risk factors for depression. In terms of studies on depression, the results of this study can be taken into consideration.

  17. Drug Addiction and Its Underlying Neurobiological Basis: Neuroimaging Evidence for the Involvement of the Frontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective Studies of the neurobiological processes underlying drug addiction primarily have focused on limbic subcortical structures. Here the authors evaluated the role of frontal cortical structures in drug addiction. Method An integrated model of drug addiction that encompasses intoxication, bingeing, withdrawal, and craving is proposed. This model and findings from neuroimaging studies on the behavioral, cognitive, and emotional processes that are at the core of drug addiction were used to analyze the involvement of frontal structures in drug addiction. Results The orbitofrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate gyrus, which are regions neuroanatomically connected with limbic structures, are the frontal cortical areas most frequently implicated in drug addiction. They are activated in addicted subjects during intoxication, craving, and bingeing, and they are deactivated during withdrawal. These regions are also involved in higher-order cognitive and motivational functions, such as the ability to track, update, and modulate the salience of a reinforcer as a function of context and expectation and the ability to control and inhibit prepotent responses. Conclusions These results imply that addiction connotes cortically regulated cognitive and emotional processes, which result in the overvaluing of drug reinforcers, the undervaluing of alternative reinforcers, and deficits in inhibitory control for drug responses. These changes in addiction, which the authors call I-RISA (impaired response inhibition and salience attribution), expand the traditional concepts of drug dependence that emphasize limbic-regulated responses to pleasure and reward. PMID:12359667

  18. The comparison of cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonhyeong; Seo, Kyochul

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades of adults in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of smartphone addiction was conducted of 200 adults. Based on the survey results, 30 subjects were chosen to participate in this study, and they were divided into three groups of 10; a Normal Group, a Moderate Addiction Group, and a Severe Addiction Group. After attaching a C-ROM, we measured the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, right lateral flexion and left lateral flexion. [Results] Significant differences in the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, and right and left lateral flexion were found among the Normal Group, Moderate Addiction Group, and Severe Addiction Group. In particular, the Severe Addiction Group showed the largest errors. [Conclusion] The result indicates that as smartphone addiction becomes more severe, a person is more likely to show impaired proprioception, as well as impaired ability to recognize the right posture. Thus, musculoskeletal problems due to smartphone addiction should be resolved through social cognition and intervention, and physical therapeutic education and intervention to educate people about correct postures.

  19. Epigenetic mechanisms of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues, including brain. This has prompted recent research aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the lasting effects of drugs of abuse on the brain in animal models of drug addiction. This review provides a progress report of this still early work in the field. As will be seen, there is robust evidence that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces changes within the brain's reward regions in three major modes of epigenetic regulation-histone modifications such as acetylation and methylation, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs. In several instances, it has been possible to demonstrate directly the contribution of such epigenetic changes to addiction-related behavioral abnormalities. Studies of epigenetic mechanisms of addiction are also providing an unprecedented view of the range of genes and non-genic regions that are affected by repeated drug exposure and the precise molecular basis of that regulation. Work is now needed to validate key aspects of this work in human addiction and evaluate the possibility of mining this information to develop new diagnostic tests and more effective treatments for addiction syndromes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictors of addiction treatment providers' beliefs in the disease and choice models of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher; Davies, John B; Hunter, Simon C

    2011-03-01

    Addiction treatment providers working in the United States (n = 219) and the United Kingdom (n = 372) were surveyed about their beliefs in the disease and choice models of addiction, as assessed by the 18-item Addiction Belief Scale of J. Schaler (1992). Factor analysis of item scores revealed a three-factor structure, labeled "addiction is a disease," "addiction is a choice," and "addiction is a way of coping with life," and factor scores were analyzed in separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Controlling for demographic and addiction history variables, treatment providers working in the United States more strongly believe addiction is a disease, whereas U.K.-based providers more strongly believe that addiction is a choice and a way of coping with life. Beliefs that addiction is a disease were stronger among those who provide for-profit treatment, have stronger spiritual beliefs, have had a past addiction problem, are older, are members of a group of addiction professionals, and have been treating addiction longer. Conversely, those who viewed addiction as a choice were more likely to provide public/not-for-profit treatment, be younger, not belong to a group of addiction professionals, and have weaker spiritual beliefs. Additionally, treatment providers who have had a personal addiction problem in the past were significantly more likely to believe addiction is a disease the longer they attend a 12-step-based group and if they are presently abstinent. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Socio-demographic characteristics of the addicted inmates of Qom and Tabriz prisons in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattari Mohammadreza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to study the factors responsible for drug addiction amongst the inmates of Tabriz and Qom prisons, to further understand the reasons for drug abuse particularly in the young and find improved methods for combating these widespread problems. Methods: A multi-choice questionnaire was provided to inmates to potentially assess the reasons for their drug addiction psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors were thought to be implicated. Two hundred drug addicted prisoners were individually interviewed randomly in both Tabriz and Qom prisons. A questionnaire including questions about the inmates’ demographic characteristics and 49 multiple answers questions, was provided to identify the effects of different reasons for drug addiction for instance: psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors. The collected data were analyzed by Student t-test and chi-squared test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that the following factors could lead to drug addiction e.g. company with addicted friends and offenders, curiosity, imitation, illiteracy, family problems, crowded family, poverty, unemployment, and lack of self confidence. There were significant differences between Tabriz and Qom prisoners in relation to age, starting age of addiction, job, income, education, class of addiction, marital status, and hobbies. Mean age, mean starting age of addiction, poverty, alcohol drinking before addiction, marital status, heroin addiction, codeine and benzodiazepines abuse were significantly greater for Tabriz prisoners than those of Qom. Conclusion: It is clear that the governmental programs for reducing unemployment, creation of safe hobbies, proper control on drug dispensing in the pharmacies, proper birth control programs, and encouragement to higher education could alleviate addiction problem in Iran.

  2. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. Methods: The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined. Results: We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a “Work Hard, Play Hard”-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure. Discussion and Conclusions: We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure. PMID:24701344

  3. Behavioral addictions in addiction medicine: from mechanisms to practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banz, Barbara C; Yip, Sarah W; Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress has been made in our understanding of nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions, although these conditions and their most appropriate classification remain debated and the knowledge basis for understanding the pathophysiology of and treatments for these conditions includes important gaps. Recent developments include the classification of gambling disorder as a "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorder" in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and proposed diagnostic criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder in Section 3 of DSM-5. This chapter reviews current neuroscientific understandings of behavioral addictions and the potential of neurobiological data to assist in the development of improved policy, prevention, and treatment efforts. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship among family environment, self-control, friendship quality, and adolescents’ smartphone addiction in South Korea: Findings from nationwide data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Lee, Tae-Jin; Yoo, Seunghyun

    2018-01-01

    Background Many studies have examined the negative impact on smartphone addiction in adolescents. Recent concerns have focused on predictors of smartphone addiction. This study aimed to investigate the association of adolescents’ smartphone addiction with family environment (specifically, domestic violence and parental addiction). We further investigated whether self-control and friendship quality, as predictors of smartphone addiction, may reduce the observed risk. Methods We used the 2013 national survey on internet usage and utilization data from the National Information Agency of Korea. Information on exposure and covariates included self-reported experience of domestic violence and parental addiction, sociodemographic variables, and other variables potentially related to smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was estimated using a smartphone addiction proneness scale, a standardized measure developed by national institutions in Korea. Results Adolescents who had experienced domestic violence (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.23–2.45) and parental addiction (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.24–3.27) were found to be at an increased risk for smartphone addiction after controlling for all potential variables. Furthermore, on classifying adolescents according to their level of self-control and friendship quality the association between domestic violence and parental addiction, and smartphone addiction was found to be significant in the group with adolescents with lower levels of self-control (OR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.68–4.90 and OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.34–2.83) and friendship quality (OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.41–3.85 and OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.26–2.64). Conclusion Our findings suggest that family dysfunction was significantly associated with smartphone addiction. We also observed that self-control and friendship quality act as protective factors against adolescents’ smartphone addiction. PMID:29401496

  5. [A genetic view of addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoz, Nicolas; Gorwood, Philip

    2015-04-01

    The genetic analyses of addictions recently converted to genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and thanks to national and international consortia, allowed to recruit large cohorts of patients. This approach allowed the identification of the first susceptibility gene in addiction (tobacco), with genes CHRNA5, CHRNA3 and CHRNB4 encoding the α5, α3 and b4 subunits involved in the formation of nicotinic receptors, explaining 14% of the attributable risk for tobacco dependence. Variants of ADH1B and ADH1C genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenases enzymes have also been consistently associated, this time with alcohol dependence (AD). Finally, DRD2 and ANKK1 genes, involved in the dopaminergic pathway, and which were initially associated with AD, are now considered to be involved in a broader phenotype (addiction to psychoactive substances) including opiates. Future directions in molecular study of addiction are gene x environment interactions though the epigenetic approach. Numerous studies already investigated the methylome in addiction, including histone and microRNA modifications. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  6. Is Sensation Seeking a correlate of excessive behaviors and behavioral addictions? A detailed examination of patients with Gambling Disorder and Internet Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Dreier, M; Beutel, M E; Wölfling, K

    2016-08-30

    Sensation Seeking has repeatedly been related to substance use. Also, its role as a correlate of Gambling Disorder has been discussed although research has led to heterogeneous results. Likewise, first studies on Internet Addiction have indicated increased Sensation Seeking, to some extent contradicting clinical impression of patients suffering from internet addiction. We assessed Sensation Seeking in a clinical sample of n=251 patients with Gambling Disorder, n=243 patients with internet addiction, n=103 clients with excessive but not addictive internet use, and n=142 healthy controls. The clinical groups were further sub-divided according to the preferred type of addictive behavior (slot-machine gambling vs. high arousal gambling activities and internet gaming disorder vs. other internet-related addictive behaviors). Decreased scores in some subscales of Sensation Seeking were found among male patients compared to healthy controls with no differences between patients with Gambling Disorder and Internet Addiction. The type of preferred gambling or online activity was not related to differences in Sensation Seeking. Previous findings indicating only small associations between Sensation Seeking and Gambling Disorder were confirmed. Regarding Internet Addiction our results contradict findings from non-clinical samples. Sensation Seeking might be relevant in initiating contact to the health care system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MOF suppresses replication stress and contribute to resolution of stalled replication forks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Pandita, Raj K; Singh, Mayank; Chakraborty, Sharmistha; Hambarde, Shashank; Ramnarain, Deepti; Charaka, Vijaya; Ahmed, Kazi Mokim; Hunt, Clayton R; Pandita, Tej K

    2018-01-03

    The hMOF protein belongs to the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases and plays a critical role in transcription and the DNA damage response. MOF is essential for cell proliferation, however its role during replication and replicative stress is unknown. Here we demonstrate that cells depleted for MOF and under replicative stress induced by cisplatin, hydroxyurea or camptothecin have reduced survival, a higher frequency of S-phase specific chromosome damage and increased R-loop formation. MOF depletion decreased replication fork speed and, when combined with replicative stress, also increased stalled replication forks as well as new origin firing. MOF interacted with PCNA, a key coordinator of replication and repair machinery at replication forks, and affected its ubiquitination and recruitment to the DNA damage site. Depletion of MOF, therefore, compromised the DNA damage repair response as evidenced by decreased Mre11, RPA70, Rad51, and PCNA foci formation, reduced DNA end resection and decreased CHK1 phosphorylation in cells after exposure to hydroxyurea or cisplatin. These results support the argument that MOF plays an important role in suppressing replication stress induced by genotoxic agents at several stages during the DNA damage response. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. [The place of cyber addiction in teenagers' addictive behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleur, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The easy access which modern teenagers have to new technologies favours their excessive use of video games, as they seek to escape potential existential difficulties. This harmful aspect should not mask the creative potential of games for the majority of teenagers. Treatment for young people with a gaming addiction is based on psychotherapy and takes into account the family dimension of the problem. This article presents an interview with Marc Valleur, a psychiatrist and head physician at Marmottan hospital specialising in the care and support of people with addictions.

  9. Factors influencing microinjection molding replication quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Julie; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Contraires, Elise; Larochette, Mathieu; Trannoy-Orban, Nathalie; Pignon, Maxime; Mauclair, Cyril; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in producing and providing high-precision plastic parts that can be manufactured by microinjection molding: gears, pumps, optical grating elements, and so on. For all of these applications, the replication quality is essential. This study has two goals: (1) fabrication of high-precision parts using the conventional injection molding machine; (2) identification of robust parameters that ensure production quality. Thus, different technological solutions have been used: cavity vacuuming and the use of a mold coated with DLC or CrN deposits. AFM and SEM analyses were carried out to characterize the replication profile. The replication quality was studied in terms of the process parameters, coated and uncoated molds and crystallinity of the polymer. Specific studies were processed to quantify the replicability of injection molded parts (ABS, PC and PP). Analysis of the Taguchi experimental designs permits prioritization of the impact of each parameter on the replication quality. A discussion taking into account these new parameters and the thermal and spreading properties on the coatings is proposed. It appeared that, in general, increasing the mold temperature improves the molten polymer fill in submicron features except for the steel insert (for which the presence of a vacuum is the most important factor). Moreover, the DLC coating was the best coating to increase the quality of the replication. This result could be explained by the lower thermal diffusivity of this coating. We noted that the viscosity of the polymers is not a primordial factor of the replication quality.

  10. Socio-demographic characteristics of the addicted inmates of Qom and Tabriz prisons in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattari, Mohammadreza; Islambulchilar, Mina; Toluyi, Mohsen; Mashayekhi, Siminozar

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the factors responsible for drug addiction amongst the inmates of Tabriz and Qom prisons, to further understand the reasons for drug abuse particularly in the young and find improved methods for combating these widespread problems. A multi-choice questionnaire was provided to inmates to potentially assess the reasons for their drug addiction psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors were thought to be implicated. Two hundred drug addicted prisoners were individually interviewed randomly in both Tabriz and Qom prisons. A questionnaire including questions about the inmates' demographic characteristics and 49 multiple answers questions, was provided to identify the effects of different reasons for drug addiction for instance: psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors. The collected data were analyzed by Student t-test and chi-squared test using SPSS software. The results showed that the following factors could lead to drug addiction e.g. company with addicted friends and offenders, curiosity, imitation, illiteracy, family problems, crowded family, poverty, unemployment, and lack of self confidence. There were significant differences between Tabriz and Qom prisoners in relation to age, starting age of addiction, job, income, education, class of addiction, marital status, and hobbies. Mean age, mean starting age of addiction, poverty, alcohol drinking before addiction, marital status, heroin addiction, codeine and benzodiazepines abuse were significantly greater for Tabriz prisoners than those of Qom. It is clear that the governmental programs for reducing unemployment, creation of safe hobbies, proper control on drug dispensing in the pharmacies, proper birth control programs, and encouragement to higher education could alleviate addiction problem in Iran.

  11. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-04-01

    Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined. We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a "Work Hard, Play Hard"-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure. We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure.

  12. [Mobile phone abuse or addiction. A review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Rodríguez Monje, María Teresa; Ruiz Sánchez De León, José María

    2012-01-01

    The mobile phone is a relatively new technological tool, versatile and accessible, and very attractive, especially for young people, but whose use involves a risk of abuse and addictive behavior. In recent years there has been increasing interest in this problem, especially in view of the fact that it involves an increasingly younger population. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of scientific knowledge about cell phone addiction/abuse. To this end, a search was carried out in international databases, using the descriptors "mobile phone", "cellular telephones", "addiction" and "abuse", and focusing on prevalence studies, diagnostic tests, associations with psychological variables and gender differences. There is a conceptual vagueness about the concepts of abuse and addiction in relation to mobile phones, and wide disparity in the adoption of diagnostic criteria; moreover, there are numerous instruments for the assessment of these concepts. As a result, the estimated prevalence ranges from 0-38%, depending on the scale used and the characteristics of the population studied. Surprisingly, self-attribution of cell phone addiction exceeds the prevalence estimated in the studies themselves. The personality trait most consistently associated with addiction is low self-esteem, though extraversion is associated with more intense use. Women with low self-esteem are the most vulnerable group, and the most commonly associated psychopathological symptom was depression. In short, while the evidence suggests a problem in relation to mobile phone use, the vagueness of the cell phone addiction concept and the poor quality of the studies make it difficult to generalize the results. It is necessary to define and unify criteria with a view to carrying out quality studies that permit appropriate comparisons.

  13. Online social networking addiction among college students in Singapore: Comorbidity with behavioral addiction and affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Koh, Yvaine Yee Woen

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of addiction to social networking sites/platforms (SNS) and its comorbidity with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder among college students in Singapore. 1110 college students (age: M=21.46, SD=1.80) in Singapore completed measures assessing online social networking, unhealthy food intake and shopping addiction as well as depression, anxiety and mania. Descriptive analyses were conducted to investigate the prevalence and comorbidity of behavioral addiction and affective disorder. Chi-square tests were used to examine gender differences. The prevalence rates of SNS, food and shopping addiction were 29.5%, 4.7% and 9.3% respectively for the total sample. SNS addiction was found to co-occur with food addiction (3%), shopping addiction (5%), and both food and shopping addiction (1%). The comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder were 21% for depression, 27.7% for anxiety, and 26.1% for mania. Compared with the total sample, students with SNS addiction reported higher comorbidity rates with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder. In general, females as compared to males reported higher comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder. SNS addiction has a high prevalence rate among college students in Singapore. Students with SNS addiction were vulnerable to experience other behavior addiction as well as affective disorder, especially among females. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Internet Gaming Addiction: A Technological Hazard

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Verma, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    .... No reported study on Internet gaming addiction is available from India. We reported a case of two brothers, diagnosed with Internet gaming addiction, who showed grossly disorganized behavior and severely compromised self-care...

  15. Drugs and addiction: an introduction to epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chloe C Y; Mill, Jonathan; Fernandes, Cathy

    2011-03-01

    Addiction is a debilitating psychiatric disorder, with a complex aetiology involving the interaction of inherited predispositions and environmental factors. Emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic alterations to the genome, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, are important mechanisms underlying addiction and the neurobiological response to addictive substances. In this review, we introduce the reader to epigenetic mechanisms and describe a potential role for dynamic epigenetic changes in mediating addictive behaviours via long-lasting changes in gene expression. We summarize recent findings from both molecular and behavioural experiments elucidating the role of epigenetic changes in mediating the addictive potential of various drugs of abuse, including cocaine, amphetamine and alcohol. The implications of these findings for molecular studies of addiction and the future development of novel therapeutic interventions are also discussed. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents ... that people who are trying to end their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program ...

  17. Hubungan Kejadian Internet Addiction dengan Prestasi Belajar pada Mahasiswa FK Unand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Erizka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTeknologi internet berkembang sangat pesat dalam beberapa tahun terakhir dengan berbagai manfaat positif dan negatifnya. Internet addiction merupakan salah satu dampak negatif yang ditimbulkan. Dalam beberapa penelitian disebutkan pengaruh internet addiction terhadap beberapa aspek termasuk pendidikan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui angka kejadian internet addiction dan mempelajari hubungannya dengan prestasi belajar pada mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Unand. Metode studi cross sectional dilakukan terhadap mahasiswa FK Unand angkatan 2011. Hasil penelitian diolah dengan menggunakan uji chi-square. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kejadian internet addiction mempengaruhi prestasi belajar pada mahasiswa FK Unand. Sebanyak 1,1% subjek mengalami internet addiction berat, 34,4% sedang dan 37,7% ringan. Berdasarkan jenis kelamin perempuan lebih banyak mengalami internet addiction daripada laki laki karena  perempuan yang lebih banyak. Klasifikasi yang terbanyak adalah cyber-relationship dan metode paling banyak yang digunakan untuk mengakses internet adalah dengan menggunakan smartphone. Hasil lain yang didapatkan adalah kebutuhan dasar dan ibadah adalah kegiatan paling dominan yang dapat menghentikan responden dari mengakses internet. Disimpulkan bahwa kejadian internet addiction mempengaruhi prestasi belajar pada mahasiswa FK Unand.Kata kunci: cyber-relationship, internet, internet addiction, prestasi belajar AbstractThe internet technology grow very fast in recent years bringing many positive and negative effects. Internet addiction is one of the negative effect. Several research confirm some negative effect of internet addiction including  academic problem. The objective of this study was to know frequency and it’s relation with academic achievement in Medical Faculty of Andalas university’s students. This was a cross-sectional study on Medical Faculty of Andalas University’s students. The result were analyzed by chi

  18. LHCb Data Replication During SC3

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, A

    2006-01-01

    LHCb's participation in LCG's Service Challenge 3 involves testing the bulk data transfer infrastructure developed to allow high bandwidth distribution of data across the grid in accordance with the computing model. To enable reliable bulk replication of data, LHCb's DIRAC system has been integrated with gLite's File Transfer Service middleware component to make use of dedicated network links between LHCb computing centres. DIRAC's Data Management tools previously allowed the replication, registration and deletion of files on the grid. For SC3 supplementary functionality has been added to allow bulk replication of data (using FTS) and efficient mass registration to the LFC replica catalog.Provisional performance results have shown that the system developed can meet the expected data replication rate required by the computing model in 2007. This paper details the experience and results of integration and utilisation of DIRAC with the SC3 transfer machinery.

  19. [Psychiatric emergencies in drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamina, Amine; Bouchez, Jacques; Rahioui, Hassan; Reynaud, Michel

    2003-06-01

    The practitioner is very frequently confronted by emergencies in drug-addicted patients also having psychiatric symptomatology. In this article the authors will address emergencies related to alcohol (notably intoxication, pre-DTs and the encephalopathies); emergencies related to cannabis (notably intoxication, psychotic states and panic attacks); and emergencies related to other psycho-active substances (overdoses, drug-withdrawal, psychiatric complications related to cocaine or amphetamines). In the domain of drug addiction, as in psychiatry, the practitioner must give as much importance to the organisation of the long-term healthcare plan for the drug addict, ulterior to the management of the immediate emergency. For example, whereas 90% of subjects presenting to the emergency department for acute alcoholic intoxication have a pathological consumption of alcohol (abuse or dependance), management of the alcoholism is proposed in only 2% of them.

  20. Reward, Addiction, Withdrawal to Nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasi, Mariella; Dani, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine is the principle addictive component that drives continued tobacco use despite users’ knowledge of the harmful consequences. The initiation of addiction involves the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to the processing of rewarding sensory stimuli during the overall shaping of successful behaviors. Acting mainly through nicotinic receptors containing the α4 and β2 subunits, often in combination with the α6 subunit, nicotine increases the firing rate and the phasic bursts by midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuroadaptations arise during chronic exposure to nicotine, producing an altered brain condition that requires the continued presence of nicotine to be maintained. When nicotine is removed, a withdrawal syndrome develops. The expression of somatic withdrawal symptoms depends mainly on the α5, α2, and β4 nicotinic subunits involving the epithalamic habenular complex and its targets. Thus, nicotine taps into diverse neural systems and an array of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes to influence reward, addiction, and withdrawal. PMID:21438686