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Sample records for addiction replicated results

  1. Genome wide association for addiction: replicated results and comparisons of two analytic approaches.

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    Tomas Drgon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vulnerabilities to dependence on addictive substances are substantially heritable complex disorders whose underlying genetic architecture is likely to be polygenic, with modest contributions from variants in many individual genes. "Nontemplate" genome wide association (GWA approaches can identity groups of chromosomal regions and genes that, taken together, are much more likely to contain allelic variants that alter vulnerability to substance dependence than expected by chance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report pooled "nontemplate" genome-wide association studies of two independent samples of substance dependent vs control research volunteers (n = 1620, one European-American and the other African-American using 1 million SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism Affymetrix genotyping arrays. We assess convergence between results from these two samples using two related methods that seek clustering of nominally-positive results and assess significance levels with Monte Carlo and permutation approaches. Both "converge then cluster" and "cluster then converge" analyses document convergence between the results obtained from these two independent datasets in ways that are virtually never found by chance. The genes identified in this fashion are also identified by individually-genotyped dbGAP data that compare allele frequencies in cocaine dependent vs control individuals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These overlapping results identify small chromosomal regions that are also identified by genome wide data from studies of other relevant samples to extents much greater than chance. These chromosomal regions contain more genes related to "cell adhesion" processes than expected by chance. They also contain a number of genes that encode potential targets for anti-addiction pharmacotherapeutics. "Nontemplate" GWA approaches that seek chromosomal regions in which nominally-positive associations are found in multiple independent samples are likely

  2. Addiction.

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    Lingford-Hughes, A R; Davies, S J C; McIver, S; Williams, T M; Daglish, M R C; Nutt, D J

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol and psycho-active substance misuse has far-reaching social, psychological and physical consequences. Advances in neuroimaging technology have allowed neurobiological theories of addiction to become better characterized. We describe the neurobiology of dependence, withdrawal, abstinence and craving states in alcohol, stimulant and opiate misuse. Structural neuroimaging techniques such as CT and MRI with new analytical approaches such as voxel-based morphometry have shown wide-spread changes in stimulant and opiate abuse and atrophy, particularly in the frontal lobes, in alcoholism. Functional neuroimaging techniques such as PET, SPECT and fMRI reveal altered regional cerebral activity by all drugs of abuse. The neurochemistry of addiction, particularly involving dopamine, serotonin, opiate and GABA, has been studied with PET and SPECT and similarities between all drugs of abuse have been found such as reduced dopaminergic markers. The evidence derived from these advances in neuroimaging is likely to herald the emergence of new biological treatments in this important field.

  3. A Signature of Genomic Instability Resulting from Deficient Replication Licensing.

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    Steven C Pruitt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient licensing of DNA replication origins has been shown to result in genome instability, stem cell deficiency, and cancers. However, it is unclear whether the DNA damage resulting from deficient replication licensing occurs generally or if specific sites are preferentially affected. To map locations of ongoing DNA damage in vivo, the DNAs present in red blood cell micronuclei were sequenced. Many micronuclei are the product of DNA breaks that leave acentromeric remnants that failed to segregate during mitosis and should reflect the locations of breaks. To validate the approach we show that micronuclear sequences identify known common fragile sites under conditions that induce breaks at these locations (hydroxyurea. In MCM2 deficient mice a different set of preferred breakage sites is identified that includes the tumor suppressor gene Tcf3, which is known to contribute to T-lymphocytic leukemias that arise in these mice, and the 45S rRNA gene repeats.

  4. Interdependency in Multimodel Climate Projections: Component Replication and Result Similarity

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    Boé, Julien

    2018-03-01

    Multimodel ensembles are the main way to deal with model uncertainties in climate projections. However, the interdependencies between models that often share entire components make it difficult to combine their results in a satisfactory way. In this study, how the replication of components (atmosphere, ocean, land, and sea ice) between climate models impacts the proximity of their results is quantified precisely, in terms of climatological means and future changes. A clear relationship exists between the number of components shared by climate models and the proximity of their results. Even the impact of a single shared component is generally visible. These conclusions are true at both the global and regional scales. Given available data, it cannot be robustly concluded that some components are more important than others. Those results provide ways to estimate model interdependencies a priori rather than a posteriori based on their results, in order to define independence weights.

  5. Video game addiction and college performance among males: results from a 1 year longitudinal study.

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    Schmitt, Zachary L; Livingston, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the pattern of video game usage and video game addiction among male college students and examined how video game addiction was related to expectations of college engagement, college grade point average (GPA), and on-campus drug and alcohol violations. Participants were 477 male, first year students at a liberal arts college. In the week before the start of classes, participants were given two surveys: one of expected college engagement, and the second of video game usage, including a measure of video game addiction. Results suggested that video game addiction is (a) negatively correlated with expected college engagement, (b) negatively correlated with college GPA, even when controlling for high school GPA, and (c) negatively correlated with drug and alcohol violations that occurred during the first year in college. Results are discussed in terms of implications for male students' engagement and success in college, and in terms of the construct validity of video game addiction.

  6. A Test-Replicate Approach to Candidate Gene Research on Addiction and Externalizing Disorders: A Collaboration Across Five Longitudinal Studies.

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    Samek, Diana R; Bailey, Jennifer; Hill, Karl G; Wilson, Sylia; Lee, Susanne; Keyes, Margaret A; Epstein, Marina; Smolen, Andrew; Miller, Michael; Winters, Ken C; Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2016-09-01

    This study presents results from a collaboration across five longitudinal studies seeking to test and replicate models of gene-environment interplay in the development of substance use and externalizing disorders (SUDs, EXT). We describe an overview of our conceptual models, plan for gene-environment interplay analyses, and present main effects results evaluating six candidate genes potentially relevant to SUDs and EXT (MAOA, 5-HTTLPR, COMT, DRD2, DAT1, and DRD4). All samples included rich longitudinal and phenotypic measurements from childhood/adolescence (ages 5-13) through early adulthood (ages 25-33); sample sizes ranged from 3487 in the test sample, to ~600-1000 in the replication samples. Phenotypes included lifetime symptom counts of SUDs (nicotine, alcohol and cannabis), adult antisocial behavior, and an aggregate externalizing disorder composite. Covariates included the first 10 ancestral principal components computed using all autosomal markers in subjects across the data sets, and age at the most recent assessment. Sex, ancestry, and exposure effects were thoroughly evaluated. After correcting for multiple testing, only one significant main effect was found in the test sample, but it was not replicated. Implications for subsequent gene-environment interplay analyses are discussed.

  7. Genetic and psychosocial factors for benzodiazepine addiction. An analysis based on the results of the authors’ own research conducted in a group of benzodiazepine addicted and non-addicted individuals

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    Anna Konopka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In spite of the fact that the addictive potential of benzodiazepine (BDZ drugs has been known for a long time, benzodiazepine addiction remains a common problem for psychiatry to deal with. The etiology of benzodiazepine addiction is very complex. Among the risk factors, the course of the treatment, demographic status and psychological features of a patient seem to play an important role. The aim of this study was to investigate both psychological and genetic factors differentiating benzodiazepine addicts from non-addicted users.Methods: We analysed a cohort of 120 individuals treated with benzodiazepines divided into two groups: benzodiazepine addicts and non-addicted benzodiazepine users (the control group. In both groups we measured genetic polymorphisms of GABA A2 and MAOA. In both groups some psychometric measurements were performed – we investigated the level of depression, anxiety as a state and as a trait, personality features and the dominant coping style using the Beck Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, Five-Factor Personality Inventory NEO-FFI and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations [4,10,17,36,41,44].Results: There are some psychological and situational risk factors for benzodiazepine addiction such as high neuroticism, introversion and lack of the ability to release tension through interpersonal contacts, dominance of emotional coping style and high accumulation of critical life events during both childhood and adulthood. The genetic background still remains a field for further exploration.

  8. Results of Drug addiction Test and its Correlation With the Demographic Specifications Among People Referred to Yazd Addiction Diagnostic Laboratory Centre

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    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Addiction changes people from positive, active and healthy beings to consuming and negative patients. This study was carried out with the aim of determining the prevalence of the abuse of epioid substances among people referring to Yazd Addiction Diagnosis Laboratory using Rapid Test and Chromatography. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, all people who attended Yazd Addiction Diagnosis Laboratory for any reason, that is, marriage, employment or obtaining job license between 1386 and 1388, were examined. Totally, 2790 individuals were selected randomly. First, their demographic information was entered in the questionnaire. Then, urine samples were collected at the presence of a laboratory technician and tested using Ennissan Strip Rapid Test if the result was positive, the rest of the sample was tested with Chromatography. Results: Totally, 2790 individuals were surveyed in this study. The mean age of the participants was 25.9±7.2 years. About 62.9% were male and the rest were female. In addition, the reason for taking the test was marriage in 73.2%, employment in 15.5%, obtaining job license in 3.3% and other reasons for others. The prevalence of the abuse of opioid substances was 5.3% (95% CI 4.5% - 6.1%. Conclusions: Many test takers are aware of the fact that the result of the drug test becomes negative after three days of withdrawal, which might be the reason for the low prevalence of addiction in this study. However, prenuptial testing for addiction is quite prudent and necessary. Moreover, calculation of OR showed a male to female ratio of 15 to 1 for opioid abuse which was significant. Higher age, lower education level, labor work and working freelance, smoking and history of addiction in family were other risk factors for opioid substance abuse. Keywords: Addiction test, Addiction prevalence rate, Rapid test, Yazd

  9. Using the Descriptive Bootstrap to Evaluate Result Replicability (Because Statistical Significance Doesn't)

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    Spinella, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    As result replicability is essential to science and difficult to achieve through external replicability, the present paper notes the insufficiency of null hypothesis statistical significance testing (NHSST) and explains the bootstrap as a plausible alternative, with a heuristic example to illustrate the bootstrap method. The bootstrap relies on…

  10. Addiction disorders, psychopathy and crime in the light of empirical studies results

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    Radulović Danka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the available empirical researches and examines the scientific basis of widely accepted thesis about the connection of substance addiction, psychopathy and crime. The analysis of research results indicated that correlation between the observed phenomena exists not only at a symptomatic level, but also at the level of etiology. It was established that the same risk factors underly alcoholism, drug addiction, psychopathy and criminal behavior. It was also found that the presence of conduct disorders at an early age (before the age of 15 indicates that psychopathic disorder is primary and that in this case, psychopathy is a reliable predictor of addiction and penal treatment failure, and also that it contributes substantially to addictive and criminal recidivism. Highly aggressive and poorly controlled psychopaths under the desinhibited influence of substances become even more violent and dangerous and most of them have a polysubstance disorder. Therefore, for the prevention of all three maladaptive forms, particularly important is the category of minors with early disruptive behavior, characterized by lower verbal ability, increased impulsivity and high aggressiveness as a main feature of psychopathy. Judging by research findings, the absence of conduct disorders in juvenile period could be considered as an indicator that psychopathic and criminal behavior occur as a secondary effect of substance abuse, with better chances for rehabilitation.

  11. [Facebook addiction].

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    Dávid, Balázs; Körmendi, Attila

    2018-01-01

    Among behavioural addictions, addiction towards social media sites are identified, which are subtypes of compulsive internet usage. Among these, the most significant is the so-called Facebook addiction. Scientific experts agree, that this new phenomenon hasn't been known in detail yet, so it needs intensified scientific exploration. Different aspects of the personality are inclined to raise the probability of developing Facebook addiction. Neurotic and narcissistic traits of the personality are modifying the characteristic of Facebook use, and by this tendency, risk the individual for developing addiction. Our study aimed at measuring Facebook addiction properly, moreover to identifiy the maladaptive characteristics of Facebook use which are salient in the addiction. Our sample consisted of 117 secondary school students. To measure Facebook addiction we used the Hungarian translated version of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale. To examine the special neurotic and narcissistic signs of Facebook usage we have developed our own questionniare. We measured neurotic personality traits with the MMPI "Psychasthenia" scale and we measured narcissism with the NPI-16. According to our results, narcissism and neurotic personality traits influence the use of Facebook and the maladaptive usage mediates the addiction.

  12. Behavioural addictions in adolescents and young adults: results from a prevalence study.

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    Villella, Corrado; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Nicola, Marco; Cassano, Maria; La Torre, Giuseppe; Gliubizzi, Maria Daniela; Messeri, Immacolata; Petruccelli, Filippo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi; Conte, Gianluigi

    2011-06-01

    Our study aims to assess the prevalence of behavioural addictions in an adolescent population, evaluating the effects of gender and age, and to assess the correlations among different behavioural addictions. 2853 high school students were assessed in order to evaluate the prevalence of behavioural addictions such as Pathological Gambling (PG), Compulsive Buying (CB), Exercise Addiction (EA), Internet Addiction (IA), and Work Addiction (WA), in a population of Italian adolescents. The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised Adolescent (SOGS-RA), the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART), were compiled anonymously by the students. Overall prevalence was 7.0% for PG, 11.3% for CB, 1.2% for IA, 7.6% for WA, 8.5% for EA. PG and EA were more common among boys, while gender had no effect on the other conditions. CB was more common among younger (addictive behaviours is in line with the hypothesis of a common psychopathological dimension underlying these phenomena. Further studies are needed to assess personality traits and other clinical disorders associated with these problems behaviours.

  13. Large Scale Association Analysis for Drug Addiction: Results from SNP to Gene

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    Xiaobo Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many genetic association studies used single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs data to identify genetic variants for complex diseases. Although SNP-based associations are most common in genome-wide association studies (GWAS, gene-based association analysis has received increasing attention in understanding genetic etiologies for complex diseases. While both methods have been used to analyze the same data, few genome-wide association studies compare the results or observe the connection between them. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the data from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE and compared the results from the SNP-based and gene-based analyses. Our results suggest that the gene-based method complements the individual SNP-based analysis, and conceptually they are closely related. In terms of gene findings, our results validate many genes that were either reported from the analysis of the same dataset or based on animal studies for substance dependence.

  14. Adolescent (Mis)Perceptions about Nicotine Addiction: Results from a Mixed-Methods Study

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    Roditis, Maria; Lee, Joann; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite evidence that adolescents become addicted to nicotine even after limited use, adolescents believe they can experiment with or smoke cigarettes for a few years and easily quit. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' understanding of the definition and process of nicotine addiction using a mixed-methods approach. Method:…

  15. Ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: results from a preliminary observational study in Canada.

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    Thomas, Gerald; Lucas, Philippe; Capler, N Rielle; Tupper, Kenneth W; Martin, Gina

    2013-03-01

    This paper reports results from a preliminary observational study of ayahuasca-assisted treatment for problematic substance use and stress delivered in a rural First Nations community in British Columbia, Canada. The "Working with Addiction and Stress" retreats combined four days of group counselling with two expert-led ayahuasca ceremonies. This study collected pre-treatment and six months follow-up data from 12 participants on several psychological and behavioral factors related to problematic substance use, and qualitative data assessing the personal experiences of the participants six months after the retreat. Statistically significant (p ayahuasca-assisted therapy appears to be associated with statistically significant improvements in several factors related to problematic substance use among a rural aboriginal population. These findings suggest participants may have experienced positive psychological and behavioral changes in response to this therapeutic approach, and that more rigorous research of ayahuasca-assisted therapy for problematic substance use is warranted.

  16. A Bayesian bird's eye view of ‘Replications of important results in social psychology’

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    Schönbrodt, Felix D.; Yao, Yuling; Gelman, Andrew; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2017-01-01

    We applied three Bayesian methods to reanalyse the preregistered contributions to the Social Psychology special issue ‘Replications of Important Results in Social Psychology’ (Nosek & Lakens. 2014 Registered reports: a method to increase the credibility of published results. Soc. Psychol. 45, 137–141. (doi:10.1027/1864-9335/a000192)). First, individual-experiment Bayesian parameter estimation revealed that for directed effect size measures, only three out of 44 central 95% credible intervals did not overlap with zero and fell in the expected direction. For undirected effect size measures, only four out of 59 credible intervals contained values greater than 0.10 (10% of variance explained) and only 19 intervals contained values larger than 0.05. Second, a Bayesian random-effects meta-analysis for all 38 t-tests showed that only one out of the 38 hierarchically estimated credible intervals did not overlap with zero and fell in the expected direction. Third, a Bayes factor hypothesis test was used to quantify the evidence for the null hypothesis against a default one-sided alternative. Only seven out of 60 Bayes factors indicated non-anecdotal support in favour of the alternative hypothesis (BF10>3), whereas 51 Bayes factors indicated at least some support for the null hypothesis. We hope that future analyses of replication success will embrace a more inclusive statistical approach by adopting a wider range of complementary techniques. PMID:28280547

  17. Addiction to Snake Venom.

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    Das, Saibal; Barnwal, Preeti; Maiti, Tanay; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath; Babu, Dinesh

    2017-07-03

    The nature of addiction depends on various factors. The tendency to have already used several addictive substances and to seek high sensation experiences as a result of specific personality traits may lead to extreme and peculiar forms of addictions. Even belonging to specific social and cultural background may lead to such forms of addiction such as intentional snake bite and willful envenomation. In this article, we have discussed the peculiarities and practical insight of such addiction to snake venom. The possible molecular mechanism behind such venom-mediated reinforcement has also been highlighted. Finally, we have stressed upon the treatment and de-addiction measures.

  18. Slow Replication Fork Velocity of Homologous Recombination-Defective Cells Results from Endogenous Oxidative Stress

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    Magdalou, Indiana; Machon, Christelle; Dardillac, Elodie; Técher, Hervé; Guitton, Jérôme; Debatisse, Michelle; Lopez, Bernard S.

    2016-01-01

    Replications forks are routinely hindered by different endogenous stresses. Because homologous recombination plays a pivotal role in the reactivation of arrested replication forks, defects in homologous recombination reveal the initial endogenous stress(es). Homologous recombination-defective cells consistently exhibit a spontaneously reduced replication speed, leading to mitotic extra centrosomes. Here, we identify oxidative stress as a major endogenous source of replication speed deceleration in homologous recombination-defective cells. The treatment of homologous recombination-defective cells with the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the maintenance of the cells at low O2 levels (3%) rescues both the replication fork speed, as monitored by single-molecule analysis (molecular combing), and the associated mitotic extra centrosome frequency. Reciprocally, the exposure of wild-type cells to H2O2 reduces the replication fork speed and generates mitotic extra centrosomes. Supplying deoxynucleotide precursors to H2O2-exposed cells rescued the replication speed. Remarkably, treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine strongly expanded the nucleotide pool, accounting for the replication speed rescue. Remarkably, homologous recombination-defective cells exhibit a high level of endogenous reactive oxygen species. Consistently, homologous recombination-defective cells accumulate spontaneous γH2AX or XRCC1 foci that are abolished by treatment with N-acetyl-cysteine or maintenance at 3% O2. Finally, oxidative stress stimulated homologous recombination, which is suppressed by supplying deoxynucleotide precursors. Therefore, the cellular redox status strongly impacts genome duplication and transmission. Oxidative stress should generate replication stress through different mechanisms, including DNA damage and nucleotide pool imbalance. These data highlight the intricacy of endogenous replication and oxidative stresses, which are both evoked during tumorigenesis and senescence initiation

  19. Modern nondrug addictions

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    KLIMEŠOVÁ, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    My diploma thesis is both theoretical and empirical. It deals with modern nondrug addictions which are not yet classified as addictions according to the International Classification of Diseases, but their symptoms and common characteristics with recognised addictions allow us to label them as such. The theoretical part of my thesis concerns mainly a definition of these addictions, their typical symptoms, prevention and therapy. The practical part contains tables derived from the results of re...

  20. Subgrouping patients with fibromyalgia according to the results of the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire: a replication study.

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    Calandre, Elena P; Garcia-Carrillo, Jocelyne; Garcia-Leiva, Juan M; Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Molina-Barea, Rocío; Rodriguez-Lopez, Carmen M

    2011-12-01

    Fibromyalgia is a complex and heterogeneous disease, and several attempts have been made in order to identify different subgroups of patients sharing a common symptomatology. The purpose of the present study has been to replicate a subgroup classification proposed by de Souza et al. based in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) in a large sample of patients with a cultural and clinical setting different from the original one. Four hundred twenty-one patients were classified, according to the results of the visual analog FIQ subscales in type I o type II subgroups. Demographic and clinical data, as well as results of scales assessing disease's severity, quality of life, sleep quality, anxiety and depression, were compared between the two groups. The profiles of type I and type II patients from our sample strikingly paralleled those of the original study, demonstrating the reproducibility of the classification. In our sample, 18.8% of the patients appertained to type I subgroup and 81.2% to type II subgroup. Patients from this later subgroup had higher comorbidity and received more drugs than those of the former. They were also more physically ill, with higher FIQ total scores and worse sleep quality, and more psychologically distressed, with higher levels of anxiety and depression and lower scores in the mental component summary of the Short-Form Health Questionnaire (SF-12). Our study shows that the proposed fibromyalgia classification is reliable and easy to perform and could be applied in further studies.

  1. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

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    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  2. Promoting transparency and reproducibility in Behavioral Neuroscience: Publishing replications, registered reports, and null results.

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    Baxter, Mark G; Burwell, Rebecca D

    2017-08-01

    The editors of Behavioral Neuroscience have been discussing several recent developments in the landscape of scientific publishing. The discussion was prompted, in part, by reported issues of reproducibility and concerns about the integrity of the scientific literature. Although enhanced rigor and transparency in science are certainly important, a related issue is that increased competition and focus on novel findings has impeded the extent to which the scientific process is cumulative. We have decided to join the growing number of journals that are adopting new reviewing and publishing practices to address these problems. In addition to our standard research articles, we are pleased to announce 3 new categories of articles: replications, registered reports, and null results. In joining other journals in psychology and related fields to offer these publication types, we hope to promote higher standards of methodological rigor in our science. This will ensure that our discoveries are based on sound evidence and that they provide a durable foundation for future progress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behaviour

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    Mathias eOsvath

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic of cognitive foresight in non-human animals has received considerable attention in the last decade. The main questions concern whether the animals can prepare for upcoming situations which are, to various degrees, contextually or sensorially detached from the situation in which the preparations are made. Studies on great apes have focused on tool-related tasks, e.g. the ability to select a tool which is functional only in the future. Dufour and Sterck (2008, however, investigated whether chimpanzees were also able to prepare for a future exchange with a human: an object exchanged for a food item. The study included extensive training on the exchangeable item, which is traditionally not compatible with methods for studying planning abilities, as associative learning cannot be precluded. Nevertheless, despite this training, the chimpanzees could not solve the deferred exchange task. Given that great apes can plan for tool use, these results are puzzling. In addition, claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study (Suddendorf and Corballis, 2010. Here we partly replicated Dufour and Sterck’s study to discern whether temporally deferred and spatially displaced exchange tasks are beyond the capabilities of great apes. In addition to chimpanzees we tested orangutans. One condition followed the one used by Dufour and Sterck, in which the exchange items, functional only in the future, are placed at a location that freely allows for selections by the subjects. In order to test the possibility that the choice set-up could explain the negative results in Dufour and Sterck’s study, our second condition followed a method used in the planning study by Osvath and Osvath (2008, where the subjects make a forced one-item-choice from a tray. We found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions.

  4. The Comparison of Resiliency, Identity Styles, Spirituality and Perceived Social Support in Addicts, Non-Addicts, and Recovered Addicts

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    S Ali HosseiniAlmadani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was comparing of resiliency, identity styles, spirituality, and perceived social support in addicts, non-addicts, and recovered addicts. Method: In this causal-comparative study, by available sampling, 30 addicts, 30 non-addicts, and 30 recovered addicts were selected of adolescents. All participants completed the resiliency, identity styles, spirituality, and perceived social support questionnaires. Results: The results of comparing of identity styles indicated that on informational and normative styles, non-addicts had significantly higher scores than addicts and recovered addicts. On avoidant/disoriented style, non addicts had significantly lower levels than two other addict groups. The results of comparing of resiliency showed that non-addicts had significantly higher scores than two other groups. Also recovered addicts were significantly more resilient than addicts. In comparing of spirituality component, non addicts and recovered addicts had significantly higher scores than addicts. By Comparing of perceived social support, non-addicts and recovered addicts had significantly higher levels than addicts. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, participating in NA groups and perception of social support increased the resiliency of recovered addicts. Also, identity is relatively consistent component that by participating in treatment process, does not change significantly.

  5. Replicated Computations Results (RCR) report for “A holistic approach for collaborative workload execution in volunteer clouds”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    benchmark provided by Google. This replicated computations results report focuses on the prototypical tool implementation used in the article to perform such analysis. The software was straightforward to install and use, and a representative part of the experimental results from the article could...

  6. The Clinical Implications of Inconsistently Methylated Results from Glioblastoma MGMT Testing by Replicate Methylation-Specific PCR.

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    Xia, Daniel; Reardon, David A; Bruce, Jacqueline L; Lindeman, Neal I

    2016-11-01

    The methylation status of the promoter of the O 6 -methylguanine DNA methyltransferase gene (MGMT) is an established prognostic and predictive biomarker of glioblastoma (GBM). At the Center for Advanced Molecular Diagnostics, MGMT testing is performed by methylation-specific PCR with multiple replicates, leading to three types of reportable results: methylated, unmethylated, and inconsistently methylated. An inconsistently methylated result is reported when a methylated peak is seen in some but not all of the PCR replicates from a single DNA sample. To better understand the clinical implications of these results, we performed a retrospective review of all MGMT testing at our laboratory over a 5-year period, and correlated test results with outcome and specimen-quality data. This review yielded several novel findings. First, inconsistent MGMT methylation on replicate methylation-specific PCR is not uncommon, composes 12% (58/465) of our GBM results. Second, inconsistently methylated GBM cases are associated with relatively poor overall survival (more similar to unmethylated than to methylated cases). Third and interestingly, there appears to be a dose-response relationship between patient survival and the extent of methylation in inconsistently methylated GBMs. Finally, our analyses of specimen-quality data suggest that a combination of technical factors (eg, small samples) and tumor biology may explain inconsistent MGMT results on replicate methylation-specific PCR testing. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. How many replicate tests do I need?$-$ Variability of cookstove performance and emissions has implications for obtaining useful results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yungang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Sohn, Michael D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Gadgil, Ashok J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Wang, Yilun [ISO Innovative Analytics San Francisco, CA (United States); Lask, Kathleen M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). College of Engineering Applied Science and Technology Program; Kirchstetter, Thomas W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-02-01

    Almost half of the world’s population still cooks on biomass cookstoves of poor efficiency and primitive design, such as three stone fires (TSF). Emissions from biomass cookstoves contribute to adverse health effects and climate change. A number of “improved cookstoves” with higher energy efficiency and lower emissions have been designed and promoted across the world. During the design development, and for selection of a stove for dissemination, the stove performance and emissions are commonly evaluated, communicated and compared using the arithmetic average of replicate tests made using a standardized laboratory-based test, commonly the water boiling test (WBT). However, published literature shows different WBT results reported from different laboratories for the same stove technology. Also, there is no agreement in the literature on how many replicate tests should be performed to ensure “significance” in the reported average performance. This matter has not received attention in the rapidly growing literature on stoves, and yet is crucial for estimating and communicating the performance of a stove, and for comparing the performance between stoves. We present results of statistical analyses using data from a number of replicate tests of performance and emission of the Berkeley-Darfur Stove (BDS) and the TSF under well-controlled laboratory conditions. We observed moderate variability in the test results for the TSF and BDS when measuring several characteristics. Here we focus on two as illustrative: time-to-boil and PM2.5 (particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometers in diameter) emissions. We demonstrate that interpretation of the results comparing these stoves could be misleading if only a small number of replicates had been conducted. We then describe a practical approach, useful to both stove testers and designers, to assess the number of replicates needed to obtain useful data. Caution should be exercised in attaching high credibility to

  8. Ten myths about work addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark D; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Atroszko, Paweł A

    2018-02-07

    Background and aims Research into work addiction has steadily grown over the past decade. However, the literature is far from unified and there has been much debate on many different issues. Aim and methods This paper comprises a narrative review and focuses on 10 myths about work addiction that have permeated the psychological literature and beyond. The 10 myths examined are (a) work addiction is a new behavioral addiction, (b) work addiction is similar to other behavioral addictions, (c) there are only psychosocial consequences of work addiction, (d) work addiction and workaholism are the same thing, (e) work addiction exclusively occurs as a consequence of individual personality factors, (f) work addiction only occurs in adulthood, (g) some types of work addiction are positive, (h) work addiction is a transient behavioral pattern related to situational factors, (i) work addiction is a function of the time spent engaging in work, and (j) work addiction is an example of overpathogizing everyday behavior and it will never be classed as a mental disorder in the DSM. Results Using the empirical literature to date, it is demonstrated that there is evidence to counter each of the 10 myths. Conclusion It appears that the field is far from unified and that there are different theoretical constructs underpinning different strands of research.

  9. Hidden addiction: Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  10. Genetic variants in nicotine addiction and alcohol metabolism genes, oral cancer risk and the propensity to smoke and drink alcohol: a replication study in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devasena Anantharaman

    Full Text Available Genetic variants in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and alcohol metabolism genes have been associated with propensity to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol, respectively, and also implicated in genetic susceptibility to head and neck cancer. In addition to smoking and alcohol, tobacco chewing is an important oral cancer risk factor in India. It is not known if these genetic variants influence propensity or oral cancer susceptibility in the context of this distinct etiology.We examined 639 oral and pharyngeal cancer cases and 791 controls from two case-control studies conducted in India. We investigated six variants known to influence nicotine addiction or alcohol metabolism, including rs16969968 (CHRNA5, rs578776 (CHRNA3, rs1229984 (ADH1B, rs698 (ADH1C, rs1573496 (ADH7, and rs4767364 (ALDH2.The CHRN variants were associated with the number of chewing events per day, including in those who chewed tobacco but never smoked (P =  0.003, P =  0.01 for rs16969968 and rs578776 respectively. Presence of the variant allele contributed to approximately 13% difference in chewing frequency compared to non-carriers. While no association was observed between rs16969968 and oral cancer risk (OR =  1.01, 95% CI =  0.83- 1.22, rs578776 was modestly associated with a 16% decreased risk of oral cancer (OR =  0.84, 95% CI =  0.72- 0.98. There was little evidence for association between polymorphisms in genes encoding alcohol metabolism and oral cancer in this population.The association between rs16969968 and number of chewing events implies that the effect on smoking propensity conferred by this gene variant extends to the use of smokeless tobacco.

  11. [The activity of drug addiction service of the Russian Federation: an assessment of statistical parameters and an analysis of results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkina, E A; Kirzhanova, V V; Babicheva, L P; Mugantseva, L A

    2013-01-01

    The authors studied changes in the structure of drug addiction services, the dynamics of outpatient and inpatient referrals for drug addiction treatment and effectiveness of drug addiction services in 2011 compared to the preceding period. There was a reduction of availability of drug treatment services due to the reduction of the number of drug addiction units and the depletion of human resource potential. The lack of structural development of rehabilitation sector of drug care services and low rates of its development as well as the decrease in the number of patients seeking treatment are highlighted. It has been concluded that the drug addiction services require reorganization of its regulatory and legal framework and need innovative organizational and management decisions and human resources trained in innovative thinking and technologies.

  12. Tobacco Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more confident as a nonsmoker, dealing with your nicotine addiction is easier. Some prescription medicines help people stop ... tobacco. Those cravings have less to do with nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of ...

  13. Gambling Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Gambling Addiction KidsHealth / For Teens / Gambling Addiction What's in ... So what's the story with gambling? What Is Gambling? Gambling means taking part in any activity or ...

  14. Addiction and will

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  15. Guns, anger, and mental disorders: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2016-01-01

    Analyses from the National Comorbidity Study Replication provide the first nationally-representative estimates of the co-occurrence of pathological anger traits and possessing or carrying a gun among adults with and without certain mental disorders and demographic characteristics. The study found that a large number of individuals in the United States have anger traits and also possess firearms at home (10.4%) or carry guns outside the home (1.6%). These data document associations of numerous common mental disorders and combinations of anger traits with gun access. Because only a small proportion of persons with this risky combination have ever been hospitalized for a mental health problem, most will not be subject to existing mental-health-related legal restrictions on firearms due to involuntary commitment. Excluding a large proportion of the general population from gun possession is also not likely to be feasible. Behavioral risk-based approaches to firearms restriction, such as expanding the definition of gun-prohibited persons to include those with violent misdemeanor convictions and multiple DUI convictions, could be a more effective public health policy to prevent gun violence in the population. PMID:25850688

  16. [Food Addiction as a new behavioral addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eördögh, Erika; Hoyer, Mária; Szeleczky, Gábor

    Aim of review: To overview the new studies on food addiction and highlighting the analogies and differences between food and drug addiction. Recent studies on food addiction have demonstrated that the neurobiological circuits involved in the development of drug addiction also play a role in food consumption, and that the uptake of nutrients by the organism is under the control of numerous complicated peripheral and central signal-transducing networks. In addition, it has also been shown that addiction and/or craving may develop toward certain foods and nutrients, too. The most recent investigations about the neurobiological systems motivating the obtaining behavior have suggested that the acquired drive toward energy rich, rewarding food contributes to the appearance of obesity as an endemic. This report presents the definition of substance use disorders and describes the results of the neurobiological approaches in the study of addiction supporting the concept that food addiction is a real phenomenon. The subsequent description of the central and peripheral signaling pathways of food consumption demonstrates that while both food (nutrients) and drugs with abuse potential exert their effect on the same central neurobiological networks, the action of the peripheral signaling systems make it more difficult to understand the regulation of food intake and thus the treatment of pathological eating behavior. The presentation of the evidences of food addiction obtained in animal experiments and with imaging methods and the subsequent overview of the results achieved in the surveys of pathologic eating patterns and in the new clinical and behavioral assessment of human food addiction point to the conclusion that the pharmacological and behavioral therapy methods applied to the treatment of substance abuse disorders may also prove useful in the management of obesity.

  17. The dynamics of addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, Johan; Grasman, Raoul P.P.P.; Maas, van der Han L.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with addictive acts that exhibit a stable pattern not intervening with the normal routine of daily life. Nevertheless, in the long term such behaviour may result in health damage. Alcohol consumption is an example of such addictive habit. The aim is to describe the process of

  18. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  19. Peer Influence and Addiction Recurrence

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Markdissi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we highlight the role of peers in the recurrence of addictive behavior. To do so, we use a simple “forward looking” model with procrastination and peers influence. Our results show that while procrastination can explain the decision to postpone rehabilitation, peers influence is essential to explain the cyclical patterns of addiction-rehabilitation-addiction.

  20. Treatment of Internet Addiction with Anxiety Disorders: Treatment Protocol and Preliminary Before-After Results Involving Pharmacotherapy and Modified Cognitive Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veruska Andrea; Freire, Rafael; Zugliani, Morená; Cirillo, Patricia; Santos, Hugo Henrique; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia

    2016-03-22

    The growth of the Internet has led to significant change and has become an integral part of modern life. It has made life easier and provided innumerous benefits; however, excessive use has brought about the potential for addiction, leading to severe impairments in social, academic, financial, psychological, and work domains. Individuals addicted to the Internet usually have comorbid psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are prevalent mental disorders, involving a great deal of damage in the patient's life. This open trial study describes a treatment protocol among 39 patients with anxiety disorders and Internet addiction (IA) involving pharmacotherapy and modified cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Of the 39 patients, 25 were diagnosed with PD and 14 with GAD, in addition to Internet addiction. At screening, patients responded to the MINI 5.0, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, and the Young Internet Addiction Scale. At that time, IA was observed taking into consideration the IAT scale (cutoff score above 50), while anxiety disorders were diagnosed by a psychiatrist. Patients were forwarded for pharmacotherapy and a modified CBT protocol. Psychotherapy was conducted individually, once a week, over a period of 10 weeks, and results suggest that the treatment was effective for anxiety and Internet addiction. Before treatment, anxiety levels suggested severe anxiety, with an average score of 34.26 (SD 6.13); however, after treatment the mean score was 15.03 (SD 3.88) (Paddiction scores was observed, from 67.67 (SD 7.69) before treatment, showing problematic internet use, to 37.56 (SD 9.32) after treatment (Panxiety, the correlation between scores was .724. This study is the first research into IA treatment of a Brazilian population. The improvement was remarkable due to the complete engagement of patients in therapy, which contributed to the success of the

  1. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.S. [Univ. of Sunderland (United Kingdom). Ecology Centre

    1996-05-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at ion-cyclotron resonance conditions for stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} (B{sub H} = 78.3 {micro}T, B{sub HAC} = 40 {micro}T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B{sub v} = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  2. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M S

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at "ion-cyclotron resonance" conditions for stimulation of Ca(2+) (B(H) = 78.3 mu T, B(HAC) = 40 mu T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B(V) = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  3. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  4. Self-Disclosure and Internet Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Nihan; Kiper, Aydin

    2018-01-01

    The aim of study is to investigate the relationship between self-disclosure and internet addiction. Self-Disclosure Scale and Internet Addiction Scale were applied to students. Results indicated a negative correlation between self-disclosure and internet addiction. Self-disclosure was negative predicted by internet addiction in the structural…

  5. Addiction treatment provider attitudes on staff capacity and evidence-based clinical training: results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Lena; Amodeo, Maryann; Krull, Ivy; Chassler, Deborah; Weidenfeld, Rachel; de Saxe Zerden, Lisa; Gowler, Rebekah; Lederer, Jaime; Cohen, Alexander; Beltrame, Clelia

    2011-01-01

    This national study of addiction-treatment organizations' implementation of evidence-based practices examines: (1) organizational/leadership factors associated with director (n = 212) attitudes regarding staff resistance to organizational change, and (2) organizational/staff factors associated with staff (n = 312) attitudes regarding evidence-based clinical training. Linear regression analyses, controlling for type of treatment unit, leadership/staff characteristics and organizational readiness to change, identified that directors who perceived their organization needed more guidance and had less staff cohesion and autonomy rated staff resistance to organizational change significantly higher. Staff with higher levels of education and greater agreement that their organization supported change had greater preference for evidence-based trainings. Federal addiction treatment policy should both promote education and training of treatment staff and organizational development of treatment CBOs.  © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  6. The relationships between behavioral addictions and the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Gjertsen, Siri Renate; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Kvam, Siri; Pallesen, Ståle

    2013-06-01

    Aims Although relationships between addiction and personality have previously been explored, no study has ever simultaneously investigated the interrelationships between several behavioral addictions, and related these to the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Methods In this study, 218 university students completed questionnaires assessing seven different behavioral addictions (i.e., Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction) as well as an instrument assessing the main dimensions of the five-factor model of personality. Results Of the 21 bivariate intercorrelations between the seven behavioral addictions, all were positive (and nine significantly). The results also showed that (i) Neuroticism was positively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, compulsive buying, and study addiction, (ii) Extroversion was positively associated with Facebook addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, (iii) Openness to experience was negatively associated with Facebook addiction and mobile phone addiction, (iv) Agreeableness was negatively associated with Internet addiction, exercise addiction, mobile phone addiction, and compulsive buying, and (v) Conscientiousness was negatively associated with Facebook addiction, video game addiction, Internet addiction, and compulsive buying and positively associated with exercise addiction and study addiction. Conclusions The positive associations between the seven behavioral addictions suggest one or several underlying pathological factors. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that personality traits explained between 6% and 17% of the variance in the seven behavioral addictions, suggesting that personality to a varying degree explains scores on measures of addictive behaviors.

  7. Synergistic Effects of Social Isolation and Morphine Addiction on Reduced Neurogenesis and BDNF Levels and the Resultant Deficits in Cognition and Emotional State in Male Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famitafreshi, Hamidreza; Karimian, Morteza; Fatima, Sulail

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to drugs of abuse is a devastating condition which results in deterioration of brain function. On the other hand, social isolation also produces cognitive deficits such as learning and memory impairment. This study was designed to evaluate the potential negative synergistic effects of social isolation and morphine addiction on brain functions. One hundred and two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups for assessing neurogenesis and behaviour: group-housed, isolated, morphine-treated group-housed and morphine-treated isolated groups. Morphine- treated animals received BrdU (50 mg/kg; i.p.) and Morphine (0.75 mg/rat; i.p.) for 14 consecutive days, whereas, control rats received BrdU (50 mg/kg; i.p.) only. At the end of the study, Morris water maze and elevated plus maze tasks were performed to assess spatial working memory and anxiety levels, respectively. Furthermore, neurogenesis and BDNF levels were studied. Reference and working memory was markedly impaired in isolated and morphine-treated isolated rats as compared to group-housed rats and morphine-treated group-housed rats, respectively. Neurogenesis and BDNF levels were reduced in isolated and morphine-treated isolated rats as compared to group-housed rats and morphine-treated group-housed rats, respectively. Furthermore, rats in both isolated groups demonstrated low anxiety levels when compared to group housed groups. Isolation during addiction imparts devastating effects on brain. Thus, socialization of addicts can minimize addiction - induce cognitive deficits and improve neurogenesis.

  8. Molecular neurobiology of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, E J

    2001-01-01

    Addiction can be viewed as a form of drug-induced neural plasticity. One of the best established molecular mechanisms of addiction is the upregulation of the cAMP second messenger pathway, which occurs in many neuronal cell types in response to chronic administration of opiates or other drugs of abuse. This upregulation and the resulting activation of the transcription factor CREB appear to mediate aspects of tolerance and dependence. In contrast, induction of another transcription factor, termed delta FosB, exerts the opposite effect and may contribute to sensitized responses to drug exposure. Knowledge of these mechanisms could lead to more effective treatments for addictive disorders.

  9. Food addiction and substance addiction in women: Common clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Raven; Fani, Negar; Jovanovic, Tanja; Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2018-01-01

    Food addiction is characterized by poorly controlled intake of highly-palatable, calorically-dense, foods. While previous studies indicate that risk factors for food addiction are similar to substance use disorders (SUD), these studies have looked at food addiction and SUD in independent samples, limiting the ability to directly compare food addiction to SUD. The present study was conducted to assess rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, childhood and adult trauma exposure, as well as presence and severity of emotion dysregulation, in a sample of women (N = 229) who either meet criteria for no addiction, food addiction only or SUD only. The prevalence of food addiction was 18.3% and the prevalence of SUD was 30.6% in this sample. Women with food addiction and women with SUD endorsed more depression and PTSD symptoms when compared with individuals with no addiction. Individuals with food addiction and SUD had higher total emotion dysregulation scores, specifically with difficulties in goal directed behaviors, non-acceptance of emotional responses, impulse control, limited access to emotion regulation strategies, and lack of emotional clarity, when compared to individuals with no addiction (all p's  0.05). However, women with SUD endorsed higher levels of total childhood (p < 0.01) and adulthood trauma (p < 0.01) as compared with women with no addiction or food addiction. These results suggest that women with food addiction and those with SUD share similar psychological characteristics and risk factors, with the exception of trauma histories. These findings have implications for the detection of risk for and treatment of these disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Replication Catastrophe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toledo, Luis; Neelsen, Kai John; Lukas, Jiri

    2017-01-01

    Proliferating cells rely on the so-called DNA replication checkpoint to ensure orderly completion of genome duplication, and its malfunction may lead to catastrophic genome disruption, including unscheduled firing of replication origins, stalling and collapse of replication forks, massive DNA...... increased DNA replication stress....

  11. The Comparison of Alexithymia and Spiritual Intelligence in Addicts, Addicts under Methadone Treatment, and Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of the present study was to compare of the rate of alexithymia and spiritual intelligence in addicts, addicts under Methadone Treatment, and non-Addicts. Method: A causal-comparative research design was used. The study sample included 30 individuals under Methadone Treatment, 30 drug-dependent Addicted, and 30 non-addicted individuals selected by convenience sampling procedure. Toronto alexithymia scale and King's spiritual intelligence self-report inventory were administered among selected sample. Results: Findings revealed significant differences among addicted individuals and non-addicted adults also among individuals under methadone treatment and non-addicted adults in total alexithymia scores as well as on all three subscale scores. Furthermore, addicted individuals differed from those under methadone treatment in their scores on the subscale pertaining to difficulty in identifying feelings. Results also indicated differences among addicted individuals and those under methadone treatment in total spiritual intelligence and its four component scale scores, while addicted individuals differed from non-addicted individuals in total spiritual intelligence scores and only three of its component scale scores (personal meaning production, transcendental awareness, and conscious state expansion. Conclusion: Findings of this study indicate the advantages of the ability to control, emotional regulation and spiritual intelligence as a defense against addiction. By development of these characteristics addicts can be helped to gain relief from their addiction.

  12. [Gambling addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, J; Meyer, G; Hayer, T

    2013-05-01

    Extensive coherent clinical, psychopathological, neurobiological and genetic similarities with substance-related addictions justify the forthcoming classification of gambling addiction under the new category "Substance Use and Addictive Disorders" in the DSM-5. Thus, gambling addiction can be regarded as the prototype of behavioral addiction. In general it should be kept in mind that isolated gambling forms are associated with varying addictive potential due to specific situational and structural game characteristics. High rates of indebtedness, suicidality, social isolation and gambling-related crime often accompany pathological gambling. As a consequence gambling addiction represents a mental disorder with a significant economic burden. In Germany 12-month prevalence rates for problem gambling in adulthood range from 0.24 % to 0.64  % and for pathological gambling from 0.20 % to 0.56 %. Because gambling products rank among the so-called demeriting (i.e. potentially harmful) social activities, player and youth protection measures to prevent gambling disorders and associated crime should be best regulated as a state monopoly.

  13. [What brings neurobiology to addictions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, Magalie; Noble, Florence

    2016-12-01

    Addictions are multifactorial, and there are no experimental models replicating all aspects of this pathology. The development of animal models reproducing the clinical symptoms of addictions allows significant advances in the knowledge of the neurobiological processes involved in addiction. Preclinical data highlight different neuroadaptations according to the routes of administration, speeds of injection and frequencies of exposure to drugs of abuse. The neuroadaptations induced by an exposure to drugs of abuse follow dynamic processes in time. Despite significant progresses in the knowledge of neurobiology of addictions allowing to propose new therapeutic targets, the passage of new drugs in clinical is often disappointing. The lack of treatment efficacy reported in clinical trials is probably due to a very important heterogeneity of patients with distinct biological and genetic factors, but also with different patterns of consumption that can lead to different neuroadaptations, as clearly observed in preclinical studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkeila, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction is defined as uncontrolled and harmful use of Internet, which manifests in three forms: gaming, various sexual activities and excessive use of emails, chats or SMS messaging. Several studies have found that abuse of alcohol and other substances, depression and other health problems are associated with Internet addiction. In boys and men depression may be more a consequence of the addiction than a cause for it. ADHD seems to be a significant background factor for developing the condition. Because it is almost impossible to lead a life without Internet and computers nowadays, it is unrealistic to aim towards full abstinence. Treatment has generally followed the guidelines adapted for pathological gambling.

  15. [Behavioral addictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou-Landréat, Morgane; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Vénisse, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-01

    Each addictive disorder has specific characteristics. It is essential to consider them in order to improve the treatment. However, the combination of behavioral addictions and substance use disorders is valid, as showed by the next version of the DSM. During the treatment, it is important to evaluate cross, but also longitudinal, considering the current problematic behavior, but also the problematic behaviors that occurred in the past and that may occur in the future. There is indeed a significant risk of switching addiction. The relapse prevention must consider this risk and be inclusive. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  16. Attachment and emotion regulation in substance addictions and behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Jáuregui, Paula; Sánchez-Marcos, Inmaculada; López-González, Hibai; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-12-01

    Background Risky behaviors have been related to emotional regulation and attachment, which may constitute risk factors for developing an addictive behavior. However, there may also be differences between substance and non-substance-related addictions. Aims This study aimed to examine the relationship of emotional regulation and attachment, with substance (alcohol and drug abuse), and non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use) in adolescents and emerging adults. The study also aimed to examine gender differences for such predictors. Methods The sample comprised 472 students aged 13-21 years recruited from high schools and vocational education centers. Results Findings demonstrated that emotion regulation was predictive of all addictive behaviors assessed in this study (alcohol and drug abuse, gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use), whereas attachment predicted non-substance-related addictions (gambling disorder, video game addiction, and problematic Internet use). In addition, gender differences were found, with females scoring significantly higher in maternal and peer attachment, whereas males scored significantly higher in gambling disorder and video game addiction. Conclusion The findings may be useful for preventive and clinical interventions conducted with youth regarding addictive behaviors.

  17. PERSONALITY AND COMPUTER ADDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Jurczyńska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this work is to prove the relation between the personality traits and computer addicting. The research was carried out from 2006 to 2008 among the students of High School of Information Technology in Katowice. Material and methods: Research methods: Scale of Emotional Intelligens at Work, Social Competences Questionnaire, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – STAI, Kimberly S. Young Test, Questionnaire to Assess the Level of Crises of Values, Directivity Scale and a questionnaire of 23 questions prepared for the research purposes. Results: 12.70% of the examined population met the criteria for computer addiction. In the own view, 76.34% considered themselves addicted to this medium. Conclusions: Personality traits such as emotional intelligence at work, inclination to authoritative behaviors as well as the value system may have influence on the addicting to a computer. No such relation was proven with reference to self – efficacy and anxious personality.

  18. Opioid Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your doctor about dosage. What is drug dependence? Drug dependence is when the way your body works ... medicine. What is the difference between drug tolerance, dependence, and addiction? Drug tolerance and dependence are a normal part of ...

  19. Internet Addiction in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rębisz Sławomir

    2016-08-01

    . Generally, the results obtained in our research indicate that the level of Internet addiction among the adolescents investigated is not very high, although two thirds of our respondents showed an above average level of addiction, and every ninth respondent (approximately 11% was highly addicted to the Internet, men being more often addicted (15.6% than women (8.3%.

  20. Association between Tooth Loss and Opium Addiction: Results of a Community-Based Study on 5900 Adult Individuals in South East of Iran in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Tayebeh Malek; Hasheminejad, Naimeh; Salari, Hamid Reza; Rostamizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Najafipour, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    Like any other drug abuse, opium use is known to have detrimental effects on oral health. Oral hygiene neglect in opium users can lead to tooth loss resulting in further functional, esthetic, and dieting problems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the association between tooth loss and opium addiction in a large-scale population. This study was part of an extensive study related to the risk factors of cardiovascular disease and conducted by the center for physiological research during 2012-2015 in Kerman. A total of 5900, 15-75-year-old individuals, were recruited by a single-stage random cluster sampling method. Factors including opium and smoking consumption, factors related to oral health, hygiene, and the number of missing teeth were examined. Data were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and physical examination. Of 5900 individuals, 2662 (45.1%) were men and the rest were women, which 1011 individuals (17.1%) consumed opium. The prevalence of opium abuse was significantly higher in men. Regarding the oral dental indicators, the numbers of missing teeth ( P Opium addiction is associated with higher tooth loss, especially, in women opium users. Dental practitioners and health politicians should pay special attention to the oral health of addicts before tooth loss occurs.

  1. Mothering From the Inside Out: Results of a second randomized clinical trial testing a mentalization-based intervention for mothers in addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchman, Nancy E; DeCoste, Cindy L; McMahon, Thomas J; Dalton, Rachel; Mayes, Linda C; Borelli, Jessica

    2017-05-01

    Mothers with histories of alcohol and drug addiction have shown greater difficulty parenting young children than mothers with no history of substance misuse. This study was the second randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of Mothering From the Inside Out (MIO), a 12-week mentalization-based individual therapy designed to address psychological deficits commonly associated with chronic substance use that also interfere with the capacity to parent young children. Eighty-seven mothers caring for a child between 11 and 60 months of age were randomly assigned to receive 12 sessions of MIO versus 12 sessions of parent education (PE), a psychoeducation active control comparison. Maternal reflective functioning, representations of caregiving, mother-child interaction quality, and child attachment were evaluated at baseline and posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. Mother-child interaction quality was assessed again at 12-month follow-up. In comparison with PE mothers, MIO mothers demonstrated a higher capacity for reflective functioning and representational coherence at posttreatment and 3-month follow-up. At 12-month follow-up, compared to PE cohorts, MIO mothers demonstrated greater sensitivity, their children showed greater involvement, and MIO dyads showed greater reciprocity. As addiction severity increased, MIO also appeared to serve as a protective factor for maternal reflective functioning, quality of mother-child interactions, and child attachment status. Results demonstrate the promise of mentalization-based interventions provided concomitant with addiction treatment for mothers and their young children.

  2. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    OpenAIRE

    A EBRAHIMI; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...

  3. Guns, Impulsive Angry Behavior, and Mental Disorders: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Jeffrey W; Sampson, Nancy A; Petukhova, Maria V; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Appelbaum, Paul S; Swartz, Marvin S; Kessler, Ronald C

    2015-06-01

    Analyses from the National Comorbidity Study Replication provide the first nationally representative estimates of the co-occurrence of impulsive angry behavior and possessing or carrying a gun among adults with and without certain mental disorders and demographic characteristics. The study found that a large number of individuals in the United States self-report patterns of impulsive angry behavior and also possess firearms at home (8.9%) or carry guns outside the home (1.5%). These data document associations of numerous common mental disorders and combinations of angry behavior with gun access. Because only a small proportion of persons with this risky combination have ever been involuntarily hospitalized for a mental health problem, most will not be subject to existing mental health-related legal restrictions on firearms resulting from a history of involuntary commitment. Excluding a large proportion of the general population from gun possession is also not likely to be feasible. Behavioral risk-based approaches to firearms restriction, such as expanding the definition of gun-prohibited persons to include those with violent misdemeanor convictions and multiple DUI convictions, could be a more effective public health policy to prevent gun violence in the population. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. What Does Addiction Mean to Me

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Addiction is compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance. Addiction is accepted as a mental illness in the diagnostic nomenclature and results in substantial health, social and economic problems. In the diagnostic nomenclature, addiction was originally included in the personality...... disorders along with other behaviours considered deviant. But it is now considered a clinical syndrome. Addiction is multifactorially determined, with substantial genetic influence. The development of addictions is also influenced by environmental factors, and interplay between the two. In the clinical...... context, addiction puts problem substance use on the agenda, and helps focus on the difficulties associated with drug use. But the concept of addiction is also used to distance the user from addicts, and in this way, may be counter-therapeutic. The addiction concept has also had a substantial influence...

  5. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. Methods College students (N?=?448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young?s Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck De...

  6. [Gambling addiction: insights from neuroscience and neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sescousse, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    Although most people consider gambling as a recreational activity, some individuals lose control over their behavior and enter a spiral of compulsive gambling leading to dramatic consequences. In its most severe form, pathological gambling is considered a behavioral addiction sharing many similarities with substance addiction. A number of neurobiological hypotheses have been investigated in the past ten years, relying mostly on neuroimaging techniques. Similarly to substance addiction, a number of observations indicate a central role for dopamine in pathological gambling. However, the underlying mechanism seems partly different and is still poorly understood. Neuropsychological studies have shown decision-making and behavioral inhibition deficits in pathological gamblers, likely reflecting frontal lobe dysfunction. Finally, functional MRI studies have revealed abnormal reactivity within the brain reward system, including the striatum and ventro-medial prefrontal cortex. These regions are over-activated by gambling cues, and under-activated by monetary gains. However, the scarcity and heterogeneity of brain imaging studies currently hinder the development of a coherent neurobiological model of pathological gambling. Further replications of results and diversification of approaches will be needed in the coming years in order to strengthen our current model. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  7. INTERNET ADDICTION IN PATIENTS WITH SUBSTANCE USE DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariella Pass

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to further investigate the relationship between internet addiction and substance use disorder by exploring the prevalence of internet addiction among patients in a substance use disorder treatment clinic and to investigate the frequency with which internet addiction co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders in this population. Method: A survey, containing questions based on the nine criteria for internet gaming disorder proposed in the research appendix to DSM-5, was administered at 24 outpatient clinics for substance use disorders within the Stockholm Centre for Dependency Disorders. Data concerning additional psychiatric diagnoses was collected from patient medical records. A total of 569 patients participated, after excluding those with missing data as well as participants who primarily gambled online, the final sample size was N=462. Results: In total, 4.1% of the surveyed patients with substance use disorder met at least five out of nine internet addiction criteria at a level of “Fairly true” or higher, and reported at least “Some suffering” as a consequence of their internet use. An independent-samples t-test comparing the mean of the total internet addiction score between groups of patients with additional psychiatric diagnoses and the rest of the sample showed that participants with any one additional non-substance related psychiatric diagnose as well as those with an anxiety diagnose had significantly higher internet addiction scores than the rest of the sample. There were no significant differences in mean internet addiction scores between participants with ADHD or depression and the remaining sample. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence to suggest that internet addiction does not constitute a major clinical issue for patients in treatment for substance use disorder, lending little support to the suggestion that internet-related problem behaviours share pathophysiology with

  8. Hematological changes in opium addicted diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Sirati-Sabet, Majid; Asiabanha, Majid; Shahrokhi, Nader; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Khaksari, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Chronic opioid treatment in animal models has shown to alter hematological parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of opium on the number of peripheral blood cells and red blood cells (RBCs) indices in diabetic rats. Peripheral blood samples were collected from diabetic, opium-addicted, diabetic opium-addicted and normal male and female rats and hematological parameters were measured. The mean number of white blood cells (WBCs) was significantly higher in diabetic opium-addict females compared to diabetic non-addict female group. In both male and female, the mean number of neutrophils was significantly higher and the mean number of lymphocytes was lower in diabetic opium-addicted rats than those observed in diabetic non-addicted group. In diabetic opium-addicted male group the mean counts of RBC significantly increased as compared with diabetic male group. However, in diabetic addicted female, the mean number of RBCs was significantly lower than diabetic non-addicted female group. In both males and females, the mean number of platelets was significantly lower in diabetic addict rats compared to diabetic non-addict group. Generally, the results indicated that opium addiction has different effects on male and female rats according to the number of WBC, RBC and RBC indices. It could also be concluded that in the opium-addicts the risk of infection is enhanced due to the weakness of immune system as a result of the imbalance effect of opium on the immune cells.

  9. [Substance use in suicides in Mexico: results of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Addictions, 1994-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, René; Bojorquez, Ietza; Cortés, Mario

    2009-01-01

    To determine the association between substance use and the number of substances with the presentation of suicide. Data were taken from the forensic certificate of the Epidemiological Surveillance System of Addictions in the period between 1994 and 2006 from 27 states in Mexico. Suicide was detected in 8.7% of the violent deaths during the study period. Among men, it was observed that the increased number of substances increased the possibility for death by suicide, compared to deaths from other causes (one substance: OR = 1.8; two or more: OR = 3.3). In women, that possibility remains virtually unchanged with the increase in the number of substances detected (one substance: OR = 3.2; two or more: OR = 3.6). The use of substances is a major factor associated with suicide in the population whose cause of death was issued by the Mexican Forensic Medical Services.

  10. Modelling the Happiness Classification of Addicted, Addiction Risk, Threshold and Non-Addicted Groups on Internet Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapmaz, Fatma; Totan, Tarik

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to model the happiness classification of university students--grouped as addicted, addiction risk, threshold and non-addicted to internet usage--with compatibility analysis on a map as happiness, average and unhappiness. The participants in this study were 400 university students from Turkey. According to the results of…

  11. Risk personality traits of Internet addiction: a longitudinal study of Internet-addicted Chinese university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Jiangyang; Yang, Xuelong; Zhou, Hui

    2013-12-01

    As the world's fastest growing "addiction", Internet addiction is still controversial. The present study aimed to examine the potential personality predictors of Internet addicts. Eight hundred and sixty-eight students were tested using the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire after they had just entered university. Two years later, 49 were found to be addicted to the Internet as defined by high Internet addiction test scores. Comparisons of means and logistic regression analysis were used to explore their relationship. Students addicted to the Internet showed higher Neuroticism/Stability scores, higher Psychoticism/Socialization scores, and lower Lie scores than their normal peers before their addiction. Regression results showed that Internet addiction was accounted by three independent variables: Neuroticism/Stability, Psychoticism/Socialization, and Lie. These results suggest that the risk personality traits of Internet addiction include neuroticism, psychoticism, and immaturity. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Sexual addiction in drug addicts: The impact of drug of choice and poly-addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Antonio

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. Method: All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed. Results: A total of 133 participants were included in our analysis, all reporting cocaine/crack and/or alcohol as drug of choice. Polysubstance addicts had a significant higher risk of a positive screening for sexual addiction compared to monosubstance addicts, age-sex adjusted odds ratios of sexual addiction being respectively 2.72 (95CI 1.1-6.71 and 0.37 (95CI 0.15-0.91. The odds of a SAST score greater than 6 was not statistically different between the cocaine/crack and alcohol groups, respectively 0.38 (95CI 0.14-1.02 and 2.67 (95CI 0.98-7.25. We found a significant relation between stronger drug addiction and greater levels of sexual addiction in the cocaine/crack group (p=0.0012, but not in the alcohol group. Conclusion: Our study reinforces the importance of assessing sexual behavior of drug addicts in clinical practice, especially considering users of multiple substances or with severe dependence.

  13. Relationship between Provider Stigma and Predictors of Staff Turnover among Addiction Treatment Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Hunter, Sarah B; Shearer, Amy L; Booth, Marika

    2017-01-01

    To further our knowledge about feasible targets for improving quality of addiction treatment services, the current study provides preliminary assessment of the relationship between provider stigma and indicators of staff turnover. As predicted, results suggest that higher provider stigma was significantly related to lower ratings of job satisfaction and workplace climate. However, provider stigma was not significantly related to burnout. Our preliminary findings, if replicated, suggest the importance of considering provider stigma as a risk factor for future staff turnover and job dissatisfaction. Promising provider stigma interventions do exist and offer viable opportunity for improving quality of addiction treatment.

  14. Database Replication

    CERN Document Server

    Kemme, Bettina

    2010-01-01

    Database replication is widely used for fault-tolerance, scalability and performance. The failure of one database replica does not stop the system from working as available replicas can take over the tasks of the failed replica. Scalability can be achieved by distributing the load across all replicas, and adding new replicas should the load increase. Finally, database replication can provide fast local access, even if clients are geographically distributed clients, if data copies are located close to clients. Despite its advantages, replication is not a straightforward technique to apply, and

  15. Database Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Cristian MAZILU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For someone who has worked in an environment in which the same database is used for data entry and reporting, or perhaps managed a single database server that was utilized by too many users, the advantages brought by data replication are clear. The main purpose of this paper is to emphasize those advantages as well as presenting the different types of Database Replication and the cases in which their use is recommended.

  16. Online gaming addiction: the role of sensation seeking, self-control, neuroticism, aggression, state anxiety, and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehroof, Mehwash; Griffiths, Mark D

    2010-06-01

    Research into online gaming has steadily increased over the last decade, although relatively little research has examined the relationship between online gaming addiction and personality factors. This study examined the relationship between a number of personality traits (sensation seeking, self-control, aggression, neuroticism, state anxiety, and trait anxiety) and online gaming addiction. Data were collected over a 1-month period using an opportunity sample of 123 university students at an East Midlands university in the United Kingdom. Gamers completed all the online questionnaires. Results of a multiple linear regression indicated that five traits (neuroticism, sensation seeking, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and aggression) displayed significant associations with online gaming addiction. The study suggests that certain personality traits may be important in the acquisition, development, and maintenance of online gaming addiction, although further research is needed to replicate the findings of the present study.

  17. What Is Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms of someone with a drug use problem? How Does Drug Use Become an Addiction? What Makes Someone More Likely to Get Addicted to Drugs? Does Addiction Run in Families? Why Is It So Hard to ...

  18. Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted and Non-Addicted Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Narimani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study sought to compare emotional intelligence and quality of life in addicted and non-addicted men. Method: The samples included 80 addicted and 80 non-addicted men who addicted men were selected by available sampling and non-addicted men were chosen by cloning methods according to age and marital status. For data collection, emotional intelligence scale and quality of life questionnaire were used. Variance test and Pearson correlation were used for data analysis. Findings: The results showed that there is a significant difference between emotional intelligence and quality of life of addicted and non-addicted men. In fact, the emotional intelligence and quality of life among addicted men were lower than non-addicted men. Also the results showed that there is a significant correlation between emotional intelligence and quality of life among addicts and non addicts. Conclusion: People with low emotional intelligence are more likely to do substance abuse and drug abuse lowers the quality of life of the people. It is likely to develop emotional intelligence of people in order to prevent them from getting addicted.

  19. Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

    2013-05-01

    Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made.

  20. [Correlation between childhood traumatic stress and present drug abuse: results of a nationwide survey of drug addiction rehabilitation facilities in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeno, Mitsuru; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Koda, Minoru; Abe, Yukie; Endo, Keiko; Yabe, Yohko; Hirai, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Koji; Aikawa, Yuzo; Senoo, Eiichi; Nakatani, Yoji

    2009-12-01

    Child abuse is known to correlate with drug abuse and interferes with recovery from substance-related disorders. To determine the prevalence and severity of child abuse among drug addicts, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey of residents and outpatients at drug addiction rehabilitation centers (DARC) in Japan. A total of 445 participants gave informed consent and completed a self-reporting questionnaire. Sixty-eight percent of participants had experienced some kind of child abuse by the time they reached junior high school. The kinds of abuse experienced were physical (53.7%), psychological (60.4%), sexual (5.4%) abuse and neglect (24.5%). Comparison of female and male participants revealed that more female than male participants had experienced psychological (76.9% vs. 58.2%) and sexual (17.5% vs. 4.0%) abuse. Comparison of participants who had experienced some kind of child abuse ("Abused" group 68.3%) and those who had not experienced abuse ("Non-abused" group 24.3%) revealed that the "Abused" group was younger than the "Non-abused" group (35.7 SD9.0 vs. 39.7 SD10.8). Participants in the "Abused" group were found to have more severe psychological difficulties than those in the "Non-abused" group for the following: anxiety (73.0% vs. 61.1%), delusional atmosphere (48.0% vs. 28.7%), lack of energy (53.9% vs. 40.7%), ideas of persecution (48.7% vs. 29.6%), depression (62.2% vs. 43.5%) and suicidal ideation in the previous year (50.7% vs. 24.3%). The present results suggest that additional program that prepared to care the drug addicts who experienced child abuse and are experiencing suicidal ideation is needed. Furthermore, intervention for families with risk factors for child abuse should be developed in order to prevent the victim from suffering not only from post traumatic stress disorder but also from substance related disorders.

  1. Pre-incarceration police harassment, drug addiction and HIV risk behaviours among prisoners in Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, Maxim; Azbel, Lyuba; Wegman, Martin P; Izenberg, Jacob M; Bachireddy, Chethan; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    The expanding HIV epidemic in Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who comprise a third of prisoners there. Detention of PWID is common but its impact on health has not been previously studied in the region. We aimed to understand the relationship between official and unofficial (police harassment) detention of PWID and HIV risk behaviours. In a nationally representative cross-sectional study, soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan (N=368) and Azerbaijan (N=510) completed standardized health assessment surveys. After identifying correlated variables through bivariate testing, we built multi-group path models with pre-incarceration official and unofficial detention as exogenous variables and pre-incarceration composite HIV risk as an endogenous variable, controlling for potential confounders and estimating indirect effects. Overall, 463 (51%) prisoners reported at least one detention in the year before incarceration with an average of 1.3 detentions in that period. Unofficial detentions (13%) were less common than official detentions (41%). Optimal model fit was achieved (X (2)=5.83, p=0.44; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) GFI=0.99; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) CFI=1.00; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) RMSEA=0.00; PCLOSE=0.98) when unofficial detention had an indirect effect on HIV risk, mediated by drug addiction severity, with more detentions associated with higher addiction severity, which in turn correlated with increased HIV risk. The final model explained 35% of the variance in the outcome. The effect was maintained for both countries, but stronger for Kyrgyzstan. The model also holds for Kyrgyzstan using unique data on within-prison drug injection as the outcome, which was frequent in prisoners there. Detention by police is a strong correlate of addiction severity, which mediates its effect on HIV risk behaviour. This pattern suggests that police may target drug users and that such harassment may

  2. Kleptomania and Co-morbid addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun S; Christianini, Aparecida Rangon; Bertoni, Daniela; de Oliveira, Maria do Carmo Medeiros; Hodgins, David C; Tavares, Hermano

    2017-04-01

    We examined the association between kleptomania and addictive disorders, including behavioral addictions. Fifty-three individuals with a diagnosis of kleptomania completed measures of kleptomania severity, semi-structured clinical interviews to assess co-morbid diagnosis of addictive disorders, and the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire (SPQ) assessing an array of addictive behaviors. 20.75% of the sample met criteria for an addictive disorder; four for a substance use disorder and four for a behavioral addiction. Kleptomania severity was significantly associated with compulsive work and shopping measured by the SPQ. The results suggest the need to assess a wide array of addictive behaviors in individuals with kleptomania. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Doctors, lies and the addiction bureaucracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, Theodore

    2008-04-01

    Almost everything you know about heroin addiction is wrong. Not only is it wrong, but it is obviously wrong. Heroin is not highly addictive; withdrawal from it is not medically serious; addicts do not become criminals to feed their habit; addicts do not need any medical assistance to stop taking heroin; and contrary to received wisdom, heroin addiction most certainly is a moral or spiritual problem. A literary tradition dating back to De Quincey and Coleridge, and continuing up to the deeply sociopathic William Burroughs and beyond, has misled all Western societies for generations about the nature of heroin addiction. These writers' self-dramatizing and dishonest accounts of their own addiction have been accepted uncritically, and have been more influential by far in forming public attitudes than the whole of pharmacological science. As a result, a self-serving, self-perpetuating and completely useless medical bureaucracy has been set up to deal with the problem.

  4. Associations between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Eating Disorders by Gender: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewerton, Timothy D; Duncan, Alexis E

    2016-11-01

    Few studies have assessed the association between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and eating disorders (ED) separately in men and women, especially in representative samples. Using data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, lifetime and past 12-month prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV, ADHD was compared in men and women with and without diagnoses of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV ED and any binge eating (BE) using logistic regression models adjusted for gender and age. In both sexes, those with lifetime and past 12-month BE and binge eating disorder had significantly higher prevalence of ADHD than those without BE and binge eating disorder, respectively. Women with lifetime and past 12-month bulimia nervosa and lifetime anorexia nervosa also had significantly higher prevalence of ADHD compared with women without these diagnoses. Given that ADHD invariably began earlier than the ED, ADHD may be an important risk factor for subsequent BE and related ED, and there may be opportunities for intervention among youth with ADHD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Prevalence, correlates, and treatment of lifetime suicidal behavior among adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Matthew K; Green, Jennifer Greif; Hwang, Irving; McLaughlin, Katie A; Sampson, Nancy A; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Kessler, Ronald C

    2013-03-01

    Although suicide is the third leading cause of death among US adolescents, little is known about the prevalence, correlates, or treatment of its immediate precursors, adolescent suicidal behaviors (ie, suicide ideation, plans, and attempts). To estimate the lifetime prevalence of suicidal behaviors among US adolescents and the associations of retrospectively reported, temporally primary DSM-IV disorders with the subsequent onset of suicidal behaviors. Dual-frame national sample of adolescents from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Face-to-face household interviews with adolescents and questionnaires for parents. A total of 6483 adolescents 13 to 18 years of age and their parents. Lifetime suicide ideation, plans, and attempts. The estimated lifetime prevalences of suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among the respondents are 12.1%, 4.0%, and 4.1%, respectively. The vast majority of adolescents with these behaviors meet lifetime criteria for at least one DSM-IV mental disorder assessed in the survey. Most temporally primary (based on retrospective age-of-onset reports) fear/anger, distress, disruptive behavior, and substance disorders significantly predict elevated odds of subsequent suicidal behaviors in bivariate models. The most consistently significant associations of these disorders are with suicide ideation, although a number of disorders are also predictors of plans and both planned and unplanned attempts among ideators. Most suicidal adolescents (>80%) receive some form of mental health treatment. In most cases (>55%), treatment starts prior to onset of suicidal behaviors but fails to prevent these behaviors from occurring. Suicidal behaviors are common among US adolescents, with rates that approach those of adults. The vast majority of youth with suicidal behaviors have preexisting mental disorders. The disorders most powerfully predicting ideation, though, are different from those most powerfully predicting conditional

  6. Suppression of the toll-like receptor 7-dependent type I interferon production pathway by autophagy resulting from enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus A16 infections facilitates their replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jie; Hu, Yajie; Li, Jiaqi; Zheng, Huiwen; Wang, Jingjing; Guo, Lei; Shi, Haijng; Liu, Longding

    2018-01-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) act as molecular sentinels, detecting invading viral pathogens and triggering host innate immune responses, including autophagy. However, many viruses have evolved a series of strategies to manipulate autophagy for their own benefit. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), as the primary agents causing hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), can induce autophagy leading to their replication. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate whether enhanced viral replication caused by autophagy in EV71 and CA16 infections was associated with a TLR-related signaling pathway. Our results demonstrate that complete autophagy and incomplete autophagy were observed in human bronchial epithelial (16HBE) cells infected with EV71 and CA16. Moreover, suppression of autophagy by the pharmacological modulator 3-MA significantly and clearly decreased the survival rates and viral replication of EV71 and CA16 in 16HBE cells. Inhibition of autophagy also enhanced the expression of molecules related to the TLR7-dependent type I interferon (IFN-I) production pathway, such as TLR7, MyD88, IRF7 and IFN-α/β. Finally, immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that TLR7 endosome marker M6PR levels were clearly reduced in EV71- and CA16-infected cells, while they were markedly elevated in infected cells treated with 3-MA. These findings suggest that increased EV71 and CA16 replication meditated by autophagy in 16HBE cells might promote degradation of the endosome, leading to suppression of the TLR7-mediated IFN-I signaling pathway.

  7. Buddhist Approaches to Addiction Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramabandhu Groves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Buddha recognized addiction problems and advised his followers accordingly, although this was not the primary focus of his teachings. Thailand and Japan, which have long-standing Buddhist traditions, have developed Buddhist influenced responses to addiction. With its emphasis on craving and attachment, an understanding of the workings of the mind, as well as practices to work with the mind, Buddhism lends itself as a rich resource to assist addiction recovery. The twelve step movement has been an impetus to making use of ideas and practices from Buddhism. In particular, mindfulness, has started to be used to support addiction recovery, with promising results. Exploration of other areas of Buddhism is beginning, and may provide additional benefit in the future.

  8. Treatment of Internet Addiction with Anxiety Disorders: Treatment Protocol and Preliminary Before-After Results Involving Pharmacotherapy and Modified Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Veruska Andrea; Freire, Rafael; Zugliani, Moren?; Cirillo, Patricia; Santos, Hugo Henrique; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; King, Anna Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Background The growth of the Internet has led to significant change and has become an integral part of modern life. It has made life easier and provided innumerous benefits; however, excessive use has brought about the potential for addiction, leading to severe impairments in social, academic, financial, psychological, and work domains. Individuals addicted to the Internet usually have comorbid psychiatric disorders. Panic disorder (PD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are prevalent men...

  9. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Love

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.

  10. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju

    2015-09-18

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction.

  11. Neuroscience of Internet Pornography Addiction: A Review and Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Todd; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias; Hatch, Linda; Hajela, Raju

    2015-01-01

    Many recognize that several behaviors potentially affecting the reward circuitry in human brains lead to a loss of control and other symptoms of addiction in at least some individuals. Regarding Internet addiction, neuroscientific research supports the assumption that underlying neural processes are similar to substance addiction. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) has recognized one such Internet related behavior, Internet gaming, as a potential addictive disorder warranting further study, in the 2013 revision of their Diagnostic and Statistical Manual. Other Internet related behaviors, e.g., Internet pornography use, were not covered. Within this review, we give a summary of the concepts proposed underlying addiction and give an overview about neuroscientific studies on Internet addiction and Internet gaming disorder. Moreover, we reviewed available neuroscientific literature on Internet pornography addiction and connect the results to the addiction model. The review leads to the conclusion that Internet pornography addiction fits into the addiction framework and shares similar basic mechanisms with substance addiction. Together with studies on Internet addiction and Internet Gaming Disorder we see strong evidence for considering addictive Internet behaviors as behavioral addiction. Future research needs to address whether or not there are specific differences between substance and behavioral addiction. PMID:26393658

  12. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  13. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  14. Metacognition in addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Marcantonio M; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Wells, Adrian

    2015-05-01

    Over the last twenty years metacognitive theory has provided a novel framework, in the form of the Self-Regulatory Executive Function (S-REF) model, for conceptualizing psychological distress (Wells & Matthews, 1994, 1996). The S-REF model proposes that psychological distress persists because of unhelpful coping styles (e.g. extended thinking and thought suppression) which are activated and maintained as a result of metacognitive beliefs. This paper describes the S-REF model and its application to addictive behaviors using a triphasic metacognitive formulation. Evidence on the components of the triphasic metacognitive formulation is reviewed and the clinical implications for applying metacognitive therapy to addictive behaviors outlined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. On the Comparison of Public Health and Social Support in Addicts and Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    touraj hashemi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed at comparing the degree of public health and social support in addicted and non-addicted people. Method: This study was causative-comparative and all addicts who had referred to addiction treatment centers in city of Khoy in 2012 constituted its population. From among this population, 60 addicts through convenience sampling method were selected and then peered with 60 normal subjects by age, gender, and education. The measurement tools were Goldberg Public Health (Ghq-28 and Social Support (Fleming questionnaires. Results: The results showed That Addicts enjoy a lower degree of Mental Health and Social Support. Conclusion: Providing social support for the addicts under treatment programs is one of the important factors in withdrawal from drug use.

  16. Addiction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entry into the crypt William Burroughs shared with his mother opened and shut around a failed re-enactment of William Tell’s shot through the prop placed upon a loved one’s head. The accidental killing of his wife Joan completed the installation of the addictation machine that spun melancholia as manic dissemination. An early encryptment to which was added the audio portion of abuse deposited an undeliverable message in WB. Wil- liam could never tell, although his corpus bears the in- scription of this impossibility as another form of pos- sibility. James Godley is currently a doctoral candidate in Eng- lish at SUNY Buffalo, where he studies psychoanalysis, Continental philosophy, and nineteenth-century litera- ture and poetry (British and American. His work on the concept of mourning and “the dead” in Freudian and Lacanian approaches to psychoanalytic thought and in Gothic literature has also spawned an essay on zombie porn. Since entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in 2007, Valentin Hennig has studied in the classes of Sil- via Bächli, Claudio Moser, and Corinne Wasmuht. In 2010 he spent a semester at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. His work has been shown in group exhibi- tions in Freiburg and Karlsruhe.

  17. [Internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan.

  18. Etiology of Food Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Gulec Oyekcin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Food addiction is a new topic of focus in the scientific literature. Food intake might be concerned as food addiction in some cases, especially in obese cases and over-eaters. Addiction like behaviours are commonly observed mong these people. Recent animal, epidemiological, clinical and genetic studies partly shows the clinical validity of food addiction while the neurobiological studies focused on the similarity between the reward systems present in obesity and drug addiction. However some studies still emphasizes the differences between two. The aim of this article was to review clinical and biological aspects of etiological perspectives of food addiction via available clinical, preclinical and genetic studies.

  19. An Approach for the Uncertainty Evaluation of the Overall Result from Replications of Measurement: Separately Combining Individual Uncertainty Components According to their 'systematic' and 'random' Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Jung; Kim, Byungjoo; Hwang, Euijin

    2014-01-01

    In our previous articles, an approach has been proposed for the evaluation of the uncertainty of overall result from multiple measurements. In the approach, uncertainty sources were classified into two groups: the first including those giving same 'systematic' effect on each individual measurement and the second including the others giving 'random' effect on each individual measurement and causing a variation among individual measurement results. The arithmetic mean of the replicated measurements is usually assigned as the value for the overall result. Uncertainty of the overall result is determined by separately evaluating and combining an overall uncertainty from sources of the 'systematic' effect and another overall uncertainty from sources of the 'random' effect. This conceptual approach has been widely adopted in chemical metrology society. In this study, further logical proof with more detailed mathematical expressions is provided on the approach

  20. [Construction of the addiction prevention core competency model for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Sook; Jung, Sun Young

    2013-12-01

    This study was done to provide fundamental data for the development of competency reinforcement programs to prevent addictive behavior in adolescents through the construction and examination of an addiction prevention core competency model. In this study core competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling were identified, and the addiction prevention core competency model was developed. It was validated methodologically. Competencies for preventing addictive behavior in adolescents as defined by the addiction prevention core competency model are as follows: positive self-worth, self-control skill, time management skill, reality perception skill, risk coping skill, and positive communication with parents and with peers or social group. After construction, concurrent cross validation of the addiction prevention core competency model showed that this model was appropriate. The study results indicate that the addiction prevention core competency model for the prevention of addictive behavior in adolescents through competency modeling can be used as a foundation for an integral approach to enhance adolescent is used as an adjective and prevent addictive behavior. This approach can be a school-centered, cost-efficient strategy which not only reduces addictive behavior in adolescents, but also improves the quality of their resources.

  1. The relationship between study addiction and work addiction: A cross-cultural longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atroszko, Paweł A; Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Griffiths, Mark D; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-12-01

    Aims Recent empirical studies investigating "study addiction" have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction, defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction. Methods The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related variables in two waves. In Wave 1, a total of 2,559 students in Norway and 2,177 students in Poland participated. A year later, in Wave 2, 379 Norwegians and 401 Polish who began to work professionally completed the survey. Results The intraclass correlation between BStAS and BWAS revealed that the scores were somewhat related; however, the relationship was slightly weaker than the temporal stability of both constructs. In the Norwegian sample, scoring higher on neuroticism and lower on learning time outside educational classes in Wave 1 was positively related to work addiction in Wave 2, whereas gender was unrelated to work addiction in Wave 2 when controlling for other studied variables in either samples. Conclusion Study addiction and work addiction appear to be closely related suggesting that the former may be a precursor for (or an early form of) the latter.

  2. Co-occurring substance-related and behavioral addiction problems: A person-centered, lay epidemiology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkolÿ Thege, Barna; Hodgins, David C; Wild, T Cameron

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims The aims of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence of single versus multiple addiction problems in a large representative sample and (b) to identify distinct subgroups of people experiencing substance-related and behavioral addiction problems. Methods A random sample of 6,000 respondents from Alberta, Canada, completed survey items assessing self-attributed problems experienced in the past year with four substances (alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, and cocaine) and six behaviors (gambling, eating, shopping, sex, video gaming, and work). Hierarchical cluster analyses were used to classify patterns of co-occurring addiction problems on an analytic subsample of 2,728 respondents (1,696 women and 1032 men; M age  = 45.1 years, SD age  = 13.5 years) who reported problems with one or more of the addictive behaviors in the previous year. Results In the total sample, 49.2% of the respondents reported zero, 29.8% reported one, 13.1% reported two, and 7.9% reported three or more addiction problems in the previous year. Cluster-analytic results suggested a 7-group solution. Members of most clusters were characterized by multiple addiction problems; the average number of past year addictive behaviors in cluster members ranged between 1 (Cluster II: excessive eating only) and 2.5 (Cluster VII: excessive video game playing with the frequent co-occurrence of smoking, excessive eating and work). Discussion and conclusions Our findings replicate previous results indicating that about half of the adult population struggles with at least one excessive behavior in a given year; however, our analyses revealed a higher number of co-occurring addiction clusters than typically found in previous studies.

  3. The Genetics, Neurogenetics and Pharmacogenetics of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Catherine H; Bogdan, Ryan; Agrawal, Arpana

    2014-03-01

    Addictions are prevalent psychiatric disorders that confer remarkable personal and social burden. Despite substantial evidence for their moderate, yet robust, heritability (approx. 50%), specific genetic mechanisms underlying their development and maintenance remain unclear. The goal of this selective review is to highlight progress in unveiling the genetic underpinnings of addiction. First, we revisit the basis for heritable variation in addiction before reviewing the most replicable candidate gene findings and emerging signals from genomewide association studies for alcohol, nicotine and cannabis addictions. Second, we survey the modest but growing field of neurogenetics examining how genetic variation influences corticostriatal structure, function, and connectivity to identify neural mechanisms that may underlie associations between genetic variation and addiction. Third, we outline how extant genomic findings are being used to develop and refine pharmacotherapies. Finally, as sample sizes for genetically informed studies of addiction approach critical mass, we posit five exciting possibilities that may propel further discovery (improved phenotyping, rare variant discovery, gene-environment interplay, epigenetics, and novel neuroimaging designs).

  4. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  5. Attachment and internet addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Dolejšová, Aneta

    2014-01-01

    My bachelor thesis is concerned with attachment and internet addiction. Therefore it attempts to establish correlation between these two terms through four research questions. These questions focus on presence of both the attachment types and scores for dimension of avoidance and anxiety in terms of extent gravity of internet addiction either by respondents at risk of potential addiction problems or by respondents already showing some symptoms of addiction. Theoretical part deals with definit...

  6. Neuroimaging in nuclear medicine: drug addicted brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong-An; Kim, Dae-Jin

    2006-01-01

    Addiction to illicit drugs in one of today's most important social issues. Most addictive drugs lead to irreversible parenchymal changes in the human brain. Neuroimaging data bring to light the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of the abused drugs, and demonstrate that addiction is a disease of the brain. Continuous researches better illustrate the neurochemical alterations in brain function, and attempt to discover the links to consequent behavioral changes. Newer hypotheses and theories follow the numerous results, and more rational methods of approaching therapy are being developed. Substance abuse is on the rise in Korea, and social interest in the matter as well. On the other hand, diagnosis and treatment of drug addiction is still very difficult, because how the abused substance acts in the brain, or how it leads to behavioral problems in not widely known. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of drug addiction can improve the process of diagnosing addict patients, planning therapy, and predicting the prognosis . Neuroimaging approaches by nuclear medicine methods are expected to objectively judge behavioral and neurochemical changes, and response to treatment. In addition, as genes associated with addictive behavior are discovered, functional nuclear medicine images will aid in the assessment of individuals. Reviewing published literature on neuroimaging regarding nuclear medicine is expected to be of assistance to the management of drug addict patients. What's more, means of applying nuclear medicine to the care of drug addict patients should be investigated further

  7. Related Addictive Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  8. Introduction to behavioral addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Potenza, Marc N; Weinstein, Aviv; Gorelick, David A

    2010-09-01

    Several behaviors, besides psychoactive substance ingestion, produce short-term reward that may engender persistent behavior, despite knowledge of adverse consequences, i.e., diminished control over the behavior. These disorders have historically been conceptualized in several ways. One view posits these disorders as lying along an impulsive-compulsive spectrum, with some classified as impulse control disorders. An alternate, but not mutually exclusive, conceptualization considers the disorders as non-substance or "behavioral" addictions. Inform the discussion on the relationship between psychoactive substance and behavioral addictions. We review data illustrating similarities and differences between impulse control disorders or behavioral addictions and substance addictions. This topic is particularly relevant to the optimal classification of these disorders in the forthcoming fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Growing evidence suggests that behavioral addictions resemble substance addictions in many domains, including natural history, phenomenology, tolerance, comorbidity, overlapping genetic contribution, neurobiological mechanisms, and response to treatment, supporting the DSM-V Task Force proposed new category of Addiction and Related Disorders encompassing both substance use disorders and non-substance addictions. Current data suggest that this combined category may be appropriate for pathological gambling and a few other better studied behavioral addictions, e.g., Internet addiction. There is currently insufficient data to justify any classification of other proposed behavioral addictions. Proper categorization of behavioral addictions or impulse control disorders has substantial implications for the development of improved prevention and treatment strategies.

  9. Addiction and depression comorbidity approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnić Katarina A.B.

    2016-01-01

    to medications for addiction essential are antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics, and/or mood stabilizers, for better therapeutic results.

  10. Temperament and Character Dimensions in Narcotics Addicts and Normal people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Abolghasemi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the temperament and character dimensions in narcotics addicted and normal persons. Method: The method of research was causative-comparative. The study sample consisted of 120 addicts and non addicts who had referred to 3 narcotics addicts treatment centers in Ardabil city. The subjects were selected through simple random sampling. To collect data, temperament/character inventory were used. Findings: The results showed that novelty seeking and harm avoidance in addicts is significantly greater than normal persons. Also, results showed that reward dependence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness in narcotics addicts is significantly lower than normal persons. Conclusion: The results show that temperament and character dimensions determine the addiction intensity in addicted people.

  11. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Galuska, Chad M.; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although…

  12. The Comparative Study of the Rate of Social Capital among Addicted and non-Addicted Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heydarnejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to compare the rate of social capital among addicted and non-addicted youth in Mashhad. Method: The samples included of 160 addicted and 160 non-addicted men selected by cluster random sampling. Both groups matched on age, and marital status. The social capital questionnaire designed by researcher administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that social capital of young addicts was significantly lower than their counterparts. Also, results showed that the indicators of social capital, the idea of social participation, social trust, and social networks were significantly lower than their counterparts. Conclusion: With consideration of positive effects of social participation, social trust, social connection networks in addicted people, they should have appropriate conditions and headstock for tendency to involve to social events like developing of organizations, and voluntaries’ and non government societies should be more attended.

  13. CENTRIOLE REPLICATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizukami, Ikuko; Gall, Joseph

    1966-01-01

    Sperm formation was studied in the fern, Marsilea, and the cycad, Zamia, with particular emphasis on the centrioles. In Marsilea, the mature sperm possesses over 100 flagella, the basal bodies of which have the typical cylindrical structure of centrioles. Earlier observations by light microscopy suggested that these centrioles arise by fragmentation of a body known as the blepharoplast. In the youngest spermatids the blepharoplast is a hollow sphere approximately 0.8 µ in diameter. Its wall consists of closely packed immature centrioles, or procentrioles. The procentrioles are short cylinders which progressively lengthen during differentiation of the spermatid. At the same time they migrate to the surface of the cell, where each of them puts out a flagellum. A blepharoplast is found at each pole of the spindle during the last antheridial mitosis, and two blepharoplasts are found in the cytoplasm before this mitosis. Blepharoplasts are also found in the preceding cell generation, but their ultimate origin is obscure. Before the last mitosis the blepharoplasts are solid, consisting of a cluster of radially arranged tubules which bear some structural similarity to centrioles. In Zamia, similar stages are found during sperm formation, although here the number of flagella on each sperm is close to 20,000 and the blepharoplast measures about 10 µ in diameter. These observations are discussed in relation to theories of centriole replication. PMID:5950730

  14. CELL PHONE ADDICTION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE DE SOLA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyse the concept of cell phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

  15. Nicotine addiction and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J E

    1996-01-01

    The persistence of cigarette smoking despite widespread awareness of adverse health effects results from an underlying addiction to nicotine. Unaided attempts to quit smoking are generally unsuccessful. This article discusses nicotine addition and therapeutic techniques that have been or are being developed to relieve smoking withdrawal symptoms and promote abstinence from smoking. These techniques include nicotine chewing gum, skin patches, nasal sprays, and inhalers, as well as pharmacotherapies such as mecamylamine and clonidine, serotonergic treatments such as buspirone, and antidepressants such as buproprion. A nondrug approach using cigarette substitutes that mimic the airway sensations produced by cigarette smoke is also discussed.

  16. Modeling inhomogeneous DNA replication kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel G Gauthier

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic organisms, DNA replication is initiated at a series of chromosomal locations called origins, where replication forks are assembled proceeding bidirectionally to replicate the genome. The distribution and firing rate of these origins, in conjunction with the velocity at which forks progress, dictate the program of the replication process. Previous attempts at modeling DNA replication in eukaryotes have focused on cases where the firing rate and the velocity of replication forks are homogeneous, or uniform, across the genome. However, it is now known that there are large variations in origin activity along the genome and variations in fork velocities can also take place. Here, we generalize previous approaches to modeling replication, to allow for arbitrary spatial variation of initiation rates and fork velocities. We derive rate equations for left- and right-moving forks and for replication probability over time that can be solved numerically to obtain the mean-field replication program. This method accurately reproduces the results of DNA replication simulation. We also successfully adapted our approach to the inverse problem of fitting measurements of DNA replication performed on single DNA molecules. Since such measurements are performed on specified portion of the genome, the examined DNA molecules may be replicated by forks that originate either within the studied molecule or outside of it. This problem was solved by using an effective flux of incoming replication forks at the model boundaries to represent the origin activity outside the studied region. Using this approach, we show that reliable inferences can be made about the replication of specific portions of the genome even if the amount of data that can be obtained from single-molecule experiments is generally limited.

  17. Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Two Food Addiction Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeshow, Adina; Gearhardt, Ashley; Genkinger, Jeanine; Corbin, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Background While food addiction is well accepted in popular culture and mainstream media, its scientific validity as an addictive behavior is still under investigation. This study evaluated the reliability and validity of the Yale Food Addiction Scale and Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale using data from two community-based convenience samples. Methods We assessed the internal and test-retest reliability of the Yale Food Addiction Scale and Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale, and estimated the sensitivity and negative predictive value of the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale using the Yale Food Addiction Scale as the benchmark. We calculated Cronbach’s alphas and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for internal reliability and Cohen’s Kappa coefficients and 95% CIs for test-retest reliability. Results Internal consistency (n=232) was marginal to good, ranging from α=0.63 to 0.84. The test-retest reliability (n=45) for food addiction diagnosis was substantial, with Kappa=0.73 (95% CI, 0.48–0.88) (Yale Food Addiction Scale) and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.66–1.00) (Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale). Sensitivity and negative predictive value for classifying food addiction status were excellent: compared to the Yale Food Addiction Scale, the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale’s sensitivity was 92.3% (95% CI, 64%–99.8%), and the negative predictive value was 99.5% (95% CI, 97.5%–100%). Conclusions Our analyses suggest that the Modified Yale Food Addiction Scale may be an appropriate substitute for the Yale Food Addiction Scale when a brief measure is needed, and support the continued use of both scales to investigate food addiction. PMID:27623221

  18. Nonrecurrent PMP22-RAI1 contiguous gene deletions arise from replication-based mechanisms and result in Smith-Magenis syndrome with evident peripheral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Neira, Juanita; Gu, Shen; Harel, Tamar; Liu, Pengfei; Briceño, Ignacio; Elsea, Sarah H; Gómez, Alberto; Potocki, Lorraine; Lupski, James R

    2016-10-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) and Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) are genomic disorders associated with deletion copy number variants involving chromosome 17p12 and 17p11.2, respectively. Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR)-mediated recurrent deletions are responsible for the majority of HNPP and SMS cases; the rearrangement products encompass the key dosage-sensitive genes PMP22 and RAI1, respectively, and result in haploinsufficiency for these genes. Less frequently, nonrecurrent genomic rearrangements occur at this locus. Contiguous gene duplications encompassing both PMP22 and RAI1, i.e., PMP22-RAI1 duplications, have been investigated, and replication-based mechanisms rather than NAHR have been proposed for these rearrangements. In the current study, we report molecular and clinical characterizations of six subjects with the reciprocal phenomenon of deletions spanning both genes, i.e., PMP22-RAI1 deletions. Molecular studies utilizing high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization and breakpoint junction sequencing identified mutational signatures that were suggestive of replication-based mechanisms. Systematic clinical studies revealed features consistent with SMS, including features of intellectual disability, speech and gross motor delays, behavioral problems and ocular abnormalities. Five out of six subjects presented clinical signs and/or objective electrophysiologic studies of peripheral neuropathy. Clinical profiling may improve the clinical management of this unique group of subjects, as the peripheral neuropathy can be more severe or of earlier onset as compared to SMS patients having the common recurrent deletion. Moreover, the current study, in combination with the previous report of PMP22-RAI1 duplications, contributes to the understanding of rare complex phenotypes involving multiple dosage-sensitive genes from a genetic mechanistic standpoint.

  19. Addictive behavior in cinema demand: evidence from Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Sangho KIM; Donghyun PARK

    2010-01-01

    It is intuitively plausible that the demand for cinema services may be partly driven by addiction or habit. Yet there is almost no empirical literature which tests for whether cinema demand is addictive. We estimate addiction models for cinema demand using Korean time series data from 1963 to 2004. Our estimation results indicate that (i) addictive behavior characterizes the demand for cinema services, (ii) this behavior is rational, and (iii) habit is one of most important determinants of ci...

  20. Addiction: Pulling at the Neural Threads of Social Behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.; Baler, R.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.

  1. Examination of neural systems sub-serving facebook "addiction".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turel, Ofir; He, Qinghua; Xue, Gui; Xiao, Lin; Bechara, Antoine

    2014-12-01

    Because addictive behaviors typically result from violated homeostasis of the impulsive (amygdala-striatal) and inhibitory (prefrontal cortex) brain systems, this study examined whether these systems sub-serve a specific case of technology-related addiction, namely Facebook "addiction." Using a go/no-go paradigm in functional MRI settings, the study examined how these brain systems in 20 Facebook users (M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.3, range = 18-23) who completed a Facebook addiction questionnaire, responded to Facebook and less potent (traffic sign) stimuli. The findings indicated that at least at the examined levels of addiction-like symptoms, technology-related "addictions" share some neural features with substance and gambling addictions, but more importantly they also differ from such addictions in their brain etiology and possibly pathogenesis, as related to abnormal functioning of the inhibitory-control brain system.

  2. Genetic variants associated with addictive behavior in Colombian addicted and non-addicted to heroin or cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaza, Carlos; Henao, Julieta; Beltrán, Leonardo; Porras, Liliana; Gonzalez, Martha; Cruz, Raquel; Carracedo, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Determine the prevalence and compare some genetic markers involved in addictive behavior in a group of addicts to derivative of coca (cocaine/crack) or heroin and a control group of non-addicted people matched for gender, age and ethnicity. A 120 addicts and 120 non-addicts Colombian male were surveyed and genotyped for 18 polymorphism of the OPRM1, DRD2, DRD4, SLC6A3, SLC6A4, ABCB1, DβH and CYP2B6 genes. For the identification of alleles markers were used mini-sequencing and fragment multiplex PCR techniques; ethnicity of cases and controls was analyzed with 61 AIMs. The age of onset use of heroin or coca derivatives (cocaine/crack) was 16.5±6 years and 99.2% of them consume several illicit drugs. It showed that controls and addicts belong to the same ethnic group. Significant differences between addicts and controls in relation to schooling, marital status, social security family history of substance abuse (p T ABCB1 gene (p= 0.001) were found. The present results indicate that the VNTR- 6R polymorphism of the gene SLC6A3 and the genotype 3435CC in the ABCB1 gene, are both associated with addictive behavior to heroin or cocaine.

  3. Registered Replication Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouwmeester, S.; Verkoeijen, P. P.J.L.; Aczel, B.

    2017-01-01

    In an anonymous 4-person economic game, participants contributed more money to a common project (i.e., cooperated) when required to decide quickly than when forced to delay their decision (Rand, Greene & Nowak, 2012), a pattern consistent with the social heuristics hypothesis proposed by Rand...... and colleagues. The results of studies using time pressure have been mixed, with some replication attempts observing similar patterns (e.g., Rand et al., 2014) and others observing null effects (e.g., Tinghög et al., 2013; Verkoeijen & Bouwmeester, 2014). This Registered Replication Report (RRR) assessed...... the size and variability of the effect of time pressure on cooperative decisions by combining 21 separate, preregistered replications of the critical conditions from Study 7 of the original article (Rand et al., 2012). The primary planned analysis used data from all participants who were randomly assigned...

  4. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chang, Li-Ren; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Yang-Han; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria. We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist's structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists' clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy. Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1) six symptom criteria, (2) four functional impairment criteria and (3) exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%), while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use. The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms "impaired control" paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.

  5. INTERNET ADDICTION – EMPIRICAL VERIFICATION FOR SLOVENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Gorenc

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become an essential part of the day and the working lives of many people. Daily use of the Internet has the potential to become the worrying problem of the moment as some of Internet users begin to neglect their families, abandon hobbies, are late for work and, thus, lose contact with reality only to spend as much time as possible on the Internet. The aim of the research was to explore Internet addiction in Slovenia. We have designed a structural model to study Internet addiction. The research was conducted to collect data on Internet addiction. The sample surveys included employed people in Slovenia. Our results indicate a serious problem with Internet addiction. The predicted model in this study can be used for further research on Internet addiction.

  6. Computer addiction: implications for nursing psychotherapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Diane M

    2005-01-01

    Nurse psychotherapists will encounter the impact of today's technology on the daily lives of people including computer addiction. Computer addiction may also present with comorbidities such as depression, gambling, substance abuse, and marital infidelity and divorce. This overview article presents what is currently documented in the literature regarding the incidence, symptomatology, and nursing psychotherapy interventions relevant to computer addiction and its treatment. Issues presented include computer addiction, virtual relationships, online marital infidelity, and compulsive online sexual behavior. Review of literature from Medline, Psychoinfo, CINAHL, and current texts. Given the increased use of computers in today's society, there is the potential for overuse of technology and neglect of others and self as a result of computer addiction. Computer disorders also present themselves as marital or couple discord with the potential for online extramarital affairs and compulsive sexual online behavior. A summary and an assessment tool are provided to guide the nurse psychotherapist in practice.

  7. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-12-01

    Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. College students (N = 448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young's Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. The risk factors for smartphone addiction were female gender, Internet use, alcohol use, and anxiety, while the protective factors were depression and temperance. In contrast, the risk factors for Internet addiction were male gender, smartphone use, anxiety, and wisdom/knowledge, while the protective factor was courage. Discussion These differences may result from unique features of smartphones, such as high availability and primary use as a tool for interpersonal relationships. Our findings will aid clinicians in distinguishing between predictive factors for smartphone and Internet addiction and can consequently be utilized in the prevention and treatment of smartphone addiction.

  8. Cognitive Flexibility, Attention and Speed of Mental Processing in Opioid and Methamphetamine Addicts in Comparison with Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Hekmat

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Introduction: Many studies have revealed that drug addicted individuals exhibit impaired performance on executive function tests but a few studies have been conducted on executive functions of drug addicts in Iran. To contribute to this understanding, the present study was designed to assess some domains related to executive functions including cognitive flexibility, attention and speed of mental processing in a sample of drug addicts in comparison with a sample of non-drug addicts. Methods: 155 male addicts between 25 to 35 years of age were selected from outpatient addiction clinics in Karaj, Iran. This group consisted of 3 subgroups of opium (n=40, hydrochloride heroin (n=63, and methamphetamine (n=52 addicts. A control group was selected matching the drug addicts in gender, age, education and scio-economic status and included 130 healthy non-drug taking males. A battery of standardized executive function tests including the Color trail making test, Stroop color word test, and Symbol digit modalities test were administered. Data analysis was conducted by performing Co-variance (MANCOVA in SPSS.v.16.0. Results: The study findings indicated that the group of drug addicted subjects performed significantly worse compared with the controls on all executive measures. There were also significant differences among the 3 subgroups. The hydrochloride group had the worst performance compared the methamphetamine and opium groups respectively. Drug addicted subjects with longer duration of drug addiction were much worse on all measures in comparison with drug addicted subjects with shorter duration of drug addiction. Discussion: The study results confirmed that the functions of specific brain regions underlying cognitive flexibility, attention and speed of mental processing were significantly impaired in the group of drug addicted subjects. These impairments were also significantly related to type of drug used and duration of drug addiction that may

  9. Cognitive Flexibility, Attention and Speed of Mental Processing in Opioid and Methamphetamine Addicts in Comparison with Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Hekmat

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Many studies have revealed that drug addicted individuals exhibit impaired performance on executive function tests but a few studies have been conducted on executive functions of drug addicts in Iran. To contribute to this understanding, the present study was designed to assess some domains related to executive functions including cognitive flexibility, attention and speed of mental processing in a sample of drug addicts in comparison with a sample of non-drug addicts. Methods: 155 male addicts between 25 to 35 years of age were selected from outpatient addiction clinics in Karaj, Iran. This group consisted of 3 subgroups of opium (n=40, hydrochloride heroin (n=63, and methamphetamine (n=52 addicts. A control group was selected matching the drug addicts in gender, age, education and scio-economic status and included 130 healthy non-drug taking males. A battery of standardized executive function tests including the Color trail making test, Stroop color word test, and Symbol digit modalities test were administered. Data analysis was conducted by performing Co-variance (MANCOVA in SPSS.v.16.0. Results: The study findings indicated that the group of drug addicted subjects performed significantly worse compared with the controls on all executive measures. There were also significant differences among the 3 subgroups. The hydrochloride group had the worst performance compared the methamphetamine and opium groups respectively. Drug addicted subjects with longer duration of drug addiction were much worse on all measures in comparison with drug addicted subjects with shorter duration of drug addiction. Discussion: The study results confirmed that the functions of specific brain regions underlying cognitive flexibility, attention and speed of mental processing were significantly impaired in the group of drug addicted subjects. These impairments were also significantly related to type of drug used and duration of drug addiction that may

  10. Femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Rørdam, Peter; Jensen, L P

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of treatment of femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts. METHODS: The records of eight patients undergoing vascular surgery for femoral pseudoaneurysms from substance abuse identified from a vascular database were reviewed. RESULTS: Were good in four out of five...

  11. Intertemporal Bargaining in Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eAinslie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The debate between disease models of addiction and moral or voluntarist models has been endless, and often echoes the equally endless debate between determinism and free will. I suggest here that part of the problem comes from how we picture the function of motivation in self-control. Quantitative experiments in both humans and nonhumans have shown that delayed reward loses its effectiveness in proportion to its delay. The resulting instability of preference is best controlled by a recursive self-prediction process, intertemporal bargaining, which is the likely mechanism of both the strength and the experienced freedom of will. In this model determinism is consistent with more elements of free will than compatibilist philosophers have heretofore proposed, and personal responsibility is an inseparable, functional component of will. Judgments of social responsibility can be described as projections of personal responsibility, but normative responsibility in addiction is elusive. The cited publications that are under the author’s control can be downloaded from www.picoeconomics.org.

  12. Sex differences in addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B

    2016-12-01

    Women exhibit more rapid escalation from casual drug taking to addiction, exhibit a greater withdrawal response with abstinence, and tend to exhibit greater vulnerability than men in terms of treatment outcome. In rodents, short-term estradiol intake in female rats enhances acquisition and escalation of drug taking, motivation for drugs of abuse, and relapse-like behaviors. There is also a sex difference in the dopamine response in the nucleus accumbens. Ovariectomized female rats exhibit a smaller initial dopamine increase after cocaine treatment than castrated males. Estradiol treatment of ovariectomized female rats enhances stimulated dopamine release in the dorsolateral striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens, resulting in a sex difference in the balance between these two dopaminergic projections. In the situation where drug-taking behavior becomes habitual, dopamine release has been reported to be enhanced in the dorsolateral striatum and attenuated in the nucleus accumbens. The sex difference in the balance between these neural systems is proposed to underlie sex differences in addiction.

  13. Is Lottery Gambling Addictive?

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Guryan; Melissa S. Kearney

    2010-01-01

    We present an empirical test for the addictiveness of lottery gambling. To distinguish state dependence from serial correlation, we exploit an exogenous shock to local market consumption of lottery gambling. We use the sale of a winning ticket in the zip code, the location of which is random conditional on sales, as an instrument for present consumption and test for a causal relationship between present and future consumption. This test of addiction is based on the definition of addiction com...

  14. Addiction and network influence

    OpenAIRE

    Popiel, Michał Ksawery

    2014-01-01

    Social networks are an important component in understanding the decision to consume addictive substances. They capture the role of limited access, peer influence, and social acceptance and tolerance. However, despite the empirical evidence of their role, they have been absent from theoretical models. This paper proposes a mechanism through which agents can influence each other in their decision to consume an addictive good. An agent's decision is sensitive to her state of addiction as well as...

  15. Common Bile Duct (CBD) diameter in opium-addicted men: Comparison with non-addict controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahedi-Nejad, N.; Narouei, S.; Fahimy, F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Opium and its derivatives are widely abused throughout the world. Recent case reports and a few limited studies have suggested that opiates cause dilation of the common bile duct of the abusers. Material/Methods: Our case-control study, lasting 7.5 months, investigated 121 male adult addicts and 142 non addicted controls for biliary tract diameters, using ultrasonography. The study was conducted in Bahonar Hospital in Kerman. Neither the addiction cases nor the non-addict controls revealed any hepatobiliary tract symptoms. The subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire. After the exclusion of the symptomatic cases, ultrasound examinations were carried out and the findings from questionnaires and US examinations were recorded. Results: The mean ± SD diameter of the common bile duct was 4.78 ± 2.58 for addicts and 3.37 ± 2.25 for non-addicts. CBD wall thickness was 1.969 ± 0.61 mm in addicts versus 1.73 ± 0.631 in non-addicts. The differences were statistically significant. According to the multivariate analysis, the duration of opium abuse was a significant factor. Conclusions: We concluded that CBD dilation and increased CBD wall thickness can be expected in people with a prolonged history of opiate addiction. (authors)

  16. The Comparison of Personality Characteristics and Problem Solving Styles in Addicted And Non-Addicted Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Saber

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction: The goal of this study was to compare the personality characteristics and problem solving styles of addicted and non-addicted men. Method: This study is a causal comparative design survey. In this study 180 addicted men was selected through convenience sampling method from addicted men that refered to addiction treatment centers of Rasht city and matched in gender, age, education and job with 180 non addicted men and then two groups compared with each other. All participants completed the NEO-FFI-R and problem solving styles questionnaires. The gathered data were analyzed through SPSS software. Findings: The results showed that an addicted man in comparison with non-addicted men was upper in neuroticism and lower in agreeableness, extraversion and consciousness dimensions. Also there was no difference in openness dimension between two groups. Conclusion: The finding of present study suggests that educating efficient problem solving styles to people to cope with life stressful events could restrain and prevent addiction and other psychosocial disorders.

  17. The Representation Methods of Addiction in Iran’s Movies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Soltani Gerd Faramarzi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of research was answer to this question that movie after revolution how was represented matters of addicts and addiction? Method: For answering to question 33 movies made between 1360 till 1390 which main characters were addicts, studied by content analysis. Results: The results showed that in studied movies, addicts were men, bachelor, or divorced and majority of them were educated. Also, Heroin consumption was more that other narcotics in movies. Addicts’ personal home and his/her friends’ home were important places for consumption and friends were important narcotics preparators and they most important factor in initiate of consumption. On the other hand, divorce and child selling had the most frequency in movie. Family and friend groups were the most important factors in addiction and its etiology. Conclusion: The results showed that movies represented one kind of popular addiction study that overlapped with academic addiction study.

  18. Genetics Home Reference: opioid addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Opioid addiction Opioid addiction Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Opioid addiction is a long-lasting (chronic) disease that can ...

  19. Replication of bacteriophage lambda DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsurimoto, T.; Matsubara, K.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper results of studies on the mechanism of bacteriophage lambda replication using molecular biological and biochemical approaches are reported. The purification of the initiator proteins, O and P, and the role of the O and P proteins in the initiation of lambda DNA replication through interactions with specific DNA sequences are described. 47 references, 15 figures

  20. Investigation of Prevalence of Child Abuse in Addicts Referring to the Addiction Withdrawal Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dastjerdi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Child abuse includes abuse of the body, mental and sexual abuse or misbehavior against children that leads to damage to the child's heath and comfort. Therefore, the present study was done in order to determine the prevalence of child abuse in opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers. Methods: The cross sectional study included 300 participations (150 addicts and 150 non-addicts The addicted group comprised of opiate addicts referring to addiction withdrawal centers of Yazd. The non addicted group was selected randomly from healthy people. Data collection was performed via a standard questionnaire. Data assessment was done via statistical analysis (K S Results: Collected data in the addicted group showed the following results about 56 percent were child tormentors, 1- 45.3% males, 10.7% females, 2-18.7% uneducated, 3-46% with divorce history in their family and 4-38% child body abuse. The most prevalent type of the body abuse was slapping (24%, mostly because of bad training (26%. Collected data in the no addicted group showed the following results 42% were child tormentors (26% male and 15.3% female 23.4% with family divorce history, 30.4% were child body abuse and the most prevalent type of body abuse was slapping (22.79%, mostly because of bad training (33.3% Conclusion: A direct relationship was observed between child abuse and persons addicted to opiates. Factors playing an important role include illiteracy, divorce history in the family and history of child abuse in childhood period. Therefore, compilation of rules supporting children, establishment of support and parent education centers can be effective to reduce child persecution.

  1. Comparison of the components of mindfulness on Stimulant and opiate addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayeadyounes Mohammadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenomenon of addiction as one of the social problem have the high prevalence, especially among youth. Study and scientific cognition of mental and psychological components of addicts is very important in order to help them to compatibility and reduce their psychological problem. Therefore, the aim of present study was to comparison of mindfulness components on stimulant and opiate addicts. Materials & Methods: In this study 60 addicts (30 opiate addicts and 30 stimulants addicts were studied by using Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ. Data were analyzed by using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA. Results: findings showed that there was a significant difference between opiate and stimulant addicts in mindfulness components. Conclusion: results illustrated that the opiate addicts gained higher scores than stimulant addicts in mindfulness components. The results also emphasized that mindfulness components are as determinant variable in opiate and stimulant addicts pathology.

  2. Pleasure and Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Marie Kennett

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savalescu (2010 have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behaviour. They describe addiction as ‘strong appetites toward pleasure’ and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction.

  3. Overlapping Neural Endophenotypes in Addiction and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréanne Michaud

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Impulsivity refers to a tendency to act rapidly without full consideration of consequences. The trait is thought to result from the interaction between high arousal responses to potential rewards and poor self-control. Studies have suggested that impulsivity confers vulnerability to both addiction and obesity. However, results in this area are unclear, perhaps due to the high phenotypic complexity of addictions and obesity. Focusing on impulsivity, the aim of this review is to tackle the putative overlaps between addiction and obesity in four domains: (1 personality research, (2 neurocognitive tasks, (3 brain imaging, and (4 clinical evidence. We suggest that three impulsivity-related domains are particularly relevant for our understanding of similarities between addiction and obesity: lower self-control (high Disinhibition/low Conscientiousness, reward sensitivity (high Extraversion/Positive Emotionality, and negative affect (high Neuroticism/Negative Emotionality. Neurocognitive studies have shown that obesity and addiction are both associated with increased impulsive decision-making and attention bias in response to drug or food cues, respectively. Mirroring this, obesity and different forms of addiction seem to exhibit similar alterations in functional MRI brain activity in response to reward processing and during self-control tasks. Overall, our review provides an integrative approach to understand those facets of obesity that present similarities to addictive behaviors. In addition, we suggest that therapeutic interventions targeting inhibitory control may represent a promising approach for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity.

  4. Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J; Griffiths, Mark D

    2017-03-17

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) have gained increasing popularity in the last decade, with individuals engaging in SNSs to connect with others who share similar interests. The perceived need to be online may result in compulsive use of SNSs, which in extreme cases may result in symptoms and consequences traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. In order to present new insights into online social networking and addiction, in this paper, 10 lessons learned concerning online social networking sites and addiction based on the insights derived from recent empirical research will be presented. These are: (i) social networking and social media use are not the same; (ii) social networking is eclectic; (iii) social networking is a way of being; (iv) individuals can become addicted to using social networking sites; (v) Facebook addiction is only one example of SNS addiction; (vi) fear of missing out (FOMO) may be part of SNS addiction; (vii) smartphone addiction may be part of SNS addiction; (viii) nomophobia may be part of SNS addiction; (ix) there are sociodemographic differences in SNS addiction; and (x) there are methodological problems with research to date. These are discussed in turn. Recommendations for research and clinical applications are provided.

  5. Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria J. Kuss

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Online social networking sites (SNSs have gained increasing popularity in the last decade, with individuals engaging in SNSs to connect with others who share similar interests. The perceived need to be online may result in compulsive use of SNSs, which in extreme cases may result in symptoms and consequences traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. In order to present new insights into online social networking and addiction, in this paper, 10 lessons learned concerning online social networking sites and addiction based on the insights derived from recent empirical research will be presented. These are: (i social networking and social media use are not the same; (ii social networking is eclectic; (iii social networking is a way of being; (iv individuals can become addicted to using social networking sites; (v Facebook addiction is only one example of SNS addiction; (vi fear of missing out (FOMO may be part of SNS addiction; (vii smartphone addiction may be part of SNS addiction; (viii nomophobia may be part of SNS addiction; (ix there are sociodemographic differences in SNS addiction; and (x there are methodological problems with research to date. These are discussed in turn. Recommendations for research and clinical applications are provided.

  6. Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    Online social networking sites (SNSs) have gained increasing popularity in the last decade, with individuals engaging in SNSs to connect with others who share similar interests. The perceived need to be online may result in compulsive use of SNSs, which in extreme cases may result in symptoms and consequences traditionally associated with substance-related addictions. In order to present new insights into online social networking and addiction, in this paper, 10 lessons learned concerning online social networking sites and addiction based on the insights derived from recent empirical research will be presented. These are: (i) social networking and social media use are not the same; (ii) social networking is eclectic; (iii) social networking is a way of being; (iv) individuals can become addicted to using social networking sites; (v) Facebook addiction is only one example of SNS addiction; (vi) fear of missing out (FOMO) may be part of SNS addiction; (vii) smartphone addiction may be part of SNS addiction; (viii) nomophobia may be part of SNS addiction; (ix) there are sociodemographic differences in SNS addiction; and (x) there are methodological problems with research to date. These are discussed in turn. Recommendations for research and clinical applications are provided. PMID:28304359

  7. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means feeling withdrawal symptoms when not taking the drug. Addiction is a chronic brain disease that causes a person to compulsively seek out drugs, even though they cause harm. The risks of dependence and addiction are higher if you abuse the medicines. Abuse ...

  8. EMDR interventions in addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markus, W.; Hornsveld, H.K.

    2017-01-01

    The use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs is widespread and has significant negative consequences for the individual, their families, and the communities to which they belong. A substantial number of users develop an addiction disorder. Cure-oriented addiction treatment is challenging regarding

  9. Internet Addiction in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebisz, Slawomir; Sikora, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    The possibilities offered by the use of the Internet increasingly intensify the problem of Internet addiction, which has become more prevalent in the last decade, marked by the growing availability of mobile devices and new media and their exacerbation of the problem. Research on Internet addiction, initiated by Kimberly Young at the end of the…

  10. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  11. Implicit cognition and addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Stacy, A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive recent research has begun to unravel the more implicit or automatic cognitive mechanisms in addiction. This effort has increased our understanding of some of the perplexing characteristics of addictive behaviors. The problem, often, is not that substance abusers do not understand that the

  12. An Analysis on the Correlation and Gender Difference between College Students' Internet Addiction and Mobile Phone Addiction in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shao-I; Hong, Fu-Yuan; Chiu, Su-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at constructing a correlative model between Internet addiction and mobile phone addiction; the aim is to analyse the correlation (if any) between the two traits and to discuss the influence confirming that the gender has difference on this fascinating topic; taking gender into account opens a new world of scientific study to us. The study collected 448 college students on an island as study subjects, with 61.2% males and 38.8% females. Moreover, this study issued Mobile Phone Addiction Scale and Internet Addiction Scale to conduct surveys on the participants and adopts the structural equation model (SEM) to process the collected data. According to the study result, (1) mobile phone addiction and Internet addiction are positively related; (2) female college students score higher than male ones in the aspect of mobile addiction. Lastly, this study proposes relevant suggestions to serve as a reference for schools, college students, and future studies based on the study results.

  13. [The genetics of addictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez Cuadrado, Angela

    2008-01-01

    The addictions are common chronic psychiatric diseases which represent a serious worldwide public-health problem. They have a high prevalence and negative effects at individual, family and societal level, with a high sanitary cost. Epidemiological genetic research has revealed that addictions are moderately to highly heritable. Also the investigation has evidenced that environmental and genetic factors contribute to individual differences in vulnerability to addictions. Advances in the neurobiology of addiction joined to the development of new molecular genetic technologies, have led to the identification of a variety of underlying genes and pathways in addiction process, leading to the description of common molecular mechanisms in substance and behaviour dependencies. Identifying gene-environment interactions is a crucial issue in future research. Other major goal in genetic research is the identification of new therapeutic targets for treatment and prevention.

  14. The role of flow experience in cyber-game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Ting, Chih-Chen

    2003-12-01

    Consumer habit, an important key to repetitive consumption, is an interesting yet puzzling phenomenon. Sometimes this consumption becomes obsessive--consumers will continue to act a certain way even when they feel it is not in their best interests. However, not all consumers develop such addictions. This study uses cyber-game addiction syndrome as an analogue to trace the possible causes of consumer addiction. Results from structure equation modeling show that repetition of favorite activities has a moderate effect upon addiction, which is in line with the assertion of rational addiction theory. However, flow experience--the emotional state embracing perceptional distortion and enjoyment--shows a much stronger impact on addiction. This suggests that consumers who have experienced flow are more likely to be addicted.

  15. Addiction to opioids in chronic pain patients: a literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højsted, Jette; Sjøgren, Per

    2007-01-01

    , incidence and prevalence of addiction in opioid treated pain patients, screening tools for assessing opioid addiction in chronic pain patients and recommendations regarding addiction problems in national and international guidelines for opioid treatment in cancer patients and chronic non-malignant pain...... patients. The review indicates that the prevalence of addiction varied from 0% up to 50% in chronic non-malignant pain patients, and from 0% to 7.7% in cancer patients depending of the subpopulation studied and the criteria used. The risk of addiction has to be considered when initiating long-term opioid...... treatment as addiction may result in poor pain control. Several screening tools were identified, but only a few were thoroughly validated with respect to validity and reliability. Most of the identified guidelines mention addiction as a potential problem. The guidelines in cancer pain management...

  16. Internet Addiction and Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interpersonal dependency and online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škařupová, Kateřina; Blinka, Lukas

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The present study explores the relationship between social motivations and addiction to online gaming and if that possible connection can be explained by the personality traits responsible for social functioning. Methods We employ Bernstein's concept of interpersonal dependency to distinguish healthy dependency, dysfunctional detachment, and destructive overdependence, and Charlton and Danforth's conceptualisation of online gaming addiction and high engagement. An online questionnaire was administered to a self-nominated sample of 4,074 online gamers. Two regression models were constructed to separately explain gaming addiction and high engagement using social motivations to play, while controlling for age, gender, and time spent online. Results High scores on subscales measuring dysfunctional detachment and destructive overdependence were positively associated with online gaming addiction, while healthy dependency was negatively correlated with addiction scores. In contrast, the overall role of social motivation was negligible. Discussion People with healthy relationship profiles are less likely to develop problematic patterns of online gaming. High in-game engagement, although sharing some factors with addiction, was only poorly explained by the study variables, suggesting the mutual exclusiveness of addiction and engagement.

  18. Food addiction-diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrijević, Ivan; Popović, Nada; Sabljak, Vera; Škodrić-Trifunović, Vesna; Dimitrijević, Nina

    2015-03-01

    In this article we summarized the recent research of the food addiction, diagnosis, treatment and prevention, which is carried out in this area. The concept of food addiction is new and complex, but proven to be very important for understanding and solving the problem of obesity. First part of this paper emphasizes the neurological studies, whose results indicate the similarity of brain processes that are being activated during drug abuse and during eating certain types of food. In this context, different authors speak of "hyper-palatable", industrial food, saturated with salt, fat and sugar, which favor an addiction. In the section on diagnostic and instruments constructed for assessing the degree of dependence, main diagnostic tool is standardized Yale Food Addiction Scale constructed by Ashley Gearhardt, and her associates. Since 2009, when it was first published, this scale is used in almost all researches in this area and has been translated into several languages. Finally, distinguish between prevention and treatment of food addiction was made. Given that there were similarities with other forms of addictive behavior, the researchers recommend the application of traditional addiction treatment.

  19. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  20. Risk Factors for Smartphone Addiction in Korean Adolescents: Smartphone Use Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyuk; Kim, Jun Won; Choi, Tae Young

    2017-01-01

    With widespread use of the smartphone, clinical evidence for smartphone addiction remains unclear. Against this background, we analyzed the effect of smartphone use patterns on smartphone addiction in Korean adolescents. A total of 370 middle school students participated. The severity of smartphone addiction was measured through clinical interviews and the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. As a result, 50 (13.5%) were in the smartphone addiction group and 320 (86.5%) were in the he...

  1. The effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to addiction quitting clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Abbas; Dashtgard, Ali; Moghadam, Zahra Emami

    2014-01-01

    Addiction, especially addiction quitting, has been the main problem of health systems of many countries in recent years. High percentage of addiction recurrence (more than 80%) indicates that the nature and therapeutic method of addiction have not been recognized and it demands more efforts in this field. Thus, the present study was conducted with an aim to examine the effect of Bandura's social cognitive theory implementation on addiction quitting of clients referred to Imam Reza Hospital addiction quitting clinic. This two-group experimental study was conducted on 60 clients (30 clients in test group and 30 in control group) referred to Imam Reza Hospital addiction quitting clinic. The study tools were demographic and addiction-quitting self-efficacy questionnaires. After gathering demographic data and conducting pretest, the intervention was carried out based on Bandura's social cognitive theory for the test group and post-test was taken 1 month after the intervention. Data were analyzed by SPSS using related tests. According to the results, test group was more successful than the control group in addiction quitting. There was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of recurrence; it was less in the test group. A significant difference was also found between self-efficacy scores before and after the intervention in the test group. Using Bandura's social cognitive theory was effective on addiction quitting. So, it is recommended to apply it for clients referring to addiction quitting clinics.

  2. Patients with alcohol use disorder: initial results from a prospective multicenter registry in the Spanish Network on Addiction Disorders. CohRTA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Zuluaga, Paola; Rivas, Inmaculada; Rubio, Gabriel; Gual, Antoni; Torrens, Marta; Short, Antoni; Álvarez, Francisco Javier; Tor, Jordi; Farré, Magí; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Muga, Roberto

    2017-07-14

    The Alcohol Program of the Spanish Network on Addictive Disorders-RTA requires a longitudinal study to address different research questions related to alcoholism. The cohort study (CohRTA) focuses on patients seeking treatment for alcohol use disorder, as a multicentre, collaborative research project aimed to improve secondary prevention and early diagnosis of pathological processes associated with the disorder. multicentre cohort study in adults (>18 years) seeking their first treatment of the disorder. Patients sign an informed consent and data is collected in an online platform specifically designed for the study; patients are also requested to provide biological samples that are stored in a biobank. Baseline and prospective, socio-demographic, epidemiological, clinical and treatment data are collected. Currently there are 10 participating centres that expect to recruit more than 1,000 patients. As of December 2015, 344 patients (77% men) were included. Median age at admission was 50 years (IQR: 43-55 years). Median age at the start of alcohol consumption was 15 years (IQR: 14-18 years) and 61% of cases reported antecedents of alcohol use disorder in the family. During the 30 days prior to admission, alcohol consumption amounted to 12.5 SDU/day (IQR: 7.1-20 SDU/day), 72% of the patients were tobacco smokers and 30% currently used cocaine. Organising an open cohort of patients with alcohol use disorder may be crucial to better understand the clinical consequences of alcoholism in Spain. This cohort may potentiate quantitative and qualitative research within the Spanish Network on Addictive Disorders-RTA/RETICS. Having a well-established, representative cohort of patients will increase translational research on consequences of alcoholism in our country.

  3. Addictive buying: causes, processes, and symbolic meanings. Thematic analysis of a buying addict's diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ureta, Irene

    2007-11-01

    The aims of this study were twofold. On the one hand, to reach an understanding of, and to illustrate the experience of addictive buying and, on the other, to throw some light on the controversial subject of addicts' personal responsibility for their behavior. With these aims, a thematic analysis of an extensive diary written by a compulsive buyer is presented. Four themes emerge from the analysis: the defining characteristics of addiction to buying that determine the boundary separating it from other forms of impulsive or careless buying; several causal factors; the role that money and material objects play in family relationships and friendships through the symbolic meanings they adopt; and the relationship of personal values with impulsiveness and self-control. In view of the results, the moral model of addiction to buying is discussed, and an explanatory model of the ambivalence that is characteristic of addiction to buying is proposed, based on a personal hierarchy of values.

  4. Genetic Similarities between Compulsive Overeating and Addiction Phenotypes: A Case for "Food Addiction"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Nina; Marshe, Victoria S; Cmorejova, Jana; Davis, Caroline; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-12-01

    There exists a continuous spectrum of overeating, where at the extremes there are casual overindulgences and at the other a 'pathological' drive to consume palatable foods. It has been proposed that pathological eating behaviors may be the result of addictive appetitive behavior and loss of ability to regulate the consumption of highly processed foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, salt, and caffeine. In this review, we highlight the genetic similarities underlying substance addiction phenotypes and overeating compulsions seen in individuals with binge eating disorder. We relate these similarities to findings from neuroimaging studies on reward processing and clinical diagnostic criteria based on addiction phenotypes. The abundance of similarities between compulsive overeating and substance addictions puts forth a case for a 'food addiction' phenotype as a valid, diagnosable disorder.

  5. The NS1 Glycoprotein Can Generate Dramatic Antibody-Enhanced Dengue Viral Replication in Normal Out-Bred Mice Resulting in Lethal Multi-Organ Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconar, Andrew K. I.; Martinez, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Antibody-enhanced replication (AER) of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2) strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED) was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1) glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C) or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E) glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) resulting from i) dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii) some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii) copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv) some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v) DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human “severe dengue” cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines, particularly against DENV strains that contain multiple mutations or genetic recombination within or between their

  6. The NS1 glycoprotein can generate dramatic antibody-enhanced dengue viral replication in normal out-bred mice resulting in lethal multi-organ disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K I Falconar

    Full Text Available Antibody-enhanced replication (AER of dengue type-2 virus (DENV-2 strains and production of antibody-enhanced disease (AED was tested in out-bred mice. Polyclonal antibodies (PAbs generated against the nonstructural-1 (NS1 glycoprotein candidate vaccine of the New Guinea-C (NG-C or NSx strains reacted strongly and weakly with these antigens, respectively. These PAbs contained the IgG2a subclass, which cross-reacted with the virion-associated envelope (E glycoprotein of the DENV-2 NSx strain, suggesting that they could generate its AER via all mouse Fcγ-receptor classes. Indeed, when these mice were challenged with a low dose (<0.5 LD₅₀ of the DENV-2 NSx strain, but not the NG-C strain, they all generated dramatic and lethal DENV-2 AER/AED. These AER/AED mice developed life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, displayed by diffuse alveolar damage (DAD resulting from i dramatic interstitial alveolar septa-thickening with mononuclear cells, ii some hyperplasia of alveolar type-II pneumocytes, iii copious intra-alveolar protein secretion, iv some hyaline membrane-covered alveolar walls, and v DENV-2 antigen-positive alveolar macrophages. These mice also developed meningo-encephalitis, with greater than 90,000-fold DENV-2 AER titers in microglial cells located throughout their brain parenchyma, some of which formed nodules around dead neurons. Their spleens contained infiltrated megakaryocytes with DENV-2 antigen-positive red-pulp macrophages, while their livers displayed extensive necrosis, apoptosis and macro- and micro-steatosis, with DENV-2 antigen-positive Kuppfer cells and hepatocytes. Their infections were confirmed by DENV-2 isolations from their lungs, spleens and livers. These findings accord with those reported in fatal human "severe dengue" cases. This DENV-2 AER/AED was blocked by high concentrations of only the NG-C NS1 glycoprotein. These results imply a potential hazard of DENV NS1 glycoprotein-based vaccines

  7. The process addictions and the new ASAM definition of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David E

    2012-01-01

    Addiction is a primary, chronic disease involving brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry; it can lead to relapse, progressive development, and the potential for fatality if not treated. While pathological use of alcohol and, more recently, psychoactive substances have been accepted as addictive diseases, developing brain science has set the stage for inclusion of the process addictions, including food, sex, shopping and gambling problems, in a broader definition of addiction as set forth by the American Society of Addiction Medicine in 2011.

  8. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. Methods A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well as indicators of smartphone use and addiction. Smartphone addiction was assessed using a short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate demographic and health-related predictors of smartphone addiction. Results Smartphone addiction occurred in 256 (16.9%) of the 1,519 students. Longer duration of smartphone use on a typical day, a shorter time period until first smartphone use in the morning, and reporting that social networking was the most personally relevant smartphone function were associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was more prevalent in younger adolescents (15–16 years) compared with young adults (19 years and older), students with both parents born outside Switzerland, persons reporting lower physical activity, and those reporting higher stress. Alcohol and tobacco consumption were unrelated to smartphone addiction. Discussion Different indicators of smartphone use are associated with smartphone addiction and subgroups of young people have a higher prevalence of smartphone addiction. Conclusions The study provides the first insights into smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and predictors of smartphone addiction in young people from a European country, which should be extended in further studies. PMID:26690625

  9. Historical and current perspective on tobacco use and nicotine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, John A; Balfour, David J K

    2011-07-01

    Although the addictive influence of tobacco was recognized very early, the modern concepts of nicotine addiction have relied on knowledge of cholinergic neurotransmission and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The discovery of the 'receptive substance' by Langley, that would turn out to be nAChRs, and 'Vagusstoff' (acetylcholine) by Loewi, coincided with an exciting time when the concept of chemical synaptic transmission was being formulated. More recently, the application of more powerful techniques and the study of animal models that replicate key features of nicotine dependence have led to important advancements in our understanding of molecular, cellular and systems mechanisms of nicotine addiction. In this review, we present a historical perspective and overview of the research that has led to our present understanding of nicotine addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Do medical marijuana laws reduce addictions and deaths related to pain killers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, David; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Jacobson, Mireille

    2018-03-01

    Recent work finds that medical marijuana laws reduce the daily doses filled for opioid analgesics among Medicare Part-D and Medicaid enrollees, as well as population-wide opioid overdose deaths. We replicate the result for opioid overdose deaths and explore the potential mechanism. The key feature of a medical marijuana law that facilitates a reduction in overdose death rates is a relatively liberal allowance for dispensaries. As states have become more stringent in their regulation of dispensaries, the protective value generally has fallen. These findings suggest that broader access to medical marijuana facilitates substitution of marijuana for powerful and addictive opioids. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C Virus Replication Upregulates Serine Protease Inhibitor Kazal, Resulting in Cellular Resistance to Serine Protease-Dependent Apoptosis▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Lamontagne, Jason; Pinkerton, Mark; Block, Timothy M.; Lu, Xuanyong

    2009-01-01

    Hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV, respectively) are different and distinct viruses, but there are striking similarities in their disease potential. Infection by either virus can cause chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and ultimately, liver cancer, despite the fact that no pathogenetic mechanisms are known which are shared by the two viruses. Our recent studies have suggested that replication of either of these viruses upregulates a cellular protein called serine protease inhibitor Kaz...

  12. Pleasure and Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kennett, Jeanette; Matthews, Steve; Snoek, Anke

    2013-01-01

    What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savalescu (2010) have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behaviour. They describe addiction as ‘strong appetites toward pleasure’ and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease mo...

  13. Periostitis and osteomyelitis in chronic drug addicts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.R.; Lawson, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Periostitis and osteomyelitis can occur in drug addicts not only by hematogeneous dissemination of the infecting organisms, but as a result of introduction of bacteria by direct injection into periosteum or injection through infected skin and subcutaneous tissues. A spectrum of examples of osteomyelitis of the bones of the forearm in drug addicts is presented to illustrate this phenomenon. Neglect of these infections and the trauma of continued injections can lead to extensive tissue and bone loss. (orig.)

  14. Rational Addiction Evidence From Carbonated Soft Drinks

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoou, Liu

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies the Becker-Murphy (1988) theory of rational addiction to the case of carbonated soft drinks, using a time-varying parameter model and scanner data from 46 U.S. cities. Empirical results provide strong evidence that carbonated soft drinks are rationally addictive, thus opening the door to taxation and regulation. Taking rational addition into account, estimated demand elasticities are much lower than previous estimates using scanner data.

  15. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in addiction severity, HIV risk, and quality of life among adults in opioid detoxification: results from the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Burchett

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Li-Tzy Wu1,2, Walter Ling3, Bruce Burchett1, Dan G Blazer1,2, Jack Shostak2, George E Woody41Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, School of Medicine, 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, NPI/Integrated Substance Abuse Programs, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 4Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania and Treatment Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA, USAPurpose: Detoxification often serves as an initial contact for treatment and represents an opportunity for engaging patients in aftercare to prevent relapse. However, there is limited information concerning clinical profiles of individuals seeking detoxification, and the opportunity to engage patients in detoxification for aftercare often is missed. This study examined clinical profiles of a geographically diverse sample of opioid-dependent adults in detoxification to discern the treatment needs of a growing number of women and whites with opioid addiction and to inform interventions aimed at improving use of aftercare or rehabilitation.Methods: The sample included 343 opioid-dependent patients enrolled in two national multisite studies of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN001-002. Patients were recruited from 12 addiction treatment programs across the nation. Gender and racial/ethnic differences in addiction severity, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV risk, and quality of life were examined.Results: Women and whites were more likely than men and African Americans to have greater psychiatric and family/social relationship problems and report poorer health-related quality of life and functioning. Whites and Hispanics exhibited higher levels of total HIV risk scores and risky injection drug use scores than African Americans, and Hispanics showed a higher level of unprotected sexual behaviors than whites. African Americans were

  16. How prevalent is 'food addiction'?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that binge eating-related disorders could be related to addiction-like eating patterns due to the addictive potential of hyperpalatable foods. Subsequently, important implications have been derived for treatment of those disorders and even political actions. However, studies on the prevalence of food addiction are rare. Few recent studies investigated addictive eating in children, adolescents, and adults. This mini-review presents these first attempts to assess addictive eating and how prevalent addictive eating patterns were in the respective studies. It is concluded that the prevalence of food addiction is increased in obese individuals and even more so in obese patients with binge eating disorder. However, prevalence of food addiction is not sufficient to account for the obesity epidemic. Conversely, an arguably high prevalence of food addiction can also be found in under-, normal-, and overweight individuals. Future studies may investigate which factors are associated with addictive eating in non-obese individuals.

  17. Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, paddiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, paddiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sex differences, gender and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Jill B; McClellan, Michele L; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-02

    This review discusses alcohol and other forms of drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural, and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain after exposure to drugs of abuse and whether addiction results from drug-taking experiences. In addition, the basic laboratory evidence for sex differences is discussed within the context of four types of sex/gender differences. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Internet Gaming Addiction: A Technological Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ankur; Verma, Rohit

    2015-12-01

    The Internet is considered a beneficial tool in research, communication, and information. Still, its excessive and prolonged use has the potential of causing addiction. The presentation of this technological hazard may range from a mild socio-personal distress to a gross disorganization in behavior and self-care. No reported study on Internet gaming addiction is available from India. We reported a case of two brothers, diagnosed with Internet gaming addiction, who showed grossly disorganized behavior and severely compromised self-care. The condition was managed by pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies, with sustained improvement after 6 months follow up. Internet gaming addiction may cause severe personal, social, and occupational problems. Despite the range of severity and various presentations of this disorder, DSM-5 lacks the severity classifier. Early identification and management may result in complete recovery.

  20. Consumo de drogas entre adolescentes: resultados de la Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones, 1998 Drug used among adolescents: results from the National Survey on Addictions, 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Elena Medina-Mora

    2003-01-01

    probabilidad de desarrollar dependencia, quienes requieren de intervenciones preventivas más intensas.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper is to describe drug and associated factors use among adolescents (12 to 17 years of age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data come from the recent Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones, 1998 (National Survey on Addictions undertaken in urban areas of Mexico. A probabilistic, multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling design was used to select the study population. The sampling unit was the individual in each household. Statistical analysis consisted of the estimation of prevalences of drug use, with 95% confidence intervals. Associations were analyzed using logistic regressions models. RESULTS: Excluding tobacco and alcohol, 3.57% of males and 0.6% of females have used one or more drugs; 2.14% and 0.45% used them in the 12 months previous to the survey, and 1.4% and 0.3% in the previous 30 days, respectively. Marihuana was the drug more often used by males (2.4% and females (0.45%, followed by inhaled solvents (1.08% and 0.20%, and cocaine (0.99% and 0.22%, respectively. The risk of using illicit drugs was associated to being male, having dropped out from school, perceiving availability, drug use by family and friends, social tolerance among friends, and symptoms of depression. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents between 12 to 17 years of age are exposed to increasing drug use. The rates of drug use have risen, especially in the northern region of Mexico and in the big urban areas (Tijuana, Mexico City and Guadalajara. These findings emphasize the need to develop campaigns to detect emotional problems. Preventive measures should provide appropriate care to prevent drug use as a mechanism to cope with such emotional conflicts. Also, more intense preventive interventions should be targeted to adolescents with a high probability of developing drug abuse.

  1. SEX DIFFERENCES, GENDER AND ADDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Jill B.; McClellan, Michele L.; Reed, Beth Glover

    2017-01-01

    This review discusses alcohol/other drug addiction as both a sociocultural and biological phenomenon. Sex differences and gender are not solely determined by biology, nor are they entirely sociocultural. The interactions among biological, environmental, sociocultural and developmental influences result in phenotypes that may be more masculine or more feminine. These gender-related sex differences in the brain can influence the responses to drugs of abuse, progressive changes in the brain afte...

  2. [Online addictive disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality.

  3. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsuan; Chiang, Chih-Lin; Lin, Po-Hsien; Chang, Li-Ren; Ko, Chih-Hung; Lee, Yang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria. Methods We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist’s structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists’ clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy. Results Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1) six symptom criteria, (2) four functional impairment criteria and (3) exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%), while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use. Conclusion The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms “impaired control” paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment. PMID:27846211

  4. Computer games addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Nejepínský, Adam

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the problem of computer games addiction. The attention is paid mainly to on-line games for more players. The purpose of this thesis was to describe this problem and to check - through questionnaire investigation - if the addiction to computer games and the impacts connected with the games really deserve excessive experts and laics attention. The thesis has two parts -- theoretical and practical ones. The theoretical part describes the possibilities of diagnosin...

  5. Internet Addiction in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rębisz Sławomir; Sikora Ilona

    2016-01-01

    The possibilities offered by the use of the Internet increasingly intensify the problem of Internet addiction, which has become more prevalent in the last decade, marked by the growing availability of mobile devices and new media and their exacerbation of the problem. Research on Internet addiction, initiated by Kimberly Young at the end of the twentieth century, usually appears in the literature in the context of young people who have been found to be most vulnerable. The phenomenon is known...

  6. The Comparision of Social Anxiety Disorder and Shyness in Addicted and Non-Addicted Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare social anxiety disorder and shyness in addicted and non-addicted men. Method: The method of this study was causal-comparative research and the sampling done by purposive sampling. However, 30 men who were addicted to opium and were referred for the first time to Arak Behzisti self report center were selected. Then, 30 paired samples of non-addicted men who had not any addiction history in their life selected as a comparison group and Henderson/Zimbardo Shyness Questionnaire (2001 and Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (1981 were administered in both groups. In SPSS software data was analyzed by running of independent samples t test. Results: the results showed that addicted men had reported higher scores in shyness and social phobia disorder in comparison to non-addicted men. Conclusion: With consideration of results it can be concluded that people with shyness and social anxiety disorder, use opium to reduce social anxiety and avoidance. Clinical implications for the prevention and treatment of substance abuse should be considered.

  7. A commentary on the "eating addiction" versus "food addiction" perspectives on addictive-like food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Erica M; Potenza, Marc N; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2017-08-01

    The food addiction construct posits that vulnerable individuals may experience an addictive-like response to certain foods, such as those high in fat and refined carbohydrates. Recently, an alternative model to food addiction was proposed, suggesting that the act of eating may be a behavioral addiction that can trigger an addictive-like response in susceptible individuals. One major rationale for the eating addiction framework is that the assessment of food addiction is based on behavioral indicators, such as consuming greater quantities of food than intended and eating certain foods despite negative consequences. It is also suggested that the lack of investigation into which foods and food attributes (e.g., sugar) may have an addictive potential is evidence that food addiction does not parallel a substance-based addiction and more closely resembles a behavioral addiction. The present paper provides a commentary suggesting that the substance-based, food-addiction framework is more appropriate than the behavioral-addiction, eating-addiction perspective to conceptualize addictive-like food consumption. In order to illustrate this point, this manuscript will discuss behavioral components characteristic of all substance-use disorders, preliminary evidence to suggest that all foods are not equally associated with addictive-like eating, and key differences between the hypothesized eating addiction phenotype and the only existing behavioral addiction in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), gambling disorder. Further, this paper will consider implications of applying an addiction label to food versus eating and suggest future research directions to evaluate whether food addiction is a valid and clinically useful construct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Addictive behaviors and Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witjas, T; Eusebio, A; Fluchère, F; Azulay, J-P

    2012-01-01

    In Parkinson's disease, the degeneration of the dopaminergic system and the longstanding exposure to dopamine replacement therapy (DRT) may cause, in a group of vulnerable patients, dysregulation of the brain reward system. These patients develop DRT-related compulsions, which include addiction to levodopa or dopamine dysregulation syndrome (DDS), punding, and impulse control disorders (ICDs). ICDs or behavioral addiction reported in Parkinson's disease include pathological gambling, hypersexuality, compulsive buying and binge eating. Although the underlying pathophysiology is still poorly understood, these behaviors are linked by their reward-based and repetitive nature. Such behaviors may result in devastating psychosocial impairment for the patients and are often hidden. The recognition of these behaviors is important and allows a better clinical management. Although the limited data do not permit particular therapeutic strategies, some approaches are worth considering: DRT reduction, trials of non-dopaminergic medications and subthalamic chronic stimulation. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. New Dimensions, New Addictions: The Internet Sex Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Sánchez Zaldívar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The network is endless: going anywhere, finding anything, being anyone. Typing the word sex on Google gives a figure of 96 million results. The network is changing our way of communication and relation; we can construct space-time coordinates before incompatible. Internet addiction is not recognized as a disorder in DSM-IV-TR or ICD-10. Both types of Internet addiction with sexual content are cybersex and pornography. Cybersex consists in experiencing sexual stimulation while maintaining sexual contact with other person. There is no user profile, it is a widespread behaviour and might have a positive aspect (in some communities, persons with fewer social skills, to spice sex life and a negative aspect (addiction, loss of control, marital and family problems. Sex is safe, anonymous and without complications. Internet pornography voyeurism allows the visualization of all types of practices, the use of real models not professional and to spy our behaviour through the IP code. These sexual activities on the network seems to be powered by the “Triple A” engine: accessibility, anonymity, affordability. We must assess the individual, the couples and the Internet activities. There is no proven pharmacological or psychological treatment but cognitive behavioural programs and techniques used in other addictions are helpful. There is large comorbidity. The goal of treatment refers to the adaptive use of Internet. Health professionals should be in advance and learn about this kind of behaviours, as well as to disseminate the information appropriately not launching simplistic messages, providing markers and developing studies, research and prevention programs.

  10. DNA replication and cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyer, Anne-Sophie; Walter, David; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    A dividing cell has to duplicate its DNA precisely once during the cell cycle to preserve genome integrity avoiding the accumulation of genetic aberrations that promote diseases such as cancer. A large number of endogenous impacts can challenge DNA replication and cells harbor a battery of pathways...... to promote genome integrity during DNA replication. This includes suppressing new replication origin firing, stabilization of replicating forks, and the safe restart of forks to prevent any loss of genetic information. Here, we describe mechanisms by which oncogenes can interfere with DNA replication thereby...... causing DNA replication stress and genome instability. Further, we describe cellular and systemic responses to these insults with a focus on DNA replication restart pathways. Finally, we discuss the therapeutic potential of exploiting intrinsic replicative stress in cancer cells for targeted therapy....

  11. The genetic basis of addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David

    2012-06-01

    Addictions are common, chronic, and relapsing diseases that develop through a multistep process. The impact of addictions on morbidity and mortality is high worldwide. Twin studies have shown that the heritability of addictions ranges from 0.39 (hallucinogens) to 0.72 (cocaine). Twin studies indicate that genes influence each stage from initiation to addiction, although the genetic determinants may differ. Addictions are by definition the result of gene × environment interaction. These disorders, which are in part volitional, in part inborn, and in part determined by environmental experience, pose the full range of medical, genetic, policy, and moral challenges. Gene discovery is being facilitated by a variety of powerful approaches, but is in its infancy. It is not surprising that the genes discovered so far act in a variety of ways: via altered metabolism of drug (the alcohol and nicotine metabolic gene variants), via altered function of a drug receptor (the nicotinic receptor, which may alter affinity for nicotine but as discussed may also alter circuitry of reward), and via general mechanisms of addiction (genes such as monoamine oxidase A and the serotonin transporter that modulate stress response, emotion, and behavioral control). Addiction medicine today benefits from genetic studies that buttress the case for a neurobiologic origin of addictive behavior, and some general information on familially transmitted propensity that can be used to guide prevention. A few well-validated, specific predictors such as OPRM1, ADH1B, ALDH2, CHRNA5, and CYP26 have been identified and can provide some specific guidance, for example, to understand alcohol-related flushing and upper GI cancer risk (ADH1B and AKLDH2), variation in nicotine metabolism (CYP26), and, potentially, naltrexone treatment response (OPRM1). However, the genetic predictors available are few in number and account for only a small portion of the genetic variance in liability, and have not been integrated

  12. Proposed Diagnostic Criteria for Smartphone Addiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsuan Lin

    Full Text Available Global smartphone penetration has led to unprecedented addictive behaviors. The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction and to examine the discriminative ability and the validity of the diagnostic criteria.We developed twelve candidate criteria for characteristic symptoms of smartphone addiction and four criteria for functional impairment caused by excessive smartphone use. The participants consisted of 281 college students. Each participant was systematically assessed for smartphone-using behaviors by psychiatrist's structured diagnostic interview. The sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy of the candidate symptom criteria were analyzed with reference to the psychiatrists' clinical global impression. The optimal model selection with its cutoff point of the diagnostic criteria differentiating the smartphone addicted subjects from non-addicted subjects was then determined by the best diagnostic accuracy.Six symptom criteria model with optimal cutoff point were determined based on the maximal diagnostic accuracy. The proposed smartphone addiction diagnostic criteria consisted of (1 six symptom criteria, (2 four functional impairment criteria and (3 exclusion criteria. Setting three symptom criteria as the cutoff point resulted in the highest diagnostic accuracy (84.3%, while the sensitivity and specificity were 79.4% and 87.5%, respectively. We suggested determining the functional impairment by two or more of the four domains considering the high accessibility and penetration of smartphone use.The diagnostic criteria of smartphone addiction demonstrated the core symptoms "impaired control" paralleled with substance related and addictive disorders. The functional impairment involved multiple domains provide a strict standard for clinical assessment.

  13. Preventing toxicomania and addictive behaviour in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manceaux, Pauline; Maricq, Aurélie; Zdanowicz, Nicolas; Reynaert, Christine

    2013-09-01

    Drug addicts are more and more stigmatized in our society. Recent data show a connection between substance abuse and other behaviors considered normal, such as passionate love. Adolescence is characterized by a biopsychosocial, cognitive and neurodevelopmental immaturity. This article aims to understand if these subjects are more likely to develop addictions to certain products or addictive behaviors such as passionate love. It also offers a better understanding of the current models for prevention of substance abuse during adolescence. After defining the roles played, in the brain, by dopamine and by the reward circuit, as well as the different stages of development of the human brain, we compared neurobiological data and imaging studies both in cases of passionate love and substance addiction during adolescence. The brain imaging studies highlight the role of the prefrontal cortex in the cognitive and behavioral aspects of the addictive phenomenon. Now, the maturation of the prefrontal cortex occurs during adolescence, as do significant peaks in the expression of dopamine. These studies also suggest an increase in cortical activation (nucleus accumbens and amygdala) when processing emotional information, which is also increased during adolescence. Taken together, the results show a parallel between addiction and love relations, both at the level of neuroscience and imaging. A greater emotional lability and sensitivity may play a role in the higher incidence of substance abuse and dependence in love observed at this age. Preventing the use of illegal substances among young people therefore requires a very specific approach.

  14. A computer adaptive testing version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV): The Addiction Severity CAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Stephen F; Black, Ryan A; McCaffrey, Stacey A; Ainscough, Jessica; Doucette, Ann M

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a computer adaptive testing (CAT) version of the Addiction Severity Index-Multimedia Version (ASI-MV), the Addiction Severity CAT. This goal was accomplished in 4 steps. First, new candidate items for Addiction Severity CAT domains were evaluated after brainstorming sessions with experts in substance abuse treatment. Next, this new item bank was psychometrically evaluated on a large nonclinical (n = 4,419) and substance abuse treatment (n = 845) sample. Based on these results, final items were selected and calibrated for the creation of the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Once the algorithms were developed for the entire assessment, a fully functioning prototype of an Addiction Severity CAT was created. CAT simulations were conducted, and optimal termination criteria were selected for the Addiction Severity CAT algorithms. Finally, construct validity of the CAT algorithms was evaluated by examining convergent and discriminant validity and sensitivity to change. The Addiction Severity CAT was determined to be valid, sensitive to change, and reliable. Further, the Addiction Severity CAT's time of completion was found to be significantly less than the average time of completion for the ASI-MV composite scores. This study represents the initial validation of an Addiction Severity CAT based on item response theory, and further exploration of the Addiction Severity CAT is needed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Addiction: Pulling at the Neural Threads of Social Behaviors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.; Volkow, N.D.; Baler, R.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-27

    Addiction coopts the brain's neuronal circuits necessary for insight, reward, motivation, and social behaviors. This functional overlap results in addicted individuals making poor choices despite awareness of the negative consequences; it explains why previously rewarding life situations and the threat of judicial punishment cannot stop drug taking and why a medical rather than a criminal approach is more effective in curtailing addiction.

  16. Methadone enhances human influenza A virus replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wu, Kuang-Lun; Tsai, Ming-Ta; Chien, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Mao-Liang; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has indicated that opioids enhance replication of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus in target cells. However, it is unknown whether opioids can enhance replication of other clinically important viral pathogens. In this study, the interaction of opioid agonists and human influenza A/WSN/33 (H1N1) virus was examined in human lung epithelial A549 cells. Cells were exposed to morphine, methadone or buprenorphine followed by human H1N1 viral infection. Exposure to methadone differentially enhanced viral propagation, consistent with an increase in virus adsorption, susceptibility to virus infection and viral protein synthesis. In contrast, morphine or buprenorphine did not alter H1N1 replication. Because A549 cells do not express opioid receptors, methadone-enhanced H1N1 replication in human lung cells may not be mediated through these receptors. The interaction of methadone and H1N1 virus was also examined in adult mice. Treatment with methadone significantly increased H1N1 viral replication in lungs. Our data suggest that use of methadone facilitates influenza A viral infection in lungs and might raise concerns regarding the possible consequence of an increased risk of serious influenza A virus infection in people who receive treatment in methadone maintenance programs. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Replication-uncoupled histone deposition during adenovirus DNA replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Tetsuro; Nagata, Kyosuke

    2012-06-01

    In infected cells, the chromatin structure of the adenovirus genome DNA plays critical roles in its genome functions. Previously, we reported that in early phases of infection, incoming viral DNA is associated with both viral core protein VII and cellular histones. Here we show that in late phases of infection, newly synthesized viral DNA is also associated with histones. We also found that the knockdown of CAF-1, a histone chaperone that functions in the replication-coupled deposition of histones, does not affect the level of histone H3 bound on viral chromatin, although CAF-1 is accumulated at viral DNA replication foci together with PCNA. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays using epitope-tagged histone H3 demonstrated that histone variant H3.3, which is deposited onto the cellular genome in a replication-independent manner, is selectively associated with both incoming and newly synthesized viral DNAs. Microscopic analyses indicated that histones but not USF1, a transcription factor that regulates viral late gene expression, are excluded from viral DNA replication foci and that this is achieved by the oligomerization of the DNA binding protein (DBP). Taken together, these results suggest that histone deposition onto newly synthesized viral DNA is most likely uncoupled with viral DNA replication, and a possible role of DBP oligomerization in this replication-uncoupled histone deposition is discussed.

  18. "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    "Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock.com/ KatarzynaBialasiewicz People who drink too ... Ysbrand Cosijn Peter is recovering from an alcohol addiction. The addiction grew slowly over many years. Read ...

  20. Network-based analysis reveals functional connectivity related to internet addiction tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya eWen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionPreoccupation and compulsive use of the internet can have negative psychological effects, such that it is increasingly being recognized as a mental disorder. The present study employed network-based statistics to explore how whole-brain functional connections at rest is related to the extent of individual’s level of internet addiction, indexed by a self-rated questionnaire. We identified two topologically significant networks, one with connections that are positively correlated with internet addiction tendency, and one with connections negatively correlated with internet addiction tendency. The two networks are interconnected mostly at frontal regions, which might reflect alterations in the frontal region for different aspects of cognitive control (i.e., for control of internet usage and gaming skills. Next, we categorized the brain into several large regional subgroupings, and found that the majority of proportions of connections in the two networks correspond to the cerebellar model of addiction which encompasses the four-circuit model. Lastly, we observed that the brain regions with the most inter-regional connections associated with internet addiction tendency replicate those often seen in addiction literature, and is corroborated by our meta-analysis of internet addiction studies. This research provides a better understanding of large-scale networks involved in internet addiction tendency and shows that pre-clinical levels of internet addiction are associated with similar regions and connections as clinical cases of addiction.

  1. The Addict in Us All

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan eDill

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we contend that the psychology of addiction is similar to the psychology of ordinary, non-addictive temptation in important respects, and explore the ways in which these parallels can illuminate both addiction and ordinary action. The incentive salience account of addiction proposed by Robinson and Berridge (1993; 2001; 2008 entails that addictive desires are not in their nature different from many of the desires had by non-addicts; what is different is rather the way that addictive desires are acquired, which in turn affects their strength. We examine these 'incentive salience' desires, both in addicts and non-addicts, contrasting them with more cognitive desires. On this account the self-control challenge faced by addicted agents is not different in kind from that faced by non-addicted agents—though the two may, of course, differ greatly in degree of difficulty. We explore a general model of self-control for both the addict and the non-addict, stressing that self-control may be employed at three different stages, and examining the ways that it might be strengthened. This helps elucidate a general model of intentional action.

  2. Lormetazepam addiction: data analysis from an Italian medical unit for addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faccini M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Marco Faccini,1 Roberto Leone,2 Benedetta Pajusco,1 Gianluca Quaglio,1 Rebecca Casari,1 Anna Albiero,1 Monia Donati,2 Fabio Lugoboni11Department of Internal Medicine, Addiction Unit, 2Pharmacology Unit, Reference Center for Education and Communication within the World Health Organization Program for International Drug Monitoring, University Hospital of Verona, Verona, ItalyBackground: The purpose of this study was to determine, in the context of a hospital addiction unit, which benzodiazepines were abused and to look for correlations with the characteristics of detoxified patients.Methods: A retrospective study was carried out using the database of hospital admissions to the addiction unit for detoxification from 2003 to 2010.Results: Of 879 admissions to the addiction unit during the seven-year period, 281 were for benzodiazepines. The percentage of patients addicted only to benzodiazepines was higher among females than males. Benzodiazepine consumption had started as a drug addiction behavior in only 10% of cases. The main sources of prescription identified were general practitioners (52% of cases or compliant pharmacists (25%. Overall, 15 different benzodiazepines were abused, with lormetazepam being the most commonly used (by 123 patients, 43.8% of the total.Conclusion: Our data show that, outside the population of multidrug addicts, there is an underestimated group of chronic benzodiazepine consumers who are often not referred to medical institutions for treatment. Even in the group of patients addicted to one substance only, we observed an abnormal number of requests for detoxification from lormetazepam, which appears to be more "popular" than other benzodiazepines. This drug should be prescribed according to stricter criteria and submitted to closer control.Keywords: lormetazepam, benzodiazepines, addiction, inpatient detoxification

  3. Sexual addiction or hypersexual disorder: different terms for the same problem? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Wéry, Aline; Weinstein, Aviv; Cottencin, Olivier; Petit, Aymeric; Reynaud, Michel; Billieux, Jöel

    2014-01-01

    Sexual addiction, which is also known as hypersexual disorder, has largely been ignored by psychiatrists, even though the condition causes serious psychosocial problems for many people. A lack of empirical evidence on sexual addiction is the result of the disease's complete absence from versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, people who were categorized as having a compulsive, impulsive, addictive sexual disorder or a hypersexual disorder reported having obsessive thoughts and behaviors as well as sexual fantasies. Existing prevalence rates of sexual addiction-related disorders range from 3% to 6%. Sexual addiction/ hypersexual disorder is used as an umbrella construct to encompass various types of problematic behaviors, including excessive masturbation, cybersex, pornography use, sexual behavior with consenting adults, telephone sex, strip club visitation, and other behaviors. The adverse consequences of sexual addiction are similar to the consequences of other addictive disorders. Addictive, somatic and psychiatric disorders coexist with sexual addiction. In recent years, research on sexual addiction has proliferated, and screening instruments have increasingly been developed to diagnose or quantify sexual addiction disorders. In our systematic review of the existing measures, 22 questionnaires were identified. As with other behavioral addictions, the appropriate treatment of sexual addiction should combine pharmacological and psychological approaches. Psychiatric and somatic comorbidities that frequently occur with sexual addiction should be integrated into the therapeutic process. Group-based treatments should also be attempted.

  4. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a primate suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a primate an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition including gamma vinylGABA. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of nicotine addiction by treating a patient with an effective amount of a composition including gamma vinylGABA.

  5. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, S.L.; Brodie, J.D.; Ashby, C.R. Jr.

    2000-05-02

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a primate suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a primate an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition including gamma vinylGABA. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of nicotine addiction by treating a patient with an effective amount of a composition including gamma vinylGABA.

  6. The case for compulsive shopping as an addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartston, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Addictive drugs like cocaine, opiates and nicotine, through direct or indirect means, hyperstimulate the dopamine (DA) reward system. Some behaviors, for some people, can have similar effects on the same DA reward circuitry resulting in very similar addictive behavior patterns and consequences. Although the term "addictive" has been used loosely with many behaviors, it may be an appropriate term to describe compulsive shopping. Increased accessibility, hyperstimulating marketing techniques, a loss of the protective delay between impulse and purchase, and overvaluing of the shopping process and objects purchased may all contribute to the potentially addictive nature of shopping.

  7. The psychology of health and addictions: therapeutic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisardo Becoña Iglesias

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The addiction subject is nowadays a valid one, as well as in the past century. Not only because of the increase of people that are addict, but also because of the important effects that cause on people and their environments. There are many theoretical perspectives to approach the addiction problem, but the most convenient because of its therapeutic results is the one that issupported by the psychology of health. lt is based on the integral approach to the person. This paper describes a general therapeutic scheme to work with addicts from the cognitive behaviora lperspective.

  8. Prevention of Internet addiction: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Petra; Gabrhelík, Roman

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims Out of a large number of studies on Internet addiction, only a few have been published on the prevention of Internet addiction. The aim of this study is provide a systematic review of scientific articles regarding the prevention of Internet addiction and to identify the relevant topics published in this area of interest. Methods The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines were adopted. The EBSCO, ProQuest Central, and PubMed databases were searched for texts published in English and Spanish between January 1995 and April 2016. A total of 179 original texts were obtained. After de-duplication and topic-relevance review, 108 texts were systematically classified and subjected to descriptive analysis and subsequent content analysis. Results The results of the content analysis yielded the following thematic areas: (a) target groups, (b) the improvement of specific skills, (c) program characteristics, and (d) environmental interventions. Discussion and conclusion Literature on the prevention of Internet addiction is scarce. There is an urgent need to introduce and implement new interventions for different at-risk populations, conduct well-designed research, and publish data on the effectiveness of these interventions. Developing prevention interventions should primarily target children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction but also parents, teachers, peers, and others who are part of the formative environment of children and adolescents at risk of Internet addiction. Newly designed interventions focused on Internet addiction should be rigorously evaluated and the results published.

  9. Social activities, self-efficacy, game attitudes, and game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Eui Jun; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2011-04-01

    This study examines whether social activities with parents, online and offline social self-efficacy, and attitudes toward gaming are associated with the degree of game addiction among adolescents. Using data from a survey of 600 middle- and high-school students in South Korea, we tested the relationships of personal characteristics (grade point average and time spent on gaming each day), social self-efficacy (both on- and offline), general social activities (with parents, friends, and teachers), gaming activities with parents, and attitudes toward gaming (those of self, parents, friends, and teachers) with the degree of game addiction. In addition, we conducted ANOVA tests to determine the differences among three groups: non-addicts (NA), possible (mild or moderate) addicts (PA), and Internet addicts (IA). The results show that social self-efficacy in the real world (offline) was negatively related with the degree of game addiction, whereas social self-efficacy in the virtual world (online) indicated a positive association. Social activities with parents are negatively associated with game addiction, although no relationship is found between gaming activities with parents and game addiction. Parental attitude toward gaming has a negative relationship with the addiction. Results and implications are discussed.

  10. Functional characterization of replication and stability factors of an incompatibility group P-1 plasmid from Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Woo; Rogers, Elizabeth E; Stenger, Drake C

    2010-12-01

    Xylella fastidiosa strain riv11 harbors a 25-kbp plasmid (pXF-RIV11) belonging to the IncP-1 incompatibility group. Replication and stability factors of pXF-RIV11 were identified and used to construct plasmids able to replicate in X. fastidiosa and Escherichia coli. Replication in X. fastidiosa required a 1.4-kbp region from pXF-RIV11 containing a replication initiation gene (trfA) and the adjacent origin of DNA replication (oriV). Constructs containing trfA and oriV from pVEIS01, a related IncP-1 plasmid of the earthworm symbiont Verminephrobacter eiseniae, also were competent for replication in X. fastidiosa. Constructs derived from pXF-RIV11 but not pVEIS01 replicated in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Xanthomonas campestris, and Pseudomonas syringae. Although plasmids bearing replication elements from pXF-RIV11 or pVEIS01 could be maintained in X. fastidiosa under antibiotic selection, removal of selection resulted in plasmid extinction after 3 weekly passages. Addition of a toxin-antitoxin addiction system (pemI/pemK) from pXF-RIV11 improved plasmid stability such that >80 to 90% of X. fastidiosa cells retained plasmid after 5 weekly passages in the absence of antibiotic selection. Expression of PemK in E. coli was toxic for cell growth, but toxicity was nullified by coexpression of PemI antitoxin. Deletion of N-terminal sequences of PemK containing the conserved motif RGD abolished toxicity. In vitro assays revealed a direct interaction of PemI with PemK, suggesting that antitoxin activity of PemI is mediated by toxin sequestration. IncP-1 plasmid replication and stability factors were added to an E. coli cloning vector to constitute a stable 6.0-kbp shuttle vector (pXF20-PEMIK) suitable for use in X. fastidiosa.

  11. [Complications of cocaine addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karila, Laurent; Lowenstein, William; Coscas, Sarah; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2009-06-20

    Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by repetitive and compulsive drug-seeking behavior and drug abuse despite negative health or social consequences. Cocaine addiction is a significant worldwide public health problem, which has somatic, psychological, psychiatric, socio-economic and judicial complications. Some of the most frequent complications are cardiovascular effects (acute coronary syndrome, cardiac arrhythmias, increased blood pressure); respiratory effects (fibrosis, interstitial pneumonitis, pulmonary hypertension, alveolar haemorrhage, asthma exacerbation; emphysema), neurological effects (strokes, aneurysms, seizures, headaches); risk for contracting HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B and C, sexual transmitted disease and otolaryngologic effects. Other complications are not discussed here. The vast majority of studies indicate that there are cognitive deficits induced by cocaine addiction. Attention, visual and working memories, executive functioning are affected in cocaine users. Psychiatric complications found in clinical practice are major depressive disorders, cocaine-induced paranoia, cocaine-induced compulsive foraging and panic attacks.

  12. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treat...

  13. People Control Their Addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton Peele

    2016-12-01

    Ironically, the brain disease model's ascendance in the U.S. corresponds with epidemic rises in opiate addiction, both painkillers (Brady et al., 2016 and heroin (CDC, n.d., as well as heroin, painkiller, and tranquilizer poisoning deaths (Rudd et al., 2016. More to the point, the conceptual and treatment goal of eliminating choice in addiction and recovery is not only futile, but iatrogenic. Indeed, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's epidemiological surveys, while finding natural recovery for both drug and alcohol disorders to be typical, has found a decline in natural recovery rates (Dawson et al., 2005 and a sharp increase in AUDs (Grant et al., 2015.

  14. Addiction is one of the social problems which has a significant role in the spiritual and physical health of the person, family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshte Jaliliyan

    2009-05-01

    The results of this study shows that how much higher is the individuals’ the network negative (unhealthy relation before and next addiction, the degree (intensity of their involvement in addiction will be more. In addition, among the studied subjects, the addicted in three groups (addicted with low involvement, addicted with middle involvement and addicted with high involvement are different regarding to the power and weakness of the dimensions of the net of healthy as well as the net of unhealthy relations.

  15. Comparison of temperament and character personality traits in opiate and stimulant addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadeghi Pouya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenomenon of addiction as one of the social problems has a high prevalence, especially among youth. The aim of the present study was to compare personality traits based on the temperament and character inventory in opiate and stimulant addicts in Tehran.  Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study, 60 male addicts (30 opiate and 30 stimulant addicts who referred to addiction treatment centers in the suburbs of Tehran were selected through convenience sampling method and were studied using Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI. The participants were sorted according to their age and education.    Results: There was a significant difference between the two groups with regard to harm avoidance, reward dependence, cooperativeness, and self-transcendence traits. Thus, opiate addicts had higher levels of harm avoidance, reward dependence, and cooperativeness, and stimulant addicts had higher levels of self-transcendence. The significance level was set at P<0.01.  Conclusion: The obtained results showed that there was a significant difference between opiate and stimulant addicts. Opiate addicts gained higher scores, compared with stimulant addicts, in Temperament and Character Inventory variables. The obtained results also showed that stimulant addicts were suffering from more severe disorders than opiate addicts. Based on the means of the values of the TCI, personality traits reflecting personality disorders are detectable and predictable in substance abusers. This new understanding is important in the prevention and treatment of addiction.

  16. Adolescent Internet Addiction in Hong Kong: Prevalence, Change, and Correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2016-02-01

    Prevalence, change, and correlates of adolescent Internet addiction were examined in this study on the basis of six waves of longitudinal data collected over 6 years. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Over 6 years, students responded to a questionnaire containing measures of sociodemographic characteristics, positive youth development, family processes, and Internet addiction behavior. The prevalence rates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents ranged from 17% to 26.8% during the high school years. Male students consistently showed a higher prevalence rate of Internet addiction and more Internet addictive behaviors than did female students. Longitudinal data suggested that although family economic disadvantage served as a risk factor for youth Internet addiction, the effects of family intactness and family functioning were not significant. Students' overall positive youth development and general positive youth development qualities were negatively related to Internet addictive behaviors and prosocial attributes had a positive relationship with youth Internet addiction. The results suggest that promotion of positive youth development is a promising direction for preventing Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. Gender and family economic disadvantage must be considered in design of the related prevention programs. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Naltrexone for the treatment of comorbid tobacco and pornography addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, Noah A

    2017-03-01

    Co-occurring addictive disorders are common, however treatment strategies for this population have not been extensively studied. This is especially the case for behavioral addictions. We present a patient (N = 1) with tobacco use disorder and problematic pornography use treated with naltrexone. Naltrexone treatment resulted in a decrease in pornography viewing and cigarette smoking, however had the adverse effect of anhedonia. A lower dose modestly impacted pornography viewing but not smoking. Relevant literature regarding co-occurring addictions as well as use of naltrexone is reviewed. This report represents the first case of tobacco and pornography co-addiction in the literature and supports the assertion that treatment of one addictive disorder can benefit another in the dually addicted patient. The efficacy of naltrexone for smoking is notable as previous studies of naltrexone in smoking have been disappointing. This case suggests future treatment strategies for comorbid addictions. (Am J Addict 2017;26:115-117). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  18. Addiction: a disorder of choice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heyman, Gene M

    2009-01-01

    .... The two go together, I propose, because it is not possible to understand addiction without understanding how we make choices. To be sure, it is unlikely that anyone chooses to be an addict, but what research shows is that everyone, including those who are called addicts, stops using drugs when the costs of continuing become too great. This paradox is at...

  19. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  20. Barriers and facilitators to implementing addiction medicine fellowships: a qualitative study with fellows, medical students, residents and preceptors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Klimas, J

    2017-01-01

    Although progress in science has driven advances in addiction medicine, this subject has not been adequately taught to medical trainees and physicians. As a result, there has been poor integration of evidence-based practices in addiction medicine into physician training which has impeded addiction treatment and care. Recently, a number of training initiatives have emerged internationally, including the addiction medicine fellowships in Vancouver, Canada. This study was undertaken to examine barriers and facilitators of implementing addiction medicine fellowships.

  1. Women and addiction (alcohol and opiates): comparative analysis of psychosocial aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raketić, Diana; Stamatović Gajić, Branka; Gajić, Tomislav; Jovanović, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays women constitute one third of all addicts. In the last decade, there has been a remarkable growth in scientific interest in biochemical and psychosocial aspects of women's addiction. Many researches point out the specific character of women's addiction. The aim of the study was to assess and compare psychosocial aspects, including the sociodemographic characteristics as well as the specific aspects of functioning of family and interpersonal relationships of the subjects addicted to opiates and alcohol. There were two substance addict groups (32 and 30 subjects addicted to drugs and alcohol, respectively) and the control group, consisting of 30 subjects (no substance addiction). A socio-demographic data questionnaire and semi-structured Addiction Severity Index (ASI) interview were used. The results of the research indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the compared groups in respect to the age of the subjects, family history of addiction disorders, education, parenthood, employment work status, and marital status. The subjects addicted to opiates differed significantly in respect to manifestation of aggressive, delinquent behaviour, infectious diseases, presence of addicts-partnerships, but there were no significant differences in relation to physical abuse, sexual abuse and self-assessment of depression. The results of this research suggest that subjects addicted to opiates differed largely from the subjects addicted to alcohol in terms of the age of the subjects, education level, family relationships, partnerships and social relationships, which all have to be taken into consideration when designing a therapy protocol and planning activities for prevention.

  2. The Effect of Adolescents' Internet Addiction on Smartphone Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayar, Dijle; Bektas, Murat; Bektas, Ilknur; Akdeniz Kudubes, Asli; Selekoglu Ok, Yasemin; Sal Altan, Sema; Celik, Isa

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of adolescents' Internet addiction levels on smartphone addiction. This study included 609 students from three high schools that are located in western Turkey. Numbers, percentages, and averages were used to evaluate the sociodemographic data. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests were used to determine whether the data had a normal distribution. The average age of the participants was 12.3 ± 0.9 years. Of them, 52.3% were male, and 42.8% were 10th graders. All participants had smartphones, and 89.4% of them connected to the Internet continuously with their smartphones. The study found that there was a statistically significant correlation between Internet addiction and smartphone addiction. It was determined that male adolescents with high levels of Internet addiction also had high smartphone addiction levels. On the other hand, sociodemographic variables had no statistically significant effect on smartphone addiction. A number of studies in the relevant literature examined the effects of Internet addiction on adolescents' smartphone addiction. However, findings of this study are unique because they are specific to the Turkish culture, and there is a limited database in Turkey regarding this issue. The researchers believe that the findings of this study will be beneficial to show the importance of the issue in the international arena and to guide further studies to prevent this addiction because there is no reliable database about smartphone addiction in Turkey.

  3. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Mera S; Farzan, Faranak; Wing, Victoria C; George, Tony P; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2011-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that is now being tested for its ability to treat addiction. This review discusses current research approaches and results of studies which measured the therapeutic use of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug addiction. The research in this area is limited and therefore all studies evaluating the therapeutic use of rTMS in tobacco, alcohol or illicit drug addiction were retained including case studies through NCBI PubMed ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov ) and manual searches. A total of eight studies were identified that examined the ability of rTMS to treat tobacco, alcohol and cocaine addiction. The results of this review indicate that rTMS is effective in reducing the level of cravings for smoking, alcohol, and cocaine when applied at high frequencies to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Furthermore, these studies suggest that repeated sessions of high frequency rTMS over the DLPFC may be most effective in reducing the level of smoking and alcohol consumption. Although work in this area is limited, this review indicates that rTMS is a promising modality for treating drug addiction.

  4. ATM and ATR Activities Maintain Replication Fork Integrity during SV40 Chromatin Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowd, Gregory A.; Li, Nancy Yan; Fanning, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Mutation of DNA damage checkpoint signaling kinases ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) or ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) results in genomic instability disorders. However, it is not well understood how the instability observed in these syndromes relates to DNA replication/repair defects and failed checkpoint control of cell cycling. As a simple model to address this question, we have studied SV40 chromatin replication in infected cells in the presence of inhibitors of ATM and ATR activities. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and southern blotting of SV40 chromatin replication products reveal that ATM activity prevents accumulation of unidirectional replication products, implying that ATM promotes repair of replication-associated double strand breaks. ATR activity alleviates breakage of a functional fork as it converges with a stalled fork. The results suggest that during SV40 chromatin replication, endogenous replication stress activates ATM and ATR signaling, orchestrating the assembly of genome maintenance machinery on viral replication intermediates. PMID:23592994

  5. Insight into nicotine addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Handa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of the epidemic of nicotine addiction in India and other nations is a global public health tragedy of untoward proportions. Smoking or chewing tobacco can seriously affect general, as well as oral health. Smoking-caused disease is a consequence of exposure to toxins in tobacco smoke and addiction to nicotine is the proximate cause of these diseases. This article focuses on nicotine as a determinant of addiction to tobacco and the pharmacologic effects of nicotine that sustain cigarette smoking. The pharmacologic reasons for nicotine use are an enhancement of mood, either directly or through relief of withdrawal symptoms and augmentation of mental or physical functions. Tobacco cessation is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality related to tobacco use. Strategies for tobacco cessation involves 5A's and 5R's approach and pharmacotherapy. Dental professionals play an important role in helping patients to quit tobacco at the community and national levels, to promote tobacco prevention and control nicotine addiction. Dentists are in a unique position to educate and motivate patients concerning the hazards of tobacco to their oral and systemic health, and to provide intervention programs as a part of routine patient care.

  6. Religion and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostečnik, Christian; Cvetek, Mateja; Poljak, Saša; Repič, Tanja; Cvetek, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Religion with its rituals can become an object of addiction, especially when a child while growing up experiences neglect and abuse. It is also very common that such individuals transfer their feelings of anger, rage and sometimes even true hatred to God. Then God becomes the substitute for their displaced vengeance (upon those who abused them as children).

  7. Religion and addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Repič Slavič, Tanja; Poljak Lukek, Saša; Cvetek, Mateja; Gostečnik, Christian; Cvetek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Religion with its rituals can become an object of addiction, especially when a child while growing up experiences neglect and abuse. It is also very common that such individuals transfer their feelings of anger, rage and sometimes even true hatred to God. Then God becomes the substitute for their displaced vengeance (upon those who abused them as children).

  8. Addictions in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2011-01-01

    An overview of the prevalence, health consequences, and determinants of adolescents’ substance use is provided in this article on adolescence and addictions. Additionally, prevention and treatment efforts and the effectiveness are discussed. The emphasis is on alcohol, smoking, and cannabis use.

  9. The prevalence and correlates of lifetime psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures in urban and rural settings: results from the national comorbidity survey replication (NCS-R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S McCall-Hosenfeld

    Full Text Available Distinctions between rural and urban environments produce different frequencies of traumatic exposures and psychiatric disorders. We examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and frequency of trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum.The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R was used to evaluate psychiatric disorders among a nationally-representative sample of the U.S. population. Rurality was designated using the Department of Agriculture's 2003 rural-urban continuum codes (RUCC, which differentiate counties into levels of rurality by population density and adjacency to metropolitan areas. Lifetime psychiatric disorders included post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, anxiety disorders, major depressive disorder, mood disorders, impulse-control disorders, and substance abuse. Trauma exposures were classified as war-related, accident-related, disaster-related, interpersonal or other. Weighted logistic regression models examined the odds of psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures by position on the rural-urban continuum, adjusted for relevant covariates.75% of participants were metropolitan, 12.2% were suburban, and 12.8% were from rural counties. The most common disorder reported was any anxiety disorder (38.5%. Drug abuse was more common among metropolitan (8.7%, p = 0.018, compared to nonmetropolitan (5.1% suburban, 6.1% rural participants. A one-category increase in rurality was associated with decreased odds for war-related trauma (aOR = 0.86, 95%CI 0.78-0.95. Rurality was not associated with risk for any other lifetime psychiatric disorders or trauma exposure.Contrary to the expectation of some rural primary care providers, the frequencies of most psychiatric disorders and trauma exposures are similar across the rural-urban continuum, reinforcing calls to improve mental healthcare access in resource-poor rural communities.

  10. Relation between Depression, Loneliness, Self-Esteem and Internet Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayas, Tuncay; Horzum, Mehmet Baris

    2013-01-01

    Problem: Internet addiction has been emerged as a result of excessive internet misuse. In this study, analyzing the effects of depression, loneliness and self-esteem has been aimed in the prediction of the internet addiction levels of secondary education students. Method: The research is conducted according to the cross-sectional model as one of…

  11. The Dynamics of Addiction: Craving versus Self-Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasman, J.; Grasman, R.P.P.P.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with addictive acts that exhibit a stable pattern not intervening with the normal routine of daily life. Nevertheless, in the long term such behaviour may result in health damage. Alcohol consumption is an example of such addictive habit. The aim is to describe the process of

  12. Is exercise addiction in fitness centers a socially accepted behavior?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Beck Lichtenstein

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fitness exercise is popular and associated with improved health and social status. Taken to extremes, however, exercise can become an addiction. One suggested symptom of exercise addiction is “conflicts” with family and friends. However, it may be difficult to recognize excessive exercise patterns if they are accepted and encouraged by relatives. The aim of this study was to explore if fitness exercisers with a high risk of addiction experienced the same level of exercise support as exercisers with a low risk of addiction. Furthermore, we wanted to examine if social support affected the subjective reporting of “conflicts”. Method: A total of 577 fitness exercisers completed the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI and two questions asking about “exercise support from family and friends” and “present eating disorder”. Results: Exercisers at high risk of exercise addiction reported the same level of support from relatives as those at low risk. Exercisers with high levels of exercise support reported significantly fewer conflicts, even if they were at high risk of addiction. If an eating disorder was present, the level of exercise support was significantly reduced. Conclusion: Exercise addiction might be difficult to identify with the general behavioral addiction symptom “conflict”, since exercise is socially accepted even in subjects with high risk of exercise addiction. If an eating disorder is present, the exercise routines seem to be interpreted as socially undesirable. Screening for exercise addiction with the EAI should take into account that fitness exercisers rarely report conflicts, which could result in false negative cases.

  13. Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola Gutiérrez, José; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Rubio, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell-phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell-phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell-phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol. PMID:27822187

  14. Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola Gutiérrez, José; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Rubio, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell-phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell-phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell-phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

  15. [Severe candidiasis in heroin addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillet, G; Puissant, A; Colliard, H

    1984-01-01

    Seven cases of severe candida infection in heroin addicts are reported. The principal features of this condition which arose in 1980, apparently due to a particular quality of heroin, are described, Candida albicans was the only pathogenic agent isolated from mainly scalp nodular and pustular lesions. These cutaneous lesions were associated in half the cases with ocular lesions, which sometimes had a poor prognosis despite active therapy. Osteo-articular complications were less common. Ketoconazole therapy alone gave good results in this series. The precise reasons for this dissemination of Candida albicans and for these localisations are still not clearly understood.

  16. [The new types of addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaille, P

    2009-09-01

    Addiction is characterized by the inability to control his consumption of product or control certain behaviors, and the continuation of the behavior despite knowledge of its adverse effects. Addictions to substances like heroin, cocaine, etc., are well known. But other substances potentially addictive are getting more common in Belgium: MDMA, GHB / GBL, Cristal, etc. The existence of addictions without substance (called also behavioral addiction) is well recognized now: gambling addiction seems to be the most common and has been recognized as a disease by WHO, but we can also observe cyberaddiction, addiction to sex, workalholic, addiction to shopping, etc. The screening of poly-addiction or to one substance or one behavior should be systematized in the history of every patient. This screening should be facilitated through the development and validation of a cross scale. Particular attention will be paid to certain groups, both in primary prevention and screening: men, adolescents and young adults, university students or high schools, clubbers, sporting people, prisoners, ethnic minorities, people with mental disorders like depression. Primary care workers, and especially general practitioners, are at the first place to detect those different forms of addiction, can affort appropriate care according to patient's characteristics and type addiction, and to identify high-risk situations for relapse.

  17. Internet addiction: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction. Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behavior. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction.

  18. Technology Addiction: How Social Network Sites Impact our Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Gerhart

    2017-09-01

    understanding of what is meant. These findings help guide assumptions about the dark side of Information Technology. Impact on Society: While technology use is increasing, younger generations may find the use to be acceptable and less of a problem then older generations. Future Research: Future research should replicate these findings on other technology artifacts and other technology addiction definitions. In the future, there is also opportunity to delve deeper into the outcome variable of satisfaction with life.

  19. Replicating animal mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. McKinney

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA replication has been experiencing incredible progress in recent years, and yet little is certain about the mechanism(s used by animal cells to replicate this plasmid-like genome. The long-standing strand-displacement model of mammalian mtDNA replication (for which single-stranded DNA intermediates are a hallmark has been intensively challenged by a new set of data, which suggests that replication proceeds via coupled leading-and lagging-strand synthesis (resembling bacterial genome replication and/or via long stretches of RNA intermediates laid on the mtDNA lagging-strand (the so called RITOLS. The set of proteins required for mtDNA replication is small and includes the catalytic and accessory subunits of DNA polymerase y, the mtDNA helicase Twinkle, the mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein, and the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (which most likely functions as the mtDNA primase. Mutations in the genes coding for the first three proteins are associated with human diseases and premature aging, justifying the research interest in the genetic, biochemical and structural properties of the mtDNA replication machinery. Here we summarize these properties and discuss the current models of mtDNA replication in animal cells.

  20. The uses and abuses of Facebook: A review of Facebook addiction

    OpenAIRE

    RYAN, TRACII; CHESTER, ANDREA; REECE, JOHN; XENOS, SOPHIA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims: Recent research suggests that use of social networking sites can be addictive for some individuals. Due to the link between motivations for media use and the development of addiction, this systematic review examines Facebook-related uses and gratifications research and Facebook addiction research. Method: Searches of three large academic databases revealed 24 studies examining the uses and gratifications of Facebook, and nine studies of Facebook addiction. Result...

  1. Failed spinal anesthesia in addicts: Is it an incidence or coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha M.I. Youssef

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The incidence of failure of the intrathecal anesthesia seemed to be higher in the addict than in non-addict patients. Redo intrathecal injection with a top up 1/2 of the initial dose resulted in success of the block in all failed cases. There was a slower onset and decreased duration of both sensory and motor blocks, with higher incidence of hypotension and nausea more in the addict patients than in non-addicts.

  2. Sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity and plasma biomarkers for cocaine addiction in abstinent cocaine-addicted subjects in outpatient settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ePEDRAZ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There are sex differences in the progression of drug addiction, relapse and response to therapies. Because biological factors participate in these differences, they should be considered when using biomarkers for addiction. In the current study, we evaluated the sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity and the concentrations of plasma mediators that have been reported to be affected by cocaine.Fifty-five abstinent cocaine-addicted subjects diagnosed with lifetime cocaine use disorders (40 men and 15 women and 73 healthy controls (48 men and 25 women were clinically assessed with the diagnostic interview ‘Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders’. Plasma concentrations of chemokines, cytokines, N-acyl-ethanolamines and 2-acyl-glycerols were analyzed according to history of cocaine addiction and sex.The results showed that the chemokine concentrations of CCL2/MCP-1 and CXCL12/SDF-1 were only affected by history of cocaine addiction. The plasma concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNFα were higher in control women relative to men, but these concentrations were reduced in cocaine-addicted women. Cytokine concentrations were unaltered in addicted men. Regarding fatty acid derivatives, history of cocaine addiction had a main effect on the concentration of each acyl derivative; whereas N-acyl-ethanolamines were increased overall in the cocaine group, 2-acyl-glycerols were decreased. Interestingly, POEA was only increased in cocaine-addicted women.Regarding psychiatric comorbidity in the cocaine group, women had lower incidence rates of comorbid substance use disorders than did men. For example, alcohol use disorders were found in 80% of men and 40% of women. In contrast, the addicted women had increased prevalences of comorbid psychiatric disorders (mood, anxiety and psychosis disorders.These results demonstrate the existence of a sex influence on plasma biomarkers for cocaine addiction and on the presence of

  3. Online video game addiction: identification of addicted adolescent gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooij, Antonius J; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Vermulst, Ad A; Van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Van de Mheen, Dike

    2011-01-01

    To provide empirical data-driven identification of a group of addicted online gamers. Repeated cross-sectional survey study, comprising a longitudinal cohort, conducted in 2008 and 2009. Secondary schools in the Netherlands.   Two large samples of Dutch schoolchildren (aged 13-16 years). Compulsive internet use scale, weekly hours of online gaming and psychosocial variables. This study confirms the existence of a small group of addicted online gamers (3%), representing about 1.5% of all children aged 13-16 years in the Netherlands. Although these gamers report addiction-like problems, relationships with decreased psychosocial health were less evident. The identification of a small group of addicted online gamers supports efforts to develop and validate questionnaire scales aimed at measuring the phenomenon of online video game addiction. The findings contribute to the discussion on the inclusion of non-substance addictions in the proposed unified concept of 'Addiction and Related Disorders' for the DSM-V by providing indirect identification and validation of a group of suspected online video game addicts. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. DNA Virus Replication Compartments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Melanie; Speiseder, Thomas; Dobner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Viruses employ a variety of strategies to usurp and control cellular activities through the orchestrated recruitment of macromolecules to specific cytoplasmic or nuclear compartments. Formation of such specialized virus-induced cellular microenvironments, which have been termed viroplasms, virus factories, or virus replication centers, complexes, or compartments, depends on molecular interactions between viral and cellular factors that participate in viral genome expression and replication and are in some cases associated with sites of virion assembly. These virus-induced compartments function not only to recruit and concentrate factors required for essential steps of the viral replication cycle but also to control the cellular mechanisms of antiviral defense. In this review, we summarize characteristic features of viral replication compartments from different virus families and discuss similarities in the viral and cellular activities that are associated with their assembly and the functions they facilitate for viral replication. PMID:24257611

  5. Boredom Proneness, Social Connectedness, and Sexual Addiction among Men Who Have Sex with Male Internet Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Michael P.; Blalock, Andrew C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors collected surveys from 517 men who have sex with men (MSM) recruited from Internet chat rooms to examine the relationships among boredom, social connectedness, and sexual addiction. The results provide addictions professionals psychosocial factors to assess when working with sexually addicted MSM. (Contains 3 tables.)

  6. PTEN Regulates DNA Replication Progression and Stalled Fork Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinxue; Kang, Xi; Yin, Yuxin; Chao, K.S. Clifford; Shen, Wen H.

    2015-01-01

    Faithful DNA replication is a cornerstone of genomic integrity. PTEN plays multiple roles in genome protection and tumor suppression. Here we report on the importance of PTEN in DNA replication. PTEN depletion leads to impairment of replication progression and stalled fork recovery, indicating an elevation of endogenous replication stress. Exogenous replication inhibition aggravates replication-originated DNA lesions without inducing S-phase arrest in cells lacking PTEN, representing replication stress tolerance. Our analysis reveals the physical association of PTEN with DNA replication forks and PTEN-dependent recruitment of Rad51. PTEN deletion results in Rad51 dissociation from replication forks. Stalled replication forks in Pten null cells can be reactivated by ectopic Rad51 or PTEN, the latter facilitating chromatin loading of Rad51. These data highlight the interplay of PTEN with Rad51 in promoting stalled fork restart. We propose that loss of PTEN may initiate a replication stress cascade that progressively deteriorates through the cell cycle. PMID:26158445

  7. Review of current researches on internet addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yanni; Tian Mei; Zhang Hong

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a mental illness emerged in recent years with increasing use of computer and internet. The serious consequences such as mental and physical illness and social function impairment caused by IA have attracted extensive attention of the whole society. IA affects human beings at a high prevalence all over the world which has highlighted the importance of prevention and treatment of IA. Although there is still debate about definition of IA, increasing evidences including the result from genetic research,neurobiology study and clinical manifestation show that IA may share the same mechanisms with substance addiction, and be probably classified as behavioral addiction which is represented by pathological gambling. However, since the study on IA is yet on the initial stage and neuro biological research on IA is still limited, more reliable investigations especially neuro biological research remains uppermost in this area. (authors)

  8. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongil Kim

    Full Text Available This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1 disturbance of adaptive functions, (2 virtual life orientation, (3 withdrawal, and (4 tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49. For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034. Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.

  9. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed.

  10. Addictive internet use among Korean adolescents: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S V; Kim, Yoon; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    A psychological disorder called 'Internet addiction' has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13-18 year olds) from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level) nested within schools (2nd level) to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use.

  11. Addictive internet use among Korean adolescents: a national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongho Heo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A psychological disorder called 'Internet addiction' has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13-18 year olds from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level nested within schools (2nd level to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use.

  12. Role of Self-help Group in Substance Addiction Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Prangya Paramita Priyadarshini

    2012-11-01

    Background: The Narcotics Anonymous (NA)/Alcoholic Anonymous(AA) is based on the philosophy of self-help, where the former addicts and recovering addicts share experiences, provide emotional support and do active monitoring through mentoring. In mentoring, a former addict with longer duration of drug-free life acts as a guide to the newly recovering addict. Objective: The objective was to study the effect of involvement in self help group upon addictís level of depression, functional social support, and anxiety. Method: The size of the sample was 60. 30 addicts were taken from rehabilitation centre and 30 were taken from self-help groups. ANOVA was used to analyze the result. Result: In all the criteria it was found that there exists a significant impact of Self-help group. Conclusion: Self-help group provide clients with a social network of individuals with similar problems and experiences, since most of these individuals may be isolated from society due to the social stigma attached to their addictions. The transition from being help recipients to being helpers enables recovering addicts to build their self-confidence and feelings of being wanted and desired in society, which facilitates their self-confidence and positive self-esteem.

  13. Biomarkers of replicative senescence revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehlin, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers of replicative senescence can be defined as those ultrastructural and physiological variations as well as molecules whose changes in expression, activity or function correlate with aging, as a result of the gradual exhaustion of replicative potential and a state of permanent cell cycle...... arrest. The biomarkers that characterize the path to an irreversible state of cell cycle arrest due to proliferative exhaustion may also be shared by other forms of senescence-inducing mechanisms. Validation of senescence markers is crucial in circumstances where quiescence or temporary growth arrest may...... be triggered or is thought to be induced. Pre-senescence biomarkers are also important to consider as their presence indicate that induction of aging processes is taking place. The bona fide pathway leading to replicative senescence that has been extensively characterized is a consequence of gradual reduction...

  14. Instagram addiction and the Big Five of personality: The mediating role of self-liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircaburun, Kagan; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-03-01

    Background and aims Recent research has suggested that social networking site use can be addictive. Although extensive research has been carried out on potential addiction to social networking sites, such as Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Tinder, only one very small study has previously examined potential addiction to Instagram. Consequently, the objectives of this study were to examine the relationships between personality, self-liking, daily Internet use, and Instagram addiction, as well as exploring the mediating role of self-liking between personality and Instagram addiction using path analysis. Methods A total of 752 university students completed a self-report survey, including the Instagram Addiction Scale (IAS), the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and the Self-Liking Scale. Results Results indicated that agreeableness, conscientiousness, and self-liking were negatively associated with Instagram addiction, whereas daily Internet use was positively associated with Instagram addiction. The results also showed that self-liking partially mediated the relationship of Instagram addiction with agreeableness and fully mediated the relationship between Instagram addiction with conscientiousness. Discussion and conclusions This study contributes to the small body of literature that has examined the relationship between personality and social networking site addiction and is one of only two studies to examine the addictive use of Instagram and the underlying factors related to it.

  15. Fast Food, Addiction, and Market Power

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Timothy J.; Patterson, Paul M.; Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2007-01-01

    Many attribute the rise in obesity since the early 1980's to the overconsumption of fast food. A dynamic model of a different-product industry equilibrium shows that a firm with market power will price below marginal cost in a steady-state equilibrium. A spatial hedonic pricing model is used to test whether fast food firms set prices in order to exploit their inherent addictiveness. The results show that firms price products dense in addictive nutrients below marginal cost, but price products...

  16. Brain stimulation methods to treat tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, Victoria C; Barr, Mera S; Wass, Caroline E; Lipsman, Nir; Lozano, Andres M; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; George, Tony P

    2013-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide, but many smokers are simply unable to quit. Psychosocial and pharmaceutical treatments have shown modest results on smoking cessation rates, but there is an urgent need to develop treatments with greater efficacy. Brain stimulation methods are gaining increasing interest as possible addiction therapeutics. The purpose of this paper is to review the studies that have evaluated brain stimulation techniques on tobacco addiction, and discuss future directions for research in this novel area of addiction interventions. Electronic and manual literature searches identified fifteen studies that administered repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), cranial electrostimulation (CES), transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) or deep brain stimulation (DBS). rTMS was found to be the most well studied method with respect to tobacco addiction. Results indicate that rTMS and tDCS targeted to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) were the most efficacious in reducing tobacco cravings, an effect that may be mediated through the brain reward system involved in tobacco addiction. While rTMS was shown to reduce consumption of cigarettes, as yet no brain stimulation technique has been shown to significantly increase abstinence rates. It is possible that the therapeutic effects of rTMS and tDCS may be improved by optimization of stimulation parameters and increasing the duration of treatment. Although further studies are needed to confirm the ability of brain stimulation methods to treat tobacco addiction, this review indicates that rTMS and tDCS both represent potentially novel treatment modalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sex differences in addictive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g., sex, food) or activities (e.g., gambling, exercising). The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for gender differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviours. Thus, we first reviewed studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Potential risk factors and underlying brain mechanisms are also examined, with particular emphasis given to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive behaviours. Investigations on factors allowing the pursuit of non-drug rewards to become pathological in men and women are crucial for designing gender-appropriate treatments of both substance and non-substance addictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Internet addiction neuroscientific approaches and therapeutical implications including smartphone addiction

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The second edition of this successful book provides further and in-depth insight into theoretical models dealing with Internet addiction, as well as includes new therapeutical approaches. The editors also broach the emerging topic of smartphone addiction. This book combines a scholarly introduction with state-of-the-art research in the characterization of Internet addiction. It is intended for a broad audience including scientists, students and practitioners. The first part of the book contains an introduction to Internet addiction and their pathogenesis. The second part of the book is dedicated to an in-depth review of neuroscientific findings which cover studies using a variety of biological techniques including brain imaging and molecular genetics. The third part of the book focuses on therapeutic interventions for Internet addiction. The fourth part of the present book is an extension to the first edition and deals with a new emerging potential disorder related to Internet addiction – smartphone addicti...

  19. Internet Addiction Phenomenon in Early Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T. L. Shek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age =12.59±0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age =13.50±0.75 years at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%, 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young’s 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out.

  20. The development of indonesian online game addiction questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jap, Tjibeng; Tiatri, Sri; Jaya, Edo Sebastian; Suteja, Mekar Sari

    2013-01-01

    Online game is an increasingly popular source of entertainment for all ages, with relatively prevalent negative consequences. Addiction is a problem that has received much attention. This research aims to develop a measure of online game addiction for Indonesian children and adolescents. The Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire draws from earlier theories and research on the internet and game addiction. Its construction is further enriched by including findings from qualitative interviews and field observation to ensure appropriate expression of the items. The measure consists of 7 items with a 5-point Likert Scale. It is validated by testing 1,477 Indonesian junior and senior high school students from several schools in Manado, Medan, Pontianak, and Yogyakarta. The validation evidence is shown by item-total correlation and criterion validity. The Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire has good item-total correlation (ranging from 0.29 to 0.55) and acceptable reliability (α = 0.73). It is also moderately correlated with the participant's longest time record to play online games (r = 0.39; ponline games (ρ = 0.43; ponline games (ρ = 0.41; ponline games (ρ = 0.30; ponline game addiction, and the score of 22 and above may indicate online game addiction. Overall, the result shows that Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire has sufficient psychometric property for research use, as well as limited clinical application.

  1. Barriers to female sex addiction treatment in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhuffar, Manpreet K; Griffiths, Mark D

    2016-12-01

    Background Over the last 20 years, behavioral addictions (e.g., addictions to gambling, playing video games, work, etc.) have become more accepted among both public and scientific communities. Addiction to sex is arguably a more controversial issue, but this does not take away from the fact that some individuals seek professional help for problematic excessive sex, irrespective of how the behavior is conceptualized. Empirical evidence suggests that among treatment seekers, men are more likely than women to seek help for sex addiction (SA). Methods Using the behavioral addiction literature and the authors' own expertise in researching female SA, this paper examines potential barriers to the treatment for female sex addicts. Results Four main types of barriers for female sex addicts not seeking treatment were identified. These comprised (a) individual barriers, (b) social barriers, (c) research barriers, and (d) treatment barriers. Conclusions Further research is needed to either confirm or disconfirm the identified barriers that female sex addicts face when seeking treatment, and if conformation is found, interested stakeholders should provide better awareness and/or see ways in which such barriers can be overcome to aid better uptake of SA services.

  2. Internet Addiction Phenomenon in Early Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age = 12.59 ± 0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age = 13.50 ± 0.75 years) at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%), 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young's 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out. PMID:22778694

  3. [Neuroscientific basic in addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann-Ridinger, Monika

    2014-10-01

    The growing evidence of Neuroscience leads to a better understanding of cerebral processes in cases of acute or chronic intake of psychotropic substances (ps). Predominantly, structures of the "reward system" contributed to the development of addiction. Chronic consumption of ps provides changing in brain equilibrium and leads to adaptations in the brain architecture. In this article, the complex responses of neurons and neuronal networks are presented in cases of chronic intake of ps. The alterations affect the cognitive, emotional and behavioral processings and influence learning and stress regulation. In summary, all cerebral adaptations are integrated in a complex model of biological, psychological and social factors and therefore, addiction arises as a consequence of combination of individual protecting and risk factors.

  4. Gender differences in addiction severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Mesa, Eva M; García-Portilla, Paz; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Sáiz, Pilar A; Bobes Bascarán, Teresa; Casares, María José; Fonseca, Eduardo; Al-Halabí, Susana; Bobes, Julio

    2016-06-14

    Gender has been associated with substance use disorders (SUD). However, there are few studies that have evaluated gender differences in a global and a standardized way, and with a large sample of patients with SUD. Our goal is to analyze the role of gender in addiction severity throughout multiple life domains, using the Addiction Severity Index-6 (ASI-6). A naturalistic, multicenter and prospective study was conducted. A total of 221 patients with SUD (80.1% men) were interviewed with the ASI-6. Our results indicate that the Recent Summary Scores (RSSs) of men and women are similar, with the exception of Psychiatric and Partner- Problems, where women showed higher severity (p = .017 and p = .013, respectively). Statistically significant gender differences were found in certain aspects of the ASI-6 domains: men have more problems of physical health, legal issues, and alcohol and other substance use; and woman score higher in problems of mental health, social network, subjective evaluations of SUD consequences, and treatment needs. These results should be taken into account to improve the identification, prevention, and treatment of SUD.

  5. Spanish adaptation and validation of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, Álvaro; Alías-García, Antonio; Ferriz, Roberto; Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Addiction Exercise Inventory (EAI) in the Spanish context. Five hundred and eighty-four university students participated in the study, completing a questionnaire that assessed exercise addiction, exercise frequency and intensity. The results supported the factor structure of the EAI model. An alpha value of .70 and high level of temporal stability (ICC = .92) were obtained. The structure of the model was invariant across gender. A group of 87 students (14.9%) obtained a total score equal to or higher than 24 in the EAI and were classified as being at risk of exercise addiction. Students exercising more than three days per week at high intensity obtained higher scores in exercise addiction than students exercising at low-medium intensity, regardless of their frequency. The findings of this study showed the reliability and validity of the EAI in a Spanish context, providing a practical instrument that allows screening for exercise addiction.

  6. Excessive computer game playing: evidence for addiction and aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüsser, S M; Thalemann, R; Griffiths, M D

    2007-04-01

    Computer games have become an ever-increasing part of many adolescents' day-to-day lives. Coupled with this phenomenon, reports of excessive gaming (computer game playing) denominated as "computer/video game addiction" have been discussed in the popular press as well as in recent scientific research. The aim of the present study was the investigation of the addictive potential of gaming as well as the relationship between excessive gaming and aggressive attitudes and behavior. A sample comprising of 7069 gamers answered two questionnaires online. Data revealed that 11.9% of participants (840 gamers) fulfilled diagnostic criteria of addiction concerning their gaming behavior, while there is only weak evidence for the assumption that aggressive behavior is interrelated with excessive gaming in general. Results of this study contribute to the assumption that also playing games without monetary reward meets criteria of addiction. Hence, an addictive potential of gaming should be taken into consideration regarding prevention and intervention.

  7. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB. PMID:27378999

  8. Compulsive Buying Behavior: Clinical Comparison with Other Behavioral Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granero, Roser; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Mestre-Bach, Gemma; Steward, Trevor; Baño, Marta; Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Moragas, Laura; Mallorquí-Bagué, Núria; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Tárrega, Salomé; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Compulsive buying behavior (CBB) has been recognized as a prevalent mental health disorder, yet its categorization into classification systems remains unsettled. The objective of this study was to assess the sociodemographic and clinic variables related to the CBB phenotype compared to other behavioral addictions. Three thousand three hundred and twenty four treatment-seeking patients were classified in five groups: CBB, sexual addiction, Internet gaming disorder, Internet addiction, and gambling disorder. CBB was characterized by a higher proportion of women, higher levels of psychopathology, and higher levels in the personality traits of novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, persistence, and cooperativeness compared to other behavioral addictions. Results outline the heterogeneity in the clinical profiles of patients diagnosed with different behavioral addiction subtypes and shed new light on the primary mechanisms of CBB.

  9. Adenovirus DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeben, Rob C.; Uil, Taco G.

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviruses have attracted much attention as probes to study biological processes such as DNA replication, transcription, splicing, and cellular transformation. More recently these viruses have been used as gene-transfer vectors and oncolytic agents. On the other hand, adenoviruses are notorious pathogens in people with compromised immune functions. This article will briefly summarize the basic replication strategy of adenoviruses and the key proteins involved and will deal with the new developments since 2006. In addition, we will cover the development of antivirals that interfere with human adenovirus (HAdV) replication and the impact of HAdV on human disease. PMID:23388625

  10. Comparing spiritual intelligence and attribution styles among addicted and no addicted women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Karami Nejad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Spiritual intelligence is concerned with understanding the origin and meaning of life. In other words, it involves our ultimate goal to live. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the spiritual intelligence and the attribution styles among addicted and non-addicted women in Yazd. Methods: In this correlational study, the study population consisted of all women in Yazd in 2013, among which a sample of 300 subjects were selected via multistage random cluster sampling from three areas of Yazd. As a matter of fact, 108 addicted subjects were selected referring to Addiction Treatment Centers via multistage cluster sampling. The 29-item spiritual intelligence questionnaire (Abdollah Zadeh et al. and Attribution Style Questionnaire (ASQ (Peterson Co Seligman were applied and the study data were analyzed using t-test and Pearson correlation. Results: The study results indicated a significant difference between addicted women and non-addicted ones in regard with spiritual intelligence (one-tailed, P<0.05, df= 405, t= 3.22. Furthermore, addicted women significantly used negative attribution style against the failures (one-tailed, P<0.001, df= 406, t= 5.90, and a positive correlation was observed between spiritual intelligence and attribution styles (rs= 0.586, N= 406, P<0.001, two-tailed. Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that, without understanding the meaning of life, human life would not be worth much. Life suffering without spirituality would not be meaningful and in dealing with life challenges, it will lead the humans to step down and get helpless. Finding the meaning of life as well as having a positive attribution style can be mentioned as effective elements in regard with the women's tendency to the drug.

  11. Food addiction and neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

  12. Les addictions sexuelles

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Resume Le concept d?addiction (avec ses bases biologiques) represente un modele seduisant et heuristique en psychopathologie pour rendre compte des comportements repetitifs et compulsifs (c?est comme une drogue !), avec trouble du controle des impulsions. Pour autant, la quete incessante de et de plaisirs sexuels peut-elle etre qualifiee d? quand le desir et la concupiscence visent a la consommation de la chair et la mise en branle des...

  13. Management of gambling addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Shivangi Mehta; Ajeet Sidana; Krunali Ukey

    2016-01-01

    Gambling is defined as staking something on a contingency. Many traders are gambling without even knowing it. Health professionals need to consider the harmful effects of gambling considering that gambling can destroy families and has medical consequences. A 40-year-old bank manager diagnosed initially with mood disorder with two attempts of self-harm in the past 3 years was eventually diagnosed as a case of gambling addiction using both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorde...

  14. [To define internet addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonioni, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction is a new behavioral disorder difficult to define, especially when referring to young teenagers who make great use of web-mediated relationships. It's necessary to separate the cases of overt dependency on those in which the abuse of internet seems to have a different value, offering the only way to achieve the possible relationship. Internet is mediating a new way of communicating and thinking, this may favor the onset of clinical phenomena intended to surprise.

  15. Deep brain stimulation surgery for alcohol addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voges, Juergen; Müller, Ulf; Bogerts, Bernhard; Münte, Thomas; Heinze, Hans-Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of chronic alcohol dependence cause important health and economic burdens worldwide. Relapse rates after standard treatment (medication and psychotherapy) are high. There is evidence from in vivo investigations and from studies in patients that the brain's reward system is critically involved in the development and maintenance of addictive behavior, suggesting that modification of this system could significantly improve the prognosis of addictive patients. Motivated by an accidental observation, we used the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which has a central position in the dopaminergic reward system for deep brain stimulation (DBS) of alcohol addiction. We report our first experiences with NAc DBS for alcohol dependence and review the literature addressing the mechanisms leading to addiction. Five patients were treated off-label with bilateral NAc DBS for severe alcohol addiction (average follow-up 38 months). All patients experienced significant and ongoing improvement of craving. Two patients remained completely abstinent for more than 4 years. NAc stimulation was tolerated without permanent side effects. Simultaneous recording of local field potentials from the target area and surface electroencephalography while patients performed neuropsychological tasks gave a hint on the pivotal role of the NAc in processing alcohol-related cues. To our knowledge, the data presented here reflect the first attempt to treat alcohol-addicted patients with NAc DBS. Electrical NAc stimulation probably counterbalances the effect of drug-related stimuli triggering involuntarily drug-seeking behavior. Meanwhile, two prospective clinical studies using randomized, double-blind, and crossover stimulation protocols for DBS are underway to corroborate these preliminary results. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Cyber addictions: toward a psychosocial perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suissa, Amnon Jacob

    2015-04-01

    The concept of cyberaddiction is far from being unanimously accepted by scientists (Ko, Yen, Yen, Chen, & Chen 2012; Pezoa-Jares, Espinoza-Luna & Vasquez-Medina 2012; Nadeau et al., 2011; Perraton, Fusaro & Bonenfant 2011). The same is true of addiction to videogames (Hellman, Schoenmakers, Nordstrom, & Van Holst 2013; Coulombe 2010); or to Facebook (Andreassen et al., 2012; Levard & Soulas, 2010). While certain researchers wished to see this condition included in the DSM-5 (Block, 2008), others question the operational and practical bases for the diagnostic criteria. Some see cyberaddiction as a problem linked more to time management, to brain deficits, to an impulse-control disorder or to psychosocial conditions while others consider it to be a pre-existing comorbidity. Considering that most addiction problems are generally understood more as individual and pathological problems rather than the result of psychosocial conditions (poverty, unemployment, weak social ties, social exclusion, hyper individualism, etc), the aim of this article is to propose a psychosocial perspective for this emerging trend in cyberaddictions. To what extent social conditions and cyberaddiction behaviors constitute a potential pathology? Can we include a psychosocial approach to gain a more general picture of this contemporary issue? In response to these questions, a contextualization and an attempt to define cyberaddiction will be followed by an analysis of some major issues in the development of this type of addiction. A demonstration of the cycle of addiction on how people develop addictions, including cyberaddictions, will be done within a psychosocial perspective in order to seize the multifactorial aspects of this addiction. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  18. [Are eating disorders addictions?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed.

  19. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Masters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU in Muscat, Oman. Methods: In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA, YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA. Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items. Work-related SNS usage was also measured. Results: A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%. Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%, followed by Facebook (91.4% and Twitter (70.4%. Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%. However, addiction rates decreased when workrelated activity was taken into account. Conclusion: Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that workrelated activities should be taken into account during measurement.

  20. Psychosocial intervention for sexual addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Manju; Maheshwari, Shreemit; Chandran, Suhas; Rao, Suman S; Shivanand, Manohar J; Sathyanarayana Rao, T.S.

    2018-01-01

    Addiction is the term employed not only for excess consumption of substances, but also for problem behaviours like eating disorders, pathological gambling, computer addiction and pathological preoccupation with video games and sexual acts. No clear diagnostic criterion has been established with validity for behavioral addictions. Sexual addiction, including addiction to pornography is not included as a separate entity because of a lack of strong empirical evidence in this area. Different scales can be used for assessment of sexual addiction. Since there is an absence of established diagnostic criteria, the significance of validity of these scales is doubted. Several of the questions in these scales do not yield information about whether the diagnostic criteria are met or not. Pharmacotherapy, together with psychotherapy proves to have a better outcome in such patients as it helps to synthesize the role of developmental antecedents, reduce current anxiety, depression, guilt and to improve social adjustment. PMID:29540923

  1. [Drug addiction and social exclusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solal, J F; Schneider, M C

    1996-10-01

    Destitute drug addicts have not deliberately chosen to be socially excluded; it's more the consequence of a sanitary and social policy which has given a greater importance to the treatment of addiction than to the drug addict's health. Facing Aids, physicians, with their pragmatic attitude, have reversed this drift. On the streets, the drug addict holds handicaps concurrently; medicinal addiction leads to harder sevrance and substitution. Having access to social rights allows to regain an identity, compulsory for an access to health care; but public hospitals have to make casier both the admission and the stay of patients whose therapeutic observance is dependent on a preliminary substitution. Drug addiction and precarity represent a double social challenge that a democratic society must take up without any segregation.

  2. Psychosocial intervention for sexual addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Manju; Maheshwari, Shreemit; Chandran, Suhas; Rao, Suman S; Shivanand, Manohar J; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S

    2018-02-01

    Addiction is the term employed not only for excess consumption of substances, but also for problem behaviours like eating disorders, pathological gambling, computer addiction and pathological preoccupation with video games and sexual acts. No clear diagnostic criterion has been established with validity for behavioral addictions. Sexual addiction, including addiction to pornography is not included as a separate entity because of a lack of strong empirical evidence in this area. Different scales can be used for assessment of sexual addiction. Since there is an absence of established diagnostic criteria, the significance of validity of these scales is doubted. Several of the questions in these scales do not yield information about whether the diagnostic criteria are met or not. Pharmacotherapy, together with psychotherapy proves to have a better outcome in such patients as it helps to synthesize the role of developmental antecedents, reduce current anxiety, depression, guilt and to improve social adjustment.

  3. The uses and abuses of Facebook: A review of Facebook addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    RYAN, TRACII; CHESTER, ANDREA; REECE, JOHN; XENOS, SOPHIA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims: Recent research suggests that use of social networking sites can be addictive for some individuals. Due to the link between motivations for media use and the development of addiction, this systematic review examines Facebook-related uses and gratifications research and Facebook addiction research. Method: Searches of three large academic databases revealed 24 studies examining the uses and gratifications of Facebook, and nine studies of Facebook addiction. Results: Comparison of uses and gratifications research reveals that the most popular mo- tives for Facebook use are relationship maintenance, passing time, entertainment, and companionship. These motivations may be related to Facebook addiction through use that is habitual, excessive, or motivated by a desire for mood alteration. Examination of Facebook addiction research indicates that Facebook use can become habitual or excessive, and some addicts use the site to escape from negative moods. However, examination of Facebook addic- tion measures highlights inconsistency in the field. Discussion: There is some evidence to support the argument that uses and gratifications of Facebook are linked with Facebook addiction. Furthermore, it appears as if the social skill model of addiction may explain Facebook addiction, but inconsistency in the measurement of this condition limits the ability to provide conclusive arguments. Conclusions: This paper recommends that further research be performed to establish the links between uses and gratifications and Facebook addiction. Furthermore, in order to enhance the construct validity of Facebook addiction, researchers should take a more systematic approach to assessment. PMID:25317337

  4. Food Addiction and Bulimia Nervosa: New Data Based on the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sarah-Kristin; Meule, Adrian

    2016-11-01

    Previous research on 'food addiction' as measured with the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) showed a large overlap between addiction-like eating and bulimia nervosa. Most recently, a revised version of the YFAS has been developed according to the changes made in the diagnostic criteria for substance use disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition. The current study examined prevalence and correlates of the YFAS2.0 in individuals with bulimia (n = 115) and controls (n = 341). Ninety-six per cent of participants with bulimia and 14% of controls received a YFAS2.0 diagnosis. A higher number of YFAS2.0 symptoms was associated with lower interoceptive awareness, higher depressiveness, and higher impulsivity in both groups. However, a higher number of YFAS2.0 symptoms was associated with higher body mass and weight suppression in controls only and not in participants with bulimia. The current study is the first to show a large overlap between bulimia and 'food addiction' as measured with the YFAS2.0, replicating and extending findings from studies, which used the previous version of the YFAS. Compensatory weight control behaviours in individuals with bulimia likely alleviate the association between addiction-like eating and higher body mass. Thus, the large overlap between bulimia and 'food addiction' should be taken into consideration when examining the role of addiction-like eating in weight gain and obesity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  5. Cocaine – Characteristics and addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok; Robert Pudlo; Magdalena Jarząb; Agnieszka Szymlak

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the N...

  6. Internet Addiction: A Current Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Bozkurt; Serkan sahin; Salih Zoroglu

    2016-01-01

    Internet addiction, which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to control ones use of the Internet which leads to negative consequences in daily life. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5), but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other Internet applications developing an addictive behavior....

  7. Is psychology suffering from a replication crisis? What does "failure to replicate" really mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Scott E; Lau, Michael Y; Howard, George S

    2015-09-01

    Psychology has recently been viewed as facing a replication crisis because efforts to replicate past study findings frequently do not show the same result. Often, the first study showed a statistically significant result but the replication does not. Questions then arise about whether the first study results were false positives, and whether the replication study correctly indicates that there is truly no effect after all. This article suggests these so-called failures to replicate may not be failures at all, but rather are the result of low statistical power in single replication studies, and the result of failure to appreciate the need for multiple replications in order to have enough power to identify true effects. We provide examples of these power problems and suggest some solutions using Bayesian statistics and meta-analysis. Although the need for multiple replication studies may frustrate those who would prefer quick answers to psychology's alleged crisis, the large sample sizes typically needed to provide firm evidence will almost always require concerted efforts from multiple investigators. As a result, it remains to be seen how many of the recently claimed failures to replicate will be supported or instead may turn out to be artifacts of inadequate sample sizes and single study replications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Transgression as addiction: religiosity and moral disapproval as predictors of perceived addiction to pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Joshua B; Exline, Julie J; Pargament, Kenneth I; Hook, Joshua N; Carlisle, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Perceived addiction to Internet pornography is increasingly a focus of empirical attention. The present study examined the role that religious belief and moral disapproval of pornography use play in the experience of perceived addiction to Internet pornography. Results from two studies in undergraduate samples (Study 1, N = 331; Study 2, N = 97) indicated that there was a robust positive relationship between religiosity and perceived addiction to pornography and that this relationship was mediated by moral disapproval of pornography use. These results persisted even when actual use of pornography was controlled. Furthermore, although religiosity was negatively predictive of acknowledging any pornography use, among pornography users, religiosity was unrelated to actual levels of use. A structural equation model from a web-based sample of adults (Study 3, N = 208) revealed similar results. Specifically, religiosity was robustly predictive of perceived addiction, even when relevant covariates (e.g., trait self-control, socially desirable responding, neuroticism, use of pornography) were held constant. In sum, the present study indicated that religiosity and moral disapproval of pornography use were robust predictors of perceived addiction to Internet pornography while being unrelated to actual levels of use among pornography consumers.

  9. Internet Addiction: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bozkurt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet addiction, which has become a global social issue, can be broadly conceptualized as an inability to control ones use of the Internet which leads to negative consequences in daily life. Only Internet Gaming Disorder has been included in the appendix of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition (DSM-5, but it has already been argued that Internet addiction could also comprise problematic use of other Internet applications developing an addictive behavior. This paper aims to give a current review of the gradually evolving body of literature on Internet addiction. [J Contemp Med 2016; 6(3.000: 235-247

  10. Social Networking Addiction among Health Sciences Students in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Ken

    2015-08-01

    Addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) is an international issue with numerous methods of measurement. The impact of such addictions among health science students is of particular concern. This study aimed to measure SNS addiction rates among health sciences students at Sultan Qaboos University (SQU) in Muscat, Oman. In April 2014, an anonymous English-language six-item electronic self-reporting survey based on the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale was administered to a non-random cohort of 141 medical and laboratory science students at SQU. The survey was used to measure usage of three SNSs: Facebook (Facebook Inc., Menlo Park, California, USA), YouTube (YouTube, San Bruno, California, USA) and Twitter (Twitter Inc., San Francisco, California, USA). Two sets of criteria were used to calculate addiction rates (a score of 3 on at least four survey items or a score of 3 on all six items). Work-related SNS usage was also measured. A total of 81 students completed the survey (response rate: 57.4%). Of the three SNSs, YouTube was most commonly used (100%), followed by Facebook (91.4%) and Twitter (70.4%). Usage and addiction rates varied significantly across the three SNSs. Addiction rates to Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, respectively, varied according to the criteria used (14.2%, 47.2% and 33.3% versus 6.3%, 13.8% and 12.8%). However, addiction rates decreased when work-related activity was taken into account. Rates of SNS addiction among this cohort indicate a need for intervention. Additionally, the results suggest that addiction to individual SNSs should be measured and that work-related activities should be taken into account during measurement.

  11. Conceptualizing Internet use disorders: Addiction or coping process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    This paper problematizes the tendency to study Internet use disorders from a perspective of addiction. It is argued that an addiction perspective, grounded in our understanding of substance use disorders, has not contributed much to an improved understanding of the antecedents and etiology of Internet use disorders. Despite this, researchers continue to frame Internet use disorders as an addiction, recently exemplified by the inclusion of Internet gaming disorder in the DSM-5 research appendix as a behavioral addiction. This paper claims that the decision to use an addiction framework to study Internet use disorders has consequences for the way in which results are interpreted, which impacts the potential for theoretical and etiological contributions negatively. The paper argues that a perspective of addiction may not be the most useful approach because it causes a mismatch between theory and findings in empirical work: it is not uncommon to find that a study is positioned as a study of addiction, but presents findings more illustrative of coping behaviors. The paper draws on two examples from the literature to illustrate this mismatch and discusses how this hinders theoretical and etiological development. The question that is asked going forward is what alternative explanations we might identify by not exclusively adhering to an addiction framework for purposes of research. Recommendations are given for how to usefully approach the study of Internet use disorders outside a framework of addiction. It also discusses how scholars who still prefer a framework of addiction might strengthen their conceptual position to ensure improved contributions to etiology and theoretical development. © 2016 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2016 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  12. Internet use and its addiction level in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhayay N

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Namrata Upadhayay,1 Sanjeev Guragain2 1Department of Physiology; 2Department of Pharmacology, Gandaki Medical College, Pokhara Lekhnath, Nepal Objective: To compare the Internet addiction levels between male and female medical students.Methods: One hundred medical students (male: 50, female: 50 aged 17–30 years were included in a cross-sectional study. A standardized questionnaire was used to assess their Internet addiction level. Additionally, a self-designed questionnaire was used to identify the various purposes of Internet use among the students. The Internet addiction score (based on the Internet Addiction Test was compared between male and female students by using the Mann–Whitney U test (p≤0.05. After knowing their addiction level, we interviewed students to know if Internet use had any bad/good impact on their life. Results: The Internet Addiction Test scores obtained by the students were in the range of 11–70. Out of 100 students, 21 (male: 13, female: 8 were found to be slightly addicted to the Internet. The remaining 79 students were average online users. There was no significant difference between male and female students in the addiction level (score. However, males were more addicted than females. The major use of Internet was to download and watch movies and songs and to communicate with friends and family (76/100. Some students (24/100 used the Internet to assess information that helped them in their educational and learning activities. Some students mentioned that overuse of the Internet lead to insufficient amounts of sleep and affected their concentration levels in the classroom during lectures.Conclusion: Medical students are experiencing problems due to Internet overuse. They experience poor academic progress and lack of concentration while studying. The main use of the Internet was for entertainment and to communicate with friends and family. Keywords: addiction, Internet, medical students, entertainment

  13. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Results: Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. Conclusions: CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “;tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others. PMID:25595966

  14. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity
department of addictive behaviour and addiction medicine, central institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, University of Heidelberg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Karl

    2010-12-01

    Addictive behaviour is as prevalent in Germany as in other western countries, but in contrast to some European countries and the United States, very little money was given to this research field. Change came in the early 1990s, when the German government started to launch specific grants for addiction research. The first chair in addiction research was created in 1999 (Karl Mann) at the Central Institute of Mental Health Mannheim (CIMH; University of Heidelberg). The recruitment of a pre-clinical alcohol researcher as head of the department of psychopharmacology followed (Rainer Spanagel). This 'addiction research cluster' collaborates with several research groups at the CIMH (such as genetics). We inaugurated a clinical trial network which now comprises up to 20 treatment centres throughout Germany. Like most authors, we found effect sizes of different treatment modalities more in the low to moderate range, perhaps because of the heterogeneity of large patient samples. Therefore, we concentrated upon the biological basis of addiction in order to define more homogeneous 'subtypes' of patients for a better match with existing treatments. Results concerning genetics and neuroimaging (both animal and human) are promising, and could move our field towards a more personalized treatment approach. Our funding has been extended over the years, including involvement in several large European grants. We are studying substance-related problems as well as so-called 'behavioural addictions'. As a natural consequence of this development, we are deeply involved both in informing the general public on addiction issues as well as in counselling policy makers in Germany. © 2010 The Author, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. School Programming for the Prevention of Addictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Marilyn A.

    1992-01-01

    Defines "addiction" and discusses models of addiction. Discusses implications for school prevention programs. Discusses role of school counselor in implementation of a comprehensive addiction prevention program, including assessment, curricular components, intervention programs, and staff development. Presents questions and criteria to…

  16. Hyperthermia stimulates HIV-1 replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Roesch

    Full Text Available HIV-infected individuals may experience fever episodes. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature accompanied by inflammation. It is usually beneficial for the host through enhancement of immunological defenses. In cultures, transient non-physiological heat shock (42-45°C and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs modulate HIV-1 replication, through poorly defined mechanisms. The effect of physiological hyperthermia (38-40°C on HIV-1 infection has not been extensively investigated. Here, we show that culturing primary CD4+ T lymphocytes and cell lines at a fever-like temperature (39.5°C increased the efficiency of HIV-1 replication by 2 to 7 fold. Hyperthermia did not facilitate viral entry nor reverse transcription, but increased Tat transactivation of the LTR viral promoter. Hyperthermia also boosted HIV-1 reactivation in a model of latently-infected cells. By imaging HIV-1 transcription, we further show that Hsp90 co-localized with actively transcribing provirus, and this phenomenon was enhanced at 39.5°C. The Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG abrogated the increase of HIV-1 replication in hyperthermic cells. Altogether, our results indicate that fever may directly stimulate HIV-1 replication, in a process involving Hsp90 and facilitation of Tat-mediated LTR activity.

  17. Neuroticism and quality of life: Multiple mediating effects of smartphone addiction and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tingting; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Zhang, Han; Zhang, Zhao; Mei, Songli

    2017-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate the mediating effect of smartphone addiction and depression on neuroticism and quality of life. Self-reported measures of neuroticism, smart-phone addiction, depression, and quality of life were administered to 722 Chinese university students. Results showed smartphone addiction and depression were both significantly affected neuroticism and quality of life. The direct effect of neuroticism on quality of life was significant, and the chain-mediating effect of smartphone addiction and depression was also significant. In conclusion, neuroticism, smartphone addiction, and depression are important variables that worsen quality of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Food addiction - substance use disorder or behavioral addiction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Özgür; Kliewer, Josephine; Föcker, Manuel; Antel, Jochen; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    This article looks at food addiction as a subject situated between psychiatry, neurobiology, nutritional science, internal medicine, food industry, and public health. Essentially, the question is whether or not individual nutritional components can induce physical dependence, similar to the well-known effects of drugs such as alcohol and cocaine, or whether food addiction is rather a behavioral addiction. The literature describes many overlaps as well as differences of substance-based and non-substance-based addiction in both clinical and neurobiological terms. Until recently it was argued that food addiction appears only in the realms of obesity and eating disorders (e.g., binge-eating disorder, BED). Some studies, however, described the prevalence of food addiction symptoms and diagnoses independent of overweight or that they were in subjects who do not fulfill the criteria for BED. This article sums up the controversial discussion about the phenomenological and neurobiological classification of food addiction. Implications of food addiction for children and adolescents as well as public-health-related issues are also discussed.

  19. Exercise addiction in adolescents and emerging adults - Validation of a youth version of the Exercise Addiction Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Griffiths, Mark D; Hemmingsen, Simone Daugaard; Støving, René Klinkby

    2018-02-07

    Background Behavioral addictions often onset in adolescence and increase the risk of psychological and social problems later in life. The core symptoms of addiction are tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, lack of control, and compulsive occupation with the behavior. Psychometrically validated tools are required for detection and early intervention. Adolescent screening instruments exist for several behavioral addictions including gambling and video gaming addiction but not for exercise addiction. Given recent empirical and clinical evidence that a minority of teenagers appear to be experiencing exercise addiction, a psychometrically robust screening instrument is required. Aims The aim of this study was to develop and test the psychometric properties of a youth version of the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) - a robust screening instrument that has been used across different countries and cultures - and to assess the prevalence of exercise addiction and associated disturbed eating. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered to three high-risk samples (n = 471) aged 11-20 years (mean age: 16.3 years): sport school students, fitness center attendees, and patients with eating disorder diagnoses. A youth version of the EAI (EAI-Y) was developed and distributed. Participants were also screened for disordered eating with the SCOFF Questionnaire. Results Overall, the EAI-Y demonstrated good reliability and construct validity. The prevalence rate of exercise addiction was 4.0% in school athletes, 8.7% in fitness attendees, and 21% in patients with eating disorders. Exercise addiction was associated with feelings of guilt when not exercising, ignoring pain and injury, and higher levels of body dissatisfaction.

  20. The relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to examine the relationships between Internet addiction, subjective vitality, and subjective happiness. The participants were 328 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Online Cognition Scale, the Subjective Vitality Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. According to the results, subjective vitality and subjective happiness were negatively predicted by Internet addiction. On the other hand, subjective happiness was positively predicted by subjective vitality. In addition, subjective vitality mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and subjective happiness. Results were discussed in light of the literature.

  1. Does media coverage influence the spread of drug addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingju; Liu, Sanyang; Li, Jun

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a three dimensional drug model is constructed to investigate the impact of media coverage on the spread and control of drug addiction. The dynamical behavior of the model is studied by using the basic reproduction number R0. The drug-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable if R0 addiction equilibrium is locally stable if R0 > 1. The results demonstrate that the media effect in human population cannot change the stabilities of equilibria but can affect the number of drug addicts. Sensitivity analyses are performed to seek for effective control measures for drug treatment. Numerical simulations are given to support the theoretical results.

  2. The Study of the Role of Contributor Factors in Addiction Withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Kianipour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present paper investigated the factors contributing to addiction withdrawal so as to it would be possible to set preventive and rehabilitative programs for addicts. Method: The study was ex-post facto and causal-comparative one. Population included all addicts referred to addiction withdrawal centers of Kahnouj city and the sample was selected of addicts of Yaran addiction withdrawal Center by voluntary sampling. Bar-on emotional intelligence inventory, family boundary questionnaire and demographic information were administered among selected sample. Results: The results showed that normal family boundaries, higher emotional intelligence and opium use in comparison of crack and crystal glass are effective on addiction withdrawal. But disengaged family boundaries, crack and crystal glass use can be led to addiction recursion. Age, addiction duration, marital status, and education level are not effective on addiction withdrawal. Conclusion: Altogether, the results represented the role and importance of variables namely: family, emotional intelligence, and the kind of used material in addiction withdrawal.

  3. Animal Mitochondrial DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Grzegorz L.; Oliveira, Marcos T.; Kaguni, Laurie S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication highlight the diversity of both the mechanisms utilized and the structural and functional organization of the proteins at mtDNA replication fork, despite the simplicity of the animal mtDNA genome. DNA polymerase γ, mtDNA helicase and mitochondrial single-stranded DNA-binding protein- the key replisome proteins, have evolved distinct structural features and biochemical properties. These appear to be correlated with mtDNA genomic features in different metazoan taxa and with their modes of DNA replication, although a substantial integrative research is warranted to establish firmly these links. To date, several modes of mtDNA replication have been described for animals: rolling circle, theta, strand-displacement, and RITOLS/bootlace. Resolution of a continuing controversy relevant to mtDNA replication in mammals/vertebrates will have a direct impact on the mechanistic interpretation of mtDNA-related human diseases. Here we review these subjects, integrating earlier and recent data to provide a perspective on the major challenges for future research. PMID:27241933

  4. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis Pedram

    Full Text Available 'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown.to assess 1 the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2 if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3 if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4 if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'.A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire.The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (p<0.001. Obesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls.Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  5. Food addiction: its prevalence and significant association with obesity in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedram, Pardis; Wadden, Danny; Amini, Peyvand; Gulliver, Wayne; Randell, Edward; Cahill, Farrell; Vasdev, Sudesh; Goodridge, Alan; Carter, Jacqueline C; Zhai, Guangju; Ji, Yunqi; Sun, Guang

    2013-01-01

    'Food addiction' shares a similar neurobiological and behavioral framework with substance addiction. However whether, and to what degree, 'food addiction' contributes to obesity in the general population is unknown. to assess 1) the prevalence of 'food addiction' in the Newfoundland population; 2) if clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were significantly correlated with the body composition measurements; 3) if food addicts were significantly more obese than controls, and 4) if macronutrient intakes are associated with 'food addiction'. A total of 652 adults (415 women, 237 men) recruited from the general population participated in this study. Obesity was evaluated by Body Mass Index (BMI) and Body Fat percentage measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. 'Food addiction' was assessed using the Yale Food Addiction Scale and macronutrient intake was determined from the Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire. The prevalence of 'food addiction' was 5.4% (6.7% in females and 3.0% in males) and increased with obesity status. The clinical symptom counts of 'food addiction' were positively correlated with all body composition measurements across the entire sample (pObesity measurements were significantly higher in food addicts than controls; Food addicts were 11.7 (kg) heavier, 4.6 BMI units higher, and had 8.2% more body fat and 8.5% more trunk fat. Furthermore, food addicts consumed more calories from fat and protein compared with controls. Our results demonstrated that 'food addiction' contributes to severity of obesity and body composition measurements from normal weight to obese individuals in the general population with higher rate in women as compared to men.

  6. Women and Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait-Daoud, Nassima; Blevins, Derek; Khanna, Surbhi; Sharma, Sana; Holstege, Christopher P

    2017-06-01

    Gender-related alcohol and drug abuse problems are related not only to biological differences, but also to social and environmental factors, which can influence the clinical presentation, consequences of use, and treatment approaches. Women are becoming the fastest-growing population of substance abusers in the United States. Given that women experience a more rapid progression of their addiction than men, it is important that we understand and address the differences to help develop prevention and treatment programs that are tailored for women, incorporating trauma assessment and management, identification and intervention for medical and psychiatric comorbidities, financial independence, pregnancy, and child care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The prevalence of computer and Internet addiction among pupils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboralski, Krzysztof; Orzechowska, Agata; Talarowska, Monika; Darmosz, Anna; Janiak, Aneta; Janiak, Marcin; Florkowski, Antoni; Gałecki, Piotr

    2009-02-02

    Media have an influence on the human psyche similar to the addictive actions of psychoactive substances or gambling. Computer overuse is claimed to be a cause of psychiatric disturbances such as computer and Internet addiction. It has not yet been recognized as a disease, but it evokes increasing controversy and results in mental disorders commonly defined as computer and Internet addiction. This study was based on a diagnostic survey in which 120 subjects participated. The participants were pupils of three kinds of schools: primary, middle, and secondary school (high school). Information for this study was obtained from a questionnaire prepared by the authors as well as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Psychological Inventory of Aggression Syndrome (IPSA-II). he results confirmed that every fourth pupil was addicted to the Internet. Internet addiction was very common among the youngest users of computers and the Internet, especially those who had no brothers and sisters or came from families with some kind of problems. Moreover, more frequent use of the computer and the Internet was connected with higher levels of aggression and anxiety. Because computer and Internet addiction already constitute a real danger, it is worth considering preventive activities to treat this phenomenon. It is also necessary to make the youth and their parents aware of the dangers of uncontrolled Internet use and pay attention to behavior connected with Internet addiction.

  8. Thai men's experiences of alcohol addiction and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men are overrepresented with regard to alcohol addiction and in terms of alcohol treatment worldwide. In Thailand, alcohol consumption continues to rise, but few of those afflicted with alcohol addiction attend alcohol treatment programs, even though there is universal care for all. No comprehensive studies have been done on men's experiences with addiction and alcohol treatment programs in Thailand. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore men's experiences in terms of the ‘pros and cons of alcohol consumption’ in order to identify the barriers that exist for Thai men with regard to alcohol addiction and the decision to stop drinking. Design: Purposive sampling was applied in the process of recruiting participants at an alcohol clinic in a hospital in Thailand. Thirteen men with alcohol addiction (aged 32–49 years were willing to participate and were interviewed in thematic interviews. The analysis of the data was done with descriptive phenomenology. Results: Through men's descriptions, three clusters of experiences were found that were ‘mending the body’, ‘drinking as payoff and doping related to work’, and ‘alcohol becoming a best friend’ as ways of describing the development of addiction. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of addressing concepts of masculinity and related hegemonic ideas in order to decrease the influence of the barriers that exist for Thai men with alcohol addiction with regard to entering treatment and to stop drinking.

  9. Effect of opium addiction on diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azod, Laila; Rashidi, Maryam; Afkhami-Ardekani, Mohammad; Kiani, Golchehr; Khoshkam, Fariba

    2008-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a common disorder that is recognized as a major health problem in Iran. Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and economic burden to the society. Some people believe that smoking opium can reduce serum glucose and lipids in diabetes mellitus. This study was designed to compare blood glucose and lipids in opium addicts with non-addicts among patients with type 2 diabetes. In this case, control study subjects were chosen from type 2 diabetic patients. Twenty-three males with type 2 diabetes and addicted to opium were selected as the case group, and 46 patients with no addiction to opioid drugs were chosen as control group. Blood Sugar (BS), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), lipids and microalbumin in urine were measured in two groups. Our results showed that the mean FBS and 2-hour post prandial were significantly different between two groups. (P = .04). No significant difference was observed in HbA1C, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, and HDL between the two groups (P > .05). Our finding showed that while opium might decrease blood glucose temporarily, it had no clear and long-lasting effects on blood glucose, as it had no significant effect on HbA1c.

  10. Instant messaging addiction among teenagers in China: shyness, alienation, and academic performance decrement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hanyun; Leung, Louis

    2009-12-01

    This exploratory research proposes the concept of instant messaging (IM) addiction and examines (a) whether IM addiction exists among Chinese teenagers and, if so, who the addicts are, what their symptoms are, and to what extent they are addicted; (b) whether psychological variables such as shyness and alienation can predict IM use or addiction among teenagers; and (c) whether IM use or IM addiction can impair the academic performance of teenagers. Using Young's classic definition of Internet addiction, results of a stratified random sample of 330 teenagers in China in 2007 found 95.8% of participants use IM, and 9.8% of them can be classified as IM addicts. Factor analysis identified four major IM addiction symptoms among teenagers: preoccupation with IM, loss of relationships due to overuse, loss of control, and escape. Results also showed that shyness and alienation from family, peers, and school are significantly and positively associated with levels of IM addiction. As expected, both the level of IM use and level of IM addiction are significantly linked to teenagers' academic performance decrement.

  11. Harry Potter: Agency or Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This article considers limitations on agency for characters in the Harry Potter novels, in particular, how far they are driven by an addictive yearning for their beloved dead. As well as Harry's yearning for his dead parents, Dumbledore's guilt, Snape's longing and Slughorn's craving can be read as evidence of addiction rather than love, while the…

  12. [Cognitive remediation in addictions treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero-Perez, E J; Rojo-Mota, G; Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, J M; Llanero-Luque, M; Puerta-Garcia, C

    2011-02-01

    More recent theories of addiction suggest that neurocognitive mechanisms, such as attentional processing, cognitive control, and reward processing play a key role in the development or maintenance of addiction. Ultimately, the addiction (with or without substances) is based on the alteration of brain decision-making processes. The neurosciences, particularly those responsible for behavior modification, must take into account the neurobiological processes underlying the observable behavior. Treatments of addiction usually do not take into account these findings, which may be at the base of the low retention rates and high dropout rates of addicted patients. Considered as an alteration of brain functioning, addiction could be addressed successfully through cognitive rehabilitation treatments used in other clinical pathologies such as brain damage or schizophrenia. Although there are few studies, it is suggest that intervention to improve patients' cognitive functioning can improve the efficiency of well-established cognitive-behavioral therapies, such as relapse prevention. This paper reviews the available evidence on cognitive rehabilitation in treating addiction as well as in other pathologies, in order to formulate interventions that may be included in comprehensive rehabilitation programs for people with addictive disorders.

  13. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  14. Dealing with Addiction (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... Search English Español Dealing With Addiction KidsHealth / For Teens / Dealing With Addiction What's in this article? What ...

  15. Psychology, replication & beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Keith R

    2016-06-01

    Modern psychology is apparently in crisis and the prevailing view is that this partly reflects an inability to replicate past findings. If a crisis does exists, then it is some kind of 'chronic' crisis, as psychologists have been censuring themselves over replicability for decades. While the debate in psychology is not new, the lack of progress across the decades is disappointing. Recently though, we have seen a veritable surfeit of debate alongside multiple orchestrated and well-publicised replication initiatives. The spotlight is being shone on certain areas and although not everyone agrees on how we should interpret the outcomes, the debate is happening and impassioned. The issue of reproducibility occupies a central place in our whig history of psychology.

  16. Experiential Avoidance and Technological Addictions in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Oliva, Carlos; Piqueras, José A

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims This study focuses on the use of popular information and communication technologies (ICTs) by adolescents: the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. The relationship of ICT use and experiential avoidance (EA), a construct that has emerged as underlying and transdiagnostic to a wide variety of psychological problems, including behavioral addictions, is examined. EA refers to a self-regulatory strategy involving efforts to control or escape from negative stimuli such as thoughts, feelings, or sensations that generate strong distress. This strategy, which may be adaptive in the short term, is problematic if it becomes an inflexible pattern. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore whether EA patterns were associated with addictive or problematic use of ICT in adolescents. Methods A total of 317 students of the Spanish southeast between 12 and 18 years old were recruited to complete a questionnaire that included questions about general use of each ICTs, an experiential avoidance questionnaire, a brief inventory of the Big Five personality traits, and specific questionnaires on problematic use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games. Results Correlation analysis and linear regression showed that EA largely explained results regarding the addictive use of the Internet, mobile phones, and video games, but not in the same way. As regards gender, boys showed a more problematic use of video games than girls. Concerning personality factors, conscientiousness was related to all addictive behaviors. Discussion and conclusions We conclude that EA is an important construct that should be considered in future models that attempt to explain addictive behaviors.

  17. Sexual addiction in drug addicts: The impact of drug of choice and poly-addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio, Nelson; Diehl, Alessandra; Niel, Marcelo; Pillon, Sandra; Ratto, Lilian; Pinheiro, Maria Carolina; Silveira, Dartiu; Otani, Thais Zelia; Otani, Victor; Cordeiro, Quirino; Ushida, Ricardo

    2017-05-01

    To compare the risk of comorbid sexual addiction in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of substance dependence, stratifying the sample by drug of choice as well as by mono versus polysubstance addiction. All data were collected at Santa Casa de São Paulo, Brazil. The study sample comprised all alcohol or drug dependents admitted to the Addiction Treatment Unit between November 2013 and August 2014. A generalized linear model with a binomial distribution was performed to compare the odds of having a Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST) score greater than 6 points in the subgroups analyzed. A total of 133 participants were included in our analysis, all reporting cocaine/crack and/or alcohol as drug of choice. Polysubstance addicts had a significant higher risk of a positive screening for sexual addiction compared to monosubstance addicts, age-sex adjusted odds ratios of sexual addiction being respectively 2.72 (95CI 1.1-6.71) and 0.37 (95CI 0.15-0.91). The odds of a SAST score greater than 6 was not statistically different between the cocaine/crack and alcohol groups, respectively 0.38 (95CI 0.14-1.02) and 2.67 (95CI 0.98-7.25). We found a significant relation between stronger drug addiction and greater levels of sexual addiction in the cocaine/crack group (p=0.0012), but not in the alcohol group. Our study reinforces the importance of assessing sexual behavior of drug addicts in clinical practice, especially considering users of multiple substances or with severe dependence.

  18. A discursive analysis exploring constructions of sex addiction in clinical text and 'addict' accounts

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Numerous accounts have been developed which portray sex addiction and the sex addict. These in turn have led to screening tools, said to be capable of accurately distinguishing the sex addict from non-addicts. However, there are a wealth of various, diverse and conflicting understandings of addiction, sexuality and sex addiction. Sex addiction also carries moral implications, leading some to argue the term is used as stigmatising label for those who deviate from a socially...

  19. The psychological science of addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth; Humphreys, Keith

    2007-03-01

    To discuss the contributions and future course of the psychological science of addiction. The psychology of addiction includes a tremendous range of scientific activity, from the basic experimental laboratory through increasingly broad relational contexts, including patient-practitioner interactions, families, social networks, institutional settings, economics and culture. Some of the contributions discussed here include applications of behavioral principles, cognitive and behavioral neuroscience and the development and evaluation of addiction treatment. Psychology has at times been guilty of proliferating theories with relatively little pruning, and of overemphasizing intrapersonal explanations for human behavior. However, at its best, defined as the science of the individual in context, psychology is an integrated discipline using diverse methods well-suited to capture the multi-dimensional nature of addictive behavior. Psychology has a unique ability to integrate basic experimental and applied clinical science and to apply the knowledge gained from multiple levels of analysis to the pragmatic goal of reducing the prevalence of addiction.

  20. [Can we treat sexual addiction ?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inescu Cismaru, A; Andrianne, R; Triffaux, F; Triffaux, J-M

    2013-01-01

    Sexual addiction or sexual dependence is characterized by hypersexuality, impaired regulation of sexual desire and sexual compulsivity, including having sex with uncontrolled excessive frequency (5 to 15 sexual acts per day for more than 6 months, from 15 years old). Between 3% and 6% of the adult population (> or =18 years) would have the characteristics of sexual addiction, disorder prevalent in the male population. The addictive processes affect three behavioral domains : motivation-reward, affect regulation and behavioral inhibition. Sex addiction is usually accompanied by other addictions, such as abuse of drugs or alcohol or sex toys that enhance sexual performance. Psychiatric comorbidities can be found : anxiety disorders, mood disorders. Several forms of treatment have been tried, using medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychotherapy sessions alternated with exposure therapy in virtual reality. In this article, we will discuss the multiple definitions of hypersexuality and the possibilities of therapeutic approaches.

  1. Internet addiction in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren

    2014-07-01

    In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families.

  2. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  3. Replication, refinement & reachability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas T.; Slaats, Tijs

    2018-01-01

    We explore the complexity of reachability and run-time refinement under safety and liveness constraints in event-based process models. Our study is framed in the DCR? process language, which supports modular specification through a compositional operational semantics. DCR? encompasses the “Dynamic...... Condition Response (DCR) graphs” declarative process model for analysis, execution and safe run-time refinement of process-aware information systems; including replication of sub-processes. We prove that event-reachability and refinement are np-hard for DCR? processes without replication...

  4. Investigating the role of cognitive and emotional deficiencies in anticipation of membership in addicted and non-addicted groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farhadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study was done with the aim of investigating the role of cognitive and emotional deficiencies in anticipation of membership in addicted and non-addicted groups. Materials and Methods: This fundamental and reviewing type research is a cross-sectional comparative study that was performed retrospectively. Population of the study was all the male substance abusers referred to addiction treatment centers in one of the cities of Lorestan province in 2014. The selected population included 100 of substance abusers and 100 normal people (from the patients, accompanies selected by purposive sampling method. All participants completed cognitive failures questionnaire (CFQ and alexithymia questionnaire (TSA-20. The point analysis was applied to analyze the data. Analysis was performed using SPSS-20. Results: In point analysis at simultaneous method, seven predicting variables (difficulty in describing and identifying feelings, thoughts turned to the outside, memory problems, distractibility, oversight and not reminding the names and in the stepwise method, three predicting variables (cognitive failures, difficulty in describing feelings and memory problems for the only function of the point is explained by the difference between two groups of addicted and non-addicted. Conclusion: The results showed that addicts and non-addicts can be distinguished from cognitive and emotional impairment.

  5. An Analysis on the Correlation and Gender Difference between College Students' Internet Addiction and Mobile Phone Addiction in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Su-Lin

    2013-01-01

    This study is aimed at constructing a correlative model between Internet addiction and mobile phone addiction; the aim is to analyse the correlation (if any) between the two traits and to discuss the influence confirming that the gender has difference on this fascinating topic; taking gender into account opens a new world of scientific study to us. The study collected 448 college students on an island as study subjects, with 61.2% males and 38.8% females. Moreover, this study issued Mobile Phone Addiction Scale and Internet Addiction Scale to conduct surveys on the participants and adopts the structural equation model (SEM) to process the collected data. According to the study result, (1) mobile phone addiction and Internet addiction are positively related; (2) female college students score higher than male ones in the aspect of mobile addiction. Lastly, this study proposes relevant suggestions to serve as a reference for schools, college students, and future studies based on the study results. PMID:25938115

  6. Relationship of Internet addiction with self-esteem and depression in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrainian, S A; Alizadeh, K Haji; Raeisoon, M R; Gorji, O Hashemi; Khazaee, A

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of self-esteem and depression with Internet addiction in university students. The present descriptive-analytic correlation study involved 408 students (150 female and 258 male) who had been selected by means of a cluster sampling method from among all the students studying in Birjand Islamic Azad University. Students were evaluated through the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Cooper Smith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI) and Internet Addiction Test (IAT). The results indicated that 40.7% of the students had Internet addiction. A significant correlation emerged between depression, self-esteem and Internet addiction. Regression analysis indicated that depression and self-esteem were able to predict the variance of Internet addiction to some extent. It may be important to evaluate self-esteem and depression in people with Internet addiction. These variables should be targeted for effective cognitive behavioral therapy in people with Internet addiction.

  7. Overlapping addictions and self-esteem among college men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J L; Lewis, S E; Dodd, D K

    1999-01-01

    To examine whether there is a tendency for individuals to be multiply addicted, overlapping addictions to common substances (alcohol, caffeine, chocolate, cigarettes) and activities (exercise, gambling, Internet use, television, video games) were studied in 129 college men and women. Contrary to previous research, moderate to large correlations were found, both within and between substances and activities. Self-esteem was positively related to exercise but unrelated to the remaining addictions. Several gender differences in addictive tendencies were also revealed: Men scored higher than women on addiction to alcohol, cigarettes, gambling, television, and Internet use, but women scored higher on caffeine and chocolate. The results have implications for theories of addiction and suggest new directions for the study of addiction among normally functioning young adults.

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed. PMID:25032242

  9. The Comparison of the Executive-Neurological Functions of the Narcotic Addicted and Normal Adults

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    Fereshteh Amini

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of present research was the comparison of executive-neurological functions of narcotics addicted and normal adults. Method: In this causal-comparative study 38 narcotics addicted person selected of two addiction treatment clinics in Tehran, and 38 normal persons selected through available sampling. The both groups assessed by neuropsychological tests namely: the Wisconsin classification cards. Results: The analysis of data indicated the significant difference on executive functions of addicted and normal groups. That is addicted group were poorer than normal group on executive functions. Conclusion: The findings of present research showed the addicts have weaker executive functions than the normal persons. In other words, the addicts showed impairments on cognitive flexibility and formation of change concepts.

  10. Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong-Wen Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94% reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6% identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  12. The Relationship between Internet Addiction and Personality Traits of High School Students

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    Mohammad R. Tamannaifar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet addiction is a kind of dependence that some personality characteristics leave an important effect on using internet. On this basis, research is designed to assess the relationship between personality characteristics and internet addiction.Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in 12,480 of second and third high school students in Kashan was conducted. 400 students were selected by random cluster sampling. To measure internet addiction we used twenty questions to test internet addiction and to measure personality characteristics of students we used sixty questions questionnaire of Neo To analyze data we used Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis.Results: There is significant relationship between internet addiction with neuroticism and extroversion, but there was not any significant relationship between being conscientious with internet addiction. Conclusion: Internet addiction relates to some personality traits of students, including neuroticism and extroversion

  13. [Natural methods of getting back to life without addictions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine natural methods, which in conjunction with conventional means, may help in healing addictions. In particular, uses of such ancient practices as Yoga, meditation, pranayam and Ayurveda in the process of dealing with addiction will be considered. The article also presents the results of selected scientific research conducted in the West in the area of effectiveness of meditation in healing addiction in the context of physiological functioning of the brain and the workings of the mind and consciousness.

  14. [Environment and addictive behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzeau, Didier; Raynal, Marie-Line

    2012-12-01

    Consumer society creates the emergence of addictive behaviors and environments of the subject "shape" the use of psychoactive substances. The family approach is to search out a guilt of members to understand family dynamics and enable young people to emancipate themselves from the family model. The social environment contributes to the marginalization of drug users "pathologizing" his conduct. Offer help without preconditions and a relationship based on a therapeutic alliance can contribute decisively to the recovery of an addict. The prison is a place of initiation of use and consumption of psychoactive substances despite the offer of specialized treatment. Measures of risk reduction of HCV/HIV infection and alternatives to incarceration should complete it. At workplace, consumption can be considered as a mean of doping to be more "efficient", but also as an attempt to withstand the stresses and changes in working conditions in the context of individualization and a loss of marks related to the new way of organizing work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of gambling addiction

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    Shivangi Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gambling is defined as staking something on a contingency. Many traders are gambling without even knowing it. Health professionals need to consider the harmful effects of gambling considering that gambling can destroy families and has medical consequences. A 40-year-old bank manager diagnosed initially with mood disorder with two attempts of self-harm in the past 3 years was eventually diagnosed as a case of gambling addiction using both the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition criteria and Problem Gambling Severity Index. The participant's gambling urges were not caused by any “trigger” incident, were independent of mood disorder, and were so severe to lead him to deliberate self-harm. Even after adequate trial of two mood stabilizers from different classes including lithium, the patient neither showed improvement in mood symptoms nor his gambling behavior; however, patient's gambling behavior and mood symptoms both showed marked improvement following start of naltrexone up to a dose of 100 mg/day and were maintained at 6-month follow-up with gradual decline in craving for gambling as monitored on Problem Gambling Severity Index. Gambling addiction appears to be a very serious problem and can cause significant problems in the lives of people it affects and their family members.

  16. [Addictions and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzeau, Didier

    2012-12-01

    The qualifiers of alcoholic, drug addict have been abandoned because marked by the image of a person who uses toxic and violates the social prohibition to gradually give way to the representation of a sick person in a state of psychological distress, medical and social. Control systems of drug regulation should consider the damage to the individual, their potential to induce drug dependence and the effects on the family environment or society. Some emerging substances are excluded, others are demonized, thus limiting the scope of prevention messages. The theoretical model of addictions is much more complex for 20 years, while psychopathological references remained identical. There has been a proliferation of work neurobiological, cognitive-behavioral and sociological observations. Medical and psychosocial approaches are complementary to the understanding of a complex multifactorial phenomenon but also of its treatment whose goal is to enable the person to rebuild his life and not simply to be supported for curbing its substance use. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Prevalence of internet addiction among schoolchildren in Novi Sad

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    Ač-Nikolić Eržebet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Internet use has increased rapidly all over the world. Excessive Internet use tends to lead to the creation of a non-chemical addiction, most commonly known as “Internet addiction.” Objective. The aim of this study was an assessment of the prevalence of Internet use and Internet addiction among school children aged 14-18 years in the Municipality of Novi Sad, Serbia, and influence of sociodemographic variables on Internet use. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Novi Sad among final-year students from elementary and first- and second-year students from high schools. The prevalence of Internet addiction was assessed by using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire. Results. Out of 553 participants, 62.7% were females, and the average age was 15.6 years. The sample consisted of 153 elementary school students and 400 high school students. Majority of respondents had a computer in their household. Our study showed widespread Internet use among adolescents. Facebook and YouTube were among most visited web-sites. The main purpose of Internet use was entertainment. Estimated prevalence of Internet addiction was high (18.7%, mostly among younger adolescents (p=0.013. Conclusion. Internet addiction was found in every fifth adolescent. Accessibility and availability of Internet use is constantly growing and therefore it is necessary to define more sensitive diagnostic tools for the assessment of Internet addiction and its underlying causes, in order to implement effective preventive programs.

  18. Cocaine – Characteristics and addiction

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    Katarzyna Girczys-Połedniok

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4:537–544

  19. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  20. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  1. Neurobiological Basis of Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Lisset León Regal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a serious social problem due to its impact on individual and collective health. In order to provide an update on the latest findings that explain the development and symptoms of alcohol addiction, the short and long term changes that this disorder causes in the central nervous system are shown in this paper. A total of 52 information sources were consulted, including 43 journal articles, 4 books and statistical reports. The main network managers were used. The interaction of ethanol with various structures of the neuronal membrane affects the cytoarchitecture and brain function associated with the reward system, motor processing, learning and memory, resulting in the development of alcohol dependence. In addition, ethanol-induced changes in excitation/inhibition explain the phenomena of alcohol tolerance and withdrawal.

  2. The addictive model of self-harming (non-suicidal and suicidal behavior

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    Hilario eBlasco-Fontecilla

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavioral addictions such as gambling, sun-tanning, shopping, internet use, work, exercise, or even love and sex are frequent, and share many characteristics and common neurobiological and genetic underpinnings with substance addictions (i.e., tolerance, withdrawal, and relapse. Recent literature suggests that both non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behavior (SB can also be conceptualized as addictions. The major aim of this mini review is to review the literature and explore the neurobiological and psychological mechanisms underlying the addiction to self-harming behaviors.Method: This is a narrative review. The authors performed literature searches on PubMed and Google for suicidal behavior, self-harming, addiction, and major repeaters. Given the scarce literature on the topic, a subset of the most closely related studies was selected. The authors also focused on three empirical studies testing the hypothesis that major repeaters (individuals with ≥5 lifetime suicide attempts represent a distinctive suicidal phenotype, and are the individuals at risk of developing an addiction to SB. Results: The authors reviewed the concept of behavioral addictions and major repeaters, current empirical evidence testing concerning whether or not NSSI and SB can be understood as addictions, and the putative mechanisms underlying them.Conclusion: Our review suggests that both NSSI and SB can be conceptualized as addictions. This is relevant because if some individual’s self-harming behaviors are better conceptualized as an addiction, treatment approaches could be tailored to this addiction.

  3. Subgroups Among Opiate Addicts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzins, Juris I.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The principal objective of the present investigation was to delineate homogeneous MMPI profile subgroups (types) through multivariate clustering procedures and to compare the derived (replicable) types on measures of the components of "sociopathy" as well as on other psychometric devices. (Author)

  4. MicroRNAs and drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Kenny

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is considered a disorder of neuroplasticity in brain reward and cognition systems resulting from aberrant activation of gene expression programs in response to prolonged drug consumption. Noncoding RNAs are key regulators of almost all aspects of cellular physiology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small (~21–23 nucleotides noncoding RNA transcripts that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, microRNAs were shown to play key roles in the drug-induced remodeling of brain reward systems that likely drives the emergence of addiction. Here, we review evidence suggesting that one particular miRNA, miR-212, plays a particularly prominent role in vulnerability to cocaine addiction. We review evidence showing that miR-212 expression is increased in the dorsal striatum of rats that show compulsive-like cocaine-taking behaviors. Increases in miR-212 expression appear to protect against cocaine addiction, as virus-mediated striatal miR-212 over-expression decreases cocaine consumption in rats. Conversely, disruption of striatal miR-212 signaling using an antisense oligonucleotide increases cocaine intake. We also review data that identify two mechanisms by which miR-212 may regulate cocaine intake. First, miR-212 has been shown to amplify striatal CREB signaling through a mechanism involving activation of Raf1 kinase. Second, miR-212 was also shown to regulate cocaine intake by repressing striatal expression of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2, consequently decreasing protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. The concerted actions of miR-212 on striatal CREB and MeCP2/BDNF activity greatly attenuate the motivational effects of cocaine. These findings highlight the unique role for miRNAs in simultaneously controlling multiple signaling cascades implicated in addiction.

  5. Evolution of Replication Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Nina Y.; O'Donnell, Mike E.

    2016-01-01

    The machines that decode and regulate genetic information require the translation, transcription and replication pathways essential to all living cells. Thus, it might be expected that all cells share the same basic machinery for these pathways that were inherited from the primordial ancestor cell from which they evolved. A clear example of this is found in the translation machinery that converts RNA sequence to protein. The translation process requires numerous structural and catalytic RNAs and proteins, the central factors of which are homologous in all three domains of life, bacteria, archaea and eukarya. Likewise, the central actor in transcription, RNA polymerase, shows homology among the catalytic subunits in bacteria, archaea and eukarya. In contrast, while some “gears” of the genome replication machinery are homologous in all domains of life, most components of the replication machine appear to be unrelated between bacteria and those of archaea and eukarya. This review will compare and contrast the central proteins of the “replisome” machines that duplicate DNA in bacteria, archaea and eukarya, with an eye to understanding the issues surrounding the evolution of the DNA replication apparatus. PMID:27160337

  6. Human Mitochondrial DNA Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Ian J.; Reyes, Aurelio

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of the process of DNA replication in mitochondria is in its infancy. For many years, maintenance of the mitochondrial genome was regarded as greatly simplified compared to the nucleus. Mammalian mitochondria were reported to lack all DNA repair systems, to eschew DNA recombination, and to possess but a single DNA polymerase, polymerase γ. Polγ was said to replicate mitochondrial DNA exclusively via one mechanism, involving only two priming events and a handful of proteins. In this “strand-displacement model,” leading strand DNA synthesis begins at a specific site and advances approximately two-thirds of the way around the molecule before DNA synthesis is initiated on the “lagging” strand. Although the displaced strand was long-held to be coated with protein, RNA has more recently been proposed in its place. Furthermore, mitochondrial DNA molecules with all the features of products of conventional bidirectional replication have been documented, suggesting that the process and regulation of replication in mitochondria is complex, as befits a genome that is a core factor in human health and longevity. PMID:23143808

  7. Replication studies in longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varcasia, O; Garasto, S; Rizza, T

    2001-01-01

    In Danes we replicated the 3'APOB-VNTR gene/longevity association study previously carried out in Italians, by which the Small alleles (less than 35 repeats) had been identified as frailty alleles for longevity. In Danes, neither genotype nor allele frequencies differed between centenarians and 20...

  8. Quality of Life in Medical Students With Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Fatehi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of internet has caused new psychological, social, and educational problems for the students. The aim of this study was to examine the quality of life in medical students who suffer from internet addiction. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, and a total of 174 fourth-to seventh-year undergraduate medical students were enrolled. The quality of life was assessed by WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire which covers four domains of physical health, psychological, social relationships, and the environment. For assessing internet addiction, we used Internet Addiction Test (IAT of Young. The students with IAT score higher than 50 were considered as addicted. For evaluating academic performance, the students were requested to report their grade point average (GPA. The mean IA score (±SD was 34.13±12.76. Twenty-eight students (16.90% had IAT score above 50. The mean quality of life score in internet addicted group was 54.97±11.38 versus 61.65±11.21 in normal group (P=0.005. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between IA score and physical domain (r=-0.18, P=0.02; psychological domain (r=-0.35, P=0.000; and social relation domain (r=-0.26, P=0.001. Mean GPA was significantly lower in the addicted group. It seems that quality of life is lower in the internet addicted medical students; moreover, such students academically perform poorer in comparison with non-addicts. Since internet addiction is increasing at a rapid pace which may provoke considerable academic, psychological and social implications; as a result, it may require screening programs to the immediate finding of such problem to give consultations to prevent unwanted complications.

  9. Cognitive behavior therapy with Internet addicts: treatment outcomes and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kimberly S

    2007-10-01

    Research over the last decade has identified Internet addiction as a new and often unrecognized clinical disorder that impact a user's ability to control online use to the extent that it can cause relational, occupational, and social problems. While much of the literature explores the psychological and social factors underlying Internet addiction, little if any empirical evidence exists that examines specific treatment outcomes to deal with this new client population. Researchers have suggested using cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as the treatment of choice for Internet addiction, and addiction recovery in general has utilized CBT as part of treatment planning. To investigate the efficacy of using CBT with Internet addicts, this study investigated 114 clients who suffered from Internet addiction and received CBT at the Center for Online Addiction. This study employed a survey research design, and outcome variables such as client motivation, online time management, improved social relationships, improved sexual functioning, engagement in offline activities, and ability to abstain from problematic applications were evaluated on the 3rd, 8th, and 12th sessions and over a 6-month follow-up. Results suggested that Caucasian, middle-aged males with at least a 4-year degree were most likely to suffer from some form of Internet addiction. Preliminary analyses indicated that most clients were able to manage their presenting complaints by the eighth session, and symptom management was sustained upon a 6-month follow-up. As the field of Internet addiction continues to grow, such outcome data will be useful in treatment planning with evidenced-based protocols unique to this emergent client population.

  10. Quality of Life in Medical Students With Internet Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatehi, Farzad; Monajemi, Alireza; Sadeghi, Anahita; Mojtahedzadeh, Rita; Mirzazadeh, Azim

    2016-10-01

    The widespread use of internet has caused new psychological, social, and educational problems for the students. The aim of this study was to examine the quality of life in medical students who suffer from internet addiction. This cross-sectional survey was carried out in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, and a total of 174 fourth-to seventh-year undergraduate medical students were enrolled. The quality of life was assessed by WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire which covers four domains of physical health, psychological, social relationships, and the environment. For assessing internet addiction, we used Internet Addiction Test (IAT) of Young. The students with IAT score higher than 50 were considered as addicted. For evaluating academic performance, the students were requested to report their grade point average (GPA). The mean IA score (±SD) was 34.13±12.76. Twenty-eight students (16.90%) had IAT score above 50. The mean quality of life score in internet addicted group was 54.97±11.38 versus 61.65±11.21 in normal group (P=0.005). Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between IA score and physical domain (r=-0.18, P=0.02); psychological domain (r=-0.35, P=0.000); and social relation domain (r=-0.26, P=0.001). Mean GPA was significantly lower in the addicted group. It seems that quality of life is lower in the internet addicted medical students; moreover, such students academically perform poorer in comparison with non-addicts. Since internet addiction is increasing at a rapid pace which may provoke considerable academic, psychological and social implications; as a result, it may require screening programs to the immediate finding of such problem to give consultations to prevent unwanted complications.

  11. Prolonged tenofovir treatment of macaques infected with K65R reverse transcriptase mutants of SIV results in the development of antiviral immune responses that control virus replication after drug withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Rompay Koen K A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We reported previously that while prolonged tenofovir monotherapy of macaques infected with virulent simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV resulted invariably in the emergence of viral mutants with reduced in vitro drug susceptibility and a K65R mutation in reverse transcriptase, some animals controlled virus replication for years. Transient CD8+ cell depletion or short-term tenofovir interruption within 1 to 5 years of treatment demonstrated that a combination of CD8+ cell-mediated immune responses and continued tenofovir therapy was required for sustained suppression of viremia. We report here follow-up data on 5 such animals that received tenofovir for 8 to 14 years. Results Although one animal had a gradual increase in viremia from 3 years onwards, the other 4 tenofovir-treated animals maintained undetectable viremia with occasional viral blips (≤ 300 RNA copies/ml plasma. When tenofovir was withdrawn after 8 to 10 years from three animals with undetectable viremia, the pattern of occasional episodes of low viremia (≤ 3600 RNA/ml plasma continued throughout the 10-month follow-up period. These animals had low virus levels in lymphoid tissues, and evidence of multiple SIV-specific immune responses. Conclusion Under certain conditions (i.e., prolonged antiviral therapy initiated early after infection; viral mutants with reduced drug susceptibility a virus-host balance characterized by strong immunologic control of virus replication can be achieved. Although further research is needed to translate these findings into clinical applications, these observations provide hope for a functional cure of HIV infection via immunotherapeutic strategies that boost antiviral immunity and reduce the need for continuous antiretroviral therapy.

  12. Replicator dynamics in value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe; Savin, Ivan; Vannuccini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The pure model of replicator dynamics though providing important insights in the evolution of markets has not found much of empirical support. This paper extends the model to the case of firms vertically integrated in value chains. We show that i) by taking value chains into account, the replicator...... dynamics may revert its effect. In these regressive developments of market selection, firms with low fitness expand because of being integrated with highly fit partners, and the other way around; ii) allowing partner's switching within a value chain illustrates that periods of instability in the early...... stage of industry life-cycle may be the result of an 'optimization' of partners within a value chain providing a novel and simple explanation to the evidence discussed by Mazzucato (1998); iii) there are distinct differences in the contribution to market selection between the layers of a value chain...

  13. Structural Equation Model of Smartphone Addiction Based on Adult Attachment Theory: Mediating Effects of Loneliness and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, EunYoung; Cho, Inhyo; Kim, Eun Joo

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the mediating effects of loneliness and depression on the relationship between adult attachment and smartphone addiction in university students. A total of 200 university students participated in this study. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and structural equation modeling. There were significant positive relationships between attachment anxiety, loneliness, depression, and smartphone addiction. However, attachment anxiety was not significantly correlated with smartphone addiction. The results also showed that loneliness did not directly mediate between attachment anxiety and smartphone addiction. In addition, loneliness and depression serially mediated between attachment anxiety and smartphone addiction. The results suggest there are mediating effects of loneliness and depression in the relationship between attachment anxiety and smartphone addiction. The hypothesized model was found to be a suitable model for predicting smartphone addiction among university students. Future study is required to find a causal path to prevent smartphone addiction among university students. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Lack of association between parental alcohol or drug addiction and behavioral inhibition in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, J; Hirshfeld-Becker, D R; Rosenbaum, J F; Perenick, S G; Wood, J; Faraone, S V

    2001-10-01

    "Behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar" has been proposed as a precursor to anxiety. A recent study proposed that it may also be a precursor to alcoholism. The authors sought to replicate the latter finding through a secondary analysis of data from a large study of young children (age 2-6 years)-offspring of parents with panic and depressive disorders-who had been assessed for behavioral inhibition through laboratory-based observations. The offspring were stratified on the basis of presence or absence of parental lifetime history of DSM-III-R alcohol dependence (N=115 versus N=166, respectively) or drug dependence (N=78 versus N=203). The rates of behavioral inhibition were then compared between groups. Despite adequate power to detect associations, neither parental alcohol dependence nor drug dependence was associated with a higher risk for behavioral inhibition in the offspring. These results are not consistent with the hypothesis linking behavioral inhibition to addictions.

  15. Human Parvovirus B19 Utilizes Cellular DNA Replication Machinery for Viral DNA Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Wei; Wang, Zekun; Xiong, Min; Chen, Aaron Yun; Xu, Peng; Ganaie, Safder S; Badawi, Yomna; Kleiboeker, Steve; Nishimune, Hiroshi; Ye, Shui Qing; Qiu, Jianming

    2018-03-01

    Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection of human erythroid progenitor cells (EPCs) induces a DNA damage response and cell cycle arrest at late S phase, which facilitates viral DNA replication. However, it is not clear exactly which cellular factors are employed by this single-stranded DNA virus. Here, we used microarrays to systematically analyze the dynamic transcriptome of EPCs infected with B19V. We found that DNA metabolism, DNA replication, DNA repair, DNA damage response, cell cycle, and cell cycle arrest pathways were significantly regulated after B19V infection. Confocal microscopy analyses revealed that most cellular DNA replication proteins were recruited to the centers of viral DNA replication, but not the DNA repair DNA polymerases. Our results suggest that DNA replication polymerase δ and polymerase α are responsible for B19V DNA replication by knocking down its expression in EPCs. We further showed that although RPA32 is essential for B19V DNA replication and the phosphorylated forms of RPA32 colocalized with the replicating viral genomes, RPA32 phosphorylation was not necessary for B19V DNA replication. Thus, this report provides evidence that B19V uses the cellular DNA replication machinery for viral DNA replication. IMPORTANCE Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) infection can cause transient aplastic crisis, persistent viremia, and pure red cell aplasia. In fetuses, B19V infection can result in nonimmune hydrops fetalis and fetal death. These clinical manifestations of B19V infection are a direct outcome of the death of human erythroid progenitors that host B19V replication. B19V infection induces a DNA damage response that is important for cell cycle arrest at late S phase. Here, we analyzed dynamic changes in cellular gene expression and found that DNA metabolic processes are tightly regulated during B19V infection. Although genes involved in cellular DNA replication were downregulated overall, the cellular DNA replication machinery was tightly

  16. Beyond "Facebook Addiction": The Role of Cognitive-Related Factors and Psychiatric Distress in Social Networking Site Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Halley M; Taylor, Megan; Stavropoulos, Vasileios

    2018-04-01

    The use of social networking sites (SNSs) is rapidly increasing as billions of individuals use SNS platforms regularly to communicate with other users, follow the news, and play browser games. Given the widespread use of SNS platforms, investigating the potential predictors of addictive SNS use beyond Facebook use has become paramount given that most studies so far focused on "Facebook addiction." In this study, a total of 511 English-speaking SNS users (58.1% young adults aged 20-35 years; 64.6% female) were recruited online and asked to complete a battery of standardized psychometric tools assessing participants' sociodemographic characteristics, SNS preferences and patterns of use, SNS addiction, preference for online social interaction, maladaptive cognitions, fear of missing out (FoMo), dysfunctional emotion regulation, and general psychiatric distress. Overall, about 4.9% (n = 25) of all participants could be classed as having a high SNS addiction risk profile. Moreover, the results further indicated that FoMo (β = 0.38), maladaptive cognitions (β = 0.25), and psychiatric distress (β = 0.12) significantly predicted SNS addiction (i.e., p addiction, with FoMo providing the strongest predictive contribution over and above the effects of sociodemographic variables and patterns of SNS use. The implications of the present findings were discussed in light of extant literature on behavioral addictions and Facebook addiction and further considerations were provided regarding the potential clinical implications for cognitive-based psychological treatment approaches to SNS addiction.

  17. Childhood Food Addiction and the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Kristy L.; Buser, Juleen K.; Carlisle, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction among children is a concerning issue. Few empirical studies have examined the relevance of food addiction among pediatric samples, but emerging evidence suggests that some children experience their eating patterns as addictive. The present review will discuss the issue of food addiction among children, and will also attend to the…

  18. Drug addiction and social discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos Canabarro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the various discursive positions found in the phenomenon of addiction. The relations these discursive positions establish with the discourses of the master, the hysteric, the university and the capitalist are discussed. By analyzing material from clinical listening at a public outpatient drug and alcohol rehab center, it was seen that addiction can be described in different discourses. This article shows that the shift of focus from the symptom to the discursive position of the subject is an indicator for the clinical treatment of addiction.

  19. Considering the Definition of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Sussman, Alan N.

    2011-01-01

    The definition of addiction is explored. Elements of addiction derived from a literature search that uncovered 52 studies include: (a) engagement in the behavior to achieve appetitive effects, (b) preoccupation with the behavior, (c) temporary satiation, (d) loss of control, and (e) suffering negative consequences. Differences from compulsions are suggested. While there is some debate on what is intended by the elements of addictive behavior, we conclude that these five constituents provide a reasonable understanding of what is intended by the concept. Conceptual challenges for future research are mentioned. PMID:22073026

  20. Spirituality in the Addiction Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kárová, Lydie

    2011-01-01

    Spiritualita při léčbě závislosti Spirituality in the Addiction Treatment Lydie Kárová In my work, Spirituality in the Addiction Treatment, I focus on spirituality as a component of personality, which is involved in its formation and development. The work falls into three parts, in the first one I place spirituality into the Czech environment and present its definition, in the second part I look for the role of spirituality in the conception and treatment of addiction and in the third one I p...

  1. The relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control and narcissistic personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Joo; Namkoong, Kee; Ku, Taeyun; Kim, Se Joo

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the relationship between online game addiction and aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits, which are known as the psychological characteristics linked to "at-risk" populations for online game addiction. A total of 1471 online game users (males 82.7%, females 17.3%, mean age 21.30+/-4.96) participated in this study and were asked to complete several self-report measures using an online response method. Questionnaires included demographic information and game use-related characteristics of the samples, the online game addiction scale (modified from Young's Internet addiction scale), the Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire, a self-control scale, and the narcissistic personality disorder scale. Our results indicated that aggression and narcissistic personality traits are positively correlated with online game addiction, whereas self-control is negatively correlated with online game addiction (ponline game addiction could be predicted based on the person's narcissistic personality traits, aggression, self-control, interpersonal relationship, and occupation. However, only 20% of the variance in behavioral consequences was explained with the model. An interesting profile has emerged from the results of this study, suggesting that certain psychological characteristics such as aggression, self-control, and narcissistic personality traits may predispose some individuals to become addicted to online games. This result will deepen our understanding of the "at-risk" population for online game addiction and provide basic information that can contribute to developing a prevention program for people who are addicted to online games.

  2. HARM REDUCTION IN THE PREVENTION OF DRUG ADDICTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    KALOUSOVÁ, Dita

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation on Harm Reduction approach in the prevention of drug addictions deals with tertiary drug prevention. It aims to show the importance of how much information about this topic students at comprehensive schools get and have. The theoretical part provides some information about the consequences of drug addiction in general, about drug prevention, substitution treatment, Harm Reduction approach and the services involved. The practical part presents the results of a survey which ai...

  3. Structural Equation Model of Smartphone Addiction Based on Adult Attachment Theory: Mediating Effects of Loneliness and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EunYoung Kim, PhD

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest there are mediating effects of loneliness and depression in the relationship between attachment anxiety and smartphone addiction. The hypothesized model was found to be a suitable model for predicting smartphone addiction among university students. Future study is required to find a causal path to prevent smartphone addiction among university students.

  4. Training the next generation of providers in addiction medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyidi, Ernest; Wilkins, Jeffery N; Danovitch, Itai

    2012-06-01

    Within the United States there exists a profound discrepancy between the significant public health problem of substance abuse and the access to treatment for addicted individuals. Part of the insufficient access to treatment is a function of relatively low levels or professional experts in addiction medicine. Part of the low levels of professional addiction experts is the result of inadequate addiction medicine training of medical students and residents. This article outlines deficits in addiction medicine training among medical students and residents, yet real change in the addiction medicine training process will always be subject to the complexity of producing alterations across multiple credentialing institutions as well as the keen competition between educators for “more time” for their particular subject. Other hurdles include the broad-based issue of stigma regarding alcoholism and other substance abuse that likely impact all systems that regulate physician addiction medicine training. As noted in the discussion of psychiatry residency, even psychiatry residents manifest stigma regarding substance abusing patients. Five currently active processes may allow for fundamental change to the inertia in physician addiction medicine training while also potentially impacting stigma: 1. We appear to be at the beginning of the integration of addiction into traditional medicine through the formation of a legitimized addiction medicine subspecialty. 2. The training of primary care trainees and practitioners in the use of SBIRT is accelerating, thus creating another process of addiction integration into traditional medicine. 3. The PCMH is being established as a model for primary care 4. The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (MHPAEA) became effective for group health care plan years beginning on or after July 1, 2010; thereby, substance abuse benefits and cost are to be the same as general medical or surgical

  5. Inpatient Addiction Consultation for Hospitalized Patients Increases Post-Discharge Abstinence and Reduces Addiction Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeman, Sarah E; Metlay, Joshua P; Chang, Yuchiao; Herman, Grace E; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol and drug use results in substantial morbidity, mortality, and cost. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders are overrepresented in general medical settings. Hospital-based interventions offer an opportunity to engage with a vulnerable population that may not otherwise seek treatment. To determine whether inpatient addiction consultation improves substance use outcomes 1 month after discharge. Prospective quasi-experimental evaluation comparing 30-day post-discharge outcomes between participants who were and were not seen by an addiction consult team during hospitalization at an urban academic hospital. Three hundred ninety-nine hospitalized adults who screened as high risk for having an alcohol or drug use disorder or who were clinically identified by the primary nurse as having a substance use disorder. Addiction consultation from a multidisciplinary specialty team offering pharmacotherapy initiation, motivational counseling, treatment planning, and direct linkage to ongoing addiction treatment. Addiction Severity Index (ASI) composite score for alcohol and drug use and self-reported abstinence at 30 days post-discharge. Secondary outcomes included 90-day substance use measures and self-reported hospital and ED utilization. Among 265 participants with 30-day follow-up, a greater reduction in the ASI composite score for drug or alcohol use was seen in the intervention group than in the control group (mean ASI-alcohol decreased by 0.24 vs. 0.08, p drug decreased by 0.05 vs. 0.02, p = 0.003.) There was also a greater increase in the number of days of abstinence in the intervention group versus the control group (+12.7 days vs. +5.6, p drug, and days abstinent all remained statistically significant after controlling for age, gender, employment status, smoking status, and baseline addiction severity (p = 0.018, 0.018, and 0.02, respectively). In a sensitivity analysis, assuming that patients who were lost to follow-up had no change from baseline

  6. Psychological aspects of internet addiction of teenagers

    OpenAIRE

    Tserkovnikova, N. G.; Shchipanova, D. Y.; Uskova, B. A.; Puzyrev, V. V.; Fedotovskih, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under study is due to the lack of elaborated theoretical approaches to addiction and addictive behavior factors among children and adolescents, as well as due to the need and demand for psychological and pedagogical work with Internet addicted children and young people or with those who are potentially prone to Internet addiction, as well as with their parents. The purpose of the article is to study empirically the inclination to Internet addiction in the context ...

  7. Use of bibliotherapy with drug addicted people

    OpenAIRE

    Tmejová, Hana

    2013-01-01

    This work named 'The use of bibliotherapy in people with drug addiction' deals with bibliotherapy in specific kind of people who are drug addicts. In the work is shown theoretical knowledge of the problems with drug addiction, the issues of bibliotherapy and the experience in usually used techniques of bibliotherapy with the drug-addicted people. The work also contains lists of appropriate literature with the topic of addiction from a different perspective. The main aim of this work is to sug...

  8. Women and addiction (alcohol and opiates: Comparative analysis of psychosocial aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raketić Diana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nowadays women constitute one third of all addicts. In the last decade, there has been a remarkable growth in scientific interest in biochemical and psychosocial aspects of women’s addiction. Many researches point out the specific character of women’s addiction. Objective. The aim of the study was to assess and compare psychosocial aspects, including the socio-demographic characteristics as well as the specific aspects of functioning of family and interpersonal relationships of the subjects addicted to opiates and alcohol. Methods. There were two substance addict groups (32 and 30 subjects addicted to drugs and alcohol, respectively and the control group, consisting of 30 subjects (no substance addiction. A socio-demo- graphic data questionnaire and semi-structured Addiction Severity Index (ASI interview were used. Results. The results of the research indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the compared groups in respect to the age of the subjects, family history of addiction disorders, education, parenthood, employment work status, and marital status. The subjects addicted to opiates differed significantly in respect to manifestation of aggressive, delinquent behaviour, infectious diseases, presence of addicts-partnerships, but there were no significant differences in relation to physical abuse, sexual abuse and self-assessment of depression. Conclusion. The results of this research suggest that subjects addicted to opiates differed largely from the subjects addicted to alcohol in terms of the age of the subjects, education level, family relationships, partnerships and social relationships, which all have to be taken into consideration when designing a therapy protocol and planning activities for prevention.

  9. Survey of Four Decades of Addiction Prevalence Researches in Iran

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    Hamid Sarrami

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this research is the survey of addiction and drug abuse and psychotropic drugs prevalence researches which have been done in our country in last decades Method: To do this research all addiction and drug abuse prevalence researches that have been taken place were collected and analyzed. Results: the results of the researches show that the statistics of addiction has been in an oscillation as in 1390, the survey in 15 to 64 years old people (according to 1385 census that is 50 million people, is equal to one million and three hundred thousand and twenty five persons. Conclusion: the results of the four decades of addiction prevalence in Iran show that in according to the size of the threat of drugs and psychotropic drugs and addiction prevalence and also the change of gender, matrimony, age, job and the level of addicts education, less attention has been given to the drug abuse prevalence researches in public, youngsters, students and governmental and governmental non- officials.

  10. Empirical Analysis of Religiosity as Predictor of Social Media Addiction

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    Jamal J Almenayes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to examine the dimensions of social media addiction and its relationship to religiosity.  To investigate the matter, the present research utilized a well-known Internet addiction scale and modified it to fit social media (Young, 1996.  Factor analysis of items generated by a sample of 1326 participants, three addiction factors were apparent.  These factors were later regressed on a scale of religiosity.  This scale contained a single factor based on factor analysis.  Results indicated that social media addiction had three factors; "Social Consequences", "Time Displacement" and "Compulsive feelings.  Religiosity, on the other hand, contained a single factor.  Both of these results were arrived at using factor analysis of their respective scales. The relationship between religiosity and social media addiction was then examined using linear regression.  The results indicated that only two of the addiction factors were significantly related to religiosity.  Future research should address the operationalization of the concept of religiosity to account for multiple dimensions.

  11. Deep brain stimulation in addiction due to psychoactive substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Jens; Bührle, Christian P; Lenartz, Doris; Sturm, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is one of the most challenging health problems. It is associated with enormous individual distress and tremendous socioeconomic consequences. Unfortunately, its underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, and pharmacological, psychological, or social interventions often fail to achieve long-lasting remission. Next to genetic, social, and contextual factors, a substance-induced dysfunction of the brain's reward system is considered a decisive factor for the establishment and maintenance of addiction. Due to its successful application and approval for several neurological disorders, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known as a powerful tool for modulating dysregulated networks and has also been considered for substance addiction. Initial promising case reports of DBS in alcohol and heroin addiction in humans have recently been published. Likewise, results from animal studies mimicking different kinds of substance addiction point in a similar direction. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on DBS in addiction, and to discuss whether these preliminary results justify further research, given the novelty of this treatment approach. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Unmet needs for comprehensive services in outpatient addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Janice L; Emptage, Nicholas P; Hubbard, Robert L

    2006-04-01

    Many addiction treatment patients suffer from health and psychosocial problems in addition to substance misuse at the time of their treatment entry. Outpatient treatment programs have attempted to address these problems by providing or facilitating access to comprehensive health and social services. Nevertheless, previous research have suggested high levels of unmet needs for these services in the addiction treatment population. Using data from a large study on community-based outpatient addiction treatment, this article provides additional information on levels of unmet service needs and the relationship between need and receipt of services during treatment. Our results suggest extremely high levels of unmet needs for a wide variety of health and psychosocial services. Specifically, the data suggest that unmet service needs may be far more prevalent than previous estimates and that addiction treatment populations in rural areas may be particularly disadvantaged.

  13. Psychological factors of development and chronicity of technological addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Emelin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the formation of technological addictions, criteria for their identification and diagnosis, as well as analysis of the psychological factors that contribute to their development. According to the results of comparative analysis of existing models and studies, we present ways of further development of this problem in psychology. Model of technological addictions should be based on a model of “normative” use of technology and cannot be reduced only to the “addictive potential” of technology or person. In addition, one must consider unique humans function of technology (ease, avoiding, and overcoming, which makes a virtual situation more attractive than the real life situation, and provides a transition from “normal” to pathological processes. A special topic is identification of compensatory mechanisms system that support developed forms of addictive behavior (cognitive dissonance reduction strategies, cognitive distortion of perception and evaluation.

  14. [Adolescents and new technologies: Behaviours pointing a possible addiction problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrador Encinas, Francisco Javier; Villadangos González, Silvia María

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate adolescents' subjective risk perception derived from the use of the New Technologies (NT), and to identify behaviours or warning symptoms of possible addiction problems. A sample of 1,710 underage students of Madrid responded to the DENA questionnaire. Firstly, we found a positive correlation between the time of NT use and the perception of addiction problems. Also, age was positively correlated to these perception problems. Secondly, the results indicated that television is the technology that generates a major perception problem in underage students. Lastly, the NTs have produced behaviours that are similar to those produced by other established addictions. Among them are notable the relaxation caused by their use or discomfort if they cannot be used. In addition, the frequent presence of other behaviours exclusive to these instruments has been identified, such as constantly checking one's mobile phone screen. It is necessary to continue studying possible addictive behaviours specific to the NT.

  15. [Consumption of addictive substances by Gabonese teenagers: an epidemiological survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbila-Mayi, Mylène; Vierin, Yolande Nzame; Biloghe, Arlette; Moussavou-Mouyama, André

    2011-01-01

    To study the characteristics of the consumption of addictive substances by adolescents in Gabon. For this cross-sectional, descriptive study, we used an anonymous questionnaire to collect information from 1469 adolescents aged 10 to 19  years in six cities in Gabon during 2008. Alcohol was the addictive substance most often consumed (55.5%), followed by tobacco (21.5%) and illegal drugs (5%). In all, 47.6% of the teenagers reported having already been drunk. Combined consumption of these different substances was reported by 44.5%. Our results show the extent of the consumption of addictive substances among adolescents in Gabon and the existence of groups at risk of addiction and abuse. Prevention strategies must be set up.

  16. Internet addiction is associated with social anxiety in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Dorani, Dikla; Elhadif, Rotem; Bukovza, Yehely; Yarmulnik, Anastasya; Dannon, Pinhas

    2015-02-01

    Problematic Internet use or excessive Internet use is characterized by excessive or poorly controlled preoccupations, urges, or behaviors regarding computer use, and Internet access that leads to impairment or distress. Cross-sectional studies on samples of patients reported high comorbidity of Internet addiction with psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders (including depression), anxiety disorders (generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We have investigated the association between Internet addiction and social anxiety in 2 samples of 120 university students (60 males and 60 females in each sample). We found a correlation between Internet addiction and social anxiety in the 2 samples (r=0.411, Paddiction. Thirdly, we did not find a preference for social networks among participants with high levels of social anxiety. The results of the study support previous evidence for co-occurrence of Internet addiction and social anxiety, but further studies need to clarify this association.

  17. Implicit associations in cybersex addiction: Adaption of an Implicit Association Test with pornographic pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus' Forgetting Curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murre, Jaap M J; Dros, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    We present a successful replication of Ebbinghaus' classic forgetting curve from 1880 based on the method of savings. One subject spent 70 hours learning lists and relearning them after 20 min, 1 hour, 9 hours, 1 day, 2 days, or 31 days. The results are similar to Ebbinghaus' original data. We analyze the effects of serial position on forgetting and investigate what mathematical equations present a good fit to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve and its replications. We conclude that the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve has indeed been replicated and that it is not completely smooth but most probably shows a jump upwards starting at the 24 hour data point.

  19. Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus’ Forgetting Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murre, Jaap M. J.; Dros, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    We present a successful replication of Ebbinghaus’ classic forgetting curve from 1880 based on the method of savings. One subject spent 70 hours learning lists and relearning them after 20 min, 1 hour, 9 hours, 1 day, 2 days, or 31 days. The results are similar to Ebbinghaus' original data. We analyze the effects of serial position on forgetting and investigate what mathematical equations present a good fit to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve and its replications. We conclude that the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve has indeed been replicated and that it is not completely smooth but most probably shows a jump upwards starting at the 24 hour data point. PMID:26148023

  20. Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus' Forgetting Curve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap M J Murre

    Full Text Available We present a successful replication of Ebbinghaus' classic forgetting curve from 1880 based on the method of savings. One subject spent 70 hours learning lists and relearning them after 20 min, 1 hour, 9 hours, 1 day, 2 days, or 31 days. The results are similar to Ebbinghaus' original data. We analyze the effects of serial position on forgetting and investigate what mathematical equations present a good fit to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve and its replications. We conclude that the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve has indeed been replicated and that it is not completely smooth but most probably shows a jump upwards starting at the 24 hour data point.

  1. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That People Abuse Alcohol Facts Bath Salts Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts Marijuana ( ... Addiction Run in Families? Listen ©istock.com/ janulla Genes carry information that makes you who you are. ...

  2. Cocaine Addiction: Psychology and Neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawin, Frank H.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical characteristics of cocaine addiction, cocaine abstinence symptoms, and the short-term and long-term neurochemical actions of cocaine are discussed. The relative therapeutic value of various medications and treatment programs are discussed. (KR)

  3. [Addictive behavior among the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuss DJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Daria J KussPsychology Research and Behavior Management, Birmingham City University, Birmingham, UKAbstract: In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive

  5. Internet addiction and hopelessness in high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuray simsek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: 12-18 years of age reported that risky for internet addiction. To determine the relationship between internet addiction and hopelessness was aimed in this study. METHOD: This study was carried out in a high school which the maximum number of students in a city center and has a profile of student who from every region of this city. It was sampling taken 350 students from 1596 in this high school by using simple random numbers table. It was used adolescent information form, Internet Addiction Inventory and Beck Hopelessness Scale to data collection. In the analysis process, Chi-square, correlation, logistic regression analysis were used. RESULTS: It was found internet addiction between hopelessness in adolescents, bi-directional, moderate and positive relationship. Hopelessness scores of adolescents showing symptoms of internet addiction and who use the internet to surf on the web are high. Adolescents 3.6% of internet addiction profile showed 21.8% per cent were found to be the border of internet addiction. Some of the characteristics of the adolescents at home to the computer, internet usage time and a friend on the relationship between Internet addiction was found to be a significant effect. CONCLUSION: As a result, at home with a computer, internet usage control themselves and dependency profile of adolescents with poor peer relations and adolescents showed that level of hopelessness was found to increase the levels of dependence on the internet. Adolescents in schools, such as feelings of hopelessness, stimulate research and advisory programs offered configuration. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(1.000: 7-14

  6. Correlation between Resistin, Tuberculosis and Khat Addiction: A Study from South Western Province of Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Alvi

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis(TB is a disease of global significance, which accounts for a death in every 15 seconds. Recent studies shows TB is rising in certain parts of the world, and Saudi Arabia is one of them. Several factor contribute in predisposing the subjects for infection including but not limited to addiction to various compounds which have immune modulation properties, such as amphetamines and Heroin etc. Khat a plant whose leaves are chewed for its euphoric effect in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula including Saudi Arabia, is considered as mildly addictive, and its principle compound, Cathinone shares structural and functional similarity with amphetamine a known immunomodulator. Tuberculosis being a disease of immune modulation has a varied spectrum of complex interplay of proinflammatory molecules, resistin is one of them. In the present study, we try to explore the trinity of khat addiction, serum resistin level and tuberculosis by correlating the serum resistin level in non khat addicted healthy subjects, khat addicted healthy subjects, and in patients, both khat addicted and non khat addicted, with active tuberculosis. We observed significantly higher resistin level among the apparently healthy khat addicted subjects as compared to non addicted healthy controls. Thereafter, when we compare the resistin levels between khat addicted and non khat addicted TB patients we did not found significant difference between the two groups. However bacillary load was observe to be significantly higher among the khat addicted TB patient as compare to non addicted one. Validation of above results in animal model revealed dose dependant increase in bacillary growth in the Wistar rats treated with khat. Taken together these results suggest the role of khat in immune modulation albeit in the limited frame of resistin level.

  7. Factors influencing microinjection molding replication quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Julie; Brulez, Anne-Catherine; Contraires, Elise; Larochette, Mathieu; Trannoy-Orban, Nathalie; Pignon, Maxime; Mauclair, Cyril; Valette, Stéphane; Benayoun, Stéphane

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in producing and providing high-precision plastic parts that can be manufactured by microinjection molding: gears, pumps, optical grating elements, and so on. For all of these applications, the replication quality is essential. This study has two goals: (1) fabrication of high-precision parts using the conventional injection molding machine; (2) identification of robust parameters that ensure production quality. Thus, different technological solutions have been used: cavity vacuuming and the use of a mold coated with DLC or CrN deposits. AFM and SEM analyses were carried out to characterize the replication profile. The replication quality was studied in terms of the process parameters, coated and uncoated molds and crystallinity of the polymer. Specific studies were processed to quantify the replicability of injection molded parts (ABS, PC and PP). Analysis of the Taguchi experimental designs permits prioritization of the impact of each parameter on the replication quality. A discussion taking into account these new parameters and the thermal and spreading properties on the coatings is proposed. It appeared that, in general, increasing the mold temperature improves the molten polymer fill in submicron features except for the steel insert (for which the presence of a vacuum is the most important factor). Moreover, the DLC coating was the best coating to increase the quality of the replication. This result could be explained by the lower thermal diffusivity of this coating. We noted that the viscosity of the polymers is not a primordial factor of the replication quality.

  8. Nucleus accumbens surgery for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xue-lian; Chang, Chong-wang; Ge, Shun-nan; Gao, Li; Wu, He-ming; Zhao, Hai-kang; Geng, Ning; Gao, Guo-dong

    2013-01-01

    Opiate addiction remains intractable in a large percentage of patients, and relapse is the biggest hurdle to recovery because of psychological dependence. Multiple studies identify a central role of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in addiction; several studies note decreased addictive behavior after interventions in this area. Based on animal experiments, our institute started the clinical trial for the treatment of drug addicts' psychological dependence by making lesions in the bilateral NAc with stereotactic surgery from July 2000. The short-term outcomes were encouraging and triggered rapid application of this treatment in China from 2003 to 2004. However, lack of long-term outcomes and controversy eventually led to halting the surgery for addiction by the Ministry of Health of China in November 2004 and a nationwide survey about it later. Our institute had performed this surgery in 272 patients with severe heroin addiction. The follow-up study showed that the 5-year nonrelapse rate was 58% and the quality of life was significantly improved. Patients had several kinds of side effects, but the incidence rate was relatively low. The patients gradually recovered more than 5 years after the surgery. The side effects did not severely influence an individual's life or work. Nationwide surgery showed that the nonrelapse rate was 50% in the sample of 150 cases, from 1167 patients overall who underwent stereotactic surgery in China. Although sometimes accompanied by neuropsychological adverse events, stereotactic ablation of NAc may effectively treat opiate addiction. Lesion location has a significant impact on treatment efficacy and requires further study. Because ablation is irreversible, the NAc surgery for addiction should be performed with cautiousness, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an ideal alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Responsibility without Blame for Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Pickard, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Drug use and drug addiction are severely stigmatised around the world. Marc Lewis does not frame his learning model of addiction as a choice model out of concern that to do so further encourages stigma and blame. Yet the evidence in support of a choice model is increasingly strong as well as consonant with core elements of his learning model. I offer a responsibility without blame framework that derives from reflection on forms of clinical practice that support change and recovery in patients...

  10. Brain activities associated with gaming urge of online gaming addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Gin-Chung; Hsiao, Sigmund; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yang, Ming-Jen; Lin, Wei-Chen; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Cheng-Sheng

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the neural substrates of online gaming addiction through evaluation of the brain areas associated with the cue-induced gaming urge. Ten participants with online gaming addiction and 10 control subjects without online gaming addiction were tested. They were presented with gaming pictures and the paired mosaic pictures while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. The contrast in blood-oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signals when viewing gaming pictures and when viewing mosaic pictures was calculated with the SPM2 software to evaluate the brain activations. Right orbitofrontal cortex, right nucleus accumbens, bilateral anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and right caudate nucleus were activated in the addicted group in contrast to the control group. The activation of the region-of-interest (ROI) defined by the above brain areas was positively correlated with self-reported gaming urge and recalling of gaming experience provoked by the WOW pictures. The results demonstrate that the neural substrate of cue-induced gaming urge/craving in online gaming addiction is similar to that of the cue-induced craving in substance dependence. The above-mentioned brain regions have been reported to contribute to the craving in substance dependence, and here we show that the same areas were involved in online gaming urge/craving. Thus, the results suggest that the gaming urge/craving in online gaming addiction and craving in substance dependence might share the same neurobiological mechanism.

  11. A multistep general theory of transition to addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique

    2013-10-01

    Several theories propose alternative explanations for drug addiction. We propose a general theory of transition to addiction that synthesizes knowledge generated in the field of addiction into a unitary explanatory frame. Transition to addiction results from a sequential three-step interaction between: (1) individual vulnerability; (2) degree/amount of drug exposure. The first step, sporadic recreational drug use is a learning process mediated by overactivation of neurobiological substrates of natural rewards that allows most individuals to perceive drugs as highly rewarding stimuli. The second, intensified, sustained, escalated drug use occurs in some vulnerable individuals who have a hyperactive dopaminergic system and impaired prefrontal cortex function. Sustained and prolonged drug use induces incentive sensitization and an allostatic state that makes drugs strongly wanted and needed. Habit formation can also contribute to stabilizing sustained drug use. The last step, loss of control of drug intake and full addiction, is due to a second vulnerable phenotype. This loss-of-control-prone phenotype is triggered by long-term drug exposure and characterized by long-lasting loss of synaptic plasticity in reward areas in the brain that induce a form of behavioral crystallization resulting in loss of control of drug intake. Because of behavioral crystallization, drugs are now not only wanted and needed but also pathologically mourned when absent. This general theory demonstrates that drug addiction is a true psychiatric disease caused by a three-step interaction between vulnerable individuals and amount/duration of drug exposure.

  12. Effects of Opium Addiction and Cigarette Smoking on Hematological Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabinejad, Gholamabbas; Sirati-Sabet, Majid; Kazemi-Arababadi, Mohammad; Nabati, Saeideh; Asadikaram, Gholamreza

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of opium addiction and cigarette smoking on the complete blood count (CBC). Eighty-six male subjects, including 31 opium-addicted cigarette smokers (OACS), 19 opium-addicted non-cigarette smokers (OANCS), 17 non-opium-addicted cigarette smokers (NOACS), and 19 non-opium-addicted non-cigarette smokers (NOANCS) participated in this study. The CBC test was measured in all individuals. The OACS had significantly higher white blood cell (WBC), lymphocyte, and red blood cell (RBC) count but lower in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) compared to NOANCS. The OANCS had significantly higher lymphocyte in comparison with NOACS. Our results demonstrated that the number of WBC, lymphocytes, and RBC were significantly higher, while, MCV was lower in OANCS subjects when compared to NOACS. The OACS had significantly higher level of lymphocyte in comparison with NOACS. The mean number of lymphocyte in OANCS was found significantly higher than NOACS. The smokers were shown to have significantly higher levels of WBC compared to NOANCS. Our results showed that opium-addiction, especially when associated with cigarette smoking, has intensive effects on hematological factors and these alteration might leads to greater risk for developing atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases, and imbalance in immune system.

  13. [Relationships between alexithymia, depression and interpersonal dependency in addictive subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speranza, Mario; Stéphan, Philippe; Corcos, Maurice; Loas, Gwenolé; Taieb, Olivier; Guilbaud, Olivier; Perez-Diaz, Fernando; Venisse, Jean-Luc; Bizouard, Paul; Halfon, Olivier; Jeammet, Philippe

    2003-06-01

    In the scientific literature, the term of addiction is currently used to describe a whole range of phenomena characterized by an irresistible urge to engage in a series of behaviors carried out in a repetitive and persistent manner despite accruing adverse somatic, psychological and social consequences for the individual. It has been suggested that subjects presenting such behaviors would share specific features of personality which support the appearance or are associated with these addictive behaviors. Dimensions such as alexithymia and depression have been particularly well investigated. The aim of this study was to explore the hypothesis of a specific psychopathological model relating alexithymia and depression in different addictive disorders such as alcoholism, drug addiction or eating disorders. Alexithymic and depressive dimensions were explored and analyzed through the statistical tool of path analysis in a large clinical sample of addicted patients and controls. The results of this statistical method, which tests unidirectional causal relationships between a certain number of observed variables, showed a good adjustment between the observed data and the ideal model, and support the hypothesis that a depressive dimension can facilitate the development of dependence in vulnerable alexithymic subjects. These results can have clinical implications in the treatment of addictive disorders.

  14. Impact of opium on the serum levels of TGF-β in diabetic, addicted and addicted-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Asiabanha, Majid; Sayadi, Ahmadreza; Jafarzadeh, Abdollah; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein

    2010-09-01

    Several cells of immune system such as regulatory T cells and macrophages secrete transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in response to different stimuli. This cytokine has inhibitory effect on immune system and diminished production of this cytokine is associated with autoimmune disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of opium addiction on serum level of TGF-β in male and female diabetic and non-diabetic Wistar rats. This experimental study was performed on normal, opium addicted, diabetic and addicted-diabetic male and female rats. Serum level of TGF-β was measured by ELISA. The results of our study indicated that the mean serum level of TGF-β in female addicted rats was significantly increased compared to control group (popium and its derivatives have differential inductive effects on the cytokine expression in male and female rats.

  15. The relationship between study addiction and work addiction: a cross-cultural longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Atroszko, PA; Andreassen, CS; Griffiths, MD; Pallesen, S

    2016-01-01

    Recent empirical studies investigating “study addiction” have conceptualized it as a behavioral addiction,\\ud defined within the framework of work addiction. This study is the first attempt to examine the longitudinal relationship between study addiction and work addiction. Methods: The Bergen Study Addiction Scale (BStAS), the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS), and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory were administered online together with questions concerning demographics and study-related v...

  16. [Relationships between sleep and addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañellas, Francesca; de Lecea, Luis

    2012-01-01

    While it is well known that there is an interaction between sleep disorders and substance abuse, it is certainly more complex than was previously thought. There is a positive relationship both between having a substance use disorder and suffering from a sleep disorder, and vice versa. The effects on sleep depend on the substance used, but it has been shown that both during use and in withdrawal periods consumers have various sleep problems, and basically more fragmented sleep. We know that sleep problems must be taken into account to prevent addiction relapses. Recent research shows that the hypocretinergic system defined by neuropeptide hypocretin / orexin (Hcrt / ox), located in the lateral hypothalamus and involved in, among other things, the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle, may play an important role in addictive behaviors. Different studies have demonstrated interactions between the hypocretinergic system, acute response to stress circuits and reward systems. We also know that selective optogenetic activation of the hypocretinergic system increases the probability of transition from sleep to wakefulness, and is sufficient for initiating an addictive compulsive behavior relapse. Hypocretinergic system activation could explain the hyperarousal associated with stress and addiction. Improved knowledge of this interaction would help us to understand better the mechanisms of addiction and find new strategies for the treatment of addictions.

  17. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-12-31

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction.

  18. Regional brain activation associated with addiction of computer games in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Y. H.; Shin, O. J.; Ko, Y. W.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D.

    2001-01-01

    Excessive computer game (CG) playing may cause not only behavioral addiction, but also potential negative effects on developing brain. It is necessary to reveal how brain is affected by excessive use of CG playing and behavioral addiction of it. By using PET, we address the issue seeking to identifying patterns of regional brain activation associated with behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG playing by adolescents. 6 normal control and 8 adolescents who were met by the criteria of behavioral addiction on the survey as addiction groups with an addiction of CG playing were participated. Initial screening survey which is the adapted version of DSM-IV for pathologic gambling was done. PET were performed twice in each participants both during resting state and after 20 min playing of CG. Psychological test including Youth Self Report (YSR), memory and attention test and vocabulary item from KWAIS were performed. Scores of the vocabulary item from KWAIS and social competence from YSR were significantly lower in the addiction group. On PET, addiction group showed higher resting metabolism on inferior frontal, premotor, prefrontal and superior temporal area. Adolescents with addiction of CG revealed different patterns of regional brain activation comparing to control groups. These suggest behavioral addiction and excessive use of CG may result in functional alteration of developing brain in adolescents

  19. Popular Views on Addictions and on Prospects for Recovery in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingemann, Justyna I; Klingemann, Harald; Moskalewicz, Jacek

    2017-11-10

    Popular views of addictive substances and behaviors constitute an important research topic because these views have an impact upon the functioning of treatment systems and societal responses to substance use disorders. The analysis is based on a random sample of N = 1000 telephone interviews collected in Poland in 2013. Questionnaire measures targeted such issues as the perceived risks of addictions and beliefs about potential recovery from various types of addictions. First, a coherent view of the addiction potential of various addictive substances and/or behaviors emerges, distinguishing licit drugs and types of behavior from illicit drugs. Second, treatment optimism proves to be quite high independent of the type of addictive behavior, while chances of recovery without treatment are considered less likely. Third, chances for assisted change (change with treatment) and self-change are considered largely independent of perceived addiction-related risks and are not perceived as contradictory. The results point to the persistence of the disease model of addiction in Poland, placing responsibility for addiction on the individual and pairing it with the expectation of undergoing specialized treatment. This individualistic approach was applied as a framework for addiction problems in the 1950s to deflect from the shortcomings of the ''new socialist society.'' Neo-liberal market reform and socioeconomic changes have provided reinforcement for this individualistic framework.

  20. Predictive values of psychiatric symptoms for internet addiction in adolescents: a 2-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2009-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive values of psychiatric symptoms for the occurrence of Internet addiction and to determine the sex differences in the predictive value of psychiatric symptoms for the occurrence of Internet addiction in adolescents. Internet addiction, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, social phobia, and hostility were assessed by self-reported questionnaires. Participants were then invited to be assessed for Internet addiction 6, 12, and 24 months later (the second, third, and fourth assessments, respectively). Ten junior high schools in southern Taiwan. A total of 2293 (1179 boys and 1114 girls) adolescents participated in the initial investigation. The course of time. Internet addiction as assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, social phobia, and hostility were found to predict the occurrence of Internet addiction in the 2-year follow-up, and hostility and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder were the most significant predictors of Internet addiction in male and female adolescents, respectively. These results suggest that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, hostility, depression, and social phobia should be detected early on and intervention carried out to prevent Internet addiction in adolescents. Also, sex differences in psychiatric comorbidity should be taken into consideration when developing prevention and intervention strategies for Internet addiction.

  1. Interrelationships among impulsive personality traits, food addiction, and Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Cara M; Stojek, Monika K; MacKillop, James

    2014-02-01

    Impulsive personality traits have been robustly associated with alcohol and drug misuse, but have received little attention in the context of food addiction. The goal of the current study was to examine the interrelationships between impulsive personality traits, food addiction, and Body Mass Index (BMI), including indirect pathways of influence. Participants (N = 233) completed the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) to assess patterns of addictive consumption of food, the upps-p impulsivity scale to assess impulsive personality traits, and provided weight and height to generate BMI. Significant positive associations were found between facets of impulsivity, food addiction symptoms, and BMI. Impulsivity was found to be indirectly associated with BMI by way of associations with addictive consumption of food. In particular, an inclination toward behaving irrationally while experiencing negative mood states (Negative Urgency) and low levels of task persistence (lack of Perseverance) were significantly associated with food addiction directly and that relationship was responsible for their relationship to BMI. Dispositional impulsivity, routinely associated with high-risk behaviors including addictive consumption of alcohol and drugs, may be an important risk factor when considering tendency to engage in addictive consumption of food. Monitoring food addiction symptoms early may help reduce the likelihood that compulsive food consumption patterns result in weight gain and obesity. Methodological considerations are discussed.

  2. LHCb Data Replication During SC3

    CERN Multimedia

    Smith, A

    2006-01-01

    LHCb's participation in LCG's Service Challenge 3 involves testing the bulk data transfer infrastructure developed to allow high bandwidth distribution of data across the grid in accordance with the computing model. To enable reliable bulk replication of data, LHCb's DIRAC system has been integrated with gLite's File Transfer Service middleware component to make use of dedicated network links between LHCb computing centres. DIRAC's Data Management tools previously allowed the replication, registration and deletion of files on the grid. For SC3 supplementary functionality has been added to allow bulk replication of data (using FTS) and efficient mass registration to the LFC replica catalog.Provisional performance results have shown that the system developed can meet the expected data replication rate required by the computing model in 2007. This paper details the experience and results of integration and utilisation of DIRAC with the SC3 transfer machinery.

  3. Sex addiction and gambling disorder: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, J M; Fernández-Aranda, F; Granero, R; Aragay, N; Mallorquí-Bague, N; Ferrer, V; More, A; Bouman, W P; Arcelus, J; Savvidou, L G; Penelo, E; Aymamí, M N; Gómez-Peña, M; Gunnard, K; Romaguera, A; Menchón, J M; Vallès, V; Jiménez-Murcia, S

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the DSM-5 has developed a new diagnostic category named "Substance-related and Addictive Disorders". This category includes gambling disorder (GD) as the sole behavioral addiction, but does not include sex addiction (SA). The aim of this study is to investigate whether SA should be classified more closely to other behavioral addictions, via a comparison of the personality characteristics and comorbid psychopathology of individuals with SA with those of individuals with GD, which comes under the category of addiction and related disorders. The sample included 59 patients diagnosed with SA, who were compared to 2190 individuals diagnosed with GD and to 93 healthy controls. Assessment measures included the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Pathological Gambling, the South Oaks Gambling Screen, the Symptom CheckList-90 Items-Revised and the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. No statistically significant differences were found between the two clinical groups, except for socio-economic status. Although statistically significant differences were found between both clinical groups and controls for all scales on the SCL-90, no differences were found between the two clinical groups. The results were different for personality characteristics: logistic regression models showed that sex addictive behavior was predicted by a higher education level and by lower scores for TCI-R novelty-seeking, harm avoidance, persistence and self-transcendence. Being employed and lower scores in cooperativeness also tended to predict the presence of sex addiction. While SA and GD share some psychopathological and personality traits that are not present in healthy controls, there are also some diagnostic-specific characteristics that differentiate between the two clinical groups. These findings may help to increase our knowledge of phenotypes existing in behavioral addictions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The motivations of adolescents who are addicted to online games: a cognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2007-01-01

    This research explored, from the perspective of cognitive theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. Study 1 focused on the differential motivations between the addicts and nonaddicts. The findings revealed that the addicts exhibited higher intrinsic than extrinsic motivation, whereas the nonaddicts showed an opposite relationship. The intrinsic motivation of the addicts was also higher than the nonaddicts. The results imply that intrinsic motivation plays a crucial role in gaming addiction. Study 2 was conducted to examine whether four factors that moderate the detrimental effect of extrinsic motivators on intrinsic motivation would function as predicted. Results indicated that extrinsic rewards would undermine intrinsic motivation when they were high expectancy, high relevance, tangible, and noncontingent. Thus, players' intrinsic motivation would be higher when extrinsic rewards were low expectancy, low relevance, intangible, and contingent. This article provides insights into the differential motivations of the addicted players and how to employ intrinsic motivators to affect their intrinsic motivation.

  5. Risk Factors for Smartphone Addiction in Korean Adolescents: Smartphone Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Kim, Jun Won; Choi, Tae Young

    2017-10-01

    With widespread use of the smartphone, clinical evidence for smartphone addiction remains unclear. Against this background, we analyzed the effect of smartphone use patterns on smartphone addiction in Korean adolescents. A total of 370 middle school students participated. The severity of smartphone addiction was measured through clinical interviews and the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. As a result, 50 (13.5%) were in the smartphone addiction group and 320 (86.5%) were in the healthy group. To investigate the effect of smartphone use patterns on smartphone addiction, we performed self-report questionnaires that assessed the following items: smartphone functions mostly used, purpose of use, problematic use, and parental attitude regarding smartphone use. For smartphone functions mostly used, the addiction group showed significantly higher scores in "Online chat." For the purpose of use, the addiction group showed significantly higher "habitual use," "pleasure," "communication," "games," "stress relief," "ubiquitous trait," and "not to be left out." For problematic use, the addiction group showed significantly higher scores on "preoccupation," "tolerance," "lack of control," "withdrawal," "mood modification," "conflict," "lies," "excessive use," and "loss of interest." For parental attitude regarding children's smartphone use, the addiction group showed significantly higher scores in "parental punishment." Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that "female," "use for learning," "use for ubiquitous trait," "preoccupation," and "conflict" were significantly correlated with smartphone addiction. This study demonstrated that the risk factors for smartphone addiction were being female, preoccupation, conflict, and use for ubiquitous trait; the protective factor was use for learning. Future studies will be required to reveal the additional clinical evidence of the disease entity for smartphone addiction. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  6. Clinical relevance of the proposed sexual addiction diagnostic criteria: relation to the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Patrick J; Hopkins, Tiffany A; Green, Bradley A

    2014-01-01

    The present article examines and compares the various diagnostic rubrics proposed to codify symptoms of sexual addiction, and then briefly summarizes the ongoing controversy on whether sexual addiction is a valid construct. Using the diagnostic criteria proposed by , the prevalence rate of each criterion is examined in terms of scores on the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised scales (). Differences in diagnostic criteria endorsement associated with sex, sexual orientation, and setting were also explored. Results from a clinical sample of men and women seeking treatment for sexual addiction demonstrated clinical relevance of the criteria, in that all but 3 criteria are endorsed at more than 50% of participants screening positive for sexual addiction on the Sexual Addiction Screening Test-Revised. Sex differences were also noted for endorsement rates of several of the criteria. Finally, several proposed criteria may pose a higher clinical threshold and thus be utilized by clinicians to identify patients with increased pathology. Results are discussed in the context of existing diagnostic frameworks across etiological perspectives.

  7. Replication and Analysis of Ebbinghaus? Forgetting Curve

    OpenAIRE

    Murre, Jaap M. J.; Dros, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    We present a successful replication of Ebbinghaus’ classic forgetting curve from 1880 based on the method of savings. One subject spent 70 hours learning lists and relearning them after 20 min, 1 hour, 9 hours, 1 day, 2 days, or 31 days. The results are similar to Ebbinghaus' original data. We analyze the effects of serial position on forgetting and investigate what mathematical equations present a good fit to the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve and its replications. We conclude that the Ebbingha...

  8. INTERNET ADDICTIVITY AS A SPECIFICITY OF WORLD PICTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pervushin N. S.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a phenomenological research of internet addictivity with an emphasis on theoretical conception. Internet addictivity is understood as a human’s feature in modern society which means perception of the world of the Internet as a field of finite values, not less important than daily occurrence. Here we are trying to overcome medical discourse in relation to this feature by using phenomenological alternative. The article shows some of the results of conducted empirical study, which allowed to create 2 polar ideal-typical constructions - internet addictivity and non-addictivity. With internet-addictivity Internet is used principally value-rationally. Internet conducts to the creation of the «We-group», the shortage of which is possible in daily life. In the plans for the future there is nothing connected with family; freedom has a special value. Internetaddictivity is characterized by presence of experiences and emotions about the Internet, which are not weaker than in everyday life. For non-addictiveness is typical understanding of the Internet as a secondary reality, or, in the extreme case, as a way, as a tool, not as a separate world.

  9. Development and validation of a smartphone addiction scale (SAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Min; Lee, Joon-Yeop; Won, Wang-Youn; Park, Jae-Woo; Min, Jung-Ah; Hahn, Changtae; Gu, Xinyu; Choi, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a self-diagnostic scale that could distinguish smartphone addicts based on the Korean self-diagnostic program for Internet addiction (K-scale) and the smartphone's own features. In addition, the reliability and validity of the smartphone addiction scale (SAS) was demonstrated. A total of 197 participants were selected from Nov. 2011 to Jan. 2012 to accomplish a set of questionnaires, including SAS, K-scale, modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (Y-scale), visual analogue scale (VAS), and substance dependence and abuse diagnosis of DSM-IV. There were 64 males and 133 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 53 years (M = 26.06; SD = 5.96). Factor analysis, internal-consistency test, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of SAS. Based on the factor analysis results, the subscale "disturbance of reality testing" was removed, and six factors were left. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified (Cronbach's alpha = 0.967). SAS and its subscales were significantly correlated with K-scale and Y-scale. The VAS of each factor also showed a significant correlation with each subscale. In addition, differences were found in the job (psmartphone addiction scores (psmartphone addiction aspect of the diagnostic manual. This scale was proven to be relatively reliable and valid.

  10. Predictor variables of addiction to training in Spanish master athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Zarauz Sancho

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last fifteen years has been in Spain a very significant increase in people over 35 years practicing Athletics at federative level. The aim of this study is to know their addiction to training and relationships with different variables of this training and athletic history. Also, get a sufficiently robust predictive models by sex, taking their addiction to these variables. Valuable descriptive data and training habits and athletic history were obtained, and that the addiction in Spanish master athletes have average levels, with the pleasure and relaxation subscale (positive and desirable that obtains higher values, and abstinence and craving subscale (negative and undesirable which gets lower. Both correlations as in the regression analysis, only one variant has been analyzed to be related or be predictive of addiction or any of its subscales. Due to these results it is necessary to further investigate this population in future research about your addiction to training including psychological variables as predictors of it (motivation, perception and beliefs about the causes of success, intrinsic satisfaction, etc. to explainmore fully his addiction to training, especially in the case of men.

  11. The Relationship between General Health and Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastiezaie Nasser

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Internet is a neutral tool on its own. However, excessive use of internet poses the risk of being addicted to it. This study was performed to investigate the association between general health and internet addiction.Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study a total number of 375 students (189 female and 186 male were randomly selected from Sistan and Baluchestan University between 2007 to 2008. Using the internet addiction test (IAT, the students were divided into two groups: ordinary users and addicted users of internet. The general health questionnaire (GHQ was used to compare these two groups. The SPSS software and t test were used to analyze the data and P<0.01 was significant.Results: The general health of internet-addicted users in comparison with ordinary users was at a higher risk (P<0.01. But the difference between two groups in general health and disorders of social function were not statistically significant. Conclusion: Depression and anxiety were common in internet addicted users and it was correlated to the amount of time that they were allocating to it.

  12. Negative addiction to exercise: are there differences between genders?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Bonilha Modoio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Regular physical exercise has numerous benefits. However, there is a subset of the exercising population who may develop a compulsion to exercise excessively and who may, as a consequence, display physiological and psychological changes that have a direct influence on their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine if there are differences between male and female athletes' scores on measures of negative addiction symptoms, quality of life, mood and sleep. METHODS: 144 female and 156 male athletes participated in this study by answering the following questionnaires: Negative Addiction Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Trait Anxiety Inventory, Profile of Mood States, SF-36 Quality of Life, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. RESULTS: Higher dedication to training sessions in the male group, and members of the female group with symptoms of negative addiction to exercise showed a lower score on vigor observed by the Profile of Mood States compared to the males in both situations. We also observed depression symptoms in both members of groups who had negative addiction symptoms when compared with their peers without symptoms, and these figures were even higher in females compared with the male group in the same situation. CONCLUSION: No differences were seen in the development of negative addiction exercise symptoms in males and females and there were no changes in the quality of life and mood of these athletes. Further studies of eating disorders associated with changes in body image perception could contribute to a better understanding of negative addiction to exercise.

  13. Core and peripheral criteria of video game addiction in the game addiction scale for adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16-74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted the data better (CFI=0.963; RMSEA=0.058) compared to the original one-factor solution where all items are determined to load only on one factor (CFI=0.905, RMSEA=0.089). This was also found when we analyzed men aged ≤33 years, men aged >33 years, women aged ≤33 years, and women aged >33 years separately. This indicates that the GAS measures both engagement and problems related to video games. Multi-group measurement invariance testing showed that the factor structure was valid in all four groups (configural invariance) for the two-factor structure but not for the one-factor structure. A novel approach to categorization of problem gamers and addicted gamers where only the core criteria items are used (the CORE 4 approach) was compared to the approach where all items are included (the GAS 7 approach). The current results suggest that the CORE 4 approach might be more appropriate for classification of problem gamers and addicted gamers compared to the GAS 7 approach.

  14. Replication Research and Special Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jason C.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Replicating previously reported empirical research is a necessary aspect of an evidence-based field of special education, but little formal investigation into the prevalence of replication research in the special education research literature has been conducted. Various factors may explain the lack of attention to replication of special education…

  15. Sex Differences in Kappa Opioid Receptor Function and Their Potential Impact on Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Chartoff, Elena H.; Mavrikaki, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral, biological, and social sequelae that lead to drug addiction differ between men and women. Our efforts to understand addiction on a mechanistic level must include studies in both males and females. Stress, anxiety, and depression are tightly linked to addiction, and whether they precede or result from compulsive drug use depends on many factors, including biological sex. The neuropeptide dynorphin (DYN), an endogenous ligand at kappa opioid receptors (KORs), is necessary for stress...

  16. Molecular Mechanisms of DNA Replication Checkpoint Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bénédicte Recolin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge of the cell cycle is to deliver an intact, and fully duplicated, genetic material to the daughter cells. To this end, progression of DNA synthesis is monitored by a feedback mechanism known as replication checkpoint that is untimely linked to DNA replication. This signaling pathway ensures coordination of DNA synthesis with cell cycle progression. Failure to activate this checkpoint in response to perturbation of DNA synthesis (replication stress results in forced cell division leading to chromosome fragmentation, aneuploidy, and genomic instability. In this review, we will describe current knowledge of the molecular determinants of the DNA replication checkpoint in eukaryotic cells and discuss a model of activation of this signaling pathway crucial for maintenance of genomic stability.

  17. Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Shiffman, Saul; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Rait, Michelle A; Sen, Saunak; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the nicotine metabolic rate and smoking behavior, including addiction, in adolescent smokers. Baseline data from a prospective study of adolescent smoking behaviors and nicotine metabolism. The setting was an out-patient university hospital in San Francisco. Adolescent smokers (n = 164) aged 13-17 years old. Participants completed self-report measures of smoking behavior and nicotine dependence (modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire: mFTQ). The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a phenotypic marker of the rate of nicotine metabolism, was calculated using the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3'-hydroxycotinine to cotinine-d(4) . Participants reported smoking a mean of 2.86 cigarettes per day (CPD) [median = 1.78, standard deviation (SD) = 3.35] for 1.37 years (median = 1.0, SD = 1.36). Results from multivariate analyses accounting for age, race/ethnicity, gender and duration of smoking indicated that slower metabolizers smoked more CPD than faster metabolizers (the NMR was inversely related to CPD; P = 0.02). Slower metabolizers also showed greater dependence on the mFTQ (NMR was negatively associated with the mFTQ; P = 0.02). In adolescence, slower clearance of nicotine may be associated with greater levels of addiction, perhaps mediated by a greater number of cigarettes smoked. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, paddiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Social networking addiction, attachment style, and validation of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacis, Lucia; de Palo, Valeria; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinatra, Maria

    2017-06-01

    Aim Research into social networking addiction has greatly increased over the last decade. However, the number of validated instruments assessing addiction to social networking sites (SNSs) remains few, and none have been validated in the Italian language. Consequently, this study tested the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (BSMAS), as well as providing empirical data concerning the relationship between attachment styles and SNS addiction. Methods A total of 769 participants were recruited to this study. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and multigroup analyses were applied to assess construct validity of the Italian version of the BSMAS. Reliability analyses comprised the average variance extracted, the standard error of measurement, and the factor determinacy coefficient. Results Indices obtained from the CFA showed the Italian version of the BSMAS to have an excellent fit of the model to the data, thus confirming the single-factor structure of the instrument. Measurement invariance was established at configural, metric, and strict invariances across age groups, and at configural and metric levels across gender groups. Internal consistency was supported by several indicators. In addition, the theoretical associations between SNS addiction and attachment styles were generally supported. Conclusion This study provides evidence that the Italian version of the BSMAS is a psychometrically robust tool that can be used in future Italian research into social networking addiction.

  1. Advances in nicotine research in Addiction Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Rick E

    2015-09-01

    The aim of Addiction Biology is to advance our understanding of the action of drugs of abuse and addictive processes via the publication of high-impact clinical and pre-clinical findings resulting from behavioral, molecular, genetic, biochemical, neurobiological and pharmacological research. As of 2013, Addiction Biology is ranked number 1 in the category of Substance Abuse journals (SCI). Occasionally, Addiction Biology likes to highlight via review important findings focused on a particular topic and recently published in the journal. The current review summarizes a number of key publications from Addiction Biology that have contributed to the current knowledge of nicotine research, comprising a wide spectrum of approaches, both clinical and pre-clinical, at the cellular, molecular, systems and behavioral levels. A number of findings from human studies have identified, using imaging techniques, alterations in common brain circuits, as well as morphological and network activity changes, associated with tobacco use. Furthermore, both clinical and pre-clinical studies have characterized a number of mechanistic targets critical to understanding the effects of nicotine and tobacco addiction. Together, these findings will undoubtedly drive future studies examining the dramatic impact of tobacco use and the development of treatments to counter nicotine dependence. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. User profiles of internet addicts in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinić Darko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was a part of a broader empirical study of Internet users with excessive and dysfunctional Internet use symptoms. The aim of this particular article was to describe user profiles of Internet addicts in Serbia. The study recruited 100 subjects in total, 50 in both the clinical and control group. The clinical group included the Internet users who asked for professional help due to the symptoms of the excessive Internet use and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for Internet behavior disorder proposed by the American Psychology Association. The results have shown that population with Internet addiction symptoms equally included both males and females, mostly adolescent and younger population, teenagers and university students, persons with higher income and users from economically more developed areas of Serbia. The user profile of this group is characterized by frequent logging on with intervals of several hours online at one time, mainly in the evening or at night, and also intensive negative reactions to any form of Internet access deprivation. By means of factor analysis, three dimensions of pathological use have been established: mixed type with particular need for up-to-date information, social interaction addiction and need for fun-seeking, namely pursuing hobbies online (cyberpornography, online games, music, art and so on.

  3. Is game addiction a mental disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal

    "addiction" and describes how gambling disorder (the only officially recognized behavioral addiction) came to be defined as an addiction. Chapter 2 will take a look at the negative consequences of video game play that are most commonly cited in the literature on game addiction. This review will show how...... "video game addiction" exists. The chapter highlights potential problems that arise when psychiatric disorders are transferred across cultures. The dissertation concludes that there is insufficient scientific evidence to support the notion that "Internet gaming disorder" is an addictive disorder....

  4. Towards understanding addiction factors of mobile devices: An eye tracking study on effect of screen size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibirama, Sunu; Nugroho, Hanung A

    2017-07-01

    Mobile devices addiction has been an important research topic in cognitive science, mental health, and human-machine interaction. Previous works observed mobile device addiction by logging mobile devices activity. Although immersion has been linked as a significant predictor of video game addiction, investigation on addiction factors of mobile device with behavioral measurement has never been done before. In this research, we demonstrated the usage of eye tracking to observe effect of screen size on experience of immersion. We compared subjective judgment with eye movements analysis. Non-parametric analysis on immersion score shows that screen size affects experience of immersion (pmobile devices addiction. Our experimental results are also useful to develop a guideline as well as intervention strategy to deal with smartphone addiction.

  5. Validation of the exercise addiction inventory in a Danish sport context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, M B; Christiansen, E; Bilenberg, N

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise behavior with potential negative consequences. The symptoms consist of salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflicts, and relapse. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the exercise...... addiction inventory (EAI) and to estimate the prevalence of exercise addiction in a Danish normal weight sport population. A sample of 780 habitual fitness and football exercisers were contacted and 590 completed the EAI and an in-house questionnaire containing questions about variables related to exercise...... addiction: (a) exercise frequency; (b) continuance despite injuries; and (c) personal perception of addiction. The results demonstrated an overall prevalence of exercise addiction of 5.8%. There was no significant difference between fitness and football prevalences. The internal reliability of EAI...

  6. Turkish high school students' attitudes toward addictive substances: association with perceived parental attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustüner, Mehmet; Aksoy, Kasim; Ozer, Niyazi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold: 1) to determine attitudes of high school students toward addictive substances; and 2) to determine students' attitudes toward addictive substances in terms of some variables including gender, grade, and perceived parental attitudes. To this end, Addictive Substances Attitudes Scale and Parental Attitudes Scale were given to a sample of 745 high school students (F = 330, M = 415) chosen by purposive sampling method. Results showed that compared to the males, females had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. And compared to students from the upper grades, students from lower grades had more negative attitudes toward addictive substances. It is also found that students' attitudes toward addictive substances correlate with perceived parental attitudes. The correlation is low and positive for perceived democratic parental attitudes (r = .29), negative and low for perceived authoritarian parental attitudes (r = -.27).

  7. The Relationship between Loneliness and Depression: Mediation Role of Internet Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Demir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the mediation role of internet addiction in the relationship between loneliness and depression. 452 university students (241 women, 211 men ranging in age from 17 to 31 and who are receiving education in different faculties at Firat University in Turkey participated in the study. UCLA Loneliness Scale, Young Internet Addiction Test Short Form, and Indication Scanning List was applied to the participants. The data were analyzed with correlation, regression, hierarchical regression analysis, and Sobel Z test. According to correlation analysis, there are relations in a positive way among loneliness, depression, and internet addiction. In reference to regression analysis, loneliness predicts internet addiction and depression. However, internet addiction also predicts depression as well. As a result of hierarchical regression analysis to determine the mediation role of internet addiction, it was monitored that internet addiction has partial mediation in the relation between loneliness and depression. In addition to that, it was confirmed that this mediation predicts at a significant level with Sobel Z Test. The findings of the study demonstrate a partial mediation role of internet addiction in the relation between loneliness and depression. According to this result, it can be stated that loneliness and internet addiction are risk factors for depression. In terms of studies on depression, the results of this study can be taken into consideration.

  8. The comparison of cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeonhyeong; Seo, Kyochul

    2014-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare cervical repositioning errors according to smartphone addiction grades of adults in their 20s. [Subjects and Methods] A survey of smartphone addiction was conducted of 200 adults. Based on the survey results, 30 subjects were chosen to participate in this study, and they were divided into three groups of 10; a Normal Group, a Moderate Addiction Group, and a Severe Addiction Group. After attaching a C-ROM, we measured the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, right lateral flexion and left lateral flexion. [Results] Significant differences in the cervical repositioning errors of flexion, extension, and right and left lateral flexion were found among the Normal Group, Moderate Addiction Group, and Severe Addiction Group. In particular, the Severe Addiction Group showed the largest errors. [Conclusion] The result indicates that as smartphone addiction becomes more severe, a person is more likely to show impaired proprioception, as well as impaired ability to recognize the right posture. Thus, musculoskeletal problems due to smartphone addiction should be resolved through social cognition and intervention, and physical therapeutic education and intervention to educate people about correct postures.

  9. Behavioral addictions in addiction medicine: from mechanisms to practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banz, Barbara C; Yip, Sarah W; Yau, Yvonne H C; Potenza, Marc N

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress has been made in our understanding of nonsubstance or "behavioral" addictions, although these conditions and their most appropriate classification remain debated and the knowledge basis for understanding the pathophysiology of and treatments for these conditions includes important gaps. Recent developments include the classification of gambling disorder as a "Substance-Related and Addictive Disorder" in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and proposed diagnostic criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder in Section 3 of DSM-5. This chapter reviews current neuroscientific understandings of behavioral addictions and the potential of neurobiological data to assist in the development of improved policy, prevention, and treatment efforts. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. DNA replication origins in archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenfang eWu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available DNA replication initiation, which starts at specific chromosomal site (known as replication origins, is the key regulatory stage of chromosome replication. Archaea, the third domain of life, use a single or multiple origin(s to initiate replication of their circular chromosomes. The basic structure of replication origins is conserved among archaea, typically including an AT-rich unwinding region flanked by several conserved repeats (origin recognition box, ORB that are located adjacent to a replication initiator gene. Both the ORB sequence and the adjacent initiator gene are considerably diverse among different replication origins, while in silico and genetic analyses have indicated the specificity between the initiator genes and their cognate origins. These replicator-initiator pairings are reminiscent of the oriC-dnaA system in bacteria, and a model for the negative regulation of origin activity by a downstream cluster of ORB elements has been recently proposed in haloarchaea. Moreover, comparative genomic analyses have revealed that the mosaics of replicator-initiator pairings in archaeal chromosomes originated from the integration of extrachromosomal elements. This review summarizes the research progress in understanding of archaeal replication origins with particular focus on the utilization, control and evolution of multiple replication origins in haloarchaea.

  11. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking.

  12. Meperidine addiction or treatment frustration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C I; Liu, C Y; Chen, C Y; Yang, C H; Yeh, E K

    2001-01-01

    There have been few studies of the psychiatric characteristics of analgesics addiction. The physician's perceptions that patients were addicted to analgesics might be partially attributable to frustration with poor response to treatment. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the medical records of 20 subjects (15 male and 5 female) who were perceived as having addiction to meperidine by general physicians. The most common medical diagnosis among these patients was chronic pancreatitis (7/20). Among them, five had a past history of suicide attempt and three had self-injury behavior during the index admission. The fact that subjects were perceived as being addicted might be attributable to a vicious cycle of the following factors: 1) chronic intractable pain; 2) poor staff-patient relationship; 3) lower pain threshold or tolerance due to anxiety or depression; 4) patients with a history or tendency of substance abuse; 5) placebo use and inadequate analgesics regimen. The findings of this study suggest that the importance of the following diagnostic and treatment procedures in these patients: 1) suicide risk should be evaluated; 2) comorbid psychiatric diseases should be treated; 3) factors that cause a vicious cycle in pain control should be identified; 4) misconceptions of opiate analgesics among medical staff should be discussed; 5) poor staff-patient relationship should be managed aggressively; and 6) "addiction" is a critical diagnosis that should be avoided if possible.

  13. Socio-demographic characteristics of the addicted inmates of Qom and Tabriz prisons in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattari Mohammadreza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to study the factors responsible for drug addiction amongst the inmates of Tabriz and Qom prisons, to further understand the reasons for drug abuse particularly in the young and find improved methods for combating these widespread problems. Methods: A multi-choice questionnaire was provided to inmates to potentially assess the reasons for their drug addiction psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors were thought to be implicated. Two hundred drug addicted prisoners were individually interviewed randomly in both Tabriz and Qom prisons. A questionnaire including questions about the inmates’ demographic characteristics and 49 multiple answers questions, was provided to identify the effects of different reasons for drug addiction for instance: psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors. The collected data were analyzed by Student t-test and chi-squared test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that the following factors could lead to drug addiction e.g. company with addicted friends and offenders, curiosity, imitation, illiteracy, family problems, crowded family, poverty, unemployment, and lack of self confidence. There were significant differences between Tabriz and Qom prisoners in relation to age, starting age of addiction, job, income, education, class of addiction, marital status, and hobbies. Mean age, mean starting age of addiction, poverty, alcohol drinking before addiction, marital status, heroin addiction, codeine and benzodiazepines abuse were significantly greater for Tabriz prisoners than those of Qom. Conclusion: It is clear that the governmental programs for reducing unemployment, creation of safe hobbies, proper control on drug dispensing in the pharmacies, proper birth control programs, and encouragement to higher education could alleviate addiction problem in Iran.

  14. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. Methods: The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined. Results: We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a “Work Hard, Play Hard”-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure. Discussion and Conclusions: We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure. PMID:24701344

  15. Understanding the means and objects of addiction: Technology, the internet, and gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, H J

    1996-12-01

    This article describes how using new computer technology and the Internet for gambling can represent both the means and object of addiction. However, these technological factors do not represent the cause of addictive behavior. Given the widespread availability of computer technology and the remarkable expansion of the Internet, it is not surprising, however, that these technological advances have become associated with intemperate gambling activities. By discussing the concept of addiction and its associated social setting, neurochemistry, and gaming characteristics, this article suggests that addiction is the result of shifts in subjective experience and that new technology and the Internet can provide relatively reliable and potent contemporary vehicles for changing emotional states.

  16. [Drug Addiction Self-Help Recovery scale (DASH-scale): an approach to the measurement of recovery from drug addiction in self-help program among drug addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2004-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop a scale for measuring the recovery in self-help program for drug addicts. Our study sites were fourteen self-help groups for drug addicts called "DARC: Drug Addiction Rehabilitation Center". DARC activities were based on Narcotics Anonymous types of self-help program. The 25-items DASH-scale questionnaire was developed using data, which were obtained through in-depth interview among DARC staff. A cross-sectional study among recovering addicts participating in "DARC" activities was implemented from Jan 2004 to Feb 2004. 164 subjects were responded to our questionnaire. Factor analysis was carried out and items with weaker or split loadings were removed. Factor analysis of DASH-scale results produced a surprisingly clean four-factor solution. 19-items were left to form the final DASH-scale; regular life-style (6 items), acceptance of drug addiction (5 items), sympathy with member (5 items), reborn (3 items). The internal consistency (Cronbach's Alpha) of these scales was very high (0.87). Low but significant concurrent correlations were observed between the DASH-scale and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (0.22), Purpose in Life Test (0.35). Discriminant validity of the DASH-scale was supported by significant increase with exposed period of self-help program. Evidence supports the DASH-scale was possible to measure recovery in self-help program.

  17. [The place of cyber addiction in teenagers' addictive behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valleur, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The easy access which modern teenagers have to new technologies favours their excessive use of video games, as they seek to escape potential existential difficulties. This harmful aspect should not mask the creative potential of games for the majority of teenagers. Treatment for young people with a gaming addiction is based on psychotherapy and takes into account the family dimension of the problem. This article presents an interview with Marc Valleur, a psychiatrist and head physician at Marmottan hospital specialising in the care and support of people with addictions.

  18. Spatial and Temporal Assessment on Drug Addiction Using Multivariate Analysis and GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Mohd Ekhwan Toriman; Siti Nor Fazillah Abdullah; Izwan Arif Azizan; Mohd Khairul Amri Kamarudin; Roslan Umar; Nasir Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for managing and displaying drug addiction phenomena and trend at both spatial and temporal scales. Spatial and temporal assessment on drug addiction in Terengganu was undertaken to understand the geographical area of district in the same cluster, in addition, identify the hot spot area of this problem and analysis the trend of drug addiction. Data used were topography map of Terengganu and number of drug addicted person in Terengganu by district within 10 years (2004-2013). Number of drug addicted person by district were mapped using Geographic Information system and analysed using a combination of multivariate analysis which is cluster analysis were applied to the database in order to validate the correlation between data in the same cluster. Result showed a cluster analysis for number of drug addiction by district generated three clusters which are Besut and Kuala Terengganu in cluster 1 named moderate drug addicted person (MDA), Dungun, Marang, Setiu and Hulu Terengganu in cluster 2 named lower drug addicted person (LDA) and Kemaman in cluster 3 named high drug addicted person(HDA). This analysis indicates that cluster 3 which is Kemaman is a hot spot area. These results were beneficial for stakeholder to monitor and manage this problem especially in the hot spot area which needs to be emphasized. (author)

  19. Commercial Building Partnerships Replication and Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonopoulos, Chrissi A.; Dillon, Heather E.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-09-16

    This study presents findings from survey and interview data investigating replication efforts of Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) partners that worked directly with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL partnered directly with 12 organizations on new and retrofit construction projects, which represented approximately 28 percent of the entire U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) CBP program. Through a feedback survey mechanism, along with personal interviews, PNNL gathered quantitative and qualitative data relating to replication efforts by each organization. These data were analyzed to provide insight into two primary research areas: 1) CBP partners’ replication efforts of technologies and approaches used in the CBP project to the rest of the organization’s building portfolio (including replication verification), and, 2) the market potential for technology diffusion into the total U.S. commercial building stock, as a direct result of the CBP program. The first area of this research focused specifically on replication efforts underway or planned by each CBP program participant. Factors that impact replication include motivation, organizational structure and objectives firms have for implementation of energy efficient technologies. Comparing these factors between different CBP partners revealed patterns in motivation for constructing energy efficient buildings, along with better insight into market trends for green building practices. The second area of this research develops a diffusion of innovations model to analyze potential broad market impacts of the CBP program on the commercial building industry in the United States.

  20. Is Sensation Seeking a correlate of excessive behaviors and behavioral addictions? A detailed examination of patients with Gambling Disorder and Internet Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K W; Dreier, M; Beutel, M E; Wölfling, K

    2016-08-30

    Sensation Seeking has repeatedly been related to substance use. Also, its role as a correlate of Gambling Disorder has been discussed although research has led to heterogeneous results. Likewise, first studies on Internet Addiction have indicated increased Sensation Seeking, to some extent contradicting clinical impression of patients suffering from internet addiction. We assessed Sensation Seeking in a clinical sample of n=251 patients with Gambling Disorder, n=243 patients with internet addiction, n=103 clients with excessive but not addictive internet use, and n=142 healthy controls. The clinical groups were further sub-divided according to the preferred type of addictive behavior (slot-machine gambling vs. high arousal gambling activities and internet gaming disorder vs. other internet-related addictive behaviors). Decreased scores in some subscales of Sensation Seeking were found among male patients compared to healthy controls with no differences between patients with Gambling Disorder and Internet Addiction. The type of preferred gambling or online activity was not related to differences in Sensation Seeking. Previous findings indicating only small associations between Sensation Seeking and Gambling Disorder were confirmed. Regarding Internet Addiction our results contradict findings from non-clinical samples. Sensation Seeking might be relevant in initiating contact to the health care system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Relationship among family environment, self-control, friendship quality, and adolescents’ smartphone addiction in South Korea: Findings from nationwide data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Min, Jin-Young; Lee, Tae-Jin; Yoo, Seunghyun

    2018-01-01

    Background Many studies have examined the negative impact on smartphone addiction in adolescents. Recent concerns have focused on predictors of smartphone addiction. This study aimed to investigate the association of adolescents’ smartphone addiction with family environment (specifically, domestic violence and parental addiction). We further investigated whether self-control and friendship quality, as predictors of smartphone addiction, may reduce the observed risk. Methods We used the 2013 national survey on internet usage and utilization data from the National Information Agency of Korea. Information on exposure and covariates included self-reported experience of domestic violence and parental addiction, sociodemographic variables, and other variables potentially related to smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was estimated using a smartphone addiction proneness scale, a standardized measure developed by national institutions in Korea. Results Adolescents who had experienced domestic violence (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.23–2.45) and parental addiction (OR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.24–3.27) were found to be at an increased risk for smartphone addiction after controlling for all potential variables. Furthermore, on classifying adolescents according to their level of self-control and friendship quality the association between domestic violence and parental addiction, and smartphone addiction was found to be significant in the group with adolescents with lower levels of self-control (OR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.68–4.90 and OR = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.34–2.83) and friendship quality (OR = 2.33; 95% CI: 1.41–3.85 and OR = 1.83; 95% CI: 1.26–2.64). Conclusion Our findings suggest that family dysfunction was significantly associated with smartphone addiction. We also observed that self-control and friendship quality act as protective factors against adolescents’ smartphone addiction. PMID:29401496

  2. SUMO and KSHV Replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Pei-Ching [Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Kung, Hsing-Jien, E-mail: hkung@nhri.org.tw [Institute for Translational Medicine, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan (China); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); UC Davis Cancer Center, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Division of Molecular and Genomic Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan, Miaoli County 35053, Taiwan (China)

    2014-09-29

    Small Ubiquitin-related MOdifier (SUMO) modification was initially identified as a reversible post-translational modification that affects the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including signal transduction, protein trafficking, chromosome segregation, and DNA repair. Increasing evidence suggests that the SUMO system also plays an important role in regulating chromatin organization and transcription. It is thus not surprising that double-stranded DNA viruses, such as Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), have exploited SUMO modification as a means of modulating viral chromatin remodeling during the latent-lytic switch. In addition, SUMO regulation allows the disassembly and assembly of promyelocytic leukemia protein-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), an intrinsic antiviral host defense, during the viral replication cycle. Overcoming PML-NB-mediated cellular intrinsic immunity is essential to allow the initial transcription and replication of the herpesvirus genome after de novo infection. As a consequence, KSHV has evolved a way as to produce multiple SUMO regulatory viral proteins to modulate the cellular SUMO environment in a dynamic way during its life cycle. Remarkably, KSHV encodes one gene product (K-bZIP) with SUMO-ligase activities and one gene product (K-Rta) that exhibits SUMO-targeting ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) activity. In addition, at least two viral products are sumoylated that have functional importance. Furthermore, sumoylation can be modulated by other viral gene products, such as the viral protein kinase Orf36. Interference with the sumoylation of specific viral targets represents a potential therapeutic strategy when treating KSHV, as well as other oncogenic herpesviruses. Here, we summarize the different ways KSHV exploits and manipulates the cellular SUMO system and explore the multi-faceted functions of SUMO during KSHV’s life cycle and pathogenesis.

  3. Relationship between Internet Addiction, Gaming Addiction and School Engagement among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This research examined the relationship of Internet addiction and gaming addiction with school engagement and effects of Internet addiction and gaming addiction on school engagement. The research was conducted with 365 students (140, 38.4%, males; 225, 61.6%, females) studying at an Anatolian high school in Gaziantep province. Personal Information…

  4. Online social networking addiction among college students in Singapore: Comorbidity with behavioral addiction and affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Koh, Yvaine Yee Woen

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of addiction to social networking sites/platforms (SNS) and its comorbidity with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder among college students in Singapore. 1110 college students (age: M=21.46, SD=1.80) in Singapore completed measures assessing online social networking, unhealthy food intake and shopping addiction as well as depression, anxiety and mania. Descriptive analyses were conducted to investigate the prevalence and comorbidity of behavioral addiction and affective disorder. Chi-square tests were used to examine gender differences. The prevalence rates of SNS, food and shopping addiction were 29.5%, 4.7% and 9.3% respectively for the total sample. SNS addiction was found to co-occur with food addiction (3%), shopping addiction (5%), and both food and shopping addiction (1%). The comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder were 21% for depression, 27.7% for anxiety, and 26.1% for mania. Compared with the total sample, students with SNS addiction reported higher comorbidity rates with other behavioral addiction and affective disorder. In general, females as compared to males reported higher comorbidity rates of SNS addiction and affective disorder. SNS addiction has a high prevalence rate among college students in Singapore. Students with SNS addiction were vulnerable to experience other behavior addiction as well as affective disorder, especially among females. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Responsibility without Blame for Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Hanna

    2017-01-01

    Drug use and drug addiction are severely stigmatised around the world. Marc Lewis does not frame his learning model of addiction as a choice model out of concern that to do so further encourages stigma and blame. Yet the evidence in support of a choice model is increasingly strong as well as consonant with core elements of his learning model. I offer a responsibility without blame framework that derives from reflection on forms of clinical practice that support change and recovery in patients who cause harm to themselves and others. This framework can be used to interrogate our own attitudes and responses, so that we can better see how to acknowledge the truth about choice and agency in addiction, while avoiding stigma and blame, and instead maintaining care and compassion alongside a commitment to working for social justice and good.

  6. [Psychiatric emergencies in drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamina, Amine; Bouchez, Jacques; Rahioui, Hassan; Reynaud, Michel

    2003-06-01

    The practitioner is very frequently confronted by emergencies in drug-addicted patients also having psychiatric symptomatology. In this article the authors will address emergencies related to alcohol (notably intoxication, pre-DTs and the encephalopathies); emergencies related to cannabis (notably intoxication, psychotic states and panic attacks); and emergencies related to other psycho-active substances (overdoses, drug-withdrawal, psychiatric complications related to cocaine or amphetamines). In the domain of drug addiction, as in psychiatry, the practitioner must give as much importance to the organisation of the long-term healthcare plan for the drug addict, ulterior to the management of the immediate emergency. For example, whereas 90% of subjects presenting to the emergency department for acute alcoholic intoxication have a pathological consumption of alcohol (abuse or dependance), management of the alcoholism is proposed in only 2% of them.

  7. Reward, addiction, withdrawal to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasi, Mariella; Dani, John A

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine is the principal addictive component that drives continued tobacco use despite users' knowledge of the harmful consequences. The initiation of addiction involves the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to the processing of rewarding sensory stimuli during the overall shaping of successful behaviors. Acting mainly through nicotinic receptors containing the α4 and β2 subunits, often in combination with the α6 subunit, nicotine increases the firing rate and the phasic bursts by midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuroadaptations arise during chronic exposure to nicotine, producing an altered brain condition that requires the continued presence of nicotine to be maintained. When nicotine is removed, a withdrawal syndrome develops. The expression of somatic withdrawal symptoms depends mainly on the α5, α2, and β4 (and likely α3) nicotinic subunits involving the epithalamic habenular complex and its targets. Thus, nicotine taps into diverse neural systems and an array of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes to influence reward, addiction, and withdrawal.

  8. [Mobile phone abuse or addiction. A review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Rodríguez Monje, María Teresa; Ruiz Sánchez De León, José María

    2012-01-01

    The mobile phone is a relatively new technological tool, versatile and accessible, and very attractive, especially for young people, but whose use involves a risk of abuse and addictive behavior. In recent years there has been increasing interest in this problem, especially in view of the fact that it involves an increasingly younger population. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of scientific knowledge about cell phone addiction/abuse. To this end, a search was carried out in international databases, using the descriptors "mobile phone", "cellular telephones", "addiction" and "abuse", and focusing on prevalence studies, diagnostic tests, associations with psychological variables and gender differences. There is a conceptual vagueness about the concepts of abuse and addiction in relation to mobile phones, and wide disparity in the adoption of diagnostic criteria; moreover, there are numerous instruments for the assessment of these concepts. As a result, the estimated prevalence ranges from 0-38%, depending on the scale used and the characteristics of the population studied. Surprisingly, self-attribution of cell phone addiction exceeds the prevalence estimated in the studies themselves. The personality trait most consistently associated with addiction is low self-esteem, though extraversion is associated with more intense use. Women with low self-esteem are the most vulnerable group, and the most commonly associated psychopathological symptom was depression. In short, while the evidence suggests a problem in relation to mobile phone use, the vagueness of the cell phone addiction concept and the poor quality of the studies make it difficult to generalize the results. It is necessary to define and unify criteria with a view to carrying out quality studies that permit appropriate comparisons.

  9. [Drugs used to treat nicotine addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieleń, Iwona; Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking in Poland is fairly widespread on a large scale. Research suggests that the early twenty-first century, the percentage of female daily smokers aged 20 and above was 26%, and men the same age 43%. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown that smoking was the cause of approximately sixty-nine thousand deaths in Poland (including fifty-seven thousand men and twelve thousand women). It is common ground that cigarette smoking has a negative effect on our body. It represents one of the main and most commonly defined risk factors for many diseases that can be eliminated. Smoking often leads to addiction, and nicotine is an addictive drug. Nicotine addiction is characterized by symptoms such as: "hunger" smoking, difficulty in controlling behavior on smoking or the number of cigarettes smoked, nicotine withdrawal, the occurrence of tolerance, neglect of interests, as well as devoting more time on activities related to smoking, follow-up smoking despite knowledge of its dangers. The most commonly used in Poland, a questionnaire to identify nicotine dependence is a test Fagerstöma. Currently assigned some importance, "the doctor a conversation the patient" and motivating him to stop smoking and maintain abstinence as long as possible. But beyond the "conversation" is also used as an aid to medical treatment for the patient to stop smoking, especially to alleviate withdrawal symptoms. The first attempts of pharmacological help in the effort to weaning from smoking began in the thirties. Were conducted fairly successful, although uncontrolled trials with lobeline, an alkaloid of action similar to nicotine. In Poland, the drugs of first choice in the treatment of nicotine dependence are nicotine replacement therapies (nicotine gum and patches that contain nicotine) and bupropion SR. Quite a popular drugs to help in the fight against addiction are also cytisine and varenicline. The choice of the drug is usually the result of medical experience in the use

  10. Prevention of non-drug addictions

    OpenAIRE

    PELECHOVÁ, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    Non-drug addictions are part of us, including children and youth. It is important to realize that non-drug addictions influence us and are underestimated despite their seriousness. They constitute serious social-pathological phenomenon of the present. This Bachelor Thesis deals particularly with prevention and the present situation of socially undesired behaviour that is very widespread in current society. With pathological gambling, mobile phone addiction, virtual addictions, alimentary diso...

  11. Rationally Addicted to Drinking and Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Bask, Mikael; Melkersson, Maria

    2001-01-01

    When modeling demand for addictive consumption goods, the most widely used framework is the rational addiction model proposed by Becker and Murphy (1988). In the present paper, we extend the rational addiction model to include two addictive consumption goods, alcohol and cigarettes. We estimate the aggregate demand for alcohol and cigarettes in Sweden, using aggregate annual time series on sales volumes for the period 1955-1999. OLS estimates are compared to GMM estimates allowing for possibl...

  12. Hubungan Kejadian Internet Addiction dengan Prestasi Belajar pada Mahasiswa FK Unand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizky Erizka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTeknologi internet berkembang sangat pesat dalam beberapa tahun terakhir dengan berbagai manfaat positif dan negatifnya. Internet addiction merupakan salah satu dampak negatif yang ditimbulkan. Dalam beberapa penelitian disebutkan pengaruh internet addiction terhadap beberapa aspek termasuk pendidikan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui angka kejadian internet addiction dan mempelajari hubungannya dengan prestasi belajar pada mahasiswa Fakultas Kedokteran Unand. Metode studi cross sectional dilakukan terhadap mahasiswa FK Unand angkatan 2011. Hasil penelitian diolah dengan menggunakan uji chi-square. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kejadian internet addiction mempengaruhi prestasi belajar pada mahasiswa FK Unand. Sebanyak 1,1% subjek mengalami internet addiction berat, 34,4% sedang dan 37,7% ringan. Berdasarkan jenis kelamin perempuan lebih banyak mengalami internet addiction daripada laki laki karena  perempuan yang lebih banyak. Klasifikasi yang terbanyak adalah cyber-relationship dan metode paling banyak yang digunakan untuk mengakses internet adalah dengan menggunakan smartphone. Hasil lain yang didapatkan adalah kebutuhan dasar dan ibadah adalah kegiatan paling dominan yang dapat menghentikan responden dari mengakses internet. Disimpulkan bahwa kejadian internet addiction mempengaruhi prestasi belajar pada mahasiswa FK Unand.Kata kunci: cyber-relationship, internet, internet addiction, prestasi belajar AbstractThe internet technology grow very fast in recent years bringing many positive and negative effects. Internet addiction is one of the negative effect. Several research confirm some negative effect of internet addiction including  academic problem. The objective of this study was to know frequency and it’s relation with academic achievement in Medical Faculty of Andalas university’s students. This was a cross-sectional study on Medical Faculty of Andalas University’s students. The result were analyzed by chi

  13. Social Anomie and Drug Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The present article addresses the relationshop between social anomie and drug addiction and tries to show that how we can apply anomie theory to clarify the aspects of this social problem in our society. By reviewing Durkheim’s and Merton’s anomie theories and Agnew’s mental-social theory، this article attempts to show that despite of fundamental differences in these two theories، Iranian Society has an anomic situation and this situation has a high poteniality for tendency toward drug addict...

  14. Social Anomie and Drug Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article addresses the relationshop between social anomie and drug addiction and tries to show that how we can apply anomie theory to clarify the aspects of this social problem in our society. By reviewing Durkheim’s and Merton’s anomie theories and Agnew’s mental-social theory، this article attempts to show that despite of fundamental differences in these two theories، Iranian Society has an anomic situation and this situation has a high poteniality for tendency toward drug addiction/abuse.

  15. Online therapy for addictive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark

    2005-12-01

    Clinicians working in the field of addictive behaviors cannot afford to ignore the Internet. Psychological advice, help, and treatment for addicts are no exceptions, with both counseling and psychotherapy entering the computer age. This paper reviews the main issues in the area and approaches the discussion acknowledging that online therapy has to be incorporated within the overall framework of the need for clinical assistance. The paper also provides brief overviews of some websites as illustrative examples of what types of online therapy are available.

  16. Cellular Events in Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Penton, Rachel E.; Lester, Robin A.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the twenty-five years since the observation that chronic exposure to nicotine could regulate the number and function of high affinity nicotine binding sites in the brain there has been a major effort to link alterations in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) to nicotine-induced behaviors that drive the addiction to tobacco products. Here we review the proposed roles of various nAChR subtypes in the addiction process, with emphasis on how they are regulated by nicotine and the implic...

  17. Content Analysis of the Concept of Addiction in High School Textbooks of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzamohammadi, Mohammad Hasan; Mousavi, Sayedeh Zainab; Massah, Omid; Farhoudian, Ali

    2017-01-01

    This research sought to determine how well the causes of addiction, addiction harms, and prevention of addiction have been noticed in high school textbooks. We used descriptive method to select the main related components of the addiction concept and content analysis method for analyzing the content of textbooks. The study population comprised 61 secondary school curriculum textbooks and study sample consisted of 14 secondary school textbooks selected by purposeful sampling method. The tools for collecting data were "content analysis inventory" which its validity was confirmed by educational and social sciences experts and its reliability has been found to be 91%. About 67 components were prepared for content analysis and were divided to 3 categories of causes, harms, and prevention of addiction. The analysis units in this study comprised phrases, topics, examples, course topics, words, poems, images, questions, tables, and exercises. Results of the study showed that the components of the addiction concept have presented with 212 remarks in the textbooks. Also, the degree of attention given to any of the 3 main components of the addiction concept were presented as follows: causes with 52 (24.52%) remarks, harm with 89 (41.98%) remarks, and prevention with 71 (33.49%) remarks. In high school textbooks, little attention has been paid to the concept of addiction and mostly its biological dimension were addressed while social, personal, familial, and religious dimensions of addiction have been neglected.

  18. Drug Addiction in Urban Life of Bangladesh: A Sociological Study for Exploring the Causes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Abul Hasam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction is becoming a social problem in Bangladesh. It creates many social offences. Consequently, the youth - the future of the nation - are running into the depth of darkness. This study tries to discover the causes of drug addiction in the urban life of Bangladesh. To conduct this study, analytical research design, social survey method & stratified random sampling have been followed. To measure the causes of drug addiction, the Likert Scaling five rating scale has been applied. Further, for hypotheses testing, an ᵡ 2 - test has been used to test the degree to which two or more groups vary or differ in an experiment. The present findings suggest that the majority (67.67 % of drug addicts think that drug addiction is high/very high, simultaneously 9.10% medium and 23.23% low/very low due to the influence of frustration, addicted parents and peer group in society. Again, the result of hypotheses testing suggests that a man can become addicted to drugs by the influence of frustration and peer group not influenced by the parental drug addiction. Therefore, these findings may help the policy makers and planners of the government and non-government organizations to take appropriate initiatives to prevent drug addiction in society.

  19. A Comparison of Treatment-Seeking Behavioral Addiction Patients with and without Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sauvaget

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The administration of dopaminergic medication to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD is associated with addictive behaviors and impulse control disorders. Little is known, however, on how PD patients differ from other patients seeking treatments for behavioral addictions. The aim of this study was to compare the characteristics of behavioral addiction patients with and without PD. N = 2,460 treatment-seeking men diagnosed with a behavioral addiction were recruited from a university hospital. Sociodemographic, impulsivity [Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11], and personality [Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R] measures were taken upon admission to outpatient treatment. Patients in the PD group were older and had a higher prevalence of mood disorders than patients without PD. In terms of personality characteristics and impulsivity traits, PD patients appeared to present a more functional profile than PD-free patients with a behavioral addiction. Our results suggest that PD patients with a behavioral addiction could be more difficult to detect than their PD-free counterparts in behavioral addiction clinical setting due to their reduced levels of impulsivity and more standard personality traits. As a whole, this suggests that PD patients with a behavioral addiction may have different needs from PD-free behavioral addiction patients and that they could potentially benefit from targeted interventions.

  20. Association of stress coping strategies with Internet addiction in college students: The moderating effect of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wei-Po; Ko, Chih-Hung; Kaufman, Erin A; Crowell, Sheila E; Hsiao, Ray C; Wang, Peng-Wei; Lin, Jin-Jia; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the association between stress-related coping strategies and Internet addiction and the moderating effect of depression in a sample of Taiwanese college students. A total of 500 college students (238 men and 262 women) participated in this study. Internet addiction was assessed using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale. Participants' stress coping strategies and depressive symptoms were measured using the Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, respectively. We used t and chi-square tests to examine differences in demographic characteristics, depression, and stress coping strategies between participants with and without Internet addiction. Significant variables were used in a logistic regression model to examine the association between stress coping strategies and Internet addiction and the moderating effect of depression on the association. Results indicated that use of restraint coping was negatively associated with Internet addiction (odds ratio [OR]=0.886, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.802-0.977), whereas denial (OR=1.177, 95% CI: 1.029-1.346) and mental disengagement (OR=2.673, 95% CI: 1.499-4.767) were positively associated with Internet addiction. Depression had a moderating effect on the association between denial and Internet addiction (OR=0.701, 95% CI: 0.530-0.927). Stress coping strategies and depression are important factors to evaluate when developing intervention programs targeting college undergraduate students with Internet addiction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of the initiation and persistence of internet addiction among adolescents in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chiu, Chiung-Hui; Lee, Ching-Mei; Chen, Ping-Hung; Miao, Nae-Fang

    2014-10-01

    The present study examined the psychosocial factors associated with the initiation and persistence of Internet addiction among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2315 students from 26 high schools were assessed in the 10th grade, with follow-up performed in the 11th grade, in Taipei, Taiwan. Self-administered questionnaires were collected in each year to assess the pattern of changes in Internet addiction and psychosocial factors. Of the 1602 students without an Internet addiction in the 10th grade, 253 (15.8%) had initiated Internet addiction by grade 11. Multivariate analysis results indicated that greater engagement in online activities (i.e., social network website use, online gaming), depression, and lower school bonding in grade 10 coupled with an increase in online activities, depression, and smoking from grades 10 to 11 predicted the initiation of Internet addiction. Of the 605 students with Internet addiction in the 10th grade, the addiction had persisted for 383 students (63.3%) in grade 11. An increase in the existence of depression and alcohol use from grades 10 to 11 predicted the persistence of Internet addiction. Online activities, depression, and substance use were important predictors of youth initiation and of the persistence of Internet addiction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Exploring Needs and Expectations of Spouses of Addicted Men in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joolaee, Soodabeh; Fereidooni, Zhila; Fatemi, Naeemeh Seyed; Meshkibaf, Mohammad Hassan; Mirlashri, Jila

    2014-01-01

    Addiction is one of the majore problems that affect everyone in the society especially the spouses of addicted men who have to face a large number of problems which are the consequences of their husband’s addiction. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the needs and expectations of women who are living with their addicted husband in Iran. Twenty-four spouses of addicted men participated in this study. The participants were interviewed and each interview was analyzed via the content analysis method. The results of this study showed that the women’s difficulties were related to their approach to the treatment, or their husbands’ response to the treatment, financial constraints and emotional and informational needs. Moreover, these Iranian women expected more stringent control by the government on the phenomenon of addiction and drug trafficking with a view of having a drug-free country. The needs and expectations of the wives of addicted men are context-based and should be assessed separately between individuals, families, and communities. In addition to the addicted person, it is vitally important that the health of the family members of drug addicts be taken into account and for whom supportive services be provided. PMID:25169001

  3. Prevalence of ‘Food Addiction' as Measured with the Yale Food Addiction Scale 2.0 in a Representative German Sample and Its Association with Sex, Age and Weight Categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Hauck

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To assess the prevalence and correlates of addictive-like eating behavior in Germany. Methods: The German version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS 2.0 was used to investigate, for the first time, the prevalence of ‘food addiction' in a representative sample aged 18-65 years (N = 1,034. Results: The prevalence of ‘food addiction' measured by the YFAS 2.0 was 7.9%. Individuals meeting criteria for ‘food addiction' had higher BMI and were younger than individuals not meeting the threshold. Underweight (15.0% and obese (17.2% individuals exhibited the highest prevalence rate of ‘food addiction'. Addictive-like eating was not associated with sex, education level, or place of residence. Conclusion: YFAS 2.0 ‘food addiction' was met by nearly 8% of the population. There is a non-linear relationship between addictive-like eating and BMI, with the highest prevalence among underweight and obese persons. These findings suggest that ‘food addiction' may be a contributor to overeating but may also reflect a distinct phenotype of problematic eating behavior not synonymous with obesity. Further, the elevated prevalence of YFAS 2.0 ‘food addiction' among underweight individuals may reflect an overlap with eating disorders and warrants attention in future research.

  4. Psychological Aspects of Internet Addiction of Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tserkovnikova, Nataliya G.; Shchipanova, Dina Ye.; Uskova, Bella A.; Puzyrev, Viktor V.; Fedotovskih, Olga ?.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under study is due to the lack of elaborated theoretical approaches to addiction and addictive behavior factors among children and adolescents, as well as due to the need and demand for psychological and pedagogical work with Internet addicted children and young people or with those who are potentially prone to…

  5. Wikipedia use: Risk for developing technology addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present case highlights the addictive potential of Wikipedia usage. The users approached a technology addiction clinic for the management of excessive use of technology. A clinical interview was used to elicit information about usages. It indicates the addictive use of Wikipedia and associated dysfunction in lifestyle. It has implication for promotion of healthy use of technology.

  6. Use of digital technology in addiction disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandawar, Mrunal; Narasimha, Venkata Lakshmi; Chand, Prabhat

    2018-02-01

    The expanding use of digital technology in mental health has widened the scope of emerging addiction interventions. This review focus on the use of technological advances in the field of addiction and mental health. We discuss about how these advances has been implemented in addiction treatment and research. Further, we also mention about the utilisation of these services in India.

  7. Wikipedia use: Risk for developing technology addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present case highlights the addictive potential of Wikipedia usage. The users approached a technology addiction clinic for the management of excessive use of technology. A clinical interview was used to elicit information about usages. It indicates the addictive use of Wikipedia and associated dysfunction in lifestyle. It has implication for promotion of healthy use of technology.

  8. Wikipedia use: Risk for developing technology addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present case highlights the addictive potential of Wikipedia usage. The users approached a technology addiction clinic for the management of excessive use of technology. A clinical interview was used to elicit information about usages. It indicates the addictive use of Wikipedia and associated dysfunction in lifestyle. It has implication for promotion of healthy use of technology.

  9. What Are the Treatments for Heroin Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... evidence-based treatment. Medications developed to treat opioid addiction work through the same opioid receptors as the addictive drug, but are safer and less likely to produce the harmful behaviors that characterize addiction. Three types of medications include: (1) agonists, which ...

  10. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewey, Stephen L. (Manorville, NY); Brodie, Jonathan D. (Cos Cob, CT); Ashby, Jr., Charles R. (Miller Place, NY)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increases central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of drugs of abuse. The composition includes GVG, gabapentin, valproic acid, progabide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, fengabine, cetylGABA, topiramate or tiagabine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof.

  11. Online Video Game Addiction: Identification of Addicted Adolescent Gamers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, A.J. van; Schoenmakers, T.M.; Vermulst, A.A.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Mheen, H. van de

    2011-01-01

    Aims To provide empirical data-driven identification of a group of addicted online gamers. Design Repeated cross-sectional survey study, comprising a longitudinal cohort, conducted in 2008 and 2009. Setting Secondary schools in the Netherlands. Participants Two large samples of Dutch

  12. Lipid Profile Comparison between Opium Addicts and Non-Addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Seddigheh Fatemi

    2008-09-01

    Conclusion: Opium does not seem to have any impact on triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, and high density lipoprotein. Despite the lower total cholesterol levels in opium addicts (as a known side effect of opium on different body systems, it is not advisable that opium and its extracts be recommended to decrease the risk of IHD.

  13. [Benzodiazepin addiction: a silent addiction among older people].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    Benzodiazepines are frequently prescribed for a longer period of time for anxiety disorders and insomnia in spite of the many guidelines to prescribe these drugs only short-term. These guidelines are based on the risk-benefit balance between long-term effectiveness and side effects like addiction,

  14. Effect of opium addiction on new and traditional cardiovascular risk factors: do duration of addiction and route of administration matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naderi Gholam-Ali

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a belief among some society that opium has a number of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present investigation as a cross-sectional study was to assess this hypothesis. Several biochemical factors (Fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, HbA1C, CRP, Fibrinogen, Factor VII, SGOT, SGPT, Lpa, apo A and apo B were evaluated in opium-addicted men (case against non opium-addicted men(control. Three hundred and sixty opium-addicted men were divided into three groups according to the route of administration (Orally, Vafour and Sikh-Sang and each group was divided into four subgroups according to the duration of addiction (5 months, 1 year, 2 years and 5 years. Blood morphine concentration was measured by ELISA method. Results The results show that morphine concentration was significantly higher in orally administration. In all routes, there was a direct correlation between blood morphine concentration and period of addiction. Regardless to the period and route of administration, the level of HbA1C, CRP, factor VII, Fibrinogen, apo B, Lpa, SGOT, and SGPT were significantly higher in the case subjects as compared with controls and HDL-Cholesterol and apo a were significantly lower in the case subjects. Conclusion This study demonstrated the deleterious effects of opium on some traditional and new cardiovascular disease risk factors. These deleterious effects are related to the period of addiction and their levels are significantly increased after 2 years of addiction. Route of administration impresses cardiovascular risk factors and "Sikh-Sang" showed the worst effect.

  15. Predicting Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition Self-Report of Personality Child Form Results Using the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Student Form: A Replication Study with an Urban, Predominantly Latino/a Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiperman, Sarah; Black, Mary S.; McGill, Tia M.; Harrell-Williams, Leigh M.; Kamphaus, Randy W.

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the ability of a brief screening form, the Behavioral and Emotional Screening System-Student Form (BESS-SF), to predict scores on the much longer form from which it was derived: the Behavior Assessment System for Children-Second Edition Self-Report of Personality-Child Form (BASC-2-SRP-C). The present study replicates a former…

  16. Learning and generalization from reward and punishment in opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E; Rego, Janice; Haber, Paul; Morley, Kirsten; Beck, Kevin D; Hogarth, Lee; Moustafa, Ahmed A

    2017-01-15

    This study adapts a widely-used acquired equivalence paradigm to investigate how opioid-addicted individuals learn from positive and negative feedback, and how they generalize this learning. The opioid-addicted group consisted of 33 participants with a history of heroin dependency currently in a methadone maintenance program; the control group consisted of 32 healthy participants without a history of drug addiction. All participants performed a novel variant of the acquired equivalence task, where they learned to map some stimuli to correct outcomes in order to obtain reward, and to map other stimuli to correct outcomes in order to avoid punishment; some stimuli were implicitly "equivalent" in the sense of being paired with the same outcome. On the initial training phase, both groups performed similarly on learning to obtain reward, but as memory load grew, the control group outperformed the addicted group on learning to avoid punishment. On a subsequent testing phase, the addicted and control groups performed similarly on retention trials involving previously-trained stimulus-outcome pairs, as well as on generalization trials to assess acquired equivalence. Since prior work with acquired equivalence tasks has associated stimulus-outcome learning with the nigrostriatal dopamine system, and generalization with the hippocampal region, the current results are consistent with basal ganglia dysfunction in the opioid-addicted patients. Further, a selective deficit in learning from punishment could contribute to processes by which addicted individuals continue to pursue drug use even at the cost of negative consequences such as loss of income and the opportunity to engage in other life activities. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Family-focused practices in addictions: a scoping review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgiantakis, Toula; Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2018-01-13

    Families are significantly impacted by addictions and family involvement in treatment can reduce the harms and can also improve treatment entry, treatment completion and treatment outcomes for the individual coping with an addiction. Although the benefits of family-focused practices in addictions have been documented, services continue to have an individual focus and research on this topic is also limited. The objective of this study is to map the extent, range and nature of evidence available examining family interventions in addictions and identify gaps to guide future research, policy and practice. This is a scoping review using the five-stage framework developed by Arksey and O'Malley. We will include published and unpublished empirical studies focusing on any type of family interventions in addiction treatment between 2000 and the present in English or French. A reviewer will search for literature that meets the inclusion criteria through the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Services Abstracts. For a comprehensive search, we will also hand-search reference lists, web sites and key journals. Data will be charted and sorted using a thematic analysis approach. This review will be the first to examine all forms of family-focused practices for both substance use and problem gambling treatment for adults. It will provide information about existing service provisions and gaps in practice. This review can be used to start moving towards the development of best practices for families in addiction treatment. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal and at mental health and addiction conferences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Family-focused practices in addictions: a scoping review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Rachelle

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Families are significantly impacted by addictions and family involvement in treatment can reduce the harms and can also improve treatment entry, treatment completion and treatment outcomes for the individual coping with an addiction. Although the benefits of family-focused practices in addictions have been documented, services continue to have an individual focus and research on this topic is also limited. The objective of this study is to map the extent, range and nature of evidence available examining family interventions in addictions and identify gaps to guide future research, policy and practice. Methods and analysis This is a scoping review using the five-stage framework developed by Arksey and O’Malley. We will include published and unpublished empirical studies focusing on any type of family interventions in addiction treatment between 2000 and the present in English or French. A reviewer will search for literature that meets the inclusion criteria through the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Services Abstracts. For a comprehensive search, we will also hand-search reference lists, web sites and key journals. Data will be charted and sorted using a thematic analysis approach. Ethics and dissemination This review will be the first to examine all forms of family-focused practices for both substance use and problem gambling treatment for adults. It will provide information about existing service provisions and gaps in practice. This review can be used to start moving towards the development of best practices for families in addiction treatment. The results will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed journal and at mental health and addiction conferences. PMID:29331973

  19. Addiction-like Synaptic Impairments in Diet-Induced Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robyn Mary; Kupchik, Yonatan Michael; Spencer, Sade; Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Spanswick, David C; Lawrence, Andrew John; Simonds, Stephanie Elise; Schwartz, Danielle Joy; Jordan, Kelsey Ann; Jhou, Thomas Clayton; Kalivas, Peter William

    2017-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that the pathological overeating underlying some forms of obesity is compulsive in nature and therefore contains elements of an addictive disorder. However, direct physiological evidence linking obesity to synaptic plasticity akin to that occurring in addiction is lacking. We sought to establish whether the propensity to diet-induced obesity (DIO) is associated with addictive-like behavior, as well as synaptic impairments in the nucleus accumbens core considered hallmarks of addiction. Sprague Dawley rats were allowed free access to a palatable diet for 8 weeks then separated by weight gain into DIO-prone and DIO-resistant subgroups. Access to palatable food was then restricted to daily operant self-administration sessions using fixed ratio 1, 3, and 5 and progressive ratio schedules. Subsequently, nucleus accumbens brain slices were prepared, and we tested for changes in the ratio between α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate currents and the ability to exhibit long-term depression. We found that propensity to develop DIO is linked to deficits in the ability to induce long-term depression in the nucleus accumbens, as well as increased potentiation at these synapses as measured by AMPA/N-methyl-D-aspartate currents. Consistent with these impairments, we observed addictive-like behavior in DIO-prone rats, including 1) heightened motivation for palatable food; 2) excessive intake; and 3) increased food seeking when food was unavailable. Our results show overlap between the propensity for DIO and the synaptic changes associated with facets of addictive behavior, supporting partial coincident neurological underpinnings for compulsive overeating and drug addiction. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. All rights reserved.

  20. Learning and generalization from reward and punishment in opioid addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Catherine E.; Rego, Janice; Haber, Paul; Morley, Kirsten; Beck, Kevin D.; Hogarth, Lee; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    This study adapts a widely-used acquired equivalence paradigm to investigate how opioid-addicted individuals learn from positive and negative feedback, and how they generalize this learning. The opioid-addicted group consisted of 33 participants with a history of heroin dependency currently in a methadone maintenance program; the control group consisted of 32 healthy participants without a history of drug addiction. All participants performed a novel variant of the acquired equivalence task, where they learned to map some stimuli to correct outcomes in order to obtain reward, and to map other stimuli to correct outcomes in order to avoid punishment; some stimuli were implicitly “equivalent” in the sense of being paired with the same outcome. On the initial training phase, both groups performed similarly on learning to obtain reward, but as memory load grew, the control group outperformed the addicted group on learning to avoid punishment. On a subsequent testing phase, the addicted and control groups performed similarly on retention trials involving previously-trained stimulus-outcome pairs, as well as on generalization trials to assess acquired equivalence. Since prior work with acquired equivalence tasks has associated stimulus-outcome learning with the nigrostriatal dopamine system, and generalization with the hippocampal region, the current results are consistent with basal ganglia dysfunction in the opioid-addicted patients. Further, a selective deficit in learning from punishment could contribute to processes by which addicted individuals continue to pursue drug use even at the cost of negative consequences such as loss of income and the opportunity to engage in other life activities. PMID:27641323

  1. Late-replicating CNVs as a source of new genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Juan

    2013-11-01

    Asynchronous replication of the genome has been associated with different rates of point mutation and copy number variation (CNV in human populations. Here, our aim was to investigate whether the bias in the generation of CNV that is associated with DNA replication timing might have conditioned the birth of new protein-coding genes during evolution. We show that genes that were duplicated during primate evolution are more commonly found among the human genes located in late-replicating CNV regions. We traced the relationship between replication timing and the evolutionary age of duplicated genes. Strikingly, we found that there is a significant enrichment of evolutionary younger duplicates in late-replicating regions of the human and mouse genome. Indeed, the presence of duplicates in late-replicating regions gradually decreases as the evolutionary time since duplication extends. Our results suggest that the accumulation of recent duplications in late-replicating CNV regions is an active process influencing genome evolution.

  2. Replication, falsification, and the crisis of confidence in social psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Brian D.; Trafimow, David

    2015-01-01

    The (latest) crisis in confidence in social psychology has generated much heated discussion about the importance of replication, including how it should be carried out as well as interpreted by scholars in the field. For example, what does it mean if a replication attempt “fails”—does it mean that the original results, or the theory that predicted them, have been falsified? And how should “failed” replications affect our belief in the validity of the original research? In this paper, we consider the replication debate from a historical and philosophical perspective, and provide a conceptual analysis of both replication and falsification as they pertain to this important discussion. Along the way, we highlight the importance of auxiliary assumptions (for both testing theories and attempting replications), and introduce a Bayesian framework for assessing “failed” replications in terms of how they should affect our confidence in original findings. PMID:26042061

  3. Addiction to smartphone games : Using smartphone game components to create an addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Holmgren, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Smartphone games are very popular and have the highest revenue of all smartphone application categories. Some even suggest that the the games can create an addiction. This addiction has however not been classified as a disorder and the components in the games that create an addiction have not been determined. This thesis had two goals. The first was to investigate and identify addictive components in smartphone games. The second goal was to use these components to develop an addictive proof o...

  4. Work addiction in Poland: adaptation of the Bergen Work Addiction Scale and relationship with psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Andrzej Atroszko; Ståle Pallesen; Mark D. Griffiths; Cecilie Schou Andreassen

    2017-01-01

    Background:\\ud Work addiction has been recognized as a potential behavioral addiction, and studies have consistently shown its negative relationship with psychosocial functioning. However, in many countries, such as Poland, very few work addiction studies are based on measures developed using an addiction framework. Against this backdrop, the Bergen Work Addiction Scale (BWAS) was adapted for use in Polish samples and its relationship with psychopathology was investigated.\\ud Participants and...

  5. DATABASE REPLICATION IN HETEROGENOUS PLATFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Hendro Nindito; Evaristus Didik Madyatmadja; Albert Verasius Dian Sano

    2014-01-01

    The application of diverse database technologies in enterprises today is increasingly a common practice. To provide high availability and survavibality of real-time information, a database replication technology that has capability to replicate databases under heterogenous platforms is required. The purpose of this research is to find the technology with such capability. In this research, the data source is stored in MSSQL database server running on Windows. The data will be replicated to MyS...

  6. The effect of narcotic addiction on thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farhad Shahsavar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Although it is thought that drug abuse causes changes to thyroid function, the exact mechanism is still not well defined. Therefore, after a preliminary study, the aim of this supplementary study was to investigate the effect of narcotic addiction on thyroid function by measuring TBG. Materials and Methods: This research was conducted as a case - control study on 106 narcotic addicts and 106 healthy controls in Tehran. For measurement of TBG were used from serum samples of these individuals. Results: The TBG amount in case group was significantly increased compared with the control group (p<0.005. Discussion and Conclusion: The result of this supplementary study showed that the narcotic addiction can affect the thyroid function by increasing TBG. Indeed, this finding confirmed the main result of our preliminary study.

  7. The Development and Validation of the Online Shopping Addiction Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyan; Tian, Wei; Xin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    We report the development and validation of a scale to measure online shopping addiction. Inspired by previous theories and research on behavioral addiction, the Griffiths's widely accepted six-factor component model was referred to and an 18-item scale was constructed, with each component measured by three items. The results of exploratory factor analysis, based on Sample 1 (999 college students) and confirmatory factor analysis, based on Sample 2 (854 college students) showed the Griffiths's substantive six-factor structure underlay the online shopping addiction scale. Cronbach's alpha suggested that the resulting scale was highly reliable. Concurrent validity, based on Sample 3 (328 college students), was also satisfactory as indicated by correlations between the scale and measures of similar constructs. Finally, self-perceived online shopping addiction can be predicted to a relatively high degree. The present 18-item scale is a solid theory-based instrument to empirically measure online shopping addiction and can be used for understanding the phenomena among young adults. PMID:28559864

  8. The Development and Validation of the Online Shopping Addiction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the development and validation of a scale to measure online shopping addiction. Inspired by previous theories and research on behavioral addiction, the Griffiths's widely accepted six-factor component model was referred to and an 18-item scale was constructed, with each component measured by three items. The results of exploratory factor analysis, based on Sample 1 (999 college students and confirmatory factor analysis, based on Sample 2 (854 college students showed the Griffiths's substantive six-factor structure underlay the online shopping addiction scale. Cronbach's alpha suggested that the resulting scale was highly reliable. Concurrent validity, based on Sample 3 (328 college students, was also satisfactory as indicated by correlations between the scale and measures of similar constructs. Finally, self-perceived online shopping addiction can be predicted to a relatively high degree. The present 18-item scale is a solid theory-based instrument to empirically measure online shopping addiction and can be used for understanding the phenomena among young adults.

  9. The Development and Validation of the Online Shopping Addiction Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Haiyan; Tian, Wei; Xin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    We report the development and validation of a scale to measure online shopping addiction. Inspired by previous theories and research on behavioral addiction, the Griffiths's widely accepted six-factor component model was referred to and an 18-item scale was constructed, with each component measured by three items. The results of exploratory factor analysis, based on Sample 1 (999 college students) and confirmatory factor analysis, based on Sample 2 (854 college students) showed the Griffiths's substantive six-factor structure underlay the online shopping addiction scale. Cronbach's alpha suggested that the resulting scale was highly reliable. Concurrent validity, based on Sample 3 (328 college students), was also satisfactory as indicated by correlations between the scale and measures of similar constructs. Finally, self-perceived online shopping addiction can be predicted to a relatively high degree. The present 18-item scale is a solid theory-based instrument to empirically measure online shopping addiction and can be used for understanding the phenomena among young adults.

  10. Chromatin replication and epigenome maintenance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alabert, Constance; Groth, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Stability and function of eukaryotic genomes are closely linked to chromatin structure and organization. During cell division the entire genome must be accurately replicated and the chromatin landscape reproduced on new DNA. Chromatin and nuclear structure influence where and when DNA replication...... initiates, whereas the replication process itself disrupts chromatin and challenges established patterns of genome regulation. Specialized replication-coupled mechanisms assemble new DNA into chromatin, but epigenome maintenance is a continuous process taking place throughout the cell cycle. If DNA...... synthesis is perturbed, cells can suffer loss of both genome and epigenome integrity with severe consequences for the organism....

  11. Review: Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups: Implications for genetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Susan E; Khoddam, Rubin; Yu, Sheila; Wall, Tamara L; Schwartz, Anna; Sussman, Steve

    2017-08-01

    We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available. This review indicates very little research has examined the interrelationships of addictive behaviors among US ethnic groups. The studies that exist have focused nearly exclusively on comorbidity of substances and gambling behaviors. Overall findings suggest differences among US ethnic groups in prevalence of addictions and in prevalence of addiction among those who use substances or engage in gambling. Almost no ethnic group comparisons of other addictive behaviors including eating/food, internet, love, sex, exercise, work, and shopping were identified in the literature. Despite large-scale research efforts to examine alcohol and substance use disorders in the United States, few studies have been published that examine these addictive behaviors among ethnic groups, and even fewer examine co-occurrence and comorbidity with other addictions. Even with the limited studies, these findings have implications for genetic research on addictive behaviors. We include a discussion of these implications, including issues of population stratification, disaggregation, admixture, and the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in understanding the etiology and treatment of addictions. (Am J Addict 2017;26:424-436). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. Smokers' understandings of addiction to nicotine and tobacco: A systematic review and interpretive synthesis of quantitative and qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, Daniel; Wigginton, Britta; Gartner, Coral; Morphett, Kylie

    2017-08-29

    Despite the centrality of addiction in academic accounts of smoking, there is little research on smokers' beliefs about addiction to smoking, and the role of nicotine in tobacco dependence. Smokers' perspectives on nicotine's role in addiction are important given the increasing prevalence of non-tobacco nicotine products such as e-cigarettes. We conducted a systematic review of studies investigating smokers' understandings and lay beliefs about addiction to smoking and nicotine. We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO for studies investigating lay beliefs about addiction to smoking. Twenty two quantitative and 24 qualitative studies met inclusion criteria. Critical interpretive synthesis was used to analyse the results. Very few studies asked about addiction to nicotine. Quantitative studies that asked about addiction to smoking showed that most smokers believe that cigarettes are an addictive product, and that they are addicted to smoking. Across qualitative studies, nicotine was not often mentioned by participants. Addiction to smoking was most often characterised as a feeling of "need" for cigarettes resulting from an interplay between physical, mental and social processes. Overall, we found that understandings of smoking were more consistent with the biopsychosocial model of addiction than with more recent models that emphasise the biological aspects of addiction. Researchers should not treat perceptions of addiction to smoking interchangeably with perceptions of addiction to nicotine. More research on lay beliefs about nicotine is required, particularly considering the increasing use of e-cigarettes and their potential for long-term nicotine maintenance for harm reduction. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Smartphone addiction proneness in relation to sleep and morningness-eveningness in German adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Wolfgang, Lucia; Matt, Katharina; Demirhan, Eda; Horzum, Mehmet Barış; Beşoluk, Şenol

    2016-09-01

    Background Mobile phones are an important part of adolescents' life. In this study, the relationships among smartphone addiction, age, gender, and chronotype of German adolescents were examined. Materials and methods Two studies focused on two different measures of smartphone addiction. The Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) was applied to 342 younger adolescents (13.39 ± 1.77; 176 boys, 165 girls, and 1 not indicated) in Study 1 and the Smartphone Addiction Scale was applied to 208 older adolescents (17.07 ± 4.28; 146 girls and 62 boys) in Study 2, both samples in southwest Germany. In addition, a demographic questionnaire and the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) and sleep measures were implemented. Results The most remarkable result of this study was that morningness-eveningness (as measured by CSM scores) is an important predictor for smartphone addiction; even stronger than sleep duration. Evening oriented adolescents scored higher on both smartphone addiction scales. In addition, gender is an important predictor for smartphone addiction and girls are more prone to become addicted. In addition, while sleep duration on weekdays negatively predicted SAPS, age, sleep duration on weekends, and midpoint of sleep on weekdays and weekends did not predicted smartphone addiction in both scales. The analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant effects of the covariates gender and age in both studies, as well as the main effect of chronotype. According to the t-test results, girls had higher scores than boys in smartphone addiction. Conclusion Evening types and girls are more prone to become smartphone addicted.

  14. Smartphone addiction proneness in relation to sleep and morningness–eveningness in German adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Wolfgang, Lucia; Matt, Katharina; Demirhan, Eda; Horzum, Mehmet Barış; Beşoluk, Şenol

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile phones are an important part of adolescents’ life. In this study, the relationships among smartphone addiction, age, gender, and chronotype of German adolescents were examined. Materials and methods Two studies focused on two different measures of smartphone addiction. The Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) was applied to 342 younger adolescents (13.39 ± 1.77; 176 boys, 165 girls, and 1 not indicated) in Study 1 and the Smartphone Addiction Scale was applied to 208 older adolescents (17.07 ± 4.28; 146 girls and 62 boys) in Study 2, both samples in southwest Germany. In addition, a demographic questionnaire and the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) and sleep measures were implemented. Results The most remarkable result of this study was that morningness–eveningness (as measured by CSM scores) is an important predictor for smartphone addiction; even stronger than sleep duration. Evening oriented adolescents scored higher on both smartphone addiction scales. In addition, gender is an important predictor for smartphone addiction and girls are more prone to become addicted. In addition, while sleep duration on weekdays negatively predicted SAPS, age, sleep duration on weekends, and midpoint of sleep on weekdays and weekends did not predicted smartphone addiction in both scales. The analysis of covariance revealed statistically significant effects of the covariates gender and age in both studies, as well as the main effect of chronotype. According to the t-test results, girls had higher scores than boys in smartphone addiction. Conclusion Evening types and girls are more prone to become smartphone addicted. PMID:27499228

  15. Effect of opium addiction on new and traditional cardiovascular risk factors: do duration of addiction and route of administration matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Naderi, Gholam-Ali; Rozbehani, Reza

    2008-11-03

    There is a belief among some society that opium has a number of beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present investigation as a cross-sectional study was to assess this hypothesis. Several biochemical factors (Fasting blood sugar, Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-Cholesterol, HDL-Cholesterol, HbA1C, CRP, Fibrinogen, Factor VII, SGOT, SGPT, Lpa, apo A and apo B were evaluated in opium-addicted men (case) against non opium-addicted men(control). Three hundred and sixty opium-addicted men were divided into three groups according to the route of administration (Orally, Vafour and Sikh-Sang) and each group was divided into four subgroups according to the duration of addiction (5 months, 1 year, 2 years and 5 years). Blood morphine concentration was measured by ELISA method. The results show that morphine concentration was significantly higher in orally administration. In all routes, there was a direct correlation between blood morphine concentration and period of addiction. Regardless to the period and route of administration, the level of HbA1C, CRP, factor VII, Fibrinogen, apo B, Lpa, SGOT, and SGPT were significantly higher in the case subjects as compared with controls and HDL-Cholesterol and apo a were significantly lower in the case subjects. This study demonstrated the deleterious effects of opium on some traditional and new cardiovascular disease risk factors. These deleterious effects are related to the period of addiction and their levels are significantly increased after 2 years of addiction. Route of administration impresses cardiovascular risk factors and "Sikh-Sang" showed the worst effect.

  16. Discussing the Need of Experimental Replication with 5th Grade Students Conducting a Mealworm Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asshoff, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Scientific inquiry requires the replication of results in experimental studies. Recent studies draw a severe picture on the need of replication and the difficulties in replicating already published studies. As replicated confirmation of results is the basis of scientific and medical research, there may be a need to introduce the topic of…

  17. Using Meditation in Addiction Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark E.; DeLorenzi, Leigh de Armas; Cunningham, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Meditation has been studied as a way of reducing stress in counseling clients since the 1960s. Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and new wave behavior therapies incorporate meditation techniques in their programs. This article identifies meditation's curative factors and limitations when using meditation in addiction settings.

  18. Perspectives of addiction treatment providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. General practitioners are referring patients with codeine-related problems to specialist treatment facilities, but little is known about the addiction treatment providers, the kinds of treatment they provide, and whether training or other interventions are needed to strengthen this sector. Objectives. To investigate the ...

  19. Neurocognitive Insights in Nicotine Addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Luijten (Maartje)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, 27% of the population is currently smoking. Nicotine is among the most addictive substances of abuse. Thirty-two percent of the people who tried smoking develop nicotine dependence within ten year. This percentage is higher for nicotine than for other substances of

  20. Animal models of drug addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Pardo, María Pilar; Roger Sánchez, Concepción; De la Rubia Ortí, José Enrique; Aguilar Calpe, María Asunción

    2017-09-29

    The development of animal models of drug reward and addiction is an essential factor for progress in understanding the biological basis of this disorder and for the identification of new therapeutic targets. Depending on the component of reward to be studied, one type of animal model or another may be used. There are models of reinforcement based on the primary hedonic effect produced by the consumption of the addictive substance, such as the self-administration (SA) and intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) paradigms, and there are models based on the component of reward related to associative learning and cognitive ability to make predictions about obtaining reward in the future, such as the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In recent years these models have incorporated methodological modifications to study extinction, reinstatement and reconsolidation processes, or to model specific aspects of addictive behavior such as motivation to consume drugs, compulsive consumption or drug seeking under punishment situations. There are also models that link different reinforcement components or model voluntary motivation to consume (two-bottle choice, or drinking in the dark tests). In short, innovations in these models allow progress in scientific knowledge regarding the different aspects that lead individuals to consume a drug and develop compulsive consumption, providing a target for future treatments of addiction.